WorldWideScience

Sample records for bifunctional chelator dota-nhs-ester

  1. Standardization of methodology to derivatization and radiolabeling of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody from bifunctional chelator DOTA-NHS-Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, being the most common the non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The Radioimmunotherapy (RIT), that increase the cytotoxic effect of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), therefore labeling these Mab with different radioisotopes. RIT combines the specificity of the antibody and the toxicity of the radionuclides. The mAb anti-CD20 is used for treatment of relapse or refractory NHL. The labeling of anti- CD20 with 177Lu, requires a bifunctional chelating agent that is designed to make a 'connect bridge' between the mAb and the radionuclide. The incorporation of the chelating group in mAb structure is called derivatization. The aim of this work is to study the derivatization of anti-CD20 antibody with DOTA-NHS-ester chelating group and labeling parameters to produce 177Lu-DOTA-Anti CD20. Five milligrams of anti-CD20 were purified by dialysis against phosphate buffer pH 8.0 and derivatized with DOTA-NHS-ester in 1:250, 1:500 and 1:1000 molar ratios. The reaction was conducted for 1 hour in gently mixing at room temperature and remained under refrigeration for 48 hours. The reaction mixture was purified in gel column Sephadex G-50 ; the aliquots that presented greater protein concentration, were mixed and concentrated. The purified antibody conjugated was added to 111-185MBq (3-5mCi) of 177LuCl3 diluted in 0.4 M acetate buffer pH 5.5. Radiochemical purity was less than 95% in all the molar ratios, indicating necessity of the purification after the labeling. The mAb derivatized showed stable when stored for to 1 month to 4 deg C and 4 days at -20 deg C. (author)

  2. Macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Claude F.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Cole, William C.; Mol, Min K.

    1987-01-01

    A copper chelate conjugate which is stable in human serum. The conjugate includes the copper chelate of a cyclic tetraaza di-, tri-, or tetra-acetic acid, a linker attached at one linker end to a ring carbon of the chelate, and a biomolecule joined at the other end of the linker. The conjugate, or the linker-copper chelate compound used in forming the conjugate, are designed for use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications which involve Cu(II) localization via the systemic route.

  3. Bifunctional chelates of RH-105 and AU199 as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droege, P.

    1997-03-01

    Research is presented on new bifunctional chelating ligand systems with stability on the macroscopic and radiochemical levels. The synthesis of the following complexes are described: rhodium 105, palladium 109, and gold 198.

  4. Comparison of bifunctional chelates for {sup 64}Cu antibody imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cara L.; Crisp, Sarah; Bensimon, Corinne [MDS Nordion, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Yapp, Donald T.T.; Ng, Sylvia S.W. [British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); University of British Columba, The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sutherland, Brent W. [British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Gleave, Martin [Prostate Centre at Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E. [Macrocyclics Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Improved bifunctional chelates (BFCs) are needed to facilitate efficient {sup 64}Cu radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under mild conditions and to yield stable, target-specific agents. The utility of two novel BFCs, 1-Oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-5-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-4,7,10-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-Oxo-DO3A) and 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-4-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-3,6,9-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-PCTA), for mAb imaging with {sup 64}Cu were compared to the commonly used S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA). The BFCs were conjugated to trastuzumab, which targets the HER2/neu receptor. {sup 64}Cu radiolabeling of the conjugates was optimized. Receptor binding was analyzed using flow cytometry and radioassays. Finally, PET imaging and biodistribution studies were done in mice bearing either HER2/neu-positive or HER2/neu-negative tumors. {sup 64}Cu-Oxo-DO3A- and PCTA-trastuzumab were prepared at room temperature in >95% radiochemical yield (RCY) in <30 min, compared to only 88% RCY after 2 h for the preparation of {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab under the same conditions. Cell studies confirmed that the immunoreactivity of the mAb was retained for each of the bioconjugates. In vivo studies showed that {sup 64}Cu-Oxo-DO3A- and PCTA-trastuzumab had higher uptake than the {sup 64}Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab at 24 h in HER2/neu-positive tumors, resulting in higher tumor to background ratios and better tumor images. By 40 h all three of the {sup 64}Cu-BFC-trastuzumab conjugates allowed for clear visualization of the HER2/neu-positive tumors but not the negative control tumor. The antibody conjugates of PCTA and Oxo-DO3A were shown to have superior {sup 64}Cu radiolabeling efficiency and stability compared to the analogous DOTA conjugate. In addition, {sup 64}Cu-PCTA and Oxo-DO3A antibody conjugates may facilitate earlier imaging with greater target to background ratios than

  5. Bifunctional chelating agents for targeted α-particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An α-emitting radionuclide is proposed as a better choice for application in radiotherapy of either leukemias or lymphomas due to very high cytotoxicity, short emission path length, and immediate energy deposition minimizing collateral cytotoxicity. Metallic α-emitters that have been studied are 212Bi and 213Bi. Bifunctional derivatives of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) were found to form Bi(III) complexes that were labile in vivo. Pre-clinical experiments confirmed both the stability of the CHX-DTPA ligands for the Bi(III) isotopes and the therapeutic applicability of these α-emitting isotopes

  6. A New Synthesis of TE2A-a Potential Bifunctional Chelator for {sup 64}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Darpan N.; Kwak, Won Jung; Park, Jeong Chan; Gawande, Manoj B.; Yoo, Jeong Soo [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Young; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Eun Kyoung [Korea Basic Science Institute, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The development of a new bifunctional chelator, which holds radio metals strongly in living systems, is a prerequisite for the successful application of disease-specific biomolecules to medical diagnosis and therapy. Recently, TE2A was reported to make kinetically more stable Cu({Pi}) complexes than TETA. Herein, we report a new synthetic route to TE2A and explore its potential as a bifunctional chelator. TE2A was synthesized using the regioselective alkylation of benzyl bromoacetate and successive de protection of the methylene bridge and benzyl group. Salt-free TE2A was radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu and micro PET imaging was performed to follow the clearance pattern of the {sup 64}Cu-TE2A complex. TE2A was conjugated with cyclic RGD peptide and the TE2A-c(RGDyK) conjugate was radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu. TE2A was prepared in salt-free form cyclam in an overall yield of 74%. The micro PET images showed that {sup 64}Cu-TE2A is excreted rapidly from the body by the kidney and liver. TE2A was successfully conjugated with c(RGDyK) peptide through on carboxylate group and the TE2A-c(RGDyK) conjugate was radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu in 94% yield within 30 min. TE2A can be used by itself as a bifunctional chelator without any further structural modification.

  7. Isomerism in benzyl-DOTA derived bifunctional chelators: implications for molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Katherine M; Woods, Mark

    2015-02-18

    The bifunctional chelator IB-DOTA has found use in a range of biomedical applications given its ability to chelate many metal ions, but in particular the lanthanide(III) ions. Gd(3+) in particular is of interest in the development of new molecular imaging agents for MRI and is highly suitable for chelation by IB-DOTA. Given the long-term instability of the aryl isothiocyanate functional group we have used the more stable nitro derivative (NB-DOTA) to conduct a follow-up study of some of our previous work on the coordination chemistry of chelates of these BFCs. Using a combination of NMR and HPLC to study the Eu(3+) and Yb(3+) chelates of NB-DOTA, we have demonstrated that this ligand will produce two discrete regioisomeric chelates at the point at which the metal ion is introduced into the BFC. These regioisomers are defined by the position of the benzylic substituent on the macrocyclic ring: adopting an equatorial position either at the corner or the side of the [3333] ring conformation. These regioisomers are incapable of interconversion and are distinct, separate structures with different SAP/TSAP ratios. The side isomer exhibits an increased population of the TSAP isomer, pointing to more rapid water exchange kinetics in this regioisomer. This has potential ramifications for the use of these two regioisomers of Gd(3+)-BFC chelates in MRI applications. We have also found that, remarkably, there is little or no freedom of rotation about the first single bond extending from the macrocyclic ring to the benzylic substituent. Since this is the linkage through which the chelate is conjugated to the remainder of the molecular imaging probe, this result implies that there may be reduced local rotation of the Gd(3+) chelate within a molecular imaging probe. This implies that this type of BFC could exhibit higher relaxivities than other types of BFC.

  8. Introducing new 99m-Tc-bifunctional radiopharmaceutical containing dithiosemicarbazone chelate group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our attempt to develop 99m-Tc-Bifunctional Radiopharmaceuticals (BR) of biomolecules, our interest has been focussed on the di-thiosemicarbazone chelating group (DTS); its coordination moiety allows a 1:1 complex with a tetravalent TcO2+, generating a neutral chelate of great stability and compactness. For ligand containing S N coordination, satisfactory labeling has been achieved at pH 5-6, in the presence of Sn-Resin. Based on the above mentioned, the use of DTS is tested in two different modalities by selecting glucose and albumin as the biomolecules of interest. The synthesis of a glucosone-1,2-bis (thiosemicarbazone) (Glu-DTS) and upon its labelling, the 99m-Tc-Glu-DTS was tested in animals. Scintigraphic studies revealed high activity in the brain and heart. This result offered strong support for the use of DTS as a bifunctional chelating agent (BCA). DTS-COOH and DTS-NH2 were synthesized for the coupling with biomolecules. As a first trial, they were coupled with albumin and their functionality proven. The results gathered provided conclusive evidence for the remarkable characteristic of DTS as a basic structure for the development of 99m-Tc-RP

  9. Cage-like bifunctional chelators, copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals and PET imaging using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Peter S.; Cai, Hancheng; Li, Zibo; Liu, Shuanglong

    2016-08-02

    Disclosed is a class of versatile Sarcophagine based bifunctional chelators (BFCs) containing a hexa-aza cage for labeling with metals having either imaging, therapeutic or contrast applications radiolabeling and one or more linkers (A) and (B). The compounds have the general formula ##STR00001## where A is a functional group selected from group consisting of an amine, a carboxylic acid, an ester, a carbonyl, a thiol, an azide and an alkene, and B is a functional group selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, an amine, a carboxylic acid, and ester, a carbonyl, a thiol, an azide and an alkene. Also disclosed are conjugate of the BFC and a targeting moiety, which may be a peptide or antibody. Also disclosed are metal complexes of the BFC/targeting moiety conjugates that are useful as radiopharmaceuticals, imaging agents or contrast agents.

  10. Evaluation of copper-labeled bifunctional chelate-albumin conjugates for blood pool imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.J.; Rocque, P.A.; Welch, M.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Edward Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology); Weinheimer, C.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine)

    1993-05-01

    [sup 62]Cu is a generator-produced positron-emitting radionuclide with a half-life amenable to blood-pool imaging with PET. Three bifunctional chelates [cyclic anhydride of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (cDTPAA), 6-bromoacetamidobenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N'', N''' tetraacetic acid (BAT), and p-carboxyethylphenylglyoxal-bis-([sup 4])N-methyl-thiosemicarbazone (CE-DTS)] were conjugated to HSA and labeled with [sup 67]Cu. Blood clearance and biodistribution of these three [sup 67]Cu-labeled conjugates were determined in rats. Of the three [sup 67]Cu-labeled bifunctional chelate-HSA conjugates, [sup 67]Cu-benzyl-TETA-HSA remained in the blood pool the longest, achieving stable blood levels at times longer than 24 h post-injection. The [sup 67]Cu radioactivity cleared the blood within 60 min post-injection of [sup 67]Cu-DTS-HSA, and within 10 min after administration of [sup 67]Cu-DTPA-HSA, indicating the dissociation of Cu[sup 2+] from these conjugates. Copper-labeled DTS-HSA achieved stable blood concentrations for at least 30 min post-injection and was therefore evaluated as a vascular imaging agent. DTS-HSA and benzy-TETA-HSA were labeled with [sup 62]Cu and administered to a dog for blood-pool imaging using PET. Because of the high labeling efficiency, DTS-HSA can be labeled with [sup 62]Cu without purification, making it more practical than [sup 62]Cu-benzyl-TETA-HSA as a blood-pool imaging agent. Generator-produced [sup 62]Cu-DTS-HSA should be a viable alternative blood pool agent to cyclotron-produced C[sup 15]O for PET facilities without cyclotrons. (author).

  11. Site-specific conjugation of bifunctional chelator BAT to mouse IgG1 Fab' fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LI; Xue-hao WANG; Xiao-ming WANG; Zhao-lai CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To perform a site-specific conjugation of Fab' fragments of a mouse monoclonal antibody(MoAb) B43(of IgG1 subtype) to a bifunctional chelator 6-[p-(bromoacetamido) benzyl]-l,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid (BAT) via the thiol groups in the hinge distal to the antigenbinding site of the Fab'. Methods: B43 was cleaved using a simple 2-step method.First, stable F(ab')2 was produced by pepsin treatment. Fab' with free thiol in the hinge region was then obtained by cysteine reduction of F(ab')2. Second, a sitespecific conjugation of Fab' to thiol-specific BAT was performed in a one-step reaction. Results: The Fab' fragment had approximately 1.8 free thiol groups per molecule after cysteine reduction. The conjugation efficiency and the chemical yield were approximately 1.28 moles chelator/Fab' and 74% of the initial concentration of Fab', respectively. The F(ab')2, Fab' and Fab'-BAT all maintained reasonable antigen-binding properties. 67Cu labeling of the conjugate under standard conditions did not impair the immunoreactivity of Fab'-BAT. Conclusion: This is a simple and efficient method for producing immunoreactive conjugates of Fab'-BAT, which can be used to make radiometal-labeled conjugates for further diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Evaluation of a New TSPO-Selective Bifunctional Chelate Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denora, Nunzio; Margiotta, Nicola; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Losacco, Maurizio; Franco, Massimo; Natile, Giovanni

    2014-06-12

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is overexpressed in many types of cancers and is also abundant in activated microglial cells occurring in inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular target not only for imaging disease states overexpressing this protein, but also for a selective mitochondrial drug delivery. In this work we report the synthesis, the characterization, and the in vitro evaluation of a new TSPO-selective ligand, 2-(8-(2-(bis(pyridin-2-yl)methyl)amino)acetamido)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)H-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)-N,N-dipropylacetamide (CB256), which fulfils the requirements for a bifunctional chelate approach. The goal was to provide a new TSPO ligand that could be used further to prepare coordination complexes of a metallo drug to be used in diagnosis and therapy. However, the ligand itself proved to be a potent tumor cell growth inhibitor and DNA double-strand breaker.

  13. Highly stable acyclic bifunctional chelator for {sup 64}Cu PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, S.; Lecointre, A.; Christine, C.; Charbonniere, L. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. d' Ingenierie Appliquee a l' Analyse; Dechamps-Olivier, I. [Univ. de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France). Group Chimie de Coordination; Platas-Iglesias, C. [Univ. da Coruna (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Elhabiri, M. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. de Physico-Chimie Bioinorganique

    2011-07-01

    Ligand L{sup 1}, based on a pyridine scaffold, functionalized by two bis(methane phosphonate)aminomethyl groups, was shown to display a very high affinity towards Cu(II) (log K{sub CuL}=22.7) and selectivity over Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Ga(III) ({delta} log K{sub ML}>4) as shown by the values of the stability constants obtained from potentiometric measurements. Insights into the coordination mode of the ligand around Cu(II) cation were obtained by UV-Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopies as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model) performed in aqueous solution. The results point to a pentacoordination pattern of the metal ion in the fully deprotonated [CuL{sup 1}]{sup 6-} species. Considering the beneficial thermodynamic parameters of this ligand, kinetic experiments were run to follow the formation of the copper(II) complexes, indicating a very rapid formation of the complex, appropriate for {sup 64}Cu complexation. As L{sup 1} represents a particularly interesting target within the frame of {sup 64}Cu PET imaging, a synthetic protocol was developed to introduce a labeling function on the pyridyl moiety of L{sup 1}, thereby affording L{sup 2}, a potential bifunctional chelator (BFC) for PET imaging.

  14. Evaluation of 64Cu-labeled bifunctional chelate-bombesin conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Mohand, Samia; Fournier, Patrick; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Kiefer, Garry E; Jurek, Paul; Ferreira, Cara L; Bénard, François; Guérin, Brigitte

    2011-08-17

    Several bifunctional chelates (BFCs) were investigated as carriers of (64)Cu for PET imaging. The most widely used chelator for (64)Cu labeling of BFCs is DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N'''-tretraacetic acid), even though this complex exhibits only moderate in vivo stability. In this study, we prepared a series of alternative chelator-peptide conjugates labeled with (64)Cu, measured in vitro receptor binding affinities in human breast cancer T47D cells expressing the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and compared their in vivo stability in mice. DOTA-, NOTA-(1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid), PCTA-(3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid), and Oxo-DO3A-(1-oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-4,7,10-triacetic acid) peptide conjugates were prepared using H(2)N-Aoc-[d-Tyr(6),βAla(11),Thi(13),Nle(14)]bombesin(6-14) (BBN) as a peptide template. The BBN moiety was selected since it binds with high affinity to the GRPR, which is overexpressed on human breast cancer cells. A convenient synthetic approach for the attachment of aniline-BFC to peptides on solid support is also presented. To facilitate the attachment of the aniline-PCTA and aniline-Oxo-DO3A to the peptide via an amide bond, a succinyl spacer was introduced at the N-terminus of BBN. The partially protected aniline-BFC (p-H(2)N-Bn-PCTA(Ot-Bu)(3) or p-H(2)N-Bn-DO3A(Ot-Bu)(3)) was then coupled to the resulting N-terminal carboxylic acid preactivated with DEPBT/ClHOBt on resin. After cleavage and purification, the peptide-conjugates were labeled with (64)Cu using [(64)Cu]Cu(OAc)(2) in 0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer at 100 °C for 15 min. Labeling efficacy was >90% for all peptides; Oxo-DO3A-BBN was incubated an additional 150 min at 100 °C to achieve this high yield. Specific activities varied from 76 to 101 TBq/mmol. Competition assays on T47D cells showed that all BFC-BBN complexes retained high affinity for the GRPR. All BFC-BBN (64)Cu

  15. Enantiopure bifunctional chelators for copper radiopharmaceuticals--does chirality matter in radiotracer design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay N; Dakanali, Marianna; Hao, Guiyang; Ramezani, Saleh; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Xiankai

    2014-06-10

    It is well recognized that carbon chirality plays a critical role in the design of drug molecules. However, very little information is available regarding the effect of stereoisomerism of macrocyclic bifunctional chelators (BFC) on biological behaviors of the corresponding radiopharmaceuticals. To evaluate such effects, three enantiopure stereoisomers of a copper radiopharmaceutical BFC bearing two chiral carbon atoms were synthesized in forms of R,R-, S,S-, and R,S-. Their corresponding peptide conjugates were prepared by coupling with a model peptide sequence, c(RGDyK), which targets the αvβ3 integrin for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of their biological behaviors as compared to the racemic conjugate. Despite the chirality differences, all the conjugates showed a similar in vitro binding affinity profile to the αvβ3 integrin (106, 108, 85 and 100 nM for rac-H2-1, RR-H2-1, SS-H2-1, and RS-H2-1 respectively with all p values > 0.05) and a similar level of in vivo tumor uptake (2.72 ± 0.45, 2.60 ± 0.52, 2.45 ± 0.48 and 2.88 ± 0.59 for rac-(64)Cu-1, RR-(64)Cu-1, SS-(64)Cu-1, and RS-(64)Cu-1 at 1 h p.i. respectively). Furthermore, they demonstrated a nearly identical biodistribution pattern in major organs (e.g. 2.07 ± 0.21, 2.13 ± 0.58, 1.70 ± 0.20 and 1.90 ± 0.46 %ID/g at 24 h p.i. in liver for rac-(64)Cu-1, RR-(64)Cu-1, SS-(64)Cu-1, and RS-(64)Cu-1 respectively; 1.80 ± 0.46, 2.30 ± 1.49, 1.73 ± 0.31 and 2.23 ± 0.71 at 24 h p.i. in kidneys for rac-(64)Cu-1, RR-(64)Cu-1, SS-(64)Cu-1, and RS-(64)Cu-1 respectively). Therefore we conclude that the chirality of BFC plays a negligible role in αvβ3-targeted copper radiopharmaceuticals. However, we believe it is still worthwhile to consider the chirality effects of BFCs on other targeted imaging or therapeutic agents.

  16. Evaluation of novel bifunctional chelates for the development of Cu-64-based radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cara L. [MDS Nordion, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)], E-mail: cara.ferreira@mdsinc.com; Yapp, Donald T. [British Columbia Cancer Agency Research Centre, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Lamsa, Eric [MDS Nordion, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gleave, Martin [Prostrate Centre at Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3Z6 (Canada); Bensimon, Corinne [MDS Nordion, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E. [Macrocylics Inc., Dallas, Texas, 75235 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Background: Currently available bifunctional chelates (BFCs) for attaching Cu-64 to a targeting molecule are limited by either their radiolabeling conditions or in vivo stability. With the goal of identifying highly effective BFCs, we compared the properties of two novel BFCs, 1-oxa-4,7,10-triazacyclododecane-S-5-(4-nitrobenzyl)-4,7,10-triacetic acid (p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-Oxo) and 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-S-4- (4-nitrobenzyl)-3,6,9-triacetic acid (p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-PCTA), with the commonly used S-2-(4-nitrobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-DOTA). Methods: p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-DOTA, p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-Oxo and p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-PCTA were each radiolabeled with Cu-64 under various conditions to assess the reaction kinetics and robustness of the radiolabeling. Stability of each Cu-64 BFC complex was evaluated at low pH and in serum. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and biodistribution studies in mice were undertaken. Results: p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-Oxo and p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-PCTA possessed superior reaction kinetics compared to p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-DOTA under all radiolabeling conditions; >98% radiochemical yields were achieved in <5 min at room temperature even when using near stoichiometric amounts of BFC. Under nonideal conditions, such as low or high pH, high radiochemical yields were still achievable with the novel BFCs. The radiolabeled compounds were stable in serum and at pH 2 for 48 h. The imaging and biodistribution of the Cu-64-radiolabeled BFCs illustrated differences between the BFCs, including preferential clearance via the kidneys for the p-NO{sub 2}-Bn-PCTA Cu-64 complex. Conclusions: The novel BFCs facilitated efficient Cu-64 radiolabeling under mild conditions to produce stable complexes at potentially high specific activities. These BFCs may find wide utility in the development of Cu-64-based radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. Promising bifunctional chelators for copper 64-PET imaging: practical (64)Cu radiolabeling and high in vitro and in vivo complex stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ningjie; Kang, Chi Soo; Sin, Inseok; Ren, Siyuan; Liu, Dijie; Ruthengael, Varyanna C; Lewis, Michael R; Chong, Hyun-Soon

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using copper-64 is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging technique for diagnosis and staging of cancer. A bifunctional chelator that can present rapid radiolabeling kinetics and high complex stability with (64)Cu is a critical component for targeted PET imaging. Bifunctional chelates 3p-C-NE3TA, 3p-C-NOTA, and 3p-C-DE4TA were evaluated for complexation kinetics and stability with (64)Cu in vitro and in vivo. Hexadentate 3p-C-NOTA and heptadentate 3p-C-NE3TA possess a smaller TACN-based macrocyclic backbone, while nonadentate 3p-C-DE4TA is constructed on a larger CYCLEN-based ring. The frequently explored chelates of (64)Cu, octadentate C-DOTA and hexadentate C-NOTA were also comparatively evaluated. Radiolabeling kinetics of bifunctional chelators with (64)Cu was assessed under mild conditions. All bifunctional chelates instantly bound to (64)Cu in excellent radiolabeling efficiency at room temperature. C-DOTA was less efficient in binding (64)Cu than all other chelates. All (64)Cu-radiolabeled bifunctional chelates remained stable in human serum without any loss of (64)Cu for 2 days. When challenged by an excess amount of EDTA, (64)Cu complexes of C-NOTA, 3p-C-NE3TA and 3p-C-NOTA were shown to be more stable than (64)Cu-C-DOTA and (64)Cu-3p-C-DE4TA. (64)Cu complexes of the new chelates 3p-C-NE3TA and 3p-C-NOTA displayed comparable in vitro and in vivo complex stability to (64)Cu-C-NOTA. In vivo biodistribution result indicates that the (64)Cu-radiolabeled complexes of 3p-C-NOTA and 3p-C-NE3TA possess excellent in vivo complex stability, while (64)Cu-3p-C-DE4TA was dissociated as evidenced by high renal and liver retention in mice. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the bifunctional chelates 3p-C-NE3TA and 3p-C-NOTA offer excellent chelation chemistry with (64)Cu for potential PET imaging applications. PMID:26666778

  18. EVALUATION OF DESFERAL AS A BIFUNCTIONAL CHELATING AGENT FOR LABELING ANTIBODIES WITH ZR-89

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJS, WE; HERSCHEID, JDM; Haisma, Hidde; PINEDO, HM

    1992-01-01

    Zirconium-desferal was prepared and analysed by TLC, NMR and u.v.-spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1. Chelation of desferal, coupled to resin, with Zr-88 appeared to be fast and almost quantitative in various buffer systems in a broad pH-range (4-7). A high in vitro s

  19. A new bifunctional chelate, BrMe sub 2 HBED: An effective conjugate for radiometals and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, C.J.; Connett, J.M.; Philpott, G.W.; Welch, M.J. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA)); Sun, Yizhen; Martell, A.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-04-18

    A new bifunctional chelate, N-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-N{prime}-(2-hydroxy-5-(bromoacetamido)benzyl)ethylenediamine-N,-N{prime}-diacetic acid (BrMe{sub 2}HBED), was designed and synthesized to bind trivalent cationic metals with monoclonal antibodies. The stability constants (log values) for indium complexed with a similar ligand, HBED, were increased over those of more commonly used ligands DTPA and EDTA. Predictably, the increased metal-ligand complex stability would expedite the in vivo clearance from nontarget regions and perhaps enhance the localization of the radiolabeled antibody (Ab). BrMe{sub 2}HBED was conjugated with the Ab (24 h) and then radiolabeled with indium-111 citrate (24 h). Additionally, the Ab was radiolabeled by using conventional methods ({sup 111}In-DTPA and {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase) and then compared by measuring the in vitro stability, in vitro immunoreactivity(IR), and in vivo distribution and clearance. A 10:1 BrMe{sub 2} HBED:Ab mole ratio resulted in good labeling efficiency with {sup 111}In and more importantly a very high IR. In a hamster tumor model, {sup 111}In-BrMe{sub 2} HBED-labeled monoclonal antibody (1A3) had high uptake in the tumor tissue and preferable blood clearance compared to either of the more conventional radiolabeled 1A3 monoclonal antibodies ({sup 111}In-DTPA or {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase). 49 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Multivalent bifunctional chelator scaffolds for gallium-68 based positron emission tomography imaging probe design: signal amplification via multivalency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay N; Liu, Wei; Hao, Guiyang; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Anjali; Öz, Orhan K; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Sun, Xiankai

    2011-08-17

    The role of the multivalent effect has been well recognized in the design of molecular imaging probes toward the desired imaging signal amplification. Recently, we reported a bifunctional chelator (BFC) scaffold design, which provides a simple and versatile approach to impart multivalency to radiometal based nuclear imaging probes. In this work, we report a series of BFC scaffolds ((t)Bu(3)-1-COOH, (t)Bu(3)-2-(COOH)(2), and (t)Bu(3)-3-(COOH)(3)) constructed on the framework of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) for (68)Ga-based PET probe design and signal amplification via the multivalent effect. For proof of principle, a known integrin α(v)β(3) specific ligand (c(RGDyK)) was used to build the corresponding NOTA conjugates (H(3)1, H(3)2, and H(3)3), which present 1-3 copies of c(RGDyK) peptide, respectively, in a systematic manner. Using the integrin α(v)β(3) binding affinities (IC(50) values), enhanced specific binding was observed for multivalent conjugates (H(3)2: 43.9 ± 16.1 nM; H(3)3: 14.7 ± 5.0 nM) as compared to their monovalent counterpart (H(3)1: 171 ± 60 nM) and the intact c(RGDyK) peptide (204 ± 76 nM). The obtained conjugates were efficiently labeled with (68)Ga(3+) within 30 min at room temperature in high radiochemical yields (>95%). The in vivo evaluation of the labeled conjugates, (68)Ga-1, (68)Ga-2, and (68)Ga-3, was performed using male severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing integrin α(v)β(3) positive PC-3 tumor xenografts (n = 3). All (68)Ga-labeled conjugates showed high in vivo stability with no detectable metabolites found by radio-HPLC within 2 h postinjection (p.i.). The PET signal amplification in PC-3 tumor by the multivalent effect was clearly displayed by the tumor uptake of the (68)Ga-labeled conjugates ((68)Ga-3: 2.55 ± 0.50%ID/g; (68)Ga-2: 1.90 ± 0.10%ID/g; (68)Ga-1: 1.66 ± 0.15%ID/g) at 2 h p.i. In summary, we have designed and synthesized a series of NOTA-based BFC scaffolds with signal

  1. Imaging cancer using PET - the effect of the bifunctional chelator on the biodistribution of a {sup 64}Cu-labeled antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, Jason L.J., E-mail: jason.dearling@childrens.harvard.ed [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Voss, Stephan D. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dunning, Patricia; Snay, Erin [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fahey, Frederic [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Smith, Suzanne V. [Australian National Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, PMB1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Huston, James S. [EMD Serono Research Center, 45A Middlesex Turnpike, Billerica, MA 01821-3936 (United States); Boston Biomedical Research Institute, Watertown, MA 02472-2899 (United States); Meares, Claude F. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5295 (United States); Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Use of copper radioisotopes in antibody radiolabeling is challenged by reported loss of the radionuclide from the bifunctional chelator used to label the protein. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the thermodynamic stability of the {sup 64}Cu-complexes of five commonly used bifunctional chelators (BFCs) and the biodistribution of an antibody labeled with {sup 64}Cu using these chelators in tumor-bearing mice. Methods: The chelators [S-2-(aminobenzyl)1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-NH{sub 2}-Bn-NOTA): 6-[p-(bromoacetamido)benzyl]-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N, N', N'', N'''-tetraacetic acid (BAT-6): S-2-(4-aminobenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododocane tetraacetic acid (p-NH{sub 2}-Bn-DOTA): 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododocane-N, N', N', N''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA): and 1-N-(4-aminobenzyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane-1, 8-diamine (SarAr)] were conjugated to the anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18, and the modified antibody was labeled with {sup 64}Cu and injected into mice bearing subcutaneous human melanoma tumors (M21) (n = 3-5 for each study). Biodistribution data were obtained from positron emission tomography images acquired at 1, 24 and 48 hours post-injection, and at 48 hours post-injection a full ex vivo biodistribution study was carried out. Results: The biodistribution, including tumor targeting, was similar for all the radioimmunoconjugates. At 48 h post-injection, the only statistically significant differences in radionuclide uptake (p < 0.05) were between blood, liver, spleen and kidney. For example, liver uptake of [{sup 64}Cu]ch14.18-p-NH{sub 2}-Bn-NOTA was 4.74 {+-} 0.77 per cent of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), and for [{sup 64}Cu]ch14.18-SarAr was 8.06 {+-} 0.77 %ID/g. Differences in tumor targeting correlated with variations in tumor size rather than which BFC was used. Conclusions: The results of this

  2. Investigation on the influence of metal ion impurities on the complexation behavior of generator produced {sup 90}Y with different bifunctional chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Usha; Gamre, Naresh; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.

    2014-07-01

    While the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator is the exclusive source of obtaining 'no carrier added' {sup 90}Y for targeted therapy, the presence of trace metals in the radiolabeling solutions poses a serious challenge owing to their ability to diminish the {sup 90}Y complexation yields with bifunctional chelators (BFCs). p-SCN-Bn-PCTA is a novel ligand having faster complexation kinetics with a number of radiometals. In this work, a systematic investigation was performed to evaluate the chelating ability of p-SCN-Bn-PCTA for {sup 90}Y and the influence of trace metal ions on it's complexation with {sup 90}Y in comparison to p-SCN-Bn-DTPA and p-SCN-Bn-DOTA using {sup 90}YCl{sub 3} obtained from an electrochemical generator. Results from our study indicate that while p-SCN-Bn-PCTA gave very good radiolabeling yields with {sup 90}Y when the reaction was carried out by heating for few minutes, it was most sensitive to the presence of trace metals, especially Fe(III). An independent and useful observation is that p-SCN-Bn-PCTA could be considered as the ligand of choice for assessing the chemical purity of generator derived {sup 90}Y.

  3. p-carboxyethyl-phenylglyoxal bis(n-methylthiosemicarbazone) (CE-DTS), a bifunctional chelating agent for Tc-99m labeled monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arano, Y.; Yokoyama, A.; Furukawa, T.; Saji, H.; Endo, K.; Torizaka, K.

    1985-05-01

    In the search for bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) with better affinity, selectivity and stability as for Tc-99m, synthesis of a novel BCA containing di-thio-semicarbazone as for Tc-99m chelating site has offered interesting characteristics for the labeling of macromolecules. In the present paper, monoclonal IgG (MoAb) against human thyroglobulin was selected as a model and conditions for coupling, labeling reactions were tested along with immunological reactivity. CE-DTS was coupled to MoAb by the azido method and effect of conjugation on the MoAb immunoreactivity was followed by RIA. When CE-DTS was coupled to MoAb at the molar ratio of 1:1, no loss of its original immunoreactivity was observed. Tc-99m labeling, using the stannous ion reducing method, indicated the reaction pH as being a determinant parameter. The reducing agent prepared in tartrate buffer (pH 3) offered high yield and stable Tc-99m-CE-DTS-MoAb, as evidence by HPLC. In vivo studies in mice indicated percent of injected dose and blood clearance alike the I-131-MoAb. This good labeled state of Tc-99m-CE-DTS-MoAb was also demonstrated by using second antibody reaction in serum of mice. The newly synthesized CE-DTS offered good basis for the Tc-99m labeling of monclonal antibodies with preserved immunological properties, as desirable for the radioimmunodetection. Work with tumor related monoclonal antibodies is under progress.

  4. Synthesis and functionalization of bifunctional chelates for 64Cu complexation for their applications by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to develop a new family of bis-pidine-type ligands for copper(II) complexation with applications in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Indeed, copper 64 is a radioelement whose study in PET imaging is booming. Bis-pidines have the benefit of having a rigid and pre-organized structure for complexation of a large number of transition metals. In this work we present the synthesis and optimization of new ligands whose structural and physico-chemical properties have been studied. One ligand showed very good results because it possesses all of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters which are necessary for its application to PET imaging. Different strategies of functionalization have been studied to obtain bifunctional chelates. A lysine derivative has been coupled to a maleimide function (regio-selective of cysteines), to abiotine (which displays a strong affinity for streptavidin) or to a Bodipy pattern for obtaining a bimodal probe (UV-visible and PET). Finally, we present an extension of this bis-pidine family by increasing the number of coordination functions or by synthesizing tricyclic compounds to modulate the selectivity of these molecules. (author)

  5. Facile labelling of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor nanobody with {sup 68}Ga via a novel bifunctional desferal chelate for immuno-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Perk, Lars R.; Stigter van Walsum, Marijke [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roovers, Rob C.; Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M.P. van [Utrecht University, Cellular Dynamics, Science Faculty, Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The {proportional_to}15 kDa variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (called Nanobodies {sup registered}) have the flexibility to be formatted as monovalent, monospecific, multivalent or multispecific single chain proteins with either fast or slow pharmacokinetics. We report the evaluation of the fast kinetic anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Nanobody 7D12, labelled with {sup 68}Ga via the novel bifunctional chelate (BFC) p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine (Df-Bz-NCS). Df-Bz-NCS has recently been introduced as the chelate of choice for {sup 89}Zr immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). Nanobody 7D12 was premodified with Df-Bz-NCS at pH 9. Radiolabelling with purified {sup 68}Ga was performed at pH 5.0-6.5 for 5 min at room temperature. For in vitro stability measurements in storage buffer (0.25 M NaOAc with 5 mg ml{sup -1} gentisic acid, pH 5.5) at 4 C or in human serum at 37 C, a mixture of {sup 67}Ga and {sup 68}Ga was used. Biodistribution and immuno-PET studies of {sup 68}Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 were performed in nude mice bearing A431 xenografts using {sup 89}Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 as the reference conjugate. The Df-Bz-NCS chelate was conjugated to Nanobody 7D12 with a chelate to Nanobody molar substitution ratio of 0.2:1. The overall {sup 68}Ga radiochemical yield was 55-70% (not corrected for decay); specific activity was 100-500 MBq/mg. Radiochemical purity of the conjugate was >96%, while the integrity and immunoreactivity were preserved. {sup 68/67}Ga-Df-Bz-NCS-7D12 was stable in storage buffer as well as in human serum during a 5-h incubation period (<2% radioactivity loss). In biodistribution studies the {sup 68}Ga-labelled Nanobody 7D12 showed high uptake in A431 tumours (ranging from 6.1 {+-} 1.3 to 7.2 {+-} 1.5%ID/g at 1-3 h after injection) and high tumour to blood ratios, which increased from 8.2 to 14.4 and 25.7 at 1, 2 and 3 h after injection, respectively. High uptake was also observed in the kidneys. Biodistribution was

  6. p-Isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine: a new bifunctional chelate for facile radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies with zirconium-89 for immuno-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Lars R.; Vosjan, Maria J.W.D.; Budde, Marianne [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M. [VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E. [Macrocyclics Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, MB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    Immuno-PET is an emerging imaging tool for the selection of high potential antibodies (mAbs) for imaging and therapy. The positron emitter zirconium-89 ({sup 89}Zr) has attractive characteristics for immuno-PET with intact mAbs. Previously, we have described a multi-step procedure for stable coupling of {sup 89}Zr to mAbs via the bifunctional chelate (BFC) tetrafluorophenol-N-succinyldesferal (TFP-N-sucDf). To enable widespread use of {sup 89}Zr-immuno-PET, we now introduce the novel BFC p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine B (Df-Bz-NCS) and compare its performance in {sup 89}Zr-immuno-PET with the reference BFC TFP-N-sucDf. Three mAbs were premodified with Df-Bz-NCS and labeled with {sup 89}Zr at different pHs to assess the reaction kinetics and robustness of the radiolabeling. Stability of both {sup 89}Zr-Df-Bz-NCS- and {sup 89}Zr-N-sucDf-conjugates was evaluated in different buffers and human serum. Comparative biodistribution and PET studies in tumor-bearing mice were undertaken. The selected conjugation conditions resulted in a chelate:mAb substitution ratio of about 1.5:1. Under optimal radiolabeling conditions (pH between 6.8-7.2), the radiochemical yield was >85% after 60 min incubation at room temperature, resulting in radioimmunoconjugates with preserved integrity and immunoreactivity. The new radioimmunoconjugate was very stable in serum for up to 7 days at 37 C, with <5% {sup 89}Zr release, and was equally stable compared to the reference conjugate when stored in the appropriate buffer at 4 C. In biodistribution and imaging experiments, the novel and the reference radioimmunoconjugates showed high and similar accumulation in tumors in nude mice. The novel Df-Bz-NCS BFC allows efficient and easy preparation of optimally performing {sup 89}Zr-labeled mAbs, facilitating further exploration of {sup 89}Zr-immuno-PET as an imaging tool. (orig.)

  7. Thiol- and thioether-based bifunctional chelates for the {M(CO)3}+ core (M = Tc, Re).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Neva; Babich, John; Valliant, John; Schaffer, Paul; James, Shelly; Zubieta, Jon

    2005-09-19

    By analogy to the recently described single amino acid chelate (SAAC) technology for complexation of the {M(CO)3}+ core (M = Tc, Re), a series of tridentate ligands containing thiolate and thioether groups, as well as amino and pyridyl nitrogen donors, have been prepared: (NC5H4CH2)2NCH2CH2SEt (L1); (NC5H4CH2)2NCH2CH2SH (L2); NC5H4CH2N(CH2CH2SH)2 (L3); (NC5H4CH2)N(CH2CH2SH)(CH2CO2R) [R = H (L4); R = -C2H5 (L5). The {Re(CO)3}+ core complexes of L1-L5 were prepared by the reaction of [Re(CO)3(H2O)3]Br or [NEt4]2[Re(CO)3Br3] with the appropriate ligand in methanol and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and in the case of [Re(CO)3(L2)] (Re-2) and [Re(CO)3(L1)Re(CO)3Br2] (Re-1a) by X-ray crystallography. The structure of Re-2 consists of discrete neutral monomers with a fac-Re(CO)3 coordination unit and the remaining coordination sites occupied by the amine, pyridyl, and thiolate donors of L2, leaving a pendant pyridyl arm. In contrast, the structure of Re-1a consists of discrete binuclear units, constructed from a {Re(CO)3(L1)}+ subunit linked to a {Re(CO)3Br2}- group through the sulfur donor of the pendant thioether arm. The series of complexes establishes that thiolate donors are effective ligands for the {M(CO)3}+ core and that a qualitative ordering of the coordination preferences of the core may be proposed: pyridyl nitrogen approximately thiolate > carboxylate > thioether sulfur > thiophene sulfur. The ligands L1 and L2 react cleanly with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ in H2O/DMSO to give [99mTc(CO)3(L1)]+ (99m)Tc-1) and [99mTc(CO)3(L2)] (99mTc-2), respectively, in ca. 90% yield after HPLC purification. The Tc analogues 99mTc-1 and 99mTc-2 were subjected to ligand challenges by incubating each in the presence of 1000-fold excesses of both cysteine and histidine. The radiochromatograms showed greater than 95% recovery of the complexes. PMID:16156635

  8. Development and validation of the 57Co assay for determining the ligand to antibody ratio in bifunctional chelate/antibody conjugates for use in radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The ligand to antibody ratio is an important characteristic of a chelate/antibody conjugate. It has been widely reported that if the ratio is too high, there will be detrimental effects on immunoreactivity and biodistribution; conversely, if the ratio is too low, the radionuclide may not bind efficiently, and the stability and the specific activity will be reduced. There are little published data on the accuracy or precision of the 57Co assay. The UK Clinical Trials Regulations state that “systems with procedures that assure the quality of every aspect of the trial should be implemented”. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability and accuracy of the 57Co binding assay and validate it against defined criteria. Method: Thirty-two serial assays were assessed for reliability. Two batches of conjugated antibody were also analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to allow the comparison of the functional test with a physical method. Results: Reliability: The coefficient of variation was 0.13. Accuracy: There was 9% variation between the 57Co binding assay and MALDI-TOF MS results. Conclusion: A detailed method for the 57Co ligand to antibody test is described that allows a discrete value to be obtained. The assay was validated as fit for purpose against target values of coefficient of variation <0.20, accuracy±10%, over a permissive range of 0.5–3.0 ligand to antibody ratio.

  9. Application of new bifunctional chelator DOTA and its derivatives in the metal radionuclide labeled compounds%新型双功能螯合剂DOTA及其衍生物在金属核素标记中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 蒋孟军; 朱宝

    2016-01-01

    DOTA及其衍生物是应用最为广泛的新型双功能螯合剂之一.DOTA及其衍生物不仅具有成熟的合成工艺路线,还具有良好的配位和螯合能力,DOTA-多肽分子探针作为MRI对比剂、核素靶向显像剂和放射性药物在生物医学领域被广泛应用.笔者对DOTA双功能螯合剂的种类、DOTA-多肽标记前体的合成和DOTA-多肽金属配合物的应用进行综述.%DOTA and its derivatives are most widely uscd novel bifunctional chelators.They have not only mature synthesis route,but also good coordination and chelating ability.Therefore,DOTA metal complexes of DOTA-peptide conjugates are increasingly used as MRI contrast agents,radionuclide targeted imaging agents and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the biomedical field.This review covers the bifunctional derivatives of DOTA,the synthesis of DOTA-peptide conjugates,and the applications of DOTA-peptide conjugate metal complexes.

  10. 新型双功能螯合剂研究——富勒烯基邻苯二酚类螯合物的分子设计%New bifunctional sequestering agent for actinides chelation——molecular design of fullerene-based catechol chelating agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云; 彭汝芳; 金波; 楚士晋; 宋宏涛

    2012-01-01

    bifunctional actinide chelating agents based on the excellent resistance to oxidation and absorption of free radical of fullerenes and its derivatives. According to the chemical modified principle of fullerenes and the characteristics of molecular structure of catechol, We designed the molecular structure of the new chelating a-gent of fullerene-based catechol, the feasibility of the design of molecular structure and synthesis was analyzed and discussed, the analysis shows that the conception and the plan is feasible.

  11. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  12. Tight bifunctional hierarchical catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højholt, Karen T; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; Beato, Pablo

    2011-12-28

    A new concept to prepare tight bifunctional catalysts has been developed, by anchoring CoMo(6) clusters on hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites for simultaneous use in HDS and hydrocracking catalysis. The prepared material displays a significant improved activity in HDS catalysis compared to the impregnated counterpart. PMID:22048337

  13. Study of conjugation and radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody rituximab for use in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphomas are tumors originated from the transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. The most common lymphoma is the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Advances in immunology and molecular biology have been improving NHL's detection and treatment strategies development, such as Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used as immunotherapeutic to treat refractory or relapsed NHL. The goal of the present work was to conjugate this antibody to DOTA-NHS-ester bifunctional chelator and to radiolabel it with 177Lu radioisotope in order to develop a radio immunotherapeutic agent for NHL's treatment. Different rituximab to DOTA molar ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:250, 1:500 and 1:1000) were evaluated in order to determine the best condition for obtaining the highest radiochemical purity of radio immunotherapeutic. The stability of the unlabeled immuno conjugated was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 240 days in different storage conditions. The stability of the labeled preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 degree C or incubation in human serum at 37 degree C. The binding to serum proteins was also determined. In vivo studies were performed in healthy Swiss mice, in order to characterize the biological properties of labeled conjugate. Finally, preliminary studies of radio immuno conjugated competitive binding to CD20 positive Raji cells were carried out in order to analyze if the process of conjugation and radiolabeling compromises the immunoreactivity of the antibody. The conjugation applying lower antibody to chelator molar ratios (1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) showed high stability when stored for up to 240 days in different conditions. The HPLC analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody conjugated in molar ratio 1:50 was labeled with higher radiochemical purity (> 95%) when purified in PD-10 column. This conjugate showed reasonable stability at 2-8 degree C. The analysis of the stability

  14. Study of conjugation and radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody rituximab for use in radionuclide therapy; Estudo da conjugacao e radiomarcacao do anticorpo monoclonal rituximab para aplicacao em terapia radionuclidica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Adriana Vidal Fernandes

    2011-07-01

    Lymphomas are tumors originated from the transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. The most common lymphoma is the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Advances in immunology and molecular biology have been improving NHL's detection and treatment strategies development, such as Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used as immunotherapeutic to treat refractory or relapsed NHL. The goal of the present work was to conjugate this antibody to DOTA-NHS-ester bifunctional chelator and to radiolabel it with {sup 177}Lu radioisotope in order to develop a radio immunotherapeutic agent for NHL's treatment. Different rituximab to DOTA molar ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:250, 1:500 and 1:1000) were evaluated in order to determine the best condition for obtaining the highest radiochemical purity of radio immunotherapeutic. The stability of the unlabeled immuno conjugated was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 240 days in different storage conditions. The stability of the labeled preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 degree C or incubation in human serum at 37 degree C. The binding to serum proteins was also determined. In vivo studies were performed in healthy Swiss mice, in order to characterize the biological properties of labeled conjugate. Finally, preliminary studies of radio immuno conjugated competitive binding to CD20 positive Raji cells were carried out in order to analyze if the process of conjugation and radiolabeling compromises the immunoreactivity of the antibody. The conjugation applying lower antibody to chelator molar ratios (1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) showed high stability when stored for up to 240 days in different conditions. The HPLC analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody conjugated in molar ratio 1:50 was labeled with higher radiochemical purity (> 95%) when purified in PD-10 column. This conjugate showed reasonable stability at 2-8 degree C. The analysis

  15. An improved synthesis and biological evaluation of a new cage-like bifunctional chelator, 4-((8-amino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1-ylamino)methyl) benzoic acid, for {sup 64}Cu radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Hancheng; Li Zibo; Huang, C.-W.; Park, Ryan; Shahinian, Anthony H. [Molecular Imaging Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Conti, Peter S. [Molecular Imaging Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)], E-mail: pconti@usc.edu

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: Stable attachment of {sup 64}Cu{sup 2+} to a targeting molecule usually requires the use of a bifunctional chelator (BFC). Sarcophagine (Sar) ligands rapidly coordinate {sup 64}Cu{sup 2+} within the multiple macrocyclic rings comprising the cage structure under mild conditions, providing high stability in vivo. Previously, we have designed a new versatile cage-like BFC Sar ligand, 4-((8-amino-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1-ylamino)methyl) benzoic acid (AmBaSar), for {sup 64}Cu radiopharmaceuticals. Here we report the improved synthesis of AmBaSar, {sup 64}Cu{sup 2+} labeling conditions and its biological evaluation compared with the known BFC 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Methods: The AmBaSar was synthesized in four steps starting from (1,8-diamine-Sar) cobalt(III) pentachloride ([Co(DiAmSar)]Cl{sub 5}) using an improved synthetic method. The AmBaSar was labeled with {sup 64}Cu{sup 2+} in pH 5.0 ammonium acetate buffer solution at room temperature, followed by analysis and purification with HPLC. The in vitro stability of {sup 64}Cu-AmBaSar complex was evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), fetal bovine serum and mouse blood. The microPET imaging and biodistribution studies of {sup 64}Cu-AmBaSar were performed in Balb/c mice, and the results were compared with {sup 64}Cu-DOTA. Results: The AmBaSar was readily prepared and characterized by MS and {sup 1}H NMR. The radiochemical yield of {sup 64}Cu-AmBaSar was {>=}98% after 30 min of incubation at 25 deg. C. The {sup 64}Cu-AmBaSar complex was analyzed and purified by HPLC with a retention time of 17.9 min. The radiochemical purity of {sup 64}Cu-AmBaSar was more than 97% after 26 h of incubation in PBS or serum. The biological evaluation of {sup 64}Cu-AmBaSar in normal mouse demonstrated renal clearance as the primary mode of excretion, with improved stability in vivo compared to {sup 64}Cu-DOTA. Conclusions: The

  16. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J.S. Flora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

  17. The Chelate Effect Redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)

  18. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang;

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  19. Ferrocene base metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the works, devoted to different types of ferrocene metal chelates and to a possibility of ferrocene-containing ligand modification by means of complexing, is presented. Structure, properties and spectral characteristics of transitional metal, rare earth element, Cd2+, UO22+, Th4+ etc. complexes with ferrocene diketones, ferrocene acyl derivatives based on thiosemicarbazones and hydrazones and other heterometal ferrocene-containing metal chelates, are considered. 134 refs., 1 tab

  20. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  1. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  2. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  3. Tumor targeting of radiolabeled antibodies using HYNIC chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Chung, Wee Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun; Choi, Tae Hyun; Chung, Hye Kyung; Lee, Myung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Jung, Jae Ho; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Darwati, Siti [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2004-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of labeled antibodies for diagnosis of cancers as well as for therapy. Various radiolabeling methods have been used in order to obtain better tumor specific targeting for detection and therapy. It was generally used to tumor targeted immunotherapy and immunodetection that lym-1, mouse monoclonal antibody, was specific binding to surface antigen of Raji. The 3E8 antibody was produced from humanized anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody (AKA) by amino acid change in 95-99 residues of heavy chain complementary determinant regions (HCDRs) 3 using phage displayed library technology. In this study, we are investigating the usefulness of HYNIC chelate as a bifunctional chelating agent in radioimmunodetecton of tumor. Two types of antibodies, Lym-1 and 3E8, were used for the conjugation with HYNIC chelate. Lym-1 and 3E8 are specific antibodies to surface antigen of Non-Hogkin's lymphoma and TAG-72 antigen of colorectal carcinoma, respectively. We prepare HYNIC-antibody conjugates, determine radiolabeling yield with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluate tumor targeting in tumor bearing nude mice model.

  4. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  5. Synthesis of Small Peptides and Their Use as Bifunctional Chelating Agents in Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticalst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Chongzhi; LI Longjin; PANG Zhen; YUAN Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    Three linear mercaptoacetyl tetrapeptides, MAG3-Leu-OH, MAG3-Phe-OH and MAG3-Tyr-OH, were synthe-sized via a liquid phase synthetic approach with high yields and high purities without using preparative HPLC tech-nique. The obtained products could be radiolabeled easily with 99mTc under a mild condition and showed high sta-bility in vitro and in vivo conditions. The scintigrams of the tested rabbit after injection of the radiolabeled products via mainline showed a normal biodistribution, which is definitely different from that of 99mTc-MAG3, indicating different routes of metabolization between these two radiochemicals.

  6. Recent Development of Bifunctional Small Molecules to Study Metal-Amyloid-β Species in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymer, Joseph J; Detoma, Alaina S; Choi, Jung-Suk; Ko, Kristin S; Lim, Mi Hee

    2010-12-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease related to the deposition of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain. It has been proposed that metal ion dyshomeostasis and miscompartmentalization contribute to AD progression, especially as metal ions (e.g., Cu(II) and Zn(II)) found in Aβ plaques of the diseased brain can bind to Aβ and be linked to aggregation and neurotoxicity. The role of metal ions in AD pathogenesis, however, is uncertain. To accelerate understanding in this area and contribute to therapeutic development, recent efforts to devise suitable chemical reagents that can target metal ions associated with Aβ have been made using rational structure-based design that combines two functions (metal chelation and Aβ interaction) in the same molecule. This paper presents bifunctional compounds developed by two different design strategies (linkage or incorporation) and discusses progress in their applications as chemical tools and/or potential therapeutics.

  7. Astaxanthin diferulate as a bifunctional antioxidant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, T.B.R.; Pinho, V.D.; Nascimento, E.P. do;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Astaxanthin when esterified with ferulic acid is better singlet oxygen quencher with k2 = (1.58 ± 0.1) 10(10) L mol(- 1)s(- 1) in ethanol at 25°C compared with astaxanthin with k2 = (1.12 ± 0.01) 10(9) L mol(- 1)s(- 1). The ferulate moiety in the astaxanthin diester is a better radical s....... The mutual enhancement of antioxidant activity for the newly synthetized astaxanthin diferulate becoming a bifunctional antioxidant is rationalized according to a two-dimensional classification plot for electron donation and electron acceptance capability....

  8. Bifunctional compounds for controlling metal-mediated aggregation of the aβ42 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj K; Pavlova, Stephanie T; Kim, Jaekwang; Finkelstein, Darren; Hawco, Nicholas J; Rath, Nigam P; Kim, Jungsu; Mirica, Liviu M

    2012-04-18

    Abnormal interactions of Cu and Zn ions with the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide are proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disruption of these metal-peptide interactions using chemical agents holds considerable promise as a therapeutic strategy to combat this incurable disease. Reported herein are two bifunctional compounds (BFCs) L1 and L2 that contain both amyloid-binding and metal-chelating molecular motifs. Both L1 and L2 exhibit high stability constants for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) and thus are good chelators for these metal ions. In addition, L1 and L2 show strong affinity toward Aβ species. Both compounds are efficient inhibitors of the metal-mediated aggregation of the Aβ(42) peptide and promote disaggregation of amyloid fibrils, as observed by ThT fluorescence, native gel electrophoresis/Western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, the formation of soluble Aβ(42) oligomers in the presence of metal ions and BFCs leads to an increased cellular toxicity. These results suggest that for the Aβ(42) peptide-in contrast to the Aβ(40) peptide-the previously employed strategy of inhibiting Aβ aggregation and promoting amyloid fibril dissagregation may not be optimal for the development of potential AD therapeutics, due to formation of neurotoxic soluble Aβ(42) oligomers.

  9. Overview of current chelation practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aydinok

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Deferoxamine (DFO is reference standard therapy for transfusional iron overload since the 1980s. Although it is a highly effective iron chelator, the compliance problem to subcutaneous administration of DFO remains as the major problem. The oral chelator Deferiprone (DFP has no marketing licence in North America, however, it has been licensed in India since 1994 and the European Union (EU granted marketing approval for DFP in 1999, specifically for patients with thalassemia major when DFO is inadequate, intolerable or unacceptable. There are still limited data available on the use of DFP in children between 6 and 10 years of age, and no data on DFP use in children under 6 years of age. Subsequently the oral chelator Deferasirox (DFX was approved by FDA and EMA for the treatment of patients with transfusional iron overload -older than 2 years of age- as first line therapy, in 2005 and 2006 respectively. The primary objective of iron chelation is to maintain body iron at safe levels at all times but once iron is accumulated, the objective of iron chelation is to reduce tissue iron to safe levels which is a slow process. The chelation regimen, dose and frequency of administration, of the chelator(s are mainly determined based on body iron burden, presence of myocardial iron and the transfusional iron loading rate. A proper monitoring of chelation is of importance for measuring the response rate to a particular regimen and providing dose adjustments to enhance chelation efficacy and to avoid toxicity. Efficacy of a chelation regimen may exhibit individual variability resulting from factors such as absorbtion and metabolism of the chelator. Tolerability and compliance are also individual variables effecting the response to chelation. Understanding of advantages and limitations of chelators, accurately determining chelation needs of patients with iron overload and designing individualized chelation regimens with less toxicity but optimum efficacy

  10. Development of a radioscandium immunoconjugate for radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam-Banaem, L.; Jalilian, A.R.; Pourjavid, M.R.; Radfar, E.; Bahrami-Samani, A.; Yavari, K.; Mazidi, M.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (IR). Radiopharmaceutical Research and Development Lab. (RRDL)

    2012-07-01

    Developing monoclonal antibodies labeled with beta-emitters has led to the introduction of important agents in radioimmunotherapy. In this work, Sc-46 chloride was obtained by thermal neutron activation flux of natural metallic scandium sample followed by dissolution in acidic media (radionuclidic purity via beta and gamma ray spectroscopy, 99.9; radiochemical purity via ITLC, > 99%) and used in radiolabeling of rituximab after conjugation with DOTA-NHS-ester. The specific activity was however not high. The conjugates were purified by molecular filtration and used in the radiolabeling. The radiochemical purity (ITLC), stability studies (ITLC and size exclusion chromatography), determination of average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb (chelate: antibody ratio, 5.8:1) and gel electrophoresis of [{sup 46}Sc]Sc-DOTA-anti-CD20 were determined followed by biodistribution studies for {sup 46}Sc and [{sup 46}Sc]Sc-DOTA-anti-CD20 i n wild type rats up to 72 h. The binding of the radiolabeled antibody was showed to be 60% on Raji cells. The final compound was stable in presence of PBS at 37 C and room temperature. The accumulation of the radiolabeled antibody in liver, spleen, kidney, heart and other tissues demonstrates a pattern similar to the other radiolabeled anti-CD20 immunoconjugates. The present study shows the possibility of antibody labeling for future use in radioimmunotherapy by {sup 47}Sc. (orig.)

  11. Bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen/air electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano-Silver powder was prepared by chemical method. • Ag catalyst was characterized by SEM and XRD studies. • Ag was investigated as bi-functional electrocatalyst for oxygen/air electrodes. • Ag shows good electrochemical activity towards OER and ORR reactions. - Abstract: Nano-Silver powder has been studied as bi-functional electrocatalyst for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline medium. Ag nano-powder has been prepared by a simple wet chemical method with Silver nitrate as precursor and Glucose as reducing agent. X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were carried out to characterize the Silver catalyst. Electrochemical oxygen evolution characterization shows anodic peak typically at the range between 0.350 and 0.514 V Vs Hg/HgO corresponding to Silver oxidation followed by the onset of oxygen evolution at 0.706 V. Oxygen reduction reaction studies carried out using Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) confirm the four electron reaction mechanism. Ag catalyst shows promising characteristics for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction

  12. Organosilylated complex [Eu(TTA)₃(Bpy-Si)]: a bifunctional moiety for the engeneering of luminescent silica-based nanoparticles for bioimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Adriana P.; Mauline, Léïla; Gressier, Marie; Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Roques, Christine; Caiut, José Maurício A.; Deffune, Elenice; Maia, Danielle C. G.; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Ferreira, Antonio A. P.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Menu, Marie-Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    A new highly luminescent europium complex with the formula [Eu(TTA)₃(Bpy-Si)], where TTA stands for the thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (C₄H3S)COCH₂COCF₃, chelating ligand and Bpy-Si, Bpy-CH₂NH(CH₂)₃(OEt)₃, is an organosilyldipyridine ligand displaying a triethoxysilyl group as a grafting function has been synthesized and fully characterized. This bifunctional complex has been grafted onto the surface of dense silica nanoparticles (NPs) and on mesoporous silica microparticles as well. The covalent b...

  13. Iron mobilization using chelation and phlebotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaten, T. P.; Aaseth, J.; Andersen, Ole;

    2012-01-01

    are phlebotomy and chelation. Phlebotomy is the initial treatment of choice in haemochromatosis, while chelation is a mainstay in the treatment of transfusional siderosis. The classical iron chelator is deferoxamine (Desferal), but due to poor gastrointestinal absorption it has to be administered intravenously...... or subcutaneously, mostly on a daily basis. Thus, there is an obvious need to find and develop new effective iron chelators for oral use. In later years, particularly two such oral iron chelators have shown promise and have been approved for clinical use, namely deferiprone (Ferriprox) and deferasirox (Exjade...

  14. Luminescent lanthanide chelates and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvin, Paul R. (Berkeley, CA); Hearst, John (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides lanthanide chelates capable of intense luminescence. The celates comprise a lanthanide chelator covalently joined to a coumarin-like or quinolone-like sensitizer. Exemplary sensitzers include 2- or 4-quinolones, 2- or 4-coumarins, or derivatives thereof e.g. carbostyril 124 (7-amino-4-methyl-2-quinolone), coumarin 120 (7-amino-4-methyl-2-coumarin), coumarin 124 (7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-coumarin), aminomethyltrimethylpsoralen, etc. The chelates form high affinity complexes with lanthanides, such as terbium or europium, through chelator groups, such as DTPA. The chelates may be coupled to a wide variety of compounds to create specific labels, probes, diagnostic and/or therapeutic reagents, etc. The chelates find particular use in resonance energy transfer between chelate-lanthanide complexes and another luminescent agent, often a fluorescent non-metal based resonance energy acceptor. The methods provide useful information about the structure, conformation, relative location and/or interactions of macromolecules.

  15. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to precisely control nanoscale features is increasingly exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts1–4. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which play an important role in hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel5–7. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called ‘intimacy criterion’8 has dictated the ...

  16. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Robert J; Lippard, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals of hippocampal mossy fiber buttons.

  17. Nanoparticle Superlattices as Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Yongcheng; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Yang, Zhongqin; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-11-18

    The solar-driven water splitting process is highly attractive for alternative energy utilization, while developing efficient, earth-abundant, bifunctional catalysts for both oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction has remained as a major challenge. Herein, we develop an ordered CoMnO@CN superlattice structure as an efficient bifunctional water-splitting electrocatalyst, in which uniform Co-Mn oxide (CoMnO) nanoparticles are coated with a thin, continuous nitrogen-doped carbon (CN) framework. The CoMnO nanoparticles enable optimized OER activity with effective electronic structure configuration, and the CN framework serves as an excellent HER catalyst. Importantly, the ordered superlattice structure is beneficial for enhanced reactive sites, efficient charge transfer, and structural stability. This bifunctional superlattice catalyst manifests optimized current densities and electrochemical stability in overall water splitting, outperforming most of the previously reported single- or bifunctional electrocatalysts. Combining with a silicon photovoltaic cell, this CoMnO@CN superlattice bifunctional catalyst enables unassisted solar water splitting continuously for ∼5 days with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ∼8.0%. Our discovery suggests that these transition metal oxide-based superlattices may serve as a unique structure modality for efficient bifunctional water splitting electrocatalysts with scale-up potentials. PMID:26496655

  18. Nanoparticle Superlattices as Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Yongcheng; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Yang, Zhongqin; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-11-18

    The solar-driven water splitting process is highly attractive for alternative energy utilization, while developing efficient, earth-abundant, bifunctional catalysts for both oxygen evolution reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction has remained as a major challenge. Herein, we develop an ordered CoMnO@CN superlattice structure as an efficient bifunctional water-splitting electrocatalyst, in which uniform Co-Mn oxide (CoMnO) nanoparticles are coated with a thin, continuous nitrogen-doped carbon (CN) framework. The CoMnO nanoparticles enable optimized OER activity with effective electronic structure configuration, and the CN framework serves as an excellent HER catalyst. Importantly, the ordered superlattice structure is beneficial for enhanced reactive sites, efficient charge transfer, and structural stability. This bifunctional superlattice catalyst manifests optimized current densities and electrochemical stability in overall water splitting, outperforming most of the previously reported single- or bifunctional electrocatalysts. Combining with a silicon photovoltaic cell, this CoMnO@CN superlattice bifunctional catalyst enables unassisted solar water splitting continuously for ∼5 days with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ∼8.0%. Our discovery suggests that these transition metal oxide-based superlattices may serve as a unique structure modality for efficient bifunctional water splitting electrocatalysts with scale-up potentials.

  19. Combination therapies in iron chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Origa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of oral iron chelators and new non-invasive methods for early detection and treatment of iron overload, have significantly improved the life expectancy and quality of life of patients with b thalassemia major. However, monotherapy is not effective in all patients for a variety of reasons. We analyzed the most relevant reports recently published on alternating or combined chelation therapies in thalassemia major with special attention to safety aspects and to their effects in terms of reduction of iron overload in different organs, improvement of complications, and survival. When adverse effects, such as gastrointestinal upset with deferasirox or infusional site reactions with deferoxamine are not tolerable and organ iron is in an acceptable range, alternating use of two chelators (drugs taken sequentially on different days, but not taken on the same day together may be a winning choice. The association deferiprone and deferoxamine should be the first choice in case of heart failure and when dangerously high levels of cardiac iron exist. Further research regarding the safety and efficacy of the most appealing combination treatment, deferiprone and deferasirox, is needed before recommendations for routine clinical practice can be made.

  20. Role of chelates in treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Laxmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelates are used in cancer as cytotoxic agent, as radioactive agent in imaging studies and in radioimmunotherapy. Various chelates based on ruthenium, copper, zinc, organocobalt, gold, platinum, palladium, cobalt, nickel and iron are reported as cytotoxic agent. Monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioactive metals such as yttrium-90, indium-111 and iodine-131 are used in radioimmunotherapy. This review is an attempt to compile the use of chelates as cytotoxic drugs and in radioimmunotherapy.

  1. Metal ions, Alzheimer's disease and chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Ana

    2011-03-01

    In the last few years, various studies have been providing evidence that metal ions are critically involved in the pathogenesis of major neurological diseases (Alzheimer, Parkinson). Metal ion chelators have been suggested as potential therapies for diseases involving metal ion imbalance. Neurodegeneration is an excellent target for exploiting the metal chelator approach to therapeutics. In contrast to the direct chelation approach in metal ion overload disorders, in neurodegeneration the goal seems to be a better and subtle modulation of metal ion homeostasis, aimed at restoring ionic balance. Thus, moderate chelators able to coordinate deleterious metals without disturbing metal homeostasis are needed. To date, several chelating agents have been investigated for their potential to treat neurodegeneration, and a series of 8-hydroxyquinoline analogues showed the greatest potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Metal ions, Alzheimer's disease and chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Ana

    2011-03-01

    In the last few years, various studies have been providing evidence that metal ions are critically involved in the pathogenesis of major neurological diseases (Alzheimer, Parkinson). Metal ion chelators have been suggested as potential therapies for diseases involving metal ion imbalance. Neurodegeneration is an excellent target for exploiting the metal chelator approach to therapeutics. In contrast to the direct chelation approach in metal ion overload disorders, in neurodegeneration the goal seems to be a better and subtle modulation of metal ion homeostasis, aimed at restoring ionic balance. Thus, moderate chelators able to coordinate deleterious metals without disturbing metal homeostasis are needed. To date, several chelating agents have been investigated for their potential to treat neurodegeneration, and a series of 8-hydroxyquinoline analogues showed the greatest potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21406339

  3. Single flexible nanofiber to simultaneously realize electricity-magnetism bifunctionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Lv, Nan; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Dong, Xiangting; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: wenshengyu2009@sina.com, E-mail: dongxiangting888@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun (China)

    2016-03-15

    In order to develop new-typed multifunctional composite nanofibers, PANI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PVP flexible bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous electrical conduction and magnetism have been successfully fabricated via a facile electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of polyaniline (PANI) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs). The bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent electrical conductivity and magnetic properties. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10{sup -3} S·cm{sup -1}. The electrical conductivity and saturation magnetization of the composite nanofibers can be respectively tuned by adding various amounts of PANI and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. The obtained electricity-magnetism bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as electromagnetic interference shielding, special coating, microwave absorption, molecular electronics and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construct technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional nanostructures. (author)

  4. Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups on the surface of particles and inside their pores were obtained by means of sol-gel synthesis with postsynthetic vapor-phase treatment in vacuum. It was found that the synthesized materials have the hexagonally ordered porous structure typical of MCM-41 type silica.

  5. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts(1-4). Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon source

  6. Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orcutt, Kelly Davis; Slusarczyk, Adrian L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cieslewicz, Maryelise [Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ruiz-Yi, Benjamin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bhushan, Kumar R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Frangioni, John V. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wittrup, K. Dane, E-mail: wittrup@mit.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Introduction: In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods: We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to DOTA, reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results: Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten-binding affinity of 100 pM is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nM to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2{+-}1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a {sup 111}In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions: We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity, DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals.

  7. Engineering an antibody with picomolar affinity to DOTA chelates of multiple radionuclides for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT), a bifunctional antibody is administered and allowed to pre-localize to tumor cells. Subsequently, a chelated radionuclide is administered and captured by cell-bound antibody while unbound hapten clears rapidly from the body. We aim to engineer high-affinity binders to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelates for use in PRIT applications. Methods: We mathematically modeled antibody and hapten pharmacokinetics to analyze hapten tumor retention as a function of hapten binding affinity. Motivated by model predictions, we used directed evolution and yeast surface display to affinity mature the 2D12.5 antibody to DOTA, reformatted as a single chain variable fragment (scFv). Results: Modeling predicts that for high antigen density and saturating bsAb dose, a hapten-binding affinity of 100 pM is needed for near-maximal hapten retention. We affinity matured 2D12.5 with an initial binding constant of about 10 nM to DOTA-yttrium chelates. Affinity maturation resulted in a 1000-fold affinity improvement to biotinylated DOTA-yttrium, yielding an 8.2±1.9 picomolar binder. The high-affinity scFv binds DOTA complexes of lutetium and gadolinium with similar picomolar affinity and indium chelates with low nanomolar affinity. When engineered into a bispecific antibody construct targeting carcinoembryonic antigen, pretargeted high-affinity scFv results in significantly higher tumor retention of a 111In-DOTA hapten compared to pretargeted wild-type scFv in a xenograft mouse model. Conclusions: We have engineered a versatile, high-affinity, DOTA-chelate-binding scFv. We anticipate it will prove useful in developing pretargeted imaging and therapy protocols to exploit the potential of a variety of radiometals.

  8. Chelating agents in pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 71 abstracts of papers. Fourteen abstracts were inputted in INIS. The topics covered include: the effects of chelating agents on the retention of 63Ni, 109Cd, 203Hg, 144Ce, 95Nb and the excretion of 210Po, 63Ni, 48V, 239Pu, 241Am, 54Mn; the applications of tracer techniques for studies of the efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with heart and brain disorders; and the treatment of metal poisoning with chelating agents. (J.P.)

  9. Synthesis of lutetium-carrying oligonucleotides for targeted cancer therapy and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gijs, Marlies; Aerts, An; Impens, Nathalie; Baatout, Sarah; Dewilde, Sylvia; Luxen, André

    2012-01-01

    In this study, different techniques were evaluated to test the binding properties of an anti-HER3 aptamer to its target on cells or as pure protein. Furthermore, the aptamer was successfully coupled to DOTA-NHS ester and labelled with natural occurring lutetium. However, for a better yield, the coupling and labelling reactions need further optimization.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF IMINOCARBOXYLIC CHELATING FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHangqiu; ZhouShaoji

    1997-01-01

    In this paper,fibrous chelating exchangers with-N(CH2COOH)2 group have been prepared for the first time by a weakly basic anion exchange fiber (aminated fiber)as the starting materials.The fibers were quite effective for the adsorption of heavy metal ion such as Cu2+.In addition,IR spectrum of the structure of fibers confirms that it is feasible to prepare iminocarboxylic chelating fiber through direct carboxylation reaction.

  11. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  12. Gadolinium Nanoparticles Conjugated with Therapeutic Bifunctional Chelate as a Potential T1 Theranostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Gang Ho; Jung, Ki-Hye; Jung, Jae-Chang; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin

    2016-05-01

    This work is directed toward the synthesis of two types of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd-oxide NPs), abbreviated as Gd@SiO2-DO3A and Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA, with diameters of 50-60 nm. The synthesis involves sequential coating of Gd-oxide NPs with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), followed by functionalization of the aminopropylsilane group with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid conjugates of benzothiazoles (DO3A-BTA). Gd@SiO2-DO3A and Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA exhibit high water solubility and colloidal stability. The r1 relaxivities of both Gd@SiO2-DO3A and Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA are higher than those of the corresponding low-molecular-weight magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (MRI CAs), and their r2/r1 ratios are close to 1, indicating that both can be used as potential T1 MRI CAs. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA was excreted via both hepatobiliary and renal pathways. Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA exhibits a strong intracellular uptake property in a series of tumor cell lines, and has significant anticancer characteristics against cell lines such as SK-HEP-1, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and Hep-3B.

  13. Gadolinium Nanoparticles Conjugated with Therapeutic Bifunctional Chelate as a Potential T1 Theranostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Gang Ho; Jung, Ki-Hye; Jung, Jae-Chang; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Jongmin; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chang, Yongmin

    2016-05-01

    This work is directed toward the synthesis of two types of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd-oxide NPs), abbreviated as Gd@SiO2-DO3A and Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA, with diameters of 50-60 nm. The synthesis involves sequential coating of Gd-oxide NPs with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), followed by functionalization of the aminopropylsilane group with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid conjugates of benzothiazoles (DO3A-BTA). Gd@SiO2-DO3A and Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA exhibit high water solubility and colloidal stability. The r1 relaxivities of both Gd@SiO2-DO3A and Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA are higher than those of the corresponding low-molecular-weight magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (MRI CAs), and their r2/r1 ratios are close to 1, indicating that both can be used as potential T1 MRI CAs. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA was excreted via both hepatobiliary and renal pathways. Gd@SiO2-DO2A-BTA exhibits a strong intracellular uptake property in a series of tumor cell lines, and has significant anticancer characteristics against cell lines such as SK-HEP-1, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and Hep-3B. PMID:27305813

  14. Molecular Modeling of Bifunctional Chelate Peptide Conjugates. 1. Copper and Indium Parameters for the AMBER Force Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichert, David E.; Norrby, Per-Ola; Welch, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the development of parameters for In(III) and Cu(II) for the AMBER* force field as found in the modeling package MacroModel. These parameters were developed using automated procedures from a combination of crystallographic structures and ab initio calculations. The new...

  15. Investigation of new bifunctional agents. D-Penicillamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin inhibits the release of growth hormone (somatotropin) from the Anterior Pituitary. The main use of derivatives of somatostatin is to diagnose growth hormone problems and to use against some forms of cancer which involve growth hormone. Also somatostatin suppresses gastric acid secretion, gallbladder contractions, and pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of the current study is to investigate new bifunctional agents for labeling with 99mTc. Therefore D-Penicillamine was used as a bifunctional agent and compared to DTPA in the labeling with 99mTc. Quality controls were established using thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) and electrophoresis techniques. In addition, high performance liquid radio chromatography (HPLRC) was also performed for elimination of possible uncertainties. The radiolabeled complexes maintained their stabilities throughout the study. The results obtained showed that 99mTc-D-Penicillamine-somatostatin is a promising potential radiopharmaceutical and an alternative of 99mTc-DTPA-somatostatin for in vivo and in vitro applications. (author)

  16. The aminoindanol core as a key scaffold in bifunctional organocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Sonsona, Isaac; Marqués-López, Eugenia; Herrera, Raquel P

    2016-01-01

    The 1,2-aminoindanol scaffold has been found to be very efficient, enhancing the enantioselectivity when present in organocatalysts. This may be explained by its ability to induce a bifunctional activation of the substrates involved in the reaction. Thus, it is easy to find hydrogen-bonding organocatalysts ((thio)ureas, squaramides, quinolinium thioamide, etc.) in the literature containing this favored structural core. They have been successfully employed in reactions such as Friedel-Crafts alkylation, Michael addition, Diels-Alder and aza-Henry reactions. However, the 1,2-aminoindanol core incorporated into proline derivatives has been scarcely explored. Herein, the most representative and illustrative examples are compiled and this review will be mainly focused on the cases where the aminoindanol moiety confers bifunctionality to the organocatalysts. PMID:27340443

  17. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called intimacy criterion has dictated the maximum distance between the two types of site, beyond which catalytic activity decreases. A lack of synthesis and material-characterization methods with nanometre precision has long prevented in-depth exploration of the intimacy criterion, which has often been interpreted simply as ‘the closer the better’ for positioning metal and acid sites. Here we show for a bifunctional catalyst—comprising an intimate mixture of zeolite Y and alumina binder, and with platinum metal controllably deposited on either the zeolite or the binder—that closest proximity between metal and zeolite acid sites can be detrimental. Specifically, the selectivity when cracking large hydrocarbon feedstock molecules for high-quality diesel production is optimized with the catalyst that contains platinum on the binder, that is, with a nanoscale rather than closest intimacy of the metal and acid sites. Thus, cracking of the large and complex hydrocarbon molecules that are typically derived from alternative sources, such as gas-to-liquid technology, vegetable oil or algal oil, should benefit especially from bifunctional catalysts that avoid locating platinum on the zeolite (the traditionally assumed optimal location). More generally, we anticipate that the ability demonstrated here to spatially organize different active sites at the nanoscale will benefit the further development and optimization of the emerging generation of multifunctional catalysts.

  18. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zečević, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to precisely control nanoscale features is increasingly exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts1–4. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which play an important role in hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel5–7. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called ‘intimacy criterion’8 has dictated the maximum distance between the two site types beyond which catalytic activity decreases. The lack of synthesis and material characterization methods with nanometer precision has long prevented in-depth exploration of the criterion, which has often been interpreted simply as ‘the closer the better’ for positioning metal and acid sites8–11. Here we show for a bifunctional catalyst, comprised of an intimate mixture of zeolite Y and alumina binder and with platinum (Pt) metal controllably deposited20,21 on either the zeolite or the binder, that close proximity between metal and zeolite acid sites can be detrimental: the selectivity when cracking large hydrocarbon feedstock molecules for high-quality diesel production is optimized with the catalyst that contains Pt on the binder, i.e. with a larger distance between metal and acid sites. Cracking of the large and complex hydrocarbon molecules typically derived from alternative sources such as gas-to-liquid technology, vegetable oil or algal oil6–7 should thus benefit especially from bifunctional catalysts that avoid locating Pt on the zeolite as the traditionally assumed optimal location. More generally, we anticipate that the ability to spatially organize different active sites at the nanoscale demonstrated here will benefit the further development and optimization of the newly emerging generation of multifunctional catalysts12–15. PMID:26659185

  19. Trypanotoxic activity of thiosemicarbazone iron chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Samuel; Sexton, Darren W; Steverding, Dietmar

    2015-03-01

    Only a few drugs are available for treating sleeping sickness and nagana disease; parasitic infections caused by protozoans of the genus Trypanosoma in sub-Saharan Africa. There is an urgent need for the development of new medicines for chemotherapy of these devastating diseases. In this study, three newly designed thiosemicarbazone iron chelators, TSC24, Dp44mT and 3-AP, were tested for in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells. In addition to their iron chelating properties, TSC24 and Dp44mT inhibit topoisomerase IIα while 3-AP inactivates ribonucleotide reductase. All three compounds exhibited anti-trypanosomal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1 and 100 µM and 50% growth inhibition (GI50) values of around 250 nM. Although the compounds did not kill HL-60 cells (MIC values >100 µM), TSC24 and Dp44mT displayed considerable cytotoxicity based on their GI50 values. Iron supplementation partly reversed the trypanotoxic and cytotoxic activity of TSC24 and Dp44mT but not of 3-AP. This finding suggests possible synergy between the iron chelating and topoisomerase IIα inhibiting activity of the compounds. However, further investigation using separate agents, the iron chelator deferoxamine and the topoisomerase II inhibitor epirubicin, did not support any synergy for the interaction of iron chelation and topoisomerase II inhibition. Furthermore, TSC24 was shown to induce DNA degradation in bloodstream forms of T. brucei indicating that the mechanism of trypanotoxic activity of the compound is topoisomerase II independent. In conclusion, the data support further investigation of thiosemicarbazone iron chelators with dual activity as lead compounds for anti-trypanosomal drug development. PMID:25595343

  20. REDUCTIVE ACTIVATION OF DIOXYGEN FOR DEGRADATION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER BY BIFUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifunctional aluminum is prepared by sulfating aluminum metal with sulfuric acid. The use of bifunctional aluminum to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the presence of dioxygen has been examined using batch systems. Primary degradation products were tert-butyl alcohol, ...

  1. Development of an upconverting chelate assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2005-04-01

    We report progress on performing a cell-based assay for the detection of EGFR on cell surfaces by using upconverting chelates. An upconversion microscope has been developed for performing assays and testing optical response. A431 cells are labeled with europium DOTA and imaged using this upconverting microscope.

  2. Questions and Answers on Unapproved Chelation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Email Print The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises consumers to be wary of so-called “chelation” products that are marketed over-the-counter (OTC) to prevent or treat diseases. Companies are marketing unapproved OTC chelation therapy products to ...

  3. Overview of chelation recommendations for thalassaemia and sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long term consequences of iron toxicity are mostly reversible with effective iron chelation therapy. Recommendations for use of chelation therapy in transfusion dependent thalassaemia (TDT, sickle cell disease (SCD and non transfusion dependent thalassaemia (NTDT continue to evolve as our knowledge and clinical experience increases. Improved chelation options including drug combinations and a better understanding of condition specific factors may help to improve efficiency of chelation regimens and meet the needs of patients more effectively.

  4. A bifunctional perovskite catalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Il; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Jang-Soo; Kim, Min Gyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2014-04-25

    La0.3(Ba0.5Sr0.5)0.7Co0.8Fe0.2O3d is a promising bifunctional perovskite catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction. This catalyst has circa 10 nm-scale rhombohedral LaCoO3 cobaltite particles distributed on the surface. The dynamic microstructure phenomena are attributed to the charge imbalance from the replacement of A-site cations with La3+ and local stress on Cosite sub-lattice with the cubic perovskite structure.

  5. Bifunctional xylanases and their potential use in biotechnology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Numan, M.Th.

    showed signiWcant similarity (33– 40% identical residues) to a diVerent group of bacterial xylanases and exoglucanases exempliWed by the Caldocel- lum saccharolyticum xynA and celB products. The xynA product is, therefore, a bifunctional enzyme having two... biochemistry of fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzyme system. In: Aubert JP, Be- guin P, Millet J (eds) Biochemistry and genetics of cellulose deg- radation. Academic Press, London, pp 11–30 19. Cui W, Wood PJ, Blackwell B, Nikiforuk J (2000) Physicochemi...

  6. Organosilylated complex [Eu(TTA)3(Bpy-Si)]: a bifunctional moiety for the engeneering of luminescent silica-based nanoparticles for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adriana P; Mauline, Léïla; Gressier, Marie; Dexpert-Ghys, Jeannette; Roques, Christine; Caiut, José Maurício A; Deffune, Elenice; Maia, Danielle C G; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Ferreira, Antonio A P; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Menu, Marie-Joëlle

    2013-05-14

    A new highly luminescent europium complex with the formula [Eu(TTA)3(Bpy-Si)], where TTA stands for the thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (C4H3S)COCH2COCF3, chelating ligand and Bpy-Si, Bpy-CH2NH(CH2)3Si(OEt)3, is an organosilyldipyridine ligand displaying a triethoxysilyl group as a grafting function has been synthesized and fully characterized. This bifunctional complex has been grafted onto the surface of dense silica nanoparticles (NPs) and on mesoporous silica microparticles as well. The covalent bonding of [Eu(TTA)3(Bpy-Si)] inside uniform Stöber silica nanoparticles was also achieved. The general methodology proposed could be applied to any silica matrix, allowed high grafting ratios that overcome chelate release and the tendency to agglomerate. Luminescent silica-based nanoparticles SiO2-[Eu(TTA)3(Bpy-Si)], with a diameter of 28 ± 2 nm, were successfully tested as a luminescent labels for the imaging of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. They were also functionalized by a specific monoclonal antibody and subsequently employed for the selective imaging of Escherichia coli bacteria. PMID:23586677

  7. In vivo evaluation of a radiogallium-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical, Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the findings obtained by X-ray crystallography of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Ga-DOTA) chelates and the drug design concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals, we previously designed and synthesized a radiogallium-labeled DOTA chelate containing two metronidazole moieties, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging. As expected, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited high in vivo stability, although two carboxyl groups in the DOTA skeleton were conjugated with metronidazole moieties. In this study, we evaluated 67/68Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors. 67Ga-labeling of DOTA-MN2 with 67GaCl3 was achieved with high radiochemical yield (>85%) by 1-min of microwave irradiation (50 W). The pharmacokinetics of 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 were examined in mammary carcinoma (FM3A) tumor-bearing mice, and compared with those of 67Ga-DOTA-MN1 containing one metronidazole unit and '67Ga-DOTA. Upon administration, 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited higher accumulation in the implanted tumors than '67Ga-DOTA. Tumor-to-blood ratios of 67Ga-DOTA-MN2 were about two-fold higher than those of 67Ga-DOTA-MN1. Autoradiographic analysis showed the heterogeneous localization of '67Ga-DOTA-MN2 in the tumors, which corresponds to hypoxic regions suggested by well-established hypoxia marker drug, pimonidazole. Furthermore, in positron emission tomography (PET) study, the tumors of mice administered '68Ga-labeled DOTA-MN2 were clearly imaged by small-animal PET at 1 h after administration. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of 67/68Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors and suggests that two functional moieties, such as metronidazole, can be conjugated to radiogallium-DOTA chelate without reducing the complex stability. The present findings provide useful information about the chemical design of radiogallium-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies. (author)

  8. Influence of Chelating Agents on Chromium Fate in Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOCHANG; SUNJINHE; 等

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory investigation on reaction between chelating agents and chromium was conducted to evaluate the effect of chelating agents on the adsorption and desorption of chromium in sediment.The amount of adsorbed chromium(VI) in sediment decreased slightly by 5%-10% because of addition of chelating agents.Chelating agents inhibited the removal of Cr(Ⅲ)by sediment from solutions and the inhibiting effect was in the order:citric acid>tartaric acid>EDTA,Salicylic acid.No effect of chelating agents on desorption of chromium in sediment was observed.

  9. Photovoltachromic device with a micropatterned bifunctional counter electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavale, Alessandro; Manca, Michele; De Marco, Luisa; Grisorio, Roberto; Carallo, Sonia; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2014-02-26

    A photovoltachromic window can potentially act as a smart glass skin which generates electric energy as a common dye-sensitized solar cell and, at the same time, control the incoming energy flux by reacting to even small modifications in the solar radiation intensity. We report here the successful implementation of a novel architecture of a photovoltachromic cell based on an engineered bifunctional counter electrode consisting of two physically separated platinum and tungsten oxide regions, which are arranged to form complementary comb-like patterns. Solar light is partially harvested by a dye-sensitized photoelectrode made on the front glass of the cell which fully overlaps a bifunctional counter electrode made on the back glass. When the cell is illuminated, the photovoltage drives electrons into the electrochromic stripes through the photoelectrochromic circuit and promotes the Li(+) diffusion towards the WO3 film, which thus turns into its colored state: a photocoloration efficiency of 17 cm(2) min(-1) W(-1) at a wavelength of 650 nm under 1.0 sun was reported along with fast response (coloration time photovoltaic functionality was also retained due to the copresence of the independently switchable micropatterned platinum electrode.

  10. Pentaarylcyclopentadiene und chirale Ruthenium-Chelat-Komplexe

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthak, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Die Synthese von mono-ortho-funktionalisierten Pentaphenylcyclopentadienen gelang durch eine Abwandlung der klassischen Tetracyclon-Route. Durch die Umsetzung der funktionalisierten Cyclopentadiene mit Ru3(CO)12 als Metallquelle konnten entsprechende Ruthenium-Komplexe erhalten werden. Die geeignete Wahl der Substituenten an der Phenylgruppe erlaubte die Bildung von Chelat-Komplexen mit chirotopem Metallzentrum. Enantiomerenreine Oxazolin-Seitenarme führten zu diastereomerenreinen...

  11. Federal regulation of unapproved chelation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    Chelation products can be helpful in the treatment of metal poisoning. However, many unapproved products with unproven effectiveness and safety are marketed to consumers, frequently via the internet. This paper describes the primary responsibility of the Health Fraud and Consumer Outreach Branch of the United States Food and Drug Administration to identify and address health fraud products. Efforts to prevent direct and indirect hazards to the population's health through regulatory actions are described.

  12. Acute iron poisoning. Rescue with macromolecular chelators.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, J R; Hallaway, P E; Hedlund, B E; Eaton, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication is a frequent, sometimes life-threatening, form of poisoning. Present therapy, in severe cases, includes oral and intravenous administration of the potent iron chelator, deferoxamine. Unfortunately, high dose intravenous deferoxamine causes acute hypotension additive with that engendered by the iron poisoning itself. To obviate this problem, we have covalently attached deferoxamine to high molecular weight carbohydrates such as dextran and hydroxyethyl starch. These ma...

  13. IRON CHELATION THERAPY IN THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cianciulli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusional hemosiderosis is a frequent complication in patients with transfusion dependent chronic diseases such as  thalassemias and severe type of sickle cell diseases. As there are no physiological mechanisms to excrete the iron contained in transfused red cells (1 unit of blood contains approximately 200 mg of iron the excess of iron is stored in various organs. Cardiomyopathy is the most severe complication covering more than 70% of the causes of death of thalassemic patients. Although the current reference standard iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO has been used clinically for over four decades, its effectiveness is limited by a demanding therapeutic regimen that leads to poor compliance. Despite poor compliance, because of the inconvenience of subcutaneous infusion, DFO improved considerably the survival and quality of life of patients with thalassemia. Deferiprone since 1998 and Deferasirox since 2005 were licensed for clinical use. The oral chelators have a better compliance because of oral use, a comparable efficacy to DFO in iron excretion and probably a better penetration to myocardial cells. Considerable increase in iron excretion was documented with combination therapy of DFO and Deferiprone. The proper use of the three chelators will improve the prevention and treatment of iron overload, it will reduce  complications, and improve survival and quality of life of transfused patients

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Bifunctional Dye Containing Spirobenzopyran and Cinnamoyl Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申凯华; 崔东熏

    2005-01-01

    A novel bifunctional dye containing spirobenzopyran and cinnaznoyl moiety has been prepared and its photochromic behavior following irradiation at different wavelengths of monochrome UV light was investigated.The colourless bifunctional dye in film or solution exhibits unusual photochromism through structural and geometrical transformation from spirobenzopyran to merocyanine accompanying with photocrosslinking reaction in cinnamoyl moieties. Two kinds of photochemical reaction were achieved by irradiation at the different wavelengths of monochrome UV light (275 nm, 365 nm) selectively. The photochromic process of the bifunctional dye was discussed and the dynamic behaviors of the decolorization process were investigated.

  15. Chemoselective Reactivity of Bifunctional Cyclooctynes on Si(001)

    CERN Document Server

    Reutzel, Marcel; Lipponer, Marcus A; Länger, Christian; Höfer, Ulrich; Koert, Ulrich; Dürr, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Controlled organic functionalization of silicon surfaces as integral part of semiconductor technology offers new perspectives for a wide range of applications. The high reactivity of the silicon dangling bonds, however, presents a major hindrance for the first basic reaction step of such a functionalization, i.e., the chemoselective attachment of bifunctional organic molecules on the pristine silicon surface. We overcome this problem by employing cyclooctyne as the major building block of our strategy. Functionalized cyclooctynes are shown to react on Si(001) selectively via the strained cyclooctyne triple bond while leaving the side groups intact. The achieved selectivity originates from the distinctly different adsorption dynamics of the separate functionalities: A direct adsorption pathway is demonstrated for cyclooctyne as opposed to the vast majority of other organic functional groups. The latter ones react on Si(001) via a metastable intermediate which makes them effectively unreactive in competition wi...

  16. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Müller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  17. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Halfter

    Full Text Available The current basement membrane (BM model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  18. GSK-3: A Bifunctional Role in Cell Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β was originally named for its ability to phosphorylate glycogen synthase and regulate glucose metabolism, this multifunctional kinase is presently known to be a key regulator of a wide range of cellular functions. GSK-3β is involved in modulating a variety of functions including cell signaling, growth metabolism, and various transcription factors that determine the survival or death of the organism. Secondary to the role of GSK-3β in various diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer, small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3β are gaining significant attention. This paper is primarily focused on addressing the bifunctional or conflicting roles of GSK-3β in both the promotion of cell survival and of apoptosis. GSK-3β has emerged as an important molecular target for drug development.

  19. GSK-3β: A Bifunctional Role in Cell Death Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Keith M.; Bhave, Sandeep R.; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Thotala, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Although glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) was originally named for its ability to phosphorylate glycogen synthase and regulate glucose metabolism, this multifunctional kinase is presently known to be a key regulator of a wide range of cellular functions. GSK-3β is involved in modulating a variety of functions including cell signaling, growth metabolism, and various transcription factors that determine the survival or death of the organism. Secondary to the role of GSK-3β in various diseases including Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer, small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3β are gaining significant attention. This paper is primarily focused on addressing the bifunctional or conflicting roles of GSK-3β in both the promotion of cell survival and of apoptosis. GSK-3β has emerged as an important molecular target for drug development. PMID:22675363

  20. Opioid bifunctional ligands from morphine and the opioid pharmacophore Dmt-Tic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Marczak, Ewa D; Knapp, Brian I; Bidlack, Jean M; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Peng, Xuemei; Si, Yu Gui; Neumeyer, John L

    2011-02-01

    Bifunctional ligands containing an ester linkage between morphine and the δ-selective pharmacophore Dmt-Tic were synthesized, and their binding affinity and functional bioactivity at the μ, δ and κ opioid receptors determined. Bifunctional ligands containing or not a spacer of β-alanine between the two pharmacophores lose the μ agonism deriving from morphine becoming partial μ agonists 4 or μ antagonists 5. Partial κ agonism is evidenced only for compound 4. Finally, both compounds showed potent δ antagonism.

  1. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... or tetrathiomolybdate may be more suitable alternatives today. In copper-toxicity, a free radical scavenger might be recommended as adjuvant to the chelator therapy...

  2. Trypanotoxic activity of thiosemicarbazone iron chelators

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Samuel; Sexton, Darren; Steverding, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Only a few drugs are available for treating sleeping sickness and nagana disease; parasitic infections caused by protozoans of the genus Trypanosoma in sub-Saharan Africa. There is an urgent need for the development of new medicines for chemotherapy of these devastating diseases. In this study, three newly designed thiosemicarbazone iron chelators, TSC24, Dp44mT and 3-AP, were tested for in vitro activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells. In addition to t...

  3. Novel Terbium Chelate Doped Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Qiaoyu; Meng Jianxin; Wang Haiming; Liu Yingliang; Man Shiqing

    2006-01-01

    Novel terbium chelate doped silica fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared and characterized.The preparation was carried out in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion containing monomer precursor (pAB-DTPAA-APTEOS), Triton X-100, n-hexanol, and cyclohexane by controlling copolymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyl-triethyloxysilane.The nanoparticles are spherical and uniform in size, about 30 nm in diameter, strongly fluorescent, and highly stable.The amino groups directly introduced to the surface of the nanoparticles using APTEOS during preparation made the surface modification and bioconjugation of the nanoparticles easier.The nanoparticles are expected as an efficient time-resolved luminescence biological label.

  4. Heavy metal chelation in neurotoxic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Hoffman, Robert S

    2011-08-01

    Metals such as iron and copper are critical to living organisms, whereas other metals such as lead and arsenic have no known biologic role. Any metals in large amounts may cause toxicity. Many metals cause pervasive systemic effects involving the nervous system, which can be subtle in some cases. Although challenging, the diagnosis and treatment of metal poisoning can be made based on history, physical examination, and the proper use of metal testing. This article focuses on the use, and misuse, of chelation in the diagnosis and management of metal intoxication. PMID:21803213

  5. Chemically optimized antimyosin Fab conjugates with chelating polymers: importance of the nature of the protein-polymer single site covalent bond for biodistribution and infarction localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, V S; Narula, J; Khaw, B A; Torchilin, V P

    1993-01-01

    Murine antimyosin Fab fragment was conjugated with 111In-labeled N-terminal-modified DTPA-polylysine using three bifunctional reagents: N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionic acid (SPDP conjugate), 4-(maleimidomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (SMCC conjugate) and bromoacetic acid (BrAc conjugate) for potential localization of experimental myocardial infarction. Using various antibody preparations and a rabbit acute myocardial infarction model the following parameters were observed: (1) an in vitro antigen binding activity of SPDP conjugate = SMCC conjugate > BrAc conjugate, (2) a blood clearance rate of SPDP conjugate > BrAc conjugate > SMCC conjugate, (3) a liver and splenic accumulation of SPDP conjugate > BrAc conjugate > SMCC conjugate, and (4) the infarcted tissue activity showed an accumulation of SMCC conjugate > SPDP conjugate > BrAc conjugate. This study exemplifies the importance of rational chemical design of antimyosin Fab-chelating polymer conjugate for improved target tissue localization in vivo.

  6. Progress on Study of Luminescence of Rare Earth Organic Chelates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕生; 安保礼; 龚孟濂; 史华红; 雷衡毅; 孟建新

    2002-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the luminescence of a series of rare earth organic chelates, some relationships between luminescence and the structure of the chelates were proposed: the intensity of sensitized luminescence of central lanthanide ions(Ln3+) in a rare earth organic chelate depends on (1)the suitability of the energy gap between the excited triplet energy level of the ligands and the lowest excited energy level of Ln3+ ions; (2)the rigidity and planarity of the structure of the chelate molecule; (3)the existence of a suitable secondary ligand which may increase rigidity and the stability of the chelate molecule; and (4) the existence of a suitable π-conjugated system in the chelate molecule. According to the above relationships, 25 novel organic ligands were designed and synthesized, and their lanthanide chelates were prepared. Investigation of the photoluminescence for the new chelates shows that some of the chelates are strongly luminescent, and are applied to fluoroimmunoassay for determination of human immunoglobulin(IgG), to preparation of fluorescent plastics, and to determination of growth hormone for plants. Two novel spectroscopy-probe techniques for structure of coordination compounds and biological molecules were proposed and developed based on vibronic spectroscopy of Tb3+ complexes and fluorescence of Ce3+.

  7. Plutonium-237: comparative uptake in chelated and non-chelated form by channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation can either enhance or reduce the uptake of ingested plutonium relative to PuOH (monomer) in channel catfish. Reduced uptake of 237Pu-fulvate is due either to the molecular weight of the complex or its stability in metabolic systems. Increased uptake of 237Pu-citrate is attributable to instability of the complex in metabolic systems. (author)

  8. Chemical treatment of chelated metal finishing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Glarborg, Christen; Ross, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated two chemical approaches for treatment of commingled cadmium-cyanide (Cd-CN) and zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) wastewaters. The first approach, which involved application of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), focused on elimination of chelating substances. The second approach evaluated the use of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) to specifically target and precipitate regulated heavy metals. Results demonstrated that by maintaining a pH of 10.0 and an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value of +600 mV, NaOCl treatment was effective in eliminating all chelating substances. Cadmium, chromium, nickel, and zinc solution concentrations were reduced from 0.27, 4.44, 0.06, and 0.10 ppm to 0.16, 0.17, 0.03, and 0.06 ppm, respectively. Similarly, a 1% DMDTC solution reduced these same metal concentrations in commingled wastewater to 0.009, 1.142, 0.036, and 0.320 ppm. Increasing the DMDTC concentration to 2% improved the removal of all regulated heavy metals except zinc, the removal of which at high pH values is limited by its amphotericity. PMID:23342939

  9. Potentials and drawbacks of chelate-enhanced phytoremediation of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Bouwman, L.A.; Japenga, J.; Draaisma, C.

    2002-01-01

    Chelate-enhanced phytoremediation has been proposed as an effective tool for the extraction of heavy metals from soils by plants. However, side-effects related to the addition of chelates, e.g. metal leaching and effects on soil micro-organisms, were usually neglected. Therefore, greenhouse and lysi

  10. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  11. Macrocyclic Chelator Assembled RGD Multimers for Tumor Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Liu, Hongguang; Miao, Zheng; Kimura, Richard; Fan, Feiyue; Cheng, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic chelators have been extensively used for complexation of metal ions. A widely used chelator, DOTA, has been explored as a molecular platform to assemble multiple bioactive peptides in this paper. The multivalent DOTA-peptide bioconjugates demonstrate promising tumor targeting ability.

  12. Inapplicability of high pressure spray injection for chelate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-pressure spray injector was tested for use in injecting chelating agents around radionuclides in wounds. It was difficult to employ because of the force required for proper injection, and it did not improve the effectiveness of the injected chelate in removing intramuscularly injected 238Pu. (U.S.)

  13. Adsorptive separation of rare earths by using chelating chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of chelating chitosan were prepared by chemically modifying chitosan with functional groups of EDTA or DTPA, abbreviated as EDTA- and DTPA-chitosan hereafter, respectively, to investigate the adsorption behaviour for rare earths the mutual separation of which is the most difficult among metal ions on these chelating chitosan from dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid solution. The plots of the distribution ratio of a series of rare earths against equilibrium pH lay on different straight lines with slope of 3 corresponding to each earth for both of two chelating chitosan, suggesting that 3 hydrogen ions are released for the adsorption of unit ion of each rare earth by chelate formation with the functional group of EDTA or DTPA and that mutual adsorptive separation between adjacent rare earth is possible with these chelating chitosan. Apparent equilibrium constants of the adsorption were evaluated from the intercepts of these straight lines with the ordinate for each rare earth and for both chelating chitosan. It was found that the equilibrium constants of adsorption on EDTA- or DTPA-chitosan are quite analogous to those of chelate formation with EDTA or DTPA themselves, suggesting that chelating characteristics of these complexones is still maintained after their immobilization on polymer matrices of chitosan. (author)

  14. Luminescence of a conjugated polymer containing europium (III) chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Hao; Xie, Fang, E-mail: xiefang4498@126.com

    2013-12-15

    A europium (III) chelate has been incorporated in a conjugated polymer, poly-[2,2′-bipyridine-5,5′-diyl-(2,5-dihexyl-1,4-phenylene)]. From the absorbance and emission spectra measurement and using the Judd–Ofelt theory, an efficient energy transfer between the conjugated polymer and the europium (III) chelate has been confirmed. The luminescence lifetime of Eu{sup 3+} ion in the conjugated polymer is 0.352 ms and the emission cross section of this material is 3.11×10{sup −21} cm{sup 2}. -- Highlights: • A europium chelate has been incorporated in a conjugated polymer. • Energy transfer in the conjugated polymer containing europium chelate is efficient. • The conjugated polymer containing europium chelate is a promising optical material.

  15. Quantitative measurement of metal chelation by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika E. Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritionally important minerals are more readily absorbed by living systems when complexed with organic acids, resulting in higher consumer demand and premium prices for these products. These chelated metals are produced by reaction of metal oxides and acids in aqueous solution. However, unreacted dry blends are sometimes misrepresented as metal chelates, when in reality they are only simple mixtures of the reactants typically used to synthesize them. This practice has increased interest in developing analytical methods that are capable of measuring the extent of metal chelation for quality control and regulatory compliance. We describe a novel method to rapidly measure the percent chelation of citric and malic acids with calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Utilization of attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR provides for the direct, rapid measurement of solid samples. The inclusion of an internal standard allows independent determination of either free or chelated acids from integrated areas in a single spectrum.

  16. Treating Lead Toxicity: Possibilities beyond Synthetic Chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhavi Tannir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead, a ubiquitous metal, is one of the most abundant elements present on earth. Its easy availability and cost effectiveness made it an extremely popular component in the industrial revolution. However, its hazardous health effects were not considered at the time. Over the last few decades, with the adverse effects of lead coming to the forefront, nations across the world have started to recognize and treat lead toxicity. The most reliable and used method until now has been chelation therapy. Recent research has suggested the use of natural products and sources to treat lead poisoning with minimal or no side effects. This review has tried to summarize a few of the natural products/sources being investigated by various groups.

  17. Comparison of DOTA and NODAGA as chelators for 64Cu-labeled immunoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Bifunctional chelators have been shown to impact the biodistribution of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based imaging agents. Recently, radiolabeled 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA)-peptide complexes have demonstrated improved in vivo stability and performance compared to their 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) counterparts. Here, we investigated if similar utility could be achieved with mAbs and compared 64Cu-labeled DOTA and NODAGA-immunoconjugates for the detection of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in a prostate cancer model. Methods: DOTA and NODAGA-immunoconjugates of an EpCAM targeting mAb (mAb7) were synthesized and radiolabeled with 64Cu (DOTA: 40 °C for 1 hr; NODAGA: 25 °C for 1 hr). The average number of chelators per mAb was quantified by isotopic dilution, and the biological activity of the immunoconjugates was evaluated by flow cytometry and ELISA. Radioligand assays were performed to compare cellular uptake and determine the dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for the immunoconjugates using DsRed-transfected PC3-cells. A PC3-DsRed xenograft tumor model was established in nude mice and used to perform biodistribution studies to compare organ uptake and pharmacokinetics. Results: 64Cu-DOTA-mAb7 and 64Cu-NODAGA-mAb7 were prepared with chelator/protein ratios of 2–3 and obtained in comparable radiochemical yields ranging from 59 to 71%. Similar immunoreactivity was observed with both agents, and mock labeling studies indicated that incubation at room temperature or 40 °C did not affect potency. 64Cu-NODAGA-mAb7 demonstrated higher in vitro cellular uptake while 64Cu-DOTA-mAb7 had higher Kd and Bmax values. From the biodistribution data, we found similar tumor uptake (13.44 ± 1.21%ID/g and 13.24 ± 4.86%ID/g for 64Cu-DOTA-mAb7 and 64Cu-NODAGA-mAb7, respectively) for both agents at 24 hr, although normal prostate tissue was significantly

  18. Relationship between conformational flexibility and chelate cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuraca, M Cristina; Grecu, Tudor; Freixa, Zoraida; Garavini, Valentina; Hunter, Christopher A; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M; Segarra-Maset, M Dolores; Turega, Simon M

    2011-04-15

    A family of four biscarbamates (AA) and four bisphenols (DD) were synthesized, and H-bonding interactions between all AA•DD combinations were characterized using (1)H NMR titrations in carbon tetrachloride. A chemical double mutant cycle analysis shows that there are no secondary electrostatic interactions or allosteric cooperativity in these systems, and the system therefore provides an ideal platform for investigating the relationship between chemical structure and chelate cooperativity. Effective molarities (EMs) were measured for 12 different systems, where the number of rotors in the chains connecting the two H-bond sites was varied from 5 to 20. The association constants vary by less than an order of magnitude for all 12 complexes, and the variation in EM is remarkably small (0.1-0.9 M). The results provide a relationship between EM and the number of rotors in the connecting chains (r): EM ≈ 10r(-3/2). The value of 10 M is the upper limit for the value of EM for a noncovalent intramolecular interaction. Introduction of rotors reduces the value of EM from this maximum in accord with a random walk analysis of the encounter probability of the chain ends (r(-3/2)). Noncovalent EMs never reach the very high values observed for covalent processes, which places limitations on the magnitudes of the effects that one is likely to achieve through the use of chelate cooperativity in supramolecular assembly and catalysis. On the other hand, the decrease in EM due to the introduction of conformational flexibility is less dramatic than one might expect based on the behavior of covalent systems, which limits the losses in binding affinity caused by poor preorganization of the interaction sites.

  19. Fixation kinetics of chelated and non-chelated zinc in semi-arid alkaline soils: application to zinc management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K.; Eichmann, Madeleine; Menkiti, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to examine the fixation pattern and kinetics of zinc (Zn) in chelated (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) and non-chelated mixed micronutrient systems of semi-arid alkaline soils from the Southern High Plains, USA. Soils were characterized for a suite of chemical and physical properties and data obtained from extraction experiments fitted to various kinetic models. About 30 % more plant-available Zn was fixed in the non-chelated system within the first 14 days with only about 18 % difference observed between the two systems by day 90, suggesting that the effectiveness of the chelated compounds tended to decrease over time. The strengths of the relationships of change in available Zn with respect to other micronutrients (copper, iron, and manganese) were higher and more significant in the non-chelated system (average R2 of 0.83), compared to the chelated (average R2 of 0.42). Fixation of plant-available Zn was best described by the power-function model (R2 = 0.94, SE = 0.076) in the non-chelated system, and was poorly described by all the models examined in the chelated system. Reaction rate constants and relationships generated from this study can serve as important tools for micronutrient management and for future micronutrient modeling studies on these soils and other semi-arid regions of the world.

  20. Chelating impact assessment of biological ad chemical chelates on metal extraction from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contamination is the result of uncontrolled waste dumping and poor practices by humans. Of all the pollutants heavy metals are of particular concern due to their atmospheric deposition, leaching capacity and non-biodegradability. Heavy metal containing effluent is discharged into the agricultural fields and water bodies. This results in the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and the crops grown on that soil. Studies have revealed detrimental impacts on soil fertility and the poor health of animals and humans. Phytoextraction is widely researched for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of phytoextraction heavy metals have to be available to the plants in soluble form. In this study the potential of different chelating agents was assessed in solubilizing the heavy metals making easy for plants to uptake them. For this purpose efficient chemical and biological chelating agent had to be identified. Along with that an optimum dose and application time for chemical chelating agent was determined. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Nitriloacetic acid (NTA) were applied to the soil, containing Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd, at different concentrations and application time. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were incubated in soil for different time periods. In correspondence with findings of the study, Pb and Cr were best solubilized by 5mM EDTA. For Cd and Cu 5mM DTPA carried out efficient chelation. NTA showed relatively inadequate solubilisation, although for Cr it performed equal to EDTA. A. niger and A. flavus instead of solubilizing adsorbed the metals in their biomass. Adsorption was mainly carried out by A. niger. (author)

  1. Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jun; Shan, Shiyao; Yang, Lefu; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Petkov, Valeri; Cai, Fan; Ng, Mei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Bing H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2012-12-12

    Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of the nanoscale alloying of gold-copper (AuCu) nanoparticles and its impact on the surface catalytic functions. Two pathways have been explored for the formation of AuCu nanoparticles of different compositons, including wet chemical synthesis from mixed Au- and Cu-precursor molecules, and nanoscale alloying via an evolution of mixed Au- and Cu-precursor nanoparticles near the nanoscale melting temperatures. For the evolution of mixed precursor nanoparticles, synchrotron x-ray based in-situ real time XRD was used to monitor the structural changes, revealing nanoscale alloying and reshaping towards an fcc-type nanoalloy (particle or cube) via a partial melting–resolidification mechanism. The nanoalloys supported on carbon or silica were characterized by in-situ high-energy XRD/PDFs, revealing an intriguing lattice "expanding-shrinking" phenomenon depending on whether the catalyst is thermochemically processed under oxidative or reductive atmosphere. This type of controllable structural changes is found to play an important role in determining the catalytic activity of the catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation reaction. The tunable catalytic activities of the nanoalloys under thermochemically oxidative and reductive atmospheres are also discussed in terms of the bifunctional sites and the surface oxygenated metal species for carbon monoxide and oxygen activation.

  2. Gold(I) catalysts with bifunctional P, N ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Corinna; Kunz, Peter C; Thiel, Indre; Spingler, Bernhard

    2011-08-15

    A series of phosphanes with imidazolyl substituents were prepared as hemilabile PN ligands. The corresponding gold(I) complexes were tested as bifunctional catalysts in the Markovnikov hydration of 1-octyne, as well as in the synthesis of propargylamines by the three component coupling reaction of piperidine, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetylene. While the activity in the hydration of 1-octyne was low, the complexes are potent catalysts for the three component coupling reaction. In homogeneous solution the conversions to the respective propargylamine were considerably higher than under aqueous biphasic conditions. The connectivity of the imidazolyl substituents to the phosphorus atom, their substitution pattern, as well as the number of heteroaromatic substituents have pronounced effects on the catalytic activity of the corresponding gold(I) complexes. Furthermore, formation of polymetallic species with Au(2), Au(3), and Au(4) units has been observed and the solid-state structures of the compounds [(5)(2)Au(3)Cl(2)]Cl and [(3c)(2)Au(4)Cl(2)]Cl(2) (3c = tris(2-isopropylimidazol-4(5)-yl phosphane, 5 = 2-tert-butylimidazol-4(5)-yldiphenyl phosphane) were determined. The gold(I) complexes of imidazol-2-yl phosphane ligands proved to be a novel source for bis(NHC)gold(I) complexes (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). PMID:21761834

  3. Bifunctional alkyl nitrates - trace constituents of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, J. [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, University of Ulm (Germany); Ballschmiter, K. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Mono- and multifunctional esters of nitric acid (alkyl nitrates or organonitrates) form very complex mixtures of organic trace constituents in air. An analytical method was developed which combines selectivity in separation and detection in order to simplify this complexity in analytical terms. Mononitrates, dinitrates, keto nitrates, hydroxy nitrates of alkanes and alkenes, respecitvely, and bifunctional terpene nitrates were synthesized as reference substances. A specially developed new HPLC stationary phase (organonitrate phase) allows a group separation of mono-, di-, and hydroxy nitrates. After the HPLC preseparation the single components were finally separated by capillary HRGC-ECD and HRGC-MSD on polar and non-polar stationary phases. Mass spectrometric detection in the selected-ion-mode using the highly selective NO{sub 2}{sup +} fragment (m/z = 46 amu) led to very good selectivities for the nitric acid ester moiety. The analysis of a 100 m{sup 3} ambient air sample using this new analytical protocol allowed the identification of seven hydroxy nitrates and 24 dinitrates ranging from C2 to C7, 22 of them for the first time ever. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  4. Bioinspired Bifunctional Membrane for Efficient Clean Water Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lou, Jinwei; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Dasgupta, Neil P; Tao, Peng; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-13

    Solving the problems of water pollution and water shortage is an urgent need for the sustainable development of modern society. Different approaches, including distillation, filtration, and photocatalytic degradation, have been developed for the purification of contaminated water and the generation of clean water. In this study, we explored a new approach that uses solar light for both water purification and clean water generation. A bifunctional membrane consisting of a top layer of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), a middle layer of Au NPs, and a bottom layer of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was designed and fabricated through multiple filtration processes. Such a design enables both TiO2 NP-based photocatalytic function and Au NP-based solar-driven plasmonic evaporation. With the integration of these two functions into a single membrane, both the purification of contaminated water through photocatalytic degradation and the generation of clean water through evaporation were demonstrated using simulated solar illumination. Such a demonstration should also help open up a new strategy for maximizing solar energy conversion and utilization.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of NETA-based bifunctional ligand for radioimmunotherapy applications using 212Bi and 213Bi: Radiolabeling, serum stability, and biodistribution and tumor uptake studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Despite the great potential of targeted α-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) as demonstrated by pre-clinical and clinical trials, limited progress has been made on the improvement of chelation chemistry for 212Bi and 213Bi. A new bifunctional ligand 3p-C-NETA was evaluated for targeted α RIT using 212Bi and 213Bi. Methods: Radiolabeling of 3p-C-NETA with 205/6Bi, a surrogate of 212Bi and 213Bi, was evaluated at pH 5.5 and room temperature. In vitro stability of the 205/6Bi-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate was evaluated using human serum (pH 7, 37 °C). Immunoreactivity and specific activity of the 205/6Bi-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate were measured. An in vivo biodistribution study was performed to evaluate the in vivo stability and tumor targeting properties of the 205/6Bi-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T tumor xenografts. Result: The 3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate was extremely rapid in complexing with 205/6Bi, and the corresponding 205/6Bi-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab was stable in human serum. 205/6Bi-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab was prepared with a high specific activity and retained immunoreactivity. 205/6Bi-3p-C-NETA-trastuzumab conjugate displayed excellent in vivo stability and targeting as evidenced by low normal organ and high tumor uptake. Conclusion: The results of the in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that 3p-C-NETA is a promising chelator for RIT applications using 212Bi and 213Bi. Further detailed in vivo evaluations of 3p-C-NETA for targeted α RIT are warranted

  6. Single flexible nanofiber to achieve simultaneous photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Lv, Nan; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng; Liu, Guixia

    2015-02-01

    In order to develop new-type multifunctional composite nanofibers, Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous photoluminescence and electrical conductivity have been successfully fabricated via electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and polyaniline (PANI). X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), fluorescence spectroscopy and a Hall effect measurement system are used to characterize the morphology and properties of the composite nanofibers. The results indicate that the bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. Fluorescence emission peaks of Eu(3+) ions are observed in the Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10(-3)  S/cm. The luminescent intensity and electrical conductivity of the composite nanofibers can be tuned by adjusting the amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and PANI. The obtained photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as microwave absorption, molecular electronics, biomedicine and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construction technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional naonomaterials.

  7. Novel Polyamide Proton Exchange Membranes with Bi-Functional Sulfonimide Bridges for Fuel Cell Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A polymer proton conductor crosslinked with bi-functional sulfonamide bridges is synthesized for PEM fuel cell applications. The architecture simultaneously enhances mechanical strength and improves water retention of the PEMs. With an appropriate degree of crosslinking, the bi-functional PEM exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial Nafion membrane tested in a direct methanol fuel cell. - Abstract: We design and successfully synthesize non-fluorinated polyamides with controlled crosslinking using sulfonimide as a bi-functional linker to interconnect polymer backbones and as a bridge for proton conduction. We show that the bi-functional linkers are highly beneficial not only for mechanical enforcement of the proton exchange membranes but also for enhancement of water retention capacity. With an appropriate degree of crosslinking, higher water retention capacity than that of commercial Nafion membranes can be obtained. The maximum proton conductivity of the membranes is found to be as high as 0.139 S cm−1 at 80 °C, almost the same as that of a Nafion 117 membrane. Excellent performance with the bi-functional polymer membranes in an air-breathing direct methanol fuel cell prototype, comparable to the performance of a Nafion 117 membrane, is demonstrated

  8. Screening wheat genotypes in response to ordinary chelate and nano-iron chelate fertilizers in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Omidi Nargesi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, attentions have been taken on the investigations regarding the use of nano-sized compounds in different fields including agricultural sector. Due to the importance of evaluating the fate and operation of nano-particles in plant systems, in this survey, responses of 13 wheat genotypes to the effect of nano-iron chelate fertilizer in the Hoagland solution under the conditions of ordinary iron chelate and nano-iron chelate, with concentration of 22.5 mg/L, was studied. This experiment was carried out in Research Greenhouse of Soilless Culture Research Center, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, in the spring of 2013. Results showed that there were considerable positive and negative variations among wheat genotypes in response to application of nano-sized iron chelate fertilizer. Under the application of iron chelate, among the different measured traits, number of tillers and root/shoot ratio had the highest coefficient of variations, and the lowest values were observed for chlorophyll flourescence and green leaf surface. Under the application of nano-iron chelate, number of tillers and root/shoot ratio had the highest coefficient of variations, and the lowest value was observed for chlorophyll flourescence content. Nano-iron chelate fertilizer caused reduction of average dry matter yield of shoots, leaf area and root volume by 14.1, 9.5 and 8.9 percent, respectively, and increased root/shoot ratio by 13.7% for some wheat varieties, in comparison with the ordinary iron chelate. In response to nano-iron chelate fertilizer, compared to ordinary iron chelate, Line-9-shoory produced the highest total dry matter (14.49% increase and Star variety had the lowest total dry matter (-51.82%.

  9. Mechanish of dTTP Inhibition of the Bifunctional dCTP Deaminase:dUTPase Encoded by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt, Signe Smedegaard; Thymark, Majbritt; Harris, Pernille;

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) deaminase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was produced in Escherichia coli and purified. The enzyme proved to be a bifunctional dCTP deaminase:deoxyuridine triphosphatase. As such, the M. tuberculosis enzyme is the second bifunctional enzyme to be cha...

  10. Chelation therapy for metal intoxication: comments from a thermodynamic viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Alonso, Miriam Crespo; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Crisponi, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Chelation therapy plays a prominent role in the clinical treatment of metal intoxication. In this paper the principal causes of metal toxicity are exposed, and the chemical and biomedical requisites of a chelating agent are sketched. The chelating agents currently in use for scavenging toxic metal ions from humans belong to few categories: those characterized by coordinating mercapto groups, by oxygen groups, poliaminocarboxylic acids, and dithiocarbamates. Considering that the complex formation equilibria have been studied for less than 50% of chelators in use, some reflections on the utility of stability constants are presented, together with an evaluation of ligands under the stability profile. The competition between endogenous and toxic target metal ions for the same chelating agent is furthermore examined. A thorough examination of stability constant databases has allowed to select, for each toxic metal, the ligands distinguished by the best pMe values. Even though this selection does not consider the biomedical requisites of a chelating agent, it gives a clear picture both of the pMe values that can be attained, and of the most appropriate chelators for each metal ion. PMID:23895193

  11. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-05-16

    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  12. Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

  13. Nanoparticle and other metal chelation therapeutics in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Garrett, Matthew R; Men, Ping; Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2005-09-25

    Current therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD) such as the anticholinesterase inhibitors and the latest NMDA receptor inhibitor, Namenda, provide moderate symptomatic delay at various stages of disease, but do not arrest disease progression or supply meaningful remission. As such, new approaches to disease management are urgently needed. Although the etiology of AD is largely unknown, oxidative damage mediated by metals is likely a significant contributor since metals such as iron, aluminum, zinc, and copper are dysregulated and/or increased in AD brain tissue and create a pro-oxidative environment. This role of metal ion-induced free radical formation in AD makes chelation therapy an attractive means of dampening the oxidative stress burden in neurons. The chelator desferioxamine, FDA approved for iron overload, has shown some benefit in AD, but like many chelators, it has a host of adverse effects and substantial obstacles for tissue-specific targeting. Other chelators are under development and have shown various strengths and weaknesses. In this review, we propose a novel system of chelation therapy through the use of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles conjugated to chelators show a unique ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), chelate metals, and exit through the BBB with their corresponding complexed metal ions. This method may prove to be a safe and effective means of reducing the metal load in neural tissue thus staving off the harmful effects of oxidative damage and its sequelae.

  14. {sup 177}Lu-labeled-VG76e monoclonal antibody in tumor angiogenesis: a comparative study using DOTA and DTPA chelating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, M.; Psimadas, D. [Inst. of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Biomedica Life Sciences S.A., Athens (Greece); Bouziotis, P.; Gourni, E.; Varvarigou, A.D. [Inst. of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, National Centre for Scientific Research ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Harris, A.L. [Weatherall Inst. of Molecular Medicine, Cancer Research U.K., Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Loudos, G. [Biomedical Simulations and Imaging Lab., National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Maecke, H.R. [Div. of Radiological Chemistry, Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the molecules which regulate angiogenesis, a phenomenon observed in many diseases, including cancer. VG76e, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, was labeled with {sup 177}Lu via p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and CHX-A''-DTPA chelating systems, in order to investigate its possible therapeutic use. Labeling was performed by a 30 min incubation of {sup 177}LuCl{sub 3} and each immunoconjugate, at 37 C. Radiochemical analysis showed the formation of a single radioactive species, at a yield higher than 98%, for both immunoconjugates. Kits have been formulated for both VG76e-DOTA and VG76e-DTPA. Stability studies, in the presence of a competitor excess, showed that both radiolabeled species remained sufficiently stable (95%) for at least 48 h. Biodistribution results in normal mice were similar for both radioimmunoconjugates, with no significant bone uptake. Gamma camera images of tumor-bearing mice showed satisfactory visualization of the tumor 24 h p.i., while a higher uptake was observed at 48 h p.i. Our findings indicate that both the bifunctional chelating agents p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and CHX-A''-DTPA can be used for the labeling of VG76e with {sup 177}Lu, with high labeling yield and stability. Their in vivo behaviour in normal and tumor-bearing mice looks promising and they can be successfully used for tumor imaging studies. (orig.)

  15. Minimal role of metallothionein in decreased chelator efficacy for cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, M P; Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Chelator efficacy in Cd poisoning drops precipitously if therapy is not commenced almost immediately after exposure. Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight metal-binding protein with high affinity for Cd, may be important for this phenomenon. To more fully assess this role of MT in the acute drop in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected iv with radioisotopic Cd (1mg/kg as CdCl2; 50 muCi/kg) followed by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA; 90 mg/kg ip) at various times (0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min) after Cd. Ther percentage of the Cd dose remaining in major organs 24 hr following Cd was determined. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal MT did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D treatment (1.25 mg/kg, 1 hr before Cd) failed to prolong the chelators effectiveness. Furthermore, newborn rats have high levels of hepatic MT which had no effect on the time course of chelator effectiveness since DTPA still decreased Cd organ contents if given immediately following Cd but had no effect if given 2 hr after Cd. Therefore, if appears that MT does not have an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The quick onset of chelator ineffectiveness may be due to the rapid uptake of Cd into tissues which makes it relatively unavailable of chelation.

  16. STUDY ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION KINETICS OF URUSHIOL METAL CHELATE POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Binghuan; CHEN Riyao; LIN Jinhuo; CHEN Wending

    1994-01-01

    The thermal decomposition kinetics of urushiol-Cu, urushiol-Nd and urushiol-Ti chelate polymers has been studied by non-isothermal thermogravimetry. The results suggest that the thermal decomposition kinetics of three chelate polymers are all of first order. Their average activation energy values of the thermal decomposition calculated by Ozawa-(Ⅰ) method are 110.79,136.98 and 163.64 kJ mol-1respectively,which increase linearly with the metal valence of the metal chelate polymers

  17. Laccase-mediated oxidation of small organics: bifunctional roles for versatile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-06-01

    Laccases have been widely used in several biotechnological areas, including organic synthesis, bioremediation, and pulp/textile bleaching. In most applications, the enzymatic actions start with single-electron oxidation of small organics followed by formation of the corresponding radicals. These radicals are subsequently involved in either oxidative coupling (i.e., bond formation) or bond cleavage of target organics. These bifunctional actions--catabolic versus anabolic--are readily identifiable in in vivo metabolic processes involving laccases. Here, we characterize the bifunctionality of laccase-mediated oxidation of small organics and present the view that knowledge of the biological functions of these metabolic processes in vivo can illuminate potential biotechnological applications of this bifunctionality.

  18. Enhanced Bifunctional Oxygen Catalysis in Strained LaNiO3 Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, Jonathan R.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Freeland, John W.; Meyer, Tricia L.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-03-02

    Strain is known to greatly influence low temperature oxygen electro catalysis on noble metal films, leading to significant enhancements in bifunctional activity essential for fuel cells and Metal-air batteries. However, its catalytic impact on transition-metal oxide thin films, such as perovskites, is not widely understood. Here, we epitaxially strain the conducting perovskite LaNiO3 to systematically determine its influence on both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction. Uniquely, we found that compressive strain could significantly enhance both reactions, yielding a bifunctional catalyst that surpasses the performance of noble metals' such as Pt. We attribute the improved bifunctionality to strain induced splitting of the e(g) Orbitals, which can customize orbital asymmetry at the surface. Analogous to strain induced shifts in the d-band center of noble metals relative to the Fermi level, :such splitting can dramatically affect catalytic activity in this perovskite and other potentially more active Oxides.

  19. Nickel sulfide microsphere film on Ni foam as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenxin; Yue, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Wentao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Yuhuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-25

    Developing low-cost, efficient, and bifunctional electrocatalysts for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an appealing yet challenging task. Herein, for the first time, a NiS microsphere film was grown in situ on Ni foam (NiS/Ni foam) via a sulfurization reaction as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting with superior activity and good durability. This NiS/Ni foam electrode delivers 20 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 158 mV for the HER and 50 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 335 mV for the OER in 1.0 M KOH. This bifunctional electrode also enables a high-efficiency alkaline water electrolyzer with 10 mA cm(-2) at a cell voltage of only 1.64 V, which could be promising in water splitting devices for large-scale hydrogen production. PMID:26661579

  20. Polymer-Supported Reagents: The Role of Bifunctionality in the Design of Ion-Selective Complexants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandratos, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    The importance of multi-functionality in the preparation of ion-selective polymers is evident from the structure of enzymes where specific metal ions are bound through cooperative interactions among different amino acids. In synthetic polymers, ionic selectivity is enhanced when a chemical reaction is superimposed on an ion-exchange process. The concept of reactive ion exchange has been extended through the synthesis of crosslinked polymers whose metal ion selectivity is a function of reduction, coordination or precipitation reactions as determined by various covalently bound ligands. Development of three classes of dual mechanism bifunctional polymers, a new series of bifunctional diphosphonate polymers, and novel bifunctional ion-selective polymers with enhanced ionic accessibility has been accomplished.

  1. Electrochemical Investigation of Interaction between a Bifunctional Probe and GG Mismatch Duplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; He, Hanping; Peng, Xiaoqian; Huang, Min; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2015-01-01

    A bifunctional probe (FecNC), containing a recognition part and an electrochemical active center, was applied to electrochemical detection of GG mismatch duplexes. The preparation of gold electrodes modified by mismatch and complementatry duplexes was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and optimized for better detection in terms of self-assembly time, hybridization time, and incubation time. The interaction between FecNC and DNA duplexes modified on the surface of a gold electrode was explored by square wave voltammetry (SWV) and EIS. The results showed that the DNA duplexes with GG mismatch on the surface of a gold electrode was easily detected by the largest electrochemical signal of the bifunctional probe because of its selective binding to GG mismatches. The bifunctional probe could offer a simple, effective electrochemical detection of GG mismatches, and theoretical bases for development of electrochemical biosensors. Further, the method would be favorable for diagnosis of genetic diseases.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yanqiu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157012 (China); Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  3. Reaction Current Phenomenon in Bifunctional Catalytic Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Mohammad Amin

    Energy transfer processes accompany every elementary step of catalytic chemical processes on material surface including molecular adsorption and dissociation on atoms, interactions between intermediates, and desorption of reaction products from the catalyst surface. Therefore, detailed understanding of these processes on the molecular level is of great fundamental and practical interest in energy-related applications of nanomaterials. Two main mechanisms of energy transfer from adsorbed particles to a surface are known: (i) adiabatic via excitation of quantized lattice vibrations (phonons) and (ii) non-adiabatic via electronic excitations (electron/hole pairs). Electronic excitations play a key role in nanocatalysis, and it was recently shown that they can be efficiently detected and studied using Schottky-type catalytic nanostructures in the form of measureable electrical currents (chemicurrents) in an external electrical circuit. These nanostructures typically contain an electrically continuous nanocathode layers made of a catalytic metal deposited on a semiconductor substrate. The goal of this research is to study the direct observations of hot electron currents (chemicurrents) in catalytic Schottky structures, using a continuous mesh-like Pt nanofilm grown onto a mesoporous TiO2 substrate. Such devices showed qualitatively different and more diverse signal properties, compared to the earlier devices using smooth substrates, which could only be explained on the basis of bifunctionality. In particular, it was necessary to suggest that different stages of the reaction are occurring on both phases of the catalytic structure. Analysis of the signal behavior also led to discovery of a formerly unknown (very slow) mode of the oxyhydrogen reaction on the Pt/TiO2(por) system occurring at room temperature. This slow mode was producing surprisingly large stationary chemicurrents in the range 10--50 microA/cm2. Results of the chemicurrent measurements for the bifunctional

  4. Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287–292 K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.42–0.63 eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5 T. The magnetocapacitance (MCp) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MCp was found to be ∼7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MCp measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound

  5. Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Huarac, Juan, E-mail: baristary26@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936 (United States); Martinez, Ricardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Cayey Campus, Cayey, Puerto Rico 00737 (United States)

    2014-02-28

    We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) and ferromagnetic La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287–292 K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.42–0.63 eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5 T. The magnetocapacitance (MC{sub p}) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MC{sub p} was found to be ∼7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MC{sub p} measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound.

  6. Monodisperse Magneto-Fluorescent Bifunctional Nanoprobes for Bioapplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwang; Huang, Heng; Pralle, Arnd; Zeng, Hao

    2013-03-01

    We present the work on the synthesis of dye-doped monodisperse Fe/SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles as bifunctional probes for bioapplications. Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) have been widely studied as nano-probes for bio-imaging, sensing as well as for cancer therapy. Among all the NPs, Fe NPs have been the focus because they have very high magnetization. However, Fe NPs are usually not stable in ambient due to the fast surface oxidation of the NPs. On the other hand, dye molecules have long been used as probes for bio-imaging. But they are sensitive to environmental conditions. It requires passivation for both so that they can be stable for applications. In this work, monodisperse Fe NPs with sizes ranging from 13-20 nm have been synthesized through the chemical thermal-decomposition in a solution. Silica shells were then coated on the Fe NPs by a two-phase oil-in-water method. Dye molecules were first bonded to a silica precursor and then encapsulated into the silica shell during the coating process. The silica shells protect both the Fe NPs and dye molecules, which makes them as robust probes. The dye doped Fe/SiO2 core/shell NPs remain both highly magnetic and highly fluorescent. The stable dye doped Fe/SiO2NPs have been used as a dual functional probe for both magnetic heating and local nanoscale temperature sending, and their performance will be reported. Research supported by NSF DMR 0547036, DMR1104994.

  7. Janus nanobelts: fabrication, structure and enhanced magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Yu, Wensheng; Dong, Xiangting; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2014-02-01

    A new nanostructure of magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts with Fe3O4/PMMA as one half and Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA as the other half has been successfully fabricated by a specially designed parallel spinneret electrospinning technology. The morphology and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), biological microscopy (BM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that the [Fe3O4/PMMA]//[Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA] magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts possess superior magnetic and fluorescent properties due to their special nanostructure. Compared with Fe3O4/Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA composite nanobelts, the magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts provided better performance. The new magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts have potential applications in novel nano-bio-label materials, drug target delivery materials and future nanodevices due to their excellent magnetic-fluorescent properties, flexibility and insolubility. Moreover, the construction technique for the Janus nanobelts is of universal significance for the fabrication of other multifunctional Janus nanobelts.A new nanostructure of magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts with Fe3O4/PMMA as one half and Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA as the other half has been successfully fabricated by a specially designed parallel spinneret electrospinning technology. The morphology and properties of the final products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), biological microscopy (BM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results revealed that the [Fe3O4/PMMA]//[Tb(BA)3phen/PMMA] magnetic-fluorescent bifunctional Janus nanobelts possess superior magnetic and fluorescent properties due to their special

  8. Structural basis for bifunctional peptide recognition at human δ-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenalti, Gustavo; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Betti, Cecilia; Giguere, Patrick; Han, Gye Won; Ishchenko, Andrii; Liu, Wei; Guillemyn, Karel; Zhang, Haitao; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C H; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Gati, Cornelius; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; White, Thomas A; Oberthuer, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Yoon, Chun Hong; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Basu, Shibom; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E; Fromme, Raimund; Fromme, Petra; Tourwé, Dirk; Schiller, Peter W; Roth, Bryan L; Ballet, Steven; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Bifunctional μ- and δ-opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives, with diminished side effects, to alkaloid opiate analgesics. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bifunctional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt and Tic. The observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical for understanding of the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides and for development of improved analgesics. PMID:25686086

  9. A nanostructured bifunctional Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode for metal-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    McKerracher, R.D.; Alegre, C.; Baglio, V.; Aricò, A.S.; Ponce de León, C.; Mornaghini, F.; Rodlert, M.; Walsh, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing a bifunctional air electrode which catalyses both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions is an essential part of progress towards fully rechargeable metal-air batteries, such as the iron-air battery which is environmentally friendly, low cost, and does not suffer risk of thermal runaway like lithium-ion batteries. This paper reports the development of a lightweight carbon-based bifunctional air electrode, catalysed by a small (0.5 mg cm?2) loading of 30 wt.% palladium o...

  10. Screening wheat genotypes in response to ordinary chelate and nano-iron chelate fertilizers in nutrient solution

    OpenAIRE

    S. Omidi Nargesi; Zahedi, M; H.R. Eshghizadeh; A.H. Khoshgoftarmanesh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, attentions have been taken on the investigations regarding the use of nano-sized compounds in different fields including agricultural sector. Due to the importance of evaluating the fate and operation of nano-particles in plant systems, in this survey, responses of 13 wheat genotypes to the effect of nano-iron chelate fertilizer in the Hoagland solution under the conditions of ordinary iron chelate and nano-iron chelate, with concentration of 22.5 mg/L, was studied. This experiment ...

  11. A Brief Review of Chelators for Radiolabeling Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Liu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modification of oligomers such as DNA, PNA, MORF, LNA to attach radionuclides for nuclear imaging and radiotherapy applications has become a field rich in innovation as older methods are improved and new methods are introduced. This review intends to provide a brief overview of several chelators currently in use for the labeling of oligomers with metallic radionuclides such as 99mTc, 111In and 188Re. While DNA and its analogs have been radiolabeled with important radionuclides of nonmetals such as 32P, 35S, 14C, 18F and 125I, the labeling methods for these isotopes involve covalent chemistry that is quite distinct from the coordinate-covalent chelation chemistry described herein. In this review, we provide a summary of the several chelators that have been covalently conjugated to oligomers for the purpose of radiolabeling with metallic radionuclides by chelation and including details on the conjugation, the choice of radionuclides and labeling methods.

  12. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger T.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO.sub.x and optionally SO.sub.2 from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe.sup.2+) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC' is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  13. Effects of macromolecular chelators on intestinal cadmium absorption in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.; Bulman, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Suppression of absorption by macromolecular chelators have been sucessful with several metals. In this paper a series of immobilized chelators ranging from DTPA to S-containing soft bases have been synthetized and investigated for ability to suppress intestinal uptake of /sup 109/Cd/sup 2+/ in mice. Dextran-O-ethyl-mercaptan, xanthates derived from polysaccharides and polyvinyl alcohol, dithiocarbamates of polyethylene imine and aminoethyl cellulose, and DTPA immobilized on aminopropyl silica were all ineffective. DTPA immobilized on aminoethyl cellulose even enhanced the intestinal uptake. The macromolecular chelators were without extensive effect on organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, except for dithiocarbamate immobilized on polyethylene imine, which enhanced the deposition of cadmium in several organs including the brain. Although the results are discouragign, they indicate that desing and synthesis of immobilized vicinal dithio compounds may represent an avenue for development of non-absorbable chelators with high affinity for cadmium.

  14. Mixed-chelate therapy of intratracheally deposited cadmium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed-chelate treatment with EDTA and salicylic acid was no more effective in accelerating the removal of intratracheally instilled 109CdO, or in protecting against CdO-induced mortality, than was EDTA given alone

  15. Development of Multi-Functional Chelators Based on Sarcophagine Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanglong Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new class of multifunctionalized sarcophagine derivatives was synthesized for 64Cu chelation. The platform developed in this study could have broad applications in 64Cu-radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. Chelated Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands which catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient synthetic procedure of such a catalyst has been developed. An intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, which is promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereo- controlled olefin metathesis.

  17. Chelated Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands which catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient synthetic procedure of such a catalyst has been developed. An intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, which is promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereo- controlled olefin metathesis. PMID:21563826

  18. Antioxidant, Free Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Characteristics of Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Geckil; Burhan Ates; Gokhan Durmaz; Selim Erdogan; Ismet Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the reducing characteristics, metal chelating capability, anti-lipid peroxidative and antiradical properties of propolis compared to two widely used artificial antioxidants, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT). The water and ethanol extracts of propolis showed significantly a different degree of metal chelating, radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In general, ethanol extracts of propolis showed higher activity re...

  19. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming legand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, C.M.; Laintz, K.E.

    1998-03-24

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated {beta}-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  1. Μethods of iron chelation therapy: a bibliographic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agapiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "Iron Chelation Therapy" is a term used to describe the procedure of removing excess iron from the body, which is applied after a total of approximately 20 blood transfusions or when serum ferritin levels rise above 1000 ng/ml. Aim: The purpose of the present paper is a retrospective search in bibliography, concerning the methods of iron chelation treatment for patients with hemochromatosis owing to their undergoing multiple blood transfusions. Method: The methology followed, included the search for review and research studies, in electronic databases as well as scientific haematology journals, mostly regarding recent entries in greek and international bibliography. Results: According to the bibliography, chelation therapy compounds have significantly changed the patients' clinical features and have substantially improved their quality of life, along with their outcome over time. However, the level of patient compliance to treatment still remains the basic problem of iron chelation therapy. Conclusions: Even though the discovery of orally administered chelating agents can qualify as an auspicious accomplishment, research fields should cover a much wider spectrum, in order to improve the effectiveness of iron chelation treatment.

  2. THE STUDIES ON CHELATING FIBER V.ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF Au3+ ONTO CHELATING FIBER CONTAINING AMIDOXIME GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINWeiping; LUYun; 等

    1992-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of ionic gold onto chelating fiber containing amidoxime groups was investigated. The chelating fiber presents high adsorption capacity for ionic gold Au3+(up to 626mg/g,when the content of amidoxime group reaches 7.59mmol/g),and possesses the ability to reduce the Au3+ into metallic gold,In the redox process,the amidoxime group is oxidized into carboxyl group.

  3. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H. [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  4. Radiation Induced Crosslinking of Polyethylene in the Presence of Bifunctional Vinyl Monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, M. S.; Singer, Klaus Albert Julius; Silverman, J.

    1977-01-01

    Several reports have been published showing that the radiation induced grafting of bifunctional vinyl monomers to low density polyethylene results in a product with an unusually high density of crosslinks. The same grafting reactions are shown to reduce the incipient gel dose by more than a facto...

  5. Oxidations of amines with molecular oxygen using bifunctional gold–titania catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Mentzel, Uffe Vie;

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decades it has become clear that supported gold nanoparticles are surprisingly active and selective catalysts for several green oxidation reactions of oxygen-containing hydrocarbons using molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. We here report that bifunctional gold–titania c...

  6. Direct catalytic transformation of carbohydrates into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Kotni, Ramakrishna;

    2014-01-01

    carbohydrates. A high EMF yield of 76.6%, 58.5%, 42.4%, and 36.5% could be achieved, when fructose, inulin, sorbose, and sucrose were used as starting materials, respectively. Although, the acid–base bifunctional nanocatalysts were inert for synthesis of EMF from glucose based carbohydrates, ethyl...

  7. Direct catalytic transformation of carbohydrates into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into HMF and EMF in ethanol/DMSO with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres prepared from self-assembly of corresponding basic amino acids and HPA. - Highlights: • Acid–base bifunctional nanospheres were efficient for production of EMF from sugars. • Synthesis of EMF in a high yield of 76.6% was realized from fructose. • Fructose based biopolymers could also be converted into EMF with good yields. • Ethyl glucopyranoside was produced in good yields from glucose in ethanol. - Abstract: A series of acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres prepared from the self-assembly of basic amino acids and phosphotungstic acid (HPA) with different molar ratios were employed as efficient and recyclable catalysts for synthesis of liquid biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) from various carbohydrates. A high EMF yield of 76.6%, 58.5%, 42.4%, and 36.5% could be achieved, when fructose, inulin, sorbose, and sucrose were used as starting materials, respectively. Although, the acid–base bifunctional nanocatalysts were inert for synthesis of EMF from glucose based carbohydrates, ethyl glucopyranoside in good yields could be obtained from glucose in ethanol. Moreover, the nanocatalyst functionalized with acid and basic sites was able to be reused several times with no significant loss in catalytic activity

  8. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve th

  9. First-Principles Study of Structure Property Relationships of Monolayer (Hydroxy)Oxide-Metal Bifunctional Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Kubal, Joseph; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip

    2015-01-01

    step towards accurate identification and prediction of a variety of oxide/electrode interfacial structure-properties relationships, but also provides the foundation for rational design and control of ‘targeted active phases’ at catalytic interfaces. The successful design of bifunctional...

  10. The Golgi localized bifunctional UDP-rhamnose/UDP-galactose transporter family of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Moreno, Ignacio;

    2014-01-01

    that are specifically presumed to deliver the diverse array of nucleotide sugars found in plants. This study has developed a novel approach that enabled functional characterization of six bifunctional UDP-rhamnose (Rha)/UDP-galactose (Gal) transporters from Arabidopsis. An analysis of loss...

  11. Bifunctional phage-based pretargeted imaging of human prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton-Northup, Jessica R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail: newtonj@missouri.edu; Figueroa, Said D. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Quinn, Thomas P.; Deutscher, Susan L. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Veterans Memorial Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Two-step and three-step pretargeting systems utilizing biotinylated prostate tumor-homing bacteriophage (phage) and {sup 111}In-radiolabeled streptavidin or biotin were developed for use in cancer radioimaging. The in vivo selected prostate carcinoma-specific phage (G1) displaying up to five copies of the peptide IAGLATPGWSHWLAL was the focus of the present study. Methods: The ability of G1 phage to extravasate and target prostate tumor cells was investigated using immunohistochemistry. G1 phages were biotinylated, streptavidin was conjugated to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and biotin was conjugated to 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Biodistribution studies and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors via two-step pretargeted {sup 111}In-labeled streptavidin and three-step pretargeted {sup 111}In-labeled biotin were performed in SCID mice to determine the optimal pretargeting method. Results: The ability of G1 phage to extravasate the vasculature and bind directly to human PC-3 prostate carcinoma tumor cells in vivo was demonstrated via immunocytochemical analysis. Comparative biodistribution studies of the two-step and three-step pretargeting strategies indicated increased PC-3 human prostate carcinoma tumor uptake in SCID mice of 4.34{+-}0.26 %ID g{sup -1} at 0.5 h postinjection of {sup 111}In-radiolabeled biotin (utilized in a three-step protocol) compared to 0.67{+-}0.06 %ID g{sup -1} at 24 h postinjection of {sup 111}In radiolabeled streptavidin (employed in a two-step protocol). In vivo SPECT/CT imaging of xenografted PC-3 tumors in SCID mice with the three-step pretargeting method was superior to that of the two-step pretargeting method, and, importantly, blocking studies demonstrated specificity of tumor uptake of {sup 111}In-labeled biotin in the three-step pretargeting scheme. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the use of multivalent bifunctional

  12. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, R Jesu Jaya; Kumari, J Lesitha Jeeva; Sudandiradoss, C

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  13. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jesu Jaya Sudan

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  14. Chelation in metal intoxication--Principles and paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, Yang; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new oral iron antidotes deferiprone and desferasirox have entered into the clinical arena. Comparisons of these agents and deferoxamine infusions are in progress. General principles for research and development of new chelators are briefly outlined in this review. PMID:25457281

  15. Synthesis and Characteristics of A Novel Heavy Metal Ions Chelator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuannian; SONG Yejing; HAN Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Polyacrylamide-urea-sulfanilamide(PUS) was prepared as a novel heavy metal ions chelator and successfully used to simultaneously remove heavy metals from wastewater effluents.The effects of reaction parameters (sodium hydroxide,material ratio,temprature and contact time) were monitored to specify the best synthesis conditions.PUS was chemically characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis).The simultaneous chelation performance of PUS towards selected heavy metals ions,Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+,Cd2+ was discussed,showing that Ni2+,Cu2+,Pb2+,Zn2+ could be better chelated.It is indicated that the synthesized PUS is a potential remediation material when used for the treatment of wastewater containing metal ions.

  16. Antioxidant, Free Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Characteristics of Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Geckil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the reducing characteristics, metal chelating capability, anti-lipid peroxidative and antiradical properties of propolis compared to two widely used artificial antioxidants, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT. The water and ethanol extracts of propolis showed significantly a different degree of metal chelating, radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In general, ethanol extracts of propolis showed higher activity regarding these parameters. Synthetic antioxidants showed better activities than both propolis extracts for antioxidant properties, utilizing a -carotene bleaching method. At higher concentrations, the reducing power of ethanol extract of propolis was similar to that of artificial antioxidants. The metal chelating activity of both water and ethanol extracts of propolis was comparable to that of EDTA and significantly higher than both BHA and BHT.

  17. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, D.; Tapia, A.; Real, A.; Morcillo, M.A. [Radiobiology Laboratory, Radiation Dosimetry Unit, Department of Environment, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  18. Inositol hexa-phosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelation therapy is an optimal method to reduce the radionuclide-related risks. In the case of uranium incorporation, the treatment of choice is so far i.v infusion of a 1.4% sodium bicarbonate solution, but the efficacy has been proved to be not very high. In this study, we examine the efficacy of some substances: bicarbonate, citrate, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethidronate (EHBP) and inositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) to chelate uranium using a test developed by Braun et al. Different concentrations of phytic acid, an abundant component of plant seeds that is widely distributed in animal cells and tissues in substantial levels, were tested and compared to the same concentrations of sodium citrate, bicarbonate, EHBP and DTPA. The results showed a strong affinity of inositol hexa-phosphate for uranium, suggesting that it could be an effective chelating agent for uranium in vivo. (authors)

  19. Timing of early chelating therapy for acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were treated with DTPA and H-73-10 intraperitoneal injections 15 minutes to 4 days after acute uranium intoxication. The mortality and changes in body weight, kidney weight, renal histology and histochemistry were investigated. The results show that the renal damage could be diminished significantly by chelating therapy started 15 minutes and 6 hours after urnium poisoning. Single large dose injection (1 g/kg weight) of H-73-10 yielded the best result, and daily 0.5 g/kg of H-73-10 injection for 5 days is the next, both are better than single injection of DTPA (1 g/kg body weight). One day after intoxication there was still some protective effect. On the contrary, if the chelating therapy started 2-4 days after urnium poisoning it would increase the renal damage and the mortality. This is of great value to the correct selection of timing of chelating therapy for uranium intoxication

  20. Clinical monitoring and management of complications related to chelation therapy in patients with β-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Antoine N; El Rassi, Fuad; Taher, Ali T

    2016-01-01

    Iron chelating agents - deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), and deferasirox (DFX) - are used to treat chronic iron overload in patients with β-thalassemia in an attempt to reduce morbidity and mortality related to siderosis. Each of the approved iron chelating agents has its own advantages over the others and also has its own risks, whether related to over-chelation or not. In this review, we briefly discuss the methods to monitor the efficacy of iron chelation therapy (ICT) and the evidence behind the use of each iron chelating agent. We also portray the risks and complications associated with each iron chelating agent and recommend strategies to manage adverse events. PMID:26613264

  1. Efficacy of chelation therapy to remove aluminium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    There is a distinct correlation between aluminium (Al) intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We demonstrated how patients affected by ND showing Al intoxication benefit from short-term treatment with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (chelation therapy). Such therapy further improved through daily treatment with the antioxidant Cellfood. In the present study we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment, using both EDTA and Cellfood. Slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (2 g/10 mL diluted in 500 mL physiological saline administered in 2 h) (chelation test) removed Al, which was detected (using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in urine samples collected from patients over 12 h. Patients that revealed Al intoxication (expressed in μg per g creatinine) underwent EDTA chelation therapy once a week for ten weeks, then once every two weeks for a further six or twelve months. At the end of treatment (a total of 22 or 34 chelation therapies, respectively), associated with daily assumption of Cellfood, Al levels in the urine samples were analysed. In addition, the following blood parameters were determined: homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate, as well as the oxidative status e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and glutathione. Our results showed that Al intoxication reduced significantly following EDTA and Cellfood treatment, and clinical symptoms improved. After treatment, ROS, oxLDL, and homocysteine decreased significantly, whereas vitamin B12, folate and TAC improved significantly. In conclusion, our data show the efficacy of chelation therapy associated with Cellfood in subjects affected by Al intoxication who have developed ND.

  2. Chelation of heavy metals by potassium butyl dithiophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xu; Zhigang Xie; Lu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Potassium butyl dithiophosphate (PBD) was developed and introduced as a new chelating agent for heavy metal removal.The synthesized PBD were characterized by IR and NMR.The effects of pH, chelating agent dosage, and other heavy metal ions on the performance of PBD in Cd2+ removal from water are investigated.Experimental results showed that the chelating agent could be used to treat acidic heavy metal wastewater.The Cd2+ removal was not affected by solution pH value within the range of 2 to 6.The Cd2+ removal rate could reach over 99%.Therefore, the deficiency of the precipitation process using hydroxide under alkaline condition can be overcome.Without the need for pH adjustment, the method could save on costs.If Cd2+ co-exists with Pb2+ and Cu2+, the affinity of the chelating agent with these three heavy metal ions was in the order of: Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+.Through PBD chelating precipitation,all the contents of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ in wastewater met the standard levels through a one-step treatment.The one-step treatment process was superior to the process (sectional treatment is required) of precipitation with hydroxide.When the pH was between 3 and 11, the amount of leached chelated Cd2+ was much lower than that obtained by precipitation with hydroxide.Therefore, the risk of environmental pollution could be further reduced.

  3. Regularities in aluminium and indium chemisorption on chelating polymeric sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation properties of synthesized polymer chelate sorbents: substituted of polystyrene-azo-pyrocatechol are investigated and correlations between pK'OH of functional groups of sorbents as well as pH50 values of chelation and constants of stability (lgKstab) are established for studying regularities of effect of structure and acid-base properties of functional groups of sorbents on the parameters of Al3+ and In3+ chemical sorption. Established correlations make it possible to predict the physicochemical parameters of sorbents and sorption of metal ions with the aim of separation and concentration of aluminium and indium micro account from the objects of different origin

  4. Efficacy of a novel chelator BPCBG for removing uranium and protecting against uranium-induced renal cell damage in rats and HK-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yizhong; Wang, Dan [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Zhiming [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, Yuxing; Xu, Aihong [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Quanrui [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shao, Chunlin [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Honghong, E-mail: hhchen@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Chelation therapy is a known effective method to increase the excretion of U(VI) from the body. Until now, no any uranium chelator has been approved for emergency medical use worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of new ligand BPCBG containing two catechol groups and two aminocarboxylic acid groups in decorporation of U(VI) and protection against acute U(VI) nephrotoxicity in rats, and further explored the detoxification mechanism of BPCBG for U(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in HK-2 cells with comparison to DTPA-CaNa{sub 3}. Chelating agents were administered at various times before or after injections of U(VI) in rats. The U(VI) levels in urine, kidneys and femurs were measured 24 h after U(VI) injections. Histopathological changes in the kidney and serum urea and creatinine and urine protein were examined. After treatment of U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells with chelating agent, the intracellular U(VI) contents, formation of micronuclei, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. It was found that prompt, advanced or delayed injections of BPCBG effectively increased 24 h-urinary U(VI) excretion and decreased the levels of U(VI) in kidney and bone. Meanwhile, BPCBG injection obviously reduced the severity of the U(VI)-induced histological alterations in the kidney, which was in parallel with the amelioration noted in serum indicators, urea and creatinine, and urine protein of U(VI) nephrotoxicity. In U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells, immediate and delayed treatment with BPCBG significantly decreased the formation of micronuclei and LDH release by inhibiting the cellular U(VI) intake, promoting the intracellular U(VI) release and inhibiting the production of intracellular ROS. Our data suggest that BPCBG is a novel bi-functional U(VI) decorporation agent with a better efficacy than DTPA-CaNa{sub 3}. - Highlights: ► BPCBG accelerated the urine U(VI) excretion and reduced the tissues U(VI) in rats.

  5. Bifunctional Nb/Ti-MCM-41 catalyst in oxidative acidic reaction of cyclohexene to diol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifunctional oxidative and acidic catalyst was prepared by incorporating titanium ion (Ti4+) and niobic acid in meso porous molecular sieves MCM-41 structure. The catalyst is active both in oxidation, and acid-catalyzed reaction of olefin to diol. Nb/ Ti-MCM-41 catalyst was prepared by first synthesizing Ti-MCM-41 by hydrothermal method, followed by subsequent impregnation of niobic acid (Nb) into Ti-MCM-41 at various % wt Nb loading. The framework structure of Ti-MCM-41 collapsed after incorporation of Nb but the tetrahedral form of Ti4+ still maintained with octahedral Nb species. Both Bronsted and Lewis acid sites are present in all Nb/ Ti-MCM-41 samples. The formation of cyclohexanediol in the epoxidation of cyclohexene proved the bifunctional oxidative and acidic catalyst through the formation of cyclohexane oxide. The yield increased with the increase amount of the Bronsted acid sites provided by niobium species. (author)

  6. Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of Kd values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins

  7. Increasing round trip efficiency of hybrid Li-air battery with bifunctional catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K; Li, YF; Xing, YC

    2013-07-30

    Previously it was shown that Pt as cathode catalyst ha's a large overpotential during charge in rechargeable hybrid Li-air battery with sulfuric acid catholyte. This article demonstrates that a bifunctional catalyst composed of Pt and IrO2 supported on carbon nanotubes can address this problem. The specially designed and synthesized bifunctional catalyst showed significant overpotential reduction and achieved a round trip energy efficiency of 81% after 10 cycles, higher than many achieved in aprotic Li-O-2 batteries. The hybrid Li-air battery was discharged and recharged for 20 cycles at 0.2 mA/cm(2), showing a fairly stable cell performance. A specific capacity of 306 mAh/g and a specific energy of 1110 Wh/kg were obtained for the hybrid Li-air battery in terms of acid weight. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tethering metal ions to photocatalyst particulate surfaces by bifunctional molecular linkers for efficient hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2014-08-19

    A simple and versatile method for the preparation of photocatalyst particulates modified with effective cocatalysts is presented; the method involves the sequential soaking of photocatalyst particulates in solutions containing bifunctional organic linkers and metal ions. The modification of the particulate surfaces is a universal and reproducible method because the molecular linkers utilize strong covalent bonds, which in turn result in modified monolayer with a small but controlled quantity of metals. The photocatalysis results indicated that the CdS with likely photochemically reduced Pd and Ni, which were initially immobilized via ethanedithiol (EDT) as a linker, were highly efficient for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from Na2S-Na2SO3-containing aqueous solutions. The method developed in this study opens a new synthesis route for the preparation of effective photocatalysts with various combinations of bifunctional linkers, metals, and photocatalyst particulate materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Bifunctional metamaterials with simultaneous and independent manipulation of thermal and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chuwen; Bi, Ke; Fu, Xiaojian; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-10-01

    Metamaterials offer a powerful way to manipulate a variety of physical fields ranging from wave fields (electromagnetic field, acoustic field, elastic wave, etc.), static fields (static magnetic field, static electric field) to diffusive fields (thermal field, diffusive mass). However, the relevant reports and studies are usually conducted on a single physical field or functionality. In this study, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a bifunctional metamaterial which can manipulate thermal and electric fields simultaneously and independently. Specifically, a composite with independently controllable thermal and electric conductivity was introduced, on the basis of which a bifunctional device capable of shielding thermal flux and concentrating electric current simultaneously was designed, fabricated and characterized. This work provides an encouraging example of metamaterials transcending their natural limitations, which offers a promising future in building a broad platform for manipulation of multi-physics field.

  10. A bifunctional nonprecious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction and water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    There is a growing interest in oxygen electrochemistry as conversions between O(2) and H(2)O play an important role in a variety of renewable energy technologies. The goal of this work is to develop active bifunctional catalyst materials for water oxidation and oxygen reduction. Drawing inspiration from a cubane-like CaMn(4)O(x), the biological catalyst found in the oxygen evolving center (OEC) in photosystem II, nanostructured manganese oxide surfaces were investigated for these reactions. Thin films of nanostructured manganese oxide were found to be active for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation, with similar overall oxygen electrode activity to the best known precious metal nanoparticle catalysts: platinum, ruthenium, and iridium. Physical and chemical characterization of the nanostructured Mn oxide bifunctional catalyst reveals an oxidation state of Mn(III), akin to one of the most commonly observed Mn oxidation states found in the OEC. PMID:20839797

  11. Improving stability and biocompatibility of alginate/chitosan microcapsule by fabricating bi-functional membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoshuang; Liu, Xiudong; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Li; Xie, Hongguo; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Huizhen; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2014-05-01

    Cell encapsulation technology holds promise for the cell-based therapy. But poor mechanical strength and biocompatibility of microcapsule membrane are still obstacles for the clinical applications. A novel strategy is presented to prepare AC₁ C₂ A microcapsules with bi-functional membrane (that is, both desirable biocompatibility and membrane stability) by sequentially complexing chitosans with higher deacetylation degree (C₁) and lower deacetylation degree (C₂) on alginate (A) gel beads. Both in vitro and in vivo evaluation of AC₁C₂ A microcapsules demonstrate higher membrane stability and less cell adhesion, because the introduction of C₂ increases membrane strength and decreases surface roughness. Moreover, diffusion test of AC₁C₂ A microcapsules displays no inward permeation of IgG protein suggesting good immunoisolation function. The results demonstrate that AC₁C₂ A microcapsules with bi-functional membrane could be a promising candidate for microencapsulated cell implantation with cost effective usage of naturally biocompatible polysaccharides.

  12. Questions and Answers: The NIH Trial of EDTA Chelation Therapy for Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Trial of EDTA Chelation Therapy for Coronary Heart Disease Preliminary results from the Trial to Assess Chelation ... and complete it. Study Background What is coronary heart disease? Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  13. Iron chelating active packaging: Influence of competing ions and pH value on effectiveness of soluble and immobilized hydroxamate chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Yoshiko; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-04-01

    Many packaged foods utilize synthetic chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) to inhibit iron-promoted oxidation or microbial growth which would result in quality loss. To address consumer demands for all natural products, we have previously developed a non-migratory iron chelating active packaging material by covalent immobilization of polyhydroxamate and demonstrated its efficacy in delaying lipid oxidation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of this hydroxamate-functionalized iron chelating active packaging to retain iron chelating capacity; even in the presence of competing ions common in food. Both immobilized and soluble hydroxamate chelators retained iron chelating capacity in the presence of calcium, magnesium, and sodium competing ions, although at pH 5.0 the presence of calcium reduced immobilized hydroxamate iron chelation. A strong correlation was found between colorimetric and mass spectral analysis of iron chelation by the chelating packaging material. Such chelating active packaging may support reducing additive use in product formulations, while retaining quality and shelf life. PMID:26593563

  14. Iron chelating active packaging: Influence of competing ions and pH value on effectiveness of soluble and immobilized hydroxamate chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Yoshiko; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-04-01

    Many packaged foods utilize synthetic chelators (e.g. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) to inhibit iron-promoted oxidation or microbial growth which would result in quality loss. To address consumer demands for all natural products, we have previously developed a non-migratory iron chelating active packaging material by covalent immobilization of polyhydroxamate and demonstrated its efficacy in delaying lipid oxidation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of this hydroxamate-functionalized iron chelating active packaging to retain iron chelating capacity; even in the presence of competing ions common in food. Both immobilized and soluble hydroxamate chelators retained iron chelating capacity in the presence of calcium, magnesium, and sodium competing ions, although at pH 5.0 the presence of calcium reduced immobilized hydroxamate iron chelation. A strong correlation was found between colorimetric and mass spectral analysis of iron chelation by the chelating packaging material. Such chelating active packaging may support reducing additive use in product formulations, while retaining quality and shelf life.

  15. Bifunctional silica nanoparticles for the exploration of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mauline, Léïla; Gressier, Marie; Roques, Christine; Hammer, Peter,; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Caiut, José Maurício A.; Menu, Marie-Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent silica nanoparticles are frequently employed for biotechnology applications mainly because of their easy functionalization, photo-stability, and biocompatibility. Bifunctional silica nanoparticles (BSNPs) are described here as new efficient tools for investigating complex biological systems such as biofilms. Photoluminescence is brought about by the incorporation of a silylated ruthenium (II) complex. The surface properties of the silica particles were designed by reaction with am...

  16. L-Proline Derived Bifunctional Organocatalysts: Enantioselective Michael Addition of Dithiomalonates to trans-β-Nitroolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Kim, Seung Tae; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Ryu, Do Hyun

    2016-04-15

    A series of novel L-proline derived tertiary amine bifunctional organocatalysts 9 are reported, which were applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of dithiomalonates 2 to trans-β-nitroolefins 1. The reaction proceeded in high yields (up to 99%) with high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). The synthetic utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the short synthesis of (R)-phenibut in high yield. PMID:26989804

  17. A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Khafaji; Manouchehr Vossoughi; M. Reza Hormozi-Nezhad; Rassoul Dinarvand; Felix Börrnert; Azam Irajizad

    2016-01-01

    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatib...

  18. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve this aim, a second functionality (other than FTS) has to be added to the catalyst formulation to break the limitation of a classical Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) distribution of FTS products. Since up...

  19. GST-TAT-SOD: Cell Permeable Bifunctional Antioxidant Enzyme—A Potential Selective Radioprotector

    OpenAIRE

    Jianru Pan; Huocong He; Ying Su; Guangjin Zheng; Junxin Wu; Shutao Liu; Pingfan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST), SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wi...

  20. Synthesis of acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials by oxidation and thermolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Zou, Yongcun [State Key Laboratory of Inoranic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistryg, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wu, Shujie; Liu, Heng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Jiefang Road 2519, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst. The obtained sample of SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent catalytic activity in aldol condensation reaction. Research highlights: {yields} Synthesize acid-base bifunctional mesoporous materials SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. {yields} Oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. {yields} Exhibit good catalytic performance in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes. -- Abstract: A novel and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of acid-base bifunctional catalyst SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}. This method was achieved by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) and (3-triethoxysilylpropyl) carbamicacid-1-methylcyclohexylester (3TAME) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), followed by oxidation and then thermolysis to generate acidic site and basic site. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrographs (TEM) show that the resultant materials keep mesoporous structure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), back titration, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR and solid-state {sup 29}Si MAS NMR confirm that the organosiloxanes were condensed as a part of the silica framework. The bifunctional sample (SO{sub 3}H-MCM-41-NH{sub 2}) containing amine and sulfonic acids exhibits excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity in aldol condensation reaction between acetone and various aldehydes.

  1. Phase-Transfer Catalysis via a Proton Sponge: A Bifunctional Role for Biscyclopropenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belding, Lee; Stoyanov, Peter; Dudding, Travis

    2016-01-15

    The use of a bis(diisopropylamino)cyclopropenimine-substituted bis-protonated proton sponge as a bifunctional phase-transfer catalyst is reported. Experimental studies and DFT calculations suggest it operates simultaneously as a hydrogen bond donor and a phase-transfer catalyst, facilitating the movement of charged intermediates from the interface to the organic phase via favorable partitioning of hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface areas, resulting in high catalytic activity. PMID:26649566

  2. Sequestration of zinc oxide by fimbrial designer chelators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Sørensen, Jack K; Schembri, Mark;

    2000-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles of Escherichia coli. By engineering a structural component of the fimbriae, FimH, to display a random peptide library, we were able to isolate metal-chelating bacteria. A library consisting of 4 x 10(7) independent clones was screened for binding to Zn...

  3. Laccase Immobilization by Chelated Metal Ion Coordination Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, amidoxime polyacrylonitrile (AOPAN nanofibrous membrane was prepared by a reaction between PAN nanofibers and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The AOPAN nanofibrous membranes were used for four metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ chelation under different conditions. Further, the competition of different metal ions coordinating with AOPAN nanofibrous membrane was also studied. The AOPAN chelated with individual metal ion (Fe3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cd2+ and also the four mixed metal ions were further used for laccase (Lac immobilization. Compared with free laccase, the immobilized laccase showed better resistance to pH and temperature changes as well as improved storage stability. Among the four individual metal ion chelated membranes, the stability of the immobilized enzymes generally followed the order as Fe–AOPAN–Lac > Cu–AOPAN–Lac > Ni–AOPAN–Lac > Cd–AOPAN–Lac. In addition, the immobilized enzyme on the carrier of AOPAN chelated with four mixed metal ions showed the best properties.

  4. Iron chelator daphnetin against Pneumocystis carinii in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶彬; 郑玉强; 武卫华; 张静

    2004-01-01

    Background Although there are several drugs and drug combinations for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii (P. carinii) pneumonia, all drugs have the toxicity as well as low efficacy. Iron chelators have been proposed as a source of new drugs for combating these infections. We hypothesized that iron chelators would suppress the growth of P. carinii by deprivation of the nutritional iron required for growth. In this study, a short-term axenic culture system of P. carinii was established. Daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin), a known iron chelator, was demonstrated to exhibit in vitro activity against P. carinii in this system. Methods P. carinii organisms were obtained from the lungs of immunosuppressed rats. The culture system consisted of Iscove Dulbecco Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (IMDM), supplemented with S-adenosyl-L-methionine, N-acetylglucosamine, putrescine, L-cysteine, L-glutamine, 2-mercaptoethanol, and fetal bovine serum, and was maintained at 37℃, in 5% CO2, 95% O2, at the optimal pH of 8.0. The culture system was used to assess the effect of daphnetin on the proliferation of P. carinii organisms. The ultrastructures of the treated organisms were observed by transmission electron microscopy.Conclusions Daphnetin can suppress the growth of P. carinii in vitro. The efficacy of daphnetin in suppressing the the growth of P. carinii in vitro is related to its ability to chelate iron.

  5. Reversal of haemochromatotic cardiomyopathy in beta thalassaemia by chelation therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Politi, A; M. Sticca; Galli, M

    1995-01-01

    Haemochromatotic cardiomyopathy is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with beta thalassaemia major. Once congestive heart failure develops most patients die in a few months. Congestive heart failure was reversed and echocardiographic findings were restored to normal in a 24 year old woman with beta thalassaemia who resumed treatment with chelation therapy (desferrioxamine).

  6. Commentary on the Abuse of Metal Chelation Therapy in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half a million patients with autism spectrum disorders are subjected to chelation therapy in the US annually. The overwhelming majority of such cases are chelated for non-accepted medical indications. These patients may seek evaluation when a urine sample is assayed after the administration of a chelating agent and the values obtained have been improperly compared to references ranges for non-chelated urines, causing falsely elevated results. Legitimate practitioners confronted ...

  7. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  8. Bifunctional Catalysts for Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Oxygenates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Allison M.; Hensley, Jesse E.; Medlin, J. Will

    2016-08-05

    Deoxygenation is an important reaction in the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuels and chemicals. A key route for biomass refining involves the production of pyrolysis oil through rapid heating of the raw biomass feedstock. Pyrolysis oil as produced is highly oxygenated, so the feasibility of this approach depends in large part on the ability to selectively deoxygenate pyrolysis oil components to create a stream of high-value finished products. Identification of catalytic materials that are active and selective for deoxygenation of pyrolysis oil components has therefore represented a major research area. One catalyst is rarely capable of performing the different types of elementary reaction steps required to deoxygenate biomass-derived compounds. For this reason, considerable attention has been placed on bifunctional catalysts, where two different active materials are used to provide catalytic sites for diverse reaction steps. Here, we review recent trends in the development of catalysts, with a focus on catalysts for which a bifunctional effect has been proposed. We summarize recent studies of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil and model compounds for a range of materials, including supported metal and bimetallic catalysts as well as transition-metal oxides, sulfides, carbides, nitrides, and phosphides. Particular emphasis is placed on how catalyst structure can be related to performance via molecular-level mechanisms. These studies demonstrate the importance of catalyst bifunctionality, with each class of materials requiring hydrogenation and C-O scission sites to perform HDO at reasonable rates.

  9. Comparison of Dynamical Behaviors Between Monofunctional and Bifunctional Two-Component Signaling Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiyan; Wu, Yahao; Yuan, Zhanjiang

    2015-06-01

    Two-component signaling modules exist extensively in bacteria and microbes. These modules can be, based on their distinct network structures, divided into two types: the monofunctional system (denoted by MFS) where the sensor kinase (SK) modulates only phosphorylation of the response regulator (RR), and the bifunctional system (denoted by BFS) where the SK catalyzes both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the RR. Here, we analyze dynamical behaviors of these two systems based on stability theory, focusing on differences between them. The analysis of the deterministic behavior indicates that there is no difference between the two modules, that is, each system has the unique stable steady state. However, there are significant differences in stochastic behavior between them. Specifically, if the mean phosphorylated SK level is kept the same for the two modules, then the variance and the Fano factor for the phosphorylated RR in the BFS are always no less than those in the MFS, indicating that bifunctionality always enhances fluctuations. The correlation between the phosphorylated SK and the phosphorylated RR in the BFS is always positive mainly due to competition between system components, but this correlation in the MFS may be positive, almost zero, or negative, depending on the ratio between two rate constants. Our overall analysis indicates that differences between dynamical behaviors of monofunctional and bifunctional signaling modules are mainly in the stochastic rather than deterministic aspect.

  10. Bifunctional Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution in Alkaline Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shiva; Kellogg, William; Xu, Hui; Liu, Xien; Cho, Jaephil; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen electrocatalysis, namely of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), governs the performance of numerous electrochemical energy systems such as reversible fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and water electrolyzers. However, the sluggish kinetics of these two reactions and their dependency on expensive noble metal catalysts (e.g, Pt or Ir) prohibit the sustainable commercialization of these highly innovative and in-demand technologies. Bifunctional perovskite oxides have emerged as a new class of highly efficient non-precious metal catalysts (NPMC) for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art understanding of bifunctional properties of perovskites with regards to their OER/ORR activity in alkaline media and review the associated reaction mechanisms on the oxides surface and the related activity descriptors developed in the recent literature. We also summarize the present strategies to modify their electronic structure and to further improve their performance for the ORR/OER through highlighting the new concepts relating to the role of surface redox chemistry and oxygen deficiency of perovskite oxides for the ORR/OER activity. In addition, we provide a brief account of recently developed advanced perovskite-nanocarbon hybrid bifunctional catalysts with much improved performances. PMID:26247625

  11. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg-1 soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg-1 Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8±1.3 mg kg-1 Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg-1 exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53±0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates

  12. Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

    2004-11-01

    In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg{sup -1} Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8{+-}1.3 mg kg{sup -1} Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg{sup -1} exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53{+-}0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates.

  13. Optimized preparation and preliminary evaluation of [64Cu]-DOTA-trastuzumab for targeting ErbB2/Neu expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer radioimmunoscintigraphy targeting HER2/neu expression is a growing field of work in nuclear medicine research. Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to HER2/neu, which is over expressed on breast and other tumors. Developing new tracers for the detection of this cancer is of great interest. In this study, trastuzumab was successively labeled with [64Cu]CuCl2 after conjugation with DOTA-NHS-ester. The conjugate was purified by molecular filtration, the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb was calculated and total concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. DOTA-trastuzumab was labeled with 64Cu produced by 68Zn(p,αn)64Cu nuclear reaction (30 MeV protons at 180 μA). Radiochemical purity, integrity of protein after radiolabeling and immunoreactivity of radiolabeled mAb trastuzumab with HER2/neu antigen and SkBr3 cell line were performed by RIA. In vitro stability of radiolabeled mAb in human serum was determined by thin layer chromatography. In vitro internalization studies were performed with the SkBr3 cell line and the tissue biodistribution of the 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab was evaluated in wild-type rat (90 ± 5.5 μCi, 2, 6, 12, 24 h p.i.). The radioimmunoconjugate was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 96 ± 0.5 % (ITLC) and specific activity as high as 5.3 μCi/μg. The average number of chelators per antibody for the conjugate used in this study was 5.8/1. The sample was showed to have similar patterns of migration in the gel electrophoresis. The 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab showed high immunoreactivity towards HER2/neu antigen and SkBr3 cell line. In vitro stability of the labeled product was found to be more than 94 % in PBS and 82 ± 0.5 % in human serum over 48 h. In vitro internalization studies of the 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab showed that up to 11.5 % of the radioimmunoconjugate internalized after 10 h. The accumulation of the radiolabeled mAb in liver, skin, intestine, lung, spleen

  14. Examining the fixation kinetics of chelated and non-chelated copper and the applications to micronutrient management in semiarid alkaline soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, T. K.; Eichmann, M. B.; Menkiti, M. C.; Kusi, N. Y. O.

    2016-02-01

    This study examined and compared the fixation and fixation kinetics of copper (Cu) in chelated (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, EDTA) and non-chelated mixed systems of micronutrients in the semiarid soils of the Southern High Plains, USA, using findings from Cu extraction studies and kinetic models. Approximately, 22 % more Cu was fixed in the non-chelated system compared to the chelated within the first 14 days with only 7 % difference between the two systems by day 90. Findings suggest a decrease in the effectiveness of chelated micronutrients over time, highlighting the significance of timing even when chelated micronutrients are used. The strengths of the relationship of change in available Cu with respect to other micronutrients (iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn)) were higher in the non-chelated system (R2: 0.68-0.94), compared to the chelated (R2: 0.42-0.81), with slopes of 0.40 (Cu-Fe), 0.31 (Cu-Mn), and 1.04 (Cu-Zn) in the non-chelated system and 0.26 (Cu-Fe), 0.22 (Cu-Mn), and 0.90 (Cu-Zn) in the chelated system. Reduction in the amount of available Cu was best described by the power function model (R2 = 0.91, SE = 0.081) in the non-chelated system and second-order model (R2 = 0.95, SE = 0.010) in the chelated system. The applications generated from this study could be used as tools for improved micronutrient management and also provide baseline data for future work in other semiarid/arid alkaline soils of the world. Findings are also more applicable to field settings, an improvement over related previous studies.

  15. Preparation and characteristics of Fe3O4-YVO4:Eu3+ bifunctional magnetic-luminescent nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → Bifunctional magnetic-luminescent nanocomposites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core and YVO4:Eu3+ as the shell. → A cubic spinel structrue of Fe3O4 core and a tetragonal phase of YVO4 shell were obtained. → The nanocomposites displayed a strong red emission and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. - Abstract: A facile direct precipitation method has been developed for the synthesis of bifunctional magnetic-luminescent nanocomposites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core and YVO4:Eu3+ as the shell. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the obtained bifunctional nanocomposites had a core-shell structure and a spherical morphology. The average size was ∼150 nm, and the thickness of the shell was ∼15 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that a cubic spinel structure of Fe3O4 core and a tetragonal phase of YVO4 shell were obtained. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed that the YVO4:Eu3+ had been successfully deposited on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the nanocomposites displayed a strong red characteristic emission of Eu3+. Magnetic measurements showed that the obtained bifunctional nanocomposites exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Therefore, the bifunctional nanocomposites are expected to develop many potential applications in biomedical fields.

  16. Modification of monoclonal antibodies by polymers possessing chelating properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchilin, V.P.; Khaw, B.A.; Klibanov, A.L.; Slinkin, M.A.; Haber, E.; Smirnov, V.N.

    1986-12-01

    This paper describes a basically new approach to obtaining diagnostic antibodies, consisting of a one-point modification of the antibody, without loss of its activity, by a high-molecular-weight synthetic polymer with the ability of effectively chelating ions of heavy metals. As a result of this approach, preparations of active antibodies containing some tens of atoms of the metal per protein molecule can be obtained. The concentration of radioactive metal (/sup 111/In) was determined with a gamma-counter and the Mn and Cd concentrations by spectroscopy. Gel-filtration of polymer-modified antibodies after binding of /sup 111/InCl/sub 3/ is shown. Also, solid-phase radioimmunoassay of antibodies and Fab fragments, native and modified by chelating polymers, is presented.

  17. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  18. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-13

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  19. Lanthanides caged by the organic chelates; structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentek, Lidia

    2011-04-01

    The structure, in particular symmetry, geometry and morphology of organic chelates coordinated with the lanthanide ions are analyzed in the present review. This is the first part of a complete presentation of a theoretical description of the properties of systems, which are widely used in technology, but most of all, in molecular biology and medicine. The discussion is focused on the symmetry and geometry of the cages, since these features play a dominant role in the spectroscopic activity of the lanthanides caged by organic chelates. At the same time, the spectroscopic properties require more formal presentation in the language of Racah algebra, and deserve a separate analysis. In addition to the parent systems of DOTA, DOTP, EDTMP and CDTMP presented here, their modifications by various antennas are analyzed. The conclusions that have a strong impact upon the theory of the energy transfer and the sensitized luminescence of these systems are based on the results of numerical density functional theory calculations.

  20. Improved paramagnetic chelate for molecular imaging with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Patrick; Athey, Phillip; Kiefer, Garry; Gulyas, Gyongyi; Frank, Keith; Fuhrhop, Ralph; Robertson, David; Wickline, Samuel; Lanza, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    The relaxivity and transmetallation of two lipophilic paramagnetic chelates incorporated onto perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, i.e., gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE) and gadolinium-methoxy-tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetic acid triglycine phosphatidylethanolamine (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE (Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE)), were compared to a prototypic gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid bis-oleate (Gd-DTPA-BOA) paramagnetic formulation. Nanoparticles with MeO-DOTA-based chelates demonstrated higher relaxivity (40% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-PE and 55% higher for Gd-MeO-DOTA-triglycine-PE) and less transmetallation than the original Gd-DTPA-BOA-based agent.

  1. MULTIDENTATE TEREPHTHALAMIDATE AND HYDROXYPYRIDONATE LIGANDS: TOWARDS NEW ORALLY ACTIVE CHELATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-07-13

    The limitations of current therapies for the treatment of iron overload or radioisotope contamination have stimulated efforts to develop new orally bioavailable iron and actinide chelators. Siderophore-inspired tetradentate, hexadentate and octadentate terephthalamidate and hydroxypyridonate ligands were evaluated in vivo as selective and efficacious iron or actinide chelating agents, with several metal loading and ligand assessment procedures, using {sup 59}Fe, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as radioactive tracers. The compounds presented in this study were compared to commercially available therapeutic sequestering agents [deferoxamine (DFO) for iron and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) for actinides] and are unrivaled in terms of affinity, selectivity and decorporation efficacy, which attests to the fact that high metal affinity may overcome the low bioavailability properties commonly associated to multidenticity.

  2. A novel antimycobacterial compound acts as an intracellular iron chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragset, Marte S; Poce, Giovanna; Alfonso, Salvatore; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Ioerger, Thomas R; Kaneko, Takushi; Sacchettini, James C; Biava, Mariangela; Parish, Tanya; Argüello, José M; Steigedal, Magnus; Rubin, Eric J

    2015-04-01

    Efficient iron acquisition is crucial for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterial iron uptake and metabolism are therefore attractive targets for antitubercular drug development. Resistance mutations against a novel pyrazolopyrimidinone compound (PZP) that is active against M. tuberculosis have been identified within the gene cluster encoding the ESX-3 type VII secretion system. ESX-3 is required for mycobacterial iron acquisition through the mycobactin siderophore pathway, which could indicate that PZP restricts mycobacterial growth by targeting ESX-3 and thus iron uptake. Surprisingly, we show that ESX-3 is not the cellular target of the compound. We demonstrate that PZP indeed targets iron metabolism; however, we found that instead of inhibiting uptake of iron, PZP acts as an iron chelator, and we present evidence that the compound restricts mycobacterial growth by chelating intrabacterial iron. Thus, we have unraveled the unexpected mechanism of a novel antimycobacterial compound.

  3. Meta-analysis of the safety of iron chelating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Niya; 李妮婭

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thalassaemia is a genetic disorder disease, one of the most clinically relevant haemoglobinopathies in paediatric population. It interferes with the synthesis of haemoglobin chain. For the sake of maintaining the serum haemoglobin at a normal level, regular blood cell transfusion is required to the patients with thalassaemia. In general, patients with thalassaemia are often diagnosed at an early age and need to take a life-long iron chelating therapy to prevent the multi-organ...

  4. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  5. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  6. Elucidating Interactions between DMSO and Chelate-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Wang, Xinyu; Yao, Jia; Chen, Kexian; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haoran

    2015-12-21

    The C-D bond stretching vibrations of deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide ([D6 ]DMSO) and the C2 -H bond stretching vibrations of 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione (hfac) ligand in anion are chosen as probes to elucidate the solvent-solute interaction between chelate-based ionic liquids (ILs) and DMSO by vibrational spectroscopic studies. The indirect effect from the interaction of the adjacent S=O functional group of DMSO with the cation [C10 mim](+) and anion [Mn(hfac)3 ](-) of the ILs leads to the blue-shift of the C-D stretching vibrations of DMSO. The C2 -H bond stretching vibrations in hfac ligand is closely related to the ionic hydrogen bond strength between the cation and anion of chelate-based ILs. EPR studies reveal that the crystal field of the central metal is kept when the chelate-based ILs are in different microstructure environment in the solution.

  7. Hydroxyurea could be a good clinically relevant iron chelator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushnooma Italia

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed a reduction in serum ferritin of β-thalassemia patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Here we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyurea alone and in combination with most widely used iron chelators like deferiprone and deferasirox for reducing iron from experimentally iron overloaded mice. 70 BALB/c mice received intraperitonial injections of iron-sucrose. The mice were then divided into 8 groups and were orally given hydroxyurea, deferiprone or deferasirox alone and their combinations for 4 months. CBC, serum-ferritin, TBARS, sTfr and hepcidin were evaluated before and after iron overload and subsequently after 4 months of drug therapy. All animals were then killed. Iron staining of the heart and liver tissue was done using Perl's Prussian Blue stain. Dry weight of iron in the heart and liver was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Increased serum-ferritin, TBARS, hepcidin and dry weight of iron in the liver and heart showed a significant reduction in groups treated with iron chelators with maximum reduction in the group treated with a combination of deferiprone, deferasirox and hydroxyurea. Thus hydroxyurea proves its role in reducing iron from iron overloaded mice. The iron chelating effect of these drugs can also be increased if given in combination.

  8. The removal of strontium from the mouse by chelating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, A.; Gomez, M.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J.

    1989-07-01

    The effects of the chelating agents monosodium glutamate, Tiron, tartaric acid, ascorbic acid, 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane (18-crown-6), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), succinic acid, malic acid, ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenglycol-bis-(beta-amino-ethylether)-N,N'tetraacetic acid (EGTA), cyclohexane-diaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) and diethylentria-minepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the distribution and excretion of intraperitoneally injected strontium were investigated in male Swiss mice. Strontium nitrate was given at a dose equal to 3.78 mmol/kg and ten minutes after, chelators were administered intraperitoneally at doses approximately equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. DTPA, followed by CDTA, EDTA and tartaric acid, was consistently the most effective in increasing the urinary excretion of strontium. Only ascorbic acid increased significantly the fecal excretion of strontium. CDTA, DTPA and ascorbic acid were also the most effective chelators in reducing the concentration of strontium found in various tissues. CDTA, DTPA and tartaric acid are the most effective agents of those tested in the removal of strontium after a single administration.

  9. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  10. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of iron chelators against Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Cheul; Lee, Hee-Su; Kim, Sung-Woon; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-09-01

    Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, has been shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of the FDA-approved iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFRA) against planktonic and biofilm cells of P. intermedia in order to evaluate the possibility of using these iron chelators as alternative control agents against P. intermedia. DFRA showed strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC values of 0.16 mg ml(-1)) against planktonic P. intermedia. At subMICs, DFRA partially inhibited the bacterial growth and considerably prolonged the bacterial doubling time. DFO was unable to completely inhibit the bacterial growth in the concentration range tested and was not bactericidal. Crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that DFRA significantly decreased the biofilm-forming activity as well as the biofilm formation, while DFO was less effective. DFRA was chosen for further study. In the ATP-bioluminescent assay, which reflects viable cell counts, subMICs of DFRA significantly decreased the bioactivity of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. Under the scanning electron microscope, P. intermedia cells in DFRA-treated biofilm were significantly elongated compared to those in untreated biofilm. Further experiments are necessary to show that iron chelators may be used as a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease. PMID:23329319

  11. Prevention by chelating agents of metal-induced developmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, J L

    1995-01-01

    Chelating agents such as calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), or D-penicillamine (D-PA) have been widely used for the past 4 decades as antidotes for the treatment of acute and chronic metal poisoning. In recent years, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS) and sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron) have also shown to be effective to prevent against toxicity induced by a number of heavy metals. The purpose of the present article was to review the protective activity of various chelating agents against the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of well-known developmental toxicants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium, and vanadium). DMSA and DMPS were found to be effective in alleviating arsenate- and arsenite-induced teratogenesis, whereas BAL afforded only some protection against arsenic-induced embryo/fetal toxicity. Also, DMSA, DMPS, and Tiopronin were effective in ameliorating methyl mercury-induced developmental toxicity. Although the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of vanadate were significantly reduced by Tiron, no significant amelioration of uranium-induced embryotoxicity was observed after treatment with this chelator.

  12. Nanostructured Perovskite LaCo1-xMnxO3 as Bifunctional Catalysts for Rechargeable Metal-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaoming; Li, Bing; Wuu, Delvin; Sumboja, Afriyanti; An, Tao; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-09-01

    Bifunctional catalyst that is active for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the most important components of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Nanostructured perovskite bifunctional catalysts comprising La, Co and Mn(LaCo1-xMnxO3, LCMO) are synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The morphology, structure and electrochemical activity of the perovskite bifunctional catalysts are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Nanorod, nanodisc and nanoparticle are typical morphologies of LCMO. The electrocatalytic activity of LCMO is significantly improved by the addition of conductive materials such as carbon nanotube. To demonstrate the practical utilization, LCMO in the composition of LaCo0.8Mn0.2O3(LCMO82) is used as air cathode catalysts for rechargeable zinc-air batteries. The battery prototype can sustain 470 h or 40 discharge-charge cycles equivalent.

  13. Chelation therapy in Wilson's disease: from D-penicillamine to the design of selective bioinspired intracellular Cu(I) chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangle, Pascale; Mintz, Elisabeth

    2012-06-01

    Wilson's disease is an orphan disease due to copper homeostasis dysfunction. Mutations of the ATP7B gene induces an impaired functioning of a Cu-ATPase, impaired Cu detoxification in the liver and copper overload in the body. Indeed, even though copper is an essential element, which is used as cofactor by many enzymes playing vital roles, it becomes toxic when in excess as it promotes cytotoxic reactions leading to oxidative stress. In this perspective, human copper homeostasis is first described in order to explain the mechanisms promoting copper overload in Wilson's disease. We will see that the liver is the main organ for copper distribution and detoxification in the body. Nowadays this disease is treated life-long by systemic chelation therapy, which is not satisfactory in many cases. Therefore the design of more selective and efficient drugs is of great interest. A strategy to design more specific chelators to treat localized copper accumulation in the liver will then be presented. In particular we will show how bioinorganic chemistry may help in the design of such novel chelators by taking inspiration from the biological copper cell transporters.

  14. An efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting based on cobalt phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao; Sun, Xuping

    2016-06-01

    The development of highly efficient electrocatalysts for water splitting is critical for various renewable-energy technologies. In this letter, we demonstrate a cobalt phosphide nanowire array grown on a Ti mesh (CoP/TM) behaving as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting. The CoP/TM electrode delivers 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 72 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and 310 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 1.0 M KOH. Furthermore, its corresponding two-electrode alkaline electrolyzer displays 10 mA cm-2 at 1.64 V.

  15. MoO3 nanoparticle anchored graphene as bifunctional agent for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahan, Homen; Roy, Raju; Namsa, Nima D.; Das, Shyamal K.

    2016-10-01

    We report here a facile one step hydrothermal method to anchor MoO3 nanoparticles in graphene. The bifunctionality of graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles is demonstrated via dye adsorption and antibacterial activities. The nanocomposite showed excellent adsorption of methylene blue, a cationic dye, from water compared to pristine MoO3 and graphene. However, it showed negligible adsorption of methyl orange, an anionic dye. Again, the graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles exhibited bacteriostatic property against both Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria.

  16. Bifunctional Organic Polymeric Catalysts with a Tunable Acid-Base Distance and Framework Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhui; Wang, Yanan; Wang, Qunlong; Li, Junhui; Yang, Shiqi; Zhu, Zhirong

    2014-09-01

    Acid-base bifunctional organic polymeric catalysts were synthesized with tunable structures. we demonstrated two synthesis approaches for structural fine-tune. In the first case, the framework flexibility was tuned by changing the ratio of rigid blocks to flexible blocks within the polymer framework. In the second case, we precisely adjusted the acid-base distance by distributing basic monomers to be adjacent to acidic monomers, and by changing the chain length of acidic monomers. In a standard test reaction for the aldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde with acetone, the catalysts showed good reusability upon recycling and maintained relatively high conversion percentage.

  17. Bifunctional Brønsted Base Catalyzes Direct Asymmetric Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echave, Haizea; López, Rosa; Palomo, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The first enantioselective direct cross-aldol reaction of α-keto amides with aldehydes, mediated by a bifunctional ureidopeptide-based Brønsted base catalyst, is described. The appropriate combination of a tertiary amine base and an aminal, and urea hydrogen-bond donor groups in the catalyst structure promoted the exclusive generation of the α-keto amide enolate which reacted with either non-enolizable or enolizable aldehydes to produce highly enantioenriched polyoxygenated aldol adducts without side-products resulting from dehydration, α-keto amide self-condensation, aldehyde enolization, and isotetronic acid formation. PMID:26835655

  18. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  19. Cobalt nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunhe; Zhu, Yihua; Jiang, Hongliang; Shen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoling; Zou, Wenjian; Chen, Jianding; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-11-01

    Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ΔE (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those of Pt/C and most of the non-precious metal catalysts in previous studies. Furthermore, the Co/N-C composite also shows better bifunctional catalytic activity than its oxidative counterparts, which could be attributed to the high specific surface area and the efficient charge transfer ability of the composite, as well as the good synergistic effect between N-doped carbon and the Co nanoparticles in the Co/N-C composite.Cobalt based catalysts are promising bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) operating with alkaline electrolytes. Here we report a hybrid composite of cobalt nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N-C) via a solvothermal carbonization strategy. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped carbon and cobalt nanoparticles in the composite, the Co/N-C hybrid catalyst exhibits highly efficient bifunctional catalytic activity and excellent stability toward both ORR and OER. The ΔE (oxygen electrode activity parameter for judging the overall electrocatalytic activity of a bifunctional electrocatalyst) value for Co/N-C is 0.859 V, which is smaller than those

  20. Preparation of Pt/Irx(IrO2)10 - x bifunctional oxygen catalyst for unitized regenerative fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Dong; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Ge-Ping; Zhang, Na; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Du, Chun-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Bifunctional Pt/Irx(IrO2)10 - x (x oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (21.71 mA mg-1 at 0.85 V). Meanwhile, considerably high activity towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER) (42.35 mA mg-1 at 1.55 V) is also observed for Pt/Ir3(IrO2)7 catalyst. Kinetic analyses indicate that ORR on Pt/Ir3(IrO2)7 catalyst follows four-electron mechanism. This work opens a new way to fabricate efficient bifunctional oxygen catalyst for URFC.

  1. A central role for bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of amino acids in plant plastids.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Azaz, Jorge; Cánovas, Francisco M.; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    A central role for bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferase in the biosynthesis of amino acids in plant plastids. Fernando de la Torre, Jorge El-Azaz, Concepción Ávila, Francisco M. Cánovas Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica. Universidad de Málaga. Bifunctional aspartate/prephenate aminotransferases (AAT/PAT) are plastid-located enzymes encoded by a single locus in all reported plants, which develop two different enzymatic activities: aspartate aminotransferas...

  2. Neurodegeneration in D-bifunctional protein deficiency: diagnostic clues and natural history using serial magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Aneal [University of Calgary, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wei, Xing-Chang [University of Calgary, Department of Radiology, Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, AB (Canada); Snyder, Floyd F. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Biochemical Genetics Laboratory, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mah, Jean K. [University of Calgary, Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Waterham, Hans; Wanders, Ronald J.A. [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Lab Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    We report serial neurodegenerative changes on neuroimaging in a rare peroxisomal disease called D-bifunctional protein deficiency. The pattern of posterior to anterior demyelination with white matter disease resembles X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We feel this case is important to (1) highlight that D-bifunctional protein deficiency should be considered in cases where the neuroimaging resembles X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, (2) to show different stages of progression to help identify this disease using neuroimaging in children, and (3) to show that neuroimaging suggesting a leukodystrophy can warrant peroxisomal beta-oxidation studies in skin fibroblasts even when plasma very long chain fatty acids are normal. (orig.)

  3. NiCoMnO4: A Bifunctional Affinity Probe for His-Tagged Protein Purification and Phosphorylation Sites Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyue; Chen, Long; Zhang, Chaoqun; Xu, Xinyuan; Zhang, Yiding; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2016-07-27

    A bifunctional affinity probe NiCoMnO4 was designed and prepared with controllable morphology and size using facile methods. It was observed that the probe could be applied in His-tagged proteins purification and phosphopeptides enrichment simply through the buffer modulation. NiCoMnO4 particles showed satisfactory cycling performance for His-tagged proteins purification and broad pH-tolerance of loading buffer for phosphopeptides affinity. Therefore, a high-throughput, cost-effective, and efficient protein/peptide purification method was developed within 10 min based on the novel bifunctional affinity probe. PMID:27381638

  4. Preparation of Polysulfone-supported Phosphoramidic Acid Type Chelate Membrane and Its Sorption Properties for Ag+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; CUI Yong-fang; DU Qi-yun; PEI Guang-ling

    2002-01-01

    A blending chelate filter membrane with high chelate capacity for Ag+ has been prepared by blending of phosphoramidic acid resin and polysulfone. The major parameters influencing structure of the chelate filter membranes such as the blending ratio, phosphoramidic acid resin grain size and temperature of casting solution have been studied. The relationship among the chelate amount of Ag+, pH value, Ag+ concentration and phosphoramidic acid resin grain diameter were examined. The chelate filter membrane had a capacity of1438μg/cm2 for Ag+ under appropriate conditions.Sorption isotherm of Ag + could be expressed with the Freundlich sorption model. The dynamic chelate experiments proved that the sorption and desorption of membranes could be realized simultaneously for Ag+.

  5. CCCCC pentadentate chelates with planar Möbius aromaticity and unique properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Congqing; Yang, Caixia; Wang, Yongheng; Lin, Gan; Yang, Yuhui; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Xin; Liu, Gang; Xia, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The coordinating atoms in polydentate chelates are primarily heteroatoms. We present the first examples of pentadentate chelates with all binding atoms of the chelating agent being carbon atoms, denoted as CCCCC chelates. Having up to five metal-carbon bonds in the equatorial plane has not been previously observed in transition metal chemistry. Density functional theory calculations showed that the planar metallacycle has extended Craig-Möbius aromaticity arising from 12-center–12-electron dπ-pπ π-conjugation. These planar chelates have broad absorption in the ultraviolet-visible–near-infrared region and, thus, notable photothermal performance upon irradiation by an 808-nm laser, indicating that these chelates have potential applications in photothermal therapy. The combination of facile synthesis, high stability, and broad absorption of these complexes could make the polydentate carbon chain a novel building block in coordination chemistry. PMID:27574707

  6. Ternary NiCoP nanosheet arrays: An excellent bifunctional catalyst for alkaline overall water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjie Li; Haichuan Zhang; Ming Jiang; Yun Kuang; Xiaoming Sun; Xue Duan

    2016-01-01

    Exploring bifunctional catalysts for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) with high efficiency,low cost,and easy integration is extremely crucial for future renewable energy systems.Herein,ternary NiCoP nanosheet arrays (NSAs) were fabricated on 3D Ni foam by a facile hydrothermal method followed by phosphorization.These arrays serve as bifunctional alkaline catalysts,exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance and good working stability for both the HER and OER.The overpotentials of the NiCoP NSA electrode required to drive a current density of 50 mA/cm2 for the HER and OER are as low as 133 and 308 mV,respectively,which is ascribed to excellent intrinsic electrocatalytic activity,fast electron transport,and a unique superaerophobic structure.When NiCoP was integrated as both anodic and cathodic material,the electrolyzer required a potential as low as ~1.77 V to drive a current density of 50 mA/cm2 for overall water splitting,which is much smaller than a reported electrolyzer using the same kind of phosphide-based material and is even better than the combination of Pt/C and Ir/C,the best known noble metal-based electrodes.Combining satisfactory working stability and high activity,this NiCoP electrode paves the way for exploring overall water splitting catalysts.

  7. Large-scale Generation of Patterned Bubble Arrays on Printed Bi-functional Boiling Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Ho; David, Michele; Gao, Zhongwei; Chang, Alvin; Allen, Marshall; Wang, Hailei; Chang, Chih-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Bubble nucleation control, growth and departure dynamics is important in understanding boiling phenomena and enhancing nucleate boiling heat transfer performance. We report a novel bi-functional heterogeneous surface structure that is capable of tuning bubble nucleation, growth and departure dynamics. For the fabrication of the surface, hydrophobic polymer dot arrays are first printed on a substrate, followed by hydrophilic ZnO nanostructure deposition via microreactor-assisted nanomaterial deposition (MAND) processing. Wettability contrast between the hydrophobic polymer dot arrays and aqueous ZnO solution allows for the fabrication of heterogeneous surfaces with distinct wettability regions. Heterogeneous surfaces with various configurations were fabricated and their bubble dynamics were examined at elevated heat flux, revealing various nucleate boiling phenomena. In particular, aligned and patterned bubbles with a tunable departure frequency and diameter were demonstrated in a boiling experiment for the first time. Taking advantage of our fabrication method, a 6 inch wafer size heterogeneous surface was prepared. Pool boiling experiments were also performed to demonstrate a heat flux enhancement up to 3X at the same surface superheat using bi-functional surfaces, compared to a bare stainless steel surface.

  8. Determining the Origin of Half-bandgap-voltage Electroluminescence in Bifunctional Rubrene/C60 Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiusong; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, De; Zou, Yue; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-05-01

    Lowering the driving voltage of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is an important approach to reduce their energy consumption. We have fabricated a series of bifunctional devices (OLEDs and photovoltaics) using rubrene and fullerene (C60) as the active layer, in which the electroluminescence threshold voltage(~1.1 V) was half the value of the bandgap of rubrene. Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) response of planner heterojunction diodes exhibited a small increase in response to a low magnetic field strength (20 mT). When a hole-transport layer with a low mobility was included in these devices, the MEL response reversed in shape, and simultaneously, the EL threshold voltage became larger than the bandgap voltage. When bulk heterojunction device was examined, the amplitude of MEL curves presented an anomalous voltage-dependence. Following an analysis of the MEL responses of these devices, we proposed that the EL of half-bandgap-voltage device originated from bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in the rubrene film, rather than from singlet excitons that formed via an interface auger recombination. This work provides critical insight into the mechanisms of OLED emission and will help advance the applications of bifunctional devices.

  9. Subnanometer Cobalt-Hydroxide-Anchored N-Doped Carbon Nanotube Forest for Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lim, Joonwon; Lee, Gil Yong; Choi, Sun Hee; Maiti, Uday Narayan; Lee, Won Jun; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-01-27

    Electrochemical oxygen redox reactions are the crucial elements for energy conversion and storage including fuel cells and metal air batteries. Despite tremendous research efforts, developing high-efficient, low-cost, and durable bifunctional oxygen catalysts remains a major challenge. We report a new class of hybrid material consisting of subnanometer thick amorphous cobalt hydroxide anchored on NCNT as a durable ORR/OER bifunctional catalyst. Although amorphous cobalt species-based catalysts are known as good OER catalysts, hybridizing with NCNT successfully enhanced ORR activity by promoting a 4e reduction pathway. Abundant charge carriers in amorphous cobalt hydroxide are found to trigger the superior OER activity with high current density and low Tafel slope as low as 36 mV/decade. A remarkably high OER turnover frequency (TOF) of 2.3 s(-1) at an overpotential of 300 mV was obtained, one of the highest values reported so far. Moreover, the catalytic activity was maintained over 120 h of cycling. The unique subnanometer scale morphology of amorphous hydroxide cobalt species along with intimate cobalt species-NCNT interaction minimizes the deactivation of catalyst during prolonged repeated cycles. PMID:26766495

  10. Construction of a bifunctional enzyme fusion for the combined determination of biogenic amines in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Ick; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Yu, Mi-Ji; Kim, Young-Wan

    2013-09-25

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are a group of low-molecular-mass organic bases derived from free amino acids. Due to the undesirable effects of BAs on human health, amine oxidase-based detection methods for BAs in foods have been developed. Here, we developed a bifunctional enzyme fusion (MAPO) using a Cu(2+)-containing monoamine oxidase (AMAO2) and a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing putrescine oxidase (APUO) from Arthrobacter aurescens. It was necessary to activate MAPO with supplementary Cu(2+) ions, leading to a 6- to 12-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) for monoamines. The optimal temperatures of Cu(2+)-activated MAPO (cMAPO) for both tyramine and putrescine were 50 °C, and the optimal pH values for tyramine and putrescine were pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively, consistent with those of AMAO2 and APUO, respectively. The cMAPO showed relative specific activities of 100, 99, 32, and 32 for 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, histamine, and putrescine, respectively. The tyramine-equivalent BA contents of fermented soybean pastes by cMAPO were more than 90% of the total BA determined by HPLC. In conclusion, cMAPO is fully bifunctional toward biogenic monoamines and putrescine, allowing the combined determination of multiple BAs in foods. This colorimetric determination method could be useful for point-of-care testing to screen safety-guaranteed products prior to instrumental analyses. PMID:24001036

  11. Highly Efficient and Robust Nickel Phosphides as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Overall Water-Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayuan; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xuemei; Xia, Zhaoming; Gao, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yongquan

    2016-05-01

    To search for the efficient non-noble metal based and/or earth-abundant electrocatalysts for overall water-splitting is critical to promote the clean-energy technologies for hydrogen economy. Herein, we report nickel phosphide (NixPy) catalysts with the controllable phases as the efficient bifunctional catalysts for water electrolysis. The phases of NixPy were determined by the temperatures of the solid-phase reaction between the ultrathin Ni(OH)2 plates and NaH2PO2·H2O. The NixPy with the richest Ni5P4 phase synthesized at 325 °C (NixPy-325) delivered efficient and robust catalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the electrolytes with a wide pH range. The NixPy-325 catalysts also exhibited a remarkable performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in a strong alkaline electrolyte (1.0 M KOH) due to the formation of surface NiOOH species. Furthermore, the bifunctional NixPy-325 catalysts enabled a highly performed overall water-splitting with ∼100% Faradaic efficiency in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte, in which a low applied external potential of 1.57 V led to a stabilized catalytic current density of 10 mA/cm(2) over 60 h. PMID:27064172

  12. Bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts for photocatalysis and antibacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Renbo; Jian, Jikang; Zhang, Zhihua; Song, Bo; Wu, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Multiple functions can be achieved in carbon nitride-based composite nanomaterials by tuning their components and structures. Here, we report on a large-scale synthesis of novel bifunctional Ag/C3N4.5 composite nanobelts (CNBs) with efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. The Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs were synthesized in high yield by a two-step route including a homogeneous precipitation process and a subsequent calcination treatment. The structural, morphological, compositional, and spectroscopic characterizations revealed that the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs are composed of N-deficient melem ultrathin nanobelts and crystalline Ag nanoparticles attached to the surface of the nanobelts with good contact. The band gap of the Ag/C3N4.5 CNBs is determined to be about 3.04 eV. The efficient photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the composite nanomaterials are verified by testing the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and the inhibition zone to bacterium E. coli. The work provides a facile route to bifunctional carbon nitride-based composites with potential applications in the fields of the environment and biology.

  13. Bifunctional Ligands for Inhibition of Tight-Binding Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Taavi; Enkvist, Erki; Viira, Birgit; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu; Raidaru, Gerda; Pflug, Alexander; Alam, Kazi Asraful; Zaccolo, Manuela; Engh, Richard Alan; Uri, Asko

    2016-08-17

    The acknowledged potential of small-molecule therapeutics targeting disease-related protein-protein interactions (PPIs) has promoted active research in this field. The strategy of using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) to fight strong (tight-binding) PPIs tends to fall short due to the flat and wide interfaces of PPIs. Here we propose a biligand approach for disruption of strong PPIs. The potential of this approach was realized for disruption of the tight-binding (KD = 100 pM) tetrameric holoenzyme of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Supported by X-ray analysis of cocrystals, bifunctional inhibitors (ARC-inhibitors) were constructed that simultaneously associated with both the ATP-pocket and the PPI interface area of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc). Bifunctional inhibitor ARC-1411, possessing a KD value of 3 pM toward PKAc, induced the dissociation of the PKA holoenzyme with a low-nanomolar IC50, whereas the ATP-competitive inhibitor H89 bound to the PKA holoenzyme without disruption of the protein tetramer. PMID:27389935

  14. Cyclic isoDGR and RGD peptidomimetics containing bifunctional diketopiperazine scaffolds are integrin antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeri, Silvia; Zanella, Simone; Arosio, Daniela; Vahdati, Leila; Dal Corso, Alberto; Pignataro, Luca; Paolillo, Mayra; Schinelli, Sergio; Belvisi, Laura; Gennari, Cesare; Piarulli, Umberto

    2015-04-13

    The cyclo[DKP-isoDGR] peptidomimetics 2-5, containing bifunctional diketopiperazine (DKP) scaffolds that differ in the configuration of the two DKP stereocenters and in the substitution at the DKP nitrogen atoms, were prepared and examined in vitro in competitive binding assays with purified αv β3 and αv β5 integrin receptors. IC50 values ranged from low nanomolar (ligand 3) to submicromolar with αv β3 integrin. The biological activities of ligands cyclo[DKP3-RGD] 1 and cyclo[DKP3-isoDGR] 3, bearing the same bifunctional DKP scaffold and showing similar αV β3 integrin binding values, were compared in terms of their cellular effects in human U373 glioblastoma cells. Compounds 1 and 3 displayed overlapping inhibitory effects on the FAK/Akt integrin activated transduction pathway and on integrin-mediated cell infiltration processes, and qualify therefore, despite the different RGD and isoDGR sequences, as integrin antagonists. Both compounds induced apoptosis in glioma cells after 72 hour treatment.

  15. Determining the Origin of Half-bandgap-voltage Electroluminescence in Bifunctional Rubrene/C60 Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiusong; Jia, Weiyao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, De; Zou, Yue; Xiong, Zuhong

    2016-01-01

    Lowering the driving voltage of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is an important approach to reduce their energy consumption. We have fabricated a series of bifunctional devices (OLEDs and photovoltaics) using rubrene and fullerene (C60) as the active layer, in which the electroluminescence threshold voltage(~1.1 V) was half the value of the bandgap of rubrene. Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) response of planner heterojunction diodes exhibited a small increase in response to a low magnetic field strength (20 mT). When a hole-transport layer with a low mobility was included in these devices, the MEL response reversed in shape, and simultaneously, the EL threshold voltage became larger than the bandgap voltage. When bulk heterojunction device was examined, the amplitude of MEL curves presented an anomalous voltage-dependence. Following an analysis of the MEL responses of these devices, we proposed that the EL of half-bandgap-voltage device originated from bimolecular triplet-triplet annihilation in the rubrene film, rather than from singlet excitons that formed via an interface auger recombination. This work provides critical insight into the mechanisms of OLED emission and will help advance the applications of bifunctional devices. PMID:27142285

  16. Bifunctional composite microspheres of silica/lanthanide-polyoxometalates/Au: Study on luminescence and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun, E-mail: junwang924@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; Fan, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiqian; Lu, Xuelian; Li, Wuke

    2013-12-02

    In this paper, the synthesis and properties of composite silica microspheres grafted with gold nanoparticles and lanthanide-polyoxometalates are described. This synthesis employs polyethyleneimine as the crosslink polymer to immobilize the Au nanoparticles and lanthanide-polyoxometalates on silica spheres, which results in the formation of bifunctional composite microspheres of silica/lanthanide-polyoxometalates/Au. The composite material was found to be catalytically active in the oxidation of styrene, and benzaldehyde and styrene oxide were the main products. Catalyzed oxidation of styrene demonstrates the size-dependent activity of catalysts and the smaller catalyst shows the higher selectivity. Moreover, the composite particles show bright red luminescence under UV light, which could be seen by naked eyes. The luminescence properties of composite material and the effect of Au nanoparticles on the luminescence of Eu ion were investigated, and energy could be more effectively transferred from ligand to lanthanide ion when Au nanoparticles were grafted on silica spheres. The integration of luminescent components and Au particles makes it possible to label catalyst and monitor the catalyzed reactions. - Highlights: • The bifunctional composite microspheres were fabricated. • Both polyoxometalates and Au nanoparticles could be grafted on silica spheres. • The composite particles exhibit the excellent luminescence and catalytic activity. • The Au nanoparticles affect the luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions.

  17. Characterization of a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Deng, Cong; Liu, Boyu; Zeng, LingBing; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, XuCheng; Guo, XiaoKui; Qin, JinHong

    2013-11-01

    Alarmone Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (or 5'-triphosphate) 3'-diphosphate [(p)ppGpp] is the key component that globally regulates stringent control in bacteria. There are two homologous enzymes, RelA and SpoT in Escherichia coli, which are responsible for fluctuations in (p)ppGpp concentration inside the cell, whereas there exists only a single RelA/SpoT enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria. We have identified a bifunctional enzyme with (p)ppGpp-hydrolase/synthase activity in Leptospira interrogans. We show that the relLin gene (LA_3085) encodes a protein that fully complements the relA/spoT double mutants in E. coli. The protein functions as a (p)ppGpp degradase as well as a (p)ppGpp synthase when the cells encounter amino acid stress and deprivation of carbon sources. N-terminus HD and RSD domains of relLin (relLinN ) were observed to restore growth of double mutants of E. coli. Finally, We demonstrate that purified RelLin and RelLinN show high (p)ppGpp synthesis activity in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that L. interrogans contain a single Rel-like bifunctional protein, RelLin , which plays an important role in maintaining the basal level of (p)ppGpp in the cell potentially contributing to the regulation of bacterial stress response.

  18. Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg, into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

  19. Synthesis and Adsorption Properties of Polystyrene-supported Chelating Resins Containing Heterocyclic Functional Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A series of new chelating resins with incorporating heterocyclic functional groups:pyridine, thiadizole, benzothizole into macroporous chloromethylated polystyrene were synthesized via hydrophilic spacer arm of polyethylene glycol co ntaining sulfur. These chelating resins were found to show high adsorption capacities for Ag+, Hg2+, Au3+ and Pd2+, and the presence of spacer arm can enhance adsorption ability due to increase the hydrophilicity of the chelating resins.

  20. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Independence Following the Initiation of Iron Chelation Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Leitch, Heather A.; Vickars, Linda M.; Chase, Jocelyn M.; Badawi, Maha A.

    2010-01-01

    Iron chelation therapy is often used to treat iron overload in patients requiring transfusion of red blood cells (RBC). A 76-year-old man with MDS type refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, intermediate-1 IPSS risk, was referred when he became transfusion dependent. He declined infusional chelation but subsequently accepted oral therapy. Following the initiation of chelation, RBC transfusion requirement ceased and he remained transfusion independent over 40 months later. Over the ...

  1. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while maintaining food quality.

  2. Chelate-modified polymers for atmospheric gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, W. W.; Mayer, L. A.; Woeller, F. H. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Chromatographic materials were developed to serve as the stationary phase of columns used in the separation of atmospheric gases. These materials consist of a crosslinked porous polymer matrix, e.g., a divinylbenzene polymer, into which has been embedded an inorganic complexed ion such as N,N'-ethylene-bis-(acetylacetoniminato)-cobalt (2). Organic nitrogenous bases, such as pyridine, may be incorporated into the chelate polymer complexes to increase their chromatographic utility. With such materials, the process of gas chromatography is greatly simplified, especially in terms of time and quantity of material needed for a gas separation.

  3. Chelation behaviour of lanthanons with o-arsonodibenzoylmethanephenlylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chelate formation reaction of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), Ho(III), and Er(III) with o-arsonodibenzoylmethanephenylhydrazone has been investigated potentiometrically and conductometrically in 40 % (ν/ν) aqueous ethanol, ionic strength 0,1 M. The order of stability constants was found to be La Gd 3+: L). The complexes have been isolated in solid state and have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and IR data. Coordination occurs through - NH of the hydrazo and - OH of the arsonic groups. (Authors)

  4. Bifunctional, Carbon-Free Nickel/Cobalt-Oxide Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries with an Aqueous Alkaline Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High activity bi-functional catalyst combination for ORR and OER . • An optimum ratio of high active bi-functional catalysts was found. • Novel electrodes without carbon to avoid carbon corrosion during OER mode. • EIS model for OER describes influence of a growing oxide layers. • Long-term test exhibited an excellent long-term stability over 1200 cycles. - Abstract: Lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte promise a very high practical energy density and capacity. These batteries are mainly limited by high overpotentials on the bifunctional cathode during charge and discharge. To reduce overpotentials the bifunctional cathode of such batteries must be improved significantly. Nickel is relatively inexpensive and has a good catalytic activity in alkaline media. Co3O4 was found to be a promising metal oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution in alkaline media but it has a low electronic conductivity. On the other hand since nickel has a good electronic conductivity Co3O4 can be added to pure nickel electrodes to enhance performance due to a synergetic effect. Due to the poor stability of carbon materials at high anodic potentials, gas diffusion electrodes were prepared without carbon to improve especially long-term stability. Gas diffusion electrodes were electrochemically investigated in a half cell. In addition, cyclic voltammogrametry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out. SEM was used for the physical and morphological investigations. Investigations showed that electrodes containing 20 wt.% Co3O4 exhibited the highest performance

  5. Opportunities and challenges in the electrocatalysis of CO2 and CO reduction using bifunctional surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanov, Zarko; Hansen, Heine A.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    "bifunctional" catalysts using Au-Cd based alloys inspired by theoretical modelling. Density functional theory calculations suggest more favourable thermodynamics for CO2 reduction to CO and methanol on mixed Au-Cd sites on Au3Cd relative to similar values on Au. We use various tools to test the bulk...

  6. Pyrrolidinyl-sulfamide derivatives as a new class of bifunctional organocatalysts for direct asymmetric Michael addition of cyclohexanone to nitroalkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Fu, Liang; Zou, You-Quan; Chang, Ning-Jie; Rong, Jian; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2011-07-21

    A series of chiral pyrrolidinyl-sulfamide derivatives have been identified as efficient bifunctional organocatalysts for the direct Michael addition of cyclohexanone to a wide range of nitroalkenes. The desired Michael adducts were obtained in high chemical yields and excellent stereoselectivities (up to 99/1 dr and 95% ee).

  7. BACTERIAL BIOFILM FORMATION VERSUS MAMMALIAN CELL GROWTH ON TITANIUM-BASED MONO- AND BI-FUNCTIONAL COATINGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Pidhatika, Bidhari; Coullerez, Geraldine; Charnley, Mirren; Kuijer, Roel; van der Mei, Henny C.; Textor, Marcus; Busscher, Henk J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials-associated-infections (BAI) are serious complications in modern medicine. Although non-adhesive coatings, like polymer-brush coatings, have been shown to prevent bacterial adhesion, they do not support cell growth. Bi-functional coatings are supposed to prevent biofilm formation while s

  8. Chelating polymeric beads as potential therapeutics for Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattová, Jana; Poučková, Pavla; Kučka, Jan; Skodová, Michaela; Vetrík, Miroslav; Stěpánek, Petr; Urbánek, Petr; Petřík, Miloš; Nový, Zbyněk; Hrubý, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder caused by a malfunction of ATPase 7B that leads to high accumulation of copper in the organism and consequent toxic effects. We propose a gentle therapy to eliminate the excessive copper content with oral administration of insoluble non-resorbable polymer sorbents containing selective chelating groups for copper(II). Polymeric beads with the chelating agents triethylenetetramine, N,N-di(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQB) were investigated. In a preliminary copper uptake experiment, we found that 8HQB significantly reduced copper uptake (using copper-64 as a radiotracer) after oral administration in Wistar rats. Furthermore, we measured organ radioactivity in rats to demonstrate that 8HQB radiolabelled with iodine-125 is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Non-resorbability and the blockade of copper uptake were also confirmed with small animal imaging (PET/CT) in mice. In a long-term experiment with Wistar rats fed a diet containing the polymers, we have found that there were no signs of polymer toxicity and the addition of polymers to the diet led to a significant reduction in the copper contents in the kidneys, brains, and livers of the rats. We have shown that polymers containing specific ligands could potentially be novel therapeutics for Wilson's disease.

  9. Functional characterization of the chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Adám; Müller, Brigitta; Czech, Viktória; Sárvári, Éva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2014-05-01

    Iron (Fe) has an essential role in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and redox cofactors, and thus chloroplast iron uptake is a process of special importance. The chloroplast ferric chelate oxidoreductase (cFRO) has a crucial role in this process but it is poorly characterized. To study the localization and mechanism of action of cFRO, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv Orbis) chloroplast envelope fractions were isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation, and their purity was tested by western blotting against different marker proteins. The ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity of envelope fractions was studied in the presence of NAD(P)H (reductants) and FAD coenzymes. Reduction of Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was monitored spectrophotometrically by the Fe(II)-bathophenanthroline disulfonate complex formation. FCR activity, that is production of free Fe(II) for Fe uptake, showed biphasic saturation kinetics, and was clearly associated only to chloroplast inner envelope (cIE) vesicles. The reaction rate was > 2.5 times higher with NADPH than with NADH, which indicates the natural coenzyme preference of cFRO activity and its dependence on photosynthesis. FCR activity of cIE vesicles isolated from Fe-deficient plants also showed clear biphasic kinetics, where the KM of the low affinity component was elevated, and thus this component was down-regulated.

  10. Using iron chelating agents to enhance dermatological PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Alison; Dogra, Yuktee; Winyard, Paul; Campbell, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    Topical protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) produces good clinical outcomes with excellent cosmesis as long as the disease remains superficial. Efficacy for nodular BCC however appears inferior to standard treatment unless repeat treatments are performed. Enhancement is therefore required and is possible by employing iron chelating agents to temporarily increase PPIX accumulation above the levels normally obtained using aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or the methyl ester of ALA (MAL) alone. In vitro studies investigated the effect of the novel iron chelator, CP94 on necrotic or apoptotic cell death in cultured human skin fibroblasts and epidermal carcinoma cells incubated with MAL. Furthermore, following a dose escalating safety study conducted with ALA in patients, an additional twelve nodular BCCs were recruited for topical treatment with standard MAL-PDT +/- increasing doses of CP94. Six weeks later following clinical assessment, the whole treatment site was excised for histological analysis. CP94 produced greater cell death in vitro when administered in conjunction with MAL than this porphyrin precursor could produce when administered alone. Clinically, PDT treatment using Metvix + CP94 was a simple and safe modification associated with a trend of reduced tumor thickness with increasing CP94 dose.

  11. Capillary gas chromatography of metal chelates of diethyl dithiocarbamates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, M.A.; Bhanger, M.I. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry (Pakistan); Khuhawar, M.Y. [M.A. Kazi Inst. of Chemistry, Univ. of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan)

    2002-03-01

    Capillary GC of metal chelates of diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC) was examined on a methylsilicone DB-1 column, (25 meter, 0.2 mm. i.d) with a film thickness of 0.25 {mu}m. Elution was carried out at the initial column temperature of 180 C and programmed at 5 C min{sup -1} to 260 C. Detection was by FID or ECD. Symmetrical peaks with bse line separation were obtained with the metal chelates of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(III), manganese(II) and chromium(III). The ECD gave better sensitivity than the FID with a linear calibration range of 5 - 50 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and detection limits 2.0 - 6.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1}, corresponding to 111 - 333 pg of metal ion reaching the detector. The method was applied to the determination of metal ions in water and pharmaceutical preparations with a coefficient of variation (CV) within 4.0%. When compared with a standard flame AAS method the results revealed no significant difference. (orig.)

  12. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins, A.H. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ahmartin@demet.ufmg.br

    2007-04-15

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm{sup 3} sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite{sup R} IRC748. (author)

  13. Deferasirox, an oral chelator in the treatment of iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Portioli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Deferasirox is a once-daily oral iron chelator developed for treating iron overload complicating long-term transfusion therapy in patients with diseases such as beta-thalassemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Iron overload can damage the liver, pancreas and the heart. Deferoxamine, the only other drug approved for iron chelation, can prevent these effects but requires parenteral administration. Deferasirox has been approved after a one-year, open-label trial in patients ≥ 2 years old with beta-thalassemia and transfusional emosiderosis randomized to once-daily oral 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day in comparison of subcutaneous deferoxamine 20-60 mg/mg/kg/day x 5/week. CONCLUSIONS Deferasirox 20-30 mg/kg/day produced reductions in liver iron concentration (LIC similar to those with deferoxamine. Adverse effect of deferasirox (increases of serum creatinine and aminotransferases, including the gastrointestinal ones, are similar but more frequent than those occurring with deferoxamine. Information is lacking on the effects of deferasirox on cardiac iron and cardiac dysfunction which is the most serious complication of transfusional iron overload.

  14. Reciprocal regulation as a source of ultrasensitivity in two-component systems with a bifunctional sensor kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Straube

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems, where the phosphorylation state of a regulator protein is modulated by a sensor kinase, are common in bacteria and other microbes. In many of these systems, the sensor kinase is bifunctional catalyzing both, the phosphorylation and the dephosphorylation of the regulator protein in response to input signals. Previous studies have shown that systems with a bifunctional enzyme can adjust the phosphorylation level of the regulator protein independently of the total protein concentrations--a property known as concentration robustness. Here, I argue that two-component systems with a bifunctional enzyme may also exhibit ultrasensitivity if the input signal reciprocally affects multiple activities of the sensor kinase. To this end, I consider the case where an allosteric effector inhibits autophosphorylation and, concomitantly, activates the enzyme's phosphatase activity, as observed experimentally in the PhoQ/PhoP and NRII/NRI systems. A theoretical analysis reveals two operating regimes under steady state conditions depending on the effector affinity: If the affinity is low the system produces a graded response with respect to input signals and exhibits stimulus-dependent concentration robustness--consistent with previous experiments. In contrast, a high-affinity effector may generate ultrasensitivity by a similar mechanism as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles with distinct converter enzymes. The occurrence of ultrasensitivity requires saturation of the sensor kinase's phosphatase activity, but is restricted to low effector concentrations, which suggests that this mode of operation might be employed for the detection and amplification of low abundant input signals. Interestingly, the same mechanism also applies to covalent modification cycles with a bifunctional converter enzyme, which suggests that reciprocal regulation, as a mechanism to generate ultrasensitivity, is not restricted to two

  15. A nanostructured bifunctional Pd/C gas-diffusion electrode for metal-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical Abstract: Images showing (a) a scanning electrode microscope cross section of the Pd/C air electrode, (b) a TEM micrograph of the Pd/C catalyst, and (c) charge–discharge cycling of the air electrode in 6 mol dm−3 KOH at 20 mA cm−2 under 100 ml min−1 oxygen flow. - Highlights: • The Pd/C air electrode shows consistent good performance at modest current densities (20–80 mA cm−2), and is stable for 1000 cycles at room temperature. • The Pd/C air electrode has a potential difference of 0.53 V between oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. • The air electrode makes efficient use of a small precious metal loading (0.5 mg cm−2), and is mainly made from lightweight carbon materials. • The air electrode has better stability than a commercial 2 mg cm−2 Pt/C electrode on repeated charge–discharge cycling, despite having a lower (and therefore less expensive) loading of catalyst. - Abstract: Designing a bifunctional air electrode which catalyses both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions is an essential part of progress towards fully rechargeable metal-air batteries, such as the iron-air battery which is environmentally friendly, low cost, and does not suffer risk of thermal runaway like lithium-ion batteries. This paper reports the development of a lightweight carbon-based bifunctional air electrode, catalysed by a small (0.5 mg cm−2) loading of 30 wt.% palladium on carbon. The Pd-catalysed air electrode showed good bifunctional activity, with 0.53 V potential difference between oxygen reduction and evolution. The Pd/C air electrode showed improved catalytic activity at high current densities (≥ 50 mA cm−2) and enhanced durability compared with two commercial Pt/C air electrodes produced by Gaskatel GmbH and Johnson Matthey. A stable oxygen evolution potential was maintained over 1,000 charge-discharge cycles

  16. Oxygen electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst NiCo2O4 spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, William L.; Singer, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    A significant increase in energy density may be possible if a two-unit alkaline regenerative H2-O2 fuel cell is replaced with a single-unit system that uses passive means for H2O transfer and thermal control. For this single-unit system, new electrocatalysts for the O2 electrode will be required which are not only bifunctionally active but also chemically and electrochemically stable between the voltage range of about 0.7 and 1.5 V. NiCo2O4 spinel is reported to have certain characteristics that make it useful for a study of electrode fabrication techniques. High surface area NiCo2O4 powder was fabricated into unsupported, bifunctional, PTFE-bonded, porous gas fuel cell electrodes by commercial sources using varying PTFE contents and sintering temperatures. The object of this study is to measure the bifunctional activities of these electrodes and to observe what performance differences might result from different commercial electrode fabricators. O2 evolution and O2 reduction data were obtained at 80 C (31 percent KOH). An irreversible reaction (i.e., aging) occurred during O2 evolution at potentials greater than about 1.5 V. Anodic Tafel slopes of 0.06 and 0.12 V/decade were obtained for the aged electrodes. Within the range of 15 to 25 percent, the PTFE content was not a critical parameter for optimizing the electrode for O2 evolution activity. Sintering temperatures between 300 and 340 C may be adequate but heating at 275 C may not be sufficient to properly sinter the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture. Electrode disintegration was observed during O2 reduction. Transport of O2 to the NiCo2O4 surface became prohibitive at greater than about -0.02 A/sq cm. Cathodic Tafel slopes of -0.6 and -0.12 V/decade were assumed for the O2 reduction process. A PTFE content of 25 percent (or greater) appears to be preferable for sintering the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture.

  17. THE SYNTHESIS OF URUSHIOL TITANIUM CHELATE POLYMERS AND THEIR STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Binghuan; CHEN Wending; LIN Jinhuo

    1993-01-01

    The synthetic method and structural characteristics of urushiol-titanium chelates (UT) and urushiol-titanium chelate polymer for anticorrosive coatings have been studied.Two kinds of coating films made from UT polymer show excellent physico-mechanical properties and possess good chemical resistance to strong acids and alkalis, many kinds of salt solutions and organic solvents,stable at high temperature.

  18. A sustainable method inspired by nature for the production of original bi-functional nutraceuticals containing prebiotic fibers and highly bio-available forms of calcium and magnesium

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Dorothée; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel

    2012-01-01

    A sustainable method inspired by nature is proposed leading to an original bifunctional product active on gut health, metabolism regulation, immunity and mineral fortification, fighting against topical chronic diseases (type2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer…). Peer reviewed

  19. On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija L Mehtälä

    Full Text Available Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2 protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m, V(max and k(cat of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

  20. Experimental verifications on chemical carcinogenesis, a bifunctional alkylation between DNA interstrands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is evidenced by the filter elution method that two carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, two carcinogenic metal salts, beryllium chloride and cadmium chloride, four carcinogenic aromatic amines, 2-aminofluorene, β-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, can all induce DNA interstrand and DNA-protein cross-link in L1210 culture. However, under the same condition, the corresponding non-carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[k]fluorancene, anthracene, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, a -naphthylamine, 2-aminobiphenyl and m-toluidine, cannot produce any cross-link adducts. All these results are consistent with the di-region theory that carcinogens are bio-bifunctional alkylation agents. This method can also be used to discriminate carcinogens and non-carcinogens.

  1. Stable expression of a bifunctional diterpene synthase in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zedler, Julie A Z; Gangl, Doris; Hamberger, Björn Robert;

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been shown to hold significant promise as a production platform for recombinant proteins, but transformation of the nuclear genome is still a non-trivial process due to random gene insertion and frequent silencing. Insertion of transgenes into the chloroplasts...... is an alternative strategy, and we report here the stable expression of a large (91 kDa) protein in the chloroplast using a recently developed low-cost transformation protocol. Moreover, selection of transformants is based on restoration of prototrophy using an endogenous gene (psbH) as the marker, thereby allowing...... the generation of transgenic lines without the use of antibiotic-resistance genes. Here, we have expressed a bifunctional diterpene synthase in C. reinhardtii chloroplasts. Homoplasmic transformants were obtained with the expressed enzyme accounting for 3.7 % of total soluble protein. The enzyme was purified...

  2. Basic evaluation of [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira

    1993-11-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with [sup 67]Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. The [sup 67]Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase imaging. (author).

  3. A Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschinger, Felix; Chattopadhyay, Samir; Bhakta, Snehadri; Mondal, Biswajit; Elemans, Johannes A. A. W.; Müllegger, Stefan; Tebi, Stefano; Koch, Reinhold; Klappenberger, Florian; Paszkiewicz, Mateusz; Barth, Johannes V.; Rauls, Eva; Aldahhak, Hazem; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen reduction and water oxidation are two key processes in fuel cell applications. The oxidation of water to dioxygen is a 4 H+/4 e− process, while oxygen can be fully reduced to water by a 4 e−/4 H+ process or partially reduced by fewer electrons to reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 and O2 −. We demonstrate that a novel manganese corrole complex behaves as a bifunctional catalyst for both the electrocatalytic generation of dioxygen as well as the reduction of dioxygen in aqueous media. Furthermore, our combined kinetic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical study of manganese corroles adsorbed on different electrode materials (down to a submolecular level) reveals mechanistic details of the oxygen evolution and reduction processes.

  4. Synthesis of acrylic and allylic bifunctional cross-linking monomers derived from PET waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Aguilar, A.; Herrera-González, A. M.; Vázquez-García, R. A.; Navarro-Rodríguez, D.; Coreño, J.

    2013-06-01

    An acrylic and two novel allylic monomers synthesized from bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BHET, are reported. This was obtained by glycolysis of post-consumer PET with boiling ethylene glycol. The bifunctional monomer bis(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl) terephthalate was obtained from acryloyl chloride, while the allylic monomers 2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy) ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate and bis(2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy)ethyl) terephthalate, from allyl chloroformate. Cross-linking was studied in bulk polymerization using two different thermal initiators. Monomers were analyzed by means of 1H NMR and the cross-linked polymers by infrared spectroscopy. Gel content higher than 90% was obtained for the acrylic monomer. In the case of the mixture of the allylic monomers, the cross-linked polymer was 80 % using BPO initiator, being this mixture 24 times less reactive than the acrylic monomer.

  5. Novel 3-nitrotriazole-based amides and carbinols as bifunctional antichagasic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Lepesheva, Galina I; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Kaiser, Marcel; Aguilera-Venegas, Benjamín; Wilkinson, Shane R; Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2015-02-12

    3-Nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-based amides with a linear, rigid core and 3-nitrotriazole-based fluconazole analogues were synthesized as dual functioning antitrypanosomal agents. Such compounds are excellent substrates for type I nitroreductase (NTR) located in the mitochondrion of trypanosomatids and, at the same time, act as inhibitors of the sterol 14α-demethylase (T. cruzi CYP51) enzyme. Because combination treatments against parasites are often superior to monotherapy, we believe that this emerging class of bifunctional compounds may introduce a new generation of antitrypanosomal drugs. In the present work, the synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of such compounds is discussed. PMID:25580906

  6. Bi-Functional Biobased Packing of the Cassava Starch, Glycerol, Licuri Nanocellulose and Red Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0–1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage. PMID:25383783

  7. Bifunctional enzyme FBPase/SBPase is essential for photoautotrophic growth in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlan Yan; Xudong Xu

    2008-01-01

    From a random insertion mutant library of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a mutant defective in photoautotrophic growth was obtained. The interrupted gene was identified to be sir2094 (fbpl), which encodes the fructose-l,6-biphosphatase (FBPase)/sedoheptu-lose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) bifunctional enzyme (F-I). Two other independently constructed slr2094 mutants showed an identical phenotype. The FBPase activity was found to be virtually lacking in an sir2094 mutant, which was sensitive to light under mixotrophic growth conditions. These results indicate that sir2094 is the only active FBPase-encoding gene in this cyanobacterium. Inactivation of photosystem 11 by interrupting psbB in sir2094 mutant alleviated the sensitiveness to light. This report provides the direct genetic evi-dence for the essential role of F-I in the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  8. Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tianyi; Song, Baoyu; Wen, Yu-Ho; Zhang, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles (BHSNs), which are silica nanoparticles covered with alkyl and amino organic chains, were prepared as high-performance additives for lubricants. Compared with hairy silica nanoparticles covered by a single type of organic chain, binary hairy silica nanoparticles exhibit the advantages of both types of organic chains, which exhibit excellent compatibility with lubricants and adsorbability to metal surfaces. Nanoparticles with different ratios of amino and alkyl ligands were investigated. In comparison to an untreated lubricant, BHSNs reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter by 40% and 60%, respectively. The wear mechanism of BHSNs was investigated, and the protective and filling effect of the nanoparticles improved because of collaboration of amino and alkyl ligands.

  9. Dyes as bifunctional markers of DNA hybridization on surfaces and mutation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mendiola, Tania; Cerro, María Ramos; López-Moreno, José María; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of small molecules with DNA has found diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this work, we propose the use of two different dyes, in particular Azure A and Safranine, as bifunctional markers of on-surface DNA hybridization and potent tools for screening of specific gene mutations directly in real DNA PCR amplicons extracted from blood cells. By combining spectroscopic and electrochemical methods we demonstrate that both dyes can interact with single and double stranded DNA to a different extent, allowing reliable hybridization detection. From these data, we have also elucidated the nature of the interaction. We conclude that the binding mode is fundamentally intercalative with an electrostatic component. The dye fluorescence allows their use as nucleic acid stains for the detection of on-surfaces DNA hybridization. Its redox activity is exploited in the development of selective electrochemical DNA biosensors. PMID:27317997

  10. "Click" chemistry mildly stabilizes bifunctional gold nanoparticles for sensing and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Na; Echeverria, María; Moya, Sergio; Salmon, Lionel; Ruiz, Jaime; Astruc, Didier

    2014-07-01

    A large family of bifunctional 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that contain both a polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain and another functional fragment (e.g., a polymer, dendron, alcohol, carboxylic acid, allyl, fluorescence dye, redox-robust metal complex, or a β-cyclodextrin unit) has been synthesized by facile "click" chemistry and mildly coordinated to nanogold particles, thus providing stable water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the size range 3.0-11.2 nm with various properties and applications. In particular, the sensing properties of these AuNPs are illustrated through the detection of an analogue of a warfare agent (i.e., sulfur mustard) by means of a fluorescence "turn-on" assay, and the catalytic activity of the smallest triazole-AuNPs (core of 3.0 nm) is excellent for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in water.

  11. RNA Secondary Structure Modulates FMRP's Bi-Functional Role in the MicroRNA Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Phillip; Ceman, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs act by post-transcriptionally regulating the gene expression of 30%-60% of mammalian genomes. MicroRNAs are key regulators in all cellular processes, though the mechanism by which the cell activates or represses microRNA-mediated translational regulation is poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the RNA binding protein Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) and its role in microRNA-mediated translational regulation. Historically, FMRP is known to function as a translational suppressor. However, emerging data suggests that FMRP has both an agonistic and antagonistic role in regulating microRNA-mediated translational suppression. This bi-functional role is dependent on FMRP's interaction with the RNA helicase Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10), which modifies the structural landscape of bound mRNA, therefore facilitating or inhibiting its association with the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex. PMID:27338369

  12. Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratoddi Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand.

  13. Bifunctional Nanoparticle-SILP Catalysts (NPs@SILP) for the Selective Deoxygenation of Biomass Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luska, Kylie L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Julis, Jennifer [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany); Stavitski, Eli [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zakharov, Dmitri N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adams, Alina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Leitner, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Coal Research, Ruhr (Germany)

    2014-08-27

    We immobilized ruthenium nanoparticles onto an acidic supported ionic liquid phase (RuNPs@SILP) in the development of bifunctional catalysts for the selective deoxygenation of biomass substrates. RuNPs@SILPs possessed high catalytic activities, selectivities and recyclabilities in the hydrogenolytic deoxygenation and ring opening of C8- and C9-substrates derived from furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetone. When we tailor the acidity of the SILP through the ionic liquid loading provided a molecular parameter by which the catalytic activity and selectivity of the RuNPs@SILPs were controlled to provide a flexible catalyst system toward the formation of different classes of value-added products: cyclic ethers, primary alcohols or aliphatic ethers.

  14. Bi-functional biobased packing of the cassava starch, glycerol, licuri nanocellulose and red propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samantha Serra; Druzian, Janice Izabel; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; de Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Guimarães, Alaíse Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4%) and glycerol (1.0%), reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1%) and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%). The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage.

  15. Bi-functional biobased packing of the cassava starch, glycerol, licuri nanocellulose and red propolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Serra Costa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the bi-functional efficacy of active packaging films produced with starch (4% and glycerol (1.0%, reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (0-1% and activated with alcoholic extracts of red propolis (0.4 to 1.0%. The cellulose nanocrystals used in this study were extracted from licuri leaves. The films were characterized using moisture, water-activity analyses and water vapor-permeability tests and were tested regarding their total phenolic compounds and mechanical properties. The antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of the films were evaluated by monitoring the use of the active films for packaging cheese curds and butter, respectively. The cellulose nanocrystals increased the mechanical strength of the films and reduced the water permeability and water activity. The active film had an antimicrobial effect on coagulase-positive staphylococci in cheese curds and reduced the oxidation of butter during storage.

  16. The fabrication of a bifunctional oxygen electrode without carbon components for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen W. T.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Li, Xiaohong; Gorman, Scott F.; Pletcher, Derek; Russell, Andrea E.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described. It is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo2O4 spinel electrocatalyst layer by dip coating in a nitrate solution and thermal decomposition. The influence of modifications to the procedure on the performance of the GDEs in 8 M NaOH at 333 K is described. The GDEs can support current densities up to 100 mA cm-2 with state-of-the-art overpotentials for both oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. Stable performance during >50 successive, 1 h oxygen reduction/evolution cycles at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 has been achieved.

  17. Cobalt Selenide Nanostructures: An Efficient Bifunctional Catalyst with High Current Density at Low Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Jahangir; Swesi, Abdurazag T; Liyanage, Wipula P R; Nath, Manashi

    2016-07-13

    Electrodeposited Co7Se8 nanostructures exhibiting flake-like morphology show bifunctional catalytic activity for oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reaction (OER and HER, respectively) in alkaline medium with long-term durability (>12 h) and high Faradaic efficiency (99.62%). In addition to low Tafel slope (32.6 mV per decade), the Co7Se8 OER electrocatalyst also exhibited very low overpotential to achieve 10 mA cm(-2) (0.26 V) which is lower than other transition metal chalcogenide based OER electrocatalysts reported in the literature and significantly lower than the state-of-the-art precious metal oxides. A low Tafel slope (59.1 mV per decade) was also obtained for the HER catalytic activity in alkaline electrolyte. The OER catalytic activity could be further improved by creating arrays of 3-dimensional rod-like and tubular structures of Co7Se8 through confined electrodeposition on lithographically patterned nanoelectrodes. Such arrays of patterned nanostructures produced exceptionally high mass activity and gravimetric current density (∼68 000 A g(-1)) compared to the planar thin films (∼220 A g(-1)). Such high mass activity of the catalysts underlines reduction in usage of the active material without compromising efficiency and their practical applicability. The catalyst layer could be electrodeposited on different substrates, and an effect of the substrate surface on the catalytic activity was also investigated. The Co7Se8 bifunctional catalyst enabled water electrolysis in alkaline solution at a cell voltage of 1.6 V. The electrodeposition works with exceptional reproducibility on any conducting substrate and shows unprecedented catalytic performance especially with the patterned growth of catalyst rods and tubes. PMID:27309595

  18. Gently reduced graphene oxide incorporated into cobalt oxalate rods as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Water-oxygen electrochemistry is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies (fuel cells, electrolyzers, and metal-air batteries) due to the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although much effort has been devoted to the development of improved bifunctional electrocatalysts, an inexpensive, highly active oxygen electrocatalyst, however, remains to be a challenge. In this paper, we present a facile and robust method to create gently reduced graphene oxide incorporated into cobalt oxalate microstructures (CoC2O4/gRGO) and demonstrate its excellent and stable electrocatalytic activity in both OER and ORR, arising from the inherent properties of the components and their physicochemical interaction. Our synthesis technique also explores a single pot method to partially reduce graphene oxide and form CoC2O4 structures while maintaining the solution processability of reduced graphene oxide. While the OER activity of CoC2O4/gRGO is exclusively due to CoC2O4, which transformed into OER-active Co species, the combination with gRGO significantly improves OER stability. On the other hand, CoC2O4/gRGO exhibits synergistic effect towards ORR, via a quasi-four-electron pathway, leading to a slightly higher ORR limiting current than Pt/C. Remarkably, gRGO offers dual functionality, contributing to ORR activity via the N-functional groups and also enhancing OER stability through the gRGO coating around CoC2O4 structures. Our results suggest a new class of metal-carbon composite that has the potential to be alternative bifunctional catalysts for regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries

  19. Chemical modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube with a bifunctional caged ligand for radioactive labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The findings of this work describe a new method that can be utilised to radioactively label multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powders with the use of a bi-functional cage ligand. -- Abstract: Carboxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been successfully radiolabelled with cobalt-57 (57Co) (T1/2 = 270 days) via the attachment of the bifunctional caged ligand MeAMN3S3sar. In this study MeAMN3S3sar has been synthesized and coupled to MWCNTs to form the conjugate MWCNT–MeAMN3S3sar. Synthesis was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the conjugation. Non-radioactive labelling of this conjugate was completed with Cu(II) ions to confirm the stability of the MeAMN3S3sar after coupling with the MWCNTs. The complexation of the Cu(II) was also confirmed with XPS. Transmission electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that the coupling reaction had a negligible effect on the size and shape of the MWCNTs. Radiolabelling of the MWCNT–MeAMN3S3sar conjugate and pristine (untreated) MWCNTs (non-specific) with the gamma-emitting radioactive isotope 57Co were compared. The radiolabelling efficiency of the MWCNT–MeAMN3S3sar conjugate was significantly higher (95% vs. 0.1%) (P ⩽ 0.001) than for the unconjugated pristine MWCNTs. This will allow for the potential tracking of nanoparticle movement in vitro and in vivo

  20. Dimerization and Bifunctionality Confer Robustness to the Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Regulatory System in Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Joseph P.; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    An important goal of systems biology is to develop quantitative models that explain how specific molecular features give rise to systems-level properties. Metabolic and regulatory pathways that contain multifunctional proteins are especially interesting to study from this perspective because they have frequently been observed to exhibit robustness: the ability for a system to perform its proper function even as levels of its components change. In this study, we use extensive biochemical data and algebraic modeling to develop and analyze a model that shows how robust behavior arises in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) regulatory system of Escherichia coli, which was shown in 1985 to experimentally exhibit robustness. E. coli IDH is regulated by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by the bifunctional isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (IDHKP), and the level of IDH activity determines whether carbon flux is directed through the glyoxylate bypass (for growth on two-carbon substrates) or the full tricarboxylic acid cycle. Our model, which incorporates recent structural data on IDHKP, identifies several specific biochemical features of the system (including homodimerization of IDH and bifunctionality of IDHKP) that provide a potential explanation for robustness. Using algebraic techniques, we derive an invariant that summarizes the steady-state relationship between the phospho-forms of IDH. We use the invariant in combination with kinetic data on IDHKP to calculate IDH activity at a range of total IDH levels and find that our model predicts robustness. Our work unifies much of the known biochemistry of the IDH regulatory system into a single quantitative framework and highlights the importance of constructing biochemically realistic models in systems biology. PMID:23192354

  1. Bifunctional Effect of Human IFN-γon Cultured Human Fibroblasts from Tenon's Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Guo; Jian Ge; Haiquan Liu; Yanyan Li; Jianliang Zheng; Xiangkun Huang; Yuqing Lan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of human IFN-γ on in vitro cultured human fibroblasts from Tenon's capsuleMaterials and methods: The effect of different concentrations of human IFN-γ and mitomycin-C (MMC), 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) on cultured human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTCF) was measured using a MIT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; Thiazolyl blue) colorimetric assay. The results were analyzed using ANOVA of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 9.0version. The difference was considered to be significant if P < 0. 05.Results: The effects of MMC and 5-Fu on the growth of HTCF were negative, while the effects of IFN-γ on the growth of HTCF were both negative (102 ~ l04 units/ml in two experiments) and positive (106, 105, 10 units/ml in two experiments) . The inhibition rate of MMC ranged from 5.73% to 46. 9%, which was similar to the inhibition rate of 5-Fu ranged from 12.49% to 38.92% ( P= 0. 351) . The inhibition rate of IFN-γ in two experiments was smaller than MMC and 5-Fu ( P < 0.05).Conclusion: IFN-γ has bifunctional effect (both enhancement and inhibition) on proliferation of cultured HTCF. The antiproliferative effect of IFN-γ was weaker than MMC and 5-Fu. Further study has to be carried out to document the inhibition of scar formation of filtration bleb by IFN-γ and the molecular mechanisms of its bifunctional effect on HTCF proliferation. Eye Science 2000; 16: 43~ 47.

  2. Bifunctional Effect of Human IFN-γ on Cultured Human Fibroblasts from Tenon‘s Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanGuo; JianGe; 等

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To study the effect of human IFN-γ on in ivtro cultured human fibroblasts from Tenon's capsule.Materials and methods:The effect of different concentrations of human IFN-γand mitomycin-C (MMC),5-fluorouracil(5-Fu) on cultured human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts(HTCF) was measured using a MTT[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo-2-yI)]-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide;Thiazolyl blue) colorimetric assay.The results were analyzed using ANOVA of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 9.0 version.The difference was considered to be significant if P<0.05.Results:The effects of MMC and 5-Fu on the growth of HTCF were negative,while the effects of IFN-γon the growth of HTCF were both negative(102-104 units/ml in two experiments)and positive(106,105,10 units /ml in two experiments).The inhibition rate of MMC ranged from 5.73% to 46.9% ,which was similar to the inhibition rate of 5-Fu ranged from 12.49% to 38.92%(P=0.351).The inhibition rate of IFN-γ in two experiments was smaller than MMC and 5-Fu (P<0.05).Conclusion: IFN-γ has bifunctional effect (both enhancement and inhibition)on proliferation of cultured HTCF.The antiproliferative effect of IFN-γ was weaker than MMC and 5-Fu.Further study has to be carried out to document theinhibition of scar formation of filtration bleb by IFN-γ and the molecular mechanisms of its bifunctional effect on HTCF proliferation.Eye Science 2000;16:43-47.

  3. Conversion of agonist site to metal-ion chelator site in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, C E; Thirstrup, K; Holst, Birgitte;

    1999-01-01

    in the mutant receptors not by normal catecholamine ligands but instead either by free zinc ions or by zinc or copper ions in complex with small hydrophobic metal-ion chelators. Chelation of the metal ions by small hydrophobic chelators such as phenanthroline or bipyridine protected the cells from the toxic...... effect of, for example Cu(2+), and in several cases increased the affinity of the ions for the agonistic site. Wash-out experiments and structure-activity analysis indicated, that the high-affinity chelators and the metal ions bind and activate the mutant receptor as metal ion guided ligand complexes....... Because of the well-understood binding geometry of the small metal ions, an important distance constraint has here been imposed between TM-III and -VII in the active, signaling conformation of 7TM receptors. It is suggested that atoxic metal-ion chelator complexes could possibly in the future be used...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of dihexyldithiocarbamate as a chelating agent in extraction of gold(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Soja Siti; Bahti, Husein H.; Hastiawan, Iwan; Permanasari, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The use of dialkyldithiocarbamates as chelating agents of transition metals have been developing for decades. Many chelating agents have been synthesized and used in the extraction of the metals. Studies on particular aspects of extraction of the metals, such as the effect of increasing hydrophobicity of chelating agents on the effectiveness of the extraction, have been done. However, despite the many studies on the synthesis and applications of this type of chelating agents, interests in the aspect of molecular structure of the synthesized ligands and of their complexes, have been limited. This study aimed at synthesizing and characterizing dihexylthiocarbamate, and using the ligand for the extraction of gold III). Characterization of the ligand and of its metal complex were done by using elemental analysis, DTG, and spectroscopic methods to include NMR, (1H, and 13C), FTIR, and MS-ESI. Data on the synthesis, characterization, and the application of the ligand as a chelating agent are presented.

  5. Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of dihexyldithiocarbamate as a chelating agent in extraction of gold(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatimah, Soja Siti, E-mail: soja-sf@upi.edu [Departemen Pendidikan Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung 40154 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang, Km. 21, Jatinangor (Indonesia); Bahti, Husein H.; Hastiawan, Iwan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang, Km. 21, Jatinangor (Indonesia); Permanasari, Anna [Departemen Pendidikan Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung 40154 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The use of dialkyldithiocarbamates as chelating agents of transition metals have been developing for decades. Many chelating agents have been synthesized and used in the extraction of the metals. Studies on particular aspects of extraction of the metals, such as the effect of increasing hydrophobicity of chelating agents on the effectiveness of the extraction, have been done. However, despite the many studies on the synthesis and applications of this type of chelating agents, interests in the aspect of molecular structure of the synthesized ligands and of their complexes, have been limited. This study aimed at synthesizing and characterizing dihexylthiocarbamate, and using the ligand for the extraction of gold III). Characterization of the ligand and of its metal complex were done by using elemental analysis, DTG, and spectroscopic methods to include NMR, ({sup 1}H, and {sup 13}C), FTIR, and MS-ESI. Data on the synthesis, characterization, and the application of the ligand as a chelating agent are presented.

  7. Design and synthesis of zinc-selective chelators for extracellular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Urano, Yasuteru; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Odani, Akira; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2005-01-26

    Zinc (Zn2+) is found in every cell in human bodies. A few millimolar of free Zn2+ exists in the vesicles of presynaptic neurons in the mammalian brain and is released by synaptic activity or depolarization, modulating the function of certain ion channels and receptors. Although various chemical tools for measuring Zn2+ in biological samples, such as fluorescent probes for Zn2+, have been developed, Zn2+-selective chelators have room to be improved. Research on Zn2+ signals in the brain has traditionally employed several chelators, which have several shortcomings for biological applications. Here we report the design, synthesis, and properties of new membrane-impermeable chelators selective for Zn2+ and describe biological applications in hippocampal slices. As a result, our newly designed chelator revealed the first biological implication that presynaptic Zn2+ can be released in the CA1 region. This confirms the utility of these new chelatotrs as extracellular Zn2+ chelators for biological applications.

  8. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Independence Following the Initiation of Iron Chelation Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A. Badawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chelation therapy is often used to treat iron overload in patients requiring transfusion of red blood cells (RBC. A 76-year-old man with MDS type refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, intermediate-1 IPSS risk, was referred when he became transfusion dependent. He declined infusional chelation but subsequently accepted oral therapy. Following the initiation of chelation, RBC transfusion requirement ceased and he remained transfusion independent over 40 months later. Over the same time course, ferritin levels decreased but did not normalize. There have been eighteen other MDS patients reported showing improvement in hemoglobin level with iron chelation; nine became transfusion independent, nine had decreased transfusion requirements, and some showed improved trilineage myelopoiesis. The clinical features of these patients are summarized and possible mechanisms for such an effect of iron chelation on cytopenias are discussed.

  9. A NOVEL METAL CHELATE AFFINITY ADSORBENT FOR PROTEIN UPTAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYongjian; BAIShu; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this article,a spherical chitosan gel crosslinked by epichlorohydrin was prepared.It was then loaded with copper ions to produce a metal chelate affinity adsorbent for protein.The uptake of bovine serum albumin(BSA)by the affinity adsorbent was investigated.and the adsorption capacity for BSA as high as 40mg/g-wet beads was observed.The adsorption equilibrium data was well correlated by the Langmuir equation.The adsorption was considerably affected by pH.In additio.The amount of BSA adsorbed onto the beads decreased with the increasing of aqueous phase ionic strength,so adsorbed BAS can be desorbed by adjusting pH orionic strength of the solution.

  10. Economically dissolving barium sulfate scale with a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.E.

    1977-06-21

    A composition is described for dissolving a barium sulfate scale from a subterranean or other relatively remote location into which fluid can be flowed. Fluid is flow-flowed into the remote location so that a stream of fluid contacts and flows along the surface of the scale. The composition and flow rate of the fluid are adjusted so that (1) the scale is contacted by a stream of aqueous solution in which each portion contains enough dissolved aminopolyacetic acid salt chelating agent to dissolve barium sulfate, and (2) substantially all upstream portions of the scale are contacted by a succession of portions of the aqueous liquid which are substantially unsaturated with respect to dissolved barium-chelant complex. (5 claims)

  11. Encapsulation and retention of chelated-copper inside hydrophobic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervella, Pablo; Parra, Elisa; Needham, David

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: In the field of imaging, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging allows evaluation of glucose metabolism and is the most widely used imaging agent clinically for metastatic cancer. While it can certainly detect the metastatic disease, in order to provide a more fully "individualized...... that our endogenous-inspired nanoparticle strategies for imaging and therapeutics are focused on encapsulating and retaining imaging ions such as copper inside novel hydrophobic nanoparticles. In this paper, we describe a new approach to label the core of hydrophobic nanoparticles composed of Glyceryl...... Trioleate (Triolein) with copper using the hydrophobic chelator Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP). RESEARCH PLAN AND METHODS: The research plan for this study was to (1) Formulate nanoparticles and control nanoparticle size using a modification of the solvent injection technique, named fast ethanol injection; (2...

  12. Chelation-Induced Polymer Structural Hierarchy/Complexity in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Zhou, Kaiyi; Zhu, Xuechao; Yu, Qiuping; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xinhua; Cai, Yuanli

    2016-08-01

    Understanding nanoscale structural hierarchy/complexity of hydrophilic flexible polymers is imperative because it can be viewed as an analogue to protein-alike superstructures. However, current understanding is still in infancy. Herein the first demonstration of nanoscale structural hierarchy/complexity via copper chelation-induced self-assembly (CCISA) is presented. Hierarchically-ordered colloidal networks and disks can be achieved by deliberate control of spacer length and solution pH. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy demonstrate that CCISA underwent supramolecular-to-supracolloidal stepwise-growth mechanism, and underline amazing prospects to the hierarchically-ordered superstructures of hydrophilic flexible polymers in water. PMID:27219860

  13. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  14. Mechanistic basis for overcoming platinum resistance using copper chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng D; Long, Yan; Tsai, Wen-Bin; Fu, Siqing; Kurzrock, Razelle; Gagea-Iurascu, Mihai; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Helen H W; Hennessy, Bryan T; Mills, Gordon B; Savaraj, Niramol; Kuo, Macus Tien

    2012-11-01

    Platinum-based antitumor agents are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the successful use of these agents because once drug resistance develops, other effective treatment options are limited. Recently, we conducted a clinical trial using a copper-lowering agent to overcome platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients and the preliminary results are encouraging. In supporting this clinical study, using three pairs of cisplatin (cDDP)-resistant cell lines and two ovarian cancer cell lines derived from patients who had failed in platinum-based chemotherapy, we showed that cDDP resistance associated with reduced expression of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1), which is also a cDDP transporter, can be preferentially resensitized by copper-lowering agents because of enhanced hCtr1 expression, as compared with their drug-sensitive counterparts. Such a preferential induction of hCtr1 expression in cDDP-resistant variants by copper chelation can be explained by the mammalian copper homeostasis regulatory mechanism. Enhanced cell-killing efficacy by a copper-lowering agent was also observed in animal xenografts bearing cDDP-resistant cells. Finally, by analyzing a public gene expression dataset, we found that ovarian cancer patients with elevated levels of hCtr1 in their tumors, but not ATP7A and ATP7B, had more favorable outcomes after platinum drug treatment than those expressing low hCtr1 levels. This study reveals the mechanistic basis for using copper chelation to overcome cDDP resistance in clinical investigations.

  15. MR imaging of lung ventilation with aerosolized Gadolinium-chelates; MR-Bildgebung der Lungenventilation mittels aerosolierter Gadolinium-Chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, P.; Karaagac, S.; Spuentrup, E.; Guenther, R.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Adam, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2003-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance assessment of human lung ventilation with aerosolized Gd-chelates in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adults (mean age 37 years) were studied with a 1.5 T unit. The volunteers were instructed to inhale the aerosol through an airtight facial mask for 10 minutes. The aerosol was generated with a jet-type small particle nebulizer with attached heater. Ventilation imaging was performed using a respiration-gated dynamic T{sub 1}-weighted turbo spin echo sequence (T{sub R}=199 ms, T{sub E}=8.5 ms, 12 signal averages, slice thickness 10 mm). Pulmonary signal intensity changes were calculated before and after nebulization. Results: The investigation was successfully carried out in all volunteers. An acute or delayed allergic reaction to the aerosolized contrast medium was not observed. In 4 of 5 experiments (80%), a homogeneous signal intensity increase was readily visualized with an average signal increase of 35% after 10 minutes; in one experiment, the aerosol distribution was slightly heterogeneous. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Durchfuehrbarkeit einer kernspintomographischen Darstellung der Lungenventilation mittels aerosolierter Gd-Chelate bei gesunden Probanden. Methoden: 5 Probanden (Durchschnittsalter 37 Jahre) wurden in einem 1,5T System untersucht. Die Probanden atmeten spontan aerosoliertes Gd-DTPA ueber eine Atemmaske fuer eine Dauer von 10 Minuten. Das Kontrastmittel-Aerosol wurde ueber einen leistungsfaehigen druckluftbetriebenen Vernebler generiert. Die Illustration der Ventilation erfolgte mit einer atemgegateten dynamischen T{sub 1}-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echosequenz. Zur Quantitifizerung der Lungenventilation wurden die Signalintensitaeten im Lungengewebe vor und nach Verneblung berechnet. Ergebnisse: Alle Untersuchungen wurden komplikationslos durchgefuehrt und beendet. Eine akute oder verzoegerte Kontrastmittelreaktion wurde nicht beobachtet. In 4 von 5

  16. Dual-Doped Molybdenum Trioxide Nanowires: A Bifunctional Anode for Fiber-Shaped Asymmetric Supercapacitors and Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Cheng, Xinyu; Zeng, Yinxiang; Wang, Zilong; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong; Yang, Shihe

    2016-06-01

    A novel in situ N and low-valence-state Mo dual doping strategy was employed to significantly improve the conductivity, active-site accessibility, and electrochemical stability of MoO3 , drastically boosting its electrochemical properties. Consequently, our optimized N-MoO3-x nanowires exhibited exceptional performances as a bifunctional anode material for both fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The flexible fiber-shaped ASC and MFC device based on the N-MoO3-x anode could deliver an unprecedentedly high energy density of 2.29 mWh cm(-3) and a remarkable power density of 0.76 μW cm(-1) , respectively. Such a bifunctional fiber-shaped N-MoO3-x electrode opens the way to integrate the electricity generation and storage for self-powered sources.

  17. Dynamics of tropomyosin in muscle fibers as monitored by saturation transfer EPR of bi-functional probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni F Rayes

    Full Text Available The dynamics of four regions of tropomyosin was assessed using saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance in the muscle fiber. In order to fully immobilize the spin probe on the surface of tropomyosin, a bi-functional spin label was attached to i,i+4 positions via cysteine mutagenesis. The dynamics of bi-functionally labeled tropomyosin mutants decreased by three orders of magnitude when reconstituted into "ghost muscle fibers". The rates of motion varied along the length of tropomyosin with the C-terminus position 268/272 being one order of magnitude slower then N-terminal domain or the center of the molecule. Introduction of troponin decreases the dynamics of all four sites in the muscle fiber, but there was no significant effect upon addition of calcium or myosin subfragment-1.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a bifunctional catalase-phenol oxidase from Scytalidium thermophilum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bifunctional enzyme catalase-phenol oxidase from S. thermophilum was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in space group P21 and diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Catalase-phenol oxidase from Scytalidium thermophilum is a bifunctional enzyme: its major activity is the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but it also catalyzes phenol oxidation. To understand the structural basis of this dual functionality, the enzyme, which has been shown to be a tetramer in solution, has been purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography and has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Streak-seeding was used to obtain larger crystals suitable for X-ray analysis. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source. The crystals belonged to space group P21 and contained one tetramer per asymmetric unit

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Hung [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Peng, Wen-Yan [Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan (China); Huang, Yen-Chieh [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying-Cheng [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan (China); Liu, Ming-Yih [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Chang, Tschining [Department of Hospitality Management, Nan Jeon Institute of Technology, Yen-Shui, Tainan 73746,Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Jung, E-mail: cjchen@nsrrc.org.tw [Life Science Group, Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076,Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013,Taiwan (China)

    2006-08-01

    The crystallization of rice α-amylase/subtilisin bifunctional inhibitor is reported. Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization of rice α-amylase/subtilisin bifunctional inhibitor is reported. Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%

  1. N,P-Codoped Carbon Networks as Efficient Metal-free Bifunctional Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Qu, Liangti; Shi, Gaoquan; Liu, Jiangyong; Chen, Jianfeng; Dai, Liming

    2016-02-01

    The high cost and scarcity of noble metal catalysts, such as Pt, have hindered the hydrogen production from electrochemical water splitting, the oxygen reduction in fuel cells and batteries. Herein, we developed a simple template-free approach to three-dimensional porous carbon networks codoped with nitrogen and phosphorus by pyrolysis of a supermolecular aggregate of self-assembled melamine, phytic acid, and graphene oxide (MPSA/GO). The pyrolyzed MPSA/GO acted as the first metal-free bifunctional catalyst with high activities for both oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution. Zn-air batteries with the pyrolyzed MPSA/GO air electrode showed a high peak power density (310 W g(-1) ) and an excellent durability. Thus, the pyrolyzed MPSA/GO is a promising bifunctional catalyst for renewable energy technologies, particularly regenerative fuel cells. PMID:26709954

  2. MOFs as multifunctional catalysts: one-pot synthesis of menthol from citronellal over a bifunctional MIL-101 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirujano, F G; Llabrés i Xamena, F X; Corma, A

    2012-04-14

    A bifunctional MOF catalyst containing coordinatively unsaturated Cr(3+) sites and palladium nanoparticles (Pd@MIL-101) has been used for the cyclization of citronellal to isopulegol and for the one-pot tandem isomerization/hydrogenation of citronellal to menthol. The MOF was found to be stable under the reaction conditions used, and the results obtained indicate that the performance of this bifunctional solid catalyst is comparable with other state-of-the-art materials for the tandem reaction: Full citronellal conversion was attained over Pd@MIL-101 in 18 h, with 86% selectivity to menthols and a diastereoselectivity of 81% to the desired (-)-menthol, while up to 30 h were necessary for attaining similar values over Ir/H-beta under analogous reaction conditions. PMID:22382815

  3. Generation, Fractionation, and Characterization of Iron-Chelating Protein Hydrolysate from Palm Kernel Cake Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ghanbari, Rahele; Tajabadi, Naser; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-02-01

    Palm kernel cake protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases namely papain, bromelain, subtilisin, flavourzyme, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin to generate different protein hydrolysates. Peptide content and iron-chelating activity of each hydrolysate were evaluated using O-phthaldialdehyde-based spectrophotometric method and ferrozine-based colorimetric assay, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between peptide contents and iron-chelating activities of the protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain exhibited the highest peptide content of 10.5 mM and highest iron-chelating activity of 64.8% compared with the other hydrolysates. Profiling of the papain-generated hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography fractionation indicated a direct association between peptide content and iron-chelating activity in most of the fractions. Further fractionation using isoelectric focusing also revealed that protein hydrolysate with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) had the highest iron-chelating activity, although a few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good metal chelating potential. After identification and synthesis of papain-generated peptides, GGIF and YLLLK showed among the highest iron-chelating activities of 56% and 53%, whereas their IC50 were 1.4 and 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26720491

  4. Characterization of commercial iron chelates and their behavior in an alkaline and calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, Rodrigo G; Zamarreño, Angel M; García-Mina, José M

    2002-12-18

    Iron deficiency is a common problem for many plants grown in alkaline and calcareous soils. To correct this problem, iron is supplied to plants as chelates. Several iron chelates are sold under diverse trademarks with different characteristics. This work evaluated 18 commercial products containing the most representative chelated iron sources used in agricultural practice in Spain when the study was done, namely the ferric chelates of EDDHA, EDDHMA, EDDCHA, EDDHSA, EDTA, and DTPA. The chelates were comprehensively characterized and quantitated by several techniques, including several chromatographic methods. Iron and chelate dynamics in soil were also studied in a model alkaline and calcareous soil. Results indicate that, in this model soil, among the different iron compounds studied only FeEDDHA and analogues have the capacity to maintain soluble iron in soil solution over time. These results are in agreement with general experience under field conditions. Furthermore, among the different ortho-ortho isomers of FeEDDHA's, FeEDDHSA and FeEDDCHA showed greater capacity than FeEDDHA and FeEDDHMA to maintain the chelated iron in soil solution over time. PMID:12475278

  5. Function of the iron-binding chelator produced by Coriolus versicolor in lignin biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An ultrafiltered low-molecular-weight preparation of chelating compounds was isolated from a wood-containing culture of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. This preparation could chelate Fe3+ and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, demonstrating that the substance may serve as a ferric chelator, oxygen-reducing agent, and redox-cycling molecule, which would include functioning as the electron transport carrier in Fenton reaction. Lignin was treated with the iron-binding chelator and the changes in structure were investigated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, difference spectrum caused by ionization under alkaline conditions and nitrobenzene oxidation. The results indicated that the iron-binding chelator could destroy the β-O-4 bonds in etherified lignin units and insert phenolic hydroxyl groups. The low-molecular-weight chelator secreted by C. versicolor resulted in new phenolic substructures in the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase. Thus, the synergic action of the iron-binding chelator and the lignocellulolytic enzymes made the substrate more acces- sible to degradation.

  6. Recovery Properties of Polysulfone Hollow Fiber Chelating Membrane Modified with Thiourea for Mercury ( Ⅱ )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; XIAO Feng; HUANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms of the polysulfone hollow fiber chelating membrane modified with thiourea as chelating groups for Hg2+ were determined. The effects of mobile phase conditions and the operating parameters on removal performance of the chelating membrane for Hg2+ were also investigated. The recovery of Hg2+ decreased at low pH and the optimum range of pH was from 6 to 7. The feed concentration effected on recovery of Hg2+ at the specified loading amount of Hg2+. The Hg2+ could be removed from different concentration feed solution by chelating membrane. The increase of feed flow rate led to slight decrease of recovery of Hg2+ at the specified loading amount of Hg2+. The chelating membrane could be operated at height feed flow rate and a large-scale removal of Hg2+ could be realized. With the increase of load amount, Hg2+ recovery decreased, but the saturation degree of chelating membrane increased. According to required recovery of Hg2+ and the saturation degree of chelating membrane, the optimum loading amount of Hg2+ should be selected in the actual removal of Hg2+.

  7. Function of the iron-binding chelator produced by Coriolus versicolor in lignin biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; YAN WenChao; CHEN JiaChuan; HUANG Feng; GAO PeiJi

    2008-01-01

    An ultrafiltered low-molecular-weight preparation of chelating compounds was isolated from a wood-containing culture of the white-rot basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. This preparation could chelate Fe3+ and reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, demonstrating that the substance may serve as a ferric chelator,oxygen-reducing agent, and redox-cycling molecule, which would include functioning as the electron transport carrier in Fenton reaction. Lignin was treated with the iron-binding chelator and the changes in structure were investigated by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, difference spectrum caused by ionization under alkaline conditions and nitrobenzene oxidation. The results indicated that the iron-binding chelator could destroy the β-O-4 bonds in etherified lignin units and insert phenolic hydroxyl groups. The low-molecular-weight chelator secreted by C. versicolor resulted in new phenolic substructures in the lignin polymer, making it susceptible to attack by laccase or manganese peroxidase. Thus, the synergic action of the iron-binding chelator and the lignocellulolytic enzymes made the substrate more accessible to degradation.

  8. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-02-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed.

  9. Generation, Fractionation, and Characterization of Iron-Chelating Protein Hydrolysate from Palm Kernel Cake Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad; Ghanbari, Rahele; Tajabadi, Naser; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-02-01

    Palm kernel cake protein was hydrolyzed with different proteases namely papain, bromelain, subtilisin, flavourzyme, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin to generate different protein hydrolysates. Peptide content and iron-chelating activity of each hydrolysate were evaluated using O-phthaldialdehyde-based spectrophotometric method and ferrozine-based colorimetric assay, respectively. The results revealed a positive correlation between peptide contents and iron-chelating activities of the protein hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain exhibited the highest peptide content of 10.5 mM and highest iron-chelating activity of 64.8% compared with the other hydrolysates. Profiling of the papain-generated hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography fractionation indicated a direct association between peptide content and iron-chelating activity in most of the fractions. Further fractionation using isoelectric focusing also revealed that protein hydrolysate with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) had the highest iron-chelating activity, although a few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good metal chelating potential. After identification and synthesis of papain-generated peptides, GGIF and YLLLK showed among the highest iron-chelating activities of 56% and 53%, whereas their IC50 were 1.4 and 0.2 μM, respectively.

  10. Preparation of chitosan-EDTA nanoparticles and the chelating effect of radioactive strontium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To obtain the CTS-EDTA nanoparticles and investigate their effects of chelating 89Sr2+ in vivo. Method: The CTS-EDTA nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking CTS-EDTA with polyanion sodium tripolyphosphate ( TPP). And the zwitterionic chelate of the CTS-EDTA nanoparticles was used for promoting the radionuclides excreted in vivo. Results: The CTS-EDTA nanoparticles showed that particle size was uniformity of the spherical nano-particles by TEM, and the average particle size of 10.18 nm by Laser Particle Sizer. we found that CEC-Nano and the CEC had a good chelating effect of radioactive strontium in vivo, after 30 min and 2 h in the medication and the chelating efficiency of radioactive strontium excretion in the femur was significantly higher than the EDTA-Na2. At multiple doses,the chelating efficiency of CEC-Nano and the CEC through the urinary excretion and feces were better than traditional medicines EDTA-Na2. Conclusion: By this experimental method, we can be prepare nanodrugs of chelating radionuclide, it provides a basis for studying the broad-spectrum of radionuclide contamination chelating agents. (authors)

  11. Bifunctional TiO2 Catalysts for Efficient Cr(Ⅵ) Photoreduction Under Solar Light Irradiation Without Addition of Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-cheng Shi; Wen-dong Wang; Wei-xin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Bifunctional Ti02 photocatalysts co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur were prepared by the controlled thermal decomposition of ammonium titanyl sulfate precursor.They have both photocatalytic activity and Brφnsted acidity,and thus are active in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) under solar light irradiation without the addition of acids.The activity is superior to that of Degussa P25 in the acidified suspension at the same pH adjusted by H2SO4.

  12. Vanadium nanobelts coated nickel foam 3D bifunctional electrode with excellent catalytic activity and stability for water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Li, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Gao, Wenyu; Shen, Zongxu; Zhu, Yanan; Yang, Shuliang; Song, Weiguo; Ding, Kejian

    2016-05-01

    Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm-2 with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity.Pursuit of highly active, stable and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key point for large-scale water splitting. A vanadium nanobelts coating on a nickel foam (V/NF) is proposed as an excellent 3D bifunctional electrode for water electrolysis here, which exhibits high activities with overpotentials of 292 and 176 mV at 10 mA cm-2 for OER and HER, respectively. When employed as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in an alkaline water electrolyzer, a cell voltage of 1.80 V was required to achieve 20 mA cm-2 with a slight increase during a 24 h durability test. The existence of the appropriate amount of nitrogen and oxygen elements in the surface region of vanadium nanobelts is regarded to be responsible for the electrocatalytic activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More SEM, TEM images, XRD patterns, LSV curves, XPS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02395a

  13. Enhanced bifunctional activity of LaNiO3-based gas diffusion electrodes for regenerative fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R A; Soares, C. O.; Carvalho, M. D.; C. M. Rangel; Pereira, M. I. da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Perovskites are of great interest when searching replacements for precious metals as catalyst for bifunctional oxygen electrodes involving the oxygen evolution(OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as is the case of regenerative fuel cells. In this work a full electrochemical study on the electrochemical properties of gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) using LaNiO3-based catalysts, conducted in alkaline media, led to a study of cyclability and durability. The incorporation of GDEs in a low po...

  14. L-Threonine-derived novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide catalyst-promoted enantioselective aza-morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Fangrui

    2011-03-18

    A series of novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide organic catalysts were designed and readily prepared from natural amino acids, and they were utilized to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions. l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 9b was found to be the most efficient catalyst, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. The Role of the Methyltransferase Domain of Bifunctional Restriction Enzyme RM.BpuSI in Cleavage Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Sarrade-Loucheur; Shuang-yong Xu; Siu-Hong Chan

    2013-01-01

    Restriction enzyme (REase) RM.BpuSI can be described as a Type IIS/C/G REase for its cleavage site outside of the recognition sequence (Type IIS), bifunctional polypeptide possessing both methyltransferase (MTase) and endonuclease activities (Type IIC) and endonuclease activity stimulated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) (Type IIG). The stimulatory effect of SAM on cleavage activity presents a major paradox: a co-factor of the MTase activity that renders the substrate unsusceptible to cleavag...

  16. Physicochemical properties of skim milk powders prepared with the addition of mineral chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Vink, Sean; Roy, Soma

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mineral chelator addition during skim milk powder (SMP) manufacture on the solubility, turbidity, soluble protein, and heat stability (HS). Three chelators (sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium polyphosphate, and disodium EDTA) at 3 different concentrations (5, 15, and 25mM) were added to skim milk concentrate (30% total solids), and the pH was adjusted to 6.65 before spray drying to produce SMP. Spray-dried SMP samples were tested for solubility index (SI). Additionally, samples were reconstituted to contain 9% total solids, adjusted to pH 7.0, and tested for turbidity, protein content from supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples, and HS. Lower SI values were observed for samples treated with 5mM disodium EDTA and sodium polyphosphate than control samples or samples with 5mM sodium citrate dihydrate. Furthermore, lower SI values were observed with an increased level of chelating agents regardless of chelator type. A decreased turbidity value was found with increasing levels of mineral chelating salt treatment. Low turbidity with increasing levels of added chelators may be associated with the dissociation of caseins from micelles. Furthermore, higher protein content was observed in supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples treated with increased level of chelators as compared with the control sample. Higher HS was observed in samples treated with 5mM compared with samples treated with 25mM mineral chelator. The results suggest improved solubility and HS upon addition of mineral chelators to SMP during its manufacture. PMID:27040785

  17. Different photoluminescent properties of binary and ternary europium chelates doped in PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of europium-β-diketone chelates, binary Eu(DBM)3 and ternary Eu(DBM)3phen were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). These chelates show very different photoluminescent (PL) behaviors: the hypersensitive 5D0→7F2 emission bands of Eu(DBM)3phen change slightly with the molar ratios, while those of Eu(DBM)3 change obviously and regularly with the molar ratios. The results of the luminescent lifetimes of 5D0 levels show that the binary chelate exists as two kinds of species in the doped systems, and the lifetimes and contents of each species change with the molar ratios, while the ternary chelate exists as one kind of species in the doped systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the binary chelate doped systems give some diffraction peaks that are different from those of pure chelate and change with the molar ratios, indicating new kinds of crystal structures formed, and consequently, the first coordination sphere of Eu3+ ion changes; while those of the ternary chelate doped systems just show amorphous diffraction halos of the host, indicating that the ternary chelate exist in an amorphous state and disperse well in the host. The FTIR spectra of PMMA also change gradually with increasing the molar ratios of the doped two kinds of chelates, and the XRD patterns show that the amorphous halos of PMMA in the doped systems are different from those of pure PMMA and change with the molar ratios, too, suggesting the interaction between the guest and the host

  18. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles.

  19. Bifunctional chimeric SuperCD suicide gene -YCD: YUPRT fusion is highly effective in a rat hepatoma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian Graepler; Ulrike A Lauer; Reinhard Vonthein; Michael Gregor; Sorin Armeanu; Michael Bitzer; Ulrich M. Lauer; Marie-Luise Lemken; Wolfgang A Wybranietz; Ulrike Schmidt; Irina Smirnow; Christine D Groβ; Martin Spiegel; Andrea Schenk; Hansj(o)rg Graf

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of catalytically superior gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy systems on a rat hepatoma model.METHODS: To increase hepatoma cell chemosensitivity for the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), we generated a chimeric bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene, a fusion of the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) and the yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (YUPRT) gene.RESULTS: In vitro stably transduced Morris rat hepatoma cells (MH) expressing the bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene (MH SuperCD) showed a clearly marked enhancement in cell killing when incubated with 5-FC as compared with MH ceils stably expressing YCD solely (MH YCD) or the cytosine deaminase gene of bacterial origin(MH BCD), respectively. In vivo, MH SuperCD tumors implanted both subcutaneously as well as orthotopically into the livers of syngeneic ACI rats demonstrated significant tumor regressions (P<0.01) under both high dose as well as low dose systemic 5-FC application,whereas MH tumors without transgene expression (MH naive) showed rapid progression. For the first time, an order of in vivo suicide gene effectiveness (SuperCD>>YCD > > BCD > > > negative control) was defi ned as a result of a directin vivo comparison of all three suicide genes.CONCLUSION: Bifunctional SuperCD suicide gene expression is highly effective in a rat hepatoma model,thereby significantly improving both the therapeutic index and the efficacy of hepatocellular carcinoma killing by fluorocytosine.

  20. pH-Sensitive, N-ethoxybenzylimidazole (NEBI) bifunctional crosslinkers enable triggered release of therapeutics from drug delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Alice; Issarapanichkit, Tawny; Kong, Seong Deok; Fong, Rina; Yang, Jerry

    2010-11-21

    This paper presents a pH-sensitive bifunctional crosslinker that enables facile conjugation of small molecule therapeutics to macromolecular carriers for use in drug delivery systems. This N-ethoxybenzylimidazole (NEBI) bifunctional crosslinker was designed to exploit mildly acidic, subcellular environments to trigger the release of therapeutics upon internalization in cells. We demonstrate that an analog of doxorubicin (a representative example of an anticancer therapeutic) conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA, a representative example of a macromolecular carrier) via this NEBI crosslinker can internalize and localize into acidic lysosomes of ovarian cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging and cell viability studies demonstrate that the HSA-NEBI-doxorubicin conjugate exhibited improved uptake and cytotoxic activity compared to the unconjugated doxorubicin analog. The pH-sensitive NEBI group was also shown to be relatively stable to biologically-relevant metal Lewis acids and to serum proteins, supporting that these bifunctional crosslinkers may be useful for constructing drug delivery systems that will be stable in biological fluids such as blood.

  1. Chelate effects in sulfate binding by amide/urea-based ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuandong; Wang, Qi-Qiang; Begum, Rowshan Ara; Day, Victor W; Bowman-James, Kristin

    2015-07-01

    The influence of chelate and mini-chelate effects on sulfate binding was explored for six amide-, amide/amine-, urea-, and urea/amine-based ligands. Two of the urea-based hosts were selective for SO4(2-) in water-mixed DMSO-d6 systems. Results indicated that the mini-chelate effect provided by a single urea group with two NH binding sites appears to provide enhanced binding over two amide groups. Furthermore, additional urea binding sites incorporated into the host framework appeared to overcome to some extent competing hydration effects with increasing water content.

  2. The Effect of Chelating Copolymer Additive on the Yttrium Iron Garnet Nanoparticle Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Cheng-chien

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a well-known ferromagnetic garnet material and has widely used in electronic devices[1].A new acrylic chelating polymer was developed to act as the additive of the preparation of YIG precursor in our previous study[2].The sintering temperature of YIG nanocrystal obtained by this YIG precursor (ACP) was magnificently descended from 1 000 to 600 ℃.In this study,we were further to study the effect of amount of chelating polymer and the compositions of chelating polyme...

  3. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of polyhydroxamate chelators for selective complexation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific chelating polymers targeted for actinides have much relevance to problems involving remediation of nuclear waste. Goal is to develop polymer supported, ion specific extraction systems for removing actinides and other hazardous metal ions from wastewaters. This is part of an effort to develop chelators for removing actinide ions such as Pu from soils and waste streams. Selected ligands are being attached to polymeric backbones to create novel chelating polymers. These polymers and other water soluble and insoluble polymers have been synthesized and are being evaluated for ability to selectively remove target metal ions from process waste streams

  4. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2540c DNA sequence encodes a bifunctional chorismate synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Diógenes S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi- and extensively-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has created an urgent need for new agents to treat tuberculosis (TB. The enzymes of shikimate pathway are attractive targets to the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential for M. tuberculosis and is absent from humans. Chorismate synthase (CS is the seventh enzyme of this route and catalyzes the NADH- and FMN-dependent synthesis of chorismate, a precursor of aromatic amino acids, naphthoquinones, menaquinones, and mycobactins. Although the M. tuberculosis Rv2540c (aroF sequence has been annotated to encode a chorismate synthase, there has been no report on its correct assignment and functional characterization of its protein product. Results In the present work, we describe DNA amplification of aroF-encoded CS from M. tuberculosis (MtCS, molecular cloning, protein expression, and purification to homogeneity. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, mass spectrometry and gel filtration chromatography were employed to determine identity, subunit molecular weight and oligomeric state in solution of homogeneous recombinant MtCS. The bifunctionality of MtCS was determined by measurements of both chorismate synthase and NADH:FMN oxidoreductase activities. The flavin reductase activity was characterized, showing the existence of a complex between FMNox and MtCS. FMNox and NADH equilibrium binding was measured. Primary deuterium, solvent and multiple kinetic isotope effects are described and suggest distinct steps for hydride and proton transfers, with the former being more rate-limiting. Conclusion This is the first report showing that a bacterial CS is bifunctional. Primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects show that C4-proS hydrogen is being transferred during the reduction of FMNox by NADH and that hydride transfer contributes significantly to the rate-limiting step of FMN reduction reaction. Solvent kinetic isotope effects and

  5. Chelation therapy of thorium deposited in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (CaDTPA) and a siderophore analogue 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) on decorporation of small and large thorium masses (234Th 46 ng, 234Th 46 ng + 232Th 5 μg per rat) instilled into the lungs was studied. Along with repeated injections, chelating agents were administered continuously by mini-osmotic pumps over 14 d. Treatment with CaDTPA alone was partly successful in the decorporation of both thorium masses. Greater decorporation was achieved with 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) in pumps and CaDTPA in injections. In the whole body, lungs and skeleton, 23%, 24% and 24% of control radioactivity was found, respectively, for the small mass of thorium. When the large mass of thorium was instilled, only continuous infusion of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) at low concentration efficiently prevented transfer of thorium to the skeleton (reduced to 9% of control). Both the whole body and lungs retained 50% of control radioactivity. (author)

  6. mer and fac isomerism in tris chelate diimine metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabb, Serin L; Fletcher, Nicholas C

    2015-03-14

    In this perspective, we highlight the issue of meridional (mer) and facial (fac) orientation of asymmetrical diimines in tris-chelate transition metal complexes. Diimine ligands have long been the workhorse of coordination chemistry, and whilst there are now good strategies to isolate materials where the inherent metal centered chirality is under almost complete control, and systematic methodologies to isolate heteroleptic complexes, the conceptually simple geometrical isomerism has not been widely investigated. In systems where the two donor atoms are significantly different in terms of the σ-donor and π-accepting ability, the fac isomer is likely to be the thermodynamic product. For the diimine complexes with two trigonal planar nitrogen atoms there is much more subtlety to the system, and external factors such as the solvent, lattice packing and the various steric considerations play a delicate role in determining the observed and isolable product. In this article we discuss the possibilities to control the isomeric ratio in labile systems, consider the opportunities to separate inert complexes and discuss the observed differences in their spectroscopic properties. Finally we report on the ligand orientation in supramolecular systems where facial coordination leads to simple regular structures such as helicates and tetrahedra, but the ability of the ligand system to adopt a mer orientation enables self-assembled structures of considerable beauty and complexity.

  7. New method to estimate stability of chelate complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, F V; Romanov, A N; Kondakova, O A; Sulimov, V B

    2009-01-01

    A new method allowing calculation of the stability of chelate complexes with Mg2+ ion in water have been developed. The method is based on two-stage scheme for the complex formation. The first stage is the ligand transfer from an arbitrary point of the solution to the second solvation shell of the Mg2+ ion. At this stage the ligand is considered as a charged or neutral rigid body. The second stage takes into account disruption of coordinate bonds between Mg2+ and water molecules from the first solvation shell and formation of the bonds between the ligand and the Mg2+ ion. This effect is considered using the quantum chemical modeling. It has been revealed that the main contribution to the free energy of the complex formation is caused by the disruption/formation of the coordinate bonds between Mg2+, water molecules and the ligand. Another important contribution to the complex formation energy is change of electrostatic interactions in water solvent upon the ligand binding with Mg2+ ion. For all complexes under...

  8. A membrane-specific tyrosinase chelate: the mitotic regulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharasch, J A

    1987-06-01

    Cancer's random, reversible, unstable transitions to "normal" structures imply their functional relation. Similar random, continuous, reversible oncogene "mutational transformation" also lacks a consistent hybrid. Positing cancer's "mutationally altered genotype" leads to medically foreign causes, qualities, inducers, suppressors, immune proteins, and viruses. Its random variation, however, opposes the functionally discrete, ordered, stable, irreversible hybrid variation and single-valued transforms of molecular genetics. There, "causal mutational operators" remain unspecified; only consistent single-valued DNA base and amino acid change, as "transform operand", are made explicit. A mitotically "blocked" (normal) and "unblocked" (malignant) stem cell "phenotype", operationally constructed from microscopic data, is therefore viewed within the homeostatic context of open-system enzyme-regulatory equilibrium. This functional, stochastic field distribution between "structurally bound" and "freely dividing" stem cell number discloses their putative regulatory mitotic-blocking factor. A tyrosinase complex, interacting by Cu2+-Fe2+ chelation with a proline hydroxylase divisional enzyme near stem cell ribosomes, maintains steady-state mitotic equilibrium. Based upon familiar medical, biochemical, and energy principles this confronts cancer's pigmentary-depigmentary signs, glycolytic metabolism, elevated serum tyrosinase, defective collagen production, exposed membrane binding sites, and tyrosine's recent growth control role.

  9. MR imaging of lung ventilation with aerosolized Gadolinium-chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance assessment of human lung ventilation with aerosolized Gd-chelates in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adults (mean age 37 years) were studied with a 1.5 T unit. The volunteers were instructed to inhale the aerosol through an airtight facial mask for 10 minutes. The aerosol was generated with a jet-type small particle nebulizer with attached heater. Ventilation imaging was performed using a respiration-gated dynamic T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequence (TR=199 ms, TE=8.5 ms, 12 signal averages, slice thickness 10 mm). Pulmonary signal intensity changes were calculated before and after nebulization. Results: The investigation was successfully carried out in all volunteers. An acute or delayed allergic reaction to the aerosolized contrast medium was not observed. In 4 of 5 experiments (80%), a homogeneous signal intensity increase was readily visualized with an average signal increase of 35% after 10 minutes; in one experiment, the aerosol distribution was slightly heterogeneous. (orig.)

  10. Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through iron chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Steven; O'Donnell, Allyson F; Ballew, Anna; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2011-11-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, is an ancient therapeutic used in India for centuries to treat a wide array of ailments. Interest in curcumin has increased recently, with ongoing clinical trials exploring curcumin as an anticancer therapy and as a protectant against neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro, curcumin chelates metal ions. However, although diverse physiological effects have been documented for this compound, curcumin's mechanism of action on mammalian cells remains unclear. This study uses yeast as a model eukaryotic system to dissect the biological activity of curcumin. We found that yeast mutants lacking genes required for iron and copper homeostasis are hypersensitive to curcumin and that iron supplementation rescues this sensitivity. Curcumin penetrates yeast cells, concentrates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and reduces the intracellular iron pool. Curcumin-treated, iron-starved cultures are enriched in unbudded cells, suggesting that the G(1) phase of the cell cycle is lengthened. A delay in cell cycle progression could, in part, explain the antitumorigenic properties associated with curcumin. We also demonstrate that curcumin causes a growth lag in cultured human cells that is remediated by the addition of exogenous iron. These findings suggest that curcumin-induced iron starvation is conserved from yeast to humans and underlies curcumin's medicinal properties.

  11. Multidentate dipyridyl derivatives as chelates for rhenium (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium (V) complexes with the following multidentate dipyridyl ligands were prepared: 2,2'-dipyridylamine (DPA), 1,2-bis(2-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) and di-(2-picolyl)amine (HDIPA). Reactions of a twofold molar excess of the potentially NN donor ligand DPA with trans-[ReO (OEt)Cl2(PPh3)2] in ethanol led to isolation of a monomer [ReOCl2(OEt)(DPA)] (1). Treatments of trans-[ReOCl3(PPh3)2] with a tenfold molar excess of DPA in ethanol at reflux yielded [ReO2(dpa)2]Cl (2), but with a twofold molar excess a dimer (μ-O)[{ReOCl2(dpa)}2] (3a) was isolated. The latter reaction with (n-Bu4N)[ReOCl4] as starting material in ethanol at room temperature led to a dark green product, also with the formulation (μ-O)[{ReOCl2(dpa)}2] (3b). Reacting equimolar quantities of (n-Bu4N)[ReOCl4] and HDIPA in acetone led to [ReOCl(OH2)(DIPA)Cl (4) in which HDIPA acted as a monoanionic terdentate chelate. The reaction of trans-[ReOCl3(PPh3)2] with DPE, in which DPE undergoes a metal-promoted nucleophilic attack by a water molecule, produces a complex with a general formula [ReO(DPE.OH)Cl2] (5). (author)

  12. Mechanisms of oxide dissolution by acid chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the different possible rate controlling processes in the dissolution of metallic oxides are examined. In particular, the following situations are assessed: mass-transfer control; coupling of mass-transfer and reactions at the interface; interface equilibration with the solution; various interface disruption and reconstruction phenomena. For each of the above mentioned cases, the influence of variables such as reagent concentration, temperature, pH, fluid hydrodynamics and general and specific catalysts is discussed. Depending upon the particular situation it is found that a more rational basis for the development of reagent is given by these considerations. The influence of chelating agents on both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the process is discussed, and the results of experimental studies in batch on magnetite and various ferrites are presented and discussed. For this purpose, several reagents were studied, including some very effective ones like thioglycolic acid, and others commonly used in actual decontamination, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and oxalic acid. The relation to other (reductive) chemical decontamination procedures is discussed. The relevance of these studies to decontamination of metallic surfaces is discussed

  13. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmink, J.F; vanGils, I.C.F.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. Experimental cond

  14. CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF ACRYLATE ASMMETRIC Dd(Ⅱ)—CHELATING RESINS CONTAINING AMINO ACID LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangying; WangHongzuo; 等

    1995-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of palladium chelating resins containing chiral amino acid ligands based on lower crosslinked poly(chloroethyl acrylate) and some effects on the rate of hydrogenation were studied.

  15. Serum stability of 67Cu chelates: comparison with 111In and 57Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple chelates and chelate conjugated monoclonal antibodies labeled with 111In, 57Co and 67Cu demonstrate marked differences in stability when exposed to a serum environment. Among these radiometals, on DTPA, the order of stability is 111In > 57Co >> 67Cu. On benzyl-EDTA, the order of stability is 111In approx. 57Co >> 67Cu. Among those investigated, the only serum stable 67Cu chelate found was 67>Cu-TETA. The order of stability observed for 57Co vs 67Cu is contrary to published equilibrium constants. These in vitro studies suggest that the in vivo behavior of metal chelates exposed to a complex molecular environment may not be predicted by classically determined equilibrium constants. (author)

  16. Nonionic metal-chelating surfactants mediated solvent-free thermo-induced separation of uranyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larpent, Ch.; Prevost, S. [Versailles-St-Quentin Univ., Institut Lavoisier, UMR-CNRS 8180, 78 - Versailles (France); Prevost, S.; Zemb, Th.; Testard, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules (DSM/DRECAM/SCM/LIONS), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Berthon, L. [CEA Valrho, Site de Marcoule, Dept. Radiochimie et Procedes (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCSE), 30 (France)

    2007-08-15

    Thermo-responsive metal-chelating surfactants permit the solvent-free, cloud point extraction of uranyl nitrate and afford a real molecular economy compared to conventional separation techniques. (authors)

  17. Effect of chelating agents on the transport of radioactive solutes in subsurface porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chelating agents on the transport of radioactive solutes in subsurface porous media is analyzed by formulating an advective-dispersive transport model which incorporates chelate formation, adsorption, decay, and degradation of transporting radioactive solutes. The governing equations are formulated by introducing the concept of a tenad. Particularly the governing equation for the tenad of a radioactive solute, is presented as a linear partial differential form and solved analytically by introducing an extended concept of distribution coefficient, KD. The calculated results from the model show that the transport rate of the tenad of a chelating agent, is much greater than that of the tenad. This faster transport of may be due to the low retardation factor of comparing to that of. Therefore, it is concluded that presence of chelating agents even in a small amount greatly accelerates the transport of radioactive wastes from a geologic radioactive waste repository

  18. Subclinical renal abnormalities in young thalassemia major and intermedia patients and its relation to chelation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira A.M. Adly

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Subclinical renal affection can start earlier in TM patients compared to TI. Poor chelation is associated with early signs of renal affection. Periodic renal assessment of those patients is mandatory as they may be affected by hidden renal dysfunction.

  19. Study of chelating agent as a surface modifier for retarding corrosion attack on ferrous metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A different concentration of chelating agents in electrolyte of 3.5 % NaCl was applied to bare ferrous metal and tested for their effectiveness as a corrosion retardant. The performance of the samples was measured using corrosion measurement system. The results indicated that the contribution of chelating agent was expediting the reduction of the passive film. The anodic behavior was clearly found to be influenced by the concentration of the chelating agent. It was also found that some of the corrosion was apparently converted to protective layer over a period of time. Excessive moisture caused breakdown of film by removing the unreacted chelating agent and causing regrowth of the existing rust. (author)

  20. Simultaneous measurement of NK cell cytotoxicity against two target cell lines labelled with fluorescent lanthanide chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, J; Blomberg, K

    1994-07-12

    We describe a cytotoxicity assay which permits the simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell activity against two different cell lines. The target cell lines are labelled either with a fluorescent europium chelate or with a fluorescent terbium chelate and cell death is quantified by measuring the chelate release. K-562, Molt4 and Daudi cell lines have been used as targets. The release of the two chelates from the target cells can be detected with the help of time resolved fluorometry. As the measurements are made after background fluorescence has decayed no additional steps are needed to correct for the background from the medium. The assay procedure used for measurement of cytotoxicity against two target cell lines is very similar to the widely used 51Cr release assay. PMID:8034979

  1. The Management of Iron Chelation Therapy: Preliminary Data from a National Registry of Thalassaemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ceci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies constitute an important health problem in Mediterranean countries, placing a tremendous emotional, psychological, and economic burden on their National Health systems. The development of new chelators in the most recent years had a major impact on the treatment of thalassaemia and on the quality of life of thalassaemic patients. A new initiative was promoted by the Italian Ministry of Health, establishing a Registry for thalassaemic patients to serve as a tool for the development of cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and for the definition of guidelines supporting the most appropriate management of the iron-chelating therapy and a correct use of the available iron-chelating agents. This study represents the analysis of the preliminary data collected for the evaluation of current status of the iron chelation practice in the Italian thalassaemic population and describes how therapeutic interventions can widely differ in the different patients' age groups.

  2. Targeted Catalytic Inactivation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme by Lisinopril-Coupled Transition Metal Chelates

    OpenAIRE

    Joyner, Jeff C.; Hocharoen, Lalintip; Cowan, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    A series of compounds that target reactive transition metal chelates to somatic Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (sACE-1) have been synthesized. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and rate constants for both inactivation and cleavage of full length sACE-1 have been determined and evaluated in terms of metal-chelate size, charge, reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and coreactant selectivity. Ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 1,4,7,10-tet...

  3. Targeted Cleavage of HIV RRE RNA by Rev-Coupled Transition Metal Chelates

    OpenAIRE

    Joyner, Jeff C.; Cowan, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    A series of compounds that target reactive metal-chelates to the HIV-1 Rev Response Element (RRE) mRNA have been synthesized. Dissociation constants and chemical reactivity toward HIV RRE RNA have been determined and evaluated in terms of reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and overall charge associated with the metal-chelate-rev complex. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodec...

  4. Intracellular reduction/activation of a disulfide switch in thiosemicarbazone iron chelators

    OpenAIRE

    Akam, Eman A.; Chang, Tsuhen M.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Tomat, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Iron scavengers (chelators) offer therapeutic opportunities in anticancer drug design by targeting the increased demand for iron in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Prochelation approaches are expected to avoid systemic iron depletion as chelators are liberated under specific intracellular conditions. In the strategy described herein, a disulfide linkage is employed as a redox-directed switch within the binding unit of an antiproliferative thiosemicarbazone prochelator, which is acti...

  5. The Role of Chelation in the Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for mor...

  6. Role of the Symmetry of Multipoint Hydrogen Bonding on Chelate Cooperativity in Supramolecular Macrocyclization Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-García, Carlos; Camacho-García, Jorge; López-Pérez, Ana M; Mayoral, María J; Bilbao, Nerea; González-Rodríguez, David

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we analyze the intrinsic chelate effect that multipoint H-bonding patterns exert on the overall energy of dinucleoside cyclic systems. Our results indicate that the chelate effect is regulated by the symmetry of the H-bonding pattern, and that the effective molarity is reduced by about three orders of magnitude when going from the unsymmetric ADD-DAA or DDA-AAD patterns to the symmetric DAD-ADA pattern.

  7. Curcumin, a cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent, is a biologically active iron chelator

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Yan; Wilkinson, John; Di, Xiumin; Wang, Wei; Hatcher, Heather; Kock, Nancy D.; D'Agostino, Ralph; Knovich, Mary Ann; Torti, Frank M; Suzy V Torti

    2009-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product currently in human clinical trials for a variety of neoplastic, preneoplastic, and inflammatory conditions. We previously observed that, in cultured cells, curcumin exhibits properties of an iron chelator. To test whether the chelator activity of curcumin is sufficient to induce iron deficiency in vivo, mice were placed on diets containing graded concentrations of both iron and curcumin for 26 weeks. Mice receiving the lowest level of dietary iron exhibited borde...

  8. ORGANIC CHELATING REAGENT ON REDOX ADSORPTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER TOWARDS Au3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Organic chelating reagent influences upon the redox adsorption of activated carbon fibertowards Au3- were systematically investigated. The experimental results indicated that the presenceof organic chelating reagent on activated carbon fiber strongly affects adsorption capacity ofactivated carbon fiber towards Au3+. The reduction-adsorption amount of Au3+ increased three timesby the presence of 8-quinolinol. Furthermore, The reduction-adsorption amount of Au3+ depended onthe pH value of adsorption and temperature.

  9. Europium(III)-chelates embedded in nanoparticles are protected from interfering compounds present in assay media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide chelates are excellent labels in ligand binding assays due to their long lifetime fluorescence, which enables efficient background reduction using time-resolved measurement. In separation-free homogeneous assays, however, some compounds in the sample may cause quenching of the lanthanide fluorescence and extra steps are required before these samples can be measured. In this study we have evaluated whether europium chelates packed inside a polystyrene nanoparticle are better protected from the environment than individual Eu(III)-chelates, and do these particles have higher tolerance against known interfering compounds (bivalent metal ions and variation of pH). We also tested whether metal ions had any effect on a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based detection of a bioaffinity binding reaction. The presence of metal ions or variation of pH did not affect the fluorescence of the Eu(III)-chelate dyed nanoparticles, while significant decrease of the fluorescence was detected with a 9-dentate Eu(III)-chelate. Metal ions also decreased the fluorescence lifetime of the 9-dentate Eu(III)-chelate from 0.960 to 0.050 ms. Coloured metal ions caused a minor decrease in sensitised emission generated by FRET when Eu(III)-chelate dyed nanoparticles were used as donor labels. The decreased signal was due to the absorption of the sensitised emission by the coloured metal ions, since the metal ions had no effect on the lifetime of the sensitised emission. Thus the Eu(III)-chelate dyed nanoparticles are preferred labels in homogeneous bioaffinity assays, when interfering compounds are known to be present

  10. Impedimetric and amperometric bifunctional glucose biosensor based on hybrid organic-inorganic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2015-02-01

    A novel glucose biosensor with an immobilized mediator was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometry measurements. The biosensor has a characteristic ultrathin form and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer anchoring glucose oxidase (GOx) covered with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Prussian blue (PB). The immobilized PB in the LB films acts as a mediator and enables the biosensor to work under a low potential (0.0V vs. Ag/AgCl). In the EIS measurements, a dramatic decrease in charge transfer resistance (Rct) was observed with sequential addition of glucose, which can be attributed to enzymatic activity. The linearity of the biosensor response was observed by the variation of the sensor response (1/Rct) as a function of glucose concentration in the range 0 to 25mM. The sensor also showed linear amperometric response below 130mM glucose. The organic-inorganic system of GOx and PB nanoclusters demonstrated bifunctional sensing action, both amperometry and EIS modes, as well as long sensing stability for 4 days. PMID:25014167

  11. Employing bifunctional enzymes for enhanced extraction of bioactives from plants: flavonoids as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Shu; Chen, Shuo; Wang, Wen-Quan; Liu, Si-Qin

    2013-08-21

    A cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach was developed to improve the extraction of active ingredients from plants, in which a bifunctional enzyme was employed for not only facilitating cell wall degradation but also increasing the bioactivity of target compounds in the extract. In the aqueous extraction of flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix, Trichoderma viride cellulase, a commercial cell-wall-degrading enzyme, was found to efficiently deglycosylate liquiritin and isoliquiritin, which are of high content but low bioactivity, into their aglycones that have much higher physiological activities for dietary and medicinal uses. Under optimized conditions, the extraction yield of liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin aglycones reached 4.23 and 0.39 mg/g of dry weight (dw) with 6.51- and 3.55-fold increases, respectively. The same approach was expanded to the extraction of flavonoids from Scutellariae radix using Penicillium decumbens naringinase, where enhanced production of more bioactive bacalein and wogonin was achieved via enzymatic deglycosylation of bacalin and wogonoside.

  12. Bifunctional silica nanoparticles for the exploration of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauline, L; Gressier, M; Roques, C; Hammer, P; Ribeiro, S J L; Caiut, J M A; Menu, M-J

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent silica nanoparticles are frequently employed for biotechnology applications mainly because of their easy functionalization, photo-stability, and biocompatibility. Bifunctional silica nanoparticles (BSNPs) are described here as new efficient tools for investigating complex biological systems such as biofilms. Photoluminescence is brought about by the incorporation of a silylated ruthenium(II) complex. The surface properties of the silica particles were designed by reaction with amino-organosilanes, quaternary ammonium-organosilanes, carboxylate-organosilanes and hexamethyldisilazane. BSNPs were characterized extensively by DRIFT, (13)C and (29)Si solid state NMR, XPS, and photoluminescence. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements exhibited various surface properties (hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and electric charge) according to the functional groups. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) measurements showed that the spatial distribution of these nanoparticles inside a biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 depends more on their hydrophilic/hydrophobic characteristics than on their size. CLSM observations using two nanosized particles (25 and 68 nm) suggest that narrow diffusion paths exist through the extracellular polymeric substances matrix. PMID:23805884

  13. Composite Films of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Bifunctional Cross-linking Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Honkaniemi, Samuli; Visanko, Miikka; Liimatainen, Henrikki

    2015-09-01

    Long and flexible cellulose nanofibrils or stiff and short cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are both promising lightweight materials with high strength and the potential to serve as reinforcing agents in many polymeric materials. In this study, bifunctional reactive cellulose nanocrystals (RCNCs) with carboxyl and aldehyde functionalities were used as reinforcements to prepare acetal-bonding cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films. Two RCNCs were obtained through the mechanical homogenization of partially carboxylated dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) with a residual aldehyde content of 0.55 and 1.93 mmol/g and a carboxyl content of 1.65 and 1.93 mmol/g, respectively. The mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of PVA-RCNC films with a variable mass ratio of RCNCs (0.5-10%) were determined. Reference CNCs without reactive aldehydes were obtained through the reduction of aldehyde functionalities to primary hydroxide groups, and their reinforcing effect was compared to RCNCs. With the addition of 10% acetal-bonding RCNCs with respect to PVA weight, the tensile strength and Young's modulus were up to 2-fold greater than those of pure PVA film. An addition of only 0.5% RCNCs improved the tensile strength of the PVA film by 66% and the modulus by 61%. In comparison, a significantly lower reinforcing effect (19% with CNC loading of 0.5%) was found using reference CNCs. PVA's effective oxygen barrier and thermal properties were preserved when RCNCs were introduced into the films. PMID:26280660

  14. Structure of a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase involved in bioethanol generation in Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Jonathan; Crennell, Susan J; Eley, Kirstin; Cripps, Roger; Hough, David W; Danson, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADHE) enzymes are found within many fermentative microorganisms. They catalyse the conversion of an acyl-coenzyme A to an alcohol via an aldehyde intermediate; this is coupled to the oxidation of two NADH molecules to maintain the NAD(+) pool during fermentative metabolism. The structure of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) domain of an ADHE protein from the ethanol-producing thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius has been determined to 2.5 Å resolution. This is the first structure to be reported for such a domain. In silico modelling has been carried out to generate a homology model of the aldehyde dehydrogenase domain, and this was subsequently docked with the ADH-domain structure to model the structure of the complete ADHE protein. This model suggests, for the first time, a structural mechanism for the formation of the large multimeric assemblies or `spirosomes' that are observed for this ADHE protein and which have previously been reported for ADHEs from other organisms.

  15. Designing calcium phosphate-based bifunctional nanocapsules with bone-targeting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khung, Yit-Lung; Bastari, Kelsen; Cho, Xing Ling; Yee, Wu Aik; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    Using sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles as template, hollow-cored calcium phosphate nanocapsules were produced. The surfaces of the nanocapsule were subsequently silanised by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based silane with an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester end groups which permits for further attachment with bisphosphonates (BP). Characterisations of these nanocapsules were investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. To further validate the bone-targeting potential, dentine discs were incubated with these functionalised nanocapsules. FESEM analysis showed that these surface-modified nanocapsules would bind strongly to dentine surfaces compared to non-functionalised nanocapsules. We envisage that respective components would give this construct a bifunctional attribute, whereby (1) the shell of the calcium phosphate nanocapsule would serve as biocompatible coating aiding in gradual osteoconduction, while (2) surface BP moieties, acting as targeting ligands, would provide the bone-targeting potential of these calcium phosphate nanocapsules.

  16. Studies on stability of bi-functional P3HT:PCBM:rubrene optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Ankita; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-06-01

    Investigations are carried out for stability in photovoltaic response of bifunctional electroluminescent and photovoltaic devices, based on ternary blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), phenyl [6,6']C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene). P3HT and PCBM are important and the most frequent materials used for photovoltaic applications, therefore, for relative comparison, photovoltaic cells were also prepared using a binary mixture of P3HT and PCBM. Devices based on the ternary blend exhibited better stability in all photovoltaic parameters and the lifetime was almost doubled, but their photovoltaic efficiency was lower than that of those based on the binary blend. Longer lifetime of ternary blend devices is because of a relatively better thermal, electrochemical, and morphological stabilities of the ternary blend system. However, the lower efficiencies are because of the reduced photo-current and low fill factor ( FF) due to an increased recombination and introduction of defects/trapping sites by rubrene molecules.

  17. Bifunctional separator as a polysulfide mediator for highly stable Li-S batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Syed Ali

    2016-05-24

    The shuttling process involving lithium polysulfides is one of the major factors responsible for the degradation in capacity of lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs). Herein, we demonstrate a novel and simple strategy—using a bifunctional separator, prepared by spraying poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on pristine separator—to obtain long-cycle LSBs. The negatively charged SO3– groups present in PSS act as an electrostatic shield for soluble lithium polysulfides through mutual coulombic repulsion, whereas PEDOT provides chemical interactions with insoluble polysulfides (Li2S, Li2S2). The dual shielding effect can provide an efficient protection from the shuttling phenomenon by confining lithium polysulfides to the cathode side of the battery. Moreover, coating with PEDOT:PSS transforms the surface of the separator from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, thereby improving the electrochemical performance. We observed an ultralow decay of 0.0364% per cycle when we ran the battery for 1000 cycles at 0.25 C—far superior to that of the pristine separator and one of the lowest recorded values reported at a low current density. We examined the versatility of our separator by preparing a flexible battery that functioned well under various stress conditions; it displayed flawless performance. Accordingly, this economical and simple strategy appears to be an ideal platform for commercialization of LSBs.

  18. NAD(H recycling activity of an engineered bifunctional enzyme galactose dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A chimeric bifunctional enzyme composing of galactose dehydrogenase (galDH; from Pseudomonas fluorescens and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; from Bacillus stearothermophilus was successfully constructed. The chimeric galDH/LDH possessed dual characteristics of both galactose dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities while exhibiting hexameric rearrangement with a molecular weight of approximately 400 kDa. In vitro observations showed that the chimeric enzyme was able to recycle NAD with a continuous production of lactate without any externally added NADH. Two fold higher recycling rate (0.3 mM/h than that of the native enzyme was observed at pH values above 8.5. Proximity effects became especially pronounced during the recycling assay when diffusion hindrance was induced by polyethylene glycol. All these findings open up a high feasibility to apply the NAD(H recycling system for metabolic engineering purposes e.g. as a model to gain a better understanding on the molecular proximity process and as the routes for synthesizing of numerous high-value-added compounds.

  19. A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaji, Mona; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Börrnert, Felix; Irajizad, Azam

    2016-01-01

    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatibility and more than six month stability. Alongside earlier nanostructures, the heat generation rate of GIHN is compareable with surfactnat-capped gold nanorods (GNRs). Two reasons are behind this enhancement: Firstly the distance between GNRs and SPIONs is adjusted in a way that the surface plasmon resonance of the new nanostructure is similar to bare GNRs and secondly the fraction of GNRs is raised in the hybrid nanostructure. GIHN is then applied as a photothermal agent using laser irradiation with power as low as 0.5 W.cm(-2) and only 32% of human breast adenocarcinoma cells could survive. The GIHN also acts as a dose-dependent transvers relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agent. The results show that the GINH can be considered as a good candidate for multimodal photothermal therapy and MRI. PMID:27297588

  20. Cobalt Phosphide Hollow Polyhedron as Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for the Evolution Reaction of Hydrogen and Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Jinghong

    2016-01-27

    The development of efficient and low-cost hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts for renewable-energy conversion techniques is highly desired. A kind of hollow polyhedral cobalt phosphide (CoP hollow polyhedron) is developed as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for HER and OER templated by Co-centered metal-organic frameworks. The as-prepared CoP hollow polyhedron, which have large specific surface area and high porosity providing rich catalytic active sites, show excellent electrocatalytic performances for both HER and OER in acidic and alkaline media, respectively, with onset overpotentials of 35 and 300 mV, Tafel slopes of 59 and 57 mV dec(-1), and a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 159 and 400 mV for HER and OER, respectively, which are remarkably superior to those of particulate CoP (CoP particles) and comparable to those of commercial noble-metal catalysts. In addition, the CoP hollow polyhedron also show good durability after long-term operations. PMID:26711014

  1. Evolution of the Bifunctional Lead μ Agonist / δ Antagonist Containing the Dmt-Tic Opioid Pharmacophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Trapella, Claudio; Knapp, Brian I; Bidlack, Jean M; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Peng, Xuemei; Neumeyer, John L

    2010-02-17

    Based on a renewed importance recently attributed to bi- or multifunctional opioids, we report the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some analogues derived from our lead μ agonist / δ antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Bzl. Our previous studies focused on the importance of the C-teminal benzyl function in the induction of such bifunctional activity. The introduction of some substituents in the para position of the phenyl ring (-Cl, -CH(3), partially -NO(2), inactive -NH(2)) was found to give a more potent μ agonist / antagonist effect associated with a relatively unmodified δ antagonist activity (pA(2) = 8.28-9.02). Increasing the steric hindrance of the benzyl group (using diphenylmethyl and tetrahydroisoquinoline functionalities) substantially maintained the μ agonist and δ antagonist activities of the lead compound. Finally and quite unexpectedly D-Tic2, considered as a wrong opioid message now; inserted into the reference compound in lieu of L-Tic, provided a μ agonist / δ agonist better than our reference ligand (H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph) and was endowed with the same pharmacological profile.

  2. GST-TAT-SOD: Cell Permeable Bifunctional Antioxidant Enzyme-A Potential Selective Radioprotector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianru; He, Huocong; Su, Ying; Zheng, Guangjin; Wu, Junxin; Liu, Shutao; Rao, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST), SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wild SOD had little radioprotective effect on irradiated L-02 and Hep G2 cells while amifostine was protective to both cell lines. SOD-TAT or GST-TAT-SOD pretreatment 3 h prior to radiation protects irradiated normal liver cells against radiation damage by eliminating intracellular excrescent superoxide, reducing cellular MDA level, enhancing cellular antioxidant ability and colony formation ability, and reducing apoptosis rate. Compared with SOD-TAT, GST-TAT-SOD was proved to have better protective effect on irradiated normal liver cells and minimal effect on irradiated hepatoma cells. Besides, GST-TAT-SOD was safe for normal cells and effectively transduced into different organs in mice, including the brain. The characteristics of this protein suggest that it may be a potential radioprotective agent in cancer therapy better than amifostine. Fusion of two antioxidant enzymes and cell-penetrating peptides is potentially valuable in the development of radioprotective agent. PMID:27313832

  3. GST-TAT-SOD: Cell Permeable Bifunctional Antioxidant Enzyme—A Potential Selective Radioprotector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianru; He, Huocong; Su, Ying; Zheng, Guangjin; Wu, Junxin; Liu, Shutao; Rao, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST), SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wild SOD had little radioprotective effect on irradiated L-02 and Hep G2 cells while amifostine was protective to both cell lines. SOD-TAT or GST-TAT-SOD pretreatment 3 h prior to radiation protects irradiated normal liver cells against radiation damage by eliminating intracellular excrescent superoxide, reducing cellular MDA level, enhancing cellular antioxidant ability and colony formation ability, and reducing apoptosis rate. Compared with SOD-TAT, GST-TAT-SOD was proved to have better protective effect on irradiated normal liver cells and minimal effect on irradiated hepatoma cells. Besides, GST-TAT-SOD was safe for normal cells and effectively transduced into different organs in mice, including the brain. The characteristics of this protein suggest that it may be a potential radioprotective agent in cancer therapy better than amifostine. Fusion of two antioxidant enzymes and cell-penetrating peptides is potentially valuable in the development of radioprotective agent. PMID:27313832

  4. GST-TAT-SOD: Cell Permeable Bifunctional Antioxidant Enzyme—A Potential Selective Radioprotector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianru Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST, SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wild SOD had little radioprotective effect on irradiated L-02 and Hep G2 cells while amifostine was protective to both cell lines. SOD-TAT or GST-TAT-SOD pretreatment 3 h prior to radiation protects irradiated normal liver cells against radiation damage by eliminating intracellular excrescent superoxide, reducing cellular MDA level, enhancing cellular antioxidant ability and colony formation ability, and reducing apoptosis rate. Compared with SOD-TAT, GST-TAT-SOD was proved to have better protective effect on irradiated normal liver cells and minimal effect on irradiated hepatoma cells. Besides, GST-TAT-SOD was safe for normal cells and effectively transduced into different organs in mice, including the brain. The characteristics of this protein suggest that it may be a potential radioprotective agent in cancer therapy better than amifostine. Fusion of two antioxidant enzymes and cell-penetrating peptides is potentially valuable in the development of radioprotective agent.

  5. Hypoxia targeted bifunctional suicide gene expression enhances radiotherapy in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether hypoxia targeted bifunctional suicide gene expression-cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) with 5-FC treatments can enhance radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Stable transfectants of R3327-AT cells were established which express a triple-fusion-gene: CD, UPRT and monomoric DsRed (mDsRed) controlled by a hypoxia inducible promoter. Hypoxia-induced expression/function of CDUPRTmDsRed was verified by western blot, flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy, and cytotoxicity assay of 5-FU and 5-FC. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with 5-FC and local radiation. Tumor volume was monitored and compared with those treated with 5-FC or radiation alone. In addition, the CDUPRTmDsRed distribution in hypoxic regions of tumor sections was visualized with fluorescent microscopy. Results: Hypoxic induction of CDUPRTmDsRed protein correlated with increased sensitivity to 5-FC and 5-FU. Significant radiosensitization effects were detected after 5-FC treatments under hypoxic conditions. In the tumor xenografts, the distribution of CDUPRTmDsRed expression visualized with fluorescence microscopy was co-localized with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole positive staining cells. Furthermore, administration of 5-FC to mice in combination with local irradiation resulted in significant tumor regression, as in comparison with 5-FC or radiation treatments alone. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the hypoxia-inducible CDUPRT/5-FC gene therapy strategy has the ability to specifically target hypoxic cancer cells and significantly improve the tumor control in combination with radiotherapy.

  6. Heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4 cause juvenile peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, David J.; Marsh, Ashley P.L.; Storey, Elsdon; Tankard, Rick; Gillies, Greta; Delatycki, Martin B.; Pope, Kate; Bromhead, Catherine; Leventer, Richard J.; Bahlo, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic cause of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in 5 patients from 3 different families. Methods: The patients comprised 2 sib pairs and 1 sporadic patient. Clinical assessment included history, physical examination, and brain MRI. Linkage analysis was performed separately on the 2 sets of sib pairs using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, followed by analysis of the intersection of the regions. Exome sequencing was performed on 1 affected patient with variant filtering and prioritization undertaken using these intersected regions. Results: Using a combination of sequencing technologies, we identified compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4 in all 5 affected patients. In all 3 families, peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein (DBP) deficiency was caused by compound heterozygosity for 1 nonsense/deletion mutation and 1 missense mutation. Conclusions: We describe 5 patients with juvenile DBP deficiency from 3 different families, bringing the total number of reported patients to 14, from 8 families. This report broadens and consolidates the phenotype associated with juvenile DBP deficiency.

  7. Carboxylation and Decarboxylation of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles Using Bifunctional Carboxylic Acids and Octylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carboxylation of alumina nanoparticles (NPs, with bifunctional carboxylic acids, provides molecular anchors that are used for building more complexed structures via either physisorption or chemisorption. Colloidal suspensions of the NPs may be prepared by covalently bonding a series of carboxylic acids with secondary functional groups (HO2C-R-X to the surface of the NPs: lysine (X = NH2, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (X = OH, fumaric acid (X = CO2H, and 4-formylbenzoic acid (X = C(OH. Subsequent reaction with octylamine at either 25°C or 70°C was investigated. Fourier transform IR-attenuated reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM along with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis were used to characterize the bifunctionalized monolayers and/or multilayer corona surrounding the alumina NPs and investigate the reaction mechanism of octylamine with the functional groups (X of the NPs. Except for the fumaric functionalized NPs, addition of octylamine to the functionalized NPs leads to removal of excess carboxylic acid corona from the surface via an amide formation. The extent of the multilayer is dependent on the strength of the acid⋯acid interaction.

  8. Bifunctional impedimetric sensors based on azodicarboxamide supported on modified graphene nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Azadeh; Roushani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Amir Reza; Derikvand, Zohreh; Menati, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Herein, gold-coated graphene oxide nanosheets hybrid material (GO/AuNPs) with exceptional physical and chemical properties has been utilized as a novel platform for electrode modification. The synthetic method of GO/AuNPs involves anon-covalent functionalization of exfoliated GO with AuNPs based on the reduction of the Au(III) complex by sodium citrate. The prepared GO/AuNPs hybrid exhibits the dispersion of high density AuNPs which were densely decorated on the large surface area of GO. The GO/AuNPs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was employed as a sensing platform to immobilize azodicarboxamide (ACA). The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate that the modified electrode has a notable bifunctional catalytic activity. Electrocatalytic oxidations of cysteine and electrocatalytic reduction of iodate at the surface of modified electrode were investigated with different technique. PMID:27612707

  9. Fe3O4 and CdS based bifunctional core–shell nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► First report on a room temperature aqueous process for growth of a hybrid core shell nanostructure containing a magnetic core and a semiconducting shell. ► Formation of distinct core shell nanostructure revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. ► A bifunctional nature combining magnetic as well as photoresponce for the as synthesised core shell nanostructures demonstrated. ► A tendency towards self organisation of the core–shell nanostructure. ► Possible applications including purification and isolation of biological materials, drug delivery system, bio-labels, spintronics, etc. -- Abstract: A room temperature solution process for synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their hybrid core shell nanostructures using CdS as the shell material has been described. The as grown particles have been characterised using XRD, Rietveld refinement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, optical absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A superparamagnetic response revealed from the magnetisation measurements of the as synthesised magnetite nanoparticles was retained even after the growth of the CdS shell. From luminescence and high resolution atomic force microscopy measurements, it is shown that the core–shell structures advantageously combine magnetic as well as fluorescence response with a tendency towards self-organization.

  10. Bifunctional polyacrylonitrile fiber-mediated conversion of sucrose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in mixed-aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xian-Lei; Zhang, Min; Lin, Huikun; Tao, Minli; Li, Yongdan; Zhang, Wenqin

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient catalytic system composed of a bifunctional polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANF-PA[BnBr]) and a metal chloride was employed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from sucrose in mixed-aqueous systems. The promoter of PANF-PA[BnBr] incorporates protonic acid groups that promote the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond to convert sucrose into glucose and fructose, and then catalyzes fructose dehydration to HMF, while the ammonium moiety may promote synergetically with the metal chloride the isomerization of glucose to fructose and transfer HMF from the aqueous to the organic phase. The detailed characterization by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM confirmed the rangeability of the fiber promoter during the modification and utilization processes. Excellent results in terms of high yield (72.8%) of HMF, superior recyclability (6 cycles) of the process, and effective scale-up and simple separation procedures of the catalytic system were obtained. Moreover, the prominent features (high strength, good flexibility, etc.) of the fibers are very attractive for fix-bed reactor. PMID:25573698

  11. Structure and Function of Fusicoccadiene Synthase, a Hexameric Bifunctional Diterpene Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengbin; Chou, Wayne K W; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2016-04-15

    Fusicoccin A is a diterpene glucoside phytotoxin generated by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis amygdali that causes the plant disease constriction canker, first discovered in New Jersey peach orchards in the 1930s. Fusicoccin A is also an emerging new lead in cancer chemotherapy. The hydrocarbon precursor of fusicoccin A is the tricyclic diterpene fusicoccadiene, which is generated by a bifunctional terpenoid synthase. Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of the individual catalytic domains of fusicoccadiene synthase: the C-terminal domain is a chain elongation enzyme that generates geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and the N-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form fusicoccadiene. Crystal structures of each domain complexed with bisphosphonate substrate analogues suggest that three metal ions and three positively charged amino acid side chains trigger substrate ionization in each active site. While in vitro incubations reveal that the cyclase domain can utilize farnesyl diphosphate and geranyl diphosphate as surrogate substrates, these shorter isoprenoid diphosphates are mainly converted into acyclic alcohol or hydrocarbon products. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that full-length fusicoccadiene synthase adopts hexameric quaternary structure, and small-angle X-ray scattering data yield a well-defined molecular envelope illustrating a plausible model for hexamer assembly.

  12. Catalytic characterization of bi-functional catalysts derived from Pd–Mg–Al layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N N Das; S C Srivastava

    2002-08-01

    Hydrotalcite like precursors containing PdII–MgII–AlIII with varying molar ratios, (Pd + Mg)/Al ≈ 3 and Mg/Pd ≈ 750 to 35, were prepared by coprecipitation of metal nitrates at constant pH. Characterization of samples as synthesized and their calcined products by elemental analyses, powder XRD, TG–DTA, FT–IR spectroscopy, TPR and N2 physisorption indicated a well crystalline hydrotalcite like structure with incorporation of Pd2+ in the brucite layers. Thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite precursors at intermediate temperatures led to amorphous mixed oxides, Pd/MgAl(O), which on reduction yielded bi-functional catalyst, Pd°/MgAl(O). The resultant catalysts with acid, base and hydrogenating sites, were highly active and selective for one-step synthesis of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from acetone and hydrogen. The results showed an optimal balance between acid-base and metallic sites were required to increase the selectivity of MIBK and stability of the catalysts.

  13. Bifunctional Crosslinking Agents Enhance Anion Exchange Membrane Efficacy for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpin; Xu, Min; Wang, Shubo; Xie, Xiaofeng; Lv, Yafei; Ramani, Vijay K

    2014-06-01

    A series of cross-linked fluorinated poly (aryl ether oxadiazole) membranes (FPAEOM) derivatized with imidazolium groups were prepared. Poly (N-vinylimidazole) (PVI) was used as the bifunctional cross-linking agent to: a) lower vanadium permeability, b) enhance dimensional stability, and c) concomitantly provide added ion exchange capacity in the resultant anion exchange membranes. At a molar ratio of PVI to FPAEOM of 1.5, the resultant membrane (FPAEOM-1.5 PVI) had an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq g-1, a vanadium permeability of 6.8×10-7 cm2 min-1, a water uptake of 68 wt.%, and an ionic conductivity of 22.0 mS cm-1, all at 25°C. Single cells prepared with the FPAEOM-1.5 PVI membrane exhibited a higher coulombic efficiency (> 92%) and energy efficiency (> 86%) after 40 test cycles in vanadium redox flow battery. The imidazolium cation showed high chemical stability in highly acidic and oxidizing vanadium solution as opposed to poor stability in alkaline solutions. Based on our DFT studies, this was attributed to the lower HOMO energy (-7.265 eV) of the HSO4- ion (compared to the OH- ion; -5.496 eV) and the larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap (6.394 eV) of dimethylimidazolium bisulfate ([DMIM] [HSO4]) as compared to [DMIM] [OH] (5.387 eV).

  14. Efficient refolding of the bifunctional therapeutic fusion protein VAS-TRAIL by a triple agent solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiying; Wang, Zhanqing; Huang, Liying; Shen, Yaling

    2016-09-01

    VAS-TRAIL is a bifunctional fusion protein that combines anti-angiogenic activity with tumor-selective apoptotic activity for enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. VAS-TRAIL is expressed as inclusion body in Escherichia coli, but protein refolding is difficult to achieve and results in low yields of bioactive protein. In this study, we describe an efficient method for VAS-TRAIL refolding. The solubilization of aggregated VAS-TRAIL was achieved by a triple agent solution, which consists of an alkaline solution (pH 11.5) containing 0.4M l-arginine and 2M urea. The solubilized protein showed high purity and preserved secondary structure according to fluorescence properties. VAS-TRAIL refolding was performed through stepwise dialysis and resulted in more than 50% recovery of the soluble protein. The function of l-arginine was additive with alkaline pH, as shown by the significant improvement in refolding yield (≈30%) by l-arginine-containing solubilization solutions compared with alkaline solubilization solutions without l-arginine. The refolded VAS-TRAIL also showed β-sheet structures and the propensity for oligomerization. Bioassays showed that the refolded fusion protein exhibited the expected activities, including its apoptotic activities toward tumor and endothelial cells, which proposed its promising therapeutic potential. PMID:26358405

  15. The rigid bi-functional sail, new concept concerning the reduction of the drag of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Țicu, I.; Popa, I.; Ristea, M.

    2015-11-01

    The policy of the European Union in the energy field, for the period to follow until 2020, is based on three fundamental objectives: sustainability, competitiveness and safety in energy supply. The “Energy - Climate Changes” program sets out a number of objectives for the EU for the year 2020, known as the “20-20-20 objectives”, namely: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% from the level of those of 1990, a 20% increase in the share of renewable energy sources out of the total energy consumption as well as a target of 10% biofuels in the transports energy consumption. In this context, in order to produce or save a part of the propulsive power produced by the main propulsion machinery, by burning fossil fuels, we suggest the equipping of vessels designed for maritime transport with a bi-functional rigid sail. We consider that this device may have both the role of trapping wind energy and the role of acting as a deflector for reducing the resistance of the vessel's proceeding through the water by conveniently using the bow air current, as a result of the vessel's heading through the water with significant advantage in reducing the energy consumption for propulsion insurance.

  16. Bifunctional Crosslinking Agents Enhance Anion Exchange Membrane Efficacy for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenpin; Xu, Min; Wang, Shubo; Xie, Xiaofeng; Lv, Yafei; Ramani, Vijay K

    2014-06-01

    A series of cross-linked fluorinated poly (aryl ether oxadiazole) membranes (FPAEOM) derivatized with imidazolium groups were prepared. Poly (N-vinylimidazole) (PVI) was used as the bifunctional cross-linking agent to: a) lower vanadium permeability, b) enhance dimensional stability, and c) concomitantly provide added ion exchange capacity in the resultant anion exchange membranes. At a molar ratio of PVI to FPAEOM of 1.5, the resultant membrane (FPAEOM-1.5 PVI) had an ion exchange capacity of 2.2 meq g-1, a vanadium permeability of 6.8×10-7 cm2 min-1, a water uptake of 68 wt.%, and an ionic conductivity of 22.0 mS cm-1, all at 25°C. Single cells prepared with the FPAEOM-1.5 PVI membrane exhibited a higher coulombic efficiency (> 92%) and energy efficiency (> 86%) after 40 test cycles in vanadium redox flow battery. The imidazolium cation showed high chemical stability in highly acidic and oxidizing vanadium solution as opposed to poor stability in alkaline solutions. Based on our DFT studies, this was attributed to the lower HOMO energy (-7.265 eV) of the HSO4- ion (compared to the OH- ion; -5.496 eV) and the larger HOMO-LUMO energy gap (6.394 eV) of dimethylimidazolium bisulfate ([DMIM] [HSO4]) as compared to [DMIM] [OH] (5.387 eV). PMID:24884171

  17. The antibody-linked chelating polymers for nuclear therapy and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torchilin, V.P.; Klibanov, A.L. (USSR Cardiology Research Center, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    This review deals with the problem of protein modification with chelating polymers. The main purpose of this approach is the preparation of monoclonal antibodies labeled with heavy metal isotopes ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {delta}-emitting metals and metals used for NMR-tomography). Traditional binding of metals with proteins via chelating agents directly coupled to protein molecule does not allow binding a high number of metal atoms per single protein molecule and can also alter protein specific properties. At the same time, metal-to-protein binding via intermediate chelating polymer makes possible the binding of several dozen metal atoms per single protein without affecting its specific properties. Moreover, the variations in polymer properties and molecular weight allow controlled modified antibody biodistribution and clearance rate. Modified antibodies can be used successfully for nuclear and NMR diagnostics and for nuclear therapy. The following problems are discussed: the chemistry of the coupling of chelating groups to polymer backbone; the binding of chelating polymers to proteins, including monoclonal antibodies; the ability of chelating polymer-to-protein conjugates to bind heavy metals; the influence of the modification on protein conformation and specific properties; the behavior of metal-containing conjugates in vivo; the practical use of conjugates obtained for radioimmunoimaging, radioimmunotherapy, NMR-tomography, and in vitro immunoassays. Future prospects of the approach are also discussed.101 references.

  18. The role of chelation in the treatment of arsenic and mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for more than half a century. Animal experiments and in some instances human data indicate that the dithiol chelators enhance arsenic and mercury excretion. Controlled animal experiments support a therapeutic role for these chelators in the prompt treatment of acute poisoning by arsenic and inorganic mercury salts. Treatment should be initiated as rapidly as possible (within minutes to a few hours), as efficacy declines or disappears as the time interval between metal exposure and onset of chelation increases. DMPS and DMSA, which have a higher therapeutic index than BAL and do not redistribute arsenic or mercury to the brain, offer advantages in clinical practice. Although chelation following chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic and inorganic mercury may accelerate metal excretion and diminish metal burden in some organs, potential therapeutic efficacy in terms of decreased morbidity and mortality is largely unestablished in cases of chronic metal intoxication.

  19. Protamine modified metal ion-protein chelate microparticles for sustained release of interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanbo; Shi, Kai; Xia, Dengning; Piao, Hongze; Quan, Peng; Song, Tao; Cui, Fude

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on extending the release period of zinc-protein chelate through protamine modification. Recombinant human interferon-α-2b (rhIFN), a highly pleiotropic cytokine with a short intrinsic pharmacokinetic half-life when injected subcutaneously (∼2-6 h), was used as a model drug. Protamine modified zinc-rhIFN chelate microparticles were prepared by co-precipitating rhIFN with zinc and protamine. Introduction of protamine (2.5-20 mg/mL) into the chelation system had several prominent effects. First, percentage of chelated rhIFN was lowered (from >99% to ∼90%); second, particle size was gradually increased (from ∼0.45 μm to ∼2 μm); last but important, it extended the release period of the chelate both in vitro (complete release was retarded from 8 h to 48 h) and in vivo (t(1/2) was prolonged from 4.5 h to 15.5 h and mean residence time from 9.4 h to 29.6 h). Size-exclusion liquid chromatography and cytopathic effect inhibition assay indicated rhIFN preserved its structural and functional integrity in these chelates. PMID:21220001

  20. Donor-Appended N,C-Chelate Organoboron Compounds: Influence of Donor Strength on Photochromic Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellerup, Soren K; Yuan, Kang; Nguyen, Carmen; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Wang, Suning

    2016-08-22

    Recently, four-coordinated N,C-chelate organoboron compounds have been found to show many interesting photochemical transformations depending on the nature of their chelating framework. As such, the effect of substitution on the chelate ligand has been well-established and understood, but the impact of the aryl groups attached to the boron atom remains less clear. To investigate the effect of enhanced charge-transfer character, a series of new N,C-chelate organoboron compounds with donor-functionalized aryl groups have been synthesized and characterized using NMR, UV/Vis, and electrochemical methods. These compounds were found to possess bright and tunable charge-transfer luminescence which is dependent on the donor strength of the amino substituent. In addition, some of these compounds undergo photochromic switching, producing dark isomers of various colors. This work establishes that donor-functionalization of the aryl groups in N,C-chelate boron compounds is an effective strategy for tuning both the photophysical and photochemical properties of such systems. The new findings also help elucidate the influence of electronic structure on the photoreactivity of N,C-chelate organoboron compounds which appears to be as important as steric crowding around the boron atom.

  1. Translational downregulation of HSP90 expression by iron chelators in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidarovich, Viktoryia; Adami, Valentina; Gatto, Pamela; Greco, Valentina; Tebaldi, Toma; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Quattrone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential cellular nutrient, being a critical cofactor of several proteins involved in cell growth and replication. Compared with normal cells, neoplastic cells have been shown to require a greater amount of iron, thus laying the basis for the promising anticancer activity of iron chelators. In this work, we evaluated the effects of molecules with iron chelation activity on neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines. Of the 17 iron chelators tested, six reduced cell viability of two NB cell lines with an inhibition of growth of 50% below 10 µM; four of the six molecules-ciclopirox olamine (CPX), piroctone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and deferasirox-were also shown to efficiently chelate intracellular iron within minutes after addition. Effects on cell viability of one of the compounds, CPX, were indeed dependent on chelation of intracellular iron and mediated by both G0/G1 cell cycle block and induction of apoptosis. By combined transcriptome and translatome profiling we identified early translational downregulation of several members of the heat shock protein group as a specific effect of CPX treatment. We functionally confirmed iron-dependent depletion of HSP90 and its client proteins at pharmacologically achievable concentrations of CPX, and we extended this effect to piroctone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and deferasirox. Given the documented sensitivity of NB cells to HSP90 inhibition, we propose CPX and other iron chelators as investigational antitumor agents in NB therapy. PMID:25564462

  2. ELECTED PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL HEAVY METALS EXPOSURE AND CHELATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to heavy metals leads to functional and metabolic disturbances and many of them are included in pathogenesis of common diseases (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative processes. In this context new therapeutic and prophylactic strategies are necessary. Patients diagnosed with chronic heavy metals intoxication usually require chelation to increase mobilisation of metals from tissues and elimination of them via urine. Acute poisoning with toxic metal may be difficult to diagnosis, especially in case of accidental intoxication or suicidal intention. Patients also require chelation after causative factor is identified. Objectives: To describe some problems connected with toxicity of metals poisoning and to review pharmacologic therapies that could have a role in poisoning with metals. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out and expert opinion expressed. Results/conclusion: Chelation is a common therapy in case of poisoning with toxic metals but it is satisfied only partially. A combined therapy with structurally different chelators or long-term acting chelators could become viable alternatives in the future. A combined therapy with an antioxidant plus chelator may be a good choice in patients chronically poisoned with metals. Exposure to lead should be taken into account during estimation of global cardiovascular risk.

  3. Mathematical modelling of the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation of natural and anthropogenic chelating agents directly and indirectly affects the speciation, and hence, the mobility of actinides in subsurface environments. We combined mathematical modelling with laboratory experimentation to investigate the effects of aerobic and anaerobic chelate biodegradation on actinide [Np(IV/V), Pu(IV)] speciation. Under aerobic conditions, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) biodegradation rates were strongly influenced by the actinide concentration. Actinide-chelate complexation reduced the relative abundance of available growth substrate in solution and actinide species present or released during chelate degradation were toxic to the organisms. Aerobic bioutilization of the chelates as electron-donor substrates directly affected actinide speciation by releasing the radionuclides from complexed form into solution, where their fate was controlled by inorganic ligands in the system. Actinide speciation was also indirectly affected by pH changes caused by organic biodegradation. The two concurrent processes of organic biodegradation and actinide aqueous chemistry were accurately linked and described using CCBATCH, a computer model developed at Northwestern University to investigate the dynamics of coupled biological and chemical reactions in mixed waste subsurface environments. CCBATCH was then used to simulate the fate of Np during anaerobic citrate biodegradation. The modelling studies suggested that, under some conditions, chelate degradation can increase Np(IV) solubility due to carbonate complexation in closed aqueous systems. (orig.)

  4. Wood impregnated with metal chelates dissolved in organic media tested for termite resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood manufactured products are subjected to biological decay due to fungi and insects. The use of copper chelates as biocides was proposed, due to their high stability which minimizes copper leaching into the environment. Considering the remarkable effectiveness showed by copper chelates on brown rot fungi, zinc and copper salicylate complexes were prepared in order to have metal chelates soluble in organic media available. The present study aimed at evaluating these metal chelates complexes as preservative agents for wood treatment against termites. Trials were performed on Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi and Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius. Results showed that in both termite species wood consumption was significantly lower on Cu-chelates treated samples compared to untreated wood, whereas the wood slices impregnated with Zn-chelates and the organic media alone gave an intermediate response. Interestingly, in one case solvent-impregnated wood was significantly more attractive than untreated wood for both species and further investigations are being carried out to clarify this behaviour.

  5. The antibody-linked chelating polymers for nuclear therapy and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review deals with the problem of protein modification with chelating polymers. The main purpose of this approach is the preparation of monoclonal antibodies labeled with heavy metal isotopes (α-, β-, and δ-emitting metals and metals used for NMR-tomography). Traditional binding of metals with proteins via chelating agents directly coupled to protein molecule does not allow binding a high number of metal atoms per single protein molecule and can also alter protein specific properties. At the same time, metal-to-protein binding via intermediate chelating polymer makes possible the binding of several dozen metal atoms per single protein without affecting its specific properties. Moreover, the variations in polymer properties and molecular weight allow controlled modified antibody biodistribution and clearance rate. Modified antibodies can be used successfully for nuclear and NMR diagnostics and for nuclear therapy. The following problems are discussed: the chemistry of the coupling of chelating groups to polymer backbone; the binding of chelating polymers to proteins, including monoclonal antibodies; the ability of chelating polymer-to-protein conjugates to bind heavy metals; the influence of the modification on protein conformation and specific properties; the behavior of metal-containing conjugates in vivo; the practical use of conjugates obtained for radioimmunoimaging, radioimmunotherapy, NMR-tomography, and in vitro immunoassays. Future prospects of the approach are also discussed.101 references

  6. Chelate chase of radiopharmaceuticals reversibly bound to monoclonal antibodies improves dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred micrograms of monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CHA 255 with a binding constant Kb of 4 x 109 was complexed with indium-111 labeled BLEDTA II, GLEDTA IV, benzyl EDTA, and an EDTA conjugate of Fab. The 24-hour tumor and organ distribution in BALB/c mice bearing KHJJ tumors was studied for each compound alone, the antibody complex, and 3 hours following a chelate chase of the antibody complex. Whole-body biological half-life was measured for 7 days with and without a chelate chase for each antibody complex. The 24-hour whole-body counts dropped 20-60% within 3 hours of administering the chelate chase. Blood concentration fell over 89% within 3 hours of administering the chase and there was a decrease in concentration in all organs, except the kidneys, of 10 to 85%. Theoretical equivalent human doses were calculated from the 24-hour organ concentrations, effective half-life, and MIRD 11 S values (absorbed dose per cumulated activity). Liver and spleen were the target organs, with the dose ranging from 0.50 to 3.91 rads per millicurie. The reduction in organ radiation dose varied up to 95% following the chelate chase. Rapid selective renal clearance of chelate labeled radiopharmaceuticals by competitive inhibition (chelate chase) of their reversible binding to monoclonal antibodies, greatly improves the radiation dosimetry of tumor imaging agents. 28 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  7. Zinc glycine chelate absorption characteristics in Sprague Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, M; Fang, S L; Zhuo, Z; Li, D D; Feng, J

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate absorption characteristics of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) by evaluating tissues zinc status and the expression of zinc transporters in rats. A total of 24 male rats were randomly allocated to three treatments and administered either saline or 35 mg Zn/kg body weight from zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 ) or Zn-Gly by feeding tube separately. Four rats per group were slaughtered and tissues were collected at 2 and 6 h after gavage respectively. Our data showed that Zn-Gly did more effectively in increasing (p < 0.05) serum zinc levels, and the activities of serum and liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) at 2 and 6 h. By 2 h after the zinc load, the mRNA and protein abundance of intestinal metallothionein1 (MT1) and zinc transporter SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were higher (p < 0.05), and zinc transporter SLC39A4 (Zip4) lower (p < 0.05) in ZnSO4 compared to other groups. Zinc transporter SLC39A5 (Zip5) mRNA expression was not zinc responsive, but Zip5 protein abundance was remarkably (p < 0.05) increased in ZnSO4 2 h later. Overall, our results indicated that in short-term periods, Zn-Gly was more effective in improving body zinc status than ZnSO4 , and ZnSO4 did more efficiently on the regulation of zinc transporters in small intestine.

  8. Targeted cleavage of HIV RRE RNA by Rev-coupled transition metal chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C; Cowan, J A

    2011-06-29

    A series of compounds that target reactive metal chelates to the HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) mRNA have been synthesized. Dissociation constants and chemical reactivity toward HIV RRE RNA have been determined and evaluated in terms of reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and overall charge associated with the metal-chelate-Rev complex. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) were linked to a lysine side chain of a Rev-derived peptide by either EDC/NHS or isothiocyanate coupling. The resulting chelate-Rev (EDTA-Rev, DTPA-Rev, NTA-Rev, and DOTA-Rev) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) such that the arginine-rich Rev peptide could mediate localization of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide's high-affinity mRNA binding partner, RRE stem loop IIB. Metal complexes of the extended peptides GGH-Rev and KGHK-Rev, which also contain N-terminal peptidic chelators (ATCUN motifs), were studied for comparison. A fluorescence titration assay revealed high-affinity RRE RNA binding by all 22 metal-chelate-Rev species, with K(D) values ranging from ~0.2 to 16 nM, indicating little to no loss of RNA affinity due to the coupling of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide. Dissociation constants for binding at a previously unobserved low-affinity site are also reported. Rates of RNA modification by each metal-chelate-Rev species were determined and varied from ~0.28 to 4.9 nM/min but were optimal for Cu(2+)-NTA-Rev. Metal-chelate reduction potentials were determined and varied from -228 to +1111 mV vs NHE under similar solution conditions, allowing direct comparison of reactivity with redox thermodynamics. Optimal activity was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised between those of the two principal co-reagents for metal-promoted formation of

  9. CARDIAC FUNCTION AND IRON CHELATION IN THALASSEMIA MAJOR AND INTERMEDIA: A REVIEW OF THE UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND APPROACH TO CHELATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Aessopos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and one of the main causes of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Patients with homozygous thalassemia may have either a severe phenotype which is usually transfusion dependent or a milder form that is thalassemia intermedia.  The two main factors that determine cardiac disease in homozygous β thalassemia are the high output state that results from chronic tissue hypoxia, hypoxia-induced compensatory reactions and iron overload.  The high output state playing a major role in thalassaemia intermedia and the iron load being more significant in the major form. Arrhythmias, vascular involvement that leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance and an increased systemic vascular stiffness and valvular abnormalities also contribute to the cardiac dysfunction in varying degrees according to the severity of the phenotype.  Endocrine abnormalities, infections, renal function and medications can also play a role in the overall cardiac function.  For thalassaemia major, regular and adequate blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy are the mainstays of management. The approach to thalassaemia intermedia, today, is aimed at monitoring for complications and initiating, timely, regular transfusions and/or iron chelation therapy.  Once the patients are on transfusions, then they should be managed in the same way as the thalassaemia major patients.  If cardiac manifestations of dysfunction are present in either form of thalassaemia, high pre transfusion Hb levels need to be maintained in order to reduce cardiac output and appropriate intensive chelation therapy needs to be instituted.  In general recommendations on chelation, today, are usually made according to the Cardiac Magnetic Resonance findings, if available.  With the advances in the latter technology and the ability to tailor chelation therapy according to the MRI findings as well as the availability of three iron chelators, together with

  10. Bifunctional Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase: Mechanism and Proof-of-Concept as a Novel Therapeutic Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Christopher M.; Sullivan, Todd J.; Iyidogan, Pinar; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Chung, Raymond; Ruiz-Caro, Juliana; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Jorgensen, William; Hunter, Roger; Anderson, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is a major target for currently approved anti-HIV drugs. These drugs are divided into two classes: nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs). This study illustrates the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of a novel bifunctional RT inhibitor utilizing d4T (NRTI) and a TMC-derivative (a diarylpyrimidine NNRTI) linked via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linker. HIV-1 RT successfully incorporates the triphosphate of d4T-4PEG-TMC bifunctional inhibitor in a base-specific manner. Moreover, this inhibitor demonstrates low nanomolar potency that has 4.3-fold and 4300-fold enhancement of polymerization inhibition in vitro relative to the parent TMC-derivative and d4T, respectively. This study serves as a proof-of-concept for the development and optimization of bifunctional RT inhibitors as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 viral replication. PMID:23659183

  11. Synergy and antagonism between iron chelators and antifungal drugs in Cryptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Wen; Campbell, Leona T; Wilkins, Marc R; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Chen, Sharon; Carter, Dee A

    2016-10-01

    Fungal infections remain very difficult to treat, and developing new antifungal drugs is difficult and expensive. Recent approaches therefore seek to augment existing antifungals with synergistic agents that can lower the therapeutic dose, increase efficacy and prevent resistance from developing. Iron limitation can inhibit microbial growth, and iron chelators have been employed to treat fungal infections. In this study, chequerboard testing was used to explore combinations of iron chelators with antifungal agents against pathogenic Cryptococcus spp. with the aim of determining how disruption to iron homeostasis affects antifungal susceptibility. The iron chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), deferasirox (DSX), ciclopirox olamine and lactoferrin (LF) were paired with the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AmB), fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. All chelators except for DFO increased the efficacy of AmB, and significant synergy was seen between AmB and LF for all Cryptococcus strains. Addition of exogenous iron rescued cells from the antifungal effect of LF alone but could not prevent inhibition by AmB + LF, indicating that synergy was not due primarily to iron chelation but to other properties of LF that were potentiated in the presence of AmB. Significant synergy was not seen consistently for other antifungal-chelator combinations, and EDTA, DSX and DFP antagonised the activity of azole drugs in strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. This study highlights the range of interactions that can be induced by chelators and indicates that most antifungal drugs are not enhanced by iron limitation in Cryptococcus. PMID:27474467

  12. Acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterial with large surface area: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption properties for cationic and anionic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured carbonaceous materials are extremely important in the nano field, yet developing simple, mild, and “green” methods that can make such materials possess large surface area and rich functional groups on their surfaces still remains a considerable challenge. Herein, a one-pot and environment-friendly method, i.e., thermal treatment (180 °C; 18 h) of water mixed with glucose and chitosan (CTS), has been proposed. The resultant carbonaceous nanomaterials were characterized by field emitting scanning electron microscope, N2 adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta-potential analysis. It was found that, in contrast to the conventional hydrothermally carbonized product from pure glucose, with low surface area (9.3 m2 g−1) and pore volume (0.016 cm3 g−1), the CTS-added carbonaceous products showed satisfactory textural parameters (surface area and pore volume up to 254 m2 g−1 and 0.701 cm3 g−1, respectively). Moreover, it was also interestingly found that these CTS-added carbonaceous products possessed both acidic (–COOH) and basic (–NH2) groups on their surfaces. Taking the advantages of large surface area and –COOH/–NH2 bifunctional surface, the carbonaceous nanomaterials exhibited excellent performance for adsorptions of cationic compound (i.e., methylene blue) at pH 10 and anionic compound (i.e., acid red 18) at pH 2, respectively. This work not only provides a simple and green route to prepare acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterials with large surface area but also well demonstrates their potential for application in adsorption. - Highlights: • A simple and green method was proposed to prepare carbon nanomaterials. • The carbon product showed acid/base bifunctional surface with large surface area. • The carbon material could efficiently adsorb both cationic and anionic compounds

  13. Enzymatic 13C Labeling and Multidimensional NMR Analysis of Miltiradiene Synthesized by Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Ueno, Yohei; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Oogami, Shingo; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Natsume, Masahiro; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Kawaide, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Diterpenes show diverse chemical structures and various physiological roles. The diversity of diterpene is primarily established by diterpene cyclases that catalyze a cyclization reaction to form the carbon skeleton of cyclic diterpene. Diterpene cyclases are divided into two types, monofunctional and bifunctional cyclases. Bifunctional diterpene cyclases (BDTCs) are involved in hormone and defense compound biosyntheses in bryophytes and gymnosperms, respectively. The BDTCs catalyze the successive two-step type-B (protonation-initiated cyclization) and type-A (ionization-initiated cyclization) reactions of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP). We found that the genome of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, contains six BDTC genes with the majority being uncharacterized. The cDNA from S. moellendorffii encoding a BDTC-like enzyme, miltiradiene synthase (SmMDS), was cloned. The recombinant SmMDS converted GGDP to a diterpene hydrocarbon product with a molecular mass of 272 Da. Mutation in the type-B active motif of SmMDS abolished the cyclase activity, whereas (+)-copalyl diphosphate, the reaction intermediate from the conversion of GGDP to the hydrocarbon product, rescued the cyclase activity of the mutant to form a diterpene hydrocarbon. Another mutant lacking type-A activity accumulated copalyl diphosphate as the reaction intermediate. When the diterpene hydrocarbon was enzymatically synthesized from [U-13C6]mevalonate, all carbons were labeled with 13C stable isotope (>99%). The fully 13C-labeled product was subjected to 13C-13C COSY NMR spectroscopic analyses. The direct carbon-carbon connectivities observed in the multidimensional NMR spectra demonstrated that the hydrocarbon product by SmMDS is miltiradiene, a putative biosynthetic precursor of tanshinone identified from the Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. Hence, SmMDS functions as a bifunctional miltiradiene synthase in S. moellendorffii. In this study, we demonstrate that one-dimensional and

  14. Efficient Access to Chiral Benzhydrols via Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Unsymmetrical Benzophenones with Bifunctional Oxo-Tethered Ruthenium Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touge, Taichiro; Nara, Hideki; Fujiwhara, Mitsuhiko; Kayaki, Yoshihito; Ikariya, Takao

    2016-08-17

    A concise asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of diaryl ketones, promoted by bifunctional Ru complexes with an etherial linkage between 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine (DPEN) and η(6)-arene ligands, was successfully developed. Because of the effective discrimination of substituents at the ortho position on the aryl group, unsymmetrical benzophenones were smoothly reduced in a 5:2 mixture of formic acid and triethylamine with an unprecedented level of excellent enantioselectivity. For the non-ortho-substituted benzophenones, the oxo-tethered catalyst electronically discerned biased substrates, resulting in attractive performance yielding chiral diarylmethanols with >99% ee. PMID:27463264

  15. A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Balabanova; Vasily Golotin; Svetlana Kovalchuk; Alexander Bulgakov; Galina Likhatskaya; Oksana Son; Valery Rasskazov

    2014-01-01

    A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa...

  16. Azidopropylvinylsulfonamide as a New Bifunctional Click Reagent for Bioorthogonal Conjugations: Application for DNA-Protein Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadová, Jitka; Vrábel, Milan; Adámik, Matej; Brázdová, Marie; Pohl, Radek; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2015-11-01

    N-(3-Azidopropyl)vinylsulfonamide was developed as a new bifunctional bioconjugation reagent suitable for the cross-linking of biomolecules through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and thiol Michael addition reactions under biorthogonal conditions. The reagent is easily clicked to an acetylene-containing DNA or protein and then reacts with cysteine-containing peptides or proteins to form covalent cross-links. Several examples of bioconjugations of ethynyl- or octadiynyl-modified DNA with peptides, p53 protein, or alkyne-modified human carbonic anhydrase with peptides are given.

  17. Facile preparation of Ag-Cu bifunctional electrocatalysts for zinc-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ag-Cu dendrites are observed for the first time to exhibit high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. • Ag-Cu dendrites are directly synthesized through galvanic displacement on the current collector layer made of Ni foams. • A bifunctional air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu dendrites as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. • Both the primary and rechargeable zinc–air batteries fabricated by Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit excellent performance. - ABSTRACT: An inexpensive, facile galvanic displacement reaction for the direct growth of silver–copper (Ag-Cu) catalysts on nickel foams is developed for the first time. The resulting Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit dendritic morphologies. Ag and Cu atoms are in their metallic state while the presence of CuO and Cu2O are limited on the surface of catalyst. The catalysts demonstrate high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution, as evaluated by both linear scanning voltammetry and rotating disk electrode polarization measurements. The ORR catalysed by Ag-Cu catalyst in alkaline solution proceeds through a four-electron pathway. An air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu catalyst as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. Using this Ag-Cu catalyst based air cathode, both the primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries show excellent battery performance. The specific capacity of the primary zinc-air battery is 572 mAh g−1. Especially, the rechargeable zinc-air battery shows high round-trip efficiency, appealing stability at a long charge-discharge cycle period

  18. Rice bifunctional phytocystatin is a dual modulator of legumain and papain-like proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Ana Paula; Passaia, Gisele; Salvati, Caroline; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2016-09-01

    Phytocystatins are well-known inhibitors of C1A cysteine proteinases. However, previous research has revealed legumain (C13) protease inhibition via a carboxy-extended phytocystatin. Among the 12 phytocystatins genes in rice, OcXII is the only gene possessing this carboxy-terminal extension. The specific legumain inhibition activity was confirmed, in our work, using a recombinant OcXII harboring only the carboxy-terminal domain and this part did not exhibit any effect on papain-like activities. Meanwhile, rice plants silenced at the whole OcXII gene presented higher legumain and papain-like proteolytic activities, resulting in a faster initial seedling growth. However, when germinated under stressful alkaline conditions, OcXII-silenced plants exhibited impaired root formation and delayed shoot growth. Interestingly, the activity of OcXII promoter gene was detected in the rice seed scutellum region, and decreases with seedling growth. Seeds from these plants also exhibited slower growth at germination under ABA or alkaline conditions, while maintaining very high levels of OcXII transcriptional activation. This likely reinforces the proteolytic control necessary for seed germination and growth. In addition, increased legumain activity was detected in OcXII RNAi plants subjected to a fungal elicitor. Overall, the results of this study highlight the association of OcXII with not only plant development processes, but also with stress response pathways. The results of this study reinforce the bifunctional ability of carboxy-extended phytocystatins in regulating legumain proteases via its carboxy-extended domain and papain-like proteases by its amino-terminal domain. PMID:27325119

  19. Function and localization dynamics of bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Wolfgang; Möll, Andrea; Kiekebusch, Daniela; Klein, Kathrin E; Thanbichler, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall of bacteria is a complex macromolecule composed of glycan strands that are cross-linked by short peptide bridges. Its biosynthesis involves a conserved group of enzymes, the bifunctional penicillin-binding proteins (bPBPs), which contain both a transglycosylase and a transpeptidase domain, thus being able to elongate the glycan strands and, at the same time, generate the peptide cross-links. The stalked model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus possesses five bPBP paralogs, named Pbp1A, PbpC, PbpX, PbpY, and PbpZ, whose function is still incompletely understood. In this study, we show that any of these proteins except for PbpZ is sufficient for growth and normal morphogenesis when expressed at native or elevated levels, whereas inactivation of all five paralogs is lethal. Growth analyses indicate a central role of PbpX in the resistance of C. crescentus against the noncanonical amino acid d-alanine. Moreover, we show that PbpX and PbpY localize to the cell division site. Their recruitment to the divisome is dependent on the essential cell division protein FtsN and likely involves interactions with FtsL and the putative peptidoglycan hydrolase DipM. The same interaction pattern is observed for Pbp1A and PbpC, although these proteins do not accumulate at midcell. Our findings demonstrate that the bPBPs of C. crescentus are, to a large extent, redundant and have retained the ability to interact with the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machineries responsible for cell elongation, cytokinesis, and stalk growth. Nevertheless, they may preferentially act in specific peptidoglycan biosynthetic complexes, thereby facilitating the independent regulation of distinct growth processes.

  20. Bifunctional oligodeoxynucleotide/antagomiR constructs: evaluation of a new tool for microRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Saskia; Eberle, Mariel Esther; Wölfle, Sabine J; Heeg, Klaus; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fine-tuners in cellular processes, including those of the immune response. To study their functions and effects in immune cells, it is necessary to achieve specific silencing of individual miRNAs. To date, introduction of antisense microRNAs (antagomiRs) into primary cells is based on electroporation, lipofection, and viral vectors. However, these techniques often compromise viability, proliferative capacity, and differentiation. Furthermore, efficiency varies depending on the cell type and some are not suitable for in vivo approaches. To overcome these limitations we exploited the property of phosphorothioate (PTO)-modified DNA oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to enter cells with high efficacy: we developed and evaluated ODN/antagomiR constructs that consist of a PTO-ODN carrier covalently linked to a fully methylated antagomiR RNA sequence. Using these constructs, we achieved transfection efficiency of approximately 99% in leukocytes-in particular, in B lymphocytes that are hard to transfect with other methods. Our data demonstrate that miRNA silencing by the antagomiR portion of the constructs was specific and efficient, which could be further confirmed by an increase in target protein under silencing conditions. The constructs were successfully tested in human B cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, thus demonstrating their versatility. Moreover, introduction of stimulatory CpG sequences into the ODN portion conveys immune stimulatory quality when intended. Thus, bifunctional ODN/antagomiR constructs represent a highly efficient, versatile, and easy-to-handle tool to manipulate cellular miRNA expression levels and to allow the subsequent investigation of specific miRNA functions. PMID:24236889

  1. Fast and reliable production, purification and characterization of heat-stable, bifunctional enzyme chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neddersen, Mara; Elleuche, Skander

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of complex plant biomass demands a fine-regulated portfolio of glycoside hydrolases. The LE (LguI/Eco81I)-cloning approach was used to produce two enzyme chimeras CB and BC composed of an endoglucanase Cel5A (C) from the extreme thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium gondwanense and an archaeal β-glucosidase Bgl1 (B) derived from a hydrothermal spring metagenome. Recombinant chimeras and parental enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step affinity chromatography approach. Enzymatic properties revealed that both chimeras closely resemble the parental enzymes and physical mixtures, but Cel5A displayed lower temperature tolerance at 100°C when fused to Bgl1 independent of the conformational order. Moreover, the determination of enzymatic performances resulted in the detection of additive effects in case of BC fusion chimera. Kinetic measurements in combination with HPLC-mediated product analyses and site-directed mutation constructs indicated that Cel5A was strongly impaired when fused at the N-terminus, while activity was reduced to a slighter extend as C-terminal fusion partner. In contrast to these results, catalytic activity of Bgl1 at the N-terminus was improved 1.2-fold, effectively counteracting the slightly reduced activity of Cel5A by converting cellobiose into glucose. In addition, cellobiose exhibited inhibitory effects on Cel5A, resulting in a higher yield of cellobiose and glucose by application of an enzyme mixture (53.1%) compared to cellobiose produced from endoglucanase alone (10.9%). However, the overall release of cellobiose and glucose was even increased by catalytic action of BC (59.2%). These results indicate possible advantages of easily produced bifunctional fusion enzymes for the improved conversion of complex polysaccharide plant materials.

  2. A metal-free bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Zhao, Zhenghang; Xia, Zhenhai; Dai, Liming

    2015-05-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are traditionally carried out with noble metals (such as Pt) and metal oxides (such as RuO2 and MnO2) as catalysts, respectively. However, these metal-based catalysts often suffer from multiple disadvantages, including high cost, low selectivity, poor stability and detrimental environmental effects. Here, we describe a mesoporous carbon foam co-doped with nitrogen and phosphorus that has a large surface area of ˜1,663 m2 g-1 and good electrocatalytic properties for both ORR and OER. This material was fabricated using a scalable, one-step process involving the pyrolysis of a polyaniline aerogel synthesized in the presence of phytic acid. We then tested the suitability of this N,P-doped carbon foam as an air electrode for primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Primary batteries demonstrated an open-circuit potential of 1.48 V, a specific capacity of 735 mAh gZn-1 (corresponding to an energy density of 835 Wh kgZn-1), a peak power density of 55 mW cm-2, and stable operation for 240 h after mechanical recharging. Two-electrode rechargeable batteries could be cycled stably for 180 cycles at 2 mA cm-2. We also examine the activity of our carbon foam for both OER and ORR independently, in a three-electrode configuration, and discuss ways in which the Zn-air battery can be further improved. Finally, our density functional theory calculations reveal that the N,P co-doping and graphene edge effects are essential for the bifunctional electrocatalytic activity of our material.

  3. Crystal structure of two new bifunctional nonsubstrate type thrombin inhibitors complexed with human alpha-thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féthière, J.; Tsuda, Y.; Coulombe, R.; Konishi, Y.; Cygler, M.

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structures of two new thrombin inhibitors, P498 and P500, complexed with human alpha-thrombin have been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to crystallographic R-factors of 0.170 and 0.169, respectively. These compounds, with picomolar binding constants, belong to a family of potent bifunctional inhibitors that bind thrombin at two remote sites: the active site and the fibrinogen recognition exosite (FRE). The inhibitors incorporate a nonsubstrate type active site binding fragment: Dansyl-Arg-(D)Pipecolic acid (Dns-Arg-(D)Pip), reminiscent of the active-site directed inhibitors MD-805 and MQPA, rendering them resistant to thrombin-induced hydrolysis. The FRE binding fragment of these inhibitors corresponds to the hirudin55-65 sequence. They differ in the chemical nature of the nonpeptidyl linker bridging these two functional activities. In both cases, the active site binding fragment is well defined in the electron density. The DnsH1, ArgH2, and (D)PipH3 groups occupy the S3, S1, and S2 subsites of thrombin, respectively, in a way similar to that observed in the thrombin-MQPA complexes. Binding in the active site of thrombin is characterized by numerous van der Waals contacts and ring-ring system interactions. Unlike in the substrate-like inhibitors, ArgH2 enters the S1 specificity pocket from the P2 position and adopts a bent conformation to make an hydrogen bond to the carboxylate of Asp189. In this noncanonical position, its carbonyl points away from the oxyanion hole, which is now occupied by well-ordered solvent molecules. The linkers fit in the groove extending from the active site to the FRE. The C-terminal fragments of both inhibitors bind in the same way as analogous FRE binding elements in previously described complexes. PMID:8762149

  4. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  5. Cloning and Functional Analysis of the Bifunctional Agglutinin/Trypsin Inhibitor from Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuanjie Chang; Hongli Zhai; Songbiao Chen; Guisheng Song; Honglin Xu; Xiaoli Wei; Zhen Zhu

    2006-01-01

    In order to find new insect resistance genes, four homologous cDNAs, hta-a, hta-b, hta-c and hta-d with lengths of 775, 718, 784 and 752 bp, respectively (GenBank accession numbers AF477031-AF477034), were isolated from a tuber cDNA expression library of Helianthus tuberosus L. Sequence analysis revealed that all four cDNAs contain an open reading frame of 444 bp, coding a polypeptide of 147 amino acid residues, and that the sequences of the cDNAs are very similar to those of the mannose-binding agglutinin genes of the jacalin-related family. In hemagglutination reactions and hapten inhibition assays, affinity-purified HTA (Helianthus tuberosus agglutinin) from induced Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing GST-HTA shows hemagglutination ability and a higher carbohydrate-binding ability for mannose than other tested sugars.Trypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the crude extracts of induced E. coli BL21(DE3)expressing HTA,and was further verified by trypsin inhibitory activity staining on native polyacrylamide gel. The mechanism of interaction between HTA and trypsin was studied by molecular modeling. We found that plenty of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions can be formed between the supposed binding sites of HTA-b and the active site of trypsin, and that a stable HTA/trypsin complex can be formed. The results above imply that HTA might be a bifunctional protein with carbohydrate-binding activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Moreover,Northern blotting analysis demonstrated that hta is predominantly expressed in tubers of H. tuberosus, very weakly expressed in stems, but not expressed at all in other tissues. Southern blotting analysis indicated that hta is encoded by a multi-gene family. The insect resistance traits have been described in another paper.

  6. Correlation of acid-base properties of polymeric chelate sorbents and pH50 of gallium and indium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexing properties of synthesized polymeric chelate-forming sorbents - substituents of polystyrene-azo-pyrocatechol - are investigated and quantitative correlations between pKOH of functional analytical group and pH50 of chelate formation are determined to investigate regularities of interactions in element - sorbent system. Correlations obtained make it possible to realize special forecast on choice and usage of chelate sorbents for separation and concentrating of gallium and indium microquantities from objects of different nature

  7. Development of new metal chelates for animal nutrition and of analytical methods for their quantitative determination and quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrami, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The growing interest for mineral integration to increase mineral bioavalability brought researchers to re-examine accurately the impact that complexes and chelates can have for food industry. In fact, the so-called organic or chelate mineral forms, in particular those associated with amino acids, peptides or other organic molecules, afforded encouraging results in different in vivo tests on animals of economic interest fed with fodder containing minerals in the form of chelates. Moreover, it ...

  8. N-acetylcysteine protects rats with chronic renal failure from gadolinium-chelate nephrotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Victor Barbosa Pereira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Gd-chelate on renal function, iron parameters and oxidative stress in rats with CRF and a possible protective effect of the antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine (NAC. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx to induced CRF. An ionic-cyclic Gd (Gadoterate Meglumine was administrated (1.5 mM/KgBW, intravenously 21 days after Nx. Clearance studies were performed in 4 groups of anesthetized animals 48 hours following Gd- chelate administration: 1--Nx (n = 7; 2--Nx+NAC (n = 6; 3--Nx+Gd (n = 7; 4--Nx+NAC+Gd (4.8 g/L in drinking water, initiated 2 days before Gd-chelate administration and maintained during 4 days (n = 6. This group was compared with a control. We measured glomerular filtration rate, GFR (inulin clearance, ml/min/kg BW, proteinuria (mg/24 hs, serum iron (µg/dL; serum ferritin (ng/mL; transferrin saturation (%, TIBC (µg/dL and TBARS (nmles/ml. Normal rats treated with the same dose of Gd-chelate presented similar GFR and proteinuria when compared with normal controls, indicating that at this dose Gd-chelate is not nephrotoxic to normal rats. Gd-chelate administration to Nx-rats results in a decrease of GFR and increased proteinuria associated with a decrease in TIBC, elevation of ferritin serum levels, transferrin oversaturation and plasmatic TBARS compared with Nx-rats. The prophylactic treatment with NAC reversed the decrease in GFR and the increase in proteinuria and all alterations in iron parameters and TBARS induced by Gd-chelate. NAC administration to Nx rat did not modify the inulin clearance and iron kinetics, indicating that the ameliorating effect of NAC was specific to Gd-chelate. These results suggest that NAC can prevent Gd-chelate nephrotoxicity in patients with chronic renal failure.

  9. Chelation: a fundamental mechanism of action of AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and other inhibitors of diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoji; Murray, David B; Metz, Thomas O; Baynes, John W

    2012-03-01

    This article outlines evidence that advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors and breakers act primarily as chelators, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions that catalyze AGE formation. We then present evidence that chelation is the most likely mechanism by which ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldose reductase inhibitors inhibit AGE formation in diabetes. Finally, we note several recent studies demonstrating therapeutic benefits of chelators for diabetic cardiovascular and renal disease. We conclude that chronic, low-dose chelation therapy deserves serious consideration as a clinical tool for prevention and treatment of diabetes complications.

  10. Study of Competitive Chelating Reaction between Lanthanum and Tribromoarsenazo in the Medium of Weak Acid by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涌刚; 周培疆; 邓延倬; 程介克

    2003-01-01

    Two kinds of metal chelates of rare earth elements reacted with tribrimoarsenazo formed under the condition of critic acid were observed by simultaneous technique of capillary electrophoresisphotothermal interference spectrometry. The tendency of the conversion between these chelates as functions of the mole ratio of the reagent and the metal, pH value and the elapsing time was investigated. Kinetic equation of competitive chelating reaction between the TBA-La (Ⅲ) and La (Ⅲ) -critic acid were established. It was found that the competitive chelating reaction follows secondorder kinetics, for this second-order reaction, k=5.55 L·mol-1·S-1.

  11. Intracellular reduction/activation of a disulfide switch in thiosemicarbazone iron chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Eman A; Chang, Tsuhen M; Astashkin, Andrei V; Tomat, Elisa

    2014-10-01

    Iron scavengers (chelators) offer therapeutic opportunities in anticancer drug design by targeting the increased demand for iron in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Prochelation approaches are expected to avoid systemic iron depletion as chelators are liberated under specific intracellular conditions. In the strategy described herein, a disulfide linkage is employed as a redox-directed switch within the binding unit of an antiproliferative thiosemicarbazone prochelator, which is activated for iron coordination following reduction to the thiolate chelator. In glutathione redox buffer, this reduction event occurs at physiological concentrations and half-cell potentials. Consistent with concurrent reduction and activation, higher intracellular thiol concentrations increase cell susceptibility to prochelator toxicity in cultured cancer cells. The reduction of the disulfide switch and intracellular iron chelation are confirmed in cell-based assays using calcein as a fluorescent probe for paramagnetic ions. The resulting low-spin Fe(III) complex is identified in intact Jurkat cells by EPR spectroscopy measurements, which also document a decreased concentration of active ribonucleotide reductase following exposure to the prochelator. Cell viability and fluorescence-based assays show that the iron complex presents low cytotoxicity and does not participate in intracellular redox chemistry, indicating that this antiproliferative chelation strategy does not rely on the generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25100578

  12. A study of intracellular iron metabolism using pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone and other synthetic chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbit reticulocytes with a high level of non-heme radioiron induced by preincubation with isonicotinic acid hydrazide and transferrin-bound 59Fe, were reincubated with various synthetic chelating agents and the amount of radioiron released from the cells was determined. Some substances, especially derivatives of pyridoxal or 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and isonicotinic acid hydrazide or benzhydrazide, were found to mobilize significantly iron from 59Fe-labelled reticulocytes. Iron mobilizaiton from reticulocytes by pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone requires ATP to be produced by cells and is completely blocked by low temperatute (40C). Although the effect of desferrioxamine is also prevented by low temperature, modest iron mobilization due to this chelator seems to occur independently of ATP production in reticulocytes. Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone mobilized iron mainly from mitochondria and in part also from ferritin. Although 2,2'-bipyridine seems to enter reticulocyte mitochondria and bind iron there, this chelator is not able to relaease iron either from mitochondria or from the cells. Reticulocytes with a high level of non-heme radioiron are envisaged as a useful system for testing biological effectiveness of various iron chelators. Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone was shown to be an effective in vivo chelator since its adminstration to mice decreased 59Fe radioactivity in liver, spleen and kidney. (Auth.)

  13. Reversible adsorption of catalase onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Uygun, Murat; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2015-05-01

    In this presented study, poly(acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-GMA)] cryogels were synthesized by cryopolymerization technique at sub-zero temperature. Prepared cryogels were then functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and chelated with Fe(3+) ions in order produce the metal chelate affinity matrix. Synthesized cryogels were characterized with FTIR, ESEM and EDX analysis, and it was found that the cryogel had sponge like structure with interconnected pores and their pore diameter was about 200 μm. Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels were used for the adsorption of catalase and optimum adsorption conditions were determined by varying the medium pH, initial catalase concentration, temperature and ionic strength. Maximum catalase adsorption onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was found to be 12.99 mg/g cryogel at 25 °C, by using pH 5.0 acetate buffer. Adsorbed catalase was removed from the cryogel by using 1.0M of NaCl solution and desorption yield was found to be 96%. Additionally, reusability profile of the Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was also investigated and it was found that, adsorption capacity of the cryogels didn't decrease significantly at the end of the 40 reuses. Catalase activity studies were also tested and it was demonstrated that desorbed catalase retained 70% of its initial activity.

  14. Management of transfusional iron overload – differential properties and efficacy of iron chelating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiatkowski JL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Janet L Kwiatkowski The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Hematology and University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Regular red cell transfusion therapy ameliorates disease-related morbidity and can be lifesaving in patients with various hematological disorders. Transfusion therapy, however, causes progressive iron loading, which, if untreated, results in endocrinopathies, cardiac arrhythmias and congestive heart failure, hepatic fibrosis, and premature death. Iron chelation therapy is used to prevent iron loading, remove excess accumulated iron, detoxify iron, and reverse some of the iron-related complications. Three chelators have undergone extensive testing to date: deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone (although the latter drug is not currently licensed for use in North America where it is available only through compassionate use programs and research protocols. These chelators differ in their modes of administration, pharmacokinetics, efficacy with regard to organ-specific iron removal, and adverse-effect profiles. These differential properties influence acceptability, tolerability and adherence to therapy, and, ultimately, the effectiveness of treatment. Chelation therapy, therefore, must be individualized, taking into account patient preferences, toxicities, ongoing transfusional iron intake, and the degree of cardiac and hepatic iron loading. Keywords: transfusion, iron, chelation, magnetic resonance imaging

  15. Intracellular reduction/activation of a disulfide switch in thiosemicarbazone iron chelators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akam, Eman A.; Chang, Tsuhen M.; Astashkin, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Iron scavengers (chelators) offer therapeutic opportunities in anticancer drug design by targeting the increased demand for iron in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Prochelation approaches are expected to avoid systemic iron depletion as chelators are liberated under specific intracellular conditions. In the strategy described herein, a disulfide linkage is employed as a redox-directed switch within the binding unit of an antiproliferative thiosemicarbazone prochelator, which is activated for iron coordination following reduction to the thiolate chelator. In glutathione redox buffer, this reduction event occurs at physiological concentrations and half-cell potentials. Consistent with concurrent reduction and activation, higher intracellular thiol concentrations increase cell susceptibility to prochelator toxicity in cultured cancer cells. The reduction of the disulfide switch and intracellular iron chelation are confirmed in cell-based assays using calcein as a fluorescent probe for paramagnetic ions. The resulting low-spin Fe(III) complex is identified in intact Jurkat cells by EPR spectroscopy measurements, which also document a decreased concentration of active ribonucleotide reductase following exposure to the prochelator. Cell viability and fluorescence-based assays show that the iron complex presents low cytotoxicity and does not participate in intracellular redox chemistry, indicating that this antiproliferative chelation strategy does not rely on the generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25100578

  16. Effect of the chelation of metal cation on the antioxidant activity of chondroitin sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajisaka, Katsumi; Oyanagi, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The antioxidant potencies of chondroitin sulfates (CSs) from shark cartilage, salmon cartilage, bovine trachea, and porcine intestinal mucosa were compared by three representative methods for the measurement of the antioxidant activity; DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. CSs from salmon cartilage and bovine trachea showed higher potency in comparison with CSs from shark cartilage and porcine intestinal mucosa. Next, CS from salmon cartilage chelating with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+) were prepared, and their antioxidant potencies were compared. CS chelating with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ions showed rather decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity in comparison with CS of H(+) form. In contrast, CS chelating with Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ion showed remarkably enhanced superoxide radical scavenging activity than CS of H(+) or Na(+) form. Moreover, CS chelating with divalent metal ions, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+), showed noticeably higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than CS of H(+) or Na(+) form. The present results revealed that the scavenging activities of, at least, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical were enhanced by the chelation with divalent metal ions. PMID:26856546

  17. Arsenic induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant supplementation during chelation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Bhadauria, Smrati; Kannan, G M; Singh, Nutan

    2007-04-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, ubiquitously present in the environment in both organic and inorganic forms. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in the West Bengal basin in India is unfolding as one of the worst natural geoenvironmental disaster to date. Chronic exposure of humans to high concentration of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, Blackfoot disease and high risk of cancer The underlying mechanism of toxicity includes the interaction with the sulphydryl groups and the generation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress. Chelation therapy with chelating agents like British Anti Lewisite (BAL), sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), meso 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) etc., is considered to be the best known treatment against arsenic poisoning. The treatment with these chelating agents however is compromised with certain serious drawbacks/side effects. The studies show that supplementation of antioxidants along with a chelating agent prove to be a better treatment regimen. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of recent developments in the research on arsenic poisoning particularly the role of oxidative stress/free radicals in the toxic manifestation, an update about the recent strategies for the treatment with chelating agents and a possible beneficial role of antioxidants supplementation to achieve the optimum effects.

  18. Critical evaluation of treatment strategies involving adsorption and chelation for wastewater containing copper, zinc and cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, P.; Bose, M.A.; Kumar, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering & Management Programme

    2002-11-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and cyanide must be treatment for removal of both metals and cyanide before disposal. The study described evaluated treatment strategies involving some indigenous adsorbents and a low-cost chelating agent for treatment of a simulated wastewater containing copper and zinc, complexed with cyanide. Treatment strategies involving three adsorbents, sulfonated coal, biosorbent G. lucidum, and iron oxide coated sand (IOCS), and a chelating agent, insoluble agro-based starch xanthate (IAX), were tested. The evaluation procedure involved comparison of the performance of these treatment strategies with that of conventional treatment. Results indicate that treatment using the chelating agent IAX has the greatest potential as an alternative to the conventional treatment technique. The three adsorbents tested, although reported to be very effective in removing copper and zinc from pure systems, exhibit diminished metal removal capacity in the presence of cyanide, and hence are unsuitable.

  19. Determination of Chromium in Beef Heifers Nellore Supplemented with Chelate Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.A Moreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the amount of total chromium in beef heifers supplemented with chelated chromium in the rearing and finishing. We used 80 Nelore heifers at 12 months of age with mineral supplementation associated or not to chelate chromium, with average live weight of 220 kg. Were selected 36 heifer seach experimental group for analysis of meat samples. For the determination of chromium residue in the muscle tissue of the sample was1.5 g digested in a mixture of 5 ml 65% nitric acid and 1 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide at 120° C for 12 hours block microdigestor. The total content of chromium was determined by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption flame. The experimental design was completely randomized and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% significance. It is concluded that the inclusion of chromium in the chelate heifers mineral supplementation increased the chromium content in the meat

  20. Bis-NHC chelate complexes of nickel(0) and platinum(0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Matthias; Braun, Carolin; Rominger, Frank; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-08-11

    For a long time d(10)-ML2 fragments have been known for their potential to activate unreactive bonds by oxidative addition. In the development of more active species, two approaches have proven successful: the use of strong σ-donating ligands leading to electron-rich metal centers and the employment of chelating ligands resulting in a bent coordination geometry. Combining these two strategies, we synthesized bis-NHC chelate complexes of nickel(0) and platinum(0). Bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0) and -platinum(0) react with bisimidazolium salts, deprotonated in situ at room temperature, to yield tetrahedral or trigonal-planar bis-NHC chelate olefin complexes. The synthesis and characterization of these complexes as well as a first example of C-C bond activation with these systems are reported. Due to the enforced cis arrangement of two NHCs, these compounds should open interesting perspectives for bond-activation chemistry and catalysis.

  1. Synthesis and Preparation of Polysulfone Hollow Fiber Chelating Membrane Modified with Thiourea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; HUANG Lei; XIAO Feng

    2006-01-01

    Several kinds of chloromethyl polysulfones (CMPF) with different chlorinity and reactive groups were synthesized by Friedel-crafts reaction, which could be utilized as reactively matrix membrane materials. The CMPF hollow matrix membranes were prepared with phase inversion by utilization of CMPF/additive/DMAC casting solution and CMPF as membrane materials. It was found that the effects of additive content, bore liquid and dry spinning distance on the structure of CMPF hollow fiber matrix membrane were different. A high qualified polysulfone hollow fiber chelating membrane modified with thiourea as chelating groups was prepared using CMPF as membrane matrix materials,through the reaction between thiourea and CMPF hollow fiber matrix membrane to afford the methyl iso-thiourium polysulfone. The experimental results showed that thermal drawing could increase the mechanical properties of matrix membrane, and the thermal treatment could increase the homogeneity and stability of the structure of polysulfone hollow fiber chelating membrane modified with thiourea.

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE:Future of Lead Chelation – Distribution and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Thuppil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is the major environmental toxin resulting in the ill health and deleterious effect on almost all organs in the human body in a slow and effective manner. The best treatment for lead poisoning is chelation therapy which is next only to prevention. The authors describe the disruption of homeostasis of the human body by lead in various tissues like blood, bones, liver, kidneys and brain; and the ability of lead to enter the cell using calcium channels and calcium receptors like Ca++ dependant K+ ion channels, transient receptor potential channels, T-tubules, calmodulin receptors, inositol trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors. We report a few novel chelating agents like ionophores, decadentate ligands, picolinate ligands, octadentate ligand, allicin, thiamine, that show good potential for being used in chelation therapy. Future of leadpoisoning is a challenge to all and it needs to be meticulously studies to have an economic and health approach.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of 2-Decyl-DTPA and Its Gd(Ⅲ) Chelate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhi-ming; LI Feng; CHEN Rong; ZHU Xiao-juan; LI Xiao-ru

    2004-01-01

    The present paper covers the synthesis and the characterization of ligand 2-decyl-3, 6, 9-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,6,9-triazaundecan-1,11-dioic acid, H5L, and its Gd(Ⅲ) chelate. The protonation constants for H5L(lgKHi=10.90, 8.50, 4.55, 2.92, 2.20) and the stability constant for GdL2- (lgKGdL2-=22.80) were determined by means of potentiometric titration. They are similar to the corresponding values of DTPA and Gd-DTPA, respectively. The results obtained show that the basicity of the ligand and the stability constant of its Gd(Ⅲ) chelate are not obviously altered after the introduction of a linear chain decyl group into the terminal acetic acid residue of DTPA. The Gd(Ⅲ) chelate may be a potential contrast agent with liver-specificity for magnetic resonance imaging(MRI).

  4. High-throughput assay comparison and standardization for metal chelating capacity screening: A proposal and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jânio Sousa; Alvarenga Brizola, Vitor Rafael; Granato, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aiming to standardize the experimental protocols to assess the ability to chelate Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) using 96-well microplates, we analyzed Brazilian coffees (n=20) as a study-case in relation to their antioxidant activity using conventional methods (DPPH and FRAP assays) and correlated the results with the total phenolic content (TPC) using bivariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Complementarily, we assessed the repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, and linearity of both methods. Data showed that the proposed assays presented a good repeatability and reproducibility (assays, respectively. Both methods were linear in the range of 0-100mg EDTA equivalents/L. Cu(2+)-chelating ability was significantly correlated to FRAP, DPPH, and TPC, while sparse (passays can be used to assess the ability of plant-based extracts to chelate Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)in vitro. PMID:27507505

  5. A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Kovalchuk, Svetlana; Bulgakov, Alexander; Likhatskaya, Galina; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa. The CmAP/MBL-AJ dimer model showed the two-subunit lectin part that is associated with two molecules of alkaline phosphatase functioning independently from each other. The highly active CmAP label genetically linked to MBL-AJ has advantaged the lectin-binding assay in its sensitivity and time. The double substitution A156N/F159K in the lectin domain of CmAP/MBL-AJ has enhanced its lectin activity by 25±5%. The bifunctional hybrid holothurian's lectin could be promising tool for developing non-invasive methods for biological markers assessment, particularly for improving the MBL-AJ-based method for early detection of a malignant condition in cervical specimens. PMID:25397876

  6. Iron Carbide Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Mesoporous Fe-N-Doped Graphene-Like Carbon Hybrids as Efficient Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongliang; Yao, Yifan; Zhu, Yihua; Liu, Yanyan; Su, Yunhe; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-09-30

    It is highly crucial and challenging to develop bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) in rechargeable metal-air batteries and unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Herein, a facile and cost-effective strategy is developed to prepare mesoporous Fe-N-doped graphene-like carbon architectures with uniform Fe3C nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitic layers (Fe3C@NG) via a one-step solid-state thermal reaction. The optimized Fe3C@NG800-0.2 catalyst shows comparable ORR activity with the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst and OER activity with the benchmarking RuO2 catalyst. The oxygen electrode activity parameter ΔE (the criteria for judging the overall catalytic activity of bifunctional electrocatalysts) value for Fe3C@NG800-0.2 is 0.780 V, which surpasses those of Pt/C and RuO2 catalysts as well as those of most nonprecious metal catalysts. Significantly, excellent long-term catalytic durability holds great promise in fields of rechargeable metal-air batteries and URFCs. PMID:26371772

  7. Bifunctional carbohydrate biopolymers entrapped lipase as catalyst for the two consecutive conversions of α-pinene to oxy-derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, Madalina; Gheorghe, Andreea; Negoi, Alina; Enache, Madalin; Maria, Gabriel-Mihai; Parvulescu, Vasile I

    2016-11-01

    Bifunctional catalysts designed as carbohydrate biopolymers entrapping lipase have been investigated for the biotransformation of a natural compound (α-pinene) to oxy-derivatives. Lipases assisted the epoxidation of α-pinene using H2O2 as oxidation reagent and ethyl acetate as both acetate-supplier and solvent affording α-pinene oxide as the main product. Further, the biopolymer promoted the isomerization of α-pinene oxide to campholenic aldehyde and trans-carenol. In this case, the biopolymers played double roles of the support and also active part of the bifunctional catalyst. Screening of enzymes and their entrapping in a biopolymeric matrix (e.g. Ca-alginate and κ-carrageenan) indicated the lipase extracted from Aspergillus niger as the most efficient. In addition, the presence of biopolymers enhanced the catalytic activity of the immobilized lipase (i.e. 13.39×10(3), 19.76×10(3)and 26.46×10(3) for the free lipase, lipase-carrageenan and lipase-alginate, respectively). The catalysts stability and reusability were confirmed in eight consecutively reaction runs.

  8. Preparation of IrO2 nanoparticles with SBA-15 template and its supported Pt nanocomposite as bifunctional oxygen catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Dong; Liu, Jing; Ling, Ai-Xia; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hui-Yun; Kong, Qing-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, we report the syntheses of IrO2 nanoparticles with SBA-15 template (s-IrO2), and s-IrO2 supported Pt nanocomposite (Pt/s-IrO2) as bifunctional oxygen catalyst. Physical characterizations including X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that s-IrO2 catalyst has excellent uniformity and regularity in particle shape and much ordered distribution in geometric space, and Pt/s-IrO2 catalyst shows a uniform Pt dispersion on the surface of the s-IrO2 particles. Electrochemical analyses prove that s-IrO2 catalyst possesses superior OER activity at operating potentials; and that Pt/s-IrO2 catalyst, in comparison to Pt/commercial IrO2, has higher ESA value and ORR catalytic performance with a mechanism of four-electron pathway and a high ORR efficiency. And as a bifunctional oxygen catalyst, Pt/s-IrO2 also exhibits more remarkable OER performance than the commercial one. The s-IrO2 nanoparticles will be a promising active component (for OER), and suitable for Pt support (for ORR).

  9. A novel bifunctional hybrid with marine bacterium alkaline phosphatase and Far Eastern holothurian mannan-binding lectin activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Balabanova

    Full Text Available A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa. The CmAP/MBL-AJ dimer model showed the two-subunit lectin part that is associated with two molecules of alkaline phosphatase functioning independently from each other. The highly active CmAP label genetically linked to MBL-AJ has advantaged the lectin-binding assay in its sensitivity and time. The double substitution A156N/F159K in the lectin domain of CmAP/MBL-AJ has enhanced its lectin activity by 25 ± 5%. The bifunctional hybrid holothurian's lectin could be promising tool for developing non-invasive methods for biological markers assessment, particularly for improving the MBL-AJ-based method for early detection of a malignant condition in cervical specimens.

  10. The preparation and characterization of novel human-like collagen metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the nutritional trace elements which could be absorbed and utilized effectively, protein chelates were adopted. Calcium, copper and manganese were considered based on their physiological functions, and the new chelates of HLC-Ca, HLC-Cu and HLC-Mn were formed in MOPS or MES buffer and purified by gel chromatography, and then freeze-dried. And they were detected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ultraviolet–visible absorption (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching method, circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that some chemical reactions happened between HLC and the three metal ions to form new chemical compounds. The thermodynamic parameters, ∆H, ∆G and ∆S, showed that the chelation process between HLC and metal ions was performed spontaneously. Fluorescence quenching spectra of HLC indicated that the quenching mechanism was static in nature. According to the data of DSC, the new chelates were more stable than the free HLC. And HLC-metal complex was non-toxic to the BHK21 cell through MTT assay. - Highlights: ► HLC-Ca, HLC-Cu and HLC-Mn were new chemical compounds and different to free HLC. ► Possible sites for Ca2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ to bind with HLC were presented. ► The chelation process between HLC and metal ions was performed spontaneously. ► The thermodynamic stability of the new chelates was higher than that of free HLC

  11. The preparation and characterization of novel human-like collagen metal chelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Sun, Yan [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wang, Yaoyu [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an 710069 (China); Luo, Yane, E-mail: luoyane@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, Xi' an 710069 (China); Fan, Daidi, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2013-07-01

    In order to develop the nutritional trace elements which could be absorbed and utilized effectively, protein chelates were adopted. Calcium, copper and manganese were considered based on their physiological functions, and the new chelates of HLC-Ca, HLC-Cu and HLC-Mn were formed in MOPS or MES buffer and purified by gel chromatography, and then freeze-dried. And they were detected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ultraviolet–visible absorption (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence quenching method, circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that some chemical reactions happened between HLC and the three metal ions to form new chemical compounds. The thermodynamic parameters, ∆H, ∆G and ∆S, showed that the chelation process between HLC and metal ions was performed spontaneously. Fluorescence quenching spectra of HLC indicated that the quenching mechanism was static in nature. According to the data of DSC, the new chelates were more stable than the free HLC. And HLC-metal complex was non-toxic to the BHK21 cell through MTT assay. - Highlights: ► HLC-Ca, HLC-Cu and HLC-Mn were new chemical compounds and different to free HLC. ► Possible sites for Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} to bind with HLC were presented. ► The chelation process between HLC and metal ions was performed spontaneously. ► The thermodynamic stability of the new chelates was higher than that of free HLC.

  12. Ethyl acetoacetate ligand distribution in the course of titanium n-butoxide chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurajica, S., E-mail: stankok@fkit.hr; Škorić, I.; Lozić, I.; Mandić, V.

    2014-10-15

    Sols obtained by chelation of titanium n-butoxide with ethyl acetoacetate, Eaa, in various ratios have been subjected to FTIR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, HSQC and UV–Vis spectroscopy in order to provide insight in the compounds obtained, their structure and quantitative relationships. Three compounds, the bis-chelated monomer, Ti(O{sup n}Bu){sub 2}(Eaa){sub 2}, bis-chelated dimer, (Ti(O{sup n}Bu){sub 3}Eaa){sub 2} and monochelated dimer, Ti{sub 2}(O{sup n}Bu){sub 7}Eaa have been established. As the molar ratio Eaa/Ti(O{sup n}Bu){sub 4} increases, the coordination changes from the monochelated and bis-chelated dimer to the bis-chelated monomer. Additionally, the transesterification reaction, influencing the chemical composition of the compounds was noted. The hydrolysis of the prepared sols was partial, leaving some residual butoxy and ethyl acetoacetate groups attached to titanium. Thermal treatment of the prepared amorphous gels at 350 °C yielded with the formation of nanocrystalline anatase. It was noted that high Eaa/Tnb ratio slightly retards the anatase formation. - Highlights: • Titanium n-butoxide was modified with ethyl acetoacetate in various ratios. • Among other chelate phases, previously undescribed Ti{sub 2}(O{sup n}Bu){sub 7}Eaa was obtained. • NMR-based mass balance procedure was introduced to obtain quantitative relationships. • The transesterification reaction has been noted. • Nanocrystalline anatase has been obtained by thermal treatment at 350 °C.

  13. Stereoselective coordination: a six-membered P,N-chelate tailored for asymmetric allylic alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császár, Z; Farkas, G; Bényei, A; Lendvay, G; Tóth, I; Bakos, J

    2015-10-01

    Six-membered chelate complexes [Pd(1a-b)Cl2], (2a-b) and [Pd(1a-b)(η(3)-PhCHCHCHPh)]BF4, (3a-b) of P,N-type ligands 1a, ((2S,4S)-2-diphenyl-phosphino-4-isopropylamino-pentane) and 1b, ((2S,4S)-2-diphenyl-phosphino-4-methylamino-pentane) have been prepared. The Pd-complexes have been characterized in solution by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The observed structures were confirmed by DFT calculations and in the case of 2a also by X-ray crystallography. Unexpectedly, the coordination of the all-carbon-backbone aminophosphine 1a resulted in not only a stereospecific locking of the donor nitrogen atom into one of the two possible configurations but also the conformation of the six-membered chelate rings containing three alkyl substituents was forced into the same single chair structure showing the axially placed isopropyl group on the coordinated N-atom. The stereodiscriminative complexation of 1a led to the formation of a palladium catalyst with a conformationally rigid chelate having a configurationally fixed nitrogen and electronically different coordination sites due to the presence of P and N donors. The stereochemically fixed catalyst provided excellent ee's (up to 96%) and activities in asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions. In contrast, the chelate rings formed by 1b exist in two different chair conformations, both containing axial methyl groups, but with the opposite configurations of the coordinated N-atom. Pd-complexes of 1b provided low enantioselectivities in similar alkylations, therefore emphasizing the importance of the stereoselective coordination of N-atoms in analogous P-N chelates. The factors determining the coordination of the ligands were also studied with respect to the chelate ring conformation and the nitrogen configuration.

  14. Novel "hybrid" iron chelators derived from aroylhydrazones and thiosemicarbazones demonstrate selective antiproliferative activity against tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, David B; Richardson, Des R

    2002-07-15

    We previously demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311) and other aroylhydrazone chelators possess potent antineoplastic activity because of their ability to bind iron (Fe). From these studies, we identified structural components of the hydrazones that provide antineoplastic activity, namely the salicylaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde moieties. A related group of chelators known as the thiosemicarbazones also show pronounced antitumor activity because of their ability to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase. Considering this, we designed a new series of "hybrid ligands" by condensation of the aldehydes described above with a range of thiosemicarbazides. The parent compound of these ligands is 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (NT). Of 8 NT analogues, 3 chelators, namely NT, N4mT (2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone), and N44mT (2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone), showed high antiproliferative activity against SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cells (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 0.5-1.5 microM). Indeed, their activity was significantly (P <.0001) greater than that of desferrioxamine (DFO) (IC(50) = 22 microM). We demonstrate that 311, a 311 analogue (311m), and several NT-series chelators have significantly (P <.001) greater antiproliferative activity against tumor cells than against a range of normal cell types. For example, the IC(50) values of NT and N4mT in SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cells were 0.5 microM, whereas for fibroblasts the IC(50) values were greater than 25 microM. Further, the effect of one of the most potent chelators (311m) on preventing the growth of bone marrow stem cell cultures was far less than that of doxorubicin and similar to that of cisplatin. These studies support the further development of these chelators as antiproliferative agents. PMID:12091363

  15. Treatment of metal-containing wastewater by adsorption of metal-chelate complexes onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shay, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To eliminate difficulties associated with interference of chelating or complexing agents on precipitation of heavy metals from wastewaters, the feasibility of a process which utilized chelating agents in the removal of the heavy metals was investigated. Heavy metal ions were removed from simulated metal plating wastewater by sorption of a heavy metal chelate complex onto activated carbon. In this process, a chelate which might be present in a wastewater could be used in removal of a heavy metal, rather than interfere with its removal. System development of a continuous flow process consisted of bench scale column tests to answer questions about key adsorption column operating parameters. The metals investigated were Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Hydrogen ion concentration had the largest effect on removal of heavy metalchelate complexes, but contact time and heavy metal:chelate ratio were important. The normal contact time for activated carbon columns of 30 to 60 minutes was found adequate to achieve heavy metal-chelate removals of at least 90% for citrate or EDTA complexes. For citrate complexes better removals were achieved at heavy metal:chelate ratios greater than 1:1. For EDTA, there was no advantage to ratios greater than 1:1. Increasing pH, at least to pH 9.0, increased the heavy metal chelate removal; however, for EDTA, removals greater than 90% could be achieved at a pH as low as 3.0. The maximum amount of Cu(II)-citrate complex that could be removed was 2.8 mg per gram of carbon, the maximum amount for Zn(II)citrate complex was 1.2 mg per gram of carbon, and for Ni(II)-citrate, the maximum was 1.3 mg per gram of carbon. For the EDTA complexes, the maximum removal was 2.1 mg of Cu(II)-EDTA complex per gram of carbon, 6.9 mg of Zn(II)-EDTA complex per gram of carbon, and 3.2 mg of Ni(II)-EDTA complex per gram of carbon.

  16. STUDY ON THE KINETICS OF POLYMERIZATION OF MMA BY COPPER(Ⅱ) CHELATING RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHongzuo; JiangYuanzhang; 等

    1993-01-01

    The polymerization of MMA initiated by copper(Ⅱ) chelating resins/CCl4 system was studied.From the kinetic data,the kinetic equation of polymerization can be expressed as Rp=Ke-56400/RT[MMA]1.57[CCl4]m[RESIN-Cu]0.18 where m:3-4.5,when[CCl4] 0.1-6.93M.The free radical polymerization mechanism is proposed.The primary radicals are formed by the process of complexation-chlorine transformation among the copper(Ⅱ) chelating resin,CCl4 and methacrylate.

  17. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions is affected by the type of surfactant used as emulsifier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of real food emulsifiers as well as metal chelation by EDTA and pH on the oxidative stability of a 10% n-3...... to their ability to chelate iron, scavenge free radicals, interfere with interactions between the lipid hydroperoxides and iron as well as to form a physical harrier around the oil droplets....

  18. Complexes of quinone-functionalized chelating ligands for multiple electron/proton transfer reduction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, W.S.; Pierpont, C.G. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-03-03

    Quinone-functionalized chelating ligands may be used to effect sequential electron/proton transfer steps necessary for the reduction of substrate molecules coordinated to a complexed metal ion. The chelating ligand (NQ)[sub 2]en has been synthesized by condensing 2 equiv of 2-hydroxy-3-acetyl-1,4-naphthoquinone with ethylenediamine. Complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) have been prepared and characterized. Electrochemical properties of the complexes show that, in the fully reduced bis(hydroquinone) form, the ligand would be able to provide four electrons and protons to a coordinated substrate molecule at strongly negative potentials. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  19. DCCP and DICP: Construction and Analyses of Databases for Copper- and Iron-Chelating Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wu; Yan Yang; Sheng-Juan Jiang; Ling-Ling Chen; Hai-Xia Gao; Qing-Shan Fu; Feng Li; Bin-Guang Ma; Hong-Yu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Copper and iron play important roles in a variety of biological processes, especially when being chelated with proteins. The proteins involved in the metal binding,transporting and metabolism have aroused much interest. To facilitate the study on this topic, we constructed two databases (DCCP and DICP) containing the known copper- and iron-chelating proteins, which are freely available from the website http:∥sdbi.sdut.edu.cn/en. Users can conveniently search and browse all of the entries in the databases. Based on the two databases, bioinformatic analyses were performed, which provided some novel insights into metalloproteins.

  20. Studies of inclusion complexes between cyclodextrins and polyazamacrocyclic chelates of lanthanide (III) ions

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Elsa S.; Bastos, Margarida; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Ramos, Maria João

    2003-01-01

    The complexes between [gamma]-cyclodextrin and lanthanide (III) chelates of the polyazamacrocycles DOTA (DOTA [reverse not equivalent] 1,4,7,10-tertraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate) and DOTP (DOTP [reverse not equivalent] 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylenephosphonate) have been thought out to enhance the potential of such chelates as contrast agents for MRI. Given the actual demand for the design of new contrast agents, we thought it worthwhile to confirm previous ...

  1. Chelation in Metal Intoxication XLVI:Synthesis of Some α-Mercapto-β-Substituted Aryl Acrylic Acids and Their In vitro Cadmium Chelating Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MADHUMITA CHATTERJEE; VINOD K. DWIVEDI; KIRTI KHANDEKAR; SUSHIL K. TANDON

    2004-01-01

    Objective To synthesize some new α-mercapto-β-substituted aryl acrylic acids, characterize them and investigate their in vitro cadmium chelating ability. Methods Six α-mercapto-β-substituted aryl acrylic acids were prepared by the alkaline hydrolysis of 5-(aryl methylene)rhodanines, obtained from the condensation of substituted aldehydes and rhodanine following the reported procedure. The new compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The liver and kidney from cadmium chloride pre-administered rats were homogenized and their nuclear mitochondrial fraction (NMF) and supernatant cytosol fraction (SCF) were separated. A measured volume of each fraction was dialyzed separately using "dialysis sack" against buffered-KCl medium containing a compound in the final concentration of 1×10-3 mol/L for 3 h at 37℃C. The whole content of "sack" was subjected to cadmiumestimation following digestion with conc. Nitric acid was detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Results The in vitro screening showed that α-mercapto-β-(p-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid (compound 2) and α-mercapto-β-(m-methoxy, p-hydroxyphenyl) acrylic acid (compound 4) were more effective than α-mercapto-β-thienyl acrylic acid (compound 1) and α-mercapto-β-(p-dimethylaminophenyl) acrylic acid (compound 3) in mobilizing cadmium as their dialyzable chelates. The presence of a methoxy group on the phenyl moiety (compounds 2 and 4) increases the metal chelating ability of mercapto acrylic acids. Conclusions Compounds 2 and 4 seem to have accessibility to the cellular system and capability of chelating-out the intracellularly bound cadmium.

  2. Robust Control of PEP Formation Rate in the Carbon Fixation Pathway of C4 Plants by a Bi-functional Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Yuval

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C4 plants such as corn and sugarcane assimilate atmospheric CO2 into biomass by means of the C4 carbon fixation pathway. We asked how PEP formation rate, a key step in the carbon fixation pathway, might work at a precise rate, regulated by light, despite fluctuations in substrate and enzyme levels constituting and regulating this process. Results We present a putative mechanism for robustness in C4 carbon fixation, involving a key enzyme in the pathway, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, which is regulated by a bifunctional enzyme, Regulatory Protein (RP. The robust mechanism is based on avidity of the bifunctional enzyme RP to its multimeric substrate PPDK, and on a product-inhibition feedback loop that couples the system output to the activity of the bifunctional regulator. The model provides an explanation for several unusual biochemical characteristics of the system and predicts that the system's output, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP formation rate, is insensitive to fluctuations in enzyme levels (PPDK and RP, substrate levels (ATP and pyruvate and the catalytic rate of PPDK, while remaining sensitive to the system's input (light levels. Conclusions The presented PPDK mechanism is a new way to achieve robustness using product inhibition as a feedback loop on a bifunctional regulatory enzyme. This mechanism exhibits robustness to protein and metabolite levels as well as to catalytic rate changes. At the same time, the output of the system remains tuned to input levels.

  3. CXCL10 Acts as a Bifunctional Antimicrobial Molecule against Bacillus anthracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie R. Margulieux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is killed by the interferon-inducible, ELR(− CXC chemokine CXCL10. Previous studies showed that disruption of the gene encoding FtsX, a conserved membrane component of the ATP-binding cassette transporter-like complex FtsE/X, resulted in resistance to CXCL10. FtsX exhibits some sequence similarity to the mammalian CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, suggesting that the CXCL10 N-terminal region that interacts with CXCR3 may also interact with FtsX. A C-terminal truncated CXCL10 was tested to determine if the FtsX-dependent antimicrobial activity is associated with the CXCR3-interacting N terminus. The truncated CXCL10 exhibited antimicrobial activity against the B. anthracis parent strain but not the ΔftsX mutant, which supports a key role for the CXCL10 N terminus. Mutations in FtsE, the conserved ATP-binding protein of the FtsE/X complex, resulted in resistance to both CXCL10 and truncated CXCL10, indicating that both FtsX and FtsE are important. Higher concentrations of CXCL10 overcame the resistance of the ΔftsX mutant to CXCL10, suggesting an FtsX-independent killing mechanism, likely involving its C-terminal α-helix, which resembles a cationic antimicrobial peptide. Membrane depolarization studies revealed that CXCL10 disrupted membranes of the B. anthracis parent strain and the ΔftsX mutant, but only the parent strain underwent depolarization with truncated CXCL10. These findings suggest that CXCL10 is a bifunctional molecule that kills B. anthracis by two mechanisms. FtsE/X-dependent killing is mediated through an N-terminal portion of CXCL10 and is not reliant upon the C-terminal α-helix. The FtsE/X-independent mechanism involves membrane depolarization by CXCL10, likely because of its α-helix. These findings present a new paradigm for understanding mechanisms by which CXCL10 and related chemokines kill bacteria.

  4. Chelation behavior of various flavonols and transfer of flavonol-chelated zinc(II) to alanylaspartic dipeptide: A PCM/DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasarawan, Nuttawisit; Thipyapong, Khajadpai; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya

    2016-03-01

    Alanylaspartic dipeptide (AlaAsp) and zinc(II)-flavonol complex could represent a metal-binding site in proteins and a metal-ion releasing agent, respectively. Chelation of zinc(II) by either AlaAsp or flavonol ligands in aqueous solution has been examined using DFT methods with polarizable continuum model (PCM/DFT). Coordination geometry, complexation stoichiometry, coordination bond strength, preferable metal-binding site on ligands and effect of water coordination on the stability of complexes have been addressed. In several cases, the long-range corrected density functional CAM-B3LYP allows the most accurate prediction of both structural and spectroscopic data. The preferential transfer of flavonol-chelated zinc(II) to AlaAsp under solvation is attainable through the ligand-exchange reaction. The energy barrier of such reaction is significantly dependent on the degree of hydrogen bonding within the transition state. In summary, either hydroxylation or methoxylation at particular positions on the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone significantly affects the reactivity of flavonol chelates in the metal-ion transfer.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography method for ferric iron chelators using a post-column reaction with Calcein Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Tomoko; Ito, Kyoko; Imura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Etsuro

    2015-03-15

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for higher plants, which take it up from the soil at the root surface and transport it to shoots through the xylem. Fe(III) chelators, such as organic acids and phytosiderophores, play important roles in the acquisition and transportation of Fe(III). Therefore, a selective and sensitive method for analyzing Fe(III) chelators is required to study the many Fe-related physiological mechanisms in plants. A novel analytical approach employing a high-performance liquid chromatography post-column method with fluorescence detection was developed to separate and detect Fe(III) chelators. This method takes advantage of the quenching of the fluorescence of Calcein Blue (CB) that occurs with the formation of an Fe(III)-CB complex and the dequenching that occurs with the release of CB as a result of competition for Fe(III) between CB and an Fe(III) chelator. This simple experimental method does not require complicated pretreatments and can selectively detect Fe(III) chelators according to their Fe(III)-chelating ability. The detection limit for citric acid using this method was 72pmol. Furthermore, this method can also detect unknown Fe(III) chelators that exhibit a high affinity for Fe(III). The method was evaluated with xylem sap of barley, which was shown to contain several Fe(III) chelators. PMID:25658515

  6. Extraction of Micronutrient Metals from Peat-based Media Using Various Chelate-ligand and Iron-source Extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of the study were to determine effects of chelate-ligand (experiment 1) and iron-source (experiment 2) unbuffrered extractant solutions on substrate pH and Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn extraction from peat-based media. Chelate-ligand extractants consisted of 5 mM solutions of ethylenediaminedisucc...

  7. Synergistic Activities of an Efflux Pump Inhibitor and Iron Chelators against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The efflux pump inhibitor phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PA beta N) was paired with iron chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl, acetohydroxamic acid, and EDTA to assess synergistic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth and biofilm formation. All of the tested iron chelators synergistically...

  8. The fabrication and study of metal chelating stationary phases for the high performance separation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation and characterisation of chelating sorbents suitable for the high efficiency separation of trace metals in complex samples, using a single column and isocratic elution, is described. Hydrophobic, neutral polystyrene divinylbenzene resins were either impregnated with chelating dyes or dynamically modified with heterocyclic organic acids, using physical adsorption and chemisorption processes respectively. A hydrophilic silica substrate was covalently bonded with a chelating aminomethylphosphonic acid group, to assess the chelating potential of this molecule. These substrates were characterised in terms of metal retention capability (selectivity coefficients and capacity factors), separation performance, column efficiency and suitability for analytical applications. Chelating molecules with different ligand groups were found to have unique selectivity patterns dependant upon the conditional stability constants of the chelate. Other factors, including mobile phase constituents - complexing agents, ionic strength and pH, column length and column capacity were additionally investigated to examine their effect upon the separation profiles achieved. The promising metal separation abilities illustrated by a number of these chelating columns were exploited for the determination of trace toxic metals in complex sample matrices using High Performance Chelation Ion Chromatography (HPCIC). This included the determination of beryllium in a certified stream sediment, uranium in seawater and a certified stream sediment, and cadmium, lead and copper in a certified rice flour. The results for each analysis fell within the certified limits, and reproducibility was good. The optimisation of post column detection systems using chromogenic ligands additionally gave good detection limits for the metals in each separation system. (author)

  9. Reactivity and molecular modeling of new solvatochromic mixed-ligand copper(II) chelates of 2-acetylbutyrolactone and dinitrogen bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A; Adly, Omima M I; Shebl, Magdy

    2015-04-01

    A new series of solvatochromic mononuclear mixed ligand chelates with the general formula: Cu(AcBL)(L)X; where AcBL=2-acetylbutyrolactonate, L=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (Me4en), N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpropylene diamine (Me4pn), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) or 2,2'-bipyridyl (Bipy) and X=ClO4-, NO3- or Br- have been synthesized and characterized by the analytical and spectral methods, as well as magnetic and molar conductance measurements. The d-d absorption bands of Me4en-chelates as Nujol mulls or weak donor solvents solutions revealed square-planar, distorted octahedral and/or distorted trigonal bipyramid geometries for the perchlorate, nitrate and bromide chelates, respectively. However, an octahedral structure is identified for chelates in strong donor solvents. Perchlorate chelates show a remarkable color change from violet to green as the Lewis basicity of the donor solvent increases, whereas bromide chelates are mainly affected by the Lewis acidity of solvent. Specific and non-specific interactions of solvent molecules with the chelates were investigated on the basis of unified solvation model. Structural parameters of the free ligands and their Cu(II)-chelates have been calculated on the basis of semiempirical PM3 level and correlated with the experimental data.

  10. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  11. Study on Chelating Resins XXXI Syntheses and Adsorption Properties of a New Type of Bead Resins Containing S and N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of bead crosslinked chelating resins containing coordinate atoms N and S were synthesized by the reaction of polyethyleneimine with chloromethylthiirane in suitable sovent at temperature of 2080C. These chelating resins exhibited excellent adsorption properties for precious metal ions.

  12. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  13. Preparation and characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} bifunctional magnetic-luminescent nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Hongxia [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Guixia, E-mail: liuguixia22@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Dong Xiangting; Wang Jinxian; Xu Jia; Yu Wensheng [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2011-06-16

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Bifunctional magnetic-luminescent nanocomposites with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as the core and YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} as the shell. > A cubic spinel structrue of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and a tetragonal phase of YVO{sub 4} shell were obtained. > The nanocomposites displayed a strong red emission and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. - Abstract: A facile direct precipitation method has been developed for the synthesis of bifunctional magnetic-luminescent nanocomposites with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as the core and YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} as the shell. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the obtained bifunctional nanocomposites had a core-shell structure and a spherical morphology. The average size was {approx}150 nm, and the thickness of the shell was {approx}15 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that a cubic spinel structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and a tetragonal phase of YVO{sub 4} shell were obtained. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed that the YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} had been successfully deposited on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that the nanocomposites displayed a strong red characteristic emission of Eu{sup 3+}. Magnetic measurements showed that the obtained bifunctional nanocomposites exhibited superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Therefore, the bifunctional nanocomposites are expected to develop many potential applications in biomedical fields.

  14. Effect of chelating agent on oxidation rate of aniline in ferrous ion activated persulfate system at neutral pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清; 谢晓芳; 黄少斌; 梁海云

    2014-01-01

    In the interest of accelerating aniline degradation, Fe2+and chelated Fe2+activated persulfate oxidations were investigated in neutral pH condition. Three kinds of chelating agents were selected including citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediamine tetraaceatate (EDTA) to maintain available Fe2+. The results indicate that the concentration of chelating agent and ferrous ion didn’t follow a linear relationship with the degradation rate of aniline. A 1/1 ratio of chelating agent/Fe2+results in a higher degradation rate compared to the results by other ratios. The oxidation enhancement factor using oxalic acid was found to be relatively low. In contrast, citric acid is more suitable chelating agent in the ferrous iron activated persulfate system and aniline exhibits a highest degradation with a persulfate/Fe2+/citric acid/aniline molar ratio of 50/25/25/1 compared to other molar ratios.

  15. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83-13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185-0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  16. Ascorbate status modulates reticuloendothelial iron stores and response to deferasirox iron chelation in ascorbate-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Casey; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    Iron chelation is essential to patients on chronic blood transfusions to prevent toxicity from iron overload and remove excess iron. Deferasirox (DFX) is the most commonly used iron chelator in the United States; however, some patients are relatively refractory to DFX therapy. We postulated...... weeks. Cardiac and liver iron levels were measured after iron loading (n = 18), 12 weeks of sham chelation (n = 18), and 12 weeks of DFX chelation (n = 18) at 75 mg/kg/day. Ascorbate supplementation of 150 ppm, 900 ppm, and 2250 ppm was used in the chow to mimic a broad range of ascorbate status; plasma...... 12 weeks of sham chelation. Most importantly, ascorbate supplementation at 2250 ppm improved DFX efficiency, allowing DFX to remove 21% more hepatic iron than ascorbate supplementation with 900 ppm or 150 ppm (p

  17. SYNTHESIS AND MESOMORPHIC PROPERTIES OF PALLADIUM CHELATES OF LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYSILOXANE WITH β-DIKETONE-BASED SIDE CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhaohui; DAI Daorong; ZHANG Rongben

    1992-01-01

    A new type of palladium chelate of β-diketone-based side chain liquid crystal polysiloxane(Pd-DKLCP) has been synthesized by chelation reaction of palladium dichloride with polymeric ligand, β-diketone polysiloxane (DKLCP), using THF as solvent at R .T.. The Pd-chelation results in greatly increasing the phase transition temperature TK and the enthalpy change AHK from crystal to liquid crystal state and making the temperature range of LC state AT (A T=Tc1- TK) widened.All these chelates Pd-DKLCP's do not show TCl until decomposition at 205 ℃. It is noteworthy that the Pd-chelation can exert more positive effect on the mesomorphic behaviour of the polymer ligand than the counterpart Cu-DKLCP does. It is probable due to the bigger size of disc-like mesogen formed from β-diketone and Pd +2 ion with 4d orbital.

  18. Modelling chelate-Induced phytoextraction: functional models predicting bioavailability of metals in soil, metal uptake and shoot biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Sacco

    Full Text Available Chelate-induced phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils requires special care to determine, a priori, the best method of chelate application, in terms of both dose and timing. In fact, the chelate dose must assure the bioavailability of the metal to the plant without increasing leaching risk and giving toxic effects. Three mathematical models are here proposed for usefully interpreting the processes taking place: a increased soil bioavailability of metals by chelants; b metal uptake by plants; c variation in plant biomass. The models are implemented and validated using data from pot and lysimeter trials. Both the chelate dose and the time elapsed since its application affected metal bioavailability and plant response. Contrariwise, the distribution strategy (single vs. split application seems to produce significant differences both in plant growth and metal uptake, but not in soil metal bioavailability. The proposed models may help to understand and predict the chelate dose – effect relationship with less experimental work.

  19. Spectral, magnetic and antifungal activities of some novel lanthanon chelates of Schiff bases containing oxygen and nitrogen donor atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanon chelates of the type (LnL2) and (LnL3) where Ln = La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Ho(III) and Er(III) and L = acetylacetonethiosemicarbazide (AAS) and L' = benzoylacetonethiosemicarbazide (BAS) have been isolated in solid state and are characterized by their spectral, magnetic and antifungal activities. The electronic spectra of these chelates have been analyzed in the light of LSJ terms and involving characteristic f - f transitions. The ligands and their resulting chelates have been shown to be toxic against the two pathogenic fungi, viz., Aspargillus niger and Draschelara australiensis and the results revealed that the toxicity decreases on chelation or metallation. Overall, the benzoylacetonesemicarbazide lanthanon chelates are more toxic to fungi than the corresponding lanthanon derivatives of acetylacetonesemicarbazide. (author)

  20. [Physico-chemical and toxicological profile of gadolinium chelates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idée, J-M; Fretellier, N; Thurnher, M M; Bonnemain, B; Corot, C

    2015-07-01

    Gadolinium chelates (GC) are contrast agents widely used to facilitate or to enable diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). From a regulatory viewpoint, GC are drugs. GC have largely contributed to the success of MRI, which has become a major component of clinician's diagnostic armamentarium. GC are not metabolised and are excreted by the kidneys. They distribute into the extracellular compartment. Because of its high intrinsic toxicity, gadolinium must be administered as a chelate. GC can be classified according to two key molecular features: (a) nature of the chelating moiety: either macrocyclic molecules in which gadolinium is caged in the pre-organized cavity of the ligand, or linear, open-chain molecules, (b) ionicity: Gd chelates can be ionic (meglumine or sodium salts) or non-ionic. The thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of the various GCs differ according to these structural characteristics. The kinetic stability of macrocyclic GCs is much higher than that of linear GCs and the thermodynamic stability of ionic GCs is generally higher than that of non-ionic GC, thus leading to a lower risk of gadolinium dissociation. This class of drugs has enjoyed an excellent reputation in terms of safety for a long time, until a causal link with a recently-described serious disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), was evidenced. It is acknowledged that the vast majority of NSF cases are related to the administration of some linear CG in renally-impaired patients. Health authorities, worldwide, released recommendations which drastically reduced the occurrence of new cases. PMID:25731664

  1. Searching for new aluminium chelating agents: a family of hydroxypyrone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Leonardo; Crisponi, Guido; Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Mansoori, Delara; Arca, Massimiliano; Santos, M Amélia; Marques, Sérgio M; Gano, Lurdes; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the role of chelating agents in the treatment of aluminium related diseases. In fact, in spite of the efforts that have drastically reduced the occurrence of aluminium dialysis diseases, they so far constitute a cause of great medical concern. The use of chelating agents for iron and aluminium in different clinical applications has found increasing attention in the last thirty years. With the aim of designing new chelators, we synthesized a series of kojic acid derivatives containing two kojic units joined by different linkers. A huge advantage of these molecules is that they are cheap and easy to produce. Previous works on complex formation equilibria of a first group of these ligands with iron and aluminium highlighted extremely good pMe values and gave evidence of the ability to scavenge iron from inside cells. On these bases a second set of bis-kojic ligands, whose linkers between the kojic chelating moieties are differentiated both in terms of type and size, has been designed, synthesized and characterized. The aluminium(III) complex formation equilibria studied by potentiometry, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), quantum-mechanical calculations and (1)H NMR spectroscopy are here described and discussed, and the structural characterization of one of these new ligands is presented. The in vivo studies show that these new bis-kojic derivatives induce faster clearance from main organs as compared with the monomeric analog.

  2. Kinetic Studies on Forming Iso-nuclear -type Chelates of Rare Earths with p-Sulphoaminobromophosphonazo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of forming the iso-nuclear b -type chelates of rare earth ions (RE3+) with p-sulphoaminobromophosphonazo (BPA-pSN) in ClCH2COOH-CH3COONa buffer solutions were studied by a spectrophotometric method.

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of Allosteric and Chelate Cooperativity in Di- and Trivalent Ammonium/Crown-Ether Pseudorotaxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosinski, Karol; von Krbek, Larissa K S; Traulsen, Nora L; Schalley, Christoph A

    2015-10-16

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the axle-wheel binding in di- and trivalent secondary ammonium/[24]crown-8 pseudorotaxanes is presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data and double mutant cycle analyses reveal an interesting interplay of positive as well as negative allosteric and positive chelate cooperativity thus providing profound insight into the effects governing multivalent binding in these pseudorotaxanes.

  4. Observation of unusual slow-relaxation of the magnetisation in a Gd-EDTA chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca J; Ho, Le Tuan Anh; Ungur, Liviu; Korobkov, Ilia; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-12-21

    A Gadolinium EDTA chelate displays characteristic isotropic behaviour common of Gd(III) complexes under zero applied magnetic field, and anisotropic behaviour arising from dipolar coupling and weak spin-phonon coupling under an applied magnetic field. This surprising magnetic behaviour for Gd(III) is investigated using SQUID magnetometry and rationalized through theoretical calculations.

  5. The Mechanism of Cumene Peroxidation Catalyzed by Cobalt(Ⅱ)-Chelated Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Chien Wang; Hui-Chun Chen; Chuh-Yean Chen; Chuh-Yung Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The functionalised polymers, especially for chelating polymer, have been employed to considerable effects in organic synthesis for several decades. The use of polymer groups as ligands permits the ligand surroundings to be varied and regulation of the catalytic properties of the complexes because of the flexibility of the polymer chains, their ability to adopt various conformations, and the possibility of creating various spatial distributions of metal centers immobilized on the polymer chains[1,2]. In our recently studies[3-5], the chelating copolymer with imino-diacetic acid chelating group in the polymer side chain was manufactured, and which can increase effectively amount of the chelating group within the polymer. Meanwhile, the high catalysis performance in organic synthesis had also been proved via benzaldehyde and cumene peroxidation. For cumene peroxidation,it is hardly to find such a simple catalyst with high conversion and selectivity due to hydroperoxide decomposition by a radical mechanism. The cumene peroxidation by catalyst system and its reaction mechanism as well as the kinetic study are popularly investigated object for many researchers[6-9]. However, the reaction mechanism still does not clear owing to the by-products will be produced following the different catalysts used.

  6. Ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes featuring NHC-sulfonate chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, A; Sahoo, A R; Hild, F; Fischmeister, C; Achard, M; Bruneau, C

    2015-10-28

    Three new complexes bearing a chelating (κ(2)C,O) NHC-SO3 ligand have been prepared. An original method for the synthesis of the imidazolium-sulfonate NHC precursor is described. The 5-membered ruthena- and irida-cycle containing complexes were fully characterized and evaluated in a series of catalytic transformations involving hydrogen auto-transfer processes.

  7. The effects of Fe-chelate type and PH on substrate grown roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Sonneveld, C.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate grown roses appear to be susceptible to chlorosis, which indicates problems with Fe or Mn uptake and hence yield reduction. In common practice this problem is often treated by the addition of extra Fe-chelate, or the use of Fe-EDDHA instead of Fe-DTPA. In previous tests, it was shown that

  8. Design and Application of Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Featuring S-Chelating Alkylidene Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowska, Anna; Grela, Karol

    This review article is devoted to recent advances in the design and application of so-called “dormant” or “latent” ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts bearing S-chelating alkylidene ligands. Selected ruthenium complexes containing S-donor ligands, which possess controllable initiation behaviour are presented. Applications of these complexes in olefin metathesis are described.

  9. Quenching of the triplet state of benzophenone by lanthanide 1,3-diketonate chelates in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorescence of benzophenone in benzene and acetonitrile was quenched by several lanthanide (Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) acetylacetonate chelates. The results of Stern-Volmer analysis including the quenching of benzophenone triplet and sensitization of lanthanide emission indicate that the quenching process occurs by the energy transfer mechanism via the excited triplet state of the ligand. (Author)

  10. Production of chelating agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in the presence of thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelating agents produced by microorganisms enhance the dissolution of iron increasing the mobility and bioavailability of the metal. Since some similarities exist in the biological behavior of ferric, thorium and uranyl ions, microorganisms resistant to these metals and which grow in their presence may produce sequestering agents of Th and U, and other metals in a manner similar to the complexation of iron by siderophores. The ability of P. aeruginosa to elaborate sequestering agents in medium containing thorium or uranium salts was tested. Uranium has a stronger inhibitory effect on growth of the organism than thorium at similar concentrations. Analyses of the culture media have shown, that relative to the control, and under the experimental conditions used, the microorganisms have produced several new chelating agents for thorium and uranium. Extracts containing these chelating agents have been tested for their decorporation potential. In vitro mouse liver bioassay and in vivo mouse toxicity tests indicate that their efficiency is comparable to DTPA and DFOA and that they are virtually non-toxic to mice. The bacterially produced compounds resemble, but are not identical to the known iron chelating siderophores isolated from microorganisms. Some of their chemical properties are also discussed. (author)

  11. Growth and Decay: An Experiment Demonstrating Radioactivity Relationships and Chelate Solvent Extraction Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, D. M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The separation of lead and bismuth by chelate solvent extraction is of interest because of the simplicity which the use of radiotracers allows in its demonstration. Theoretical background information, procedures, materials needed, and typical results are provided for an experiment involving the extraction. (JN)

  12. Spectroscopy, modeling and computation of metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objectives of this project were to gain a fundamental understanding of the solubility and phase behavior of metal chelates in supercritical CO2. Extraction with CO2 is an excellent way to remove organic compounds from soils, sludges and aqueous solutions, and recent research has demonstrated that, together with chelating agents, it is a viable way to remove metals, as well. In this project the authors sought to gain fundamental knowledge that is vital to computing phase behavior, and modeling and designing processes using CO2 to separate organics and metal compounds from DOE mixed wastes. The overall program was a comprehensive one to measure, model and compute the solubility of metal chelate complexes in supercritical CO2 and CO2/cosolvent mixtures. Through a combination of phase behavior measurements, spectroscopy and the development of a new computational technique, the authors have achieved a completely reliable way to model metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO2 and CO2/co-contaminant mixtures. Thus, they can now design and optimize processes to extract metals from solid matrices using supercritical CO2, as an alternative to hazardous organic solvents that create their own environmental problems, even while helping in metals decontamination

  13. Spectroscopy, modeling and computation of metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. Brennecke; M. A. Stadtherr

    1999-12-10

    The overall objectives of this project were to gain a fundamental understanding of the solubility and phase behavior of metal chelates in supercritical CO{sub 2}. Extraction with CO{sub 2} is an excellent way to remove organic compounds from soils, sludges and aqueous solutions, and recent research has demonstrated that, together with chelating agents, it is a viable way to remove metals, as well. In this project the authors sought to gain fundamental knowledge that is vital to computing phase behavior, and modeling and designing processes using CO{sub 2} to separate organics and metal compounds from DOE mixed wastes. The overall program was a comprehensive one to measure, model and compute the solubility of metal chelate complexes in supercritical CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/cosolvent mixtures. Through a combination of phase behavior measurements, spectroscopy and the development of a new computational technique, the authors have achieved a completely reliable way to model metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/co-contaminant mixtures. Thus, they can now design and optimize processes to extract metals from solid matrices using supercritical CO{sub 2}, as an alternative to hazardous organic solvents that create their own environmental problems, even while helping in metals decontamination.

  14. Catechol-Bisphosphonate Conjugates:New Potential Chelating Agents for Metal Intoxication Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Yu XU; Chun Hao YANG; Bo LIU; Xi Han WU; Yu Yuan XIE

    2004-01-01

    In a quest for better chelating therapy drugs for the treatment of intoxication by Fe, Al, or actinides, two new series of mixed catechol-bisphosphonate through amide linkage were synthesized.Benzyl group was used as protecting group to avoid the breakage of amide by acid hydrolysis or imcomplete reaction in silylation-dealkylation using bromotrimethylsilane.

  15. Essential trace metal excretion from rats with lead exposure and during chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victery, W; Miller, C R; Goyer, R A

    1986-02-01

    Urinary excretion of lead, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, and potassium was measured in rats daily for 1 week after a 6-week exposure to 10,000 micrograms/ml lead in drinking water. Beginning on the third day, half of the lead-exposed and control rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) daily for 3 days. Whole blood, plasma, and kidney metal concentrations were determined from samples obtained at the end of the experiment. Exposure to lead increased urinary excretion, not only of lead, but also of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron. Excretion of sodium and potassium was not altered. Chelation therapy further increased excretion of lead, zinc, copper, and iron, but not magnesium. The increase in calcium excretion during chelation treatment (beyond that resulting from lead exposure per se) was accounted for by the Ca content of CaNa2-EDTA. EDTA treatment increased renal concentration of zinc but lowered renal concentration of lead, copper, and iron. These multimetal alterations may have implications for essential metal supplementation, particularly zinc, in persons being given chelation agents for excess lead exposure and in infants and children with low-level lead exposure not necessarily requiring chelation therapy.

  16. Organic acids rather than histidine predominate in Ni chelation in Alyssum hyperaccumulator xylem exudate

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better understanding of Ni uptake mechanisms by hyperaccumulator plants is necessary to improve Ni uptake efficiency for phytoremediation technologies i.e. phytomining. It is known that an important aspect of Ni translocation involves Ni chelation with organic ligands. However, it is still not cle...

  17. Metal Ions Extraction with Glucose Derivatives as Chelating Reagents in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chen YANG; Hai Jian YANG

    2006-01-01

    A series of glucose derivatives have been used as chelating reagents to extract metal ions in supercritical carbon dioxide. With perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid tetraethylammonium salt as additive, glucose derivatives were selective for Sr2+ and Pb2+ extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  18. Comprehensive radiolabeling, stability, and tissue distribution studies of technetium-99m single amino acid chelates (SAAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Kevin P; Hillier, Shawn M; Femia, Frank J; Zimmerman, Craig N; Levadala, Murali K; Banerjee, Sangeeta R; Hicks, Justin; Sundararajan, Chitra; Valliant, John; Zubieta, Jon; Eckelman, William C; Joyal, John L; Babich, John W

    2009-08-19

    Technetium tricarbonyl chemistry has been a subject of interest in radiopharmaceutical development over the past decade. Despite the extensive work done on developing chelates for Tc(I), a rigorous investigation of the impact of changing donor groups and labeling conditions on radiochemical yields and/or distribution has been lacking. This information is crucially important if these platforms are going to be used to develop molecular imaging probes. Previous studies on the coordination chemistry of the {M(CO)(3)}(+) core have established alkylamine, aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, and carboxylate donors as effective chelating ligands. These observations led to the design of tridentate ligands derived from the amino acid lysine. Such amino acid analogues provide a tridentate donor set for chelation to the metal and an amino acid functionality for conjugation to biomolecules. We recently developed a family of single amino acid chelates (SAAC) that serve this function and can be readily incorporated into peptides via solid-phase synthesis techniques. As part of these continuing studies, we report here on the radiolabeling with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and stability of a series of SAAC analogues of lysine. The complexes studied include cationic, neutral, and anionic complexes. The results of tissue distribution studies with these novel complexes in normal rats demonstrate a range of distribution in kidney, liver, and intestines. PMID:19572702

  19. Value of 1.0-M gadolinium chelates: review of preclinical and clinical data on gadobutrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several preclinical and clinical studies with the first commercially available highly concentrated Gd-chelate gadobutrol (1 mol/l) are reviewed. Physicochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacokinetic properties, safety analysis, as well as experimental and clinical efficacy studies are highlighted in comparison with 0.5-M Gd-chelates. The 1-mol gadobutrol has been proven to be safe in an examined dose range from 0.04 up to 0.5 mmol/kg body weight (b.w.). Even in patients with chronic renal impairment, including hemodialysis, gadobutrol can safely be applied at doses up to 0.3 mmol/kg b.w. For contrast-enhanced MRI in the equilibrium phase, efficacy data analysis shows comparable results to other commercially available extracellular Gd-chelates with lower Gd-concentrations (0.5 M). Studies focused on the potential benefit of a tighter bolus, such as brain perfusion imaging using T2*-effects, document the superiority of a highly concentrated Gd contrast agent. For contrast-enhanced MRA, clinical studies are still ongoing; therefore, the ultimate potential of a more compact bolus, using 1-M Gd-chelates, for contrast-enhanced MRI, has still to be analyzed, especially for time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography. (orig.)

  20. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: By scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuguo, Deng; Xingwang, Fang; Jilan, Wu

    1997-09-01

    Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit strong antioxidative activity. In the present work, a systematic mechanistic study has been performed on five flavonoids (baicalin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and rutin) selected according to their structural characteristics. The experimental results reveal that flavonoids function as antioxidant mainly by chelating iron ions and by scavenging peroxyl radicals whereas their OH radical scavenging effect is much less important.