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Sample records for bifossatus serpentes colubridae

  1. Dieta e uso de habitat da jararaca-do-brejo, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridade em domínio subtropical do Brasil Diet and habitat use of swamp racer snake, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridae in subtropical domains of Brazil

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    Pedro T. Leite

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A serpente Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 é um grande colubrídeo neotropical que habita áreas abertas na América do Sul. Sua dieta é composta principalmente por anfíbios, mas inclui outros itens como mamíferos e lagartos. A dissecção de 224 espécimes desta serpente, provenientes dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, preservados em coleções herpetológicas do Brasil e um estudo de campo entre 1996 e 1998, fornecem informações sobre os hábitos alimentares e uso de habitat dessa serpente em domínio subtropical no Brasil. Essa serpente alimenta-se de anfíbios (80%, em sua maioria da família Leptodactylidae, mamíferos (10% e lagartos (2%. Foi verificada mudança ontogenética na dieta de M. bifossatus, o tamanho das presas ingeridas aumenta com o aumento de tamanho da serpente. Essa espécie ocorre principalmente em áreas abertas, algumas vezes perto de áreas antrópicas em domínio subtropical no Brasil.Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 is a large neotropical colubrid snake that inhabits open areas in South America. The diet is mainly composed by frogs, but it includes other items like mammals and lizards. The dissection of 224 specimens of this snake, proceeding from the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, stored in herpetological collections in Brazil and a field study between 1996 and 1998, provided information on dietary habits and habitat use of this snake in subtropical domains in Brazil. This snake eats mainly amphibians of the family Leptodactylidae (80%, mammals (10% and lizards (2%. There is ontogenetic diet shift in M. bifossatus, as the snake grows, the range of preys grows as well. M. bifossatus occur in open areas.

  2. The life-cycle and ultrastructure of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp., in the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) and the snake Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae)(1)

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    Lainson R.; Paperna I.

    2000-01-01

    Sarcocysts in muscles of the teiid lizard Ameiva ameivafrom north Brazil were fed to the colubrid snake Mastigodryas bifossatus, the faeces of which had been shown to be devoid of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. When necropsied 16 days later the snake was shown to have developed a massive intestinal infection of Sarcocystis. Mature sporocysts from another, naturally infected M. bifossatus were fed to juvenile specimens of A. ameiva in which no sarcocysts could be detected in tail muscle biop...

  3. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

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    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human. PMID:27270391

  4. The life-cycle and ultrastructure of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp., in the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae and the snake Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae(1

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    Lainson R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocysts in muscles of the teiid lizard Ameiva ameivafrom north Brazil were fed to the colubrid snake Mastigodryas bifossatus, the faeces of which had been shown to be devoid of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. When necropsied 16 days later the snake was shown to have developed a massive intestinal infection of Sarcocystis. Mature sporocysts from another, naturally infected M. bifossatus were fed to juvenile specimens of A. ameiva in which no sarcocysts could be detected in tail muscle biopsies. When examined 30 and 47 days later they had very large numbers of sarcocysts in their tail and tongue muscles. The parasite is given the name of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp. An ultrastructural study has been made of the sarcocyst and of the parasite's sporulation in the lamina propria of the snake: the latter provides details of the wall formation process in developing sporocysts. Attempts to infect a specimen of the boid Boa constrictor constrictor by feeding it with infected Ameivafailed, suggesting that sporocysts previously recorded in genera of the family Boidae may be those of a different species of Sarcocystis.

  5. The life-cycle and ultrastructure of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp., in the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) and the snake Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae).

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    Lainson, R; Paperna, I

    2000-12-01

    Sarcocysts in muscles of the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva from north Brazil were fed to the colubrid snake Mastigodryas bifossatus, the faeces of which had been shown to be devoid of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. When necropsied 16 days later the snake was shown to have developed a massive intestinal infection of Sarcocystis. Mature sporocysts from another, naturally infected M. bifossatus were fed to juvenile specimens of A. ameiva in which no sarcocysts could be detected in tail muscle biopsies. When examined 30 and 47 days later they had very large numbers of sarcocysts in their tail and tongue muscles. The parasite is given the name of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp. An ultrastructural study has been made of the sarcocyst and of the parasite's sporulation in the lamina propria of the snake: the latter provides details of the wall formation process in developing sporocysts. Attempts to infect a specimen of the boid Boa constrictor constrictor by feeding it with infected Ameiva failed, suggesting that sporocysts previously recorded in genera of the family Boidae may be those of a different species of Sarcocystis. PMID:11147034

  6. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (serpentes: Colubridae

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    Maria Elisabeth de Araújo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports two cases of human envenoming by colubrid snakes of Philodryas, considered as not poisonous, showing evidence of the clinical aspects and the evolution of the symptoms of envenoming. The similarity of these cases with those caused by Bothrops suggests a more careful evaluation on the victims considering the medical treatment to be adopted.O presente trabalho é um relato de dois casos de acidentes com colubrídeos (Philodryas olfersii e P. patagoniensis considerados não peçonhentos, que destaca as manifestações clínicas e as suas evoluções. A semelhança de tais acidentes com aqueles causados por serpentes Bothrops indica a necessidade de uma melhor avaliação dos pacientes quanto à terapêutica a ser adotada.

  7. Análise das atividades biológicas dos venenos de Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein) e P. patagoniensis (Girard) (Serpentes, Colubridae) Analysis of biological activities from Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein) and P. patagoniensis (Girard) venoms (Serpents, Colubridae)

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    Marisa M. T. da Rocha; Maria de F. D. Furtado

    2007-01-01

    Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823) e P.patagonienis (Girard, 1857) são serpentes colubrídeas da série opistóglifa, restritas à América do Sul. Vários acidentes ocasionados por estas serpentes têm sido relatados, caracterizando-se por ação local importante: dor, edema e hemorragia. É um acidente muito semelhante àquele causado por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Wagler, 1824 e muitas vezes os pacientes são tratados com soro antibotrópico. Poucos estudos tratam da caracterização destes venen...

  8. Análise das atividades biológicas dos venenos de Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein e P. patagoniensis (Girard (Serpentes, Colubridae Analysis of biological activities from Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein and P. patagoniensis (Girard venoms (Serpents, Colubridae

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    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 e P.patagonienis (Girard, 1857 são serpentes colubrídeas da série opistóglifa, restritas à América do Sul. Vários acidentes ocasionados por estas serpentes têm sido relatados, caracterizando-se por ação local importante: dor, edema e hemorragia. É um acidente muito semelhante àquele causado por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Wagler, 1824 e muitas vezes os pacientes são tratados com soro antibotrópico. Poucos estudos tratam da caracterização destes venenos, assim tivemos como objetivo de trabalho o estudo dos venenos de P.olfersii e P.patagonienis. Os venenos apresentaram teor de proteínas entre 75 e 90%. A atividade desfibrinante não foi detectada quando testada em camundongos. O quadro de dor causado pelo envenenamento experimental, em camundongos, mostrou que os venenos de P.olfersii e P.patagoniensis causaram intensa reatividade, sendo que o veneno de P.patagoniensis foi o mais ativo. Ambos os venenos apresentaram dose mínima edematogênica em torno de 1 µg/camundongo com ação máxima em 30 minutos.A ação hemorrágica se instalou rapidamente, com doses mínimas semelhantes. As atividades tóxicas foram semelhantes, com valores em torno de 60,0 µg/camundongo, comparáveis aos venenos botrópicos.Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 and P. patagoniesis (Girard, 1857 are species of colubrid snakes of the opisthoglyphous series restricted to South America. Several accidents caused by these snakes have been reported and they are mainly characterized by marked effects at the site of bite, such as pain, swelling and hemorrhage. Such accidents are similar to those caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops, and thereby patients bitten by Philodryas sp. are frequently treated with Bothrops antivenom. Since few studies have dealt with the characterization of these venoms, our aim was to study the venoms of P.olfersii and P.patagoniensis. They presented protein contents between 75 and 90

  9. Estudios citogenéticos en Philodryas chamissonis (Serpentes: colubridae)

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    Navarro, J.; Iturra, P.; Moreno, R.; A. Veloso

    1987-01-01

    Estudios cromosómicos previos en Philodryas se han realizado en P. olferaii, P. aestivus y P. patagoniensis. Todas presentan un cariotipo 2n=36, con 16 macrocromosomas (M) y 20 microcromosomas (m). En Chile el género está representado por P. chamissonis, aislada geográficamente de sus congéneres. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir su cariotipo y aportar con marcadores cromosómicos, a futuras comparaciones interespecíficas, orientadas a precisar las relaciones taxofiléticas de esta espec...

  10. reproductive biology of boiga guangxiensis wen, 1998(serpentes: colubridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    up to now,the reproductive biology of most species of the genus boiga is investigated very little.important data on the reproductive biology of boiga guangxiensis were received by us for the first time.the investigations were carried out in viet nam during expeditions and in the laboratories of tula exotarium in the period between 1998-2000.the data on the feeding,egg size,incubation,size of hatchings,and juvenile colouration of this species are provided for the first time.in addition,the data on size and ratio of snout-vent length/tail length of this snake are provided based on the vietnamese samples.our researches demonstrated that b.guangxiensis is distinguished from most other species of the genus by a number of peculiarities of its reproductive biology.also,morphological differences between chineseand vietnamese individuals of this species were noted.

  11. Comportamento alimentar e dieta de serpentes, gêneros Boiruna e Clelia (Serpentes, Colubridae

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    Pinto Carla da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Boiruna maculata Boulenger, 1896 and Clelia rustica (Cope, 1878 were observed in captivity feeding snakes and rodents, respectively. Both species have shown a similar procedure in relation to the prey. Major behavior differences among the two species were: rodents killed before being swallowed, and snakes were mostly swallowed alive; both species are able to find the rodents head faster than the snake one; the coils formed during constriction were also used to hold the prey, specially the last coil, while swallowing rodents. Informations on stomach contents was gathered by dissection of preserved specimens of Clelia clelia (Daudin, 1803 and C. plumbea (Wied, 1820 were also included in the dietary study. The majority of preys consisted on snakes and lizards. Other prey items were mammals and birds. Adult snakes prey relatively smaller animals than the juvenile snakes do.

  12. Alimentação das espécies de Siphlophis Fitzinger (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae, Pseudoboini Diet of species of Siphwphis Fitzinger (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae, Pseudoboini

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    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey of 30 stoniach and/or gut contents of the five species of Siphlophis Fitzinger, 1843 revealed predominance of mostly diurnal species of lizards. Remains of nocturnal prey and snakes were also found. For the first time, one frog and one bat are recorded as preys of one species (S. cervimis Laurenti, 1768. Predation on mollusks and birds is not confirmed herein.

  13. Seasonal variation of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) parasitemia from Boa constrictor amarali (Serpentes, Boidae) and Hydrodynastes gigas (Serpentes, Colubridae).

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    de Vieira Santos, Mariana Morena; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitemia variation of three Hepatozoon species in Brazilian snakes. This study was conducted between 2001 and 2003 and included Hepatozoon terzii from Boa constrictor amarali, and Hepatozoon migonei and Hepatozoon cyclagrasi from Hydrodynastes gigas. It was observed that the parasitemia tended to decrease in all three Hepatozoon species but the parasites were not eliminated. This data suggest that Hepatozoon infection may be similar to Toxoplasma gondii infection, in that it persists throughout host life. PMID:15999279

  14. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae), from Texas.

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    Daszak, Peter; Ball, Stanley J; Streicker, Daniel G; Snow, Keith R

    2011-06-01

    A new species of coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the feces of a western hognose snake Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae) collected from Texas, and housed in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. Oocysts of Eimeria mchenryi n. sp. are cylindrical, 35.0 ± SD 1.4 (32-37) × 17.0 ± 0.7 (16-18) µm; the shape index (length/width) is 2.05. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are subspherical 9.3 (7-11.5) × 7.7 (6-9) µm, with a shape index of 1.2. There is a sporocyst residuum, but the new species is lacking Stieda bodies. The new species is distinct from those previously named from the Xenodontidae and the allied family, Colubridae. PMID:21506855

  15. El género Psomophis (Serpentes: colubridae) en la Argentina

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    Scrocchi, Gustavo; Giraudo, Alejandro R.

    1997-01-01

    Se presenta los principales caracteres y la distribución de Psomophis genimaculatus y P. obtusus, las dos especies del género presentes en Argentina. Se discute brevemente la variación de los caracteres con respecto a la descripción original. The taxonomic characters and geographic distribution of the two species of the genus Psomophis presents in Argentina are described. The variation of characters is discussed briefly.

  16. Complex evolution in the Neotropics: the origin and diversification of the widespread genus Leptodeira (Serpentes: Colubridae).

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    Daza, Juan M; Smith, Eric N; Páez, Vivian P; Parkinson, Christopher L

    2009-12-01

    Lineage diversification in the Neotropics is an interesting topic in evolutionary biology but is also one of the least understood. The abiotic and biotic complexity of the region precludes generalizations that can be drawn regarding the historical evolutionary processes responsible for the diversity observed. The snake genus Leptodeira provides an excellent opportunity to investigate such processes because it spans the entire Neotropical region. In this study, we infer the phylogenetic position of Leptodeira within Dipsadinae, estimate evolutionary relationships among and within Leptodeira species, and estimate the diversification time and biogeography of the genus. Three mitochondrial gene regions were sequenced for individuals representing all the Leptodeira species and most subspecies currently recognized. Additionally, two nuclear protein-coding gene regions were sequenced for representatives of each species and several genera within the Dipsadinae. We infer that several Leptodeira species are either paraphyletic or polyphyletic as currently recognized, and that most recognized subspecies are not monophyletic lineages. Despite the taxonomic discordance with evolutionary relationships, clades appear to correspond very well to major biogeographic regions of Mexico, Central America and South America. Our results thus highlight the important role of the Miocene and Pliocene for lineage diversification in the Neotropics. Additionally, our time estimates suggest that recent intraspecific phylogeographic structure is likely the result of habitat and climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. Cumulatively, our inferences of lineage diversification within Leptodeira suggest a complex evolutionary scenario in the Mexican transition zone and a north to south expansion with a final colonization of the tropics in South America. PMID:19643196

  17. Osteología craneal del género Philodryas (Serpentes: Colubridae

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    Lobo, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the skulls of eleven species of Philodryas. The skull of Philodryas patagoniensis is described, and some characters that show interspecific variation are recognized. These characters are used for phylogenetic inferences. We obtained three trees using Hennig86. The pair of sister species wich is presented in the three cladograms is P. mattogrossensis - P. varius: in only ene tree: P. buroni - P. burmeisteri.

  18. Osteología craneal del género Philodryas (Serpentes: colubridae)

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    Lobo, Fernando; Scrocchi, Gustavo

    1994-01-01

    We studied the skulls of eleven species of Philodryas. The skull of Philodryas patagoniensis is described, and some characters that show interspecific variation are recognized. These characters are used for phylogenetic inferences. We obtained three trees using Hennig86. The pair of sister species wich is presented in the three cladograms is P. mattogrossensis - P. varius: in only ene tree: P. buroni - P. burmeisteri.

  19. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae).

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    de Araújo, M E; dos Santos, A C

    1997-01-01

    The present paper reports two cases of human envenoming by colubrid snakes of Philodryas, considered as not poisonous, showing evidence of the clinical aspects and the evolution of the symptoms of envenoming. The similarity of these cases with those caused by Bothrops suggests a more careful evaluation on the victims considering the medical treatment to be adopted. PMID:9428185

  20. [The salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis Girard, 1857 (Serpentes, Colubridae). A morphological, morphometric and histological study].

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    Lopes, R A; Contrera, M G; da Costa, J R; Petenusci, S O; Lima-Verde, J S

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, morphometrical and histochemical studies of the cell types in the salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis have been performed. It is concluded: 1) the acini of supra, infralabial and premaxillary glands are formed by mucous and mucoserous cells; the Duvernoy's gland by seromucous cells; 2) mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid; mucoserous cells show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals; seromucous cells of Duvernoy's gland show neutral mucosubstance and protein radicals. The acinar area, height of tubule and duct cells, and nuclear volume of acinar, tubule and duct cells were evaluated morphometrically. PMID:7181506

  1. Redescription of Atractus albuquerquei (Serpentes: Colubridae: Dipsadinae, with comments on geographical distribution and intraspecific variation

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    Hussam Zaher

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atractus albuquerquei Cunha and Nascimento, 1983 was previously known from a holotype from eastern Pará, and 15 specimens from Rondônia and Acre, all in Brazil. We report on 23 additional specimens from the Brazilian states of Rondônia, Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul. These specimens extend the known range of A. albuquerquei substantially, and beyond the southern limits of the Amazon basin. The holotype of A. albuquerquei is redescribed and intraspecific variation in external morphology, hemipenes, and colour is documented. Sexual dimorphism exists in total length, and number of ventral (significantly greater in females and subcaudal scales (greater in males. There is a significant correlation between number of subcaudal scales and longitude (decreasing from East to West for both males and females.Atractus albuquerquei Cunha & Nascimento, 1983 era conhecida apenas do holótipo procedente do leste do estado do Pará e de 15 espécimes dos estados de Rondônia e Acre, no Brasil. Registramos aqui 23 espécimes adicionais provenientes dos estados de Rondônia, Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul. Estes exemplares ampliam a área de distribuição conhecida de A. albuquerquei, para além do limite sul da bacia amazônica. O holótipo de A. albuquerquei é redescrito e a variação intraespecífica da morfologia externa, dos hemipenis e da coloração dos exemplares estudados é analizada. Foi detectado dimorfismo sexual no comprimento total do corpo bem como no número de ventrais (maior nas fêmeas e de subcaudais (maior nos machos. Foi notada uma correlação significativa entre o número de escamas subcaudais e a longitude (que diminuem de leste para oeste em ambos os sexos.

  2. Taxonomic revision of Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) with description of a new species (Serpentes: Colubridae).

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    Hamdan, Breno; Fernandes, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a taxonomic review of Chironius flavolineatus on the basis of continuous and discrete morphological characters. We recognize a new species which is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by the following unique combination of characters: first third of body black or dark gray; vertebral stripe yellowish or creamish white distinct from dorsals of nape and extending throughout almost whole body length; head dorsum tan to brown, distinct from background color of first third of body; posterior temporal scales ranging one to four; cloacal shield frequently divided; two to four rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; venter ground color gradually darkening towards cloaca; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; in lateral view, sulcus spermaticus positioned on convex face of hemipenis; ascending process of premaxilla oblique anteroposteriorly to longitudinal axis of skull; optic fenestrae not exceeding frontoparietal suture; posterior border of supratemporal exceeding braincase; dorsoventral axis of quadrate oblique mesolaterally, moving away from longitudinal axis of skull. Furthermore, we provide data on morphological variation, distribution, and an emended diagnosis for C. flavolineatus. PMID:26623847

  3. phylogenetic analyses reveal a unique species of elaphe (serpentes, colubridae) new to science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the snakes comprising the monophyletic group referred to as ratsnakes are found throughout asia,europe and the new world.recently,three snake samples likely belonging to the ratsnakes were collected in zoige county,sichuan province,china.species identity was difficult to delimit morphologically because the specimens were juveniles and partially damaged.subsequently,a molecular phylogenetic approach was used.portions of three mitochondrial genes (cyt b,nd4 and 12s rrna) were sequenced and analyzed.the results showed that they were sister to the genus elaphe.very little genetic variation was found among the three samples.the minimum genetic distances between these samples and those within elaphe were greater than any currently recognized species within the genus.we conclude that this likely represents a new species within the genus elaphe.adult specimens and a morphologic description are needed for further study.

  4. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

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    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  5. Reproductive biology and diet of Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus (Serpentes, Colubridae from southeastern Brazil

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    Roberta R. Pinto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the reproductive pattern and the diet of Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus based on examination of museum specimens.The snake has an aseasonal reproductive pattern, suggesting multiple clutches during a year. Females are larger than males when sexual maturity is reached. Clutch size ranges from six to 15 eggs. The diet of Liophis poecilogyrus poecilogyrus is composed of anurans, and there are no a foraging decrease during the clutching season.

  6. A survey of the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, genus Phalotris (Serpentes, Colubridae

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    Geraldo C. Leynaud

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colubrid snakes of the South American genus Phalotris are difficult to detect because of their secretive habits, and thus they are poorly represented in collections. The species Phalotris cuyanus and P. tricolor, the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, were studied to determine the limits of intraspecific variation of P. cuyanus and to consolidate the taxonomic relationship between both species, the phenetically and geographically closest members in the group. The distribution of selected external characters (cephalic, ventral and subcaudal scales, coloration pattern, width of white and black collars, and hemipenis morphology were analyzed. Comparative data on the other members of the group, P. mertensi and P. matogrossensis, are briefly discussed. Males of P. cuyanus have a higher number of ventral scales than males of P. tricolor (mean of 220.3 vs. 204.6. Cephalic melanism varies among individuals and does not have discriminant orgeographic value for this species group. The white nuchal collar may partially cover the parietal scales in the four species. The black collar is moderately narrow in P. cuyanus, but it can be up to 12 scales wide in P. tricolor. Vertebral dotting is neither constant nor exclusive of any species. The four species of the group are wellcharacterized by combinations of character states for each one. We suggest considering to P. cuyanus as an evolutionary species typical of the Monte biogeographic province.

  7. Leptophis santamartensis (Serpentes, Colubridae), a junior synonym of Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis

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    Albuquerque, Nelson R.; de Passos, Paulo; Gotte, Steve W.

    2012-01-01

    Leptophis santamartensis, known only from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is one of the more poorly known species of the genus Leptophis. The characters used for its diagnosis largely overlap with those of other Leptophis, mainly with Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis, the only other Leptophis known to occur in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. A detailed comparison of L. a. occidentalis with the two known specimens of L. santamartensis leads to the conclusion that the latter should be relegated to the synonymy of the former.

  8. Echinantera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885), a new record for the ophidiofauna of Argentina (Serpentes: colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Giraudo, Alejandro R.; Couturier, Gustavo; Di Bernardo, Marcos

    1996-01-01

    Three specimens of Echinanthera cyanopleura, which represent the first record for the species in Argentina, have been examined at the Herpetological Collection from the former "Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Iológicas" (CENAD; now in the Division of Herpetology of the "Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales B. Rivadavia" (MACN), Buenos Aires, under numbers ex CENAI 3036, 3037 y 3038. The snakes were collected at Dos de Mayo (27° 00' S - 54° 40' W), Cainguás Department, Misiones P...

  9. Envenomation by neotropical opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linne, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Fresnel; Navarrete, Luis F; Pefaur, Jaime; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    This is a case report of a "non-venomous" snake bite in a herpetologist observed at the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela). The patient was bitten on the middle finger of the left hand, and shows signs of pronounced local manifestations of envenomation such as bleeding from the tooth imprint, swelling and warmth. He was treated with local care, analgesics, and steroids. He was dismissed from the hospital and observed at home during five days with marked improvement of envenomation. The snake was brought to the medical consult and identified as a Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus specimen. This report represents the first T. pallidus accident described in a human. PMID:15517037

  10. Envenomation by neotropical Opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linné, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae in Venezuela Envenenamiento por la colubrida opistoglifa Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linné, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresnel Diaz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a "non-venomous" snake bite in a herpetologist observed at the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela. The patient was bitten on the middle finger of the left hand, and shows signs of pronounced local manifestations of envenomation such as bleeding from the tooth imprint, swelling and warmth. He was treated with local care, analgesics, and steroids. He was dismissed from the hospital and observed at home during five days with marked improvement of envenomation. The snake was brought to the medical consult and identified as a Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus specimen. This report represents the first T. pallidus accident described in a human.Se reporta un caso de una mordedura de serpiente "no venenosa", en un herpetólogo observado en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela. El paciente fue mordido en el dedo medio de la mano izquierda, mostrando pronunciados signos locales de sangramiento por la impronta ocasionada por los dientes de la serpiente, edema y calor local. El paciente fue tratado con cuidados locales, analgésicos y esteroides. Fue dado de alta del hospital y observado en el hogar durante 5 días, con marcada mejoría del envenenamiento. La serpiente fue traída a la consulta médica e identificada como un espécimen de Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus. Este es el primer caso humano descrito, ocasionado por un T. pallidus.

  11. Envenomation by neotropical Opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linné, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae) in Venezuela Envenenamiento por la colubrida opistoglifa Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linné, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae) en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Fresnel Diaz; Navarrete, Luis F.; Jaime Pefaur; Alexis Rodriguez-Acosta

    2004-01-01

    This is a case report of a "non-venomous" snake bite in a herpetologist observed at the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela). The patient was bitten on the middle finger of the left hand, and shows signs of pronounced local manifestations of envenomation such as bleeding from the tooth imprint, swelling and warmth. He was treated with local care, analgesics, and steroids. He was dismissed from the hospital and observed at home during five days with marked impro...

  12. Agathos Daimon and the Asklepian serpent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2011-06-01

    Much conjecture abounds about the origin of the Asklepian serpent of healing, this latter the universal metonym for curative medicine. Iconographic evidence of Asklepios with his staff-entwined serpent exists from Hippocratic times. Many theories exist about the origin of this reptilian symbol of curative medicine. Speculation has ranged from the skin-shed serpent emergent in new and robust health to putative associations with earlier Egyptian and Babylonian anguine (snake) symbols of life-determining power. Other scholars have drawn attention to the Palaeolithic, Neolithic and later Bronze-Age associations with serpent veneration in the context of rain and fertility religious invocations in India; and in many other cultures. In the South Pacific, in Australia and in Central and South America, serpents were regarded as spirits of the earth, often chthonian spirits who possessed life-giving powers. In Chaldean and Arabic etymology, the words for "serpent" and "life" have a synergy. In Classical Greece, the Agathos Daimon was literally the "noble spirit", a personal companion spirit ensuing health and good fortune. The Agathos Daimon was portrayed in iconography as a serpent, or as a fit and comely youth. This paper conjectures that the serpentine Agathos Daimon was one origin of the Asklepian symbol of medicine, portrayed as the serpent associated of the Homeric Asklepios. In later Roman times, the Agathos Daimon was transliterated to the agathodaemon, a protective companion spirit both of individuals and of the homes in which they lived. This benign resident spirit featured prominently in Roman art and was a common feature as a protective household spirit in first century homes at both Pompeii and Herculaneum. The agathodaemon motif also featured on Roman coins, such as bronze diobols of Antoninus Plus (138 - 161 A.D.) from Alexandrian mints in Egypt. In the twenty-first century, the serpentine Agathos Daimon is honoured not only as the symbol of medicine; but is

  13. SERPENT Monte Carlo reactor physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SERPENT is a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code, developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since 2004. The code is specialized in lattice physics applications, but the universe-based geometry description allows transport simulation to be carried out in complicated three-dimensional geometries as well. The suggested applications of SERPENT include generation of homogenized multi-group constants for deterministic reactor simulator calculations, fuel cycle studies involving detailed assembly-level burnup calculations, validation of deterministic lattice transport codes, research reactor applications, educational purposes and demonstration of reactor physics phenomena. The Serpent code has been publicly distributed by the OECD/NEA Data Bank since May 2009 and RSICC in the U. S. since March 2010. The code is being used in some 35 organizations in 20 countries around the world. This paper presents an overview of the methods and capabilities of the Serpent code, with examples in the modelling of WWER-440 reactor physics. (Author)

  14. Estudo histológico e histoquímico da glândula de Duvernoy de Clelia plumbea (Wied (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae Histological and histochemical study of Duvernoy's gland from Clelia plumbea (Wied (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ferret Renner

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available There are report two human envenenomations for species from Clelia Fitzinger, 1826 (opisthoglyph snake. The patients exhibited symptoms similar from bothropic accident. Then this work have with objective, the hystological and histochemical study of Duvernoy's gland from Clelia plumbea. For the hystological observation of the Duvernoy's gland were using, with paraffin's cutting edge, two methods: Hematoxylin + Eosin and Toluidine's Blue. With historesine's cutting edge were using three methods: Metilen's Blue, Toluidine's Blue + Floxine and Toluidine's Blue. For the histochemical detection were using six techniques, with paraffin's cutting edge: PAS, PAS + Alcian Blue pH 2,5, Alcian Blue pH 2,5, PAS + Salivar Amilase, Method of Lars Grimelius and Method of Lillie. It was evidenced the predominance of serous cells on Duvernoy's gland. In relation to the histochemical constituion of the duvernoy's gland, was verified the presence of glucoconjugates neuters, enzymes and cells with reduetive activity. By fact from this species to kill his preys by constriction, the predominance of serous cells in the duvernoy's gland, don' t must be direct related with the subjugation of his preys, but with the digestive processes. Histological and histochemical analysis showed cells of Duvernoy's gland are constituted for two populations: serous cells (prodution of enzymes and mucous cells (prodution of glucoconjugates.

  15. Biología reproductiva de la serpiente semiacuática Liophis semiaureus (Serpentes, Colubridae en el nordeste de Argentina Reproductive biology of the semi-aquatic snake Liophis semiaureus (Serpentes, Colubridae in the north-east of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLEDAD M LÓPEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las serpientes tienen una notable flexibilidad y diversidad en sus tácticas reproductivas, a pesar de ello, los estudios acerca de la biología reproductiva de especies sudamericanas en zonas subtropicales-templadas son escasos. Se analizó la biología reproductiva de Liophis semiaureus en el nordeste de Argentina, incluyendo la madurez y dimorfismo sexual, fecundidad y ciclo reproductivo. Las hembras maduras fueron significativamente más largas, presentaron mayor peso corporal y alcanzaron la madurez sexual a una longitud mayor que los machos. Los machos tuvieron colas más largas que las hembras. El ciclo reproductivo fue estacional con mayor actividad en los períodos templados del año aunque previos a la época de inundaciones. Liophis semiaureus invirtió más energía en la reproducción que en el crecimiento, lo que posibilita que comiencen a reproducirse con tamaños más pequeños con respecto a otras poblaciones, sin retrasar su reproducción hasta alcanzar mayores tamaños. Esta puede ser una estrategia ventajosa en climas estacionales. Las características reproductivas y de dimorfismo sexual en L. semiaureus se encontrarían influenciadas por aspectos filogenéticos, geográficos y ecológicos, lo que determina que la especie responda de manera general al patrón reproductivo del grupo taxonómico pero con particularidades propias determinadas por los factores geográficos y los requerimientos ecológicos.Snakes in subtropical warm zones have a wide flexibility and diversity in your reproductive tactics. In spite of it, the studies in South America about that are scanty yet. We analyzed sexual dimorphism, sexual maturity, fecundity and reproductive cycle of a semi-aquatic snake, Liophis semiaureus, in north-east of Argentina. Females were significantly longer and heavier than the males. Females reach sexual maturity with longer snout-vent length than the males. Males had longer tails than the females. The reproductive cycle was seasonal. The individuals were more active on the first warm stations of the year and before the floods. Liophis semiaureus spent more energy in reproduction than growth, so they began to reproduce with smaller bodies than others population, this pattern of reproduction could be a profitable strategy in an environment of seasonal climate. The reproduction and sexual dimorphism in L. semiaureus would be influenced by aspects phylogenetic, geographical and ecological. The above aspects were similar to the taxonimic group but with their own characteristics due to geographical factors and to ecological requirements.

  16. Biologia reprodutiva de Dipsas neivai Amaral e D. catesbyi (Sentzen (Serpentes, Colubridae no sudeste da Bahia, Brasil Reproductive biology in Dipsas neivai and D. catesbyi (Serpentes, Colubridae in southeastern Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Q. Alves

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A biologia reprodutiva de Dipsas neivai Amaral, 1923 e Dipsas catesbyi (Sentezen, 1796 foi estudada através da dissecção de 261 espécimes de D. neivai e 222 de D. catesbyi. Em D. neivai o macho amadurece com menor tamanho do que a fêmea, ocorrendo o oposto em D. catesbyi. Em ambas as espécies a fêmea atinge maior tamanho corporal que o macho. O tamanho da ninhada variou de um a oito ovos em D. neivai e de um a seis em D. catesbyi, não estando correlacionado com o tamanho da fêmea na última. O ciclo reprodutivo em ambos machos e fêmeas é contínuo, com vitelogênese e espermatogênese ocorrendo ao longo do ano todo. Em Dipsas neivai, a cópula nas fêmeas é dissociado da vitelogênese. D. neivai e D. catesbyi são sintópicas, e reproduzem no mesmo período do ano, o que possivelmente está relacionado à disponibilidade contínua de presas e à pouca variação climática no sudeste da Bahia.The reproductive biology of Dipsas neivai Amaral, 1923 and Dipsas catesbyi (Sentzen, 1796, was studied by dissecting 261 specimens of D. neivai and 222 of D. catesbyi. In D. neivai males mature at smaller body size than females, and in D. catesbyi the opposite was observed. The females were larger than males in both species. The clutch size ranged from one to eight in D. neivai, and one to six in D. catesbyi, but it is not correlated with female length in the last one. Reproductive cycles in both males and females are aseasonal, with vitelogensis and spermatogenesis occurring throughout the year. The couple in females of D. neivai is dissociated from the vitellogenesis. D. neivai and D. catesbyi are syntopic and reproduce in the same time of the year, which is possibly related to the continuous availability of prey and little climate variation in southern Bahia.

  17. Body size, reproductive biology and abundance of the rare pseudoboini snakes genera Clelia and Boiruna (Serpentes, Colubridae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pizzatto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoboini snakes of the genera Clelia and Boiruna are apparently rare in nature and certainly rare in collections. This work presents data on body size, reproduction and abundance of five Brazilian species of these genera, in the largest collection of snakes in Latin America, the Instituto Butantan. Despite scarcity of data, follicular cycle seems to be continuous in most species, except Clelia rustica, which occurs in highlands. Females are largerthan males in all species, and fecundity is low when compared to other pseudoboini. Abundance is very low for all species even considering 100 years of collecting, and it is decreasing in recent decades when compared to other snakes (Bothrops jararaca, Oxyrhopus guibei, O. clathratus, Philodryas patagoniensis, Sibynomorphus mikanii, and Spilotes pullatus. The studied species present at least five traits of commonly threatened species and require more attention in researches and conservation policies.

  18. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae), from the inter-andean dry valleys of central Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Quinteros-Muñoz, Oliver; Peñaranda, Diego A.; Navarro, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    In May 18, 2009 we found an adult female of Philodryas psammophidea (930 mm SVL), at a side of a crop field in the Tabacal valley (18º23'7.42" S – 64º38'7.88" W, 2015 m), Narciso Campero province southern Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ecologically, this valley belongs to the Inter-Andean Dry Forests of Bolivia. In the stomach of the snake probably killed by a settler, there was an adult female of Graomys domorum (Phyllotini; Sigmodontidae), a native rodent species widely distributed in the r...

  19. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae, from the inter-andean dry valleys of central Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinteros-Muñoz, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In May 18, 2009 we found an adult female of Philodryas psammophidea (930 mm SVL, at a side of a crop field in the Tabacal valley (18º23'7.42" S – 64º38'7.88" W, 2015 m, Narciso Campero province southern Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ecologically, this valley belongs to the Inter-Andean Dry Forests of Bolivia. In the stomach of the snake probably killed by a settler, there was an adult female of Graomys domorum (Phyllotini; Sigmodontidae, a native rodent species widely distributed in the region.

  20. Body size, reproductive biology and abundance of the rare pseudoboini snakes genera Clelia and Boiruna (Serpentes, Colubridae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Pizzatto

    2005-01-01

    Pseudoboini snakes of the genera Clelia and Boiruna are apparently rare in nature and certainly rare in collections. This work presents data on body size, reproduction and abundance of five Brazilian species of these genera, in the largest collection of snakes in Latin America, the Instituto Butantan. Despite scarcity of data, follicular cycle seems to be continuous in most species, except Clelia rustica, which occurs in highlands. Females are largerthan males in all species, and fecundity is...

  1. Parámetros reproductivos de ocho especies de culebras ovíparas neotropicales (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Gabriela A.; Scrocchi, Gustavo J.

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta información sobre meses de puesta y eclosión, tamaño de la camada y medidas de huevos y neonatos de los siguientes ofidios ovíparos neotropicales: Boiruna maculata, Clelia rustica, Liophis almadensis, Liophis ceii, Oxyrhopus rhombifer, Philodryas patagoniensis, Philodryas baroni y Waglerophis merremii.

  2. Reconocimiento de olor feromonal con específico en Waglerophis merremii (Serpentes: Colubridae. Influencia estacional y hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue flicking responses of adult male and female Waglerophis merremii were tested with cloacal glands chemical stimuli of male and female conspecifics and control substance, ah l presented on cotton-tipped applicators. Tongue flicking rates by both sexes were significantly higher from cloacal chemical stimuli than from control, indicating that W. merremii detected conspecific cloacal chemicals. Postreproductive males treated with testosterone ernitted significantly more tongue-flicks in response to female than to male cloacal chemicals. Postreproductive females treated with estradiol emitted significantly more tongue -flicks in response to male than to female cloacal chemicals. Both results showed that W. merremii can chemically discriminate sex, suggesting the importance of pheromonal communication.

  3. A proposed mechanism for enhanced water-conservation in egg clutches of the Mexican Kingsnake, Lampropeltis mexicana (Serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Laying eggs on a wet substrate minimizes water stress for flexible-shelled reptile eggs because they absorb water through the permeable shell. This water gain contributes to reduced water-loss in aggregated eggs. This water-conserving feature is demonstrated in eggs of Lampropeltis mexicana in a water-balance experiment investigating both naturally laid clutches and eggs in arranged clusters. Water-loss rates of eggs decrease as more eggs are added to the aggregation, with a threshold at approximately 15 eggs. There is no further reduction in water-loss rate for eggs in an aggregation of 20, which exceeds the typical maximum for natural clutch size in this species. Blowing dry air over the egg clutch causes this waterconserving feature to disappear, but it re-appears when the air is still (air current turned off. This is the first time that an increase in water-vapor pressure in an aggregation of eggs has been demonstrated experimentally; the results suggest that laying aggregations of eggs may benefit development through moisture conservation.

  4. A proposed mechanism for enhanced water-conservation in egg clutches of the Mexican Kingsnake, Lampropeltis mexicana (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S. Phillips; Andrew J. Jajack; YODER, JAY A.

    2014-01-01

    Laying eggs on a wet substrate minimizes water stress for flexible-shelled reptile eggs because they absorb water through the permeable shell. This water gain contributes to reduced water-loss in aggregated eggs. This water-conserving feature is demonstrated in eggs of Lampropeltis mexicana in a water-balance experiment investigating both naturally laid clutches and eggs in arranged clusters. Water-loss rates of eggs decrease as more eggs are added to the aggregation, with a threshold at appr...

  5. Trichomoniasis in Bothrops jararaca (serpentes, viperidae)

    OpenAIRE

    F.C. Vilela; M.G. da Silva; T. H. Barrella; R. J. DA SILVA

    2003-01-01

    We describe a case of trichomoniasis in a Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae) donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP/UNESP. The animal had diarrhea with great quantity of flagellated protozoa in the feces. Microscopic examination of fecal smears stained with Giemsa revealed the presence of trichomonads, morphologically similar to Trichomonas acosta. Trichomonads were not detected in fecal exams after treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg metronidazo...

  6. Trichomoniasis in Bothrops jararaca (serpentes, viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Vilela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of trichomoniasis in a Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP/UNESP. The animal had diarrhea with great quantity of flagellated protozoa in the feces. Microscopic examination of fecal smears stained with Giemsa revealed the presence of trichomonads, morphologically similar to Trichomonas acosta. Trichomonads were not detected in fecal exams after treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg metronidazole (Flagyl®.

  7. Experimental ophitoxemia produced by the opisthoglyphous lora snake (Philodryas olfersii venom Ofitoxemia experimental produzida pelo veneno da serpente opistoglifa lora (Philodryas olfersii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Several colubrid snakes produce venomous oral secretions. In this work, the venom collected from Venezuelan opisthoglyphous (rear-fanged Philodryas olfersii snake was studied. Different proteins were present in its venom and they were characterized by 20% SDS-PAGE protein electrophoresis. The secretion exhibited proteolytic (gelatinase activity, which was partially purified on a chromatography ionic exchange mono Q2 column. Additionally, the haemorrhagic activity of Philodryas olfersii venom on chicken embryos, mouse skin and peritoneum was demonstrated. Neurotoxic symptoms were demonstrated in mice inoculated with Philodryas olfersii venom. In conclusion, Philodryas olfersii venom showed proteolytic, haemorrhagic, and neurotoxic activities, thus increasing the interest in the high toxic action of Philodryas venom.Várias serpentes da família Colubridae produzem secreções orais venenosas. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o veneno coletado da presa posterior da serpente opistóglifa venezuelana Philodryas olfersii. Deferentes proteínas estavam presentes no veneno, sendo caracterizadas pela eletroforese de proteínas (SDS-PAGE a 20%. A secreção mostrou atividade proteolítica (gelatinase a qual foi parcialmente purificada em uma coluna de intercâmbio iônico (mono Q2. Adicionalmente, a atividade hemorrágica do veneno de Philodryas olfersii foi demonstrada em embriões de galinha, pele e peritônio de rato. Os sintomas neurológicos foram demonstrados em camundongos inoculados com veneno de Philodryas olfersii. Em conclusão, o veneno da Philodryas olfersii mostrou atividade proteolítica, hemorrágica, e neurotóxica, assim aumentando o interesse na elevada ação tóxica do veneno da Philodryas olfersii.

  8. Burnup calculation methodology in the serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents two topics related to the burnup calculation capabilities in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code: advanced time-integration methods and improved memory management, accomplished by the use of different optimization modes. The development of the introduced methods is an important part of re-writing the Serpent source code, carried out for the purpose of extending the burnup calculation capabilities from 2D assembly-level calculations to large 3D reactor-scale problems. The progress is demonstrated by repeating a PWR test case, originally carried out in 2009 for the validation of the newly-implemented burnup calculation routines in Serpent 1. (authors)

  9. Taxocenose de serpentes no Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Taxocenosis of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Fazenda da Brigada (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, e teve como objetivo contribuir com informações sobre riqueza, abundância de serpentes e comparação entre os métodos de amostragem. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas áreas, floresta e campo, no período de janeiro de 2001 a março de 2003. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: procura limitada por tempo (PLT, encontros ocasionais por terceiros (EOT, encontros ocasionais pela equipe (EOE e armadilhas de interceptação e queda (AQ. Com a utilização dos quatro métodos foi possível registrar 19 espécies de serpentes, distribuídas em três famílias (Colubridae, Elapidae e Viperidae e coletar 284 indivíduos, sendo 128 por EOT, 36 por PLT, 112 por AQ e 8 por EOE. Utilizando todos os métodos, as três espécies mais abundantes foram: Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858 (16,9%, Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 (15,2% e Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (13,4%. O estudo dessa taxocenose revela importantes características da ecologia de serpentes e poderá subsidiar futuros estudos de conservação para a área.The present study was conducted on the Brigada Farm (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the study was to provide data regarding the richness and abundance of snakes and to compare sampling methods. The study was carried out in two areas, i.e., forest and field, between January 2001 and March 2003. Data were collected using the following methods: time-constrained search (TCS, occasional encounters by local collectors (OEC, occasional encounters by the team (OET, and by pitfall traps (PT. Using the four methods, 19 snake species belonging to three families (Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded, and 284 individuals were collected, including 128 by OEC, 36 by TCS, 112 by PT, and

  10. Using SERPENT Monte Carlo and Burnup code to model Traveling Wave Reactors - TWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is mainly devoted to the proof-of-principle implementation of the SERPENT code for the simulation of traveling wave reactors. Traveling wave reactors are both fast reactors and nuclear burning wave reactors in which the breeding and burning of nuclear fuel appear almost simultaneously. SERPENT is a neutron transport code whose last official update package is SERPENT 1.1.19 and whose SERPENT 2 version is currently in progress. The investigation of SERPENT 1.1.19 and of SERPENT 2 codes for multiprocessor tasks with long burnup steps was performed. It appears that SERPENT 2 has eliminated parallelization problems efficiently. Methods to remove the influence of the ignition zone were considered, and neutron transport simulations with various fragmentations of the burnup zone were performed. (authors)

  11. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe anomala (Squamata Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wen-Ge

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Elaphe anomala (Squamata: Colubridae) is first determined using long PCR. It is a circular molecule of 17,164 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 control regions (CRI and CRII). The gene order and nucleotide composition of E. anomala are very similar with E. schrenckii. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on the NJ method yield phylogenetic tree of 17 species snakes of Colubridae. Species E. anomala, E. schrenckii, E. bimaculata and E. davidi seemed to have formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100%) except E. poryphyracea. Oligodon ningshaanensis and Thermophis zhaoermii are special species. The molecular data presented here provide a useful tool for setting the stage for further studies. PMID:26057014

  12. Coupling Serpent and OpenFOAM for neutronics - CFD multi-physics calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Riku

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to couple the Monte Carlo neutronics code Serpent 2 with a CFD solver from the OpenFOAM toolbox. The coupling was implemented with the already available multi-physics interface of Serpent. The interface allows the passing of high fidelity density and temperature distributions from an external solver to Serpent and also the passing of fission power distribution from Serpent to the external solver. The coupled CFD-neutronics problem was solved by iteration. At eac...

  13. The Legends of the Serpent Island in the Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Shevchuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The report presents a variety of ancient legends, connected with the cult of Achilles on the Serpent (Snake Island, located in 35 km far from the Danube Delta in the territorial waters of Ukraine. The sources of ancient legends are the essay of Flavius Arrian “Periplus Ponti Euxini (maritime guide”, Flavius Philostratus dialogue “On Heroes” (Heroikos, as well as the outlines of Arctinus of Miletus, Maximus of Tyre and Romanian folklore. The imageries of Achilles Pontarchis cult on the Serpent Island (in ancient times – Levka Island, White Island, Island of the Blessed, Fidonisi, Ilan-Ada, Sherpilor disclose the peculiarities of his worship in Scythia and Dacia.

  14. New cranial characters in the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego O. Di Pietro; Leandro Alcalde; Williams, Jorge D.

    2014-01-01

    We here describe the skull in four species of the three genera of the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae): Helicops infrataeniatus, H. leopardinus, Hydrops caesurus and Pseudoeryx plicatilis. We compare them with several genera of Dipsadidae. We found that the unpaired foramen on the parabasisphenoid with anterior position is the only skull feature shared by all Hydropsini genera. This feature also occurs in semi-aquatic (Erythrolamphrus semiaureus) and fully-aquatic (Faran...

  15. THE DETECTION OF Ochetosoma heterocoelium (TRAVASSOS, 1921) (TREMATODA: DIGENEA: OCHETOSOMATIDAE) IN Chironius exoletus (LINNAEUS, 1758) (OPHIDIA: COLUBRIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. DA SILVA; R.R. Rodrigues; M. F. B. Stein; G. P. M. SIPOLI; R. PINHÃO; C. A. M. LOPES

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-two specimens of Ochetosoma heterocoelium (Travassos, 1921) (Trematoda: Digenea: Ochetosomatidae) were detected in the mouth and esophagus of the snake Chironius exoletus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ophidia: Colubridae) at the serpentarium of the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP) of São Paulo State University (UNESP) in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  16. Rodent consumption by Philodryas psammophidea (Serpentes: Colubridae), from the Inter-andean Dry Valleys of Central Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Quinteros Muñoz, Oliver; Peñaranda, Diego A.; Navarro, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    In May 18, 2009 we found an adult female of Philodryas psammophidea (930 mm SVL), at a side of a crop field in the Tabacal valley (18º23’7.42” S – 64º38’7.88”W, 2015 m), Narciso Campero province southern Cochabamba, Bolivia. Ecologically, this valley belongs to the Inter-Andean Dry Forests of Bolivia. In the stomach of thesnake probably killed by a settler, therewas an adult female of Graomys domorum (Phyllotini; Sigmodontidae), a native rodent species widely distributed in the region....

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of a new species of Apostolepis from Brazilian Cerrado with notes on the assimilis group (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae: Elapomorphini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Ferrarezzi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The assimilis species group is one of the several assemblages that can be distinguished within the genus Apostolepis. The group is characterized by a uniform red dorsal pattern, broad nucho-cervical collars, enlarged light snout blotch, dark ventral head, and entirely black terminal shield. A new species is here recognized as a member of the assimilis group and its phylogenetic relationships to A. assimilis and A. cearensis is inferred by means of cladistic analysis. Apostolepis ammodites sp. nov. can be easily diagnosed from all congeners by many autapomorphies and an exclusive combination of features. Comparative data are presented on scalation, coloration, dentition, osteology, and geographic distribution, with some notes on feeding and reproductive biology. The new species occurs through central Brazilian Cerrado, filling a gap between the areas occupied by A. assimilis and A. cearensis. Although superficially resembling A. assimilis, parsimony analysis based on morphological data indicates its phylogenetic relationships closest to A. cearensis. Systematic analysis shows that two recently described species, A. freitasi and A. tertulianobeui, must be relegated as junior synonymies of A. cearensis and A. assimilis, respectively.As espécies do grupo assimilis se caracterizam por um padrão dorsal vermelho uniforme, colares nuco-cervicais largos, mancha clara do focinho larga, região ventral da cabeça densamente pigmentada e escudo terminal completamente preto, é um dos vários grupos que podem ser distintos dentro do gênero Apostolepis. Uma nova espécie é aqui reconhecida como membro do grupo assimilis e suas relações filogenéticas para A. assimilis e A. cearensis são inferidas por meio de uma análise cladística. A. ammodites sp. nov. pode ser diagnosticada facilmente de todos os congeneres por muitas autapomorfias e uma combinação exclusiva de caracteres. Dados comparativos são apresentados sobre escutelação, coloração, dentição, osteologia e distribuição geográfica, junto com notas sobre alimentação e biologia reprodutiva. A espécie nova ocorre através do Cerrado brasileiro central, preenchendo o intervalo entre as áreas ocupadas por A. assimilis e A. cearensis. Embora se assemelhe superficialmente a A. assimilis, análises de parcimônia baseadas em dados morfológicos indicam maior parentesco filogenético com A. cearensis. Análises sistemáticas mostram que duas espécies recentemente descritas, A. freitasi e A. tertulianobeui, devem ser consideradas como sinônimos juniores de A. cearensis e A. assimilis, respectivamente.

  18. Nova espécie de Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae do rio Tapajós, Amazônia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossehan Galúcio da Frota

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the 14 species of Helicops known, five of them are distributed in Brazilian Amazon region. Here I describe a new species of Helicops based on three specimens from Tapajós river, western Pará state, Brazil. The new species is characterized by an opaque, green-moss uniform coloration on the vertebral and paravertebral scales, extending until the end of the tail, becoming yellow-greenish in the paraventral region, without spots, blotches or stripes on the whole dorsum. It differs from all species known of Helicops by the dorsal color pattern. Morphologically, the new species seems like H. leopardinus (as indicated by the number of dorsal scale rows, the number of ventral scales, and the number of teeth, but it has smaller lobes in the hemipenis and a very distinct color pattern. Illustrations of the type material and a dicotomic key are presented to help to distinguish the new species from other species of Helicops from Brazilian Amazon region.

  19. Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758 - (Serpentes: Colubridae. Primeros registros para la Provincia de Jujuy y confirmación de su presencia en el noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos Gallardo, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, provincia de Jujuy, Departamento Ledesma, Parque Nacional Calilegua, Camino de acceso a Yacimiento Caimancito (23°39’24.55”S; 64°34’49.78”O; 440 m s.n.m. Coordenadas calculadas mediante Google Earth. Colectores: Baltazar Ramos y Francisco Gallardo. 12 de abril de 2011. (SVL: 270 mm; LT: 370 mm depositado en la Colección del Laboratorio de Genética Evolutiva, Instituto de Biología Subtropical (UNaM-CONICET, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina (LGE 02577, Fig. 1.

  20. Ampliación del área de distribución geográfica de Oxybelis fulgidus (Serpentes: Colubridae y Agkistrodon bilineatus (Serpentes: Viperidae) en la planicie costera central de Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús GARCÍA-GRAJALES; Alejandra BUENROSTRO-SILVA

    2011-01-01

    This report indicates the presence of Oxybelis fulgidus and Agkistrodon bilineatus in Parque Nacional Lagunas de Chacahua, Oaxaca, extending their distribution from its known range to 286 and 343 km NW respectively.

  1. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Elaphe davidi (Squamata: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhu; Mu, Yanshuang; Kong, Qingran; Xie, Guilin; Guo, Zirong; Zhao, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Elaphe davidi is analyzed and presented for the first time in this work. The genome was 17,117 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 control region. The overall base composition is A (35.4%), C (25.2%), T (27.0%), and G (12.4%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which was most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. Mitochondrial genomes analyses based on MP, ML, NJ and Bayesian analyses yielded identical phylogenetic trees, indicating a close phylogenetic affinity of the 12 Colubridae species. Two major phyletic lineages were present in Colubridae. A clade included the six species (Dinodon semicarinatus, E. poryphyracea, Oocatochus rufodorsatus, Orthriophis taeniurus, E. bimaculata and E. davidi) of subfamily Colubrinae except for Oligodon ningshaanensis. Another clade (Hypsiglena chlorophaea, H. unaocularus, H. torquata and Imantodes cenchoa) included Thermophis zhaoermii and O. ningshaanensis as the sister taxon to Colubrinae. The genus Elaphe, Dinodon, Oocatochus and Orthriophis formed a monophyletic group with the high bootstrap value (100 %) in all examinations. PMID:25806578

  2. SERPent: Automated reduction and RFI-mitigation software for e-MERLIN

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, L. W.; Fenech, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Scripted E-merlin Rfi-mitigation PipelinE for iNTerferometry (SERPent) is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure utilising the SumThreshold methodology (Offringa et al., 2010a), originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in the Parseltongue language enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple ‘out of the box’ Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers. In addition ...

  3. On the use of the Serpent Monte Carlo code for few-group cross section generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → B1 methodology was used for generation of leakage-corrected few-group cross sections in the Serpent Monte-Carlo code. → Few-group constants generated by Serpent were compared with those calculated by Helios deterministic lattice transport code. → 3D analysis of a PWR core was performed by a nodal diffusion code DYN3D employing two-group cross section sets generated by Serpent and Helios. → An excellent agreement in the results of 3D core calculations obtained with Helios and Serpent generated cross-section libraries was observed. - Abstract: Serpent is a recently developed 3D continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MC) reactor physics burnup calculation code. Serpent is specifically designed for lattice physics applications including generation of homogenized few-group constants for full-core core simulators. Currently in Serpent, the few-group constants are obtained from the infinite-lattice calculations with zero neutron current at the outer boundary. In this study, in order to account for the non-physical infinite-lattice approximation, B1 methodology, routinely used by deterministic lattice transport codes, was considered for generation of leakage-corrected few-group cross sections in the Serpent code. A preliminary assessment of the applicability of the B1 methodology for generation of few-group constants in the Serpent code was carried out according to the following steps. Initially, the two-group constants generated by Serpent were compared with those calculated by Helios deterministic lattice transport code. Then, a 3D analysis of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core was performed by the nodal diffusion code DYN3D employing two-group cross section sets generated by Serpent and Helios. At this stage thermal-hydraulic (T-H) feedback was neglected. The DYN3D results were compared with those obtained from the 3D full core Serpent MC calculations. Finally, the full core DYN3D calculations were repeated taking into account T-H feedback and

  4. SERPent: Automated reduction and RFI-mitigation software for e-MERLIN

    CERN Document Server

    Peck, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The Scripted E-merlin Rfi-mitigation PipelinE for iNTerferometry (SERPent) is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure utilising the SumThreshold methodology (Offringa et al. 2010b), originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in the Parseltongue language enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple "out of the box" Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers. In addition to the flagging of RFI affected visibilities, the script also flags antenna zero-amplitude dropouts and Lovell telescope phase calibrator stationary scans inherent to the e-MERLIN system. Both the flagging and computational performances of SERPent are presented here, for e-MERLIN commissioning datasets for both L-band (1.3 - 1.8 GHz) and C-band (4 - 8 GHz) observations. RFI typically amounts to TB) make traditional astronomer interactions unfeasible.

  5. Solution of the OECD/NEA neutronic SFR benchmark with Serpent-DYN3D and Serpent-PARCS code systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A large SFR core from the OECD/WPRS SFR benchmark is considered. • 3D full core deterministic neutronic analysis is performed with DYN3D and PARCS. • Homogenized group constants generated by Serpent Monte Carlo code. • DYN3D and PARCS results are verified against full core Monte Carlo solution. - Abstract: In this study, the Serpent Monte Carlo code was used as a tool for preparation of homogenized group constants for the nodal diffusion analysis of a large U-Pu MOX fueled Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) core specified in the OECD/WPRS neutronic SFR benchmark. The group constants generated by Serpent were employed by DYN3D and PARCS nodal diffusion codes in 3D full core calculations. The DYN3D and PARCS results were verified against the references full core Serpent Monte Carlo solution. A good agreement between the reference Monte Carlo and nodal diffusion results was observed demonstrating the feasibility of using Serpent as a group constant generator for the deterministic SFR analysis

  6. The Serpent Monte Carlo Code: Status, Development and Applications in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Jaakko; Pusa, Maria; Viitanen, Tuomas; Valtavirta, Ville; Kaltiaisenaho, Toni

    2014-06-01

    The Serpent Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code has been developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since 2004, and is currently used in 100 universities and research organizations around the world. This paper presents the brief history of the project, together with the currently available methods and capabilities and plans for future work. Typical user applications are introduced in the form of a summary review on Serpent-related publications over the past few years.

  7. Verification of Serpent code for the fuel analysis of a PBMR; Verificacion del codigo SERPENT para el analisis de combustible para un PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: gbo729@yahoo.com.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the models and simulations with the Monte Carlo code Serpent are presented, as well as the obtained results of the different analyzed cases in order to verify the suitability or reliability of the use of this code to ensure favorable results in the realization of a neutronic analysis of fuel for a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Comparisons were made with the results reported in a report by the OECD/Nea relative to a high temperature reactor of spheres bed with plutonium reactor grade as fuel. The results show that the use of Serpent is appropriate, as these results are comparable with those reported in the report. (Author)

  8. Burnup calculations using serpent code in accelerator driven thorium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, burnup calculations have been performed for a sodium cooled Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR) using the Serpent 1.1.16 Monte Carlo code. The ADTR has been designed for burning minor actinides, mixed 232Th and mixed 233U fuels. A solid Pb-Bi spallation target in the center of the core is used and sodium as coolant. The system is designed for a heating power of 2 000 MW and for an operation time of 600 days. For burnup calculations the Advanced Matrix Exponential Method CRAM (Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method) and different nuclear data libraries (ENDF7, JEF2.2, JEFF3.1.1) were used. The effective multiplication factor change from 0.93 to 0.97 for different nuclear data libraries during the reactor operation period. (orig.)

  9. Burnup calculations using serpent code in accelerator driven thorium reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, M.E.; Agar, O. [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Yigit, M. [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2013-07-15

    In this study, burnup calculations have been performed for a sodium cooled Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR) using the Serpent 1.1.16 Monte Carlo code. The ADTR has been designed for burning minor actinides, mixed {sup 232}Th and mixed {sup 233}U fuels. A solid Pb-Bi spallation target in the center of the core is used and sodium as coolant. The system is designed for a heating power of 2 000 MW and for an operation time of 600 days. For burnup calculations the Advanced Matrix Exponential Method CRAM (Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method) and different nuclear data libraries (ENDF7, JEF2.2, JEFF3.1.1) were used. The effective multiplication factor change from 0.93 to 0.97 for different nuclear data libraries during the reactor operation period. (orig.)

  10. Modeling of realistic pebble bed reactor geometries using the Serpent Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The explicit stochastic geometry model in Serpent is documented. • A pebble bed criticality benchmark was calculated demonstrating the geometry model. • Stochastic pebble configurations were obtained from discrete element simulations. • Results deviate from experiments but are in line with example calculations. - Abstract: This paper documents the models available in Serpent for high temperature reactor (HTR) calculations. It is supplemented by a calculation example of ASTRA critical pebble bed experiments. In the pebble bed reactor modeling, different methods have been used to model the double heterogeneity problem occurring in pebble bed reactor calculations. A solution was sought to avoid unphysical simplifications in the pebble bed modeling and the stochastic geometry modeling features available in the Monte Carlo code Serpent were applied for exact placement of pebbles and fuel particles. Randomly packed pebble beds were produced in discrete element method (DEM) simulations and fuel particles were positioned randomly inside the pebbles. Pebbles and particles are located using a Cartesian search mesh, which provides necessary computational efficiency. Serpent uses Woodcock delta-tracking which provides efficient neutron tracking in the complicated geometries. This detailed pebble bed modeling approach was tested by calculating the ASTRA criticality benchmark experiment done at the Kurchatov Institute in 2004. The calculation results are in line with the sample calculations provided with the benchmark documentation. The material library selected for the calculations has a major effect on the results. The difference in graphite absorption cross section is considered the cause of this result. The model added in Serpent is very efficient with a calculation time slightly higher than with a regular lattice approximation. It is demonstrated that Serpent can be used for pebble bed reactor calculations with minimal geometric approximations as it

  11. Ophidian fauna (Reptilia, Serpentes from the Uppermost Miocene of Algora (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyndlar, Z.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil snakes from the Uppermost Miocene (NM 13 of Algora (Guadalajara, Spain are described, The fol1owing forms have been recognized: Scolecophidia indet., Elaphe algorensis sp. nov. and Hispanophis coronelloideus gen. et sp, nov. (Colubridae, Naja iberica sp. nov. (Elapidae, Viperidae indet. This faunistic assemblage, being uncomparable with any other snake fauna of Europe, includes both endemic forms (colubrids as well as close relatives of North African species (Naja iberica sp. nov., may be also vipers.

    Se estudian los restos de ofidios del Mioceno terminal (MN 13 de Algora (Guadalajara, España. Se han detectado las siguientes formas, Scolecophidia indet., Elaphe algorensis sp. nov. e Hispanophis coronelloideus gen. sp, nov. (Colubridae, Naja iberica sp. nov. (Elapidae, y Viperidae indet. Esta asociación faunística no es comparable a las restantes faunas de ofidios conocidas de otras localidades europeas, e incluye tanto formas endémicas (Colubridae, como especies evolutivamente emparentadas con formas norteafricanas (Naja iberica sp. nov., quizás también las víboras.

  12. Status and diversity of snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes at the Chittagong University Campus in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ahsan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the status and diversity of snakes of the Chittagong University Campus (CUC between September 2013 and December 2014, and on preserved snake specimens of museums of CUC (Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong; Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong; and Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong.  Thirty-six species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families (Typhlopidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded from CUC during the study period. Colubridae comprised the highest (24 species i.e., 66.67% number of species and Pythonidae the lowest (1 species. Checkered Keelback Xenochrophis piscator was the most common snake and the rarest was the Bengalese Kukri Snake Oligodon dorsalis belonging to the family Colubridae.  Among venomous snakes Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus was the most common snake and Black Krait Bungarus niger was the most rare.  Their status in CUC has been assessed. 

  13. Some aspects of the venom proteome of the Colubridae snake Philodryas olfersii revealed from a Duvernoy's (venom) gland transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Ana T C; Rocha, Marisa M T; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Pimenta, Daniel C; de Fátima D Furtado, Maria; Serrano, Solange M T; Ho, Paulo L; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the putative toxins of Philodryas olfersii (Colubridae), a representative of a family of snakes neglected in venom studies despite their growing medical importance. Transcriptomic data of the venom gland complemented by proteomic analysis of the gland secretion revealed the presence of major toxin classes from the Viperidae family, including serine proteases, metalloproteases, C-type lectins, Crisps, and a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis of the CNP precursor showed it as a linker between two related precursors found in Viperidae and Elapidae snakes. We suggest that these precursors constitute a monophyletic group derived from the vertebrate CNPs. PMID:16857193

  14. Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beçak Maria Luiza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The positioning of macrochromosomes of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops insularis (Viperidae was studied in undistorted radial metaphases of uncultured cells (spermatogonia and oogonia not subjected to spindle inhibitors. Colchicinized metaphases from uncultured (spleen and intestine and cultured tissues (blood were also analyzed. We report two antagonic non-random chromosome arrangements in untreated premeiotic cells: the parallel configuration with homologue chromosomes associated side by side in the metaphase plate and the antiparallel configuration having homologue chromosomes with antipolar distribution in the metaphase ring. The antiparallel aspect also appeared in colchicinized cells. The spatial chromosome arrangement in both configurations is groupal size-dependent and maintained through meiosis. We also describe, in untreated gonia cells, endomitosis followed by reductional mitosis which restores the diploid number. In B. jararaca males we observed that some gonad regions present changes in the meiotic mechanism. In this case, endoreduplicated cells segregate the diplochromosomes to opposite poles forming directly endoreduplicated second metaphases of meiosis with the suppression of first meiosis. By a successive division, these cells form nuclei with one set of chromosomes. Chromosome doubling in oogonia is known in hybrid species and in parthenogenetic salamanders and lizards. This species also presented chromosome rearrangements leading to aneuploidies in mitosis and meiosis. It is suggested that somatic pairing, endomitosis, meiotic alterations, and chromosomal aberrations can be correlated processes. Similar aspects of nuclei configurations, endomitosis and reductional mitosis were found in other Viperidae and Colubridae species.

  15. Verification of Serpent code for the fuel analysis of a PBMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the models and simulations with the Monte Carlo code Serpent are presented, as well as the obtained results of the different analyzed cases in order to verify the suitability or reliability of the use of this code to ensure favorable results in the realization of a neutronic analysis of fuel for a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Comparisons were made with the results reported in a report by the OECD/Nea relative to a high temperature reactor of spheres bed with plutonium reactor grade as fuel. The results show that the use of Serpent is appropriate, as these results are comparable with those reported in the report. (Author)

  16. Steady state analysis of SFR cores using DYN3D-Serpent codes sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few-group cross section generation methodology for the deterministic analysis of SFR cores with DYN3D code has been proposed. The full core DYN3D results obtained using the few-group constants produced by Serpent agreed very well with that of the reference full core MC simulations. Such an agreement demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed few-group cross section generation procedure. In summary, this study showed that the Serpent-DYN3D code sequence can be successfully used for modeling fast spectrum reactor systems. (orig.)

  17. New cranial characters in the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O. Di Pietro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We here describe the skull in four species of the three genera of the tribe Hydropsini (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae: Helicops infrataeniatus, H. leopardinus, Hydrops caesurus and Pseudoeryx plicatilis. We compare them with several genera of Dipsadidae. We found that the unpaired foramen on the parabasisphenoid with anterior position is the only skull feature shared by all Hydropsini genera. This feature also occurs in semi-aquatic (Erythrolamphrus semiaureus and fully-aquatic (Farancia abacura dipsadids. All species of Hydrops with available skull descriptions and Pseudoeryx plicatilis share four features: (1 The anterior border of the angular is higher than the posterior border of the splenial, (2 the vomerine processes of the premaxilla are long, (3 the ascending process of the premaxilla overlaps the horizontal lamina of the nasals, and (4 an anterior projection of the prefrontal is present. All species of Helicops with available skull descriptions and Pseudoeryx plicatilis share three features: (1 A vertical lamina of the nasal with a notch, (2 a single foramen rotundum, and (3 the presence of a ventral projection of the transverse crista of the basioccipital. Finally, we found small, paired parietal foramina in most of the dipsadids studied here, which are filled with a Sudan-Black-positive tissue of possible nervous origin.

  18. Full Core modeling techniques for research reactors with irregular geometries using Serpent and PARCS applied to the CROCUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Modeling of research reactors. • Serpent and PARCS coupling. • Lattice physics codes modeling techniques. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of modeling methodologies developed for the zero-power (100 W) teaching and research reactor CROCUS located in the Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behavior (LRS) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The study gives evidence that the Monte Carlo code Serpent can be used effectively as a lattice physics tool for small reactors. CROCUS’ core has an irregular geometry with two fuel zones of different lattice pitches. This and the reactor’s small size necessitate the use of nonstandard cross-section homogenization techniques when modeling the full core with a 3D nodal diffusion code (e.g. PARCS). The primary goal of this work is the development of these techniques for steady-state neutronics and future transient neutronics analyses of not only CROCUS, but research reactors in general. In addition, the modeling methods can provide useful insight for analyzing small modular reactor concepts based on light water technology. Static computational models of CROCUS with the codes Serpent and MCNP5 are presented and methodologies are analyzed for using Serpent and SerpentXS to prepare macroscopic homogenized group cross-sections for a pin-by-pin model of CROCUS with PARCS. The most accurate homogenization scheme lead to a difference in terms of keff of 385 pcm between the Serpent and PARCS model, while the MCNP5 and Serpent models differed in terms of keff by 13 pcm (within the statistical error of each simulation). Comparisons of the axial power profiles between the Serpent model as a reference and a set of PARCS models using different homogenization techniques showed a consistent root-mean-square deviation of ∼8%, indicating that the differences are not due to the homogenization technique but rather arise from the definition of the diffusion coefficients produced

  19. Occurrence of Haplometroides odhneri (Trematoda, Digenea, Plagiorchiidae infecting Leptotyphlops koppesi (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae Ocorrência de Haplometroides odhneri (Trematoda, Digenea, Plagiorchiidae parasitando Leptotyphlops koppesi (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a ocorrência de Haplometroides odhneri (Trematoda, Digenea, Plagiorchiidae na traquéia e esôfago de Leptotyphlops koppesi (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae proveniente da Usina Hidrelétrica Corumbá I, município de Caldas Novas, Goiás. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a ocorrência de H. odhneri parasitando L. koppesi.

  20. Occurrence of Haplometroides odhneri (Trematoda, Digenea, Plagiorchiidae) infecting Leptotyphlops koppesi (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae) Ocorrência de Haplometroides odhneri (Trematoda, Digenea, Plagiorchiidae) parasitando Leptotyphlops koppesi (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.J. Silva; E.O.P. Zica; Cruz, M.; J.C. O'Reilly; M.C. Costa

    2005-01-01

    Descreveu-se a ocorrência de Haplometroides odhneri (Trematoda, Digenea, Plagiorchiidae) na traquéia e esôfago de Leptotyphlops koppesi (Serpentes, Leptotyphlopidae) proveniente da Usina Hidrelétrica Corumbá I, município de Caldas Novas, Goiás. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a ocorrência de H. odhneri parasitando L. koppesi.

  1. Fuel burn analysis of a sodium fast reactor with KANEXT and Serpent; Analisis de quemado de combustible de un reactor rapido de sodio con KANEXT y SERPENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez S, R. C.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: rcarlos.lope@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The fast reactors cooled by sodium are one of the options considered in the Generation IV. Since most of the reactors of Fourth Generation are still in development stage, is necessary to have efficient and reliable computational tools, this in order to obtain accurate results in reasonable computational times. In this paper is introduced and describes the deterministic code KANEXT (KArlsruhe Neutronic EXtended Tool) and is compared against a Monte Carlo code of more diffusion: Serpent. KANEXT, being a modular code requires the interaction of different modules to perform a job, this interaction of modules is described in this article. The parameters to be compared are the results of the neutron multiplication effective factor and the evolution of isotopes during the burning. The mentioned comparison is carried out for a fast reactor cooled by sodium of relatively small size compared to commercial size reactors. In this paper the particularities of the reactor are described, important for the analysis such as geometry, enrichments, reflector, etc. The considerations in the implementation in both codes are also described, as are simplifications, length of the burning steps, possible solutions of the Bateman equations for the burning fuel in Serpent and the solution options for transport (P3) and diffusion (P1) in KANEXT. The results show good correspondence between Serpent and KANEXT, which give confidence to continue using KANEXT as the main tool. Respect to computation time, time saving is evident with the use of deterministic codes instead of Monte Carlo codes, in this particular case, the time savings using KANEXT is about 98.5% of the time used by Serpent. (Author)

  2. Numerical verification/validation of the theory of coupled reactors for deuterium critical assembly, using MCNP5 and Serpent codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of multipoint coupled reactors developed by multi-group transport is verified by using the probabilistic transport code MCNP5 and the continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation Serpent code. The verification was performed by calculating the multiplication factors (or criticality factors) and coupling coefficients for a two-region test reactor known as the Deuterium Critical Assembly, DCA. The multiplication factors keff calculated numerically and independently from simulations of the DCA by MCNP5 and Serpent codes are compared with the multiplication factors keff calculated based on the coupled reactor theory. Excellent agreement was obtained between the multiplication factors keff calculated with the Serpent code, with MCNP5, and from the coupled reactor theory. This analysis demonstrates that the Serpent code is valid for the multipoint coupled reactor calculations. (author)

  3. SERPent: Automated reduction and RFI-mitigation software for e-MERLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Luke W.; Fenech, Danielle M.

    2013-08-01

    The Scripted E-merlin Rfi-mitigation PipelinE for iNTerferometry (SERPent) is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure utilising the SumThreshold methodology (Offringa et al., 2010a), originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in the Parseltongue language enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple 'out of the box' Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers. In addition to the flagging of RFI affected visibilities, the script also flags antenna zero-amplitude dropouts and Lovell telescope phase calibrator stationary scans inherent to the e-MERLIN system. Both the flagging and computational performances of SERPent are presented here, for e-MERLIN commissioning datasets for both L-band (1.3-1.8 GHz) and C-band (4-8 GHz) observations. RFI typically amounts to RFI quieter C-band. The level of RFI detection and flagging is more accurate and delicate than visual manual flagging, with the output immediately ready for AIPS calibration. SERPent is fully parallelised and has been tested on a range of computing systems. The current flagging rate is at 110 GB day-1 on a 'high-end' computer (16 CPUs, 100 GB memory) which amounts to ˜6.9 GB CPU-1 day-1, with an expected increase in performance when e-MERLIN has completed its commissioning. The refining of automated reduction and calibration procedures is essential for the e-MERLIN legacy projects and future interferometers such as the SKA and the associated pathfinders (MeerKAT and ASKAP), where the vast data sizes (>TB) make traditional astronomer interactions unfeasible.

  4. Lista y distribución de los ofidios (Reptilia: Serpentes de Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzamendia, Vanesa

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición y distribución de las serpientes en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, sobre la base de 1.292 registros obtenidos en muestreos de campo, revisión de las colecciones herpetológicas de Argentina y registros bibliográficos. Se registraron 51 especies y subespecies (43 Colubridae, 3 Viperidae, 2 Boidae, 1 Elapidae, 1 Leptotyphlopidae y 1 Typhlopidae, representando un 39% de los taxones registrados para Argentina. Se realizaron mapas con localidades precisas para determinar la distribución de las serpientes. Una especie y 4 subespecies son registros novedosos para la provincia. Los patrones de distribución son brevemente discutidos en relación con las formaciones fitogeográficas. We studied the composition and distribution of the Santa Fe snakes based on 1,292 examined specimens obtained in field survey, revision of the Argentine herpetological collections and reliable literature records. Maps were built for determinate the distribution of snakes. Fifty one species and subspecies were recorded (43 Colubridae, 3 Viperidae, 2 Boidae, 1 Elapidae, 1 Leptotyphlopidae and 1 Typhlopidae, a 39% of the survey taxa in Argentina. One species and three subspecies were new records in Santa Fe province. The distributional patterns are briefly discussed in relation with phytogeographical subdivisions.

  5. Epidemiologia dos acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado do Ceará - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Fátima Gonçalves Feitosa; Iva Maria Lima Araújo Melo; Helena Serra Azul Monteiro

    1997-01-01

    Foram notificados à Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, no período de 1992 a 1995, 688 acidentes causados por serpentes peçonhentas (média anual de 172 casos), com coeficiente de incidência variando entre 0,9 e 5,8 por 100.000 habitantes. Dentre 473 casos em que houve referência ao gênero da serpente 88,3% foram por Bothrops, 10,6% por Crotalus, 0,8% por Micrurus e 0,2% por Lachesis. Os meses de abril a setembro apresentaram maior incidência. Houve predominância de pacientes do sexo mascu...

  6. IPEN/MB-01 heavy reflector benchmark calculations using Serpent code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of critical experiments with water-moderated square-pitched lattices with low-enriched uranium fuel rods was conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility, in 2005. Later, this data become some benchmarks. In one of these experiments the west face of the reactor core was covered with a set of thin SS-304 plates to simulate a heavy reflector as used in the EPR reactor (LEU-COMP-HERM-043). The plates are 3 mm thick and their width and axial length were large enough to cover one whole side of the active core of the reactor. The critical configurations were found as a function of the number of plates. Fuel rods containing UO2 with uranium enriched to 4.3% 235U were arranged in specific geometric configurations to be as close as possible to the critical state. In this work, these benchmark configurations with heavy reflectors were modeled using the Serpent Monte Carlo Code. Serpent uses a universe-based geometry model, which allows the description of practically any three-dimensional fuel or reactor configuration. Neutron transport is based on a combination of surface-to-surface ray-tracing and the Woodcock delta-tracking method. Woodcock method is many times faster than ray-tracing, so compared to MCNP code, Serpent code can bring huge gains in processing time of reactor calculations and reaction rate calculations. The results of these calculations were compared with experimental data and calculations with codes MCNP5 and SCALE6 (KENO-VI) using ENDF/B-VII.0 as cross-section input data. The codes performances are compared in terms of CPU calculation time and agreement with experimental data. Additional y, sensitivity on keff of Serpent woodcock threshold parameter was analyzed. (author)

  7. Validation of the Serpent 2 code on TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćalić, Dušan; Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Snoj, Luka

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is the development and validation of a 3D computational model of TRIGA research reactor using Serpent 2 code. The calculated parameters were compared to the experimental results and to calculations performed with the MCNP code. The results show that the calculated normalized reaction rates and flux distribution within the core are in good agreement with MCNP and experiment, while in the reflector the flux distribution differ up to 3% from the measurements. PMID:26516989

  8. Fuel burn analysis of a sodium fast reactor with KANEXT and Serpent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast reactors cooled by sodium are one of the options considered in the Generation IV. Since most of the reactors of Fourth Generation are still in development stage, is necessary to have efficient and reliable computational tools, this in order to obtain accurate results in reasonable computational times. In this paper is introduced and describes the deterministic code KANEXT (KArlsruhe Neutronic EXtended Tool) and is compared against a Monte Carlo code of more diffusion: Serpent. KANEXT, being a modular code requires the interaction of different modules to perform a job, this interaction of modules is described in this article. The parameters to be compared are the results of the neutron multiplication effective factor and the evolution of isotopes during the burning. The mentioned comparison is carried out for a fast reactor cooled by sodium of relatively small size compared to commercial size reactors. In this paper the particularities of the reactor are described, important for the analysis such as geometry, enrichments, reflector, etc. The considerations in the implementation in both codes are also described, as are simplifications, length of the burning steps, possible solutions of the Bateman equations for the burning fuel in Serpent and the solution options for transport (P3) and diffusion (P1) in KANEXT. The results show good correspondence between Serpent and KANEXT, which give confidence to continue using KANEXT as the main tool. Respect to computation time, time saving is evident with the use of deterministic codes instead of Monte Carlo codes, in this particular case, the time savings using KANEXT is about 98.5% of the time used by Serpent. (Author)

  9. High-fidelity coupled Monte Carlo neutron transport and thermal-hydraulic simulations using Serpent 2/SUBCHANFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An internal coupling between Serpent 2 and SUBCHANFLOW is developed and verified. • Temperature and density variations are treated with the on-the-fly TMS method. • Limitation of TMS regarding thermal scattering is evaded by stochastic mixing. • Successful benchmark with MCNP5 and TRIPOLI based multi-physics solutions. • Serpent 2/SUBCHANFLOW applied to full PWR core under hot full power conditions. - Abstract: Efforts to develop high-fidelity, in silico or ab initio, high performance multi-physics tools are undertaken by many groups due to the availability of relatively cheap, large-scale parallel computers. To this end, an internal coupling between the Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent 2 and the sub-channel code SUBCHANFLOW has been developed. The coupled code system is intended to serve as reference for deterministic reactor dynamics code developments in the future. It exploits the fact that Serpent was conceived as a lattice code for such deterministic tools. The coupling utilizes Serpent’s recently introduced universal multi-physics interface. With the multi-physics interface enabled, Serpent treats temperature dependence of nuclear data using the target motion sampling method. Since the target motion sampling methodology cannot be applied to thermal bound-atom scattering or unresolved resonances, a stochastic mixing fall back algorithm to enable the simulation of thermal reactors has been implemented. The developed coupled code is verified by code-to-code comparison with an external coupling of the Monte Carlo tool TRIPOLI4 and SUBCHANFLOW as well as the internally coupled code MCNP5/SUBCHANFLOW. Simulation results of all code systems were found to be in good agreement. Thereafter, the second exercise of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO2 core transient benchmark is studied to demonstrate that Serpent 2/SUBCHANFLOW may be employed to analyze realistic, industry-like cases such as a full PWR core under hot full power

  10. Ecologia e história natural das serpentes de uma área de Caatinga no nordeste brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo C.M.D. Mesquita; Daniel C. Passos; Diva M. Borges-Nojosa; Sonia Z. Cechin

    2013-01-01

    A fauna de serpentes do bioma Caatinga é uma das menos estudadas do Brasil. Estudamos a assembleia de serpentes de uma área de Caatinga arbustivo-arbórea a fim de descrever a história natural das espécies ocorrentes na região. Um total de 636 indivíduos de 22 espécies de quatro famílias foi registrado. A distribuição das abundâncias das espécies na área é log-normal e a composição apresenta serpentes típicas de Caatinga sendo Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) e Philodryas nattereri Steindachner,...

  11. Validating the Serpent Model of FiR 1 Triga Mk-II Reactor by Means of Reactor Dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Tuomas; Leppänen, Jaakko

    2016-02-01

    A model of the FiR 1 Triga Mk-II reactor has been previously generated for the Serpent Monte Carlo reactor physics and burnup calculation code. In the current article, this model is validated by comparing the predicted reaction rates of nickel and manganese at 9 different positions in the reactor to measurements. In addition, track-length estimators are implemented in Serpent 2.1.18 to increase its performance in dosimetry calculations. The usage of the track-length estimators is found to decrease the reaction rate calculation times by a factor of 7-8 compared to the standard estimator type in Serpent, the collision estimators. The differences in the reaction rates between the calculation and the measurement are below 20%.

  12. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em serpentes de cativeiro Prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in captive snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Custório Ruggiero; Rogério Loesch Zacariotti; Eduardo Fernandes Bondan; Maria Anete Lallo

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium é um protozoário encontrado em uma grande variedade de espécies animais como responsável por casos de gastrite e enterite, porém com epidemiologia pouco conhecida em animais silvestres. A presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em lavado gástrico de serpentes mantidas em cativeiro no serpentário do Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, Brasil). A coleta foi realizada uma semana após alimentação, evitando, assim, a regurgitação devid...

  13. Validating the Serpent Model of FiR 1 Triga Mk-II Reactor by Means of Reactor Dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Viitanen Tuomas; Leppänen Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    A model of the FiR 1 Triga Mk-II reactor has been previously generated for the Serpent Monte Carlo reactor physics and burnup calculation code. In the current article, this model is validated by comparing the predicted reaction rates of nickel and manganese at 9 different positions in the reactor to measurements. In addition, track-length estimators are implemented in Serpent 2.1.18 to increase its performance in dosimetry calculations. The usage of the track-length estimators ...

  14. Descrição de uma nova espécie de Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae do nordeste brasileiro, com comentários sobre o gênero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L. Franco

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Thamnodynastes almae sp. nov. is described based on three specimens from Rodelas municipality, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by its pale coloration and keeled dorsal scales arranged in 19 rows at midbody and 15 rows posteriorly. Characters for distinguishing T. almae from other brazilian species of Thamnodynastes are provided.

  15. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente; Gleomar Fabiano Maschio; Maria Cristina dos Santos-Costa; Darlan Tavares Feitosa

    2010-01-01

    Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM), localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta) foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada...

  16. Avaliação ultrassonográfica do aparelho reprodutor em serpentes vivíparas da família Boidae

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A reprodução faz parte do ciclo de vida dos animais permitindo a perpetuação e a conservação das espécies. Em serpentes, existe uma escassez de informações técnicas a respeito do ciclo reprodutivo. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o aparelho reprodutivo por meio da ultrassonografia em serpentes vivíparas cativas da família Boidae, permitindo diagnosticar as diferentes fases reprodutivas. Foram avaliadas ultrassonograficamente onze serpentes adultas de quatro espécies da família Boidae: ...

  17. SCALE and SERPENT solutions of the OECD VVER-1000 LEU and MOX burnup computational benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New solutions for the VVER-1000 LEU and MOX burnup computational benchmark have been obtained using ENDF/B-VII and JEFF3.1 nuclear data libraries. • The SERPENT and SCALE codes have been used for the first time to solve the benchmark exercises. • The comparison of our results with the ones available in literature shows generally a good agreement over all the reactor states considered in terms of reactivity values, pin-by-pin fission rates distributions and nuclide concentrations. • The SERPENT models for the LEU and MOX assemblies have also been tested with JEF2.2 making of this work also a new Monte Carlo reference solution for the benchmark exercise with modern nuclear data libraries. - Abstract: The loading of hybrid cores with Mixed Uranium Plutonium Oxide (MOX) and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuels in commercial nuclear reactors requires well validated computational methods and codes capable of providing reliable predictions of the neutronics characteristics of such fuels in terms of reactivity conditions (kinf), nuclide inventory and pin power generation over the entire fuel cycle length. Within the framework of Joint United States/Russian Fissile Materials Disposition Program an important task is to verify and validate neutronics codes for the use of MOX fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. Benchmark analyses are being performed for both computational benchmarks and experimental benchmarks. In this paper new solutions for the (UO2 + Gd) and (UO2 + PuO2 + Gd) fuel assemblies proposed within the “OECD VVER-1000 Burnup Computational Benchmark” are presented, these being representative of the designs which are expected to be used in the plutonium disposition mission. The objective is to test the SERPENT and SCALE codes against previously obtained solutions and to provide new reference solutions to the benchmark with modern nuclear data libraries

  18. Osteopetrosis and osteonecrosis in snake Boa constrictor Osteopetrose e osteocondrose em serpente Boa constrictor

    OpenAIRE

    N.M. Ocarino; C.E. Goulart; S.M. Falci; P.C. Souza; R. Serakides

    2008-01-01

    Uma jibóia (Boa constrictor), de onze anos de cativeiro, apresentou à seis meses um histórico de aumento de volume ao longo da coluna vertebral e perda progressiva dos movimentos e de apetite. Exames radiológicos revelaram aumento da opacidade, áreas de excrescências ósseas e inúmeras fraturas ao longo da coluna. Devido o prognóstico desfavorável, a serpente foi eutanasiada. À necropsia, aumento de volume com estenose do canal vertebral e compressão da medula espinhal foram observados, juntam...

  19. Burnup calculation capability in the PSG2 / Serpent Monte Carlo reactor physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PSG continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics code has been developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since 2004. The code is mainly intended for group constant generation for coupled reactor simulator calculations and other tasks traditionally handled using deterministic lattices physics codes. The name was recently changed from acronym PSG to 'Serpent', and the capabilities have been extended by implementing built-in burnup calculation routines that enable the code to be used for fuel cycle studies and the modelling of irradiated fuels. This paper presents the methodology used for burnup calculation. Serpent has two fundamentally different options for solving the Bateman depletion equations: 1) the Transmutation Trajectory Analysis method (TTA), based on the analytical solution of linearized depletion chains and 2) the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), an advanced matrix exponential solution developed at VTT. The first validation results are compared to deterministic CASMO-4E calculations. It is also shown that the overall running time in Monte Carlo burnup calculation can be significantly reduced using specialized calculation techniques, and that the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method is becoming a viable alternative to deterministic assembly burnup codes. (authors)

  20. On the use of SERPENT Monte Carlo code to generate few group diffusion constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovezan, Pamela, E-mail: pamela.piovezan@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carluccio, Thiago; Domingos, Douglas Borges; Rossi, Pedro Russo; Mura, Luiz Felipe, E-mail: fermium@cietec.org.b, E-mail: thiagoc@ipen.b [Fermium Tecnologia Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The accuracy of diffusion reactor codes strongly depends on the quality of the groups constants processing. For many years, the generation of such constants was based on 1-D infinity cell transport calculations. Some developments using collision probability or the method of characteristics allow, nowadays, 2-D assembly group constants calculations. However, these 1-D and 2-D codes how some limitations as , for example, on complex geometries and in the neighborhood of heavy absorbers. On the other hand, since Monte Carlos (MC) codes provide accurate neutro flux distributions, the possibility of using these solutions to provide group constants to full-core reactor diffusion simulators has been recently investigated, especially for the cases in which the geometry and reactor types are beyond the capability of the conventional deterministic lattice codes. The two greatest difficulties on the use of MC codes to group constant generation are the computational costs and the methodological incompatibility between analog MC particle transport simulation and deterministic transport methods based in several approximations. The SERPENT code is a 3-D continuous energy MC transport code with built-in burnup capability that was specially optimized to generate these group constants. In this work, we present the preliminary results of using the SERPENT MC code to generate 3-D two-group diffusion constants for a PWR like assembly. These constants were used in the CITATION diffusion code to investigate the effects of the MC group constants determination on the neutron multiplication factor diffusion estimate. (author)

  1. Development of an unstructured mesh based geometry model in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new unstructured mesh based geometry type, developed in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code as a by-product of another study related to multi-physics applications and coupling to CFD codes. The new geometry type is intended for the modeling of complicated and irregular objects, which are not easily constructed using the conventional CSG based approach. The capability is put to test by modeling the 'Stanford Critical Bunny' – a variation of a well-known 3D test case for methods used in the world of computer graphics. The results show that the geometry routine in Serpent 2 can handle the unstructured mesh, and that the use of delta-tracking results in a considerable reduction in the overall calculation time as the geometry is refined. The methodology is still very much under development, with the final goal of implementing a geometry routine capable of reading standardized geometry formats used by 3D design and imaging tools in industry and medical physics. (author)

  2. Demonstration of the Serpent Monte-Carlo Code Applicability toFew-Group Constants Generation for Existing and Advanced Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpent is a continuous-energy Monte Carlo (MC) reactor physics code recently developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Serpent can be used for 2D fuel lattice calculations as well as for 3D full core simulations. Due to its built-in decay and burnup routine Serpent can perform depletion and decay analysis to provide time-dependent isotopic compositions and spent fuel characteristics including radioactivity and decay heat. Serpent uses matrix exponential method to solve the Bateman decay and depletion equations while the solution of the matrix exponential relies on the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) Serpent runs significantly faster than other MC codes due to the two main reasons: 1) the use of the Woodcock delta-tracking in a combination with a typical surface-to-surface ray-tracing in a geometry routine, and 2) the use of the unionized energy grid for all point-wise reaction cross sections. The later, however, considerably increases the memory requirements and can be a bottleneck in simulations with a large number of involved nuclides. Serpent is especially designed to generate homogenized constants for deterministic 3D core analysis. For any region of interest the code automatically calculates homogenized few-group cross sections, group-to-group scattering matrices, diffusion coefficients, assembly discontinuity factors, kinetics parameters, etc. More details can be found in Serpent User's Manual. Recently some new calculation methods related to the production of homogenized few-group constants were implemented in the Serpent code including homogenization in leakage-corrected criticality spectrum, group constant generation in reflectors and other non-fissile regions, and improved treatment of neutron-multiplying scattering reactions. The capability to generate homogenized few-group constants can be considered as one of the most attractive features of Serpent. Being a MC code, Serpent is capable of handling complex geometries without

  3. Pentastomid infection in Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) (Squamata: Colubridae) in a caatinga of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Guedes, T B; Freire, E M X; Vasconcellos, A

    2008-02-01

    The relationship between pentastomids and two Colubridae species, Phillodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 and Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824), were investigated in the federal government's reserve Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC, Seridó) situated at lat 6 degrees 35'-40' S and long 37 degrees 15'-20 W in the municipality of Serra Negra do Norte, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil and run by IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Natural Resources). Throughout 2005, 26 specimens of snakes, 13 of P. nattereri and 13 of O. aeneus were collected. After anatomical dissection and laboratorial examination of the snakes respiratory tracts, P. nattereri was found to be parasitized by two species of pentastomids: Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 with a prevalence of 30.8% and a mean intensity of infection of 51.5 +/- 32.7 (range 3-147), and Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863) which had a prevalence of 7.7% and a mean intensity of infection of 1.0. Only one female of O. aeneus was found to be infected by C. tetrapoda, with a prevalence of 7.7% and mean intensity of infection of 2.0. There was no significant relationship between size of snout-vent length (SVL) and intensity of infection in the specimens investigated here. The two individuals of P. nattereri infected by more than 40 specimens of pentastomids had their lungs completely infected including the pulmonary peritoneum and trachea. It is noteworthy that the hosts had their lung tissues partially destroyed with apparent haemorrhage, and the trabecular structure of their lungs was also destroyed. The contrasting rates of infection estimated here may be related to differences in foraging strategies, in diet, and habitat selection carried out by individuals of P. nattereri and O. aeneus. PMID:18470397

  4. Serpent: an alternative for the nuclear fuel cells analysis of a BWR; SERPENT: una alternativa para el analisis de celdas de combustible nuclear de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: lidi.s.albarran@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In the last ten years the diverse research groups in nuclear engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (UNAM, IPN), as of research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ) as well as the personnel of the Nuclear Plant Management of the Comision Federal de Electricidad have been using the codes Helios and /or CASMO-4 in the generation of cross sections (X S) of nuclear fuel cells of the cores corresponding to the Units 1 and 2 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Both codes belong to the Studsvik-Scandpower Company who receives the payment for the use and their respective maintenance. In recent years, the code Serpent appears among the nuclear community distributed by the OECD/Nea which does not has cost neither in its use neither in its maintenance. The code is based on the Monte Carlo method and makes use of the processing in parallel. In the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of the IPN, the personnel has accumulated certain experience in the use of Serpent under the direction of personal of the ININ; of this experience have been obtained for diverse fuel burned, the infinite multiplication factor for three cells of nuclear fuel, without control bar and with control bar for a known thermodynamic state fixed by: a) the fuel temperature (T{sub f}), b) the moderator temperature (T{sub m}) and c) the vacuums fraction (α). Although was not realized any comparison with the X S that the codes Helios and CASMO-4 generate, the results obtained for the infinite multiplication factor show the prospective tendencies with regard to the fuel burned so much in the case in that is not present the control bar like when it is. The results are encouraging and motivate to the study group to continue with the X S generation of a core in order to build the respective library of nuclear data as a following step and this can be used for the codes PARCS, of USA NRC, DYN3D of HZDR, or others developed locally

  5. Analysing the statistics of group constants generated by Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important topic in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations is to verify that the statistics of the calculated estimates are correct. Undersampling, non-converged fission source distribution and inter-cycle correlations may result in inaccurate results. In this paper, we study the effect of the number of neutron histories on the distributions of homogenized group constants and assembly discontinuity factors generated using Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code. We apply two normality tests and a so-called “drift-in-mean” test to the batch-wise distributions of selected parameters generated for two assembly types taken from the MIT BEAVRS benchmark. The results imply that in the tested cases the batch-wise estimates of the studied group constants can be regarded as normally distributed. We also show that undersampling is an issue with the calculated assembly discontinuity factors when the number of neutron histories is small. (author)

  6. Simulating fast transients with fuel behavior feedback using the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulating transients with reactivity feedback effects using Monte Carlo neutron transport codes can be used for validating deterministic transient codes or estimating for example the total deposited energy in a fuel rod following a known reactivity insertion in the system. Recent increases in computational power as well as developments in calculation methodology makes it possible to obtain a coupled solution for several aspects of the multi-physics problem in a single calculation. This paper describes the different methods implemented in Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code that enable it to model fast transients with fuel behavior feedback. The capability is demonstrated in a prompt critical pin-cell case, where the transient is shut down by the negative reactivity from rising fuel temperature. (author)

  7. Osteopetrosis and osteonecrosis in snake Boa constrictor Osteopetrose e osteocondrose em serpente Boa constrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ocarino

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma jibóia (Boa constrictor, de onze anos de cativeiro, apresentou à seis meses um histórico de aumento de volume ao longo da coluna vertebral e perda progressiva dos movimentos e de apetite. Exames radiológicos revelaram aumento da opacidade, áreas de excrescências ósseas e inúmeras fraturas ao longo da coluna. Devido o prognóstico desfavorável, a serpente foi eutanasiada. À necropsia, aumento de volume com estenose do canal vertebral e compressão da medula espinhal foram observados, juntamente com fraturas completas de corpos vertebrais. O diagnóstico de osteopetrose e osteonecrose foi firmado à histologia.

  8. A collision history-based approach to sensitivity/perturbation calculations in the continuous energy Monte Carlo code SERPENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a new Monte Carlo method to perform sensitivity/perturbation calculations. • Sensitivity of keff, reaction rates, point kinetics parameters to nuclear data. • Fully continuous implicitly constrained Monte Carlo sensitivities to scattering distributions. • Implementation of the method in the continuous energy Monte Carlo code SERPENT. • Verification against ERANOS and TSUNAMI generalized perturbation theory results. - Abstract: In this work, the implementation of a collision history-based approach to sensitivity/perturbation calculations in the Monte Carlo code SERPENT is discussed. The proposed methods allow the calculation of the effects of nuclear data perturbation on several response functions: the effective multiplication factor, reaction rate ratios and bilinear ratios (e.g., effective kinetics parameters). SERPENT results are compared to ERANOS and TSUNAMI Generalized Perturbation Theory calculations for two fast metallic systems and for a PWR pin-cell benchmark. New methods for the calculation of sensitivities to angular scattering distributions are also presented, which adopts fully continuous (in energy and angle) Monte Carlo estimators

  9. Ecologia e história natural das serpentes de uma área de Caatinga no nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C.M.D. Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fauna de serpentes do bioma Caatinga é uma das menos estudadas do Brasil. Estudamos a assembleia de serpentes de uma área de Caatinga arbustivo-arbórea a fim de descrever a história natural das espécies ocorrentes na região. Um total de 636 indivíduos de 22 espécies de quatro famílias foi registrado. A distribuição das abundâncias das espécies na área é log-normal e a composição apresenta serpentes típicas de Caatinga sendo Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824 e Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 as espécies mais comuns. A história natural de cada espécie é descrita a partir das informações sobre padrões de atividade, dieta, uso do ambiente, reprodução e repertório defensivo obtidas durante o estudo e de informações disponíveis na literatura. A área de estudo está em uma área prioritária para conservação e os resultados reforçam que políticas conservacionistas sejam aplicadas na região.

  10. Validation of the Serpent-ARES code sequence using the MIT BEAVRS benchmark – Initial core at HZP conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code was applied for group constant generation. • The homogenized group constants were used in the ARES nodal diffusion code. • The Serpent-ARES calculation sequence was put to test using the BEAVRS benchmark. • The ARES calculations showed good results at both pin and assembly level. - Abstract: The Serpent-ARES code sequence, applying Monte Carlo based group constants in a full-core nodal diffusion calculation, is currently being validated for PWR fuel cycle simulations. The test case chosen for the task is the MIT BEAVRS benchmark, which provides a detailed description of a commercial PWR core, including operating data and results of experimental measurements. This paper summarizes the first stage of the validation study, which is focused on the neutronics solution at the hot zero-power state of the initial core. The results show a good agreement between the ARES simulation and a reference full-scale Monte Carlo calculation at both assembly- and pin-level. At core mid-plane, the reconstructed pin-powers are off by less than 1% in 82% of all fuel pins

  11. Solution of the CB6 benchmark on VVER-440 final disposal using the serpent reactor physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CB6 benchmark on VVER-440 final disposal consists of two parts. The decay calculation part is aimed at determination of isotopic composition of irradiated fuel material over the time scale relevant to long-term spent fuel disposal. The second part involves calculation of keff values in a 3D cask configuration at various time points. In this study, the code Serpent is applied in solution of the benchmark. Serpent is a continuous energy Monte Carlo reactor physics code developed at VTT Technical Research Center of Finland. The decay calculation part of the benchmark is, in addition to Serpent, also carried out using point-depletion calculation code ORIGEN. This enables comparison of the results obtained using the two codes exploiting two different methods in solution of the decay equations. The paper demonstrates the decay and keff calculation results as determined in the benchmark specification. The differences in results arising between the two calculation codes in decay calculation, and between the ENDF/B-VII and JEFF-3.1.1 based cross section libraries in keff calculation, are depicted and discussed.

  12. Solution of the CB6 benchmark on VVER-440 final disposal using the serpent reactor physics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, T. [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd, Fortum (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    The CB6 benchmark on VVER-440 final disposal consists of two parts. The decay calculation part is aimed at determination of isotopic composition of irradiated fuel material over the time scale relevant to long-term spent fuel disposal. The second part involves calculation of k{sub eff} values in a 3D cask configuration at various time points. In this study, the code Serpent is applied in solution of the benchmark. Serpent is a continuous energy Monte Carlo reactor physics code developed at VTT Technical Research Center of Finland. The decay calculation part of the benchmark is, in addition to Serpent, also carried out using point-depletion calculation code ORIGEN. This enables comparison of the results obtained using the two codes exploiting two different methods in solution of the decay equations. The paper demonstrates the decay and keff calculation results as determined in the benchmark specification. The differences in results arising between the two calculation codes in decay calculation, and between the ENDF/B-VII and JEFF-3.1.1 based cross section libraries in k{sub eff} calculation, are depicted and discussed.

  13. Serpent: an alternative for the nuclear fuel cells analysis of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last ten years the diverse research groups in nuclear engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (UNAM, IPN), as of research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ) as well as the personnel of the Nuclear Plant Management of the Comision Federal de Electricidad have been using the codes Helios and /or CASMO-4 in the generation of cross sections (X S) of nuclear fuel cells of the cores corresponding to the Units 1 and 2 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Both codes belong to the Studsvik-Scandpower Company who receives the payment for the use and their respective maintenance. In recent years, the code Serpent appears among the nuclear community distributed by the OECD/Nea which does not has cost neither in its use neither in its maintenance. The code is based on the Monte Carlo method and makes use of the processing in parallel. In the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of the IPN, the personnel has accumulated certain experience in the use of Serpent under the direction of personal of the ININ; of this experience have been obtained for diverse fuel burned, the infinite multiplication factor for three cells of nuclear fuel, without control bar and with control bar for a known thermodynamic state fixed by: a) the fuel temperature (Tf), b) the moderator temperature (Tm) and c) the vacuums fraction (α). Although was not realized any comparison with the X S that the codes Helios and CASMO-4 generate, the results obtained for the infinite multiplication factor show the prospective tendencies with regard to the fuel burned so much in the case in that is not present the control bar like when it is. The results are encouraging and motivate to the study group to continue with the X S generation of a core in order to build the respective library of nuclear data as a following step and this can be used for the codes PARCS, of USA NRC, DYN3D of HZDR, or others developed locally in the IPN

  14. Epidemiologia dos acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado do Ceará - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Fátima Gonçalves Feitosa

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram notificados à Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Ceará, no período de 1992 a 1995, 688 acidentes causados por serpentes peçonhentas (média anual de 172 casos, com coeficiente de incidência variando entre 0,9 e 5,8 por 100.000 habitantes. Dentre 473 casos em que houve referência ao gênero da serpente 88,3% foram por Bothrops, 10,6% por Crotalus, 0,8% por Micrurus e 0,2% por Lachesis. Os meses de abril a setembro apresentaram maior incidência. Houve predominância de pacientes do sexo masculino (75,6% e com idades entre 10 a 49 anos (72,3%. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente picadas foram os membros inferiores (81,9% e superiores (14,7%. O atendimento na unidade de saúde que notificou o acidente ocorreu dentro de seis horas em 66,9% dos casos. A letalidade foi de 0,7%. Os acidentados foram sobretudo agricultores (62,7%, a maioria dos casos ocorreu no próprio local de trabalho. Os autores reforçam que os acidentes ofídicos no Estado do Ceará podem ser considerados acidentes de trabalho, acometem principalmente os trabalhadores rurais e constituem causa de óbito.From 1992 to 1995, 688 accidents by venomous snakes (mean of 192 cases/year have been notified to the Health Ministry of the State of Ceará, with an incidence between 0.9 and 5.8/100.000 inhabitants. Among 473 cases, 88.3% were of the genus Bothrops, 10.7% Crotalus, 0.8% Micrurus and 0.2% Lachesis. The highest incidence occurred from April to September. Male (75.6% predominated with ages from 10 to 49 years old (72.3%. The more frequently bitten anatomical region were the lower limbs (81.9% and upper limbs (14.7%. The attendance at health unit which notified the accident took place within 6 hours in 66.9% of the cases. Lethality was 0.7%. The afflicted people were mainly peasants (62.7%, and most of the accidents took place in their own work place. The authors emphasize that the snake bites in the State of Ceará may be considered work accidents, concern mainly

  15. Un nouveau serpent bipède du Cénomanien (Crétacé). Implications phylétiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rage, Jean-Claude; Escuillié, François

    2000-04-01

    A new bipedal snake from the Cenomanian (Cretaceous). Phylogenetic implications. A new bipedal snake is described as Podophis descouensi gen. et sp. nov. Like Pachyrhachis problematicus, the only other bipedal snake, it comes from the Cenomanian of the Middle East. It provides data not revealed in Pachyrhachis and it confirms that bipedal snakes are basal Ophidia. It is not possible to assess whether these two bipedal snakes make up a monophyletic group (sister-taxon to the Serpentes) or a paraphyletic assemblage (stem group of the Serpentes).

  16. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  17. Development of calculation model and analysis of some transition processes in KLT-40S reactor with SERPENT code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation model of KLT-40S reactor concerning stationary and transition regimes of the reactor with the use of heat-hydraulic code SERPENT has been developed. The model validation was carried out by comparison of calculation results of stationary regime at the rated power level obtained with the reactor developers' data. Calculation analysis of transition regimes was performed. These transition regimes were: shutdown 2 of 4 steam generator's sections; shutdown 2 of 4 circulation pumps of first circuit. The fact that position of control rods was invariable must be in parenthesis. Alterations of power, heat carrier temperatures, fuel and dispersive fuel composition cans were specified

  18. Variação morfométrica em Bothropoides jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae) no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalia Rocha Matias; Maria Lúcia Machado Alves; Moema Leitão de Araujo; Diego Marques Henriques Jung

    2011-01-01

    Apesar de machos e fêmeas de serpentes nascerem com o mesmo tamanho, as taxas de crescimento e a idade da maturação sexual podem ser diferentes, determinando dimorfismo sexual em estágios posteriores da vida. Avaliamos a ocorrência de variação morfométrica sexual e ontogenética em Bothropoides jararaca (Wied, 1824), explorando as relações entre tamanho corporal e amadurecimento sexual através de 14 variáveis morfométricas. Foram analisados 142 espécimes provenientes do estado do Rio Grande do...

  19. Unstructured mesh based multi-physics interface for CFD code coupling in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an unstructured mesh based multi-physics interface implemented in the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code, for the purpose of coupling the neutronics solution to component-scale thermal hydraulics calculations, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The work continues the development of a multi-physics coupling scheme, which relies on the separation of state-point information from the geometry input, and the capability to handle temperature and density distributions by a rejection sampling algorithm. The new interface type is demonstrated by a simplified molten-salt reactor test case, using a thermal hydraulics solution provided by the CFD solver in OpenFOAM. (author)

  20. 中西蛇文化的神话解读%Mythological Interpretation of Serpent in Western and Eastern Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 黄瑛

    2013-01-01

      虽然中西方具有两种不同地域特征、不同生产方式与经济方式,中西方对蛇仍具有相似的神话表达,这是因为特定条件下人类思维方式的一致性:寄希望透过动物实现对自身力量的提升,而对这种动物品行的解读,则是当时人们为当时自身认识和环境条件所限,对自身无法实现的愿望的神话表达。%There have been similar mythological stories with simi-lar mythological symbols about serpent in Western and Eastern myth despite the great differences in geographical features, in productive and economic pattern existing in the two different cul-ture .This similarity may reflect the consistency in human think-ing in specific condition: the ancient people were anxious to achieve some impossible aim of human being through imagination about animal, and serpent is a case in point.

  1. A Place of Transformation: Lessons from the Cosmic Serpent Informal Science Education Professional Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L.; Maryboy, N.; Begay, D.; Stein, J.; Valdez, S.; Paglierani, R.

    2012-08-01

    A cultural disconnect exists between Western scientists and educators and Native communities in terms of scientific worldviews and Indigenous ways of knowing. This cultural disconnect manifests itself in the lack of participation of Native Americans in Western science and a lack of appreciation by Western scientists of Native science. Our NSF-Funded project "Cosmic Serpent: Bridging Native and Western Learning in Museum Settings" set out to provide a way for informal science education practitioners and tribal museum practitioners to learn about these two worldviews in such a way as to inform their educational practice around these concepts. We began with a pilot workshop in year one of this four-year project. We then provided two week-long professional development workshops in three regions within the Western U.S., and culminated with a final conference for all participants. In total, the workshops served 162 participants, including 115 practitioners from 19 tribal museums and 41 science, natural history, and cultural museums; 23 tribal community members; and 24 "bridge people" with knowledge of both Indigenous and Western science. For this article, we focus on the professional and personal transformations around culture, knowledge, science, and worldviews that occurred as a part of this project. We evaluated the collaborative aspects of this grant between the Indigenous Education Institute; the Center for Science Education at the University of California, Berkeley; the Institute for Learning Innovation; Native Pathways; Association for Science and Technology Centers; and the National Museum of the American Indian. Using evaluation results, as well as our personal reflections, we share our learnings from a place of transformation. We provide lessons we learned with this project, which we hope others will find relevant to their own science education work.

  2. Epidemiologia do acidente por serpentes peçonhentas: estudo de casos atendidos em 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados aspectos epidemiológicos de acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com base em prontuários de 322 pacientes e em entrevistas feitas com 209 deles e/ou seus acompanhantes. Os acidentes ocorreram principalmente com pessoas de 10 a 20 anos de idade, do sexo masculino, nos meses de outubro a abril e no período diurno. As regiões anatômicas mais freqüentemente picadas foram os pés, as mãos e as pernas. Bothrops, Crotalus e Micrurus foram responsáveis por, respectivamente, 95,0%, 4,4% e 0,6% dos casos. Não ocorreram óbitos, mas 2,2% dos pacientes apresentaram seqüelas. Dentre os 209 entrevistados, a ocupação de lavrador foi a mais freqüentemente relacionada ao acidente que, em aproximadamente 60% das vezes, ocorreu durante o trabalho. O total de 160 pacientes (76,6% submeteram-se a alguma forma de tratamento antes de chegarem a um serviço de saúde: foram mais comuns o uso de torniquete (50,2%, a expressão local na tentativa de retirar parte do veneno (33,5%, a colocação das mais diversas substâncias sobre o local da picada (36,8% e a ingestão de outras (12,9%; pouco mais de um quarto dos pacientes submeteram-se a alguma forma de tratamento médico antes de chegar ao HVB sendo mais comum a antissepsia (8,2%, a administração do antiveneno (6,2%, de anti-histamínicos (5,7% e de analgésicos (5,3%.

  3. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em serpentes de cativeiro Prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Custório Ruggiero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium é um protozoário encontrado em uma grande variedade de espécies animais como responsável por casos de gastrite e enterite, porém com epidemiologia pouco conhecida em animais silvestres. A presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em lavado gástrico de serpentes mantidas em cativeiro no serpentário do Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta foi realizada uma semana após alimentação, evitando, assim, a regurgitação devido à manipulação. Foram realizados esfregaços do sedimento do lavado gástrico, obtido por centrifugação, corados pela técnica de coloração de Kinyoun. Parte do sedimento foi submetido à técnica de RFLP-PCR para identificação da espécie de Cryptosporidium. O serpentário é dividido em três seções, por espécie - a primeira com oito jibóias (Boa constrictor amarali, a segunda com dez jararacas (Bothropoides jararaca e a última com sete cascavéis (Caudisona durissa. A prevalência de C. serpentis encontrada neste estudo para as serpentes C. durissa, B. jararaca e Boa c. amarali, foi de 57,14% (04/07, 40% (04/10 e 37,5% (03/08, respectivamente, revelando importante ocorrência desse protozoário em serpentes de cativeiro. Apesar da alta prevalência encontrada, apenas as jiboias apresentaram sintomas como perda de peso e regurgitação, refletindo uma sensibilidade diferente da espécie para C. serpentis.Cryptosporidium is a protozoan found in a wide variety of animal species which is responsible for gastritis and enteritis, but its epidemiology is poorly known in wild animals. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in gastric aspirate of captive snakes from the public serpentarium of the Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was performed preferably one week after feeding, thereby preventing regurgitation due to manipulation. Smears were done from the gastric

  4. Determination of the physical parameters of the nuclear subcritical assembly Chicago 9000 of the IPN using the Serpent code; Determinacion de los parametros fisicos del conjunto subcritico nuclear Chicago 9000 del IPN usando el codigo SERPENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga R, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: guten_tag_04@hotmail.com [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    For the Serpent code was developed the three-dimensional model corresponding to the nuclear subcritical assembly (S A) Chicago 9000 of the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN). The model includes: a) the core, formed by 312 aluminum pipes that contain 5 nuclear fuel rods (natural uranium in metallic form), b) the multi-perforated plates where they penetrate the inferior part of each pipe to be able to remain in vertical form, c) water, acting as moderator and reflector, and d) the recipient lodging to the core. The pipes arrangement is hexagonal although the transversal section of the recipient that lodges to the core is circular. The entrance file for the Serpent code was generated with the data provided by the manual of the S A use about the composition and density of the fuel rods and others obtained in direct form of the rods, as the interior and external diameter, mass and height. Of the obtained physical parameters, those more approached to that reported in the manual of the subcritical assembly are the effective multiplication factor and the reproduction factor η. The differences can be because the description of the fuel rods provided by the manual of the S A use do not correspond those that are physically in the S A core. This difference consists on the presence of a circular central channel of 1.245 diameter centimeters in each fuel rod. The fuel rods reported in the mentioned manual do not have that channel. Although the obtained results are encouraging, we want to continue improving the model to incorporate in this the detectors, defined this way by the Serpent code, which could determine the existent neutrons flux in diverse points of interest like the axial or radial aligned points and to compare these with those that are obtained in an experimental way when a generating neutrons source (Pu-Be) is introduced. Added to this effort the cross sections for each unitary cell will be determined, so that

  5. Radionuclide uptake by beaver and ruffed grouse in the Serpent River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide levels were measured in tissues, gut contents, and diet items of adult beaver and ruffed grouse from the Serpent River drainage basin (which contains the city of Elliot Lake) and control sites in Ontario, and in beaver and muskrat fetuses from females taken in the same basin. Levels of radium 226 in beaver bone, muscle and kidney were highest in animals from locations close to uranium tailings; liver levels did not vary by site. Grouse taken near Elliot Lake has higher bone levels of radium 226 than distant controls; levels in other tissues did not vary by site. Environmental radium 226 levels were within ranges previously reported at these or similar locations elsewhere; levels in beaver and grouse gut contents reflected levels in diet items. Fetal beaver tissues had higher radium 226 levels than maternal tissues; fetal liver tissue carried higher levels than other body tissues in general; fetal levels varied with maternal levels but also inversely with fetal size (and thus age). Although muskrat fetal liver had more radium 226 than other tissues, levels were lower than maternal bone levels. In two grouse and two beaver, selected for their higher tissue levels of radium 226, neither thorium 232 nor thorium 230 were detected in bone, muscle, or liver samples, however other radionuclides were measured: uranium 238 in beaver and grouse bone, muscle and liver; thorium 228 in beaver bone and grouse muscle; polonium 210 was found in bone, muscle, and liver of both beaver and grouse sampled (except in one grouse muscle sample); lead 210 was measurable only in beaver bone and in one grouse liver sample. Concentration ratios exceeded unity only between some vegetation items and beaver bone at the Elliot Lake site; between vegetation and other beaver tissues values were never more than 0.19. In grouse, the concentration ratios from trembling aspen leaves to bone was 1.04; from other diet items and to other tissues the values were less than unity. Estimated

  6. Comparative analysis of results between CASMO, MCNP and Serpent for a suite of Benchmark problems on BWR reactors; Analisis comparativo de resultados entre CASMO, MCNP y SERPENT para una suite de problemas Benchmark en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J. V.; Vargas E, S.; Gomez T, A. M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes F, M. del C.; Del Valle G, E., E-mail: vicente.xolocostli@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, UP - Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper a comparison is made in analyzing the suite of Benchmark problems for reactors type BWR between CASMO-4, MCNP6 and Serpent code. The Benchmark problem consists of two different geometries: a fuel cell of a pin and assembly type BWR. To facilitate the study of reactors physics in the fuel pin their nuclear characteristics are provided to detail, such as burnt dependence, the reactivity of selected nuclide, etc. With respect to the fuel assembly, the presented results are regarding to infinite multiplication factor for burning different steps and different vacuum conditions. Making the analysis of this set of Benchmark problems provides comprehensive test problems for the next fuels generation of BWR reactors with high extended burned. It is important to note that when making this comparison the purpose is to validate the methodologies used in modeling for different operating conditions, if the case is of other BWR assembly. The results will be within a range with some uncertainty, considering that does not depend on code that is used. Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN (Mexico) has accumulated some experience in using Serpent, due to the potential of this code over other commercial codes such as CASMO and MCNP. The obtained results for the infinite multiplication factor are encouraging and motivate the studies to continue with the generation of the X S of a core to a next step a respective nuclear data library is constructed and this can be used by codes developed as part of the development project of the Mexican Analysis Platform of Nuclear Reactors AZTLAN. (Author)

  7. 226Ra concentrations in crayfish tissues, water, and sediments from the Serpent River Basin in Northeastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower Serpent River, as well as Elliot, McCarthy and McCabe lakes had highest 226Ra contamination, Chrisman, Quirke and Whiskey lakes a moderate one, Flack and Semiwhite lakes and the 'distant' control, Lake Wanapitei, the lowest. 226Ra activity in Cambarus robustus tissues was directly related to their background levels. Thus, concentration coefficient (tissue/sediment concentrations) for 226Ra ranged from 0.53 to 0.74 in highly contaminated Elliot and McCarthy lakes, 0.28 to 0.59 in moderately contaminated Quirke and Whiskey lakes, and from 0.27 to 3.44 in least contaminated Semiwhite and Flack lakes. Among various organs analysed, exoskeleton showed the highest (43.04 - 90.69%) and the tail muscles the lowest (2.95 -17.14%) 226Ra activity. 226Ra concentrations in the alimentary canal were considered a part of the ambient environment as they had not been absorbed

  8. Comparative analysis of results between CASMO, MCNP and Serpent for a suite of Benchmark problems on BWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a comparison is made in analyzing the suite of Benchmark problems for reactors type BWR between CASMO-4, MCNP6 and Serpent code. The Benchmark problem consists of two different geometries: a fuel cell of a pin and assembly type BWR. To facilitate the study of reactors physics in the fuel pin their nuclear characteristics are provided to detail, such as burnt dependence, the reactivity of selected nuclide, etc. With respect to the fuel assembly, the presented results are regarding to infinite multiplication factor for burning different steps and different vacuum conditions. Making the analysis of this set of Benchmark problems provides comprehensive test problems for the next fuels generation of BWR reactors with high extended burned. It is important to note that when making this comparison the purpose is to validate the methodologies used in modeling for different operating conditions, if the case is of other BWR assembly. The results will be within a range with some uncertainty, considering that does not depend on code that is used. Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN (Mexico) has accumulated some experience in using Serpent, due to the potential of this code over other commercial codes such as CASMO and MCNP. The obtained results for the infinite multiplication factor are encouraging and motivate the studies to continue with the generation of the X S of a core to a next step a respective nuclear data library is constructed and this can be used by codes developed as part of the development project of the Mexican Analysis Platform of Nuclear Reactors AZTLAN. (Author)

  9. Serpentes da área urbana de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: aspectos ecológicos e acidentes ofídicos associados

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Marcos André de; Nogueira Flávia

    1998-01-01

    São apresentadas informações sobre as serpentes da área urbana do Município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, potencialmente causadoras de acidentes ofídicos. As informações estão baseadas em exemplares doados por populares ao Núcleo de Ofiologia Regional de Mato Grosso (Normat) entre 1986 e 1993 e em registros efetuados pelo Centro de Informações Anti-Veneno (Ciave) entre 1988 e 1993, que não fazem referência ao animal causador. Foram catalogadas 37 espécies de serpentes, em 25 gêneros e 3 famílias, c...

  10. Serpentes da área urbana de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: aspectos ecológicos e acidentes ofídicos associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Carvalho

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações sobre as serpentes da área urbana do Município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, potencialmente causadoras de acidentes ofídicos. As informações estão baseadas em exemplares doados por populares ao Núcleo de Ofiologia Regional de Mato Grosso (Normat entre 1986 e 1993 e em registros efetuados pelo Centro de Informações Anti-Veneno (Ciave entre 1988 e 1993, que não fazem referência ao animal causador. Foram catalogadas 37 espécies de serpentes, em 25 gêneros e 3 famílias, com hábitos predominantemente diurnos, terrestres e com dietas baseadas em anfíbios e/ou lagartos. Dentre os 307 acidentes ofídicos registrados, 56% foram causados por serpentes sem interesse médico e 44% constituíram acidentes de importância médica. Cerca de 99% dos acidentes de importância médica foram atribuídos ao gênero Bothrops (Bothrops moojeni e Bothrops neuwiedi seriam as principais causadoras. Dentre as espécies sem interesse médico, Philodryas olfersii e Waglerophis merremii provavelmente foram as principais responsáveis pela maior parte dos acidentes.

  11. Serpentes da área urbana de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: aspectos ecológicos e acidentes ofídicos associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Marcos André de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações sobre as serpentes da área urbana do Município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, potencialmente causadoras de acidentes ofídicos. As informações estão baseadas em exemplares doados por populares ao Núcleo de Ofiologia Regional de Mato Grosso (Normat entre 1986 e 1993 e em registros efetuados pelo Centro de Informações Anti-Veneno (Ciave entre 1988 e 1993, que não fazem referência ao animal causador. Foram catalogadas 37 espécies de serpentes, em 25 gêneros e 3 famílias, com hábitos predominantemente diurnos, terrestres e com dietas baseadas em anfíbios e/ou lagartos. Dentre os 307 acidentes ofídicos registrados, 56% foram causados por serpentes sem interesse médico e 44% constituíram acidentes de importância médica. Cerca de 99% dos acidentes de importância médica foram atribuídos ao gênero Bothrops (Bothrops moojeni e Bothrops neuwiedi seriam as principais causadoras. Dentre as espécies sem interesse médico, Philodryas olfersii e Waglerophis merremii provavelmente foram as principais responsáveis pela maior parte dos acidentes.

  12. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae among recently captured Brazilian snakes Prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae em serpentes recém-capturadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. O'Dwyer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7% were venomous and 103 (43.3% non-venomous snakes. The more numerous venomous species sampled were Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 and Bothrops jararaca (n=17 and non-venomous snakes were Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18, and Waglerophis merremi (n=13. Hepatozoon spp. infection was detected in 39 (16.4% snakes. The prevalence in venomous and non-venomous snakes was 20.0% and 11.7%, respectively. The highest prevalences observed were 38.9% for Boa constrictor amarali, 35.3% for Bothrops jararaca, and 19.4% for Crotalus durissus terrificus.O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência da infecção por Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes recém-capturadas da região de Botucatu, São Paulo. O sangue foi coletado de todas as serpentes por punção da veia caudal. Os esfregaços foram secos ao ar, fixados com metanol e corados com solução de Giemsa a 10%. Examinaram-se 238 serpentes pertencentes a 23 espécies, das quais 135 (56,7% eram venenosas e 103 (43,3% não venenosas. As espécies venenosas mais representativas foram Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 e Bothrops jararaca (n=17 e as não venenosas foram Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18 e Waglerophis merremi (n=13. A infecção por Hepatozoon spp. foi detectada em 39 (16,4% serpentes. As prevalências em serpentes venenosas e não venenosas foram 20,0% e 11,7%, respectivamente. As maiores prevalências foram 38,9% para Boa constrictor amarali, 35

  13. The genera Boiruna and Clelia (serpentes: pseudoboini in Paraguay and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. Scott Jr.

    2006-01-01

    to beyond the 40th parallel.As serpentes dos gêneros pseudoboinos Boiruna e Clelia, este último provavelmente não monofilético, estão distribuídas desde o sul da Argentina, Brasil e Uruguai até o centro do México. Seis de seus membros ocorrem no Paraguai e na Argentina: B. maculata, Clelia bicolor, C. clelia, C. plumbea, C. quimi, e C. rustica. Historicamente, existiram confusões entre as espécies de maior tamanho (B. maculata, C. clelia, C. plumbea e C. rustica e entre as espécies pequenas (C. bicolor e C. quimi. Todas as espécies, exceto C. rustica, possuem mudanças ontogenéticas na sua coloração. As espécies podem ser diferenciadas através do seu tamanho, cor, espinhos do hemipenis, e número de escamas loreais, supralabiais, e ventrais. A maior parte da diferenciação evolutiva em Boiruna e Clelia parecem ter ocorrido na região anterior da cabeça, pelo que mostram as diferentes proporções das escamas da região loreal. Boiruna maculata é a espécie de maior amplitude ecológica; é encontrada na maioria das formações vegetais existentes ao norte do paralelo 38 no centro da Argentina, ausente apenas na região de sedimentos deltaicos da província de Buenos Aires, Argentina, e nos amplos vales e colinas onduladas do leste do Paraguai. Clelia bicolor é mais comum nos vales dos rios Paraguai e Paraná, e com alguns registros na base dos Andes no norte da Argentina. Clelia clelia distribui-se ao longo do Rio Paraguai e do baixo Paraná, e quase todo o leste do Paraguai. Clelia plumbea aparentemente é parapátrida de C. clelia ao longo do rio Paraná no sudeste do Paraguai e na província de Misiones, Argentina. O extremo leste da distribuição de C. quimi limita-se com o extremo oeste da distribuição de C. bicolor na mesma região sem que, aparentemente, haja superposição. Não existe material de referência que prove a presença de Clelia rustica no Paraguai. Na Argentina, ela é uma espécie encontrada em áreas temperadas; ao norte

  14. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations for the AP-1000 NPP with the MCNP6 and SERPENT codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, Giovanni Laranjo; Maiorino, Jose R.; Santos, Thiago A., E-mail: giovanni.laranjo@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: thiago.santos@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais; Rossi, Pedro R., E-mail: pedro.russorossi@gmail.com [FERMIUM - Tecnologia Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The AP-1000 is an evolutionary PWR reactor designed as an evolution of the AP-600 project. The reactor is already pre-licensed by NRC, and is considered to have achieved high standards of safety, possible short construction time and good economic competitiveness. The core is a 17x17 typical assembly using Zirlo as cladding, 3 different enrichment regions, and is controlled by boron, control banks, and burnable poison. The expected fuel final burnup is 62 MWD/ton U and a cycle of 18 months. In this paper we present results for neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations for the AP-1000. We use the MCNP6 and SERPENT codes to calculate the first cycle of operation. The calculated parameters are K{sub eff} at BOL and EOL and its variation with burnup and neutron flux, and reactivity coefficients. The production of transuranic elements such as Pu-239 and Pu-241, and burning fuel are calculated over time. In the work a complete reactor was burned for 450 days with no control elements, boron or burnable poison were considered, these results were compared with data provided by the Westinghouse. The results are compared with those reported in the literature. A simple thermal hydraulic analysis allows verification of thermal limits such as fuel and cladding temperatures, and MDNB. (author)

  15. Avaliação ultrassonográfica do aparelho reprodutor em serpentes vivíparas da família Boidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Garcia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A reprodução faz parte do ciclo de vida dos animais permitindo a perpetuação e a conservação das espécies. Em serpentes, existe uma escassez de informações técnicas a respeito do ciclo reprodutivo. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o aparelho reprodutivo por meio da ultrassonografia em serpentes vivíparas cativas da família Boidae, permitindo diagnosticar as diferentes fases reprodutivas. Foram avaliadas ultrassonograficamente onze serpentes adultas de quatro espécies da família Boidae: Eunectes murinus, Boa constrictor constrictor, Corallus hortulanus e Epicrates cenchria pertencentes ao acervo do Museu Biológico do Instituto Butantan, São Paulo Brasil. Para a avaliação ultrassonográfica, as serpentes foram contidas fisicamente com gancho herpetológico e depois manualmente por aproximadamente 15 minutos. A avaliação foi feita aplicando-se gel acústico sobre a pele e posicionando o transdutor na linha lateral-ventral direita e esquerda, em região medial do corpo em sentido crânio-caudal. O exame ultrassonográfico permitiu avaliar todo o ciclo reprodutivo nas serpentes. Nas avaliações ultrassonográficas das fêmeas pode-se definir as fases de desenvolvimento ovariano e ovidutal. Os folículos ovarianos durante a fase pré-vitelogênica foram visualizados como homogêneos e anecogênicos, em forma de "cacho de uva". Já na fase vitelogênica, os folículos estavam maiores e mais ecogênicos seguidos uns dos outros, como um "colar de pérolas". Quando não houve cópula, os folículos foram reabsorvidos dentro do ovário retornando a fase pré-vitelogênica. Na fase pós ovulatória foram visualizados três estágios bem definidos de desenvolvimento fetal dentro do oviduto: 1 logo após a ovulação (e fecundação, somente o vitelo foi visualizado; 2 o vitelo ocupava 60% e o feto 40% do ovo e 3 o feto estava formado e não havia vitelo. Nos machos, os testículos foram visualizados como uma imagem homogênea e

  16. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Noeli Zanella; Sonia Z. Cechin

    2009-01-01

    A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis ...

  17. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  18. A influência dos ritmos circadianos no metabolismo da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5030 The influence of circadian rhythms on the metabolism of the snake Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade termorreguladora conduziu a uma busca extensiva para o entendimento das correlações entre as variáveis fisiológicas, incluindo as funções metabólicas e a temperatura corporal. Frequentes observações mostram que algumas serpentes podem se aquecer, sendo este aumento de temperatura independente da temperatura ambiente, indicando a termorregulação bem sucedida. Bothrops jararaca foram expostas a dois ambientes com diferentes temperaturas (20 e 30oC durante três semanas, sendo mensuradas a temperatura corporal e o consumo de oxigênio. O aumento da temperatura corporal e consumo de oxigênio de Bothrops jararaca ocorreram na fase de escuro do fotoperíodo, consistente para espécies noturnas. Entretanto, antecedendo a fase de escuro, as serpentes em 20oC apresentaram os níveis mais elevados durante o dia para temperatura corporal e consumo de oxigênio. Estes resultados indicam pela primeira vez que animais termodependentes podem controlar a temperatura corporal por meio de ritmos fisiológicos circadianos, semelhante aos observados em termoindependentes. Os ritmos circadianos permitem que os animais antecipem as mudanças no ambiente: parâmetros fisiológicos como a temperatura corporal e as reservas de energia ou sua mobilização podem ser ajustadas antes que as mudanças ambientais previstas ocorram realmente.The thermoregulatory activity has led to an extensive search for correlations between physiological variables, including metabolic functions, and the ideal level of body temperature. Snakes were also often seen basking, when their body temperatures were relatively independent of ambient temperature, indicating successful thermoregulation. Bothrops jararaca were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30ºC over a time course of three weeks and oxygen consumption and body temperature were measured. The snakes exhibited a freerunning rhythm of body temperature. Metabolic rate was increased at the same

  19. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  20. Pulmonary, microbiological and hematological changes in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae Alterações Pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae parasitadas pelos nematódeos do gênero Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the pulmonary, microbiological, and hematological alterations in Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias. Histological, microbiological, and hematological analysis were performed on parasitized (n=6 and non-parasitized (n=6 snakes. Granulocytic and mononuclear cell infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma and epithelium were also observed during the histological analysis of parasitized snakes. Microbiological analysis of parasitized animals revealed the following Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter divergens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter ammnigenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea sp. and Providencia rettgeri. In non-parasitized snakes, the following species were identified: B. cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Acinetobacter baumanii. Increased levels of plasmatic protein, decreased lymphocyte counts, and normal red blood cell values were observed in parasitized animals.Este trabalho relata as alterações pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitadas pelo nematódeo do gênero Rhabdias. As análises histológicas, microbiológicas e hematológicas foram realizadas em serpentes parasitadas (n=6 e não parasitadas (n=6. Foram observados infiltrados de células granulocíticas e mononucleares no parênquima pulmonar durante a análise histopatológica das serpentes parasitadas. A análise microbiológica revelou as seguintes bactérias Gram-negativas; Citrobacter divergens, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter ammnigenus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pantoea sp. e Providencia rettgeri. Nas serpentes não parasitadas foram identificadas: B. cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens e Acinetobacter baumanii. Nos animais parasitados observaram-se: aumento da concentração de proteína plasmática, diminuição da

  1. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS, pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT, and incidental encounters (IE. During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/observer and 6,468 days/trap were used, respectively. We estimated 23 species of snakes for the locality, although only 19 species were recorded. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 10, Liophis poecilogyrus (Schlegel, 1837 (n = 9, Liophis viridis Günther, 1862 (n = 8 and Thamnodynastes sp. (n = 8 were the most abundant species. Terrestrial, cryptozoic, and diurnal snakes predominated in the assemblage (Boidae = 2 species, Dipsadidae = 12, Colubridae = 2, Elapidae = 1, Viperidae = 2. The results indicate that the fauna of the locality is similar with that of other open formations, especially the Caatinga, corroborating previous floristic studies. Comparisons between snake assemblages analyzed by different authors suggest structural differences between the assemblages of the Cerrado and the Caatinga, contradicting the hypothesis of mixed composition of fauna in these biomes.

  2. Variação morfométrica em Bothropoides jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Rocha Matias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de machos e fêmeas de serpentes nascerem com o mesmo tamanho, as taxas de crescimento e a idade da maturação sexual podem ser diferentes, determinando dimorfismo sexual em estágios posteriores da vida. Avaliamos a ocorrência de variação morfométrica sexual e ontogenética em Bothropoides jararaca (Wied, 1824, explorando as relações entre tamanho corporal e amadurecimento sexual através de 14 variáveis morfométricas. Foram analisados 142 espécimes provenientes do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Os dados morfométricos - comprimento da cabeça, rostro-cloacal, da cauda, comprimento total; largura da cabeça, ocular, nasal, loreal, da cauda; distância ocular-nasal, ocular-loreal, loreal-nasal, ventral-sinfisal e rostral-labial - e comprimento/diâmetro dos folículos ovarianos, foram tomados em milímetros, através de régua simples e paquímetro analógico de precisão 0,05 mm. A determinação sexual foi realizada por inspeção das gônadas. A classificação etária foi associada à maturidade sexual. Para as análises estatísticas foram utilizadas análises de variância (ANOVA com teste de Tukey post hoc, regressão linear e análise discriminante canônica (ADC. A maioria das medidas indicou dimorfismo sexual (ANOVA, P<0,05 apenas em adultos (Tukey, P<0,05. As análises de regressão mostram que o comprimento rostro-cloacal explica o comportamento das demais variáveis (P<0,001 e que em todas as medidas as fêmeas crescem mais que os machos. A ADC foi exitosa em separar as classes sexuais e etárias, apresentando significado biológico, considerando 79,2% dos casos como corretamente classificados.

  3. The Descent of the Serpent: Using a Successful Ancient Solar Observatories Webcast from Chichen Itza to Highlight Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Higdon, R.; Cline, T.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past seven years, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education and public outreach events to highlight NASA's heliophysics research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial events, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus, as well as Sun-Earth Day during the March Equinox, to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium and other museums, Ideum, NASA TV, NASA heliophysics missions, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide and internationally. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. As part of an Ancient Observatories theme in 2005, we have successfully featured solar alignments with ancient structures made by indigenous cultures that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices in cultural and historical parks in the Americas. In partnership with the Exploratorium, we produced broadcast-quality and webcast programming during the March equinox that shared heliophysics within a broad cultural context with formal and informal education audiences internationally. The program: "Descent of the Serpent" featured the light and shadow effect at sunset that takes place during the spring equinox at the Pyramid of El Castillo, in Chichén Itzá (México). This program made unique and authentic cultural connections to the knowledge of solar astronomy of the Maya, the living Mayan culture of today, and the importance of the Sun across the ages. We involved Sun-Earth Connection scientists, their missions, and research

  4. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

    OpenAIRE

    Larice de Fátima Couto; Levi Carina Terribile; José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2007-01-01

    Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da vari...

  5. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  6. Calculations for a BWR Lattice with Adjacent Gadolinium Pins Using the Monte Carlo Cell Code Serpent v.1.1.7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ferraro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo neutron transport codes are usually used to perform criticality calculations and to solve shielding problems due to their capability to model complex systems without major approximations. However, these codes demand high computational resources. The improvement in computer capabilities leads to several new applications of Monte Carlo neutron transport codes. An interesting one is to use this method to perform cell-level fuel assembly calculations in order to obtain few group constants to be used on core calculations. In the present work the VTT recently developed Serpent v.1.1.7 cell-oriented neutronic calculation code is used to perform cell calculations of a theoretical BWR lattice benchmark with burnable poisons, and the main results are compared to reported ones and with calculations performed with Condor v.2.61, the INVAP's neutronic collision probability cell code.

  7. Ève et le serpent, une réécriture chrétienne de la rencontre entre Médée et Jason

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Hecquet-Noti

    2010-01-01

    Quand il décrit la tentation d'Ève par le serpent dans son épopée biblique, L'histoire spirituelle, Avit amplifie considérablement le récit de la Genèse en composant une scène très détaillée du geste fatal à Ève. Un examen attentif de la structure du passage montre que le poète réécrit une scène typique de la poésie érotique classique en se fondant sur les modèles élégiaques, en particulier sur les évocations de la rencontre entre Médée et Jason existant dans la poésie d'Ovide ou de Valérius ...

  8. Serpentes da Bacia petrolífera de Urucu, município de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Snakes of the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Um inventário estruturado de serpentes foi realizado na Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, localizada na Bacia Petrolífera de Urucu, Município de Coari, Amazonas, nos anos de 2003, 2004 e 2007. Nas quatro expedições realizadas (51 dias de coleta foram registradas 47 espécies de serpentes, pertencentes a sete famílias e 33 gêneros. Foram utilizados quatro métodos complementares de amostragem de serpentes: armadilha de interceptação e queda, encontros ocasionais, procura limitada por tempo a pé e procura limitada por tempo de carro. Das 47 espécies coletadas, Liophis reginae (n= 14, Philodryas viridissima (n= 9, Philodryas boulengeri (n= 7 e Oxybelis fulgidus (n= 7 foram as mais abundantes em toda região. O maior número de espécies e espécimes foi registrado pela procura limitada por tempo de carro (52,8%. Estudos anteriores indicam que as localidades ao sul do Rio Amazonas (como região Leste do Pará, Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, e de Samuel, Estado de Rondônia apresentam maior riqueza quando comparadas às regiões ao norte do Amazonas (como Município de Manaus, Reserva do INPA-WWF e Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina, Estado do Amazonas. Desta forma, é possível inferir que o levantamento das serpentes da região de Urucu ainda não esteja completo, sendo necessário um maior esforço de coleta para que novos registros sejam adicionados para a área.A structured snake inventory was carried out at the Base Operacional Geólogo Pedro de Moura (BOGPM, located at the Urucu Petrol Basin, Municipality of Coari, Amazonas, during 2003, 2004 and 2007. Throughout four sampling expeditions (51 collection days, seven species of snakes, belonging to seven families and 33 genera, were recorded. Four complementary sampling methods were used: pitfall traps with drift fence, occasional encounters, time-limited search on foot and time-limited search by car. Of the 47 collected species Liophis reginae (n= 14

  9. Serpentes da área urbana de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: aspectos ecológicos e acidentes ofídicos associados Snakes from the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: ecological aspects and associated snakebites

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos André de Carvalho; Flávia Nogueira

    1998-01-01

    São apresentadas informações sobre as serpentes da área urbana do Município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, potencialmente causadoras de acidentes ofídicos. As informações estão baseadas em exemplares doados por populares ao Núcleo de Ofiologia Regional de Mato Grosso (Normat) entre 1986 e 1993 e em registros efetuados pelo Centro de Informações Anti-Veneno (Ciave) entre 1988 e 1993, que não fazem referência ao animal causador. Foram catalogadas 37 espécies de serpentes, em 25 gêneros e 3 famílias, c...

  10. Use of Serpent Monte-Carlo code for development of 3D full-core models of Gen-IV fast spectrum reactors and preparation of safety parameters/cross-section data for transient analysis with FAST code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current work presents a new methodology which uses Serpent Monte-Carlo (MC) code for generating multi-group beginning-of-life (BOL) cross section (XS) database file that is compatible with PARCS 3D reactor core simulator and allows simulation of transients with the FAST code system. The applicability of the methodology was tested on European Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (ESFR) design with an oxide fuel proposed by CEA (France). The k-effective, power peaking factors and safety parameters (such as Doppler constant, coolant density coefficient, fuel axial expansion coefficient, diagrid expansion coefficients and control rod worth) calculated by PARCS/TRACE were compared with the results of the Serpent MC code. The comparison indicates overall reasonable agreement between conceptually different (deterministic and stochastic) codes. The new development makes it in principle possible to use the Serpent MC code for cross section generation for the PARCS code to perform transient analyses for fast reactors. The advantages and limitations of this methodology are discussed in the paper. (author)

  11. Non-venomous snake bite and snake bite without envenoming in a brazilian teaching hospital: analysis of 91 cases Acidentes por serpentes não-peçonhentas e acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas sem envenenamento em hospital universitário brasileiro: análise de 91 casos

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    Paulo Vitor Portella Silveira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective survey of 473 cases of snake bite admitted to a Brazilian teaching hospital from 1984 to 1990 revealed 91 cases of bite without envenoming and/or caused by non-venomous snakes. In 17 of these cases the snake was identified, and one patient was bitten by a snake-like reptile (Amphisbaena mertensii. In 43 cases diagnosis was made on clinical grounds (fang marks in the absence of signs of envenoming. The other 30 cases were of patients who complained of being bitten but who did not show any sign of envenoming or fang mark. Most cases occurred in men (66;73%, in the 10-19 years age group (26;29%, in the lower limbs (51/74;69%, between 6 A. M. and 2 P.M. (49;61% and in the month of April (16; 18%. One patient bitten by Philodryas olfersii developed severe local pain, swelling and redness at the site of the bite, with normal clotting time. The patient bitten by Drymarcon corais was misdiagnosed as being bitten by a snake of the genus Bothrops, was given the specific antivenom, and developed anaphylaxis. One patient bitten by Sibynomorphus mikanii presented prolonged clotting time, and was also given antivenom as a case of Bothrops bite. Correct identification of venomous snakes by physicians is necessary to provide correct treatment to victims of snake bite, avoiding unnecessary distress to the patient, and overprescription of antivenom, which may eventually cause severe untoward effects.Um levantamento retrospectivo de 473 casos de acidentes ofídicos admitidos em um hospital-escola brasileiro de 1984 a 1990 revelou 91 casos sem envenenamento e/ou causados por serpentes não-peçonhentas. Em 17 casos a serpente foi identificada e um paciente foi mordido por um réptil que se assemelha às serpentes (Amphisbaena mertensii. Em 43 casos o diagnóstico foi clínico (sinal das presas na ausência de sinais de envenenamento. Os demais 30 casos foram de pacientes que se queixavam de terem sido mordidos mas que não apresentavam nem sinal de

  12. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  13. Ève et le serpent, une réécriture chrétienne de la rencontre entre Médée et Jason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Hecquet-Noti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Quand il décrit la tentation d'Ève par le serpent dans son épopée biblique, L'histoire spirituelle, Avit amplifie considérablement le récit de la Genèse en composant une scène très détaillée du geste fatal à Ève. Un examen attentif de la structure du passage montre que le poète réécrit une scène typique de la poésie érotique classique en se fondant sur les modèles élégiaques, en particulier sur les évocations de la rencontre entre Médée et Jason existant dans la poésie d'Ovide ou de Valérius Flaccus. Toutefois, même en pratiquant ce jeu d'intertextualité, le poète se conforme à l'exégèse chrétienne qui apparaît en particulier chez Ambroise de Milan. Enfin, cette description visuellement très détaillée trouve une correspondance dans l'iconographie chrétienne de la scène, elle-même fortement inspirée du mythe profane de Médée et Jason.

  14. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larice de Fátima Couto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente nosudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, é importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação. Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected andattempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establishconservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  15. Fatores associados à incoagulabilidade sangüínea no envenenamento por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Risk factors associated with coagulation abnormalities in Bothrops envenoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer fatores associados à incoagulabilidade sangüínea no envenenamento botrópico, foram obtidas informações de 2.991 prontuários médicos de pacientes atendidos no Instituto Butantan de 1981 a 1990. Associaram-se positivamente à incoagulabilidade sangüínea (p0,05: horário do acidente; presença de presa recém-deglutida no tubo digestivo da serpente; sexo e idade do paciente; ocorrência de bolha, necrose, abscesso e incisão local, amputação, insuficiência renal e óbito. Pode-se concluir que, embora a incoagulabilidade sangüínea apresente associação com manifestações precoces do envenenamento, não tem boa associação com a evolução clínica do paciente.This study aimed at assessing, in the envenoming by Bothrops, factors that are associated with blood incoagulability. Information was obtained from the charts of 2,991 patients admitted to Instituto Butantan, from 1981 to 1990. Factors positively associated with blood incoagulability (p0.05 were: time of the bite; presence of recently swallowed prey in the snake gut; gender and age of the patient; blister, necrosis, and abscess at the bite site; occurrence of amputation, renal failure and death; presence of an incision at the bite site. We conclude that although blood incoagulability is associated with early manifestations of Bothrops envenoming, it is not associated with the clinical outcome.

  16. Comparison of SERPENT and SCALE methodology for LWRs transport calculations and additionally uncertainty analysis for cross-section perturbation with SAMPLER module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarile Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear safety research, the quality of the results of simulation codes is widely determined by the reactor design and safe operation, and the description of neutron transport in the reactor core is a feature of particular importance. Moreover, for the long effort that is made, there remain uncertainties in simulation results due to the neutronic data and input specification that need a huge effort to be eliminated. A realistic estimation of these uncertainties is required for finding out the reliability of the results. This explains the increasing demand in recent years for calculations in the nuclear fields with best-estimate codes that proved confidence bounds of simulation results. All this has lead to the Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs of the NEA. The UAM-Benchmark coupling multi-physics and multi-scale analysis using as a basis complete sets of input specifications of boiling water reactors (BWR and pressurized water reactors (PWR. In this study, the results of the transport calculations carried out using the SCALE-6.2 program (TRITON/NEWT and TRITON/KENO modules as well as Monte Carlo SERPENT code, are presented. Additionally, they have been made uncertainties calculation for a PWR 15 × 15 and a BWR 7 × 7 fuel elements, in two different configurations (with and without control rod, and two different states, Hot Full Power (HFP and Hot Zero Power (HZP, using the TSUNAMI module, which uses the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT, and SAMPLER, which uses stochastic sampling techniques for cross-sections perturbations. The results obtained and validated are compared with references results and similar studies presented in the exercise I-2 (Lattice Physics of UAM-Benchmark.

  17. Serpentes peçonhentas e ofidismo em Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, Estado do Acre, Brasil Venomous snakes and ophidism in Cruzeiro do Sul, Alto Juruá, State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Bernarde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da importância dos acidentes ofídicos na Saúde Pública, são relativamente poucas as pesquisas realizadas sobre esse tema no Brasil. Devido aos poucos estudos sobre ofidismo na Amazônia e especialmente no estado do Acre, trabalhos epidemiológicos são de grande relevância. Esse estudo apresenta a lista de serpentes peçonhentas e aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes ofídicos em Cruzeiro do Sul, região do Alto Juruá (Acre, verificando quais gêneros de serpentes são responsáveis pelos envenenamentos e aspectos que envolvem o acidente e o atendimento hospitalar. Os dados epidemiológicos foram coligidos a partir do SINAN (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação, no setor de vigilância epidemiológica do Hospital Regional do Juruá, no município de Cruzeiro do Sul. Sete espécies de serpentes peçonhentas foram registradas nesse município: três viperídeos (Bothrops atrox, Bothriopsis bilineata e Lachesis muta e quatro elapídeos (Micrurus hemprichii, M. lemniscatus, M. remotus and M. surinamensis. Durante o período de dois anos (agosto de 2007 a julho de 2009 foram registrados 195 casos de acidentes ofídicos. Cinquenta e um por cento dos acidentes foi classificado como laquético (Lachesis, seguido pelo botrópico (Bothrops e Bothriopsis com 38% e crotálico (Crotalus com 2%. Em 9% dos casos o gênero da serpente envolvida não foi informado. A maioria dos acidentes envolveu indivíduos adultos do gênero masculino em área rural, afetados principalmente nos membros inferiores. Os casos ocorreram mais frequentemente nos meses de novembro a abril, coincidindo com os maiores níveis pluviométricos. A maioria dos acidentes foi atribuída equivocadamente à serpente L. muta, tendo sido provavelmente causados por B. atrox.Despite the importance of accidents involving snakebites, research on this theme in Brazil is relatively rare, especially in the Amazon region. Due to the poor number of studies about ophidism

  18. Diet of the colubrid snake, Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858 from Paraná State, Brazil, with field notes on anuran predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARDE P. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 44 specimens of the colubrid snake Thamnodynastes strigatus (Serpentes: Colubridae provided data on food habits. Prey items include frogs (71.4% of the sample, rodents (14.3%, fishes (10.7%, and lizards (3.6%. The most of the anuran species recorded (Bufo sp., Leptodactylus sp., Physalaemus cuvieri and Scinax fuscovarius are ground dwellers or call at the water level. Field observations provided information on the feeding behavior.

  19. Serpentes da área urbana de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: aspectos ecológicos e acidentes ofídicos associados Snakes from the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: ecological aspects and associated snakebites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Carvalho

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentadas informações sobre as serpentes da área urbana do Município de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, potencialmente causadoras de acidentes ofídicos. As informações estão baseadas em exemplares doados por populares ao Núcleo de Ofiologia Regional de Mato Grosso (Normat entre 1986 e 1993 e em registros efetuados pelo Centro de Informações Anti-Veneno (Ciave entre 1988 e 1993, que não fazem referência ao animal causador. Foram catalogadas 37 espécies de serpentes, em 25 gêneros e 3 famílias, com hábitos predominantemente diurnos, terrestres e com dietas baseadas em anfíbios e/ou lagartos. Dentre os 307 acidentes ofídicos registrados, 56% foram causados por serpentes sem interesse médico e 44% constituíram acidentes de importância médica. Cerca de 99% dos acidentes de importância médica foram atribuídos ao gênero Bothrops (Bothrops moojeni e Bothrops neuwiedi seriam as principais causadoras. Dentre as espécies sem interesse médico, Philodryas olfersii e Waglerophis merremii provavelmente foram as principais responsáveis pela maior parte dos acidentes.This study presents data on snakes recorded in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sources of information included specimens captured by local residents (1986-1993 and turned over to the Mato Grosso Regional Ophiological Center (Normat, and data from the Anti-Venom Information Center (Ciave, regarding urban snakebites (1988-1993. Thirty-seven species of snakes from 25 genera and three families were recorded. Diurnal and terrestrial habits predominated, as well as a diet based on amphibians and/or lizards. From a total of 307 snakebites recorded, some 56% were of no clinical importance, caused by non-venomous snakes, whereas 44% were clinically relevant. Approximately 99% of the latter were attributed to vipers of the genus Bothrops, and especially the Bothrops moojeni and Bothrops neuwiedi species The colubrids Philodryas olfersii and Waglerophis merremii were

  20. Acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico associado à acidente ofídico por serpente do gênero bothrops: relato de caso Hemorrhagic stroke related to snakebite by bothrops genus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Silva Machado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar um caso de acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico, associado à acidente ofídico por serpente do gênero bothrops e hipertensão arterial sistêmica grave. Apesar do ofidismo botrópico ser frequente no Estado do Pará, tais associações são incomuns, necessitando de uma abordagem especializada e precoce, visando menores complicações.This research reports a clinical case of hemorrhagic stroke due to envenomation by bothrops snakebite associated with severe hypertension. Although bothrops snakebites are frequent in the State of Pará, such associations are uncommon, requiring specialized and early management to avoid severe complications.

  1. Perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro Serum protein electrophoresis profile of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes Henrique Fonteque

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As serpentes peçonhentas dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus têm sido mantidas em cativeiro visando à extração de venenos para a produção de imunobiológicos. O conhecimento da fisiologia desses animais e as alterações na concentração de proteínas e suas frações séricas são importantes para a identificação precoce de importantes enfermidades que cursam com estados de hipoproteinemia e hiperproteinemia. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a concentração de proteína total e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus (cascavel criadas em cativeiro. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue da veia coccígea ventral de 21 serpentes adultas e sadias, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 de 12 machos com peso médio de 588,89±193,55g, e Grupo 2 de nove fêmeas com peso médio de 708,33±194,04g. A proteína total sérica foi determinada pelo método de refratometria e a eletroforese em gel de agarose. Obtiveram-se valores da proteína total sérica (g/dL de 4,51±0,50 para machos e de 4,82±0,72 para fêmeas, e para machos e fêmeas de 4,64±0,61. Foram identificadas pela eletroforese quatro frações protéicas (g/dL: albumina, a, b, g-globulinas e calculada a relação albumina:globulina. As serpentes fêmeas apresentaram maiores valores para as variáveis, albumina e para a relação albumina/globulina (AG diferindo significativamente (PThe poisonous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Bothrops have been kept in captivity with the purpose of extracting poison for the production of immunobiological. Knowledge of the physiology of these animals and serum proteins concentration changes are important for early identification of major diseases which lead to states of hypoproteinemia and hyperproteinemia. The objective was to determine the concentration of total protein and serum protein electrophoresis profile of Crotalus durissus terrificus (rattlesnake in captivity. Blood samples were taken from

  2. Óbitos por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo: avaliação de 43 casos, 1988/93 Obits by venomous snakes in the State of São Paulo: evaluation of 43 cases from 1988 to 1993

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Ribeiro; M. J. ALBUQUERQUE; V. A.F. Pires de Campos; Katz, G.; N.Y. Takaoka; M.L. Lebrão; M.T. Jorge

    1998-01-01

    São ainda mal estabelecidos os fatores prognósticos para a ocorrência de óbito nos envenenamentos por serpentes e as causas que o determinam. OBJETIVO: Determinar, no envenenamento ofídico, os fatores prognósticos e as causas mais prováveis do óbito. MÉTODOS: No período de 1988 a 1993 foram notificados 12.639 casos de acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo, com 43 óbitos (0,34%). Foram comparadas as variáveis obtidas das fichas de notificação dos acidentes com aquelas dos ...

  3. Reptiles de zonas bajas de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Arias Rafael Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un inventario de reptiles que ocurren por debajo de 1.000 m en el municipio de Yacopí, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se registraron 47 especies (26 Sauria, 19 Serpentes, un Amphisbaenia y un Testudinata, la familia y género más ricos fueron Colubridae y Anolis. La riqueza entre Sauria y  Serpentes fue diferente a la que se encuentra en el país. La fauna se agrupó según su distribución en dos tipos:  Trasandino (al oeste de la cordillera Oriental y Amplio (tanto al este como al oeste de la misma cordillera, los Saurios fueron más numerosos en el primero y las Serpentes en el segundo. Se encontró que la mayoría de reptiles se distribuye entre 0 y 2.000 m.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Zaher

    2009-01-01

    apresenta uma análise filogenética molecular das serpentes avançadas (Caenophidia, realizada com base na análise de seqüências de dois genes mitocondriais (rRNA 12S e 16S e de um gene nuclear (c-mos; 1681 pares de bases no total e com 131 táxons terminais, amostrados a partir das principais linhagens de Caenophidia, com ênfase nos xenodontíneos neotropicais. A análise de parcimônia dos dados mediante otimização direta resultou em uma árvore filogenética bem resolvida que, por um lado, corrobora alguns dos clados identificados em análises anteriores e por outro, estabelece novas hipóteses sobre a composição de outros grupos e do relacionamento entre eles. Os principais resultados obtidos salientam: (1 a alocação de Achrochordus, xenodermatídeos e pareatídeos como grupos externos sucessivos de todos os demais cenofídios (incluindo viperídeos, elapídeos, atractaspidídeos e todos os grupos de "colubrídeos"; (2 que, em relação ao último grupo, viperídeos e homalopsídeos podem ser considerados como clados irmãos dos demais; (3 a existência, dentro do grande grupo dos cenofidia, dos seguintes sub-grupos: psamophiídeos afro-asiáticos (incluindo o gênero Mimophis, de Madagascar, Elapidae (incluindo os hidrophiíneos, mas excluindo Homoroselaps, associado aos atractaspidídeos, Pseudoxyrhophiinae, Colubrinae, Natricinae, Dipsadinae e Xenodontinae. A análise sugere algumas alterações de cunho taxonômico dentro dos xenodontíneos, incluindo realocações genéricas para Alsophis elegans, Liophis amarali e modificações substanciais em relação a Xenodontini e à radiação dos xenodontíneos das Antilhas. Também é a aqui apresentada uma revisão da classificação de Caenophidia, baseada inicialmente nas análises moleculares, mas provendo diagnoses morfológicas para muitos dos clados incluídos, realçando os grupos que ainda merecem atenção especial no futuro. São aqui nomeados originalmente dois grandes clados dentro de Caenophidia

  5. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.145 Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Carina Terribile

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientais analisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente no sudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação.Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected and attempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establish conservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  6. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  7. Caracterização individual do veneno de Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril em função da distribuição geográfica no Brasil (Serpentes,Viperidae Individual characterization of Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril venoms, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 é uma serpente de importância em saúde pública, com ampla distribuição geográfica, desde o Mato Grosso do Sul até o sudeste do Brasil, chegando até a Argentina e Uruguai, ocupando vários domínios morfoclimáticos. Neste trabalho investigou-se a variação do veneno de adultos de Bothrops alternatus, em função de sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil, comparativamente ao veneno elaborado sob a forma de "pool" desta espécie (veneno referência, que inclui serpentes, em sua maioria, da região do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas as atividades letal, coagulante sobre o plasma, proteolítica sobre a caseína e miotóxica, bem como os padrões eletroforéticos de 61 amostras individuais de veneno contrapostas ao "pool". Os resultados mostraram que o veneno de B. alternatus é pouco ativo, comparativamente ao de outros Bothrops Wagler, 1824. A variação individual prevaleceu, não apresentando correlação com as áreas de distribuição geográfica e domínios morfoclimáticos, porém a atividade coagulante das amostras de veneno provenientes do nordeste da distribuição geográfica apresentaram-se menos ativas comparativamente às da porção central da distribuição. Os venenos provenientes das bordas da distribuição apresentaram ações proteolíticas e miotóxicas mais intensas, que estatisticamente não foram significativamente diferentes. As variações individuais prevaleceram.Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 snakebites are an important public health problem in Brazil. Such snakes are found from Mato Grosso do Sul (central Brazil to southeastern Brazil, reaching even Argentina and Uruguay and thereby occupying different morphoclimatic domains. This work investigated venom variation occurring in adult specimens of B. alternatus specimens, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil. The standard venom pool (reference venom produced by

  8. Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidaeparasitando serpentes da família Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sobreira Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10% relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days. Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10% de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para est

  9. Óbitos por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo: avaliação de 43 casos, 1988/93 Obits by venomous snakes in the State of São Paulo: evaluation of 43 cases from 1988 to 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ribeiro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available São ainda mal estabelecidos os fatores prognósticos para a ocorrência de óbito nos envenenamentos por serpentes e as causas que o determinam. OBJETIVO: Determinar, no envenenamento ofídico, os fatores prognósticos e as causas mais prováveis do óbito. MÉTODOS: No período de 1988 a 1993 foram notificados 12.639 casos de acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas no Estado de São Paulo, com 43 óbitos (0,34%. Foram comparadas as variáveis obtidas das fichas de notificação dos acidentes com aquelas dos prontuários e/ou dos relatórios médicos dos casos de óbito. RESULTADOS: O diagnóstico quanto ao gênero da serpente foi realizado em 11.297 acidentes, sendo 9.828 (87% por Bothrops, 1.359 (12% por Crotalus e 110 (1% por Micrurus, e em 41 casos de óbito, sendo 28 (68,3% por Bothrops e 13 (31,7% por Crotalus (p0,05. Tinham 50 anos ou mais 15,9% dos pacientes picados e 41,8% daqueles que faleceram (pThe prognostic factors and the causes for obit occurrence in ophidian envenoming are yet not completely clear. PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic factors and the most probable causes for obit occurrence in ophidian envenoming. METHODS: In the State of São Paulo were notified 12,639 cases of accidents by venomous snakes from 1988 to 1993. There were 43 deaths (0.34%. The variables from the accident notification reports were compared with the promptuary notes and/or with the death records (in lethal cases. RESULTS: The snake genus was classified in 11,297 accidents and in 41 from the lethal ones. Bothrops was responsible for 9,828 (87% accidents and 28 (68.3% deaths, Crotalus for 1,359 (12.0% accidents and 13 deaths (31.7% and Micrurus for 110 (1% accidents and no death (p 0.05. Regarding to age, 15.9% of the patients and 41.8% of the ones who died were 50 years-old or more (p<0.05. The most frequently bitten anatomic regions were: foot (42.2%, hand (20.6%, leg (17.6%, and ankle (13.1% in the accidents, and foot (35.7% and leg (35.7% in the

  10. Snakes, rotators, serpents and the octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific configurations of horizontal and vertical bending magnets are given that, when acting on the spin polarization vector of a particle beam, generate a group of 24 operators isomorphic to the group of rotational symmetries of a cube, known as the octahedral group. Some of these configurations have the feature of converting transversely polarized beams to longitudinally polarized beams (or vice versa) at the midpoint of the configuration for, in principle, all beam energies. Since the first order optical transfer matrix for each half of these configurations is nearly that of a drift region, the external geometry remains unchanged and midpoint dispersion is not introduced. Changing field strengths and/or polarities allows a configuration to serve as either a Snake(1/sup st/ or 2/sup nd/ kind) or a Rotator, where in both cases the spin polarization is longitudinal at the midpoint. In this conceptualization, emphasis has been placed on electron beams and, indeed, for these beams some practical applications can be envisioned. However, due to the relatively high integrated field strengths required, application of these concepts to proton beams may be more promising

  11. Snakes, rotators, serpents and the octahedral group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieguth, T.

    1986-04-01

    Specific configurations of horizontal and vertical bending magnets are given that, when acting on the spin polarization vector of a particle beam, generate a group of 24 operators isomorphic to the group of rotational symmetries of a cube, known as the octahedral group. Some of these configurations have the feature of converting transversely polarized beams to longitudinally polarized beams (or vice versa) at the midpoint of the configuration for, in principle, all beam energies. Since the first order optical transfer matrix for each half of these configurations is nearly that of a drift region, the external geometry remains unchanged and midpoint dispersion is not introduced. Changing field strengths and/or polarities allows a configuration to serve as either a Snake(1/sup st/ or 2/sup nd/ kind) or a Rotator, where in both cases the spin polarization is longitudinal at the midpoint. In this conceptualization, emphasis has been placed on electron beams and, indeed, for these beams some practical applications can be envisioned. However, due to the relatively high integrated field strengths required, application of these concepts to proton beams may be more promising.

  12. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  13. Nueva localidad para Phylodryas aestivus subcarinatus Boulenger, 1902 (Reptilia: colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cordella, Carlos Enrique

    1989-01-01

    Durante una recorrida realizada el 24 de abril de 1986 en la Reserva de Fauna "Laguna La Felipa" ubicada a 12 km de la localidad de Ucacha, departamento de Juárez Celman, provincia de Córdoba, se capturó un ejemplar de Philodryas aestivus. El individuo, una hembra adulta de 1434 mm de longitud total, se encontraba en un "totoral" (Totora latifolia) cercano al agua.

  14. 舞动的古朴魅影,腾飞的自然文明——从文学地理学的角度解读《羽蛇》%Aged Phantom Dancing,Natural Civilization Rising:an Interpretation of The Plumed Serpent from the Perspective of Literary Geography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄文泉; 林敏钟

    2011-01-01

    作为一种新的文学研究方法,从文学地理学角度研究文学与从伦理学、政治学或者是宗教学的角度研究文学具有同等重要的意义。通过细读文本,从文学地理学中自然地理景观和民俗风情的视角来解读劳伦斯的作品《羽蛇》,可以发现:劳伦斯对自然的崇尚,对人与自然和谐关系的推崇,以及对西方基督教文明的公然反抗。他主张在思想上的求新和在精神上对自由的追求,并且主张在人民生活中去寻找自我。%As a new literary criticism methodology,geographic perspective on the literature has equal value with the ethical criticism,political criticism and the religious criticism.Through carefully analyzing the text and interpreting Lawrence's novel The Plumed Serpent from the perspectives of the natural geographic landscape and the local customs in literary geography,we can found that Lawrence respects the nature,advocates the harmonious relationship between the nature and human beings and avowedly react against the western Christian civilization.In addition,he lays claim to the creativity of thoughts and the pursuit of free spirit,and lay stress on seeking selfhood in people's life.

  15. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming Picada por Philodryas patagoniensis e envenenamento local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educational efforts to make doctors and health workers capable to identify correctly venomous snakes are necessary, to avoid inappropriate indication of antivenom and decrease the risk of its potentially harmful untoward effects. Examination of the bite site can be useful to the differential diagnosis between pit viper and colubrid bites.Um menino de 5 anos de idade foi picado por um espécime de Philodryas patagomensis, uma serpente colubrídea tida como não peçonhenta, tendo apresentado sinais de envenenamento local caracterizados por edema e calor. Esta é a primeira vez que se descreve que Philodryas patagoniensis pode causar envenenamento local. Com base nos achados clínicos e na identificação errônea da serpente, o paciente foi tratado como vítima de acidente botrópico, tendo recebido antiveneno específico. São necessários esforços para proporcionar a médicos e outros profissionais da área de saúde informações para o reconhecimento de serpentes peçonhentas, o que evitaria o uso inapropriado de antiveneno e seus potenciais efeitos adversos. Exame do local da picada pode ser útil para o diagnóstico diferencial entre serpentes da subfamilia Crotalinae (peçonhentas e da familia Colubridae.

  16. Notas sobre predação em uma taxocenose de anfíbios anuros no sudeste do Brasil Predation notes in an anuran amphibians assemblage from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Pombal Jr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anfíbios anuros são predados por todos os grupos de vertebrados e muitos invertebrados. Todavia os estudos sobre predação em anfíbios anuros ainda são esparsos e anedóticos. Neste estudo são fornecidas informações sobre predação de anuros de uma assembléia no sudeste do Brasil. Invertebrados (aranhas e barata d’agua, a rã Leptodactylus cf. ocellatus e cinco espécies serpentes (quatro Colubridae e um Viperidae predaram espécies ou indivíduos de pequeno porte.Anuran amphibians are preyer by all vertebrate groups and several invertebrates. However, predation studies on amphibians are still occasional and anecdotic. Herein, informations on predation of an anuran assemblage of southeastern Brazil are provided. Invertebrates (spiders and water bugs, the frog Leptodactylus cf. ocellatus, and five snake species (four Colubridae and one Viperidae preyer on small individuals or small anuran species.

  17. Serpentized mantle at rifted margins: The Goban Spur example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, A. D.; Minshull, T. A.

    2002-12-01

    The crustal structure of rifted continental margins can tell us about the processes that operated from continental extension to eventual break-up and sea floor spreading. Variations between margins may record different processes operating during extension or indicate changes in the external geological controls such as mantle plume influence. Extension between Europe and North America began in the mid Cretaceous, dated at the Goban Spur-Flemish Cap rift as late Hauterivian-early Barremian (126-128 Ma) from deep sea drilling (DSDP leg 80) results on the Goban Spur margin. Marine magnetic anomaly 34 can be identified clearly on both margins and indicates that sea floor spreading began no later than 83 Ma. Syn-rift volcanism is limited to a 20 km basaltic body, with considerable lateral extent, at the foot of the continental slope, emplaced at the end of continental rifting. \

  18. American bishops on deterrence - wise as serpents: innocent as doves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, F.X.

    The bishops' deliberations and conclusions on the morality of nuclear deterrence may have been prompted by the political skill and unity the Catholic Church achieved over the abortion issue. The author examines the bishops' evaluation of modern war and their distinction between the use and the possession of strategic weapons. The political impact of the bishops' challenge has been supportive of the coalition against first use, a policy which no prominent US official has embraced. The bishops go beyond a no first use policy, however, to condemn even retaliatory use of nuclear weapons. This requires a radical reversal to conventional defense strategies, but the bishops endorse a continued nuclear arsenal until the superpowers achieve verifiable arms reductions. The author suggests that the subtlety and innocence of their proposal may make it politically irrelevant. 11 references. (DCK)

  19. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabirot, Marianne; Picerno, Pablo; Valencia, Jorge; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, José

    2012-12-01

    Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals) that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates), although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species. PMID:23342514

  20. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

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    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  1. Fear the serpent: A psychometric study of snake phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polák, Jakub; Sedláčková, Kristýna; Nácar, David; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2016-08-30

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from specific phobias. Almost any stimulus may trigger a phobic reaction, but snakes are among the most feared objects. Half of the population feel anxious about snakes and 2-3% meet the diagnostic criteria for snake phobia. Despite such a high ratio, only one instrument is commonly used, the Snake Questionnaire (SNAQ). The aim of this study was to develop a standardized Czech translation, describe its psychometric properties and analyze the distribution of snake fears. In a counter-balanced design 755 respondents were asked to complete the English and Czech SNAQ (first or last) with a 2-3 month delay; 300 of them completed both instruments. We found excellent test-retest reliability (0.94), although the total scores differed significantly when the English version was administered first. The mean score was 5.80 and Generalized Linear Models revealed significant effects of sex and field of study (women and people with no biology education scored higher than men and biologists). A cut-off point for snake phobia as derived from a previous study identified 2.6% of the subjects as phobic. Finally, the score distribution was similar to other countries supporting the view that fear of snakes is universal. PMID:27280527

  2. Accidents caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides in the State of Paraiba: epidemiological and clinical aspects Acidentes causados por serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Bothropoides no Estado da Paraíba: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

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    Fagner Neves Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bothrops and Bothropoides snakes cause 70% of the ophidic accidents in Brazil. The species that cause ophidic accidents in State of Paraíba are Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus and Bothropoides neuwiedi. METHODS: This is a prospective and transverse study, following a quantitative approach of accidents involving Bothrops and Bothropoides admitted to the Toxicological Assistance and Information Centers of Campina Grande and João Pessoa (Ceatox-CG and Ceatox-JP, aimed at identifying the epidemiological and clinical profile of such accidents. All of the patients admitted had medical diagnoses and were monitored at Ceatox-CG or Ceatox-JP. RESULTS: The genera Bothrops and Bothropoides caused 91.7% of the ophidic accidents reported. Snake bites were frequent in men (75.1%, rural workers (65.1%, literate individuals (69% between 11 and 20 years-old (21.7%, and toes the most common area attacked (52.7%. Most (86.6% patients were admitted within 6 hours after the accident/bite, with a predominance of mild cases (64.6%. The annual occurrence in Paraíba was 5.5 accidents/100,000 inhabitants and lethality was 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Positive changes in the profiles of these accidents were verified, such as the non-application of inadequate solutions, including the use of tourniquet, coffee grounds, garlic, suction and/or cutting the bitten area. Moreover, the Itinerant Laboratory project, linked to Paraíba State University in partnership with Ceatox-CG, has contributed positively, providing several cities of the state with information regarding the prevention of accidents involving venomous animals. The local press has also contributed, reporting the educational work developed by the centers.INTRODUÇÃO: As serpentes Bothrops e Bothropoides são responsáveis por 70% dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos no Brasil. As espécies causadoras de acidentes na Paraíba são Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus e Bothropoides neuwiedi

  3. Report of a bite by the South American colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Squamata: Colubridae

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    María Elisa Peichoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the bite of Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862, a 29-year-old male herpetologist developed localized and burning pain, and minimal bleeding from the puncture marks of posterior maxillary teeth, which subsided rapidly. The victim developed no other local signs or symptoms. After few days the victim presented persistent severe rotatory dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. On examination his hearing was normal. Neurological exam was otherwise normal. The patient had acute vertiginous symptoms but had no associated neurological signs. Computed tomography did not show abnormality. A diagnosis of labyrinthine syndrome was made. It was treated conservatively, and the patient recovered uneventfully. It was assumed as an effect of ophitoxemia. This case may be regarded as an unusual presentation of systemic envenoming following a human bite by Philodryas olfersii latirostris.

  4. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile. PMID:23644784

  5. Phylogeny of the genus Rhynchocalamus (Reptilia; Colubridae) with a first record from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmíd, Jiří; Martínez, Gabriel; Gebhart, Jurgen; Aznar, Javier; Gállego, Javier; Göçmen, Bayram; De Pous, Philip; Tamar, Karin; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The genus Rhynchocalamus comprises three species distributed in Southwest Asia. Little is known about them, most probably because of their secretive fossorial lifestyle. The poor knowledge of the genus is even underscored by the fact that its phylogenetic affinities remained unclear until very recently. The least known of the species, Rhynchocalamus arabicus, is known only from the holotype collected in Aden, Yemen, and it has not been observed since its description in 1933. Here we provide a second record for this species, which represents the first record of this genus for Oman. This extends its range in southern Arabia by more than 1000 km. The observed specimen was determined as R. arabicus on the basis of its similarity in size, color, and scalation with the holotype. Furthermore, we sequenced three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, cytb) and one nuclear (cmos) genes for R. arabicus and for two individuals of R. melanocephalus and one R. satunini and inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all currently recognized species of the genus for the first time. The results of our phylogenetic analyses indicate that Rhynchocalamus is a member of the Western Palearctic clade of Colubrinae and is sister to Lytorhynchus, with which it forms a very well supported clade and shares some morphological characters. As our results show, R. satunini is the basal lineage of the genus and R. melanocephalus is sister to R. arabicus. PMID:26624412

  6. A new species of the genus Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from coastal southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilieva, Anna B

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Oligodon from the coastal area of Binh Chau-Phuoc Buu Nature Reserve, Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, southern Vietnam, is described. Oligodon arenarius sp. nov. is distinguishable from all other species by the unique combination of the following characters: medium size; 17 dorsal scale rows; 6-8 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; head scalation lacking a loreal but usually including a presubocular; divided nasal; two postoculars; 131-144 ventrals; 36-60 subcaudals; unforked hemipenis, without spines or obvious papillae; sexual dimorphism displayed in the number of subcaudals (36-40 in females, 58-60 in males) and a relative tail length, tails being quite long in males (TaL/TL = 0.26-0.28) and moderate in females (TaL/TL = 0.13-0.17); head coloration pattern including ocular band, temporal bands and chevron-shaped mark on nape; dorsal coloration without distinct pattern, uniform or with dark speckling; ventrals pinkish in life, immaculate. To date, this species appear to be endemic to Vietnam. PMID:26701520

  7. A new species of the genus Opisthotropis Gunther, 1872 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Guangdong Province, China.

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    Yang, Jian-huan; Sung, Yik-hei; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2013-01-01

    A new natricid snake of the genus Opisthotropis Gunther, 1872, Opisthotropis laui sp. nov., is described from Mt. Gudou, Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other congeners by the combination of the following characters: dorsal scales weakly keeled throughout, in 25:23:23 rows; 10 supralabials; 11 infralabials; two internasals, longer than wide, not touching the loreal; one loreal, not touching the eye; one preocular; two postoculars; one anterior temporal scale; 152 ventrals; 53 subcaudals; body and tail dark olive above, with light yellow crossbars. PMID:26213766

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lycodon flavozonatum and implications for Colubridae taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Wu, Jun; Qian, Lifu; Pan, Tao; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-09-01

    Lycodon flavozonatum, a species of Colubcridae family, is mainly inhabited in hilly region of forest in South China, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam. In this study, the complete mtDNA of L. flavozonatum is 17 172 bp long, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA (12S and 16S rRNA), and two control regions and a stem-loop region. Most of these genes are encoded in the H-strand; only ND6, stem-loop and other nine tRNA genes are on the L-strand. The phylogenetic tree among the 14 Serpentiformes species was divided into three major clade; Lycodon makes up the first clade, which showed a sister relationship to the second clade, Elaphe; Hypsiglena forms the third clade and is sister to Lycodon and Elaphe. And the species of L. flavozonatum which we studied belongs to the first clade. PMID:26195217

  9. The Terminal and Vomeronasal Nerves of Montpellier Snake, Malpolon monspessulana (Colubridae, Ophidia, Squamata

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    Omar A. R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The montpellier snake, Malpolon monspessulana, used in the current work in order to study the nervi terminalis and vomeronasalis. The vomeronasal organ or Jacobson’s organ is a part of the olfactory apparatus. This organ is innervated by the terminal and vomeronasal nerves. These nerves emerge from the sensory epithelium of Jacobson’s organ simultaneously. The bundles of the terminal and vomeronasal nerves traverse together the cavity of the nasal capsule in their way to the brain. These nerves bear scattered ganglionic cells which represent the ganglion terminale. They leave the capsule through the foramen olfactorium advehens. The terminal and vomeronasal nerves are connected with the olfactory nerve and enter the olfactory formation of the forebrain.

  10. Do changing moisture levels during incubation influence phenotypic traits of hatchling snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Phenotypic traits (e.g., size, strength, speed) of hatchlings in many reptile species are influenced by hydric conditions in the nest. Previous experiments have focused on comparisons between eggs maintained under constant (but different) conditions, but eggs in natural nests frequently experience strong temporal shifts in soil water content during incubation. Keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii) in the Australian wet-dry tropics nest over most of the year, so early nests experience decreasing water availability during development, late nests experience increases, and others (midyear) remain stable in this respect. We mimicked these three conditions and incubated 54 eggs (nine from each of six clutches) in a split-clutch design to maintain the same average water content but with differing trajectories through incubation. The experimental treatments significantly affected the total amount of water taken up by the eggs (and thus final egg mass), but incubation periods were unaffected. Hatchling size but not strength showed minor but statistically significant effects of incubation regimes. The ability of keelback eggs to take up excess water whenever it becomes available (either early or late in development) and to retain it even when conditions change buffers embryogenesis effectively (but not completely) against fluctuations in soil water conditions. PMID:15957107

  11. Environ: E00517 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00517 Colubridae slough (China) Crude drug Elaphe taeniurus, Elaphe carinata [TAX:74364], Dinodon rufozon...atum [TAX:74361], Zaocys dhumnades [TAX:8587] Colubridae Elaphe taeniurus, Elaphe carinata, Dinodon rufozon

  12. Phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of two Mediterranean snakes, Malpolon monspessulanus and Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Squamata, Colubridae), using mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, S; Arnold, E N; Pleguezuelos, J M

    2006-08-01

    Variation in 815bp of mitochondrial DNA from two gene fragments (300bp of cytochrome b and 395-515bp of 12S rRNA) for 26 Malpolon monspessulanus, and cytochrome b for a further 21 individuals, indicates that this species originated in the Maghreb area of Northwest Africa. Here, an estimated 3.5-6Mya, it divided into the western M. m. monspessulanus, and an eastern clade including M. m. insignitus and M. m. fuscus. The very limited genetic differentiation between Maghreb and Southwest European populations of this form suggests that it arrived in the Iberian Peninsula only recently. Population genetics and demographic tests indicate subsequent expansion in this area around 83,000-168,000 year ago. Because present populations of Malpolon arrived recently, mid-Pliocene and at least some Pleistocene fossils of the genus Malpolon in Southwest Europe are probably derived from an earlier invasion from the Maghreb, possibly as early as the end of the Miocene period, 5.3-5.9Mya, when there was a temporary land bridge across the site of the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea desiccated. The descendants of this earlier invasion must have eventually become extinct, perhaps during one of the Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast to the western M. m. monspessulanus, the greater genetic divergence found in the eastern clade of M. monspessulanus suggests that it dispersed at an earlier date and probably over a longer period, spreading eastwards through northern Libya and Egypt to Syria, Iraq, and Iran, and around the Mediterranean Sea through Turkey into the Aegean archipelagos and the Balkan peninsula. The western and eastern units of M. monspessulanus have different dorsal color pattern, differences in skull structure and exhibit an 8.4% uncorrected genetic divergence in the combined gene fragments investigated here. It is consequently recommended that they should be treated as separate species: M. monspessulanus (sensu stricto) and Malpolon insignitusstat. nov., the latter including the subspecies Malpolon insignitus fuscuscomb. nov. The same combined mitochondrial gene fragments used in Malpolon were investigated in 20 individuals of Hemorrhois hippocrepis, and of cytochrome b alone in a further 17. They indicate that this species also originated in the Maghreb and again invaded the Iberian Peninsula quite recently. Some of the most recent invasions of the Iberian Peninsula by reptiles and amphibian taxa could probably be anthropogenic in origin. Some other species including M. monspessulanus and H. hippocrepis, may have crossed naturally, by "hopping" across the Strait of Gibraltar via temporary islands on the shallowest parts that were exposed during sea-level fall associated with Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:16679033

  13. A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand. PMID:24943413

  14. Report of a bite by the South American colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Squamata: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    María Elisa Peichoto; Jorge Abel Céspedez; Juan Antonio Pascual

    2007-01-01

    Following the bite of Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862, a 29-year-old male herpetologist developed localized and burning pain, and minimal bleeding from the puncture marks of posterior maxillary teeth, which subsided rapidly. The victim developed no other local signs or symptoms. After few days the victim presented persistent severe rotatory dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. On examination his hearing was normal. Neurological exam was otherwise normal. The patient had ...

  15. Description and phylogeny of three new species of Synophis (Colubridae, Dipsadinae) from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Echevarría, Lourdes Y.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Germán Chávez; Camper, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of three new species of Synophis snakes from the eastern slopes of the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru is reported. All previous records of Synophis bicolor from eastern Ecuador correspond to Synophis bogerti sp. n., which occurs between 1000–1750 m along a large part of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. In contrast, Synophis zamora sp. n. is restricted to southeastern Ecuador, including Cordillera del Cóndor, between 1543–1843 m. Synophis insulomontanus sp. n. is from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central and northern Peru, between 1122–1798 m, and represents the first record of Synophis from this country. All three new species share in common a large lateral spine at the base of the hemipenial body. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on three mitochondrial genes is presented, including samples of Diaphorolepis wagneri. Our tree strongly supports Synophis and Diaphorolepis as sister taxa, as well as monophyly of the three new species described here and Synophis calamitus. Inclusion of Synophis and Diaphorolepis within Dipsadinae as sister to a clade containing Imantodes, Dipsas, Ninia, Hypsiglena and Pseudoleptodeira is also supported. PMID:26798310

  16. A new species of blunt-headed vine snake (Colubridae, Imantodes from the Chocó region of Ecuador

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Imantodes from the Chocó region of northwestern Ecuador. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners in lacking a loreal scale. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Imantodes based on two mitochondrial genes, and postulate that the new species and I. lentiferus are sister taxa. A key to the species of Imantodes from Ecuador is presented.

  17. A new species of blunt-headed vine snake (Colubridae, Imantodes) from the Chocó region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H; Quirola, Diego; Eric N Smith; Almendáriz, Ana

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of Imantodes from the Chocó region of northwestern Ecuador. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners in lacking a loreal scale. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Imantodes based on two mitochondrial genes, and postulate that the new species and Imantodes lentiferus are sister taxa. A key to the species of Imantodes from Ecuador is presented. PMID:23275746

  18. A new species of kukri snake (Squamata: Colubridae: Oligodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Nguyen, Vu Dang Hoang; Le, Son Hong; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new kukri snake, Oligodon condaoensis sp. nov., from Con Dao Islands, southern Vietnam based on the morphological characters of four specimens. It differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: medium size in adults (total length up to 552 mm); 17-17-15 dorsal scale rows; deeply forked hemipenes without spines and papillae, extending to subcaudal 13 or 14; 11-13 maxillary teeth, the posterior three being enlarged; cloacal plate undivided; head scalation complete; nasal divided; presubocular absent; 168-176 ventrals; 33-37 subcaudals; overall dorsal coloration dark gray, faint body stripes present or absent; and ventral coloration cream to dark gray without rectangular blotches. We also provide a list of 43 species of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles recorded from Con Dao Islands. PMID:27470803

  19. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes of the oviparous kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula (Colubridae) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    In reptilian sauropsids, fetal (extraembryonic) membranes that line the eggshell sustain developing embryos by providing for gas exchange and uptake of water and eggshell calcium. However, a scarcity of morphological studies hinders an understanding of functional specializations and their evolution. In kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula), scanning electron microscopy reveals two major fetal membranes: the chorioallantois and yolk sac omphalopleure. In early development, the chorioallantois contains tall chorionic epithelial cells, avascular connective tissue, and enlarged allantoic epithelial cells. During its maturation, the chorionic and allantoic epithelia thin dramatically and become underlain by a rich network of allantoic capillaries, yielding a membrane ideally suited for respiratory gas exchange. Yolk sac development initially is like that of typical lizards and snakes, forming an avascular omphalopleure, isolated yolk mass (IYM), and yolk cleft. However, unlike the situation in most squamates studied, the omphalopleure becomes transformed into a "secondary chorioallantois" via three asynchronous events: flattening of the epithelium, regression of the IYM, and vascularization by the allantois. Progressive expansion of chorioallantois parallels growing embryonic needs for gas exchange. In early through mid-development, external surfaces of both the chorionic and omphalopleure epithelium show an abundance of irregular surface protrusions that possibly increase surface area for water absorption. We postulate that the hypertrophied allantoic epithelial cells produce allantoic fluid, a viscous substance that facilitates water uptake and storage. Our findings are consistent with a previous study on the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, but include new observations and novel functional hypotheses relevant to a reconstruction of basal squamate patterns. PMID:26335135

  20. Uma nova espécie do gênero Atractus wagler, 1928 (Colubridae: Dipsadinae do Cerrado do Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atractus edioi sp. n. é descrita para a região da usina hidrelétrica Cana Brava, localizada no extremo norte do Estado de Goiás, município de Minaçu, dentro dos limites do ecossistema Cerrado no Brasil Central. Esta espécie se distingue das outras espécies de Atractus pela combinação da fórmula temporal 1+1, 5 supralabiais, supralabiais 2-3 margeando a órbita, 6 infralabiais, infralabiais 1-3 em contato com as gulares anteriores, 15 escamas nas fileiras dorsais e um padrão de coloração dorsal de manchas escuras sobre um fundo marrom-claro.Atractus edioi sp. n. is described from the region of the Cana Brava hydroelectric power plant, located on the extreme northern state of Goiás, municipality of Minaçu, within the limits of the Cerrado ecosystem of Central Brazil. It can be distinguished from other Atractus by the combination of a temporal formula 1+1, 5 supralabials, supralabials 2-3 bordering the orbit, 6 infralabials, infralabials 1-3 in contact with the anterior genials, 15 dorsal scales rows and a color pattern of dark colored spots on a ground color of the body.

  1. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  2. [Toxicity and neutralization of venoms from Peruvian snakes of the genera Bothrops and Lachesis (Serpentes: Viperidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incio Ruiz, R; Incio Ruiz, L; Martínez-Vargas, A Z; Salas Arruz, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1993-12-01

    The lethal potencies (Median Lethal Dose) of the venoms of Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops pictus and Lachesis muta muta) were determined in mice by using intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection. In addition, the neutralizing ability of three antivenoms (bothropic polyvalent, bothropic bivalent and lachetic) was studied by preincubation-type experiments. B. pictus venom had the highest lethality by the intraperitoneal route whereas B. atrox venom had the highest lethality when tested by the intravenous route. The three antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality of the homologous venoms. Bivalent antivenom was more effective than polyvalent antivenom in the neutralization of B. pictus venom. On the basis of these findings, the use of bivalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the Pacific coastal regions of Perú, whereas polyvalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the oriental jungle regions of the country. PMID:7701074

  3. Phylogenetic position, origin and biogeography of Palearctic and Socotran blind-snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilios, P; Giokas, S; Lymberakis, P; Sindaco, R

    2013-07-01

    The majority of the family Typhlopidae occurs in the Neotropic, Australasian, Indo-Malayan and Afrotropic ecoregions. They show a restricted distribution in the western Palearctic, where they include few native species, i.e. Rhinotyphlops simoni, R. episcopus and Typhlops vermicularis. A unique species among typhlopids is T. socotranus, found in Socotra, one of the most endemic-rich archipelagoes. In this study we determine the phylogenetic position of the above mentioned species and discuss their systematics, origin and biogeography. For this purpose we use three protein-coding nuclear markers (AMEL-amelogenin, BDNF-brain-derived neurotrophic factor and NT3-neurotrophin 3) to construct a time-calibrated phylogeny of the family Typhlopidae. Our results show that T. socotranus is a sister-species to T. vermicularis, while R. simoni and R. episcopus are sister-species to each other and are found within the African clade of the family, although they are geographically distributed in west Asia. Additionally we discuss several hypotheses on their origin, as well as the occurence of typhlopids in Eurasia. PMID:23523862

  4. A nesting of vipers: Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Peppin, Lindsay; Pook, Catharine E; Walker, Daniel E

    2008-11-01

    Despite their medical interest, the phylogeny of the snake family Viperidae remains inadequately understood. Previous studies have generally focused either on the pitvipers (Crotalinae) or on the Old World vipers (Viperinae), but there has been no comprehensive molecular study of the Viperidae as a whole, leaving the affinities of key taxa unresolved. Here, we infer the phylogenetic relationships among the extant genera of the Viperidae from the sequences of four mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, NADH subunit 4, 16S and 12S rRNA). The results confirm Azemiops as the sister group of the Crotalinae, whereas Causus is nested within the Viperinae, and thus not a basal viperid or viperine. Relationships among the major clades of Viperinae remain poorly resolved despite increased sequence information compared to previous studies. Bayesian molecular dating in conjunction with dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests an early Tertiary origin in Asia for the crown group Viperidae, and rejects suggestions of a relatively recent, early to mid-Tertiary origin of the Caenophidia. PMID:18804544

  5. Nuevos registros de Philodryas agassizii (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro, Diego Omar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se documenta por primera vez la presencia de Philodryas agassizii para la provincia de Mendoza y se reportan nuevas localidades que extienden su rango de distribución en la provincia de La Pampa, República Argentina.

  6. Nuevos registros de Philodryas agassizii (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, Diego Omar; Christie, Miguel; Williams, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    En esta nota se documenta por primera vez la presencia de Philodryas agassizii para la provincia de Mendoza y se reportan nuevas localidades que extienden su rango de distribución en la provincia de La Pampa, República Argentina.

  7. Two new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Cruz, Roy Santa; Cárdenas, Heidy

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we describe two new thread snake species of the genus Epictia from elevations higher than 2000 meters above sea level in the Andes of the Cajamarca Region in Northern Peru. Both species share 10 midtail scale rows, a broad contact between the anterior supralabial and the supraocular scales in most of the specimens, and a yellow spot on the snout and the terminal part of the tail. Epictia venegasi sp. nov. is described on the basis of nine specimens and can further be differentiated from its congeners by having 211-221 mid-dorsal scale rows and a color pattern where each body scale is black on the anterior half and yellow on the posterior half. The description of Epictia vonmayi sp. nov. is based on two specimens which can further be differentiated from their congeners by having 196-205 mid-dorsal scale rows and 14 distinct black longitudinal stripes around the body, which run through the center of each scale and are separated by bright yellow interspaces; accordingly the tail exhibits 10 black longitudinal stripes which likewise run through the center of each scale. PMID:27515649

  8. Reproductive biology of Thamnodynastes hypoconia (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazilian subtemperate wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelato, Marluci M; Pontes, Gláucia M F; Tozetti, Alexandro M

    2016-07-11

    This study aimed to describe the reproductive biology of populations of Thamnodynastes hypoconia in subtemperate wetlands based on macroscopic analyses of their gonads. We analyzed 101 specimens from the southernmost regions of Brazil. The males had a greater snout-vent length, but the females reached sexual maturity with a greater body size. The reproductive cycle of the females was seasonal, with secondary vitellogenesis occurring between the winter and spring (May-October). Based on macroscopic analysis of gonads, data suggests that males have a continuous reproductive cycle. Parturition occurs between the late summer and early fall (January-April). The clutch size ranged between 4 and 16 embryos and showed no relationship with the female's body size. The recorded reproductive frequency of T. hypoconia is low (38 %) compared to other phylogenetically related species. Conversely, the studied populations appear to have a high reproductive success because it is an abundant species in the study site. PMID:27411065

  9. Redemptions of the Social Body. Kangaroo and The Plumed Serpent

    OpenAIRE

    Feyel, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    In his essay Psychoanalysis and the Unconscious, published in 1923, Lawrence shows both an irritation toward his contemporaries’ fad for psychoanalysis and a strong desire to compete with Freud. His attacks against the father of psychoanalysis are primarily targeted at the fact that, in his view, Freud remains compliant with the laws of a mechanical rationality: “One thing, however, psychoanalysis all along the line fails to determine, and that is the nature of the pristine unconscious in man...

  10. Sir Charles James Martin MB FRS: Australian serpents and Indian plague, one-hundred years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, B J

    1997-07-01

    In 1891 as Demonstrator in Physiology at the University of Sydney, Charles Martin began the first systematic study of the chemical and physiological properties of the venoms of the Australian elapid species, Pseudechis porphyriacus and Notechis scutatus. Two major constituents were detected: a large coagulable protein which was associated with intravascular clotting, and a small proteinaceous molecule, an albumose, associated with neurotoxicity. Martin designed and constructed a high-pressure gelatin membrane ultrafilter for fractionation of venom. His studies indicated that certain physiological actions and clinical symptoms were related to the faster rate of diffusion within the tissue space of a neurotoxic constituent relative to a clotting constituent. Extending this work to toxin-antitoxin relationships, Martin provided evidence that antitoxin was a large molecule with slow diffusibility in tissue and advised the administration of curative serum (including diphtheria antitoxin) by intravenous injection. In 1903, Martin returned to London as Director of the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. He was soon involved in the planning of scientific work to be undertaken by the Commission for Investigation of Plague in India as the disease continued to ravage the subcontinent. Detailed epidemiological studies of possible factors involved in the spread of Pasteurella pestis showed, unequivocally, that infected rat fleas were the vector of transmission from rats to humans. PMID:9247999

  11. The development of the skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraqi R Khannoon

    Full Text Available The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes.We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6.We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area.

  12. Death of Boa constrictor amarali (serpentes, boidae) after ingestion of a tree porcupine (rodentia)

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Cherubini; T. H. Barrella; R. J. DA SILVA

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the death of a Boa constrictor amarali after ingestion of a tree porcupine. The animal was donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP/UNESP) - and died in captivity. At necropsy, spine-like structures were observed in the stomach serosa and vicinity, and the stomach mucosa showed an intense reddish area, suggesting inflammation. The analysis of the spine-like structure revealed that they were tree porcupine spines. The fe...

  13. Biological and immunological characteristics of the poison of Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothrops cotiara is a venomous snake sporadically found in the province of Misiones in Argentina, South of Brazil and Paraguay. Data on the clinics of the poisoning produced by its bite and on its venom are scarce. There is no information on the neutralizing capacity of the antivenoms available. In this study, the lethal potency, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulant and thrombin-like, defibrinogenasing, indirect hemolytic and fibrinolytic activities of the venom of B. cotiara specimens from the province of Misiones were determined. The toxic activities were within the range of those described for the other Bothrops species from Argentina, and the electrophoretic and chromatographic studies showed similarities with those described for the other bothropic venoms. The immunochemical reactivity of six South American anti Viper antivenoms (ELISA) have a strong reactivity with all the antivenoms studied. The neutralizing capacity of three of these therapeutic antivenoms against the lethal potency and hemorrhagic, necrotizing, coagulant, thrombin-like and hemolytic activities showed a very close neutralizing capacity. Our data strongly suggest that the antivenoms for therapeutic use available in this area of South America are useful to neutralize the toxic and enzymatic activities of the venom of this uncommon specie of Bothrops. (author)

  14. Death of Boa constrictor amarali (serpentes, boidae after ingestion of a tree porcupine (rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Cherubini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report the death of a Boa constrictor amarali after ingestion of a tree porcupine. The animal was donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP/UNESP - and died in captivity. At necropsy, spine-like structures were observed in the stomach serosa and vicinity, and the stomach mucosa showed an intense reddish area, suggesting inflammation. The analysis of the spine-like structure revealed that they were tree porcupine spines. The feeding habits and inexperience of this Boa constrictor amarali in selecting its prey may have been be responsible for its death.

  15. Variação entre filhotes de representantes do complexo Bothrops newied (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available External morphological characters of 141 young specimens (69 males and 72 femalesof the Bothrops newied complex were analyzed. Regression analysis was used in the study of morphometric characters and principal components analysis was used in the study of meristic and qualitative characters. Sexual dimorphism was confirmed in the meristic and morphometric characters. Males showed higher counts of subcaudals and longer tails. Females showed eventually higher number of ventrals and dorsal rows, and larger heads. Six different drawing patterns were diagnosed and can indicate the existence of different species. Ontogenetic variation was described.

  16. Shallow phylogeographic structure in the declining Mexican Lance-headed Rattlesnake, Crotalus polystictus (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Meik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated matrilineal relationships among populations of the Mexican lance-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus, a pitviper inhabiting high-elevation valleys of the densely populated southernMexican Plateau. A fragment of the mitochondrial ATPase 8 and 6 genes (589 base pairs revealed comparatively low levels of genetic diversity, with few nucleotide polymorphisms across the portion of the geographic distribution sampled. The shallow intraspecificsequence divergence (1.0% in C. polystictus ATPase 8 and 6 genes contrasts with deep divergences (~1.0–14.1% observed within other montane rattlesnake lineages from the Mexican highlands, and is more typical of intraspecific variation observed in lowland rattlesnake species with similar distributional extents (e.g., C. tigris. We posit that the low genetic diversity in C. polystictus relative to that of other highland rattlesnakes may reflect ecological differences resulting in a different evolutionary response to Pleistocene climatic events. Our finding of apparently low genetic diversity in C. polystictus highlights the importance of conservation initiatives to protect high elevation grasslands in central Mexico.

  17. Review of the geographic distribution of Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 (Serpentes: Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 is a poorly known species of coral snake, with a controversial history concerning its geographical range. The lack of consensus among researchers, since its original description, is largely due to the reporting of erroneous localities in publications. Herein we present the geographical range for the species based on the review of 184 records from 67 different municipalities in Brazil, including two new records for the state of Espírito Santo, extending its distribution to ca. 300 km northward from the previous northernmost locality. We also comment on doubtful records for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia, which contain no accurate data. We restrict the occurrence of Micrurus decoratus to the Atlantic Rainforest, with elevation range from 400 up to 1,600 m in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.

  18. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  19. Monsters of the sea serpent: parasites of an oarfish, Regalecus russellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, Armand M; Jaramillo, Alejandra G; McLaughlin, John P; Weinstein, Sara B; Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Poinar, George O; Pickering, Maria; Steinauer, Michelle L; Espinoza, Magaly; Ashford, Jacob E; Dunn, Gabriela L P

    2015-02-01

    Examination of a small portion of the viscera of an oarfish ( Regalecus russellii ) recovered from Santa Catalina Island, southern California, revealed numerous tetraphyllidean tapeworm plerocercoids, Clistobothrium cf. montaukensis; 2 juvenile nematodes, Contracaecum sp.; and a fragment of an adult acanthocephalan, family Arhythmacanthidae. This suggests that the fish was relatively heavily parasitized. The presence of larval and juvenile worms suggests that oarfish are preyed upon by deep-swimming predators such as the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus , known to be a definitive host for the adult tapeworm, and also by diving mammals such as sperm whales, Physeter catodon L., hosts of Contracaecum spp. nematodes. PMID:25220829

  20. The Serpent in the Garden State: Juvenile Delinquency in 1920s New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    School administrators, educators, psychologists, social workers, the juvenile courts, institutional reformers, and others shape the manner in which children are labeled, portrayed, and treated. However, the agendas, motivations, political language, and influence of these "helping professionals" in "treating" and "reforming" juvenile delinquents…

  1. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Colubridae): neutralization of local and systemic effects by commercial bothropic antivenom (Bothrops genus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marisa M Teixeira; Paixão-Cavalcante, Danielle; Tambourgi, Denise V; Furtado, Maria de Fátima D

    2006-01-01

    Colubrids involved in human envenomation in Brazil are mainly from the genera Helicops, Oxyrhopus, Thamnodynastes and Philodryas. There is a relatively large number of clinical descriptions involving the Xenodontinae snakes, Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis, in human accidents. The most common manifestations of envenomation are local pain, swelling, erythema and ecchymosis and regional lymphadenopathy with normal coagulation. The aims of this study were to characterize the biochemical and biological properties of P. olfersii and P. patagoniensis venoms, and to investigate their immunological cross-reactivities by using both specific antisera and anti-Bothrops sp serum used for human serum therapy in Brazil, in neutralizing the lethal and hemorrhagic effects of these venoms. We show here that P. olfersii e P. patagoniensis venoms present proteolytic and haemorrhagic activities but are devoid of phospholipase A2 activity. Haemorrhage and lethality induced by P. olfersii and P. patagoniensis are associated with metal-dependent proteinases, since EDTA could block these toxic activities. P. olfersii and P. patagoniensis venoms were immunogenic and the antisera produced were able to recognize several bands in P. olfersii, P. patagoniensis venoms in Bothrops jararaca venom. PMID:16360723

  2. A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the snake Philodryas olfersii Lichtenstein (Colubridae) from a coastal habitat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lúcio A; Winck, Gisele R; Coelho, Cleide D; Flausino, Walter; Duarte Rocha, Carlos F

    2013-06-01

    A new coccidian species of the genus Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is reported from the colubrid snake host Philodryas olfersii Lichtenstein at a coastal area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. Oöcysts of Caryospora olfersii n. sp. are spherical to sub-spherical, 33.1 × 31.2 μm, with smooth, colourless, three-layered wall, c.1.4; middle layer lightly striated. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule are all absent. Sporocysts are ovoid, 22.9 × 17.4 μm on average, with one extremity in the shape of a short neck. Stieda body present, 3.2 × 1.3 μm, sub-Stieda body present, homogeneous, larger than Stieda body, 4.5 × 1.7 μm. Sporozoites are inserted in a bulky sporocyst residuum. PMID:23673697

  3. Venom proteomes of South and North American opisthoglyphous (Colubridae and Dipsadidae) snake species: a preliminary approach to understanding their biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María E; Tavares, Flávio L; Santoro, Marcelo L; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2012-12-01

    Opisthoglyphous snake venoms remain under-explored despite being promising sources for ecological, evolutionary and biomedical/biotechnological research. Herein, we compared the protein composition and enzymatic properties of the venoms of Philodryas baroni (PbV), Philodryas olfersii olfersii (PooV) and Philodryas patagoniensis (PpV) from South America, and Hypsiglena torquata texana (HttV) and Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda (TblV) from North America. All venoms degraded azocasein, and this metalloproteinase activity was significantly inhibited by EDTA. PooV exhibited the highest level of catalytic activity towards synthetic substrates for serine proteinases. All venoms hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine at low levels, and only TblV showed phospholipase A(2) activity. 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE profile comparisons demonstrated species-specific components as well as several shared components. Size exclusion chromatograms from the three Philodryas venoms and HttV were similar, but TblV showed a notably different pattern. MALDI-TOF MS of crude venoms revealed as many as 49 distinct protein masses, assigned to six protein families. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of tryptic peptides confirmed the presence of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in all venoms, as well as a phospholipase A(2) and a three-finger toxin in TblV. Broad patterns of protein composition appear to follow phylogenetic lines, with finer scale variation likely influenced by ecological factors such as diet and habitat. PMID:22974712

  4. Sobre la puesta, incubación de huevos, nacimiento y desarrollo de crías de Philodryas viridissima (Colubridae: Xenodontinae) en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Daniela S.; Aguayo, Rodrigo; Alfaro, Fernando D.

    2009-01-01

    El género Philodryas (Wagler, 1830) incluye aproximadamente 21 especies distribuidas en casi toda Sudamérica. Existen reportes sobre la dieta, hábitat y tácticas defensivas de muchas especies del género (Bozinovic y Rosenman, 1988; Marques, 1999; Hartmann y Marques, 2005), pero los datos reproductivos se restringen a pocas especies. El día 10 de noviembre del 2005 se capturó una hembra de Philodryas viridissima oviponiendo en un hormiguero al lado de un sendero en la Reserva privada de Potrer...

  5. First species of Ophiotaenia (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Madagascar: O. georgievi sp n., a parasite of the endemic snake Leioheterodon geayi (Colubridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Ammann, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 197-205. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eucestoda * Proteocephalidea * Ophiotaenia georgievi * morphology * Ophidia * helminths Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  6. Variación intraespecífica en Phalotris matogrossensis y P. tricolor: una evaluación de sus caracteres diagnósticos (Squamata: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacciali Sosa, Pier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalotris matogrossensis es una especie del grupo tricolor, descrita recientemente en base a ejemplares procedentes de Brasil y Paraguay. Se diferencia claramente de P. cuyanus y P. mertensi por la coloración y algunos detalles de la lepidosis corporal, y según la bibliografía de P. tricolor por la mayor longitud del anillo cervical blanco respecto al negro en P. matogrossensis, siendo el negro mucho mayor en P. tricolor. Los resultados del presente trabajo demuestran que este carácter no debe ser tomado tan estrictamente como diagnóstico ya que se encontraron grandes variaciones en los ejemplares revisados. Las diferencias encontradas aquí que mejor sirven para diferenciar entre ambas especies son: 1 la coloración de la mandíbula, oscura o al menos manchada en P. tricolor y siempre inmaculada en P. matogrossensis; 2 la longitud del anillo negro respecto a la proporción total del cuerpo, que en P. tricolor resulta mayor que en P. matogrossensis sin solapamiento de valores; y 3 el color dorsal, ya que P. tricolor en ocasiones presenta manchas o líneas interrumpidas en el dorso, en contraste con la coloración totalmente inmaculada del dorso de P. matogrossensis. Además se dan algunos datos acerca de las afinidades biogeográficas de ambas especies en Paraguay. Phalotris matogrossensis is a species belonging to the tricolor group that was recently described from specimens collected in Brazil and Paraguay. This species can be easily distinguished from P. cuyanus and P. mertensi by its coloration and some traits of the body pholidosis and, after bibliography, from P. tricolor by the reduced black and longer white cervical ring. The results of this work shows that this character should not to be treated as diagnostic as great variation was found among the specimens examined. Characters that better differentiate between the two species: 1 mandible coloration, dark or at least spotted in P. tricolor but always clear in P. matogrossensis; 2 the length of the black ring with respect to the total body length, which is greater in P. tricolor and does not overlap with results for P. matogrossensis; and 3 the dorsal color, P. tricolor sometimes showing spots or interrupted stripes on the dorsum, in contrast to the uniform coloration of P. matogrossensis. Some data regarding the biogeographic affinities of both species in Paraguay are also provided.

  7. A revision of the Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861) group (Squamata: Colubridae), with the description of three new species from the Indochinese Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. David; G. Vogel; J. van Rooijen

    2008-01-01

    The group of Asian colubrid species morphologically similar to Oligodon taeniatus (Günther, 1861), previously containing only O. taeniatus, Oligodon mouhoti (Günther, 1864) and Oligodon barroni (Smith, 1916), is revised on the basis of variation in external morphology and dentition of 175 specimens.

  8. Análise comparativa entre tipos de alimentação de Micrurus corallinus (Serpentes, Elapidae em cativeiro Comparative analysis between feeding types Micrurus corallinus (Serpentes, Elapidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Oliveira Serapicos

    Full Text Available Micrurus corallinus (Merrem, 1820 kept in laboratory animal rooms swallow voluntarily various colubrid species. The most accepted species belong to the genera Sibynomorphus Fitzinger, 1843, Oxyrhopus Wagler, 1830 and Liophis Wagler, 1830. The voluntary feeding guaranteed resistance against pathogenic agents. The forced feeding was unsatisfactory due to stress resulting from handling, feeding frequency (30 days, susceptibility to pathogenic agents and high occurrence of pathologies.

  9. Nova espécie de Phalotris, redescrição de P. tricolor e osteologia craniana (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae Description of new species of Phalotris, redescription of P. tricolor and skull osteology (Serpentes, Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Lema

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparação dos espécimes-tipo de Phalotris tricolor (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e Elapomorphus punctatus Lema, 1979 demonstrou que ambos nomes se referem ao mesmo táxon; o nome P. tricolor, empregado até o momento, é um complexo de P. tricolor e uma espécie ainda não conhecida, descrita aqui como P. matogrossensis sp. nov. distribuída do sudoeste do Brasil às áreas adjacentes no Paraguai, em formações de Cerrado. A nova espécie difere de P. tricolor principalmente por apresentar região inferior da cabeça branca, ao invés de inteiramente preta; colar branco mais longo que o preto; ao invés de curto e com um colar preto muito mais longo; colar preto apenas dorsal, ao invés de atingir os lados do ventre; coloração dorsal de fundo vermelha brilhante e não amarelada ou marrom-avermelhada, com pontos pretos dispersos em séries longitudinais. O crânio e hemipênis das duas espécies não apresentam maiores diferenças. As duas espécies, mais P. mertensi (Hoge, 1955 e P. cuyanus (Cei, 1984, compõem o grupo tricolor e é apresentada uma chave para a identificação das espécies do grupo.The comparison of the types of Phalotris tricolor (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 and Elapomorphus punctatus Lema, 1979 showed that both names refer to a single species; up to date the current name P. tricolor is a compound of P. tricolor and an unknown species that is described here as P. matogrossensis sp. nov. from southwestern Brazil to adjacent Paraguay at Cerrado domain. The new species differs from P. tricolor mainly by white lower side of head, instead entirely black; white collar longer than the black collar, instead short with very longer black collar; black collar only dorsal, instead attaining ventral side; back ground coloration uniformly brilliant red, instead yellowish to brownish red, with widespread black dots usually in longitudinal series. The skull and hemipenis from both species do not present major differences. These species, plus P. mertensi (Hoge, 1955 and P. cuyanus (Cei, 1984, compose the tricolor group; a key is provided to identification of species.

  10. [Hemolytic activity of venoms from snakes of the genera Bothrop, Lachesis, Crotalus, and Micrurus (Serpentes: Viperidae and Elapidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cadillo, E; Bonilla Ferreyra, C; Zvealeta, A

    1991-11-01

    Hemolytic activity of eight Peruvian snake venoms from the families Viperidae and Elapidae (Bothrops atrox, B. pictus, B. hyoprorus, B. bilineatus, B. neuwedii, Lachesis m. muta, Crotalus d. terrificus, Micrurus tschudi), and three Brazilian viperids (B. jararacussu, B. alternatus and C. d. collilineatus) is described. None of the venoms caused direct lysis on washed human erythrocytes. However, all of them caused indirect hemolysis provided that the incubation medium contains an exogenous source of lecithin. Venom of Micrurus tschudi was the most hemolytic (HD50 2.8 ug/ml) while that of B. bilineatus was the least (HD50 681.3 ug/ml). Only six of eleven venoms showed parallel curves of hemolytic activity, and the HD50 varied from 198 to 681 ug/ml and the following decreasing order of hemolytic activity was obtained: L. muta, C. d. terrificus, C. d. collilineatus, B. hyoprorus, B. bilineatus, B. alternatus. PMID:1844159

  11. A new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from Python regius (Serpentes: Pythonidae) and its experimental transmission by a mosquito vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Kamler, M.; Bulantová, J.; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2007), s. 1189-1198. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Hepatozoon * Python * Culex * transmission * SSU Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  12. Plio-pleistocene diversification and connectivity between mainland and Tasmanian populations of Australian snakes (Drysdalia, Elapidae, Serpentes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sylvain; Keogh, J Scott; Shine, Richard

    2010-09-01

    The genus Drysdalia contains three recognised species of elapid (front-fanged) snakes, distributed across south-eastern Australia (including Tasmania). Here we aim to clarify the biogeography and phylogeographical relationships of this poorly documented region. We conducted molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses, using mitochondrial genes (ND4 and cyt-b). Our analyses suggest that divergence events among the three extant species, and among major lineages within those species, are congruent with Plio-pleistocene climatic variations. Two highly divergent genetic lineages within Drysdalia coronoides occur in Tasmania. Molecular dating suggests that these lineages were isolated from the mainland in the Pleistocene. PMID:20430104

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of five putative toxins from the venom gland of the snake Philodryas chamissonis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urra, Félix A; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Hodar, Christian; Cambiazo, Verónica; Labra, Antonieta

    2015-12-15

    Philodryas chamissonis is a rear-fanged snake endemic to Chile. Its bite produces mild to moderate symptoms with proteolytic and anti-coagulant effects. Presently, the composition of the venom, as well as, the biochemical and structural characteristics of its toxins, remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and reported the first full-length sequences of five toxin-encoding genes from the venom gland of this species: Type III snake venom metalloprotease (SVMP), snake venom serine protease (SVSP), Cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), α and β subunits of C-type lectin-like protein (CLP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (NP). These genes are highly expressed in the venom gland and their sequences exhibited a putative signal peptide, suggesting that these are components of the venom. These putative toxins had different evolutionary relationships with those reported for some front-fanged snakes, being SVMP, SVSP and CRISP of P. chamissonis closely related to the toxins present in Elapidae species, while NP was more related to those of Viperidae species. In addition, analyses suggest that the α and β subunits of CLP of P. chamissonis might have a α-subunit scaffold in common with Viperidae species, whose highly variable C-terminal region might have allowed the diversification in α and β subunits. Our results provide the first molecular description of the toxins possibly implicated in the envenomation of prey and humans by the bite of P. chamissonis. PMID:26410112

  14. Biology and conservation status of Piraja’s Lancehead Snake Bothrops piraña Amaral, 1923 (Serpentes: Viperidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.D. Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The venomous snake Bothrops pirajai (Amaral, 1923 is endemic to Brazil. Despite being described almost a century ago, very little is known about this species, which has never been studied in situ. Here, we present new data on the biology and natural history of B. pirajai based on a review of existing museum specimens and a field study (1504 man hours carried out throughout the species range. The distribution of B. pirajai was found to be restricted to the eastern Atlantic forest of the state of Bahia, Brazil, between Todosos Santos Bay, Itabuna and Ilhéus (12050’S-14050’S, 88-835 m. We recommend the species be uplisted to Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s global Red List of Threatened Species as its estimated extent of occurrence is under 5000km2. The effective conservation of B. pirajai will rely on addressing two key issues: improving our knowledge of the species and successfully mitigating habitat loss and fragmentation.

  15. A new species of Imantodes Duméril, 1853 (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) from the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missassi, Alexandre F R; Prudente, Ana L C

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Imantodes, morphologically similar to I. chocoensis, from the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. This new species is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of morphological characters: smooth dorsal scale rows 17/17/15; apical pits absent; infralabials 12-13; ventrals 227-236; subcaudals 147-148; presence of loreal scale; cloacal plate divided; dark temporal stripe on the suture between the lower edge of temporal scales and upper region of supralabials; dorsum of body light brown with dark brown transversal streaks, weakly evident in lateral view; hemipenis in situ extending to the level of 11th subcaudal and reaches the 10th subcaudal when everted; hemipenis with sulcus spermaticus expanded at the base of capitulum and extending distally. Additionally, we discuss the lateral expansion of the sulcus spermaticus in the new species, similar to that of species of Leptodeira. PMID:26249972

  16. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

  17. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae, un mecanismo de localización de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Cervantes, Raquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente a las secreciones de macho. Ambos sexos manifestaron preferencia por los olores conespecíficos aumentando la intensidad del lengüeteo y el seguimiento activo de rastros, mientras que exhibieron una marcada disminución de la frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua y escaso desplazamiento frente al estímulo heteroespecífico. Los resultados sugieren la estrecha relación existente entre la identificación de un estímulo mediante el lengüeteo y la actividad de rastreo. The ability in adult Boa constrictor occidentalis to discriminate between species and sexes and follow pheromonal trails was tested. Females presented elevated tongue flick rate (T.F.R. to male skin odor, female skin odor and female cloacal secretion. Trailing activity was higher to female skin odor. Males answered with elevated T.F.R. and exhibited active movements and searching of trails to their own secretions —male skin and male cloacal musk—. Both sexes had preferences to conespecific stimuli showing higher T.F.R. and active trailing while they were not interested in heterospecific trails presenting lower T.F.R. and limited movements. Results suggest the relationship between stimuli recognition by tongue flicking and trailing activity.

  18. Características biológicas e inmunológicas del veneno de Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt; Judith Estévez; Jorge Adrián Dolab; Marcelo Víctor Manzanelli; Nicolás Piñeiro; Jorge Francisco Paniagua; Alejandro Urs Vogt

    2006-01-01

    Bothrops cotiara es una serpiente que se encuentra en la provincia de Misiones (Argentina), el Sur de Brasil y Paraguay. La información sobre las características clínicas de los accidentes por esta serpiente es muy escasa y existen pocos datos sobre su veneno y la capacidad neutralizante de las actividades tóxicas del mismo por antivenenos terapéuticos. En este trabajo se estudiaron características bioquímicas, actividades tóxicas y la reactividad inmunoquímica del veneno de B. cotiara. Seis ...

  19. A perspective on natural products research and ethnopharmacology in Mexico: the eagle and the serpent on the prickly pear cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Michael; Frei Haller, Barbara; Leonti, Marco

    2014-03-28

    Mexico's extraordinarily rich cultural and floristic diversity has fascinated explorers and researchers ever since the "New World" was discovered for and by Europeans. For many decades, natural product research has been a very active field of research in Mexico, and there also are some ongoing ethnopharmacological research efforts. This review provides an overview and critical appraisal on some key developments in these fields and examples of medicinal plants used by indigenous communities that have become of great local importance in Mexican popular medicine. In this review, the focus is on plants with effects on the CNS, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory processes, and gastrointestinal disorders. While some of the major food plants consumed worldwide originate from southern North America, only very few medicinal plants have become of major global importance. Opuntia species are now used increasingly to manage diabetes and metabolic syndrome and represent an example of a novel medicinal product/supplement. Undoubtedly, narcotic and mind-altering drugs both have received the widest scientific interest and have attracted considerable popular attention. The history of use of the indigenous Mexican Materia Medica in the context of research on local and popular resources specifically with regard to the diverse challenges in the context of studying the world's biodiversity and the development of comparative and semiquantitative ethnobotanical research methods is discussed herein. Natural product and ethnopharmacological research in Mexico seems to have been influenced by the political and societal developments originating from the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and subsequent conventions, which have not yet had the desired effect of giving value to these local resources, as they might deserve. Their equitable and sustainable implementation remains a challenge. Natural product research and ethnopharmacology will play a key role in developing an adequate evidence base for such products derived from local and traditional knowledge in Mexico. PMID:24559070

  20. Tyzzeria boae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, a New Coccidium from the Kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tyzzeria is described from the kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, from the State of Pará, north Brazil. Oocysts from the coacal contents matured in eight days, at approximately 24°C. They measured 19.0 x 18.0 (15.0 x 15.0 - 22.5 x 21.5 µm, shape-index (length/width 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1. The oocyst wall is of an extremely delicate single, colourless layer, with no micropyle. Division of the oocyst contents into the 8 naked sporozoites leaves a bulky, spherical oocyst residuum averaging 15.5 x 14.8 (13.5 x 13.5 - 18.5 x 17.5 µm; the sporozoites measure an average of 11.0 x 1.8 (8.5 x 1.25 - 12.5 x 2.0 µm, and possess both anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Tyzzeria boae n.sp. is unique among the recorded species of the genus by virtue of its development in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules of the kidney: stages in the merogony and gametogony of the parasite are described and figured.

  1. A new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from Python regius (Serpentes: Pythonidae) and its experimental transmission by a mosquito vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Michal; Kamler, Martin; Bulantová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David

    2007-10-01

    Hepatozoon ayorgbor n. sp. is described from specimens of Python regius imported from Ghana. Gametocytes were found in the peripheral blood of 43 of 55 snakes examined. Localization of gametocytes was mainly inside the erythrocytes; free gametocytes were found in 15 (34.9%) positive specimens. Infections of laboratory-reared Culex quinquefasciatus feeding on infected snakes, as well as experimental infection of juvenile Python regius by ingestion of infected mosquitoes, were performed to complete the life cycle. Similarly, transmission to different snake species (Boa constrictor and Lamprophis fuliginosus) and lizards (Lepidodactylus lugubris) was performed to assess the host specificity. Isolates were compared with Hepatozoon species from sub-Saharan reptiles and described as a new species based on the morphology, phylogenetic analysis, and a complete life cycle. PMID:18163356

  2. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae), un mecanismo de localización de la especie

    OpenAIRE

    Silmara Cervantes, Raquel; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    1999-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente...

  3. Tyzzeria boae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a New Coccidium from the Kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Lainson; Ilan Paperna

    1994-01-01

    A new species of Tyzzeria is described from the kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, from the State of Pará, north Brazil. Oocysts from the coacal contents matured in eight days, at approximately 24°C. They measured 19.0 x 18.0 (15.0 x 15.0 - 22.5 x 21.5) µm, shape-index (length/width) 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1). The oocyst wall is of an extremely delicate single, colourless layer, with no micropyle. Division of the oocyst contents into the 8 naked sporozoites leaves a bulky, spheri...

  4. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L; Amey, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed...... checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters, but...

  5. The unexpected discovery of blind snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) in Micronesia: Two new species of Ramphotyphlops from the Caroline Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, A.H.; Reynolds, R.P.; Buden, D.W.; Falanruw, M.; Lynch, B.

    2012-01-01

    Two new blind snakes in the genus Ramphotyphlops are described from Ulithi (R. hatmaliyeb sp. nov.) and Ant Atoll (R. adocetus sp. nov.) in the Caroline Islands, the first blind snake species known from Micronesia east of Palau (excluding Ramphotyphlops braminus). Both species are unusual in being known only from small, low-lying atolls. They can be distinguished from other Ramphotyphlops by the combination of 22 scale rows over the length of the body; a wedge-shaped snout, without a keratinized keel; and a broad, pyriform (R. adocetus) or ovate (R. hatmaliyeb) rostral scale.

  6. Systematics of Nothopsini (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with a new species of Synophis from the Pacific Andean slopes of southwestern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R. Alexander; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Bustamante, Lucas; Arteaga, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Within Dipsadinae, some recent authors have recognized a tribe Nothopsini containing the genera Diaphorolepis, Emmochliophis, Nothopsis, Synophis, and Xenopholis, on the basis of a number of putative morphological synapomorphies. However, molecular results suggest that Nothopsis, Synophis, and Xenopholis do not form a monophyletic group, while the remaining taxa are unsampled in recent molecular phylogenies. Here, DNA-sequence data for some Diaphorolepis and Synophis species are provided for the first time, as well as additional new sequences for Nothopsis and some Synophis species. Including these and other existing data for nothopsine species, previous studies showing that Nothopsini is not a natural group are corroborated. Nothopsini Cope, 1871 is restricted to Nothopsis. Diaphorolepidini Jenner, 1981 is resurrected and re-delimited to include only Diaphorolepis, Emmochliophis, and Synophis. Finally, Xenopholis remains Dipsadinae incertae sedis. Known material of Diaphorolepidini is reviewed to generate revised and expanded descriptions and diagnoses at the tribe, genus, and species level. Numerous cryptic species are likely present in Synophis bicolor and Synophis lasallei. Finally, a new population from the low-elevation cloud forests of SW Ecuador is reported upon, which is genetically and morphologically distinct from all other species, that is here named Synophis zaheri sp. n. PMID:26798284

  7. Species Delimitation in the Continental Forms of the Genus Epicrates (Serpentes, Boidae) Integrating Phylogenetics and Environmental Niche Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Paula C.; Di Cola, Valeria; Martínez, Juan J.; Gardenal, Cristina N.; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the genus Epicrates (Boidae) presented only one continental species, Epicrates cenchria, distributed in Central and South America, but after a taxonomic revision using morphologic characters five species were recognized: E. cenchria, E. crassus, E. maurus, E. assisi, and E. alvarezi. We analyzed two independent data sets, environmental niche models and phylogeny based on molecular information, to explore species delimitation in the continental species of this genus. Our results indicated that the environmental requirements of the species are different; therefore there are not evidences of ecological interchangeability among them. There is a clear correlation between species distributions and the major biogeographic regions of Central and South America. Their overall distribution reveals that allopatry or parapatry is the general pattern. These evidences suggest that habitat isolation prevents or limits gene exchange among them. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the continental Epicrates are monophyletic, being E. alvarezi the sister species for the remaining two clades: E. crassus - E. assisi, and E. maurus - E. cenchria. The clade grouping the continental Epicrates is the sister taxon of the genus Eunectes and not of the Caribbean Epicrates clade, indicating that the genus is paraphyletic. There is a non-consistent pattern in niche evolution among continental Epicrates. On the contrary, a high variation and abrupt shifts in environmental variables are shown when ancestral character states were reconstructed on the sequence-based tree. The degree of genetic and ecological divergence among continental Epicrates and the phylogenetic analyses support the elevation to full species of E. cenchria, E. crassus, E. maurus, E. assisi, and E. alvarezi. PMID:21912634

  8. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered. PMID:27394563

  9. Phylogeography of the Bothrops jararaca complex (Serpentes: Viperidae): past fragmentation and island colonization in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin, Felipe G; Monzel, Markus; Echeverrigaray, Sergio; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2006-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots and is threatened by a severe habitat loss. Yet little is known about the processes that originated its remarkable richness of endemic species. Here we present results of a large-scale survey of the genetic variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the pitviper, jararaca lancehead (Bothrops jararaca), and two closely related insular species (Bothrops insularis and Bothrops alcatraz), endemic of this region. Phylogenetic and network analyses revealed the existence of two well-supported clades, exhibiting a southern and a northern distribution. The divergence time of these two phylogroups was estimated at 3.8 million years ago, in the Pliocene, a period of intense climatic changes and frequent fragmentation of the tropical rainforest. Our data also suggest that the two groups underwent a large size expansion between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, the southern group showed a more marked signal of population size fluctuation than the northern group, corroborating evidences that southern forests may have suffered a more pronounced reduction in area in the late Pleistocene. The insular species B. alcatraz and B. insularis presented very low diversity, each one sharing haplotypes with mainland individuals placed in different subclades. Despite their marked morphological and behavioural uniqueness, these two insular species seem to have originated very recently and most likely from distinct costal B. jararaca populations, possibly associated with late Pleistocene or Holocene sea level fluctuations. PMID:17054497

  10. Ampliación del rango de distribución de Atractus depressiocellus Myers, 2003 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonard David Echavarría-Rentería; Vanessa Mosquera-Moya; Jhon Tailor Rengifo-Mosquera

    2015-01-01

    UTCH: COLZOOCH-H 1253, este hallazgo de Atractus depressiocellus se registró en la localidad de Salero, municipio de Unión Panamericana (5°21'37.46" N, 76°38'45.35" W, 100 m s.n.m.) (Fig. 1) en el departamento del Chocó, Colombia, Col. Rengifo-Mosquera JT. 24/11/2005. Fue fijado y depositado en la Colección Científica de Referencia Zoológica del Chocó-Herpetología, de la Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó “Diego Luis Córdoba”.

  11. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Göçmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  12. Comunicación química en la boa arco iris Epicrates cenchria alvarezi (Serpentes, Boidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briguera, Verónica

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In snakes there are two possible pheromonal sources: skin and cloacal glands. In this work, we tested both secretions in adults of Epicrates cenchria alvarezi as messages transmitters, trying to explain the role that plays this information in the social context of this species. Both secretions have shown to have pheromonal function. Conespecific odors elicited more tongue extrusions than other stimuli did. These results suggest that the snake is capable of discriminating conspecifics based on chemical cues alone.

  13. Lessons Learned from Cosmic Serpent: A Professional Development Project for Informal Educators on Science and Native Ways of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Maryboy, N.; Begay, D.; Paglierani, R.; Frappier, R.; Teren, A.

    2011-09-01

    How can one engage native communities and the public alike in understanding nature and our universe? Our approach has been to bring together practitioners at informal science centers, cultural museums, and tribal museums to develop relationships cross-culturally, to learn about different ways of studying and learning about nature and our universe, and to start to develop informal education programs or exhibits at their institution through their new understandings and peer networks. The design of this National Science Foundation (NSF) grant has been to provide an initial week-long professional development workshop in a region in the Western U.S. with a follow-up workshop in that region the following year, culminating in a final conference for all participants. We focus on three regions: the southwest (Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado), the northwest (Alaska, Washington, and Oregon); and California. We are in our third year of our four-year grant and have in this time organized and run three regional week-long workshops and a follow-up workshop in the southwest. We have learned many lessons through this work, including: the importance of incorporating workshop participants as presenters in the workshop agenda; how the content of astronomy, ecology, and health resonates with these museum professionals and can easily be discussed with different world views in this type of cross-cultural science education; and how to best present different ways of knowing how nature and our universe work (science) in a manner that provides a context for science educators and museum professionals. In this article, we share these and other lessons we have learned from the leadership perspective of bringing together such a diverse and under-represented-in-science group of educators.

  14. Environ: E00645 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00645 Zaocys dhumnades Crude drug Zaocys dhumnades [TAX:8587] Colubridae Zaocys dh...umnades extirpated organ (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Reptiles E00645 Zaocys dhumnades ...

  15. Record of the occurrence of Lachesis muta (Serpentes, Viperidae) in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Paraíba, Brazil, with comments on the species’ preservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Arielson Santos Protázio; Daniel Orsi Laranjeiras; Diego José Santana; Ralph Lacerda de Albuquerque; Ricardo Rodrigues; Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2013-01-01

    In this study, one describes a new record of the bushmaster snake, Lachesis muta, in an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. This species is regarded as the largest venomous snake from the New World. The specimen was found at night, crossing a narrow shortcut, close to a slope, about 20m away from a waterfall. The occurrence of L. muta in this fragment demonstrates the importance of conservating Atlantic Forest fragments for preservating this species.

  16. The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüster, Wolfgang; Crookes, Steven; Ineich, Ivan; Mané, Youssouph; Pook, Catharine E; Trape, Jean-François; Broadley, Donald G

    2007-11-01

    We use phylogenetic analysis of 1333 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence to investigate the phylogeny and historical biogeography of the cobra-like elapid snakes, with special reference to the evolution of spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras, a radiation widespread in open vegetational formations throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that spitting adaptations appear to have evolved three times in cobras, but alternative scenarios cannot be rejected. The Asiatic Naja are monophyletic and originate from a single colonization of Asia from Africa. The radiation of the African spitting Naja appears to date back to the early Miocene and many speciation events in the group predate the Pliocene expansion of grasslands and the radiation of large grazing mammals in Africa. The cladogenic events in this complex appear to have been triggered by both ecological changes and tectonic events associated with the formation and expansion of the African Rift Valley. Taxonomically, our data confirm the inclusion of Boulengerina and Paranaja within Naja, and reveal a clade of African rainforest cobras including N. melanoleuca, Paranaja multifasciata and Boulengerina that constitutes the sister clade of the African open-formation non-spitting cobras. Naja nigricollis is polyphyletic, and we therefore recognize N. nigricincta as a separate species, more closely related to N. ashei and N. mossambica than to N. nigricollis. PMID:17870616

  17. Historia natural y ecología de los ofidios (Reptilia: Serpentes) de las sierras australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, Diego Omar

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo fueron analizados diversos aspectos de la composición faunística, historia natural, ecología y distribución espacial de la comunidad de serpientes de las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires, o Sierras de Ventania, con el propósito de establecer prioridades de conservación. El área de muestreo comprendió los partidos de Puan, Saavedra, Tornquist, Cnel. Suárez y Cnel. Pringles, abarcando la totalidad de la unidad orográfica del sudoeste bonaerense (entre los 37°...

  18. Experimental ophitoxemia produced by the opisthoglyphous lora snake (Philodryas olfersii) venom Ofitoxemia experimental produzida pelo veneno da serpente opistoglifa lora (Philodryas olfersii)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta; Karel Lemoine; Luis Navarrete; María E. Girón; Irma Aguilar

    2006-01-01

    Several colubrid snakes produce venomous oral secretions. In this work, the venom collected from Venezuelan opisthoglyphous (rear-fanged) Philodryas olfersii snake was studied. Different proteins were present in its venom and they were characterized by 20% SDS-PAGE protein electrophoresis. The secretion exhibited proteolytic (gelatinase) activity, which was partially purified on a chromatography ionic exchange mono Q2 column. Additionally, the haemorrhagic activity of Philodryas olfersii veno...

  19. The snake assemblage (Squamata: Serpentes) of a Cerrado-Caatinga transition area in Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francílio da Silva Rodrigues; Ana Lúcia da Costa Prudente

    2011-01-01

    This study records and analyzes the diversity and structure of a snake assemblage in a transition area between Cerrado and Caatinga, in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, state of Piauí, comparing the distribution and similarity of the species composition with other open localities already studied in Brazil. We used three complementary sampling methods: time constrained search (TCS), pitfall traps with drift fences (PFT), and incidental encounters (IE). During the TCS and PFT, 912 hours/ob...

  20. Molecular phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes, Caenophidia) with an emphasis on South American Xenodontines: a revised classification and descriptions of new taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Hussam Zaher; Felipe Gobbi Grazziotin; John E. Cadle; Robert W Murphy; Julio Cesar de Moura-Leite; Sandro L. Bonatto

    2009-01-01

    We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of caenophidian (advanced) snakes using sequences from two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene (1681 total base pairs), and with 131 terminal taxa sampled from throughout all major caenophidian lineages but focussing on Neotropical xenodontines. Direct optimization parsimony analysis resulted in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, which corroborates some clades identified in previous analyses and suggests new hypothes...

  1. Exchanging carrion for fresh meat: the vulture Cathartes burrovianus (Aves, Cathartidae) preys on the snake Xenodon merremii (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Oliveira e Almeida; Fernanda Carvalho Machado; Henrique Caldeira Costa

    2010-01-01

    The Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) is known mainly for its necrophagic habits, typical of the Cathartidae. However, members of this family also hunt live prey, though this behavior is not well documented. We report here on a C. burrovianus preying on the non-venomous snake Xenodon merremii, at an anthropogenic site in southeastern Brazil.

  2. Exchanging carrion for fresh meat: the vulture Cathartes burrovianus (Aves, Cathartidae preys on the snake Xenodon merremii (Serpentes, Dipsadidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira e Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus is known mainly for its necrophagic habits, typical of the Cathartidae. However, members of this family also hunt live prey, though this behavior is not well documented. We report here on a C. burrovianus preying on the non-venomous snake Xenodon merremii, at an anthropogenic site in southeastern Brazil.

  3. Morphological Variation of Sordellina punctata (Peters, 1880 with Notes on the Phylogenetic Position of the Genus within the Family Dipsadidae (Serpentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique V. Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sordellina punctata (Peters, 1880 is a poorly known species from Brazil that, until recently, had an uncertain phylogenetic position. Sixty-one specimens of Sordellina punctata were examined, representing different localities encompassing the known geographic distribution of this taxon. Eight skulls and five hemipenes were prepared and described in detail and data on scale variation and color pattern as well as morphometric data were analyzed. The skull bones described, as well as the hemipenis of S. punctata, were compared to available data in the literature referred to members of the tribe Echinanterini and related taxa. Sordellina punctata presents an average snout-vent length of 31.5 cm for males and 40.2 for females and has an average of 149 ventral scales in males and 157 in females. The data presented here reinforce the necessity of a greater amount of osteological descriptive studies, especially of members of the tribe Echinanterini, in order to evaluate the recently proposed hypothesis of relationship of S. punctata and these taxa.

  4. Uso del hábitat por Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae durante la estación seca en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attademo, Andrés

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis sobre el uso del hábitat es una herramienta fundamental para la conservación y el manejo de las poblaciones silvestres. Cuantificar los cambios en el uso de recursos asociados con la reproducción puede ofrecer una idea de las fuerzas selectivas que actúan sobre los organismos durante esta fase crítica de su historia de vida. Se ha observado en distintas especies de ofidios que hembras grávidas frecuentan hábitats distintos de los que utilizan hembras no grávidas y machos, por lo que la selección de un ambiente en particular podría estar influenciado por el comportamiento reproductivo. En el presente trabajo evaluamos el uso del hábitat en Boa constrictor occidentalis mediante radiorastreo a nivel de microhábitat durante la estación seca en la localidad de El Quemado, Departamento Pocho, Córdoba. Se marcaron mediante radiotransmisores 14 individuos adultos: 5 hembras reproductivas, 4 hembras no reproductivas y 5 machos reproductivos. Las diferencias en el uso del hábitat observadas en las lampalaguas en función de la condición reproductiva durante la estación seca, reflejarían diferencias en los requerimientos para la termorregulación. El uso que las hembras reproductivas hacen del hábitat les permitiría seleccionar sitios que brinden buenos lugares para asolearse permitiendo obtener temperaturas mayores y óptimas para el desarrollo de los embriones. Habitat use analysis is a basic tool for the conservation and management of wild populations. Quantifying the changes in the use of resources associated with reproduction can offer an insight into the selective forces acting on organisms in this critical phase of life history. Reproduction condition often has obvious effects on habitat use. Reproductive individual females have been observed in habitats different from those frequented by males and non reproductive females. In this study, we evaluate the differential use of habitats in Boa constrictor occidentalis through radio-tracking. Habitat use was evaluated at a microhabitat level during dry season at El Quemado, in the department of Pocho, Córdoba. Fourteen adult individuals were implanted with radio transmitters: 5 reproductive females, 4 non-reproductive females and 5 reproductive males. There were differences in the use of the habitat among these conditions. The differences observed in relation to reproductive functions during the dry season should reveal different thermoregulation requirements in lampalagua. In reptiles, these requirements are among the most influential causes in the selection of a particular habitat. The habitat choice made by reproductive females would allow them to choose adequate places to sunbathe and get higher and optimum temperatures for embryo development.

  5. Shades of the Rainbow Serpent? A KhoeSan Animal between Myth and Landscape in Southern Africa—Ethnographic Contextualisations of Rock Art Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Sullivan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The snake is a potent entity in many cultures across the world, and is a noticeable global theme in rock art and inscribed landscapes. We mobilise our long-term ethnographic research with southern African KhoeSan peoples to situate and interpret the presence of snake motifs in the region’s rock art. We contextualise the snake as a transformative ontological mediator between everyday and “entranced” KhoeSan worlds (those associated with “altered states of consciousness”, to weave together both mythological and shamanistic interpretations of southern African rock art. Ethnographic explorations of experiences of snakes as both an aspect of natural history and the physical environment, and as embodiments of multiplicitous and mythical meaning by which to live and understand life, shed light on the presence of snakes and associated snake-themes in southern African rock art. By drawing on ethnographic material, and in conjunction with review of literature, we highlight a dynamic assemblage of extant associations between snakes, rain, water, fertility, blood, fat, transformation, dance and healing. We suggest that these extant associations have explanatory potential for understanding the meaning of these themes in the rock art created by the ancestors of contemporary KhoeSan peoples. Our paper contributes to a live debate regarding the interpretive relevance of ethnography for understanding rock art representations from the past.

  6. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) among recently captured Brazilian snakes Prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) em serpentes recém-capturadas no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    L.H. O'Dwyer; T. C. Moço; T. H. Barrella; F.C. Vilela; R.J. Silva

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7%) we...

  7. Uso del hábitat por Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae) durante la estación seca en Córdoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Attademo, Andrés; Bertona, Miguel; Kozykariski, Mónica; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    El análisis sobre el uso del hábitat es una herramienta fundamental para la conservación y el manejo de las poblaciones silvestres. Cuantificar los cambios en el uso de recursos asociados con la reproducción puede ofrecer una idea de las fuerzas selectivas que actúan sobre los organismos durante esta fase crítica de su historia de vida. Se ha observado en distintas especies de ofidios que hembras grávidas frecuentan hábitats distintos de los que utilizan hembras no grávidas y machos, por lo q...

  8. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: boidae), un mecanismo de localización de la especie

    OpenAIRE

    Silmara Cervantes, Raquel; Chiaraviglio de Torres, Margarita

    1999-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente...

  9. Uso del hábitat por Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: boidae) durante la estación seca en Córdoba, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Attademo, Andrés; Bertona, Miguel; Kozykariski, Mónica L.; Chiaraviglio de Torres, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    El análisis sobre el uso del hábitat es una herramienta fundamental para la conservación y el manejo de las poblaciones silvestres. Cuantificar los cambios en el uso de recursos asociados con la reproducción puede ofrecer una idea de las fuerzas selectivas que actúan sobre los organismos durante esta fase crítica de su historia de vida. Se ha observado en distintas especies de ofidios que hembras grávidas frecuentan hábitats distintos de los que utilizan hembras no grávidas y machos, por lo q...

  10. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae) of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso; A. Zelanis; M. F. D. Furtado

    2010-01-01

    Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis) has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Labora...

  11. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  12. Comparison of SERPENT and SCALE methodology for LWRs transport calculations and additionally uncertainty analysis for cross-section perturbation with SAMPLER module

    OpenAIRE

    Labarile Antonella; Olmo Nicolas; Miró Rafael; Barrachina Teresa; Verdú Gumersindo

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear safety research, the quality of the results of simulation codes is widely determined by the reactor design and safe operation, and the description of neutron transport in the reactor core is a feature of particular importance. Moreover, for the long effort that is made, there remain uncertainties in simulation results due to the neutronic data and input specification that need a huge effort to be eliminated. A realistic estimation of these uncertainties is required for finding out ...

  13. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells; Componentes derivados de venenos de serpentes com acao antitumoral em celulas de melanoma murino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Rodrigo Guimaraes

    2012-07-01

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  14. Infestación por ninfas de pentástomidos del género Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1811) en Hydrodinastes gigas (Ophidia, colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, F. A.; Troiano, Juan Carlos; Gauna Añasco, L.; Fescina, N.; Jara, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    Se presenta el hallazgo y la descripción macro y microscópicas de las lesiones halladas en pulmones de un ejemplar de Hydrodinastes gigas (ñacanina) en el Nordeste argentino. De acuerdo con la localización y con los hallazgos histopatológicos se concluye que se trata de un caso de infestación por ninfas de pentastómidos del género Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1811), siendo ésta la primera cita en el país para el hospedador referido. Se discuten aspectos relacionados con el hospedador final, su cic...

  15. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MABUYA BERENGERAE, MABUYA PERGRAVIS (SQUAMATA: SCINCIDAE Y CONIOPHANES ANDRESENSIS (SQUAMATA: COLUBRIDAE Y EVALUACIÓN DE SU ESTADO DE AMENAZA EN LAS ISLAS DE SAN ANDRÉS Y PROVIDENCIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ RANCES CAICEDO-PORTILLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta nueva información sobre la taxonomía, la distribución y la historia natural de los lagartos Mabuya berengerae y M. pergravis; así como de la serpiente Coniophanes andresensis, tres especies endémicas y poco conocidas de las islas de San Andrés y Providencia, las cuales se creían muy raras e incluso extintas. A pesar del poco tiempo de estudio en las islas, se evidenció que los lagartos no son raros, encontrándose hasta ocho ejemplares cada media hora. La evaluación del estado de conservación según los parámetros de la IUCN para las tres especies, clasifica a M. berengerae y M. pergravis como especies casi amenazadas (NT y a C. andresensis como una especie en peligro crítico de extinción (CR. La pequeña área de distribución geográfica, el impacto antrópico y la introducción de especies exóticas pueden ser las principales causas de la disminución de la población de C. andresensis. Se analizaron algunos caracteres taxonómicos en M. berengerae (hasta ahora conocida de un solo ejemplar, encontrándose ciertas discrepancias que hacen necesaria su redefinición. Se recomienda realizar programas de investigación básica, conservación y educación, así como proteger los hábitats naturales de las islas.

  16. Resurrection of Pseudorabdion torquatum (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854), a former synonym of P. longiceps (Cantor, 1847) (Colubridae: Calamariinae) from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Gernot; Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Ineich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The colubrid snake species Pseudorabdion torquatum is resurrected from the synonymy of P. longiceps. Out of the three syntypes, only two were located and examined at Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN-RA). Pseudorabdion torquatum differs from P. longiceps in having a larger SVL (227.0 mm vs. 132.0-193.0 mm in males); higher number of ventral in males, 141 (vs. 127-139); lower number of ventrals in females, 137 (vs. 139-145); lower number of subcaudals in both sexes, 12-17 (vs. 17-30); and six supralabials (vs. five). Pseudorabdion torquatum is thus regarded as a valid and endemic species to Sulawesi. The species is here redescribed and a lectotype is designated. Furthermore we provide an English translation of the original description of Rabdion torquatum which was originally written in French. Thus, besides unconfirmed records of P. longiceps from Sulawesi, there is a single known congener from that island, P. sarasinorum. PMID:27395228

  17. Non-venomous snake bite and snake bite without envenoming in a brazilian teaching hospital: analysis of 91 cases Acidentes por serpentes não-peçonhentas e acidentes por serpentes peçonhentas sem envenenamento em hospital universitário brasileiro: análise de 91 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vitor Portella Silveira; Sérgio de Andrade Nishioka

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 473 cases of snake bite admitted to a Brazilian teaching hospital from 1984 to 1990 revealed 91 cases of bite without envenoming and/or caused by non-venomous snakes. In 17 of these cases the snake was identified, and one patient was bitten by a snake-like reptile (Amphisbaena mertensii). In 43 cases diagnosis was made on clinical grounds (fang marks in the absence of signs of envenoming). The other 30 cases were of patients who complained of being bitten but who did...

  18. Variação de peso e sobrevida de Micrurus corallinus sob diferentes condições de alimentação em biotério (Serpentes, Elapidae Variation of weight and survival rates of Micrurus corallinus under different feeding conditions in laboratory animal rooms (Serpentes, Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Oliveira Serapicos

    Full Text Available The weight variation in Micrurus corallinus (Merrem, 1820 during the first 60 days in laboratory animal rooms was very remarkable. This fact demonstrates the difficulty in adaptation of these animals to the captive environment. The weight loss was observed in animals under voluntary feeding as well as forced feeding. The survival rate was significantly higher in voluntarily fed animals. Sex differences were also observed with higher survival rates for males. Low survival rates were observed in both sexes under forced feeding.

  19. A low-cost method to test cytotoxic effects of Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom on kidney cell cultures Un método de bajo costo para probar los efectos citotóxicos del veneno de Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae) en cultivos de células renales

    OpenAIRE

    Girón, María E.; Irma Aguilar; Lisandro Romero; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.; Alexis Rodriguez-Acosta

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the renal lesion upon envenomation by snakebite has been related to myolysis, hemolysis, hypotension and/or direct venom nephrotoxicity caused by the venom. Both primary and continuous cell culture systems provide an in vitro alternative for quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of snake venoms. Crude Crotalus vegrandis venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. The toxicity of C. vegrandis crude venom, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic fractions were evalua...

  20. A low-cost method to test cytotoxic effects of Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae venom on kidney cell cultures Un método de bajo costo para probar los efectos citotóxicos del veneno de Crotalus vegrandis (Serpentes: Viperidae en cultivos de células renales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Girón

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the renal lesion upon envenomation by snakebite has been related to myolysis, hemolysis, hypotension and/or direct venom nephrotoxicity caused by the venom. Both primary and continuous cell culture systems provide an in vitro alternative for quantitative evaluation of the toxicity of snake venoms. Crude Crotalus vegrandis venom was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. The toxicity of C. vegrandis crude venom, hemorrhagic, and neurotoxic fractions were evaluated on mouse primary renal cells and a continuous cell line of Vero cells maintained in vitro. Cells were isolated from murine renal cortex and were grown in 96 well plates with Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium (DMEM and challenged with crude and venom fractions. The murine renal cortex cells exhibited epithelial morphology and the majority showed smooth muscle actin determined by immune-staining. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the tetrazolium colorimetric method. Cell viability was less for crude venom, followed by the hemorrhagic and neurotoxic fractions with a CT50 of 4.93, 18.41 and 50.22 µg/mL, respectively. The Vero cell cultures seemed to be more sensitive with a CT50 of 2.9 and 1.4 µg/mL for crude venom and the hemorrhagic peak, respectively. The results of this study show the potential of using cell culture system to evaluate venom toxicity.La patogénesis de la lesion renal ha sido relacionada a la miolisis, hemólisis, hipotensión y/o el efecto directo del veneno. Tanto el cultivo primario o el cultivo celular continuo proveen una alternativa in vitro para la evaluación cuantitativa de la toxicidad de venenos de serpiente. El veneno crudo de Crotalus vegrandis fue fraccionado por una cromatografía de exclusión molecular. La toxicidad del veneno crudo de C. vegrandis, sus fracciones hemorrágicas y neurotóxicas fueron evaluadas en células renales primarias de ratón y una línea continua de células Vero mantenidas in vitro. Las células fueron aisladas de la corteza renal murina y se cultivaron en placas de 96 pozos con medio Dulbecco (DMEM. Allí fueron tratadas con el veneno crudo y sus fracciones. Las células de la corteza renal murina tuvieron una morfología de células epiteliales y la mayoría se tiñeron con un anticuerpo anti-músculo actina. La citotoxicidad fue evaluada por el método colorimétrico del tetrazolium. La viabilidad de las células fue menor en las células tratadas con el veneno crudo, seguida por la fracción hemorrágica y neurotóxica, con un CT50 de 4.93, 18.41 y 50.22 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los cultivos de células Vero parecieron ser más sensibles con un CT50 de 2.9 y 1.4 µg/mL para el veneno crudo y el pico hemorrágico, respectivamente. Los resultados de este estudio muestran la potencialidad de usar sistemas de cultivo celular para evaluar la toxicidad de los venenos.

  1. Pulmonary, microbiological and hematological changes in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae) parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae) Alterações Pulmonares, microbiológicas e hematológicas em Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae) parasitadas pelos nematódeos do gênero Rhabdias (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae)

    OpenAIRE

    K.R. Santos; R. K. Takahira; V.L.M. Rall; Calderón, C.; J.L. Sequeira; R.J. Silva

    2008-01-01

    This study reported the pulmonary, microbiological, and hematological alterations in Crotalus durissus terrificus parasitized by nematodes of the genus Rhabdias. Histological, microbiological, and hematological analysis were performed on parasitized (n=6) and non-parasitized (n=6) snakes. Granulocytic and mononuclear cell infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma and epithelium were also observed during the histological analysis of parasitized snakes. Microbiological analysis of parasitized ani...

  2. 77 FR 4810 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ..., great-headed, garlic, lily bulb, pearl onion, potato onion, serpent garlic, shallot, green onion..., fritillaria bulb, great-headed, garlic, lily bulb, pearl onion, potato onion, serpent garlic, shallot, green..., LP, 2 T.W. Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12014, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Active...

  3. Os anéis da serpente: a aprendizagem baseada em problemas e as sociedades de controle The rings of snake: problem-based learning and the societies of control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A premente necessidade de transformar a educação médica brasileira - objetivando formar um profissional mais capaz de dar respostas aos principais problemas de saúde da população - tem aberto perspectivas para a utilização de novas metodologias de ensino-aprendizagem. Neste âmbito, vem se destacando a aprendizagem baseada em problemas (ABP, modalidade de estruturação curricular que tem sido adotada em diferentes instituições de ensino, possuindo, como principais características, a possibilidade de fomentar (1 a aprendizagem significativa, (2 a indissociabilidade entre teoria e prática, (3 o respeito à autonomia do estudante, (4 o trabalho em pequeno grupo, (5 a educação permanente e (6 a avaliação formativa. A despeito de sua indiscutível posição de vanguarda, a ABP pode ser compreendida como uma forma para o exercício do poder no contexto de um nascente modus de organização social: as sociedades de controle. Discutir esta questão é o escopo do presente artigo.The imperative need for modifying the Brazilian medical education - aiming at the formation of a professional more capable to answer the population’s main health problems - has opened the possibility for the use of new teaching methodologies. In this scenario, the Problem Based Learning (PBL outstands as the curriculum structuring tool adopted in several institutions, showing as main characteristics the capability of fostering (1 significant learning, (2 the undissociated link between theory and practice, (3 the respect for the student’s autonomy, (4 the work in small groups, (5 the permanent education and (6 the formative evaluation. Despite its indisputable leading position, PBL can be understood as a way to exercise power in the context of an emerging modus of social organization: the societies of control.

  4. Alsophinase, a new P-III metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic and hemorrhagic activity from the venom of the rear-fanged Puerto Rican Racer Alsophis portoricensis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Caroline L; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2012-05-01

    Metalloproteinases from snake venoms are often multi-domain enzymes involved in degradation of a variety of structural proteins. Hemorrhage and tissue necrosis are common manifestations of viperid envenomations in humans, largely due to the actions of prominent metalloproteinases, and envenomation by rear-fanged snakes may also cause hemorrhage. We purified the major metalloproteinase in Alsophis portoricensis (Puerto Rican Racer) venom through HPLC size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Named alsophinase, it is the first protein purified and characterized from the venom of Alsophis. Alsophinase is a single polypeptide chain protein, and based on mass, activity and complete inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline, it is a class P-III snake venom member of the M12 ADAM family of metalloproteinases. Alsophinase has a molecular mass of 56.003kDa and an N-terminal sequence of QDTYLNAKKYIEFYLVVDNGMFxKYSxxFTV, with 67% sequence identity to a metalloproteinase isolated from venom of Philodryas olfersii (another rear-fanged species). Alsophinase rapidly catalyzed cleavage of only the Ala14-Leu15 bond of oxidized insulin B chain, had potent hemorrhagic activity in mice, and degraded only the α-subunit of human fibrinogen in vitro. Alsophinase is responsible for hemorrhagic and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude venom, and it may contribute to localized edema and ecchymosis associated with human envenomations by A. portoricensis. It may be more specific in peptide bond recognition than many well-characterized viperid P-III metalloproteinases, and it could have utility as a new protein fragmentation enzyme for mass spectrometry studies. PMID:22349739

  5. Herpetofauna of the quaternary sand dunes of the middle Rio São Francisco: Bahia: Brazil. VII.: Typhlops amoipira sp. nov., a possible relative of Typhlops yonenagae (Serpentes, Typhlopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of a small typhlopid snake is described from Ibiraba, in the sand- dune area of the left bank of Rio São Francisco, State of Bahia, Brazil. Typhlops amoipira sp. nov. is a small, light brown, and slightly pigmented Typhlops characterized by an incomplete nasal suture,18 scale rows around the body (SAB, and 212-242 dorsal scales. The geographic and morphologically closer species, Typhlops yonenagae (18 SAB, 259-291 dorsals lives in the same area, in the sands of the opposite side of the river.Descreve-se uma nova espécie de Typhlops de Ibiraba, no campo de dunas da margem esquerda do Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brasil. Typhlops amoipira sp. nov. é um pequeno tiflopídeo castanho claro, pouco pigmentado, caracterizado por apresentar 18 fileiras de escamas ao redor do corpo e 212 a 242 dorsais. A espécie geográfica e morfologicamente mais próxima, Typhlops yonenagae, ocorre na mesma área, nas areias da margem oposta do rio e, embora também tenha 18 fileiras de escamas ao redor do corpo, apresenta 259 a 291 escamas dorsais.

  6. BOGATYR’S IMAGE IN THE 18TH-CENTURY RUSSIAN LITERATURE: GAVRILA DERZHAVIN’S "OPERA" "DOBRYNYA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova O. V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literary transformation of an epic text. The author glorifies conversion of the Rus’ from paganism to Christianity, humbling the Serpent and the sacrificers.

  7. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Laurent Garnier, Bugge Wesseltoft, Philippe Nadaud, Benjamin Rippert "Public Out Burst", Enthroned "Tetra Karcist", Bruce Springsteen with the Sessions Band "Live in Dublin", Tuxedomoon "Vapour Trails", Atreyu "Lead Sails Paper Anchor", Still Remains "The Serpent"

  8. 1) Mis teile praeguses eesti kirjanduses ei meeldi? 2) Mida tuleks teha, et asi läheks nii, nagu teile meeldib? : [küsitlus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Vastavad : Vaapo Vaher, Elo Lindsalu, Olev Remsu, Jüri Ehlvest, François Serpent, Sven Kivisildnik, Linnar Priimägi, Aino Pervik, Mati Unt, Contra, Fagira D. Morti, Aapo Ilves, Aarne Ruben, Juku-Kalle Raid

  9. RICIS Software Engineering 90 Symposium: Aerospace Applications and Research Directions Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at RICIS Software Engineering Symposium are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: synthesis - integrating product and process; Serpent - a user interface management system; prototyping distributed simulation networks; and software reuse.

  10. Noteworthy records of reptiles from natural open vegetation areas in plateau and coastal areas of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris and Bothrops pubescens. Aspects of the distribution and conservation of these species are discussed briefly.

  11. Ophiotaenia bungari n. sp. (Cestoda), a parasite of Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Ophidia: Elapidae) from Vietnam, with comments on relative ovarian size as a new and potentially useful diagnostic character for proteocephalidean tapeworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Binh, T. T.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2012), s. 39-50. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PALEARCTIC REGION * EUCESTODA * identification * COLUBRIDAE * PHYLOGENY * EVOLUTION * PARAGUAY * FISHES Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012

  12. Human envenomation by an aglyphous colubrid snake, Liophis miliaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Costa, María Cristina; Di Bernardo, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil, some snakes of the family Colubridae usually regarded as not venomous, are responsable by serious and even so fatal accidents. Some opisthoglyphous snakes that occur in southern Brazil. as Philodrias olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823), Boiruna maculata (Boulenger, 1896), Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus Boulenger. 1889 and Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858) deserve greatest attention because they have already caused human envenomation as reported by many authors (Hoge, 1952; Lema...

  13. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    OpenAIRE

    MG Fonseca; WMQ Moreira; KC Cunha; ACMG Ribeiro; MTG Almeida

    2009-01-01

    The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium ...

  14. New reports on parasitism by Haplometroides buccicola (Digenea, Plagiorchiidae) in Brazilian snakes

    OpenAIRE

    KR Santos; TH Barrella; EOP Zica; RJ Silva

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Haplometroides buccicola (Digenea, Plagiorchiidae) in the esophagus of two Brazilian snakes is reported in the present study. The trematodes were collected from one Micrurus corallinus (Elapidae) and one Phalotris lativittatus (Colubridae); both snakes were found in Botucatu city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Morphological and morphometric analyses of the trematodes are presented. For the first time Micrurus corallinus has been recorded as a host for H. buccicola and this is the...

  15. Commented distributional list of the Reptiles of Mauritania (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Padial, J M

    2006-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive review of the reptiles of Mauritania. It includes distributional information and comments. Mauritania harbors 86 species of reptiles belonging to 21 families. Among these families, Colubridae and Lacertidae are the most diverse, with 14 and 13 species respectively. Other families, such as Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae or Viperidae are also well represented. Among the 80 continental species, 47.5% are Saharan, 33.8% Afrotropical, 16.2% Sahelian and 2.5% Medite...

  16. Beyond size–number trade-offs: clutch size as a maternal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research on life-history traits has viewed the link between clutch size and offspring size as a straightforward linear trade-off; the product of these two components is taken as a measure of maternal reproductive output. Investing more per egg results in fewer but larger eggs and, hence, offspring. This simple size–number trade-off has proved attractive to modellers, but our experimental studies on keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae) reveal a more complex relatio...

  17. On the use of the SPH method in nodal diffusion analyses of SFR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 3D nodal diffusion analyses of an SFR core with DYN3D and PARCS. • Homogenized group constants are generated by Serpent Monte Carlo code. • SPH method is applied to correct the homogenized group constants. • DYN3D and PARCS results are verified against full core Monte Carlo solution. • SPH correction improves the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions. - Abstract: A number of recent studies successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using Monte Carlo code Serpent to generate few-group cross sections (XS) for full core nodal diffusion analyses of SFR cores. The current study investigated the potential of the SPH method, applied to correct the few-group XS produced by Serpent, to further improve the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions. The procedure for the generation of SPH-corrected few-group XS is presented in the paper. The performance of the SPH method was tested on a large oxide SFR core from the OECD/NEA SFR benchmark. The reference SFR core was modeled with the DYN3D and PARCS nodal diffusion codes using the SPH-corrected few-group XS generated by Serpent. The nodal diffusion results obtained with and without SPH correction were compared to the reference full-core Serpent MC solution. It was demonstrated that the application of the SPH method improves the accuracy of the nodal diffusion solutions, particularly for the rodded core state

  18. Comment on Spracklandus Hoser, 2009 (Reptilia, Serpentes, ELAPIDAE): request for confirmation of availability of the generic name and for the nomenclatural validation of the journal in which it was published (Case 3601; BZN 70:234–237; 71:30–38; 133-135,181-182 ,252-253)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, Anders G.J.; Kaiser, Hinrich; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Wüster, Wolfgang; O’Shea, Mark; Archer, Michael; Auliya, Mark; Boitani, Luigi; Bour, Roger; Clausnitzer, Viola; Contreras-MacBeath, Topiltzin; Crother, Brian I.; Daza, Juan M.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Frazier, Jack; Fritz, Uwe; Gardner, Alfred L.; Gascon, Claude; Georges, Arthur; Glaw, Frank; Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Groves, Colin P.; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Havaš, Peter; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoffmann, Michael; Hoogmoed, Marinus S.; Horne, Brian D.; Iverson, John B.; Jäch, Manfred; Jenkins, Christopher L.; Jenkins, Richard K.B.; Kiester, A. Ross; Keogh, J. Scott; Lacher, Thomas E., Jr.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Luiselli, Luca; Mahler, D. Luke; Mallon, David P.; Mast, Roderic; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Measey, John; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Molur, Sanjay; Mosbrugger, Volker; Murphy, Robert W.; Naish, Darren; Niekisch, Manfred; Ota, Hidetoshi; Parham, James F.; Parr, Michael J.; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Pine, Ronald H.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Sanderson, James G.; Savage, Jay M.; Schleip, Wulf; Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Smith, Eric N.; Sprackland, Robert; Stuart, Simon N.; Vetter, Holger; Vitt, Laurie J.; Waller, Tomás; Webb, Grahame; Wilson, Edward O.; Zaher, Hussam; Thomson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    In Case 3601 Raymond Hoser has asked the Commission to validate for the purposes of nomenclature the name Spracklandus Hoser, 2009, and ‘the journal in which it was published,’ issue 7 of the Australasian Journal of Herpetology (AJH). We note that the entire run of AJH has been written, edited, and published solely by Hoser. Although his requests to the Commission were presented as narrow and, in his words, ‘routine matters,’ we are convinced that they represent an important tipping-point with broad implications of major concern for zoological taxonomy and nomenclature as a whole and, by extension, the greater scientific community. Since Hoser’s actions and works have failed to follow scientific best practices (e.g. Turtle Taxonomy Working Group, 2007, 2014; Kaiser et al., 2013; Kaiser, 2014) and both the Commission’s general Recommendations and Code of Ethics in Appendix A, the global herpetological community has widely rejected his taxonomic decisions and resultant nomenclature. This has unfortunately caused a confusing dual nomenclature to develop in the herpetological community, with most boycotting or ignoring Hoser’s 700+ new names coined in the AJH, while he and a few personal followers actively promote their usage. We believe that suppression of the name Spracklandus, and all issues of AJH, is the only effective way to bring this contentious and confusing issue to resolution. The plenary power available under Article 81.1 of the Code exist specifically to allow the Commission to make rulings in individual cases that disturb stability and cause confusion, whether the works are Code-compliant or not. We maintain that it is in the interest of nomenclatural stability, not only for herpetology, but for all of zoological taxonomy, that the plenary power be invoked to declare the works in AJH unavailable, regardless of any narrow interpretation of their technical Code-compliance. We present our arguments for rejection of the validity of AJH in the following commentary. In view of the wide-reaching implications of this case for all of zoology, and reflecting the deep and broad-based community concern over these issues, our contributing authors include 70 global scientific leaders and accomplished amateurs from a wide variety of zoological disciplines.

  19. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with {sup 60} Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis; Avaliacao da atividade de diferentes venenos de serpentes, nativos ou irradiados, com radiacao gama de {sup 60} Co, quanto ao poder inibitorio do crescimento de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK{sub 2} mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of {sup 60}Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  20. ТЕРМОБИОЛОГИЯ ОБЫКНОВЕННОЙ ГАДЮКИ (VIPERA BERUS, REPTILIA, SERPENTES) В ВОЛЖСКОМ БАССЕЙНЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Литвинов, Н.; Ганщук, С.

    2007-01-01

    Герпетологические исследования на кафедре зоологии Пермского государственного педагогического университета начались с 1996 г. Основные интересы лежат в области изучения температурных адаптаций рептилий, электрической активности сердца в режиме переменных температур, морфологии и биохимии крови. Собран значительный материал по термобиологии обыкновенной гадюки в Волжском бассейне. По основным температурным параметрам выявлены различия между ее светлой и черной морфами....

  1. Accidents caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides in the State of Paraiba: epidemiological and clinical aspects Acidentes causados por serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Bothropoides no Estado da Paraíba: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Fagner Neves Oliveira; Monalisa Taveira Brito; Isabel Cristina Oliveira de Morais; Sayonara Maria Lia Fook; Helder Neves de Albuquerque

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bothrops and Bothropoides snakes cause 70% of the ophidic accidents in Brazil. The species that cause ophidic accidents in State of Paraíba are Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus and Bothropoides neuwiedi. METHODS: This is a prospective and transverse study, following a quantitative approach of accidents involving Bothrops and Bothropoides admitted to the Toxicological Assistance and Information Centers of Campina Grande and João Pessoa (Ceatox-CG and Ceatox-JP), aimed...

  2. On the use of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method for lattice physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a general overview of the Serpent Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code. The Serpent code is a project carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, in an effort to extend the use of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method to lattice physics applications, including group constant generation for coupled full-core reactor simulator calculations. The main motivation of going from deterministic transport methods to Monte Carlo simulation is the capability to model any fuel or reactor type using the same fundamental neutron interaction data without major approximations. This capability is considered important especially for the development of next-generation reactor technology, which often lies beyond the modeling capabilities of conventional LWR codes. One of the main limiting factors for the Monte Carlo method is still today the prohibitively long computing time, especially in burnup calculation. The Serpent code uses certain dedicated calculation techniques to overcome this limitation. The overall running time is reduced significantly, in some cases by almost two orders of magnitude. The main principles of the calculation methods and the general capabilities of the code are introduced. The results section presents a collection of validation cases in which Serpent calculations are compared to reference MCNP4C and CASMO-4E results. (author)

  3. Chimerism in health, transplantation and autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Marije; Kremer Hovinga, Idske Cornelia Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The term “chimerism” originates from Greek mythology and refers to the creature Chimaera, whose body was in front a lion, the back a serpent and the midsection a goat. In medicine, the term chimerism refers to an individual, organ or part consisting of tissues of diverse genetic constitution. Pregna

  4. Kõige olulisemate Prantsuse kirjandusauhindade väljakuulutamine langeb novembri algusele / Lauri Eesmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eesmaa, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Académie Franȧise'i romaanipreemia sai Bernard du Boucheron romaani "Court serpent" ("Lühike madu") eest. Goncourt'i preemia sai Laurent Gaudé romaani "La soleil des Scorta" ("Scortade päike" eest). Redaunot' preemia määrati postuumselt Irene Némirovsky romaanile "Suite Franȧise"

  5. Software engineering activities at SEI (Software Engineering Institute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittister, Clyde

    1990-01-01

    Prototyping was shown to ease system specification and implementation, especially in the area of user interfaces. Other prototyping approaches do not allow for the evolution of the prototype into a production system or support maintenance after the system is fielded. A set of goals is presented for a modern user interface environment and Serpent, a prototype implementation that achieves these goals, is described.

  6. English instructor and young adult author fights for teen literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Tiffany Trent, an English instructor at Virginia Tech, has been chosen as one of 31 teen authors in the nation to promote teen literacy this month. In addition, independent booksellers have nominated Trent's first book, In the Serpent's Coils, as a BookSense Pick for Autumn.

  7. Los reptiles del Delta del Orinoco, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, César; Señaris, josefa; Rivas, Gilson

    2004-01-01

    Como resultado de cinco años (1992-1997) de exploraciones herpetológicas, revisiones bibliográficas y examen de museos nacionales, se presenta un análisis taxonómico, ecológico y biogeográfico preliminar de los reptiles del delta del río Orinoco, Estado Delta Amacuro. Se reconocen 70 especies de reptiles agrupados en tres órdenes, 22 familias y 53 géneros. El orden Squamata es el más diverso, con dominancia de las serpientes de la familias Colubridae y Boidae, y los lagartos de las familias G...

  8. New reports on parasitism by Haplometroides buccicola (Digenea, Plagiorchiidae in Brazilian snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Haplometroides buccicola (Digenea, Plagiorchiidae in the esophagus of two Brazilian snakes is reported in the present study. The trematodes were collected from one Micrurus corallinus (Elapidae and one Phalotris lativittatus (Colubridae; both snakes were found in Botucatu city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Morphological and morphometric analyses of the trematodes are presented. For the first time Micrurus corallinus has been recorded as a host for H. buccicola and this is the second time that P. lativittatus has been reported as a host for this trematode species.

  9. The Finding of a Group IIE Phospholipase A2 Gene in a Specified Segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis Genome and Its Possible Evolutionary Relationship to Group IIA Phospholipase A2 Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuaki Yamaguchi; Takahito Chijiwa; Naoki Ikeda; Hiroki Shibata; Yasuyuki Fukumaki; Naoko Oda-Ueda; Shosaku Hattori; Motonori Ohno

    2014-01-01

    The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. Th...

  10. toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.

  11. ПОДВИДОВАЯ ПРИНАДЛЕЖНОСТЬ ОБЫКНОВЕННОЙ ГАДЮКИ (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE) ИЗ ВОРОНЕЖСКОЙ И ЛИПЕЦКОЙ ОБЛАСТЕЙ

    OpenAIRE

    Ушаков, Михаил; Зиненко, Александр

    2013-01-01

    Subspecies diagnostics of Pelias berus from Voronezh and Lipetsk Provinces was carried out by discriminant analysis of characters of the pholidosis. It was detected that features of the number of ventral and loreal scales made the most important contribution to subspecies determination. As a result of analysis the vipers of both Voronezh and Lipetsk Provinces were classified as Nykolsky’s viper. At the same time features have intermediate character from P. b. nikolskii to P. b. berus.

  12. Purification and characterization of patagonfibrase, a metalloproteinase showing alpha-fibrinogenolytic and hemorrhagic activities, from Philodryas patagoniensis snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, M E; Teibler, P; Mackessy, S P; Leiva, L; Acosta, O; Gonçalves, L R C; Tanaka-Azevedo, A M; Santoro, M L

    2007-05-01

    Venoms of Colubridae snakes are a rich source of novel compounds, which may have applications in medicine and biochemistry. In the present study, we describe the purification and characterization of a metalloproteinase (patagonfibrase), the first protein to be isolated from Philodryas patagoniensis (Colubridae) snake venom. Patagonfibrase is a single-chain protein, showing a molecular mass of 53,224 Da and an acidic isoelectric point (5.8). It hydrolyzed selectively the Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen and when incubated with fibrinogen or plasma, the thrombin clotting time was prolonged. Prominent hemorrhage developed in mouse skin after intradermal injection of patagonfibrase. When administered into mouse gastrocnemius muscle, it induced local hemorrhage and necrosis, and systemic bleeding in lungs. Patagonfibrase showed proteolytic activity toward azocasein, which was enhanced by Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), cysteine, dithiothreitol and Na(2)EDTA. Patagonfibrase impaired platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP. Thus, patagonfibrase may play a key role in the pathogenesis of disturbances that occur in P. patagoniensis envenomation, and may be used as a biological tool to explore many facets of hemostasis. PMID:17306461

  13. Elaphe moellendorffi Was Discovered in Libo County, Guizhou Province%贵州省荔波发现百花锦蛇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莉; 宋先华; 蒋鸿; 马志军; 周江

    2013-01-01

    During the survey on the vertebrate animal diversity in Libo of the World Natural Heritage-South China Karst from July 2010 to August 2012,five specimens of snakes of the Colubridae were captured at Banzhai,Yaoshan,Wengang and Dongtang in Libo County,Guizhou Province.These specimens all were identified as Elaphe moellendorffi,which is the first record of Colubridae in Guizhou Province.%2010年7月~2012年8月,在贵州省荔波南方喀斯特世界自然遗产地进行脊椎动物物种多样性调查时,分别在板寨、瑶山、翁昂和洞塘采集到游蛇科蛇类标本共5条,经分类鉴定为锦蛇属(Elaphe)的百花锦蛇(E.moellendorffi),为该物种在贵州省内首次发现,增加了其在国内的分布点.

  14. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rita Maria Zucatelli Mendonça; Aurora Marques Cianciarullo; Leonardo Setsuo Kobashi; Hermínio Gomes Trindade; Wilson Fernandes; José Ricardo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino d...

  15. On applicability of the 3D nodal code DYN3D for the analysis of SFR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DYN3D is an advanced multi-group nodal diffusion code originally developed for the 3D steady-state and transient analysis of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) systems with square and hexagonal fuel assembly geometries. The main objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using DYN3D for the modeling of Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs). In this study a prototypic European Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) core is simulated by DYN3D using homogenized multi-group cross sections produced with Monte Carlo (MC) reactor physics code Serpent. The results of the full core DYN3D calculations are in a very good agreement with the reference full core Serpent MC solution. (author)

  16. Stars in the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The population of spherical clusters (the old Galaxy objects) is considered on a popular level. The origin of spherical clusters, the process of star enrichment by heavy elements are explained. Presented are the photographs of spherical clusters of the Galaxy, of the Serpent and Berenices Hair constellations. The possible evolutions of spherical cluster stars in the Hertzsprung-RUssel diagram is discussed. Considered is the star lifetime in the main sequence. The branches of red giants, pulsating stars are given. Presented are the Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams for a spherical cluster, marked with a band of instability, and the diagram for M5 cluster in the Serpent constellation obtained from observations. Tracked is the evolution of spherical cluster stars up to the formation of pulsars, white dwarf stars, neutron stars and black holes

  17. The Educational Pipelinie for Women in Biology: No Longer Leaking?

    OpenAIRE

    Luckenbill-Edds, Louise

    2002-01-01

    Describing the past 30 years of progress toward gender equity in science, one observer wrote: "Although optimistic about future prospects, I must also point out some daunting toads and serpents lurking in the gardens of science. These challenge the rising generation of young scientists to be no less intrepid [that past activists who catalyzed change]" (Herschbach 1999, p. 66). The failure of the sciences to attract and retain women has meant a loss of diversity, as well as a loss of talent ...

  18. Vikergallup : eesti kirjandus 2000 : [vastused Vikerkaare küsimustele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Aut.: Epp Annus, Andres Aule, Veiko Belials, Jan Kaus, Andrus Kivirähk, Leo Luks, Hedda Maurer, Anneli Mihkelev, Marko Mägi, Aare Pilv, Jürgen Rooste, Aarne Ruben, Mihkel Samarüütel, François Serpent, Ivar Sild, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Jaak Urmet. 2000. a. parimaks uudisraamatuks tunnistati Andrus Kivirähu "Rehepapp ehk November" ja parimaks esikraamatuks Wimbergi [Jaak Urmet] "Maaaraamat"

  19. Monte Carlo methodologies for neutron streaming in diffusion calculations - Application to directional diffusion coefficients and leakage models in XS generation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorval, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Neutron transport calculations by Monte Carlo methods are finding increased application in nuclear reactor simulations. In particular, a versatile approach entails the use of a 2-step pro-cedure, with Monte Carlo as a few-group cross section data generator at lattice level, followed by deterministic multi-group diffusion calculations at core level. In this thesis, the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code is used in order to test a set of diffusion coefficient model...

  20. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  1. Action of the Caenorhabditis elegans GATA factor END-1 in Xenopus suggests that similar mechanisms initiate endoderm development in ecdysozoa and vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Shoichet, Sarah A.; Malik, Talat H.; Rothman, Joel H.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2000-01-01

    In ecdysozoan protostomes, including arthropods and nematodes, transcription factors of the GATA family specify the endoderm: Drosophila dGATAb (ABF/Serpent) and Caenorhabditis elegans END-1 play important roles in generating this primary germ layer. end-1 is the earliest expressed endoderm-specific gene known in C. elegans and appears to initiate the program of gene expression required for endoderm differentiation, including a cascade of GATA factors required for development and maintenance ...

  2. Methods and Models for the Coupled Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis of the CROCUS Reactor at EFPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the CROCUS reactor, several methods and models need to be developed in the areas of reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, and multiphysics coupling. The long-term objectives of this project are to work towards the development of a modern method for the safety analysis of research reactors and to update the Final Safety Analysis Report of the CROCUS reactor. A first part of the paper deals with generation of a core simulator nuclear data library for the CROCUS reactor using the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code and also with reactor core modeling using the PARCS code. PARCS eigenvalue, radial power distribution, and control rod reactivity worth results were benchmarked against Serpent 2 full-core model results. Using the Serpent 2 model as reference, PARCS eigenvalue predictions were within 240 pcm, radial power was within 3% in the central region of the core, and control rod reactivity worth was within 2%. A second part reviews the current methodology used for the safety analysis of the CROCUS reactor and presents the envisioned approach for the multiphysics modeling of the reactor.

  3. Modeling of SFR cores with Serpent–DYN3D codes sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Serpent–DYN3D sequence was used for the analysis of an SFR core. ► Homogenized cross sections were generated using Monte-Carlo code Serpent. ► The full core analysis was performed with the nodal diffusion code DYN3D. ► The DYN3D results were compared with those of ERANOS and full core Monte-Carlo solution. - Abstract: DYN3D reactor dynamics nodal diffusion code was originally developed for the analysis of Light Water Reactors. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using DYN3D for modeling of fast spectrum reactors. A homogenized cross sections data library was generated using continuous energy Monte-Carlo code Serpent which provides significant modeling flexibility compared with traditional deterministic lattice transport codes and tolerable execution time. A representative sodium cooled fast reactor core was modeled with the Serpent–DYN3D code sequence and the results were compared with those produced by ERANOS code and with a 3D full core Monte-Carlo solution. Very good agreement between the codes was observed for the core integral parameters and power distribution suggesting that the DYN3D code with cross section library generated using Serpent can be reliably used for the analysis of fast reactors

  4. The Numerical Multi-Physics project (NUMPS) at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Numerical Multi-Physics (NUMPS) project was initiated at VTT in 2012. • The project aims to develop high-fidelity calculation methods for reactor analysis. • Internal and external coupling of neutronics, thermal hydraulics and fuel behavior. • Focus is on calculation codes developed at VTT: Serpent 2, PORFLO, COSY, FINIX. - Abstract: The four-year Numerical Multi-Physics (NUMPS) project funded by the Academy of Finland was initiated at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in September 2012, for the purpose of studying and developing high-fidelity computational methods for nuclear reactor analysis. The project is built around calculation codes developed at VTT, and it aims at the coupled three-dimensional modeling of neutronics, thermal hydraulics and fuel behavior of nuclear reactors. The work involves the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code Serpent and CFD code PORFLO, together with two light-weight solvers, COSY and FINIX, coupled to Serpent at source code level. This paper is a review on the current status and development activities, reflecting the status of the NUMPS project at the beginning of its second complete year

  5. Computation of a Canadian SCWR unit cell with deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian SCWR has the potential to achieve the goals that the generation IV nuclear reactors must meet. As part of the optimization process for this design concept, lattice cell calculations are routinely performed using deterministic codes. In this study, the first step (self-shielding treatment) of the computation scheme developed with the deterministic code DRAGON for the Canadian SCWR has been validated. Some options available in the module responsible for the resonance self-shielding calculation in DRAGON 3.06 and different microscopic cross section libraries based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data file have been tested and compared to a reference calculation performed with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT under the same conditions. Compared to SERPENT, DRAGON underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in all cases. In general, the original Stammler model with the Livolant-Jeanpierre approximations are the most appropriate self-shielding options to use in this case of study. In addition, the 89 groups WIMS-AECL library for slight enriched uranium and the 172 groups WLUP library for a mixture of plutonium and thorium give the most consistent results with those of SERPENT. (authors)

  6. Estado actual del registro de escamados extinguidos de América del Sur y sus implicancias paleoambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino, Adriana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The record of the South American fossil Squamata extends from the Late Cretaceous to the Holocene. The recorded families are Iguanidae s.l., Teiidae, Gekkonidae, ?Scincidae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Aniliidae, Colubridae and Viperidae Dinilysiidae from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia and Palaeopheidae from the Late Eocene of Ecuador are the only known extinct recorded families. The families distribution during the Cretaceous and most of the Tertiary apparently was more extensive than at present, due to more generalized subtropical climatic conditions. The geological events during the Cenozoic would have caused climatic and environmental changes that would have favoured the appeareance of new adaptative types and the restriction in the distribution of many forms.

  7. Bites by the colubrid snake Philodryas olfersii: a clinical and epidemiological study of 43 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L A; Puorto, G; Jorge, M T

    1999-06-01

    Less than 10 cases of bites by Philodryas olfersii (Colubridae) have been reported in the literature. In this study, 43 patients admitted to the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil, with the diagnosis of P. olfersii bite from 1982 to 1990 were reviewed. The 32 male (74.4%) and 11 female (25.6%) patients presented mainly from November to February (65%). The most common clinical features were local pain (37.2%), swelling (34.9%), erythema (18.6%) and ecchymosis (9.3%). The 20 minute whole blood clotting test was performed in 11 patients and in all of them the blood was coagulable. Most of the accidents occurred during the hottest months and during daylight hours. The most common bite site was the hands. Severe envenoming is not frequent in these accidents. PMID:10340833

  8. New data on Pleistocene and Holocene herpetofauna of Marie Galante (Blanchard Cave, Guadeloupe Islands, French West Indies): Insular faunal turnover and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, S.; Bochaton, C.; Lenoble, A.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents the herpetofaunal remains collected from Blanchard Cave (Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe Archipelago). This site has yielded the oldest stratigraphic layers (around 40,000 BP) of the island, along with data concerning the herpetofaunal biodiversity of the island from the Late Pleistocene to pre-Columbian and modern times. The study of these fossil remains reveals the presence of at least 11 amphibian and squamata taxa (Eleutherodactylus cf. martinicensis, Iguana sp., Anolis ferreus, Leiocephalus cf. cuneus, Thecadactylus cf. rapicauda, cf. Capitellum mariagalantae, Ameiva sp., cf. Antillotyphlops, Boa sp., Alsophis sp. and Colubridae sp. 2) during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene on Marie-Galante Island and provides new evidence concerning extinction times and the introduced or native status of taxa. This study also reveals that this bone assemblage is the result of diverse accumulation processes and provides new morphological data on the past herpetofauna of Marie-Galante.

  9. First description of the nymph and larva of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae), parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent reexamination of collection lots stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed adult specimens of Dermacentor compactus Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae) reared from field-collected nymphs, which allowed us to associate field-collected unidentified nymphs and larvae with this species. Nymphs of D. compactus can be easily distinguished from those of other congeneric species by the shape of the scutum and spiracular plate, the hypostome dentition, and the size of the spurs on the coxae. Larvae of this species can be distinguished by the shape and sculpture of the scutum, the shape of basis capituli, the absence of auriculae, and the size of the spurs on coxae II and III. Both nymphs and larvae feed mostly on various species of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Considerably fewer nymphs and larvae were found on murid rodents (Rodentia: Muridae), domestic dogs (Carnivora: Canidae), and a snake (Squamata: Colubridae). PMID:27095664

  10. Stable isotope tracer reveals that viviparous snakes transport amino acids to offspring during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Beaupre, Steven J

    2012-03-01

    Viviparity and placentation have evolved from oviparity over 100 times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). The independent origins of placentation have resulted in a variety of placental morphologies in different taxa, ranging from simple apposition of fetal and maternal tissues to endotheliochorial implantation that is homoplasious with mammalian placentation. Because the eggs of oviparous squamates transport gases and water from the environment and calcium from the eggshell, the placentae of viviparous squamates are thought to have initially evolved to accomplish these functions from within the maternal oviduct. Species with complex placentae have also been shown to rely substantially, or even primarily, on placental transport of organic nutrients for embryonic nutrition. However, it is unclear whether species with only simple placentae are also capable of transporting organic nutrients to offspring. Among viviparous squamates, all of the snakes that have been studied thus far have been shown to have simple placentae. However, most studies of snake placentation are limited to a single lineage, the North American Natricinae. We tested the abilities of four species of viviparous snakes - Agkistrodon contortrix (Viperidae), Boa constrictor (Boidae), Nerodia sipedon (Colubridae: Natricinae) and Thamnophis sirtalis (Colubridae: Natricinae) - to transport diet-derived amino acids to offspring during gestation. We fed [(15)N]leucine to pregnant snakes, and compared offspring (15)N content with that of unlabeled controls. Labeled females allocated significantly more (15)N to offspring than did controls, but (15)N allocation did not differ among species. Our results indicate that viviparous snakes are capable of transporting diet-derived amino acids to their offspring during gestation, possibly via placentation. PMID:22323198

  11. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  13. Methodology assessment for the evaluation of the coolant void worth in Sodium Fast Reactors with a low void effect core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the recent renewed interest in Sodium Fast Reactor cores featuring a low coolant void worth, an attempt was made to perform a methodology assessment for the evaluation of such non-conventional designs’ performance characteristics, which might not be accurately predicted by traditional reactor physics deterministic methods. The Monte Carlo code Serpent was employed to provide the reference solutions, thanks to both its capability to model complex 3D geometries and its continuous energy representation of cross-sections. Serpent results were then compared with ERANOS multi-group, 2D and 3D, transport and diffusion theory predictions. A reasonably good agreement was found among the calculated nominal reactor parameters (e.g., reactivity, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron generation time) and coolant void worth involving perturbations of the active core regions. Major discrepancies occur when voiding both fuel zones and the large sodium plenum above the core, though. In such cases, further investigations were carried out concerning the impact of computational options at a cross-section generation level, for instance relative to spectrum and leakage approximations for sub-critical regions. It may be concluded that the former (i.e., 33 vs. 175 energy groups condensation) have an impact of the order of 200 pcm on absolute reactivity values, but does not affect reactivity variations, whereas the latter (i.e., imposed buckling values) play a substantial role, inducing differences between Serpent and ERANOS of up to 35%. Finally, the limits of variational nodal methods in treating very low density zones were confirmed, being particularly critical when employing fine energy group structures. (author)

  14. Coupling of system thermal–hydraulics and Monte-Carlo code: Convergence criteria and quantification of correlation between statistical uncertainty and coupled error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling of Monte Carlo code Serpent and thermal–hydraulics code RELAP5. • A convergence criterion is developed based on the statistical uncertainty of power. • Correlation between MC statistical uncertainty and coupled error is quantified. • Both UO2 and MOX single assembly models are used in the coupled simulation. • Validation of coupling results with a multi-group transport code DeCART. - Abstract: Coupled multi-physics approach plays an important role in improving computational accuracy. Compared with deterministic neutronics codes, Monte Carlo codes have the advantage of a higher resolution level. In the present paper, a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code, Serpent, is coupled with a thermal–hydraulics safety analysis code, RELAP5. The coupled Serpent/RELAP5 code capability is demonstrated by the improved axial power distribution of UO2 and MOX single assembly models, based on the OECD-NEA/NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. Comparisons of calculation results using the coupled code with those from the deterministic methods, specifically heterogeneous multi-group transport code DeCART, show that the coupling produces more precise results. A new convergence criterion for the coupled simulation is developed based on the statistical uncertainty in power distribution in the Monte Carlo code, rather than ad-hoc criteria used in previous research. The new convergence criterion is shown to be more rigorous, equally convenient to use but requiring a few more coupling steps to converge. Finally, the influence of Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty on the coupled error of power and thermal–hydraulics parameters is quantified. The results are presented such that they can be used to find the statistical uncertainty to use in Monte Carlo in order to achieve a desired precision in coupled simulation

  15. Determinação de hemogregarina em Boa constrictor constrictor mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A. Luz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a presença de hemogregarina em boídeos mantidos em cativeiro no Estado do Pará, bem como, relacionar a hemoparasitose com pre-disposição sexual, alterações clínicas e hematológicas e a presença de ectoparasitos. Esta pesquisa teve autorização do Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis para ser realizado. Utilizaram-se 19 serpentes da família Boidae mantidas em cativeiro, pertencentes ao "Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi" (Belém/PA e "Sítio Xerimbabo" (Santo Antônio do Tauá/PA. A pesquisa de hemogregarina foi realizada em esfregaços sanguíneos examinados no aumento de 400x, enquanto que a parasitemia foi determinada contando- se 550 hemácias em aumento de 1000x. Do total de animais estudados (n=19, nove encontraram-se parasitados (47,36%, não havendo correlação entre presença de hemogregarina, pré-disposição sexual, alterações clínicas e hematológicas nas serpentes hospedeiras. A correlação da hemoparasitose foi detectada apenas quanto à presença de ectoparasitas nas serpentes, no entanto, estudos adicionais são necessários para verificar a prevalência de hemogregarinas em animais mantidos em cativeiro no Estado do Pará, visto que, existe grande lacuna de dados na literatura veterinária especializada no que diz respeito à fauna da região amazônica.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy's resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  17. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor †

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfeng Feng; Xiaoxu Kang; Qingyun Zuo; Chao Yuan; Weijun Wang; Yuhang Zhao; Limin Zhu; Hanwei Lu; Juying Chen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at differen...

  18. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  19. Spectroscopy of Moses Rock Kimberlite Diatreme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.; Mustard, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of remote sensing data (Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy (AIS), NS001, Zeiss IR-photographs) were obtained for the Moses Rock kimberlite dike in southern Utah. The goal is to identify and characterize the mantle derived mafic component in such volcanic features. The Zeiss and NS001 images provide information on the regional setting and allow units of the dike to be distinguished from surrounding material. A potential unmapped satellite dike was identified. The AIS data provide characterizing information of the surface composition of the dike. Serpentized olivine-bearing soils are (tentatively) identified from the AIS spectra for a few areas within the dike.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGIA DOS ACIDENTES COM ANIMAIS PEÇONHENTOS REGISTRADOS EM NOVA XAVANTINA – MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Tallita Pinheiro Santana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: No Brasil os acidentes com animais peçonhentos constituem um problema de Saúde Pública, principalmente em municípios do interior do país. Informações regionais atualizadas são importantes para o desenvolvimento de ações de vigilância epidemiológica. Através desta pesquisa determinaram-se os aspectos epidemiológicos dos acidentes com animais peçonhentos registrados no município de Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, entre janeiro de 2007 e maio de 2013. Método: Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico transversal, não probabilístico. Resultados: No período estudado foram registrados 68 acidentes, destes 44 ocasionados por serpentes, 19 por escorpiões e quatro por aranhas. A maioria dos acidentes com serpentes foram provocadas pelos gêneros Bothrops (79,5%, Crotalus (11,5% e Micrurus (2,3%. Quanto às vítimas, prevaleceram indivíduos do sexo masculino (76,5%, na faixa etária entre 30 a 49 anos (41,2%, de raça parda (72,1%, com ensino fundamental (55,9% envolvidos em atividades do campo como agricultura e pecuária (41,2%. Predominaram os acidentes de gravidade moderada (48,5% e todos os casos graves foram provocados por serpentes. Na maioria dos agravos (75,0%, não foi registrada relação entre o acidente e a atividade ocupacional. As regiões corpóreas mais atingidas foram pé (39,7%, perna (20,6% e mão (11,8%. As manifestações locais predominantes foram dor, edema e equimose. As manifestações sistêmicas de maior ocorrência foram hemorrágicas e vagais. Conclusão: Portanto, o período avaliado foi caracterizado pelo predomínio de acidentes com serpentes, no sexo masculino, em atividades do campo e de gravidade moderada. Assim, campanhas educativas e a adoção de medidas de prevenção são fundamentais para diminuir o registro desses agravos neste município. DESCRITORES: Envenenamento; Acidente ofídico; Picadas de escorpião.

  1. SOSEMANUK: a fast software-oriented stream cipher

    OpenAIRE

    Berbain, Come; Billet, Olivier; Canteaut, Anne; Courtois, Nicolas; Gilbert, Henri; Goubin, Louis; Gouget, Aline; Granboulan, Louis; Lauradoux, Cédric; Minier, Marine; Pornin, Thomas; Sibert, Herve

    2008-01-01

    Sosemanuk is a new synchronous software-oriented stream cipher, corresponding to Profile 1 of the ECRYPT call for stream cipher primitives. Its key length is variable between 128 and 256 bits. It ac- commodates a 128-bit initial value. Any key length is claimed to achieve 128-bit security. The Sosemanuk cipher uses both some basic design principles from the stream cipher SNOW 2.0 and some transformations derived from the block cipher SERPENT. Sosemanuk aims at improv- ing SNOW 2.0 both from t...

  2. Astronomy at Teotihuacan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    Located 37 km from Mexico City, during the first part of the first millennium AD, Teotihuacan was one of the world's largest and most populated cities. The city controlled the obsidian mines and developed far-reaching economic and political interactions, especially with the Classic Maya dynasties, Monte Albán in the Valley of Oaxaca and the Mexican Gulf Coast. Teotihuacan-made pottery and jewelry along with talud-tablero architectural style and the cult of the Feathered Serpent and Rain gods was spread throughout Mesoamerica.

  3. Various configurations for continuous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameh, M.

    1977-10-01

    For the same exposed silicon area, solar cells may be produced in a more convenient and mechanically rugged structure than narrow thin ribbons or sheets. Compactness ratio is calculated for each of several suggested geometries. For an Archimedes and square spirals, compactness ratio increases with increasing number of turns and closer tolerance. For a serpent, compactness ratio increases with decreasing number of turns, closer tolerance and increasing ratio of ribbon width to side length. For a zigzag compactness ratio is minimum for an apex angle 45/sup 0/ and smaller ratio of ribbon width to side length.

  4. Subnotificação de acidentes por animais peçonhentos registrados pelo SINAN no Estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de 2001 a 2005 Underreporting of accidents with venomous animals registered by SINAN in the State of Rio de Janeiro from 2001 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Tiomny Fiszon; Rosany Bochner

    2008-01-01

    Com o objetivo de verificar se o Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) já permite prescindir de sistemas de informação paralelos voltados ao controle da distribuição do soro, essencial ao atendimento das vítimas de acidentes por animais peçonhentos, foram comparados os dados dos acidentes causados por serpentes, aranhas e escorpiões, disponibilizados pelo SINAN para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, com os registrados pela Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro (SES-RJ), ...

  5. Authenticity test in ceramics and archaeological figures by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present exists quite a lot of false archaeological pieces which provokes doubts about the legitimacy of the pieces. In this work it is presented the Authenticity test by Thermoluminescence realized at the urn of the goddess 13 serpent of the zapotec culture of Oaxaca which is exposed in Mexico City. The original piece contains crystalline structures which present hardly the thermoluminescence phenomena by the presence of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K getting with this the form and intensity of the natural thermoluminescence curve of an archaeological piece which shows a Tl peak and allows to know so if it was made recently or not. (Author)

  6. When the dragon wore the crown putting starlight back into myth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerow, Don

    2013-01-01

    When our ancestors gazed upon the skies thousands of years ago they looked up into the center of Creation and saw a mighty Dragon, a great celestial serpent with wings circling ceaselessly above them, night after night, century after century. When the Dragon Wore the Crown is a ground breaking book that covers a period of over six thousand years, focusing on what astrologers would call the Ages of Gemini, Taurus and Aries and taking us through the period of classical astronomy with the Greeks and Romans (approx. 7000 BC-200 AD).When the Dragon Wore the Crown opens and closes with the Chinese m

  7. 4. Falling out with Hal and Hester

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Maria Manuel

    2012-01-01

      God did say, You must not eat fruit from the tree that is in the middle of the garden, and you must not touch it, or you will die. You will not surely die, the serpent said to the woman. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil. When the woman saw that the fruit of the tree was good for food and pleasing to the eye, and also desirable for gaining wisdom, she took some and ate it. She also gave some to her husband, who wa...

  8. Neutron analysis of the fuel of high temperature nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a neutron analysis of the fuel of some high temperature nuclear reactors is presented, studying its main features, besides some alternatives of compound fuel by uranium and plutonium, and of coolant: sodium and helium. For this study was necessary the use of a code able to carry out a reliable calculation of the main parameters of the fuel. The use of the Monte Carlo method was convenient to simulate the neutrons transport in the reactor core, which is the base of the Serpent code, with which the calculations will be made for the analysis. (Author)

  9. Authenticity test in ceramics and archaeological figures by thermoluminescence; Prueba de Autenticidad en ceramicas y figuras arqueologicas por termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez L, A.; Schaaf, P. [Laboratorio de Termoluminiscencia, Instituto de Geofisica-UNAM (Mexico); Filloy, L. [Museo Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    At present exists quite a lot of false archaeological pieces which provokes doubts about the legitimacy of the pieces. In this work it is presented the Authenticity test by Thermoluminescence realized at the urn of the goddess 13 serpent of the zapotec culture of Oaxaca which is exposed in Mexico City. The original piece contains crystalline structures which present hardly the thermoluminescence phenomena by the presence of {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, and {sup 40} K getting with this the form and intensity of the natural thermoluminescence curve of an archaeological piece which shows a Tl peak and allows to know so if it was made recently or not. (Author)

  10. Vikergallup : eesti kirjandus 1999 : [ajakirja Vikerkaar küsitlus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Aut.: Epp Annus, Tõnu Kaalep, Jan Kaus, Vilja Kiisler, Andrus Kivirähk, Valle-Sten Maiste, Hedda Maurer, Anneli Mihkelev, Mihkel Nummert, Aarne Ruben, Olavi Ruitlane, Mihkel Samarüütel, Franȯis Serpent, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Kadri Tüür, Jaak Urmet, Berk Vaher, Andreas Walden, Mart Velsker. 1999. a. parimaks uudisraamatuks tunnistati küsitluse põhjal Jaan Isotamme "Ma olin Johnny B" (Ilmamaa) ja parimaks esikteoseks Kalju Kruusa "Meeleolu" (Erakkond)

  11. Reactivity analysis for numerical solution of the point kinetic equation for subcritical; Analise da reatividade para solucao numerica da equacao da cinetica pontual para sistemas subcriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz, E-mail: ejunior@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel Artur Pinheiro, E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between the reactivity calculated by the approximation based on the multiplication factor (K{sub eff}) and a new approach for the reactivity calculation to be used in the kinetics point equation for subcritical systems. To obtain the necessary kinetic parameters as well and the reference Power value calculation and validation, a subcritical system was simulated with the Monte Carlo code Serpent. This study is important for determining nuclear Power in such systems. The results shown consistent values with the validation method and new in-depth studies to calculate the reactivity should be performed to such systems, making the issue a very current theme. (author)

  12. Neutron analysis of the fuel of high temperature nuclear reactors; Analisis neutronico del combustible de reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: gbo729@yahoo.com.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a neutron analysis of the fuel of some high temperature nuclear reactors is presented, studying its main features, besides some alternatives of compound fuel by uranium and plutonium, and of coolant: sodium and helium. For this study was necessary the use of a code able to carry out a reliable calculation of the main parameters of the fuel. The use of the Monte Carlo method was convenient to simulate the neutrons transport in the reactor core, which is the base of the Serpent code, with which the calculations will be made for the analysis. (Author)

  13. Vikergallup : eesti kirjandus 2001 : [vastused Vikerkaare küsitlusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Aut.: Vahur Afanasjev, Veiko Belials, Piret Jaaks, Jan Kaus, Janek Kraavi, Priit Kruus, Leo Luks, Ilona Martson, Hedda Maurer, Anneli Mihkelev, Jürgen Rooste, Aarne Ruben, Mihkel Samarüütel, François Serpent, Ivar Sild, Karl Martin Sinijärv, Lauri Sommer, Jaak Urmet, Berk Vaher. 2001. a. parima uudisraamatu tiitlit jagasid Mehis Heinsaare "Härra Pauli kroonikad", Jan Kausi "Maailm ja mõni" ning Ene Mihkelsoni "Ahasveeruse uni"; parimaks esikraamatuks valiti Mehis Heinsaare "Vanameeste näppaja"

  14. Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Efforts and Observations at the Rocknest Eolian Sand Shadow in Curiosity's Gale Crater Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Goetz, W.; Kah, L. C.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Beegle, L. W.; Carsten, J. L.; Cooper, B.; Deen, R. G.; Dromart, G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hardgrove, C. J.; Harker, D. E.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Herrera, P. N.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Jandura, L.; Ming, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.

  15. Burnup analysis of the VVER-1000 reactor using thorium-based fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet E.; Agar, Osman; Bueyueker, Eylem [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Faculty of Kamil Ozdag Science

    2014-12-15

    This paper aims to investigate {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycles in a VVER-1000 reactor through calculation by computer. The 3D core geometry of VVER-1000 system was designed using the Serpent Monte Carlo 1.1.19 Code. The Serpent Code using parallel programming interface (Message Passing Interface-MPI), was run on a workstation with 12-core and 48 GB RAM. {sup 232}Th/{sup 235}U/{sup 238}U oxide mixture was considered as fuel in the core, when the mass fraction of {sup 232}Th was increased as 0.05-0.1-0.2-0.3-0.4 respectively, the mass fraction of {sup 238}U equally was decreased. In the system, the calculations were made for 3 000 MW thermal power. For the burnup analyses, the core is assumed to deplete from initial fresh core up to a burnup of 16 MWd/kgU without refuelling considerations. In the burnup calculations, a burnup interval of 360 effective full power days (EFPDs) was defined. According to burnup, the mass changes of the {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm were evaluated, and also flux and criticality of the system were calculated in dependence of the burnup rate.

  16. Burnup analysis of the VVER-1000 reactor using thorium-based fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to investigate 232Th/233U fuel cycles in a VVER-1000 reactor through calculation by computer. The 3D core geometry of VVER-1000 system was designed using the Serpent Monte Carlo 1.1.19 Code. The Serpent Code using parallel programming interface (Message Passing Interface-MPI), was run on a workstation with 12-core and 48 GB RAM. 232Th/235U/238U oxide mixture was considered as fuel in the core, when the mass fraction of 232Th was increased as 0.05-0.1-0.2-0.3-0.4 respectively, the mass fraction of 238U equally was decreased. In the system, the calculations were made for 3 000 MW thermal power. For the burnup analyses, the core is assumed to deplete from initial fresh core up to a burnup of 16 MWd/kgU without refuelling considerations. In the burnup calculations, a burnup interval of 360 effective full power days (EFPDs) was defined. According to burnup, the mass changes of the 232Th, 233U, 238U, 237Np, 239Pu, 241Am and 244Cm were evaluated, and also flux and criticality of the system were calculated in dependence of the burnup rate.

  17. Explicit temperature treatment in Monte Carlo neutron tracking routines - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the preliminary implementation of the new explicit temperature treatment method to the development version Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent 2 and presents the first practical results calculated using the method. The explicit temperature treatment method, as introduced in [1], is a stochastic method for taking the effect of thermal motion into account on-the-fly in a Monte Carlo neutron transport calculation. The method is based on explicit treatment of the motion of target nuclei at collision sites and requires cross sections at 0 K temperature only, regardless of the number of temperatures in the problem geometry. The method includes a novel capability of modelling continuous temperature distributions. Test calculations are performed for two test cases, a PWR pin-cell and a HTGR system. The resulting keff and flux spectra are compared to a reference solution calculated using Serpent 1.1.16 with Doppler-broadening rejection correction [2]. The results are in very good agreement with the reference and also the increase in calculation time due to the new method is on acceptable level although not fully insignificant. On the basis of the current study, the explicit treatment method can be considered feasible for practical calculations. (authors)

  18. Improved Neutronics Treatment of Burnable Poisons for the Prismatic HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang; A. A. Bingham; J. Ortensi; C. J. Permann

    2012-10-01

    In prismatic block High Temperature Reactors (HTR), highly absorbing material such a burnable poison (BP) cause local flux depressions and large gradients in the flux across the blocks which can be a challenge to capture accurately with traditional homogenization methods. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the error associated with spatial homogenization, spectral condensation and discretization and to highlight what is needed for improved neutronics treatments of burnable poisons for the prismatic HTR. A new triangular based mesh is designed to separate the BP regions from the fuel assembly. A set of packages including Serpent (Monte Carlo), Xuthos (1storder Sn), Pronghorn (diffusion), INSTANT (Pn) and RattleSnake (2ndorder Sn) is used for this study. The results from the deterministic calculations show that the cross sections generated directly in Serpent are not sufficient to accurately reproduce the reference Monte Carlo solution in all cases. The BP treatment produces good results, but this is mainly due to error cancellation. However, the Super Cell (SC) approach yields cross sections that are consistent with cross sections prepared on an “exact” full core calculation. In addition, very good agreement exists between the various deterministic transport and diffusion codes in both eigenvalue and power distributions. Future research will focus on improving the cross sections and quantifying the error cancellation.

  19. Découverte de la statue d’une divinité antique remployée dans le baptistère de Brioude (Haute-Loire : une représentation de Cernunnos ? The discovery of the statue of an ancient divinity reused in the baptistery of Brioude (Haute-Loire: a representation of Cernunnos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Gauthier

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Un fragment de sculpture antique, découvert dans un mur du baptistère de Brioude (Haute-Loire, représente un personnage assis, flanqué d’un cerf et d’un taureau, qui tient une corbeille de fruits. L’analyse permet de restituer un serpent à tête de bélier enroulé autour de la taille. La présence de la triade d’animaux taureau/cerf/serpent et la composition générale permet d’envisager une représentation de Cernunnos. Le dossier des origines du sanctuaire paléochrétien est évoqué en guise de conclusion provisoire.A piece of stone sculpture, found reused in a wall belonging to the baptistery of Brioude (Haute-Loire, France, represents a person sitting and holding a basket of fruit. Next to him are a deer and a bull. Our study reveals a snake with a sheep's head wound around his waist. This composition leads us to the identification of Cernunnos as the main figure of this sculpture. This identification enables us to see the origins of the early christian sanctuary in a new light.

  20. Molecular evolution of HoxA13 and the multiple origins of limbless morphologies in amphibians and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarete, Marina E.; Grizante, Mariana B.; Milograna, Sarah R.; Nery, Mariana F.; Kin, Koryu; Wagner, Günter P.; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Developmental processes and their results, morphological characters, are inherited through transmission of genes regulating development. While there is ample evidence that cis-regulatory elements tend to be modular, with sequence segments dedicated to different roles, the situation for proteins is less clear, being particularly complex for transcription factors with multiple functions. Some motifs mediating protein-protein interactions may be exclusive to particular developmental roles, but it is also possible that motifs are mostly shared among different processes. Here we focus on HoxA13, a protein essential for limb development. We asked whether the HoxA13 amino acid sequence evolved similarly in three limbless clades: Gymnophiona, Amphisbaenia and Serpentes. We explored variation in ω (dN/dS) using a maximum-likelihood framework and HoxA13sequences from 47 species. Comparisons of evolutionary models provided low ω global values and no evidence that HoxA13 experienced relaxed selection in limbless clades. Branch-site models failed to detect evidence for positive selection acting on any site along branches of Amphisbaena and Gymnophiona, while three sites were identified in Serpentes. Examination of alignments did not reveal consistent sequence differences between limbed and limbless species. We conclude that HoxA13 has no modules exclusive to limb development, which may be explained by its involvement in multiple developmental processes. PMID:26500429

  1. Presence of a radioactive gas in archaeological excavations, determination and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During recent archaeological discovery and excavation of a tunnel build approximately 2000 years ago by the Teotihuacans under the feathered serpent temple, in Mexico, abnormal radon concentrations up to 700 Bq m−3 were measured at several excavation stages. The tunnel is at 15 m below the earth surface with a vertical rectangular entrance of 4×4 m2, a semi cylindrical shape of 3 m in diameter, with a probable length of 100 m. This study supports the assumption that at the opening of the tunnel radon concentration was around 5500 Bq m−3; however, although natural convection in the tunnel atmosphere naturally pups radon out, it build up to a maximum concentration of 2000 Bq m−3. This paper presents the identification of the radon problem in this archaeological site, dose determination, and the mitigation actions that reduced the radon concentration down to 40 Bq m−3 that ensure a negligible radon risk for archaeologist. - Highlights: • High radon concentration, in a tunnel beneath the Feathered Serpent Temple at the archaeological site in Teotihuacan. • Dose determination and ssuccessful radon mitigation in this recent archaeological excavation. • Bring back confidence to archaeologists for working in a low natural radiation environment

  2. Calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction in the Molten Salt Fast Reactor: Analytical, deterministic and Monte Carlo approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calculation of effective delayed neutron fraction in circulating-fuel reactors. • Extension of the Monte Carlo SERPENT-2 code for delayed neutron precursor tracking. • Forward and adjoint multi-group diffusion eigenvalue problems in OpenFOAM. • Analytical approach for βeff calculation in simple geometries and flow conditions. • Good agreement among the three proposed approaches in the MSFR test-case. - Abstract: This paper deals with the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction (βeff) in circulating-fuel nuclear reactors. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor is adopted as test case for the comparison of the analytical, deterministic and Monte Carlo methods presented. The Monte Carlo code SERPENT-2 has been extended to allow for delayed neutron precursors drift, according to the fuel velocity field. The forward and adjoint eigenvalue multi-group diffusion problems are implemented and solved adopting the multi-physics tool-kit OpenFOAM, by taking into account the convective and turbulent diffusive terms in the precursors balance. These two approaches show good agreement in the whole range of the MSFR operating conditions. An analytical formula for the circulating-to-static conditions βeff correction factor is also derived under simple hypotheses, which explicitly takes into account the spatial dependence of the neutron importance. Its accuracy is assessed against Monte Carlo and deterministic results. The effects of in-core recirculation vortex and turbulent diffusion are finally analysed and discussed

  3. Commented distributional list of the Reptiles of Mauritania (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padial, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive review of the reptiles of Mauritania. It includes distributional information and comments. Mauritania harbors 86 species of reptiles belonging to 21 families. Among these families, Colubridae and Lacertidae are the most diverse, with 14 and 13 species respectively. Other families, such as Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae or Viperidae are also well represented. Among the 80 continental species, 47.5% are Saharan, 33.8% Afrotropical, 16.2% Sahelian and 2.5% Mediterranean. The marine turtles form another important group, with six species. Eight species are excluded from the country list because of old identification errors, there is not enough evidence of their presence or due to changes in political borders. Among the species expected to occur in Mauritania, at least nine may occur in Saharan environments, 13 in the Sahel savannah and two may have been introduced.

    Esta es la primera lista de reptiles comentada con datos de distribución para la República Islámica de Mauritania. La fauna de reptiles de Mauritania se compone de 86 especies pertenecientes a 21 familias. Entres ellas, Colubridae y Lacertidae son las más diversas, con 14 y 13 especies respectivamente. Otras familias como Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Scincidae y Viperidae también son representativas. Entre las 80 especies continentales el 47.5% son de distribución sahariana, el 33.8% afrotropical, el 16.2% sahelianas y el 2.5% mediterráneas. Las tortugas marinas, con seis especies, es otro grupo importante. Ocho especies no han sido incluidas en la lista debido a que se trataba de viejos errores de identificación, por carecer de suficiente evidencia o debido a la redistribución de las viejas fronteras políticas. Entre las especies potencialmente presentes, al menos nueve de ellas se esperan para las zonas saharianas, trece para las sabanas del Sahel, y dos podrían haber sido introducidas.

  4. Aspectos ecológicos e epidemiológicos de acidentes ofídicos em comunidades ribeirinhas do baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil Ecological and epidemiological aspects of snakebites in riverside communities of the lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Waldez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes ofídicos foram registrados em dez comunidades ribeirinhas do baixo rio Purus através de entrevista às vítimas. Os ribeirinhos responderam perguntas sobre a percepção ambiental da ecologia das serpentes envolvidas nos acidentes. O tamanho das serpentes e a altura da mordida no corpo foram estimados com fita métrica. A correspondência entre os nomes locais e científicos das serpentes foi levantada utilizando descrições e imagens das espécies. Para outras 17 comunidades dados adicionais do número de famílias com vítimas de acidentes ofídicos foram avaliados através do diagnóstico sócio-ambiental da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Piagaçu-Purus. Foram entrevistados 18 ribeirinhos e registrados 28 acidentes ofídicos em cinco comunidades. O número de vítimas por comunidade não teve relação com o tamanho da população. O número de famílias com vítimas foi maior em comunidades maiores (r²= 0,444; p= 0,003. Aproximadamente 88% das mordidas foram nos membros inferiores. Não houve relação do tamanho estimado da serpente com a altura da mordida. A maioria dos acidentes ocorreu de dia (82,14% e no período de cheia (64,28% na época de exploração da castanha-da-Amazônia e da madeira pelos ribeirinhos, atividades que despendem maior tempo na floresta. Um único caso de morte por acidente ofídico foi registrado. A serpente Bothrops atrox foi à espécie mais relacionada com acidentes na região. O reconhecimento das serpentes pelos ribeirinhos revelou várias sinonímias, com 20 nomes locais atribuídos a 33 espécies. Na percepção dos ribeirinhos as serpentes B. atrox e Lachesis muta foram às espécies mais temidas e diferem no comportamento de ataque.Snakebites were registered in 10 riverside communities of the lower Purus River through interviews with the victims. Local inhabitants answered questions about their perception on ecological aspects of snakes species involved in snakebites. Snake size

  5. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Dharma Raharjo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan, resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study found some snakes, encompasses Colubridae (10 species, Elapidae (four species, and Phytonidae (one species. There are Burmese Python (Python reticulatus, Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Painted Bronzeback Snake (Dendrelaphis Pictus, Black Copper Rat Snake (Coelognathus flavolineatus, Radiated Rat Snake (C. radiatus, Striped Keelback (Xenochrophis vittatus, Checkered Keelback (X. piscator, Spotted Ground Snake (Gongyosoma balioderius, Gold-ringed Cat Snake (Boiga dendrophila, Common Wolf Snake (Lycodon capucinus, Banded Wolf snake (L. subcinctus, Cobra (Naja sputatrix, King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus, and Banded Krait (B. fasciatus was found. These snake habitats distributes at 21 coordinate points. Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, snakes.

  6. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. PMID:26702042

  7. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of six snakes: phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Songyu; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2005-07-01

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from six snake families: the acrochordid little file snake, the bold boa constrictor, the cylindrophiid red pipe snake, the viperid himehabu, the pythonid ball python, and the xenopeltid sunbeam snake. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNALeu gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. The duplicate control regions had nearly identical nucleotide sequences within species but they were divergent among species, suggesting concerted sequence evolution of the two control regions. In addition, the duplicate control regions appear to have facilitated an interchange of some flanking tRNA genes in the viperid lineage. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a large number of sites (9570 sites in total) derived from the complete mtDNA sequences. Our data strongly suggested a new phylogenetic relationship among the major families of snakes: ((((Viperidae, Colubridae), Acrochordidae), (((Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae), Cylindrophiidae), Boidae)), Leptotyphlopidae). This conclusion was distinct from a widely accepted view based on morphological characters in denying the sister-group relationship of boids and pythonids, as well as the basal divergence of nonmacrostomatan cylindrophiids. These results imply the significance to reconstruct the snake phylogeny with ample molecular data, such as those from complete mtDNA sequences. PMID:16007493

  8. Rain, prey and predators: climatically driven shifts in frog abundance modify reproductive allometry in a tropical snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2007-11-01

    To predict the impacts of climate change on animal populations, we need long-term data sets on the effects of annual climatic variation on the demographic traits (growth, survival, reproductive output) that determine population viability. One frequent complication is that fecundity also depends upon maternal body size, a trait that often spans a wide range within a single population. During an eight-year field study, we measured annual variation in weather conditions, frog abundance and snake reproduction on a floodplain in the Australian wet-dry tropics. Frog numbers varied considerably from year to year, and were highest in years with hotter wetter conditions during the monsoonal season ("wet season"). Mean maternal body sizes, egg sizes and post-partum maternal body conditions of frog-eating snakes (keelback, Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae) showed no significant annual variation over this period, but mean clutch sizes were higher in years with higher prey abundance. Larger females were more sensitive to frog abundance in this respect than were smaller conspecifics, so that the rate at which fecundity increased with body size varied among years, and was highest when prey availability was greatest. Thus, the link between female body size and reproductive output varied among years, with climatic factors modifying the relative reproductive rates of larger (older) versus smaller (younger) animals within the keelback population. PMID:17724615

  9. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  10. Restoration of environments with radioactive residues - the Elliot Lake case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Elliot Lake area experienced the boom and bust of uranium mining over a 40-year period. In 1996, the last mine closed, which left nine tailings areas for closure and long term maintenance. The practices of the 1950s left a legacy of environmental damage which has been effectively reversed through remediation and closure of the mines. Detailed environmental assessments were completed on decommissioning proposals for the mines in the late 1980s and 1990s. These assessments have demonstrated that the area's ecology can be effectively protected, and that there are no impediments to the restoration of the entire Serpent River Watershed. Environmental monitoring has shown that the reclaimed sites are performing as expected, and that healthy aquatic communities are present in all major waterways in the region. (author)

  11. Arvustused / Jan Berkovitch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berkovitch, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Municipal Waste "The Art Of Partying", Fueled By Fire "Spread The Fire", Apocryphal Voice "Stilltrapped", Amorphis "Silent Waters", As I Lay Dying "An Ocean Between Us", Baroness "Red Album", Behemoth "The Apostasy", Beherit "H418ov21.C / Electric Doom Synthesis", Cephalic Carnage "Xenosapien", Beneath The Massacre "Mechanics Of Dysfunction", Crionics "Neuthrone", Depressed Mode "Ghosts Of Devotion", Down "III - Over The Under", Drudkh "Estrangement", Einstürzende Neubauten "Alles Wieder Offen", Entombed "Serpent Saints - The Ten Amendments", Fall Of The Leafe "Aerolithe", Helena Nova "Vaenlasega voodis", King Diamond "Give Me Your Soul... Please!", Manes "How The World Came To An End", Must Missa "Martyr Of Wrath", Mustasch "Latest Version Of Truth", Nile "Ithyphallic", Pig Destroyer "Phantom Limb", Reverend Bizarre "Ill: So Long Suckers", Terhen "Eyes Unfolded", Throne Of Katarsis "An Eternal Dark Horizon", Tulus "Biography Obscene", Turbonegro "Retox", Weedeater "God Luck and Good Speed", Vreid "I Krig

  12. On the Asclepian spirit and the future of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clay C

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of the Asclepian myth are analyzed, and generic dynamics of the healing imperative are illustrated. The story teaches much about the early theories and practice of ancient medicine, and originated the healing symbol of the staff and serpent which appears on the emblem of the American Academy. The multi-modal therapeutic approach used at the Asclepia was often climaxed by dream incubation as a centerpiece of the treatment. Dreams from modern physicians in analysis will be introduced to show that while our practice has changed in external trappings, the underlying dynamics of ancient and modern healers reflect a common humanity. Modern therapists have reacquired the use of dreams and invented a new set of explanatory myths. Consideration of future developments leads to linking the "psychosomatic model" of antiquity with the psychopharmacological interventions which are now common-place in psychodynamic psychotherapy. The Asclepian emphasis on spirituality is also finding increasing recognition among psychoanalysts and other scientists. PMID:12064034

  13. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  14. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  15. Spectroscopy of Moses Rock dike using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, J. F.; Pieters, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Zeiss IR-photographs, NS0001 (TM simulator) and airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data were obtained for the Moses Rock kimberlite dike in southern Utah to identify and characterize the distinctive mafic mineralogy of the dike as well as the surrounding sedimentary rocks. The Zeiss and NS001 images provide information on the regional setting and allow units of the dike to be distinguished from the sediments. The AIS data are narrow images obtained in 128 near-infrared channels and provide characterizing information on the surface composition through. Three distinct spectroscopic units were found which have been tentatively identified as serpentized olivine-bearing soils found in the dike and two types of gypsum bearing soils found in the surrounding sedimentary soils.

  16. Transfer parameters in the water/forage/moose pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moose tissue samples and associated water and drinking water samples were collected from the Serpent River Drainage Area (Study Area) and outside of the watershed (Controls) during the fall of 1985. The concentrations of lead-210, polonium-210, radium-226, thorium and uranium were determined for both the study area and control samples. The radionuclide radium-226 was evaluated in the drinking water, vegetation and moose tissue to determine concentration factors. No statistical difference was found between study and control samples. Concentration factors from vegetation to moose tissue were found to range from 0.036 to 3.03 depending upon tissue type. Radionuclide concentrations found in this study were shown to be within known background levels. 2 maps

  17. We Detect Blue Light Phenomena Correlating with Environmental and Weather Changes, and Historic Native American/span>s or Their Place Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, Edward M.

    2003-10-01

    Katahdin (Christ Cathar Spirit-signal stronghold) in Maine is sacred to the Penobscot Indian Nation. That mountain complex, and areas like Ellis Pond, ME and Penley Hill/Anasagunticook (adherent of Jesus Christ Spirit-signal doctor church) of the Mexico/Rumford/Mountain Valley region, also in Maine, have an association with historic Native Americans like the medicine woman Molocket/Molly Ockett. We have observed that these and other regions generate electromagnetic field (EMF) signals, which we can detect visually and in other ways. Such signals have sometimes been associated with significant and dynamic weather phenomena. Ohio's Serpent Mound and associated regions, or those now occupied by the Hopi Indian Nation, formerly an ancient Anasazi site, or areas of the current and earlier Mayan Nations, or the Nazca Plateau of Peru, may generate signals correlating with climate change, that may impact our technology, as in major power blackouts.

  18. e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Written in Python and utilizing ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) to interface with AIPS (ascl:9911.003), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline processes, calibrates and images data from the UK's radio interferometric array (Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network). Driven by a plain text input file, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent (ascl:1312.001), carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so data quality can be assessed.

  19. NMR-based diffusion lattice imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Müller, Lars; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments are widely employed as they yield information about structures hindering the diffusion process, e.g., about cell membranes. While it has been shown in recent articles that these experiments can be used to determine the shape of closed pores averaged over a volume of interest, it is still an open question how much information can be gained in open well-connected systems. In this theoretical work, it is shown that the full structure information of connected periodic systems is accessible. To this end, the so-called "SEquential Rephasing by Pulsed field-gradient Encoding N Time intervals" (SERPENT) sequence is used, which employs several diffusion encoding gradient pulses with different amplitudes. Two two-dimensional solid matrices that are surrounded by an NMR-visible medium are considered: a hexagonal lattice of cylinders and a rectangular lattice of isosceles triangles. PMID:27078384

  20. SOSEMANUK: a fast software-oriented stream cipher

    CERN Document Server

    Berbain, Come; Canteaut, Anne; Courtois, Nicolas; Gilbert, Henri; Goubin, Louis; Gouget, Aline; Granboulan, Louis; Lauradoux, Cedric; Minier, Marine; Pornin, Thomas; Sibert, Herve

    2008-01-01

    Sosemanuk is a new synchronous software-oriented stream cipher, corresponding to Profile 1 of the ECRYPT call for stream cipher primitives. Its key length is variable between 128 and 256 bits. It ac- commodates a 128-bit initial value. Any key length is claimed to achieve 128-bit security. The Sosemanuk cipher uses both some basic design principles from the stream cipher SNOW 2.0 and some transformations derived from the block cipher SERPENT. Sosemanuk aims at improv- ing SNOW 2.0 both from the security and from the efficiency points of view. Most notably, it uses a faster IV-setup procedure. It also requires a reduced amount of static data, yielding better performance on several architectures.

  1. Hunter-gatherers and other primates as prey, predators, and competitors of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Thomas N; Greene, Harry W

    2011-12-27

    Relationships between primates and snakes are of widespread interest from anthropological, psychological, and evolutionary perspectives, but surprisingly, little is known about the dangers that serpents have posed to people with prehistoric lifestyles and nonhuman primates. Here, we report ethnographic observations of 120 Philippine Agta Negritos when they were still preliterate hunter-gatherers, among whom 26% of adult males had survived predation attempts by reticulated pythons. Six fatal attacks occurred between 1934 and 1973. Agta ate pythons as well as deer, wild pigs, and monkeys, which are also eaten by pythons, and therefore, the two species were reciprocally prey, predators, and potential competitors. Natural history data document snake predation on tree shrews and 26 species of nonhuman primates as well as many species of primates approaching, mobbing, killing, and sometimes eating snakes. These findings, interpreted within the context of snake and primate phylogenies, corroborate the hypothesis that complex ecological interactions have long characterized our shared evolutionary history. PMID:22160702

  2. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kirsty Argo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS, the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration, and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  3. Highly efficient method of data protection based on multilayer hybrid encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lyashuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper deals with modern encryption algorithms and problems associated with their use. Hybrid encryption method was developed for secure communication over the Internet. Principal part. Symmetric algorithms, which used in method, are AES, Serpent and Twofish, asymmetric algorithm is RSA. For each layer new secure random key is generated and encrypted by RSA. This key is aligned and written in the beginning of the encrypted data. On decryption key is read from the beginning of encrypted data and decrypted by RSA secret key. Then symmetric key is used to decrypt data layer by layer. Conclusions. Use of multilayer hybrid encryption allows to transmit both keys and data by unsecure channel and ensure that data will be protected and at least one symmectric algorithm is not compromised.

  4. Determinação de hemogregarina em Boa constrictor constrictor mantidos em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Monique A. Luz; Andre M.C. Meneses; Carla C.G. de Moraes; Larissa dos S. Seixas; Dennis J. da S. Lima; Luis A.A. dos S. Ruffeil; Paulo H.G. de Castro; Antonio M. Costa

    2012-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a presença de hemogregarina em boídeos mantidos em cativeiro no Estado do Pará, bem como, relacionar a hemoparasitose com pre-disposição sexual, alterações clínicas e hematológicas e a presença de ectoparasitos. Esta pesquisa teve autorização do Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis para ser realizado. Utilizaram-se 19 serpentes da família Boidae mantidas...

  5. Cyanoacrylate repair of laser in situ keratomileusis corneal flap perforation by a snake bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Bobby S; Korn, Tommy S

    2005-11-01

    A 30-year-old man who had laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia 1 year earlier developed a corneal perforation in the left eye from a boa constrictor. The patient presented to the emergency room, and a small corneal perforation just outside the visual axis was diagnosed within the LASIK flap. Cyanoacrylate adhesive was used to close the corneal perforation. The patient went on to full visual recovery with an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20. This is the first reported case of a penetrating corneal injury from a serpent in an eye that had LASIK. Cyanoacrylate may be used to repair small traumatic corneal perforations with a favorable visual outcome in eyes that have had LASIK. PMID:16412943

  6. Chapitre Χ. La diabolique

    OpenAIRE

    Vial, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Est-ce un dicton ou un « dit » du Prophète qui assure : « Quand un homme et une femme sont en tète à tête, Satan est aussi présent » ? Le risque de ce qui peut alors se produire est ainsi souligné, mais les deux partenaires visibles ne sont pas tenus pour responsables au même titre. L’homme est innocent, évidemment, et si nous en doutions, Fikrī Efendī nous l’a naguère laborieusement démontré. Et puis, qui ne se souvient d’un paradis sans histoire où soudain un serpent est venu s’immiscer dan...

  7. NMR-Based Diffusion Lattice Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Laun, Frederik Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments are widely employed as they yield information about structures hindering the diffusion process, e.g. about cell membranes. While it has been shown in recent articles, that these experiments can be used to determine the exact shape of closed pores averaged over a volume of interest, it is still an open question how much information can be gained in open systems. In this theoretical work, we show that the full structure information of periodic open systems is accessible. To this end, the so-called 'SEquential Rephasing by Pulsed field-gradient Encoding N Time-intervals' (SERPENT) sequence is used, which employs several diffusion weighting gradient pulses with different amplitudes. The structural information is obtained by an iterative technique relying on a Gaussian envelope model of the diffusion propagator. Two solid matrices that are surrounded by an NMR-visible medium are considered: a hexagonal lattice of cylinders and a cubic lattice of triangles.

  8. NMR-based diffusion lattice imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Müller, Lars; Kuder, Tristan Anselm

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments are widely employed as they yield information about structures hindering the diffusion process, e.g., about cell membranes. While it has been shown in recent articles that these experiments can be used to determine the shape of closed pores averaged over a volume of interest, it is still an open question how much information can be gained in open well-connected systems. In this theoretical work, it is shown that the full structure information of connected periodic systems is accessible. To this end, the so-called "SEquential Rephasing by Pulsed field-gradient Encoding N Time intervals" (SERPENT) sequence is used, which employs several diffusion encoding gradient pulses with different amplitudes. Two two-dimensional solid matrices that are surrounded by an NMR-visible medium are considered: a hexagonal lattice of cylinders and a rectangular lattice of isosceles triangles.

  9. La tache d’Auguste. Signes de la parenté et parenté par les signes dans la culture gréco-romaine

    OpenAIRE

    Lentano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Tous les descendants du roi Seleucus avaient le signe d’une ancre sur la cuisse ; une lance était imprimée sur les épaules des membres de l’élite thébaine et indiquait leur origine des Spartoi, les « Semés » du mythe ; le premier empereur romain, Auguste, avait sur sa poitrine des taches dont le nombre et la forme ressemblaient à la constellation de la Grande Ourse, tandis que sa mère Atia ne pouvait pas effacer un serpent imprimé sur sa peau par le dieu Apollon. Ce sont quelques-unes des his...

  10. Svetislav Basara, Perdu dans un supermarché

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Vandenborre

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomber amoureux dans le jazz de la nature quand on est pris d’élancements dans le bras. Souffrir d’un incurable serpent dans le sein après que sa mère ait été enlevée par des esclavagistes. Se dégonfler à la brûlure de cigarette lors d’une boum fatale. Discuter avec Dieu par téléphone dans un supermarché. Telles sont les aventures plus loufoques les unes que les autres dont Svetislav Basara nous tisse le décousu dans Perdu dans un supermarché. Ce recueil réunit une vingtaine de nouvelles liée...

  11. Did Secret, Sacred Science: ``Kokopelli/Pamola,'' Motivate the Tarratines' Assassination of the Penobscots' Bashaba ca 1615, and Does ``Orono'' Yield Direct Physics Insights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataide, Italani; de Souza, Beatriz; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2007-04-01

    ``Tarratine'' may share cognate phonetics with Tatoosh, (Makah, Pacific NE), Tuitan, Totonac, (coastal ``neighbors'' of the Aztec), Teedyuscung/Tatiuskundt, (Penn.), Teotihuacan, Tomtomhegan, (``ME'' ca 1781-2), Titikaka/Titicaca, and Tantaquidgeon, (Conn.); the military action that led to the assassination of the Penobscots' Bashaba has explanatory roots tying it to the last raid involving `Indian' military action of the Revolutionary War. ``Turf'' rights influenced conflict imperatives. Preserved linguistic roots have it best: Ñari Huallac, coupled with Arizona, Allagash, Allahpatah, and Orono/Orinoco, indicate traditionalists' information, by recognizing Kokopelli/Pamola/Pele/electromagnetics/EMF, says how nature behaves. Penobscots and modern Peruvian descendants of the Incas have it right: the concealed ``Serpent God'' of their EMF alter ego(s), says their science, (applied physics) is sacred because it ``predicts'' nature, even tinnitus, via ``Rawandagon''! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.8

  12. Presence of a radioactive gas in archaeological excavations, determination and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, M; Gómez, S; Peña, P; Zavala Arredondo, J; Gazzola, J; Villamares, A

    2014-01-01

    During recent archaeological discovery and excavation of a tunnel build approximately 2000 years ago by the Teotihuacans under the feathered serpent temple, in Mexico, abnormal radon concentrations up to 700 Bq m(-3) were measured at several excavation stages. The tunnel is at 15m below the earth surface with a vertical rectangular entrance of 4×4 m(2), a semi cylindrical shape of 3m in diameter, with a probable length of 100 m. This study supports the assumption that at the opening of the tunnel radon concentration was around 5500 Bq m(-3); however, although natural convection in the tunnel atmosphere naturally pups radon out, it build up to a maximum concentration of 2000 Bq m(-3). This paper presents the identification of the radon problem in this archaeological site, dose determination, and the mitigation actions that reduced the radon concentration down to 40 Bq m(-3) that ensure a negligible radon risk for archaeologist. PMID:23938077

  13. Teotihuacan and its influence in Mesoamerica. Archaeomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán, A.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Teotihuacan located at the north of the Basin of Mexico was one of the most important metropolises of Mesoamerica between AD 300-500. The chronological information of the city and its neighborhoods is very important to understand its evolution. We present the results of the sampling at the Feathered Serpent Temple and E complex at La Ciudadela, a zone at the south area of the Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon. These results correspond with a stratigraphic sequence between the 50 BC to AD 500. Two ritual events related with the beginning and the end of the Xolalpan stage (AD325-AD545) were archaeomagnetic dated, events that had been observed too at Teopancazco, the neighborhood of the taylors located at the SE of the city, denoting the importance of them. The beginning of Xolalpan stage is related with the exile of a group of teotihuacan warriors that arrived to Tikal.

  14. Métamorphoses de l'utérus, d'Hippocrate à Ambroise Paré

    OpenAIRE

    Dasen, Véronique; Université de Fribourg

    2010-01-01

    Le traité Des monstres et prodiges (1579, 1585) d'Ambroise Paré contient une vignette figurant un embryon monstrueux qui se résume à une tête humaine entourée de serpents. Cette image appartient à une longue tradition iconographique liée à l'imaginaire de la sexualité et de la procréation. Elle représente un avatar de la croyance antique en l'animalité de la matrice, illustré sur les intailles magiques grécoromaines et byzantines, où l'utérus devient tour à tour ventouse, scarabée, pieuvre ou...

  15. S. Weir mitchell and his snakes: unraveling the "united web and woof of popular and scientific beliefs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Nancy

    2007-09-01

    Although best known as a nineteenth-century neurologist and creator of the rest cure, S. Weir Mitchell was one of the first Americans to engage in large-scale animal experimentation. In 1860 he published Researches Upon the Venom of the Rattlesnake, and in 1886, in collaboration with Dr. Edward T. Reichert, he published Researches Upon the Venoms of Poisonous Serpents. Yet, Mitchell's pioneering work in scientific medicine remains a little known aspect of his career. This essay, based mainly on primary source material, tells the story of Mitchell's medical education and research on venomous snakes in order to reveal the ways myth and metaphor influenced medicine as it was becoming a science. PMID:17629777

  16. Abundance and distribution of ultramafic microbreccia in Moses Rock dike - Quantitative application of mapping spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    Data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer were used to map the distribution and abundance of the serpentized ultramafic microbreccia (SUM) component in the Moses Rock dike, which is a Tertiary diatreme located on the Colorado Plateau in Utah. The geologic setting and composition of Moses Rock dike are discussed together with its texture and the relationship to the bedrock of surface materials. These observations along with laboratory spectroscopic data are used to interpret surface mineralogy of the dike and the surrounding regions from the imaging spectometer data. The spatial distribution and the abundance of the primary surface components were calculated using a nonlinear model for the mixing of spectra from multicomponent surfaces. The derived SUM distribution and abundance data support McGetchin's (1968) model for the emplacement of Moses Rock dike as a fluidized system.

  17. Glial cells of the central nervous system of Bothrops jararaca (Reptilia, Ofidae: an ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Bondan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although ultrastructural characteristics of mature neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS are very well described in mammals, much less is known in reptiles, especially serpents. In this context, two specimens of Bothrops jararaca were euthanized for morphological analysis of CNS glial cells. Samples from telencephalon, mesencephalon and spinal cord were collected and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy investigation. Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and ependymal cells, as well as myelin sheaths, presented similar ultrastructural features to those already observed in mammals and tended to maintain their general aspect all over the distinct CNS regions observed. Morphological similarities between reptilian and mammalian glia are probably linked to their evolutionary conservation throughout vertebrate phylogeny.

  18. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  19. Marginalization and challenge: the production of knowledge and landscape in Canadian nuclear waste management policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboriginal peoples have recently become politically significant in Canadian nuclear fuel waste (NFW) management policy making. Their newfound significance comes on the heels of an important challenge to the knowledge and authority of the nuclear industry with respect to its plans for NFW lead by a number of public groups and Aboriginal peoples from across Canada, including the Serpent River First Nation. This dissertation examines the relationships between the discourses of the Serpent River First Nation (SRFN) about their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain and the discourses of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) about the management of NFW. Two trends are found to characterize these relationships: marginalization and challenge. The discourses of the NWMO marginalize the SRFN, excluding their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain, radioactivity, and the effects of nuclear industries from the policy making process. The discourses of the SRFN challenge the claims of the NWMO about the effects of nuclear wastes and radioactivity, as well as about the safe and beneficial development of the nuclear fuel chain. I identify discourses of 'modern risk' and 'citizenship' found in the work of the NWMO as instrumental for maintaining the nuclear industry's control over the production of knowledge about NFW and its effects and subjugating the knowledge of the SRFN. I also identify discourses of identity, oppression, and 'situated knowledge' as important challenges to the content, method and premises of the claims of the nuclear industry about the management of NFW. While I conclude that the NWMO's discourses of risk and citizenship constitute a colonial politics of exclusion, I note that their discourses are contingent on the exclusion of the experiences of the SRFN with the fuel chain. For their accounts to be coherent, the NWMO need to maintain a strategic silence on the overwhelming implication Aboriginal peoples, as a category, in the nuclear fuel chain

  20. Integration of the program TNXYZ in the platform SALOME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the procedure realized to integrate the code TNXYZ like a processing tool to the graphic simulation platform SALOME. The code TNXYZ solves the neutron transport equation in stationary state, for several energy groups, quantizing the angular variable by the discrete ordinates method and the space variable by nodal methods. The platform SALOME is a graphic surrounding designed for the construction, edition and simulation of mechanical models focused to the industry and contrary to other software, it allows to integrate external source codes to the surrounding, to form a complete scheme of execution, supervision, pre and post information processing. The code TNXYZ was programmed in the 90s in a Fortran compiler, but to be used at the present time the code should be actualized to the current compiler characteristics; also, in the original scheme was carried out a modularization process, that is to say, the main program was divided in sections where the code carries out important operations, with the intention of flexibility the data extraction process along its processing sequence and that can be useful in a later development of coupling. Finally, to verify the integration a fuel assembly BWR was modeled, as well as a control cell. The cross sections were obtained with the Monte Carlo Serpent code. Some results obtained with Serpent were used to verify and to begin with the validation of the code, being obtained an acceptable comparison in the infinite multiplication factor. The validation process should extend and one has planned to present in a future work. This work is part of the development of the research group formed between the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in which a simulation Mexican platform of nuclear reactors is developed. (Author)

  1. Integration of the program TNXYZ in the platform SALOME; Integracion del programa TNXYZ en la plataforma SALOME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro V, F. J.; Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M.; Vargas E, S., E-mail: javier.paquito@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the procedure realized to integrate the code TNXYZ like a processing tool to the graphic simulation platform SALOME. The code TNXYZ solves the neutron transport equation in stationary state, for several energy groups, quantizing the angular variable by the discrete ordinates method and the space variable by nodal methods. The platform SALOME is a graphic surrounding designed for the construction, edition and simulation of mechanical models focused to the industry and contrary to other software, it allows to integrate external source codes to the surrounding, to form a complete scheme of execution, supervision, pre and post information processing. The code TNXYZ was programmed in the 90s in a Fortran compiler, but to be used at the present time the code should be actualized to the current compiler characteristics; also, in the original scheme was carried out a modularization process, that is to say, the main program was divided in sections where the code carries out important operations, with the intention of flexibility the data extraction process along its processing sequence and that can be useful in a later development of coupling. Finally, to verify the integration a fuel assembly BWR was modeled, as well as a control cell. The cross sections were obtained with the Monte Carlo Serpent code. Some results obtained with Serpent were used to verify and to begin with the validation of the code, being obtained an acceptable comparison in the infinite multiplication factor. The validation process should extend and one has planned to present in a future work. This work is part of the development of the research group formed between the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in which a simulation Mexican platform of nuclear reactors is developed. (Author)

  2. Accuracy of a 2-level scheme based on a subgroup method for pressurized water reactor fuel assembly models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A 2-level computational scheme is developed and implemented in the DRAGON5 lattice code. • The first level is using a self-shielding method based on the Subgroup Projection Method with 295 energy groups. • A SALOME-generated geometry is used for the second level. • The neutron flux of the second level is obtained using the Method of Characteristics with 26 energy groups. • Zero-burnup and depletion-dependent validation is made with respect to Monte Carlo code SERPENT2. - Abstract: Until now, a typical computational scheme for the DRAGON5 lattice code was based on a resonance self-shielding method using the Subgroup Projection Method (SPM) coupled with a flux calculation using the Method of Characteristics (MOC), both solved over a 295-group Santamarina–Hfaiedh energy mesh (SHEM). We are investigating the accuracy of an optimized 2-level computational scheme based on a condensation stage from 295 to 26 energy groups. A first level flux calculation is performed using the Interface Current (IC) method on the 295-group mesh, followed by a detailed second level flux calculation using the MOC on the 26-group mesh. Here, we validate the 2-level scheme by comparison with the 1-level scheme and with Monte Carlo calculations at burnup 0 and with isotopic depletion. Validation results were obtained using Monte Carlo codes SERPENT2 and TRIPOLI4. This study shows that an optimized 2-level scheme is much faster than the corresponding 1-level scheme and leads to numerical results without a significant degradation in term of precision. The proposed 2-level schemes are therefore candidate for CPU-efficient production tools for generating multi-parameter reactor databases

  3. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  4. Development of an iterative diffusion-transport method based on MICROX-2 cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovative Iterative Diffusion Transport (IDT) method is developed. • A 2-dimensional (2-D) pin-by-pin lattice program, NEMA, is also developed. • The developed methods and codes are verified on benchmark problems. • Results show that the IDT method improves the global and local predictions. - Abstract: This paper introduces an innovative online cross section generation method, developed based on Iterative Diffusion-Transport (IDT) calculation to minimize the inconsistency and inaccuracy in determining physics parameters by feeding actual reactor core conditions into the cross section generation process. A two-dimensional (2-D) pin-by-pin lattice program, NEMA, was developed to generate assembly lattice parameters using the refined MICROX-2 cross section libraries and Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The proposed method was verified against a 2-D miniature core (mini-core) benchmark problem. First, the few-group cross sections generated by NEMA were compared with those calculated by a Monte Carlo method code Serpent. Next, the analysis of a 2-D Light Water Reactor (LWR) mini-core benchmark problem was carried out by the nodal transport code DIF3D using few-group cross sections generated by NEMA, and the results were compared with those obtained from the Serpent full core calculation. Finally, the same benchmark problem was solved by the NEMA-DIF3D approach using the IDT coupling method. The computational benchmark calculations have shown that the homogenization technique implemented in NEMA is reliable when producing the few-group cross sections for the reactor core calculation. The IDT method also improves the eigenvalue and power distribution predictions

  5. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e

  6. The finding of a group IIE phospholipase A2 gene in a specified segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis genome and its possible evolutionary relationship to group IIA phospholipase A2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Chijiwa, Takahito; Ikeda, Naoki; Shibata, Hiroki; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Hattori, Shosaku; Ohno, Motonori

    2014-01-01

    The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3) in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene. PMID:25529307

  7. The Finding of a Group IIE Phospholipase A2 Gene in a Specified Segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis Genome and Its Possible Evolutionary Relationship to Group IIA Phospholipase A2 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Yamaguchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genes encoding group IIE phospholipase A2, abbreviated as IIE PLA2, and its 5' and 3' flanking regions of Crotalinae snakes such as Protobothrops flavoviridis, P. tokarensis, P. elegans, and Ovophis okinavensis, were found and sequenced. The genes consisted of four exons and three introns and coded for 22 or 24 amino acid residues of the signal peptides and 134 amino acid residues of the mature proteins. These IIE PLA2s show high similarity to those from mammals and Colubridae snakes. The high expression level of IIE PLA2s in Crotalinae venom glands suggests that they should work as venomous proteins. The blast analysis indicated that the gene encoding OTUD3, which is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 3, is located in the 3' downstream of IIE PLA2 gene. Moreover, a group IIA PLA2 gene was found in the 5' upstream of IIE PLA2 gene linked to the OTUD3 gene (OTUD3 in the P. flavoviridis genome. It became evident that the specified arrangement of IIA PLA2 gene, IIE PLA2 gene, and OTUD3 in this order is common in the genomes of humans to snakes. The present finding that the genes encoding various secretory PLA2s form a cluster in the genomes of humans to birds is closely related to the previous finding that six venom PLA2 isozyme genes are densely clustered in the so-called NIS-1 fragment of the P. flavoviridis genome. It is also suggested that venom IIA PLA2 genes may be evolutionarily derived from the IIE PLA2 gene.

  8. Isolation and characterization of two disintegrins inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation from the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like proteins are molecules found in the venom of four snake families (Atractaspididae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and Colubridae). The disintegrins are nonenzymatic proteins that inhibit cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction, and may have potential in the treatment of strokes, heart attacks, cancers, and osteoporosis. Prior to 1983, the venom of Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mohave Rattlesnake) was known to be only neurotoxic; however, now there is evidence that these snakes can contain venom with: (1) neurotoxins; (2) hemorrhagins; and (3) both neurotoxins and hemorrhagins. In this study, two disintegrins, mojastin 1 and mojastin 2, from the venom of a Mohave rattlesnake collected in central Arizona (Pinal County), were isolated and characterized. The disintegrins in these venoms were identified by mass-analyzed laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry as having masses of 7.436 and 7.636 kDa. Their amino acid sequences are similar to crotratroxin, a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the western diamondback rattlesnake (C. atrox). The amino acid sequence of mojastin 1 was identical to the amino acid sequence of a disintegrin isolated from the venom of the Timber rattlesnake (C. horridus). The disintegrins from the Mohave rattlesnake venom were able to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole human blood both having IC5s of 13.8 nM, but were not effective in inhibiting the binding of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (T24) to fibronectin

  9. Comparison of wildlife and captivity rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus microbiota Comparação da microbiota de cascavéis (Crotalus durissus terrificus de vida-livre e cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Ferreira Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated and compared the aerobic microbiota from the oral cavity, cloaca and venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes, recently caught from the wild and kept under quarantine (WQ, individual captivity (IC and collective captivity (CC. Antimicrobial drug effectiveness on isolated agents also was assayed. From group I, II and III were isolated, respectively, 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% and 21 (42.86% microorganisms from the cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% and 25 (51.02% microorganisms from the oral cavity; and, 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% and 3 (6.12% microorganisms from venom. The most frequent bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii, with sensitivity to amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, sulfazotrin and tobramycin. Snakes kept in semi-open captivity exhibited the fewest microorganisms in oral cavities, perhaps due to the environment in captivity, with different temperature gradients, running water, absence of daily handling, circulating air, possibility of moving around, daily cleaning, and sunlight access.Este estudo avaliou e comparou a microflora aeróbica da cavidade oral, cloaca e veneno de serpentes Crotalus durissus terrificus recém-capturadas da natureza e mantidas sob quarentena (WQ, mantidas em cativeiro coletivo (CC e em cativeiro individual (IC. A eficácia de drogas antimicrobianas de agentes isolados foi também avaliada. Foram isolados microorganismos dos grupos I, II e III respectivamente: 29 (63.04%, 38 (90.48% e 21 (42.86% da cloaca; 15 (32.61%, 3 (7.14% e 25 (51.02% da cavidade oral, e finalmente 2 (4.35%, 1 (2.38% e 3 (6.12% do veneno. As bactérias mais frequentes foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris e Morganella morganii, com sensibilidade para amikacina, gentamicina, norfloxacina, sulfazotrina e tobramicina. Serpentes mantidas no cativeiro semi-aberto mostraram menor número de agentes infecciosos em cavidade oral, talvez devido ao ambiente de cativeiro com diferentes

  10. Extension of the reactor dynamics code MGT-3D for pebblebed and blocktype high-temperature-reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is an improved, gas cooled nuclear reactor. It was chosen as one of the candidates of generation IV nuclear plants [1]. The reactor can be shut down automatically because of the negative reactivity feedback due to the temperature's increasing in designed accidents. It is graphite moderated and Helium cooled. The residual heat can be transferred out of the reactor core by inactive ways as conduction, convection, and thermal radiation during the accident. In such a way, a fuel temperature does not go beyond a limit at which major fission product release begins. In this thesis, the coupled neutronics and fluid mechanics code MGT-3D used for the steady state and time-dependent simulation of HTGRs, is enhanced and validated [2]. The fluid mechanics part is validated by SANA experiments in steady state cases as well as transient cases. The fuel temperature calculation is optimized by solving the heat conduction equation of the coated particles. It is applied in the steady state and transient simulation of PBMR, and the results are compared to the simulation with the old overheating model. New approaches to calculate the temperature profile of the fuel element of block-type HTGRs, and the calculation of the homogeneous conductivity of composite materials are introduced. With these new developments, MGT-3D is able to simulate block-type HTGRs as well. This extended MGT-3D is used to simulate a cuboid ceramic block heating experiment in the NACOK-II facility. The extended MGT-3D is also applied to LOFC and DLOFC simulation of GT-MHR. It is a fluid mechanics calculation with a given heat source. This calculation result of MGT-3D is verified with the calculation results of other codes. The design of the Japanese HTTR is introduced. The deterministic simulation of the LOFC experiment of HTTR is conducted with the Monte-Carlo code Serpent and MGT-3D, which is the LOFC Project organized by OECD/NEA [3]. With Serpent the burnup

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic

  12. Optimization of U–Th fuel in heavy water moderated thermal breeder reactors using multivariate regression analysis and genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new method useful for the parametric analysis and optimization of reactor core designs. • This uses the strengths of genetic algorithms (GA), and regression splines. • The method is applied to the core fuel pin cell of a PHWR design. • Tools like java, R, and codes like Serpent, Matlab are used in this research. - Abstract: An analysis and optimization of a set of neutronics parameters of a thorium-fueled pressurized heavy water reactor core fuel has been performed. The analysis covers a detailed pin-cell analysis of a seed-blanket configuration, where the seed is composed of natural uranium, and the blanket is composed of thorium. Genetic algorithms (GA) is used to optimize the input parameters to meet a specific set of objectives related to: infinite multiplication factor, initial breeding ratio, and specific nuclide’s effective microscopic cross-section. The core input parameters are the pitch-to-diameter ratio, and blanket material composition. Recursive partitioning of decision trees (rpart) multivariate regression model is used to perform a predictive analysis of the samples generated from the GA module. Reactor designs are usually complex and a simulation needs a significantly large amount time to execute, hence implementation of GA or any other global optimization techniques is not feasible, therefore we present a new method of using rpart in conjunction with GA. Due to using rpart, we do not necessarily need to run the neutronics simulation for all the inputs generated from the GA module rather, run the simulations for a predefined set of inputs, build a regression fit to the input and the output parameters, and then use this fit to predict the output parameters for the inputs generated by GA. The rpart model is implemented as a library using R programming language. The results suggest that the initial breeding ratio tends to increase due to a harder neutron spectrum, however a softer neutron spectrum is desired to limit the

  13. Subsurface structure of the Evershed flows in sunspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radial outflows in sunspot penumbrae, known as the Evershed effect, are of significant interest for understanding the dynamics of sunspots. Local helioseismology has not been able to determine the depth of these flows nor their relationship to mass circulation in sunspots. Recent radiative MHD simulations have provided a convincing explanation of the Evershed flow as a natural consequence of magnetoconvection in the strongly inclined magnetic field region of the penumbra. The simulations reproduce many observational features of penumbra dynamics, including the filamentary structure, the high-speed non-stationary 'Evershed clouds', and the 'sea-serpent' behavior of magnetic field lines. We present the subsurface structure of the Evershed effect, obtained from numerical simulations, and determine the depth of the radial outflows for various magnetic field strengths and inclinations. The simulations predict that Evershed flows are rather shallow and concentrated in the top 0.5 - 1 Mm layer of the convection zone. This prediction can be tested by local helioseismology methods.

  14. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Gabriela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae, comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.

  15. Proverbs 30:18-19 in the Light of Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böck, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of Proverbs 30:18-19 has long been disputed. Most scholars interpret the Biblical couplets textually on stylistic features only; an explanation of the contextual association between the four motifs mentioned (eagle, serpent, boat, man and woman has not yet been undertaken. The present paper aims at shedding light on the motivation for this association, taking into consideration ancient Near Eastern cuneiform compositions for the first time. It is further suggested that Proverbs 30:18-19 derived originally from a riddle that had its setting in a wedding ceremony.El significado de Proverbios 30:18-19 sigue desafiando la exégesis de los biblistas. La mayoría de los comentaristas interpretan los versos bíblicos textualmente, ciñéndose al análisis de las figuras de estilo. Sin embargo, todavía no se ha dado ninguna explicación a la asociación contextual entre los cuatro motivos del proverbio (águila, serpiente, barco, hombre y mujer. Por primera vez, este artículo estudia composiciones de la literatura cuneiforme que ofrecen un telón de fondo para interpretar el sentido de los distintos elementos y del conjunto del proverbio bíblico. Según esta nueva lectura, Proverbios 30:18-19 describiría una adivinanza propuesta durante una ceremonia matrimonial.

  16. Reactivity Effect Of Steam / Water Ingress in Generation-IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a static neutronic calculational study of steam/water ingress into a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR Generation IV) core performed by using three Monte-Carlo codes, namely SERPENT version 1.1-16, KENO-VI module of the SCALE, MCNPX version 2.7.0, and different modern nuclear data libraries, i.e. JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII. The analysis was performed for a wide range of water/steam densities [0 – 1.0 g/cm3] within the core and the neutronic parameters were compared between the different codes and libraries. The obtained results demonstrate that this accidental event would result in a large negative reactivity insertion. The main reason of such core behaviour was found to be an increased neutron absorption rate in the cladding liner made of refractory metals (W and Re) due to the neutron spectrum thermalisation resulting from the steam/water ingress. (author)

  17. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications

  18. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Biland, Alex [HHK Technologies, Houston (United States); Tkaczyk, Alan Henry, E-mail: alan@ut.ee [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications.

  19. Coupling between the differential and perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients in nuclear transmutation problems; Acoplamento entre os metodos diferencial e da teoria da perturbacao para o calculo dos coeficientes de sensibilidade em problemas de transmutacao nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Lubianka Ferrari Russo

    2014-07-01

    The main target of this study is to introduce a new method for calculating the coefficients of sensibility through the union of differential method and generalized perturbation theory, which are the two methods generally used in reactor physics to obtain such variables. These two methods, separated, have some issues turning the sensibility coefficients calculation slower or computationally exhaustive. However, putting them together, it is possible to repair these issues and build a new equation for the coefficient of sensibility. The method introduced in this study was applied in a PWR reactor, where it was performed the sensibility analysis for the production and {sup 239}Pu conversion rate during 120 days (1 cycle) of burnup. The computational code used for both burnup and sensibility analysis, the CINEW, was developed in this study and all the results were compared with codes widely used in reactor physics, such as CINDER and SERPENT. The new mathematical method for calculating the sensibility coefficients and the code CINEW provide good numerical agility and also good efficiency and security, once the new method, when compared with traditional ones, provide satisfactory results, even when the other methods use different mathematical approaches. The burnup analysis, performed using the code CINEW, was compared with the code CINDER, showing an acceptable variation, though CINDER presents some computational issues due to the period it was built. The originality of this study is the application of such method in problems involving temporal dependence and, not least, the elaboration of the first national code for burnup and sensitivity analysis. (author)

  20. Fuel analysis of a PBMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a neutronic analysis of fuel for a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor is presented, based on their composition and geometric distribution, having as main objective the use and utilization of thorium for the production of fuel for the operation of this reactor. For the study of these characteristics is necessary to use a code capable of carry out a reliable calculation of the main parameters of the fuel. Using the Monte Carlo method is suitable for simulating the neutron transport in the reactor core, which is the basis of Serpent code, with which the calculations for the analysis will be made. The results show the desirability of the use of thorium, since presents good conversion levels of fertile material to fissile, to produce U233 by neutron capture, taking as a very important factor the distribution of materials in the core, which in this work had better results based on the neutron multiplication effective factor, formed by three right circular cylinders circumscribed, making that the core has three areas constituted by a mixture of plutonium oxide in the central and external areas, and thorium oxide in the intermediate area. (Author)

  1. Did Indians of the Americas Preserve Linguistic Place-names Like Willimantic, CT, Indicating Some Islamic Interactions and Applied Physics Use, Before Columbus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crory, Erica; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Modern Peruvians document: ``Ñari Huallac is the name of the town in the north of Peru (Piura) where our families come from. The words Ñari Huallac mean Serpent God, [editorial emphasis by underlining script is added], and are some of the few words which remain from the ancient Tallan civilization.'' Tallan seems related to The God, Allah, of Islam, as are Alaska, Allagash, Illinois, Willimantic, CT, and, in Maine, Metallak, Mollocket and Millinocket, Allahpatah, of Florida, and Allegheny of Pennsylvania. With this significance lies the partially concealed evidence that all three monotheistic faiths, during the times indicated by the language, understood there was a fundamental connection between The God, and what we would call today the electromagnetic field, EMF, of Mother Earth. Metallak: Doctor (at) The God (Spirit-signal, EMF), an ecclesiastical title, like Willimantic, The God Spirit-signal (where there is a) doctor. Alaska: The God Jesus Christ Spirit-signal (EMF). Millinocket: Adherent of The God monk Cathar, provides a reference date of about 1250 A.D. Illinois: The God Spirit-signal (EMF-detecting) monk. Mollocket asserted ownership of western Maine, until 1816. What did she know of importance from her war-hostage days in Boston?

  2. Changes in deep-water epibenthic megafaunal assemblages in relation to seabed slope on the Nigerian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O. B.; Mrabure, Charles O.; Gates, Andrew R.

    2013-08-01

    Local-scale habitat heterogeneity associated with changes in slope is a ubiquitous feature of bathyal continental margins. The response of deep-sea species to high habitat heterogeneity is poorly known and slope can be used as a proxy for many important ecological variables, such as current flow, sedimentation and substratum type. This study determines how slope angle effects megafaunal species density and diversity at the Usan field, offshore Nigeria, between 740 and 760 m depth. This deep-water area is increasingly exploited for hydrocarbons, yet lacking in baseline biological information. Replicated remotely operated vehicle video transect surveys were carried out using industry infrastructure (through the SERPENT Project) at a representative range of slopes (1°, 3°, 11° and 29°). Twenty-four species of benthic megafaunal invertebrate were found, numerically dominated by the echinoid Phormosoma placenta, and nine species of fish were observed. Megafaunal invertebrate deposit feeder density decreased significantly with increasing slope (density range 0.503-0.081 individuals m-2). Densities of megafaunal suspension feeders were very low except at the highest slope site (mean density 0.17 m-2). Overall species richness was greater on steeper slopes, although the richness of deposit feeders was not affected. Reduced labile organic matter in sediments on steeper slopes likely reduced deposit feeder densities, but increased current flow at higher slopes allowed both increased richness and density of suspension feeders.

  3. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  4. Carbon Isotope Systematics in Mineral-Catalyzed Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperature and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, R. A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques. Reduction of CO2 and/or CO during serpentization by mineral surface catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars. With the evidence a recent study has discovered for serpentinization in deeply buried carbon rich sediments, and more showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history, it seems likely that abiotic methane generation via serpentinization reactions may have been common on Mars. Experiments involving mineral-catalyzed hydrothermal organic synthesis processes were conducted at 750 C and 5.5 Kbars. Alkanes, alcohols and carboxylic acids were identified as organic compounds. No "isotopic reversal" of delta C-13 values was observed for alkanes or carboxylic acids, suggesting a different reaction pathway than polymerization. Alcohols were proposed as intermediaries formed on mineral surfaces at experimental conditions. Carbon isotope data were used in this study to unravel the reaction pathways of abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems at high temperatures and pressures. They are instrumental in constraining the origin and evolution history of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  5. Carbon Isotope Measurements of Experimentally-Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products by Pyrolysis-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the C isotope composition of mineral catalyzed organic compounds derived from high temperature and high pressure synthesis. These experiments make use of an innovative pyrolysis technique designed to extract and measure C isotopes. To date, our experiments have focused on the pyrolysis and C isotope ratio measurements of low-molecular weight intermediary hydrocarbons (organic acids and alcohols) and serve as a proof of concept for making C and H isotope measurements on more complicated mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and intermediary products produced during high temperature and high pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. The impetus for this work stems from recently reported observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [1-4], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Martian history [5-7]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization reactions [8,9]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [10-12]. Further, recent experiments by Fu et al. [13] focus on examining detailed C isotope measurements of hydrocarbons produced by surface-catalyzed mineral reactions. Work described in this paper details the experimental techniques used to measure intermediary organic reaction products (alcohols and organic acids).

  6. Evaluation of the adequacy of using few-group lattice-homogenized properties for the diffusion analysis of the super critical water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two issues may affect the accuracy of computed core reactivities and flux/power distributions for the Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) core with traditional core-analysis code RFSP: one is the two-energy-group neutron-diffusion theory; the other is the generation of lattice-homogenized properties with the lattice code based on the single-lattice-cell model without considering the effects of the environment. These two issues are not SCWR specific; however their effect may be more significant for SCWR. It has been illustrated that the lattice-homogenized properties calculated with the single-lattice-cell model is not sufficiently accurate for heterogeneous core configurations such as ACR-1000 checkerboard-voiding and core-reflector interface when adjacent channels experience significant spectrum interaction. To evaluate the adequacy of using two-group neutron-diffusion theory with single-lattice-based lattice properties for the analysis of the SCWR core, a 2-D SCWR benchmark problem was setup with the reference solution provided by the continuous-energy Monte-Carlo code SERPENT. The assessment shows that the traditional two-group neutron-diffusion theory with the single-lattice-cell- based lattice properties is not sufficient to capture either the spectral change or the environment effect for the SCWR core. The solution of the eight-group neutron-diffusion equation with the multicell- based lattice properties is considered appropriate for the analysis of the d SCWR core. (authors)

  7. Modelling the FIR 1 TRIGA Core for Increased Power and Tilted Power Distribution for Further Improvement of both the Epithermal Neutron Beam Intensity and the Capacity for Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations for an improved core loading and a power upgrade of the currently 250 kW FiR 1 TRIGA reactor are made. Increasing the reactor power will allow to increase the capacity for BNCT cancer patient treatments by more than a factor of three, meeting the prospects of increased demand for these treatments, while still keeping the current capacity for radioisotope production, education and training. A tilted core loading using 11 new fuel elements with 30 mass % of uranium in the UZrH matrix is considered. These would be placed into the core section facing the BNCT irradiation facility. Detailed reactor physics and thermal hydraulics calculations using the most advanced codes in use at VTT are performed to evaluate this option. The power distribution is calculated using a detailed model in the MCNP5 code. The new SERPENT code developed at VTT is used for the burnup and radioactive nuclei inventory calculation. SMABRE thermal hydraulic system code is used for the core cooling calculations. (author)

  8. New burnup calculation of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, operates since 1960.The reactor is operating for more than fifty years and has a long history of operation. Determining the current composition of the fuel is very important to calculate various parameters. The reactor burnup calculation has been performed before, however, new techniques, methods, software and increase of the processing capacity of the new computers motivates new investigations to be performed. This work presents the evolution of effective multiplication constant and the results of burnup. This new model has a more detailed geometry with the introduction of the new devices, like the control rods and the samarium discs. This increase of materials in the simulation in burnup calculation was very important for results. For these series of simulations a more recently cross section library, ENDF/B-VII, was used. To perform the calculations two Monte Carlo particle transport code were used: Serpent and MCNPX. The results obtained from two codes are presented and compared with previous studies in the literature. (author)

  9. Development of a new convergence criterion for Monte Carlo simulation with thermal-hydraulics feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupled multi-physics approach plays an important role in improving computational accuracy. Compared with deterministic neutronics codes, Monte Carlo codes have the advantage of higher resolution level. In the present paper, a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup calculation code, Serpent, is coupled with thermal-hydraulics safety analysis code, RELAP5. A new convergence criterion for the coupled simulation is developed based on the statistical uncertainty in power distribution in Monte Carlo code, rather than an arbitrarily chosen criterion in previous research. The coupled simulation is based on the OECD-NEA/NRC PWR MOX-UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. The convergence criterion of normalized axial power distribution is tested on both UO2 and MOX single assembly models. Compared with previously implemented convergence criteria based on temperature, eigenvalue or flux (or power), it takes into account both the local and global convergence. It does not use a pre-set tolerance limit and is decided by the statistical accuracy of the Monte Carlo code itself. This new convergence criterion is shown to be stable, more stringent and direct, equally convenient to use but may need a few more steps to converge. (author)

  10. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002 peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002 peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product.

  11. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinfeng; Kang, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Qingyun; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Weijun; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhu, Limin; Lu, Hanwei; Chen, Juying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH) level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product. PMID:26938538

  12. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil Carrapatos infestando anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials. New tick-host associations and locality records are given.Os carrapatos encontrados infestando anfíbios e répteis no Estado de Pernambuco são revisados com base na literatura atual e em novas coletas realizadas recentemente pelos autores. Até o momento, três espécies de carrapatos foram encontradas sobre anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum parece estar exclusivamente associado à Boa constrictor, seu hospedeiro-tipo. Amblyomma rotundatum tem uma especificidade parasitária relativamente baixa, sendo encontrado em sapos, serpentes e iguana. Amblyomma dissimile já foi encontrado sobre um lagarto e também sobre pequenos mamíferos (isto é, roedores e marsupiais. Novas associações carrapato-hospedeiro e novos registros de localidades são apresentados.

  13. A reduced-boron OPR1000 core based on the BigT burnable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hwan Yeal; Yahya, Mohd-Syukri; Kim, Yong Hee [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Reducing critical boron concentration in a commercial pressurized water reactor core offers many advantages in view of safety and economics. This paper presents a preliminary investigation of a reduced-boron pressurized water reactor core to achieve a clearly negative moderator temperature coefficient at hot zero power using the newly-proposed 'Burnable absorber-Integrated Guide Thimble' (BigT) absorbers. The reference core is based on a commercial OPR1000 equilibrium configuration. The reduced-boron ORP1000 configuration was determined by simply replacing commercial gadolinia-based burnable absorbers with the optimized BigT-loaded design. The equilibrium cores in this study were directly searched via repetitive Monte Carlo depletion calculations until convergence. The results demonstrate that, with the same fuel management scheme as in the reference core, application of the BigT absorbers can effectively reduce the critical boron concentration at the beginning of cycle by about 65 ppm. More crucially, the analyses indicate promising potential of the reduced-boron OPR1000 core with the BigT absorbers, as its moderator temperature coefficient at the beginning of cycle is clearly more negative and all other vital neutronic parameters are within practical safety limits. All simulations were completed using the Monte Carlo Serpent code with the ENDF/B-VII.0 library.

  14. Combining Total Monte Carlo and Benchmarks for nuclear data uncertainty propagation on an LFRs safety parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Alhassan, Erwin; Duan, Junfeng; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Koning, Arjan; Pomp, Stephan; Rochman, Dimitri; Österlund, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Analyses are carried out to assess the impact of nuclear data uncertainties on keff for the European Lead Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) using the Total Monte Carlo method. A large number of Pu-239 random ENDF-formated libraries generated using the TALYS based system were processed into ACE format with NJOY99.336 code and used as input into the Serpent Monte Carlo neutron transport code to obtain distribution in keff. The keff distribution obtained was compared with the latest major nuclear data libraries - JEFF-3.1.2, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0. A method is proposed for the selection of benchmarks for specific applications using the Total Monte Carlo approach. Finally, an accept/reject criterion was investigated based on chi square values obtained using the Pu-239 Jezebel criticality benchmark. It was observed that nuclear data uncertainties in keff were reduced considerably from 748 to 443 pcm by applying a more rigid acceptance criteria for accepting random files.

  15. Preparation of nuclear libraries with deterministic and stochastic methods for LWR reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canepa, S.; Hursin, M.; Ferroukhi, H.; Pautz, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, 5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The explicit reflector methodology is used in the system of codes CASMO-5 / SIMULATE-3 to include the reflector around the active core into the computational region and avoid adopting any ad-hoc or experimental albedo coefficients as boundary conditions. However, to complete the core calculation, a set of cross sections and discontinuity factors is needed for the reflector nodes and the accuracy of these nuclear parameters influences the final results, in particular along the peripheral regions of the core. In this paper the explicit reflector methodology of CASMO-5 is adopted to evaluate the few-group cross sections and discontinuity factors of the different reflector cases, based on the design of Generation II and III LWR reactors. In addition, in the perspective of using Monte-Carlo codes as a complementary option for lattice calculations of reflector configurations, the stochastic SERPENT code is also included as part of this benchmark. With the latter, the impact of applying 2-D reflector models with homogenized materials instead of explicit representation of the real geometrical structures is moreover evaluated and shown to be limited. (authors)

  16. Comparative Neutronics Analysis of DIMPLE S06 Criticality Benchmark with Contemporary Reactor Core Analysis Computer Code Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkyeong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-leakage core has been known to be a challenging problem not only for a two-step homogenization approach but also for a direct heterogeneous approach. In this paper the DIMPLE S06 core, which is a small high-leakage core, has been analyzed by a direct heterogeneous modeling approach and by a two-step homogenization modeling approach, using contemporary code systems developed for reactor core analysis. The focus of this work is a comprehensive comparative analysis of the conventional approaches and codes with a small core design, DIMPLE S06 critical experiment. The calculation procedure for the two approaches is explicitly presented in this paper. Comprehensive comparative analysis is performed by neutronics parameters: multiplication factor and assembly power distribution. Comparison of two-group homogenized cross sections from each lattice physics codes shows that the generated transport cross section has significant difference according to the transport approximation to treat anisotropic scattering effect. The necessity of the ADF to correct the discontinuity at the assembly interfaces is clearly presented by the flux distributions and the result of two-step approach. Finally, the two approaches show consistent results for all codes, while the comparison with the reference generated by MCNP shows significant error except for another Monte Carlo code, SERPENT2.

  17. Nova Scotia: ``Feu Follet" At Cheticamp, and Also the Phenomena At L'Sitkuk of the Mi'Kmaw, May Be Electromagnetic In Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; McLeod, Roger D.

    2001-11-01

    There is a strong tradition that ``feu follet" exists at the cemetery associated with the Acadian French at Cheticamp. It is described as a blue light, and may actually be the equivalent of an ascending, positively charged stream of ions in the atmosphere, just like the blue-light column that is often a precursor of a storm's lightning-strike. Similar phenomena are at America's Stonehenge, at a stone serpent effigy site in Ohio, and just north of the Lakes Memphremagog and Magog of Vermont and Canada. At the Bear River L'sitkuk Reservation area, which seems to us to have been a most unsuitable site, was deliberately chosen by the Mi'kmaw for their living area. Was this because certain properties of the electromagnetic field (EMF) are evident to them there, which also seem to be reflected in their legends? We hope to establish that these disparate cultures and their separate worldviews can be confirmed by the presence of particular EMF signatures. *This paper does not represent the views of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. COLECTOR SOLAR CONSTRUIDO MEDIANTE TALADRADO POR FLUENCIA TÉRMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Heredia R.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y construyó un sistema de calentamiento de agua residencial, mediante dos colectores solares y un estanque. En el sistema se utilizaron tubos de cobre perforados por taladrado por fluencia térmica (TFT, unidos con soldadura de plata. El sistema funciona por termosifón y se emplea como fluido de calentamiento una mezcla de etilenglicol-agua. El fluido de calentamiento pasa a través de un serpentín de cobre a un estanque de 200 litros. Diariamente se calientan 80 litros de agua a una temperatura máxima de 45º C.A heating equipment for residential water was built, using two solar collectors and one isolated reservoir. The system uses to copper tubes perforated by thermal flow drilling (TFT, brazing with silver solder. The thermal fluid moves due to the density change of the cold and hot water. It is a mixture of ethyleneglycol-water and the heat is exchanged in the copper serpentine installed in the reservoir of 200 liters. Daily it warms 80 liters of water to 45ºC.

  19. Conceptual design of a self-sustainable pressurized water reactor with boiling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parametric studies have been performed on a seed-blanket Th-U233 fuel configuration in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with boiling channels to achieve high conversion ratio. Previous studies on seed-blanket concepts required substantial reduction of the core power density in order to operate under nominal PWR system conditions. Boiling flow regime in the seed area allows better heat removal, which in turn, may potentially allow increasing the power density of the core. In addition, the reduced moderation improves the breeding performance. A 2-dimensional design optimization study was carried out with BOXER and SERPENT codes in order to determine the most attractive fuel assembly configuration that would ensure breeding. Effects of various parameters, such as void fraction, blanket fuel form, number of seed pins and their dimensions, on the conversion ratio were examined. The obtained results, for which the power density was set to 104 W/cc, created a map of designs with their corresponding fissile inventory ratio (FIR) values. It was found that several options have the potential to achieve the main objective - a self-sustainable Thorium fuel cycle in PWRs without significant reduction in the core power density. (author)

  20. The trigonal nodal SP3 method of the reactor code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DYN3D is a 3D nodal diffusion code for steady-state and transient analyses of Light-Water Reactors (LWRs) with square and hexagonal fuel assembly geometries. Currently several versions of the DYN3D code are available including a multi-group diffusion and a simplified P3 (SP3) neutron transport option. In this work, the multi-group SP3 method based on trigonal-z geometry was developed. The method is applicable to the analysis of reactor cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies and allows flexible mesh refinement, which is of particular importance for VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) as well as for innovative reactor concepts including block type High-Temperature Reactors (HTRs) and Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs). In this paper, the theoretical background for the trigonal SP3 methodology is outlined and the results of a preliminary verification analysis are presented by means of two VVER-440 single assembly test examples with different material compositions. The accordant cross sections and reference solutions were produced by the Monte Carlo code SERPENT. The DYN3D results are shown for 2 and 8 energy groups, respectively, and are in good agreement with the reference solutions. The deviation in the nodal power distribution is about 1%. (author)

  1. External neutron source anomalies analysis using Hurst's exponent for the Myrrha reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: ejunior@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeir, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Anomalous diffusion is usually marked by the non-linear growth of the variance in time, that is, the diffusion will be considered as anomalous if there is a deviation in the behaviour described before. This paper aims to identify anomalies in the neutron flux during the operation of an ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor as a result of a trip that originates in the proton accelerator as per project bases, from two different calculation methods for Hurst exponents. These methods are the R/S Method and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) Method. For that the Myrrha Reactor will be simulated using the SERPENT code and the neutron source will be subjected to a production peak at a given instant. The Hurst exponent has a direct application on determining the order of derivatives in fractional point-kinetics equations and the estimate for the fractional derivative can be related as being twice that of Hurst's exponent, according to the co-variance function in the Gauss' processes. After getting the Hurst's exponent a numerically solution is proposed. This subject being a theme very much in focus nowadays. (author)

  2. Evaluation of platelet number and function and fibrinogen level in patients bitten by snakes of the Bothrops genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Cardoso Luan

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet function and plasma fibrinogen levels were evaluated in 14 patients, 10 males and 4females, aged 13-59years bitten by Bothrops genus snakes. There was a statistical difference (p Foram avaliadas a função plaquetária e os níveis séricos de fibrinogênio em 14 doentes picados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops, sendo 10 do sexo masculino e 4 do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 13 e 59 anos. Houve diferença estatística (p < 0,05 entre os níveis séricos defibrinogênio avaliados 24 e 48 horas após o acidente. Houve tendência à normalização após 48 horas do tratamento. A plaquetopenia foi evidente nas avaliações de 24 e 48 horas. Houve tendência à nomalização no 8o dia após o tratamento (p <0,05. Os níveis de produtos de degradação defibrina (PDF mostraram-se alterados em 83,33 % dos pacientes avaliados. Os autores sugerem que a hipoagregação esteja relacionada com níveis baixos de fibrinogênio e elevados de PDF.

  3. Fuel analysis of a PBMR; Analisis de combustible de un PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: gbo729@yahoo.com.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper a neutronic analysis of fuel for a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor is presented, based on their composition and geometric distribution, having as main objective the use and utilization of thorium for the production of fuel for the operation of this reactor. For the study of these characteristics is necessary to use a code capable of carry out a reliable calculation of the main parameters of the fuel. Using the Monte Carlo method is suitable for simulating the neutron transport in the reactor core, which is the basis of Serpent code, with which the calculations for the analysis will be made. The results show the desirability of the use of thorium, since presents good conversion levels of fertile material to fissile, to produce U{sup 233} by neutron capture, taking as a very important factor the distribution of materials in the core, which in this work had better results based on the neutron multiplication effective factor, formed by three right circular cylinders circumscribed, making that the core has three areas constituted by a mixture of plutonium oxide in the central and external areas, and thorium oxide in the intermediate area. (Author)

  4. Genome-wide transcription analysis of clinal genetic variation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Clinal variation in quantitative traits is widespread, but its genetic basis awaits identification. Drosophila melanogaster shows adaptive, clinal variation in traits such as body size along latitudinal gradients on multiple continents. To investigate genome wide transcription differentiation between North and South that might contribute to the clinal phenotypic variation, we compared RNA expression patterns during development of D. melanogaster from tropical northern and temperate southern populations using whole genome tiling arrays. We found that genes that were differentially expressed between the cline ends were generally associated with metabolism and growth, and experimental alteration of expression of a sample of them generally resulted in altered body size in the predicted direction, sometimes significantly so. We further identified the serpent (srp transcription factor binding sites to be enriched near genes up-regulated in expression in the south. Analysis of clinal populations revealed a significant cline in the expression level of srp. Experimental over-expression of srp increased body size, as predicted from its clinal expression pattern, suggesting that it may be involved in regulating adaptive clinal variation in Drosophila. This study identified a handful of genes that contributed to clinal phenotypic variation through altered gene expression level, yet misexpression of individual gene led to modest body size change.

  5. Da esquizofrenia à antropofagia: leituras da história

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Nicastro Honesko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available From the confluence of readings, which in principle would be called disparate, the present essay intents to expose a zone of threshold among the proposes of Aby Warburg, in his The Ritual of the Serpent, going over the readings of the dialectical images in Benjamin, to the problem of the signatures in Foucault, until the conception of anthropophagy of Oswald de Andrade. In a very first moment, some analyses about the conception of symbol in Warburg and the compositional mode of his Mnemosyne are exposed. Then, an exposition of Benjamin ?s theorizations about the dialectics images is done, always using the comprehensions from his contemporary readers (Giorgio Agamben, Georges Didi-Huberman, among others. Therefore, an approximation of the dialectical images to the idea of signature in Michel Foucault can be done; such approximation is only possible having as a support a method, here called archeological (a study of the origin – arké, which enables the proposition of an anachronism in the reading(s of history(ies. Finally, it analyses how an anthropophagic conception of history – from Oswald de Andrade – can be a strategic way to break with a schizophrenic chronology of history and a passage to an anachronic (anthropophagic reading of history, that does not aim to suture the limits postulated by the tradition of the occidental thinking (civilized/primitive, rational/irrational etc., but to dilute them into thresholds, in order to give a new possibility to what (history seemed not to have anymore.

  6. Origins of the ancient constellations: II. The Mediterranean traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.

    1998-04-01

    The classical map of the sky, with the 48 Greek constellations, was derived from at least two different pre-Greek traditions. One tradition comprised the 12 signs of the zodiac, with several associated animal constellations, all of which developed over ~3200-500 BC in Mesopotamia in a religious or ritual tradition. These were taken over by the Greeks around 500 BC. However the other Babylonian constellations, their farming-calendar tradition, were not adopted. The other tradition was not Mesopotamian; it comprised large constellations which appear to date from ~2800 BC, probably from the Mediterranean region, devised for the navigators of ships. They include huge bears and serpents which marked the celestial pole and equator at that time, and probably the four anonymous giants which we know as Hercules, Ophiuchus, Bootes, and Auriga, as well as some of the large southern 'marine' constellations. The origins of some other constellations, including the Perseus tableau and various animals, are unknown; they may have been new creations of the Greeks. The Greeks assembled the classical sky-map from these different sources between 540-370 BC, but many of the familiar legends were only applied to the constellations later.

  7. Does the Corona Borealis Supercluster form a giant binary-like system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiesi Pillastrini, Giovanni C.

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of local gravitational potentials generated by a complete volume-limited sample of galaxy groups and clusters filling the Corona Borealis region has been derived to search for new gravitational hints in the context of clustering analysis unrevealed by alternative methodologies. Mapping such a distribution as a function of spatial positions, the deepest potential wells in the sample trace unambiguously the locations of the densest galaxy cluster clumps providing the physical keys to bring out gravitational features connected to the formation, composition and evolution of the major clustered structures filling that region. As expected, the three deepest potential wells found at Equatorial coordinates: (˜230°, ˜28°, z ˜ 0.075), (˜240°, ˜27°, z ˜ 0.09) and, (227°, 5.8°, z ˜ 0.0788) correspond to massive superclusters of galaxy groups and clusters identified as the Corona Borealis, A2142 and Virgo-Serpent, respectively. However, the deepest isopotential contours around the Corona Borealis and A2142 superclusters seem to suggest a gravitational feature similar to a giant binary-like system connected by a filamentary structure. To a first approximation, it seems unlikely that this hypothesized system could be gravitationally bound.

  8. Present status and future plan of development on National Nuclear Forensics Library at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has initiated R and D project on nuclear forensics technology such as analytical technologies towards the establishment of nuclear forensics capabilities in Japan. National Nuclear Forensics Library (NNFL) is one of the fundamental nuclear forensics capabilities and a prototype NNFL has been developed as one topic of the R and D project at JAEA. Main objective of NNFL is to determine whether a seized nuclear or other radioactive material from nuclear security event (e.g. illicit trafficking) is originated from one's country or not. Analytical data of the seized material are compared with the existing materials populated in a NNFL, and its attributions such as origin and history will be identified. This paper describes the current status and future plan on the development of prototype NNFL. The outline and the results of the participation in an international table top exercise on NNFL named 'Galaxy Serpent' are also reported in the present paper. (author)

  9. An innovative approach to dynamics modeling and simulation of the molten salt rector experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was a circulating fuel thermal reactor built and operated in the sixties. As the only Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) testing facility for which extensive experimental data are available, it can be considered as a reference for the development of modeling approaches for the studies related to the Gen-IV MSR. In this work, a geometric multi-scale approach has been adopted for the simulation of the MSRE plant. The data and the experimental results relative to the U-233 fuelled reactor are considered. The neutronic parameters have been determined using the Monte Carlo code Serpent. The reactor core is divided into three radial regions, each one described by a 3D channel in which Navier-Stokes and energy conservation equations plus delayed neutron precursors (DNP) balance equations are solved. Determination of the generated power is obtained employing a point kinetics like equation, fed with importance weighted values of temperatures and DNP concentrations. The remaining part of the plant, that includes the primary and secondary cooling circuits, is modeled by means of zero-dimensional components. The results attained with such modeling approach are compared with experimental data both in time and frequency domain, showing good agreement. The adopted approach, thanks to the punctual, coupled solution of the governing equations in the core, gives better insights into the thermal behavior of the graphite and its effects on MSR dynamics than commonly used correlation-based solvers. (author)

  10. Propagation of Nuclear Data Uncertainties for ELECTRA Burn-up Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, H.; Alhassan, E.; Duan, J.; Gustavsson, C.; Koning, A. J.; Pomp, S.; Rochman, D.; Österlund, M.

    2014-04-01

    The European Lead-Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) has been proposed as a training reactor for fast systems within the Swedish nuclear program. It is a low-power fast reactor cooled by pure liquid lead. In this work, we propagate the uncertainties in 239Pu transport data to uncertainties in the fuel inventory of ELECTRA during the reactor lifetime using the Total Monte Carlo approach (TMC). Within the TENDL project, nuclear models input parameters were randomized within their uncertainties and 740 239Pu nuclear data libraries were generated. These libraries are used as inputs to reactor codes, in our case SERPENT, to perform uncertainty analysis of nuclear reactor inventory during burn-up. The uncertainty in the inventory determines uncertainties in: the long-term radio-toxicity, the decay heat, the evolution of reactivity parameters, gas pressure and volatile fission product content. In this work, a methodology called fast TMC is utilized, which reduces the overall calculation time. The uncertainty of some minor actinides were observed to be rather large and therefore their impact on multiple recycling should be investigated further. It was also found that, criticality benchmarks can be used to reduce inventory uncertainties due to nuclear data. Further studies are needed to include fission yield uncertainties, more isotopes, and a larger set of benchmarks.

  11. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for ELECTRA burn-up calculations

    CERN Document Server

    ostrand, H; Duan, J; Gustavsson, C; Koning, A; Pomp, S; Rochman, D; Osterlund, M

    2013-01-01

    The European Lead-Cooled Training Reactor (ELECTRA) has been proposed as a training reactor for fast systems within the Swedish nuclear program. It is a low-power fast reactor cooled by pure liquid lead. In this work, we propagate the uncertainties in Pu-239 transport data to uncertainties in the fuel inventory of ELECTRA during the reactor life using the Total Monte Carlo approach (TMC). Within the TENDL project the nuclear models input parameters were randomized within their uncertainties and 740 Pu-239 nuclear data libraries were generated. These libraries are used as inputs to reactor codes, in our case SERPENT, to perform uncertainty analysis of nuclear reactor inventory during burn-up. The uncertainty in the inventory determines uncertainties in: the long-term radio-toxicity, the decay heat, the evolution of reactivity parameters, gas pressure and volatile fission product content. In this work, a methodology called fast TMC is utilized, which reduces the overall calculation time. The uncertainty in the ...

  12. Demonologie in die Nuwe-Testamentiese tydvak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. van Aarde

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Demonology in New Testament times Modem demonology has become a cult just as it had been in mediaeval times. But there is a difference. Then people opposed the Devil; now people believe in the Devil. This paper argues that modem demonology is an escapism of reality and in direct contrast to the New Testament's message. The thesis is debated against the background of a discussion of demonology in New Testament times. In this discussion it is indicated how the face of evil has changed from Old Testament times up to the New Testament period. Evil has become an extraterrestrial figure, symbol and power. As the personification of the prince of evil, the Devil is inter alia identified with the mythological serpent in a lost paradise and is defeated at the realization of God's messianic kingdom in Jesus Christ, the prince of light. The New Testament proclaims that salvation means that man determines to exist as man of God before evil made man his slave.

  13. Comets in Indian Scriptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times in order to conduct sacrificial rites ordained by the Vedas. Naturally, they would have sighted comets and referred to them in the Vedic texts. In Rigveda (circa 1700-1500 BC) and Atharvaveda (circa 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Rigveda speaks of a fig tree whose aerial roots spread out in the sky (Parpola 2010). Had this imagery been inspired by the resemblance of a comet's tail with long and linear roots of a banyan tree (ficus benghalensis)? Varahamihira (AD 550) and Ballal Sena (circa AD 1100-1200) described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers, such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, and Garga, to name a few. In this article, we propose that an episode in Mahabharata in which a radiant king, Nahusha, who rules the heavens and later turns into a serpent after he kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  14. Particle accelerators, colliders, and the story of high energy physics charming the cosmic snake

    CERN Document Server

    Jayakumar, Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic mythological Cosmic Serpent, Ouroboros, is said to be coiled in the depths of the sea, surrounding the Earth with its tail in its mouth. In physics, this snake is a metaphor for the Universe, where the head, symbolizing the largest entity – the Cosmos – is one with the tail, symbolizing the smallest – the fundamental particle. Particle accelerators, colliders and detectors are built by physicists and engineers to uncover the nature of the Universe while discovering its building blocks. “Charming the Cosmic Snake” takes the readers through the science behind these experimental machines: the physics principles that each stage of the development of particle accelerators helped to reveal, and the particles they helped to discover. The book culminates with a description of the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world’s largest and most complex machines operating in a 27-km circumference tunnel near Geneva. That collider may prove or disprove many of our basic theories about the nature of matt...

  15. Canadian experience with uranium tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first years of uranium production in Canada uranium tailings were discharged directly into valleys or lakes near the mill. Treatment with barium chloride to precipitate radium began in 1965 at the Nordic Mine at Elliot Lake, Ontario. In the mid-60s and early 70s water quality studies indicated that discharges from uranium tailings areas were causing degradation to the upper part of the Serpent River water system. Studies into acid generation, revegetation, and leaching of radium were initiated by the mining companies and resulted in the construction of treatment plants at a number of sites. Abandoned tailings sites were revegetated. At hearings into the expansion of the Elliot Lake operations the issue of tailings management was a major item for discussion. As a result federal and provincial agencies developed guidelines for the siting and development of urnaium tailings areas prior to issuing operating licences. Western Canadian uranium producers do not have the acid generation problem of the Elliot Lake operations. The Rabbit Lake mill uses settling ponds followed by filtration. High-grade tailings from Cluff Lake are sealed in concrete and buried. Uranium producers feel that the interim criteria developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, if adopted, would have a harmful effect on the viability of the Canadian uranium industry

  16. New burnup calculation of TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Sincler P. de; Campolina, Daniel de A.M.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: sinclercdtn@hotmail.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor, located at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, operates since 1960.The reactor is operating for more than fifty years and has a long history of operation. Determining the current composition of the fuel is very important to calculate various parameters. The reactor burnup calculation has been performed before, however, new techniques, methods, software and increase of the processing capacity of the new computers motivates new investigations to be performed. This work presents the evolution of effective multiplication constant and the results of burnup. This new model has a more detailed geometry with the introduction of the new devices, like the control rods and the samarium discs. This increase of materials in the simulation in burnup calculation was very important for results. For these series of simulations a more recently cross section library, ENDF/B-VII, was used. To perform the calculations two Monte Carlo particle transport code were used: Serpent and MCNPX. The results obtained from two codes are presented and compared with previous studies in the literature. (author)

  17. Particle accelerators, colliders, and the story of high energy physics. Charming the cosmic snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic mythological Cosmic Serpent, Ouroboros, is said to be coiled in the depths of the sea, surrounding the Earth with its tail in its mouth. In physics, this snake is a metaphor for the Universe, where the head, symbolizing the largest entity - the Cosmos - is one with the tail, symbolizing the smallest - the fundamental particle. Particle accelerators, colliders and detectors are built by physicists and engineers to uncover the nature of the Universe while discovering its building blocks. ''Charming the Cosmic Snake'' takes the readers through the science behind these experimental machines: the physics principles that each stage of the development of particle accelerators helped to reveal, and the particles they helped to discover. The book culminates with a description of the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world's largest and most complex machines operating in a 27-km circumference tunnel near Geneva. That collider may prove or disprove many of our basic theories about the nature of matter. The book provides the material honestly without misrepresenting the science for the sake of excitement or glossing over difficult notions. The principles behind each type of accelerator is made accessible to the undergraduate student and even to a lay reader with cartoons, illustrations and metaphors. Simultaneously, the book also caters to different levels of reader's background and provides additional materials for the more interested or diligent reader. (orig.)

  18. Particle accelerators, colliders, and the story of high energy physics. Charming the cosmic snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, Raghavan

    2012-07-01

    The Nordic mythological Cosmic Serpent, Ouroboros, is said to be coiled in the depths of the sea, surrounding the Earth with its tail in its mouth. In physics, this snake is a metaphor for the Universe, where the head, symbolizing the largest entity - the Cosmos - is one with the tail, symbolizing the smallest - the fundamental particle. Particle accelerators, colliders and detectors are built by physicists and engineers to uncover the nature of the Universe while discovering its building blocks. ''Charming the Cosmic Snake'' takes the readers through the science behind these experimental machines: the physics principles that each stage of the development of particle accelerators helped to reveal, and the particles they helped to discover. The book culminates with a description of the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world's largest and most complex machines operating in a 27-km circumference tunnel near Geneva. That collider may prove or disprove many of our basic theories about the nature of matter. The book provides the material honestly without misrepresenting the science for the sake of excitement or glossing over difficult notions. The principles behind each type of accelerator is made accessible to the undergraduate student and even to a lay reader with cartoons, illustrations and metaphors. Simultaneously, the book also caters to different levels of reader's background and provides additional materials for the more interested or diligent reader. (orig.)

  19. Three-Fingered RAVERs: Rapid Accumulation of Variations in Exposed Residues of Snake Venom Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-finger toxins (3FTx represent one of the most abundantly secreted and potently toxic components of colubrid (Colubridae, elapid (Elapidae and psammophid (Psammophiinae subfamily of the Lamprophidae snake venom arsenal. Despite their conserved structural similarity, they perform a diversity of biological functions. Although they are theorised to undergo adaptive evolution, the underlying diversification mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report the molecular evolution of different 3FTx functional forms and show that positively selected point mutations have driven the rapid evolution and diversification of 3FTx. These diversification events not only correlate with the evolution of advanced venom delivery systems (VDS in Caenophidia, but in particular the explosive diversification of the clade subsequent to the evolution of a high pressure, hollow-fanged VDS in elapids, highlighting the significant role of these toxins in the evolution of advanced snakes. We show that Type I, II and III α-neurotoxins have evolved with extreme rapidity under the influence of positive selection. We also show that novel Oxyuranus/Pseudonaja Type II forms lacking the apotypic loop-2 stabilising cysteine doublet characteristic of Type II forms are not phylogenetically basal in relation to other Type IIs as previously thought, but are the result of secondary loss of these apotypic cysteines on at least three separate occasions. Not all 3FTxs have evolved rapidly: κ-neurotoxins, which form non-covalently associated heterodimers, have experienced a relatively weaker influence of diversifying selection; while cytotoxic 3FTx, with their functional sites, dispersed over 40% of the molecular surface, have been extremely constrained by negative selection. We show that the a previous theory of 3FTx molecular evolution (termed ASSET is evolutionarily implausible and cannot account for the considerable variation observed in very short segments of 3FTx. Instead, we propose

  20. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  1. Targeting exosites on blood coagulation proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Q. Monteiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The high specificity of blood coagulation proteases has been attributed not only to residues surrounding the active site but also to other surface domains that are involved in recognizing and interacting with macromolecular substrates and inhibitors. Specific blood coagulation inhibitors obtained from exogenous sources such as blood sucking salivary glands and snake venoms have been identified. Some of these inhibitors interact with exosites on coagulation enzymes. Two examples are discussed in this short revision. Bothrojaracin is a snake venom-derived protein that binds to thrombin exosites 1 and 2. Complex formation impairs several exosite-dependent activities of thrombin including fibrinogen cleavage and platelet activation. Bothrojaracin also interacts with proexosite 1 on prothrombin thus decreasing the zymogen activation by the prothrombinase complex (FXa/FVa. Ixolaris is a two Kunitz tick salivary gland inhibitor, that is homologous to tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Recently it was demonstrated that ixolaris binds to heparin-binding exosite of FXa, thus impairing the recognition of prothrombin by the enzyme. In addition, ixolaris interacts with FX possibly through the heparin-binding proexosite. Differently from FX, the ixolaris-FX complex is not recognized as substrate by the intrinsic tenase complex (FIXa/FVIIIa. We conclude that these inhibitors may serve as tools for the study of coagulation exosites as well as prototypes for new anticoagulant drugs.A alta especificidade das proteases da coagulação tem sido atribuída não somente aos resíduos que cercam o sítio ativo, mas também a outros domínios de superfície que estão envolvidos no reconhecimento e interação com substratos macromoleculares e inibidores. Inibidores específicos da coagulação sanguínea obtidos de fontes exógenas como glândulas salivares de animais hematófagos e venenos de serpentes têm sido identificados. Alguns desses inibidores interagem com os

  2. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos registros de hospedeiros para Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae da restinga de Grussaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio André Viana

    2012-09-01

    Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51; Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25, Mabuya agilis (n = 30, Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6, Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5 e Ameiva ameiva (n = 10, e serpentes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2, Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1 e Micrurus corallinus (n = 1. A única espécie de carrapato encontrada associada a espécimes de répteis foi A. rotundatum, tendo sido encontrada uma fêmea adulta em um indivíduo do lagarto A. ameiva, uma ninfa em um T. torquatus e quatro ninfas em uma serpente P. olfersii. O presente estudo constitui o primeiro registro do parasitismo de A. rotundatum nos répteis T. torquatus e P. olfersii como hospedeiros. Nossos resultados sugerem que no habitat da restinga de Grussaí, A. rotundatum pode utilizar diferentes espécies de répteis para a realização do seu ciclo de vida.

  3. Development of 3D full-core ERANOS-2.2/MCNPX-2.7.0 models and neutronic analysis of the BFS-2 zero-power facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is addressing the development and validation against experimental data of 3D full-core models of the BFS-2 zero-power fast-reactor using both the deterministic system code ERANOS-2.2 and the stochastic code MCNPX-2.7.0. The model configuration of BFS considered for analysis is the BFS-62-3A benchmark. To extend the - deterministic/stochastic - code-to-code comparison, neutronic parameters, i.e. reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates, were also simulated at the cell level with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT-1.1.7 with two modern data libraries, ENDF-B/VII and JEFF-3.1.1. The BFS-2 critical zero-power facility at the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) was designed for simulations of the core and shielding of sodium-cooled, fast reactors, for neutron data validation and comparison with experimental results. At the BFS-2 facility, the BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was set-up as a mock-up of the BN-600 reactor, with hybrid MOX fuel and stainless steel reflectors. A UO2 blanket and a large non-homogeneous stainless-steel reflector surround the core. The lattice is hexagonal of pitch 5.1 cm and metallic dowels are used to keep in central position cylindrical rods made of different types of material (fissile, fertile, blanket, plenum, shielding and absorber). A typical subassembly is formed in piling up various pellets of about 1 cm in height and 4.6 cm in diameter, conferring large heterogeneity in the axial direction. The full-core model development was a complex task due to the large number of subassemblies and the axial subassembly heterogeneity. In ERANOS-2.2, it was necessary to homogenize axially per region the pellets used to form the subassembly. The self-shielded macroscopic cross-sections were calculated using the cell code ECCO in association with JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VI.8 data libraries. The core calculations were performed with broad cross-sections data in 33 neutron energy groups with the solver AVNM in the

  4. Investigation of the Power Coefficient of Reactivity of 3D CANDU Reactor through Detailed Monte Carlo Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat is removed by the heavy water coolant completely separated from stationary moderator. Due to the good neutron economy of the CANDU reactor, natural uranium fuel is used without enrichment. Because of the unique core configuration characteristic, there is less resonance absorption of neutron in fuel which leads to a relatively small fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). The value of FTC can even be positive due to the 239Pu buildup during the fuel depletion and also the neutron up-scattering by the oxygen atoms in the fuel. Unlike the pressurized light water reactor, it is well known that CANDU-6 has a positive coolant void reactivity (CVR) and coolant temperature coefficient (CTC). In a traditional reactor analysis, the asymptotic scattering kernel has been used and neglects the thermal motion of nuclides such as U-238. However, it is well accepted that in a scattering reaction, the thermal movement of the target can affect the scattering reaction in the vicinity of scattering resonance and enhance neutron capture by the capture resonance. Some recent works have revealed that the thermal motion of U-238 affects the scattering reaction and that the resulting Doppler broadening of the scattering resonance enhances the FTC of the thermal reactor including PWRs by 10- 15%. In order to observe the impacts of the Doppler broadening of the scattering resonances on the criticality and FTC, a recent investigation was done for a clean and fresh CANDU fuel lattice using Monte Carlo code MCNPX for analysis.. In ref. 3 the so-called DBRC (Doppler Broadened Rejection Correction) method was adopted to consider the thermal movement of U-238. In this study, the safety parameter of CANDU-6 is re-evaluated by using the continuous energy Monte Carlo code SERPENT 2 which uses the DBRC method to simulate the thermal motion of U-238. The analysis is performed for a full 3-D CANDU-6 core and the PCR is evaluated near equilibrium burnup. For a high-fidelity Monte Carlo calculation

  5. Development of 3D full-core ERANOS-2.2/MCNPX-2.7.0 models and neutronic analysis of the BFS-2 zero-power facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, G.; Alonso, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mikityuk, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present paper is addressing the development and validation against experimental data of 3D full-core models of the BFS-2 zero-power fast-reactor using both the deterministic system code ERANOS-2.2 and the stochastic code MCNPX-2.7.0. The model configuration of BFS considered for analysis is the BFS-62-3A benchmark. To extend the - deterministic/stochastic - code-to-code comparison, neutronic parameters, i.e. reactivity, neutron spectrum and reaction rates, were also simulated at the cell level with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT-1.1.7 with two modern data libraries, ENDF-B/VII and JEFF-3.1.1. The BFS-2 critical zero-power facility at the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) was designed for simulations of the core and shielding of sodium-cooled, fast reactors, for neutron data validation and comparison with experimental results. At the BFS-2 facility, the BFS-62-3A critical benchmark experiment was set-up as a mock-up of the BN-600 reactor, with hybrid MOX fuel and stainless steel reflectors. A UO{sub 2} blanket and a large non-homogeneous stainless-steel reflector surround the core. The lattice is hexagonal of pitch 5.1 cm and metallic dowels are used to keep in central position cylindrical rods made of different types of material (fissile, fertile, blanket, plenum, shielding and absorber). A typical subassembly is formed in piling up various pellets of about 1 cm in height and 4.6 cm in diameter, conferring large heterogeneity in the axial direction. The full-core model development was a complex task due to the large number of subassemblies and the axial subassembly heterogeneity. In ERANOS-2.2, it was necessary to homogenize axially per region the pellets used to form the subassembly. The self-shielded macroscopic cross-sections were calculated using the cell code ECCO in association with JEFF-3.1 and ENDF/B-VI.8 data libraries. The core calculations were performed with broad cross-sections data in 33 neutron energy groups with the solver AVNM in the

  6. Advanced Test Reactor Core Modeling Update Project Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg, Principal Investigator; Kevin A. Steuhm, Project Manager

    2012-09-01

    depletion HELIOS calculations for all ATR cycles since August 2009, Cycle 145A through Cycle 151B, was successfully completed during 2012. This major effort supported a decision late in the year to proceed with the phased incorporation of the HELIOS methodology into the ATR Core Safety Analysis Package (CSAP) preparation process, in parallel with the established PDQ-based methodology, beginning late in Fiscal Year 2012. Acquisition of the advanced SERPENT (VTT-Finland) and MC21 (DOE-NR) Monte Carlo stochastic neutronics simulation codes was also initiated during the year and some initial applications of SERPENT to ATRC experiment analysis were demonstrated. These two new codes will offer significant additional capability, including the possibility of full-3D Monte Carlo fuel management support capabilities for the ATR at some point in the future. Finally, a capability for rigorous sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI system has been implemented and initial computational results have been obtained. This capability will have many applications as a tool for understanding the margins of uncertainty in the new models as well as for validation experiment design and interpretation.

  7. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil Epidemiologia dos acidentes ofídicos ocorridos nos municípios do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Moreno Barros

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region.Acidentes por animais peçonhentos representam um importante, embora negligenciado, problema de saúde pública mundial. Neste sentido, foi realizado um estudo descritivo dos acidentes ofídicos atendidos e registrados, entre 2007 e 2010, nas unidades de saúde dos municípios do Cariri, Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. As informações foram coletadas do banco de dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Ministério da Saúde. Um total de 351 registros de vítimas de ataques por serpentes peçonhentas foram analisados. As vítimas foram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais do sexo masculino com mais de 50 anos. As maiores incidências de

  8. Impacts of Nuclear Data on the Core Characteristics of a Compact Breed-and-Burn Fast Reactor (B-BR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our study, the spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from light water reactors after being metallized are used as the blanket fuels. Meanwhile, metallic low-enriched uranium (LEU) is located in the initial core. Besides providing the core first criticality, the initial core will supply neutrons to the blanket fuels so the fertile fuels can be converted to fissile fuels. In this paper, the impact of using different nuclear data libraries on the core characteristics of the B-BR was addressed. The performance of the B-BR depends on how many fissile fuels can be bred and utilized from the blanket fuels. On the other hand, the core inherent safety characteristic depends strongly on the TRU (transuranic) fuel composition generated in the fuel region. Three present major evaluated nuclear data libraries were considered in this study, i.e., ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0. The neutronics analyses were all performed by using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code Serpent. A B-BR core has been characterized with three different evaluated nuclear data libraries, ENDF/BVII..0, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0. The comparison results show that the core excess reactivity is rather sensitive to the type of the library which in turn affects the estimated core life time of the B-BR core. However, a good agreement within the standard deviations on the integral kinetic parameters, Doppler reactivity coefficient, coolant density reactivity coefficient, axial expansion reactivity coefficient and radial expansion reactivity coefficient can be observed among the libraries. The coolant void reactivity (CVR) values of the three libraries slightly deviate beyond the standard deviations. With the different neutron libraries, the buildup of the fission products and minor actinides (especially Am-242m) are slightly different

  9. A History of Korean Medical Association’s Emblem : the Caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Young-Jeon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An emblem represents the identity of an organization. Through the emblem of an organization, they differentiate the members from others and reinforce the membership, homogeneity, and pride. It is also a tool that an organization officially publicizes its mission and values.The symbol designed by Cho, Byungduk was announced as the first emblem of Korean Medical Association(KMA on October 31st 1947. His design work has the caduceus with the Taeguk sign on the top, the symbol of Korea, and the Red Cross in the background including the name, 'KMA'.Since then, the emblem was revised three times: in 1964, 1973, and 1995. The current symbol is based on the design of the first one. Although Asklepian, the single serpent-entwined staff of Asklepios, is the one known as the symbol of medicine, this emblem takes the caduceus of Hermes who is the patron god of merchants, thieves, and travelers.The mistake comes from the unawareness of the distinction between the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes. Moreover, it proves that U. S. Army Medical Corps(USAMC heavily influenced the reconstruction of Korean health care system including KMA. The USAMC has used the symbol of caduceus since 1902. In 1947, the year that the first emblem of KMA was established, Southern part of Korea was governed by the United States Military Government(USMG, 1945-1948.The current emblem of KMA brings up a question whether we should continue to use the symbol that was taken from USMAC in the historical period of USMG governance. Celebrating 100th anniversary year of KMA, KMA needs to re-evaluate the appropriateness of the KMA symbol.

  10. [A history of Korean medical association's emblem: the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon

    2007-06-01

    An emblem represents the identity of an organization. Through the emblem of an organization, they differentiate the members from others and reinforce the membership, homogeneity, and pride. It is also a tool that an organization officially publicizes its mission and values. The symbol designed by Cho, Byungduk was announced as the first emblem of Korean Medical Association (KMA) on October 31st 1947. His design work has the caduceus with the Taeguk sign on the top, the symbol of Korea, and the Red Cross in the background including the name, 'KMA'. Since then, the emblem was revised three times: in 1964, 1973, and 1995. The current symbol is based on the design of the first one. Although Asklepian, the single serpent-entwined staff of Asklepios, is the one known as the symbol of medicine, this emblem takes the caduceus of Hermes who is the patron god of merchants, thieves, and travelers. The mistake comes from the unawareness of the distinction between the caduceus of Asklepios and Hermes. Moreover, it proves that U. S. Army Medical Corps (USAMC) heavily influenced the reconstruction of Korean health care system including KMA. The USAMC has used the symbol of caduceus since 1902. In 1947, the year that the first emblem of KMA was established, Southern part of Korea was governed by the United States Military Government (USMG, 1945-1948). The current emblem of KMA brings up a question whether we should continue to use the symbol that was taken from USMAC in the historical period of USMG governance. Celebrating 100th anniversary year of KMA, KMA needs to re-evaluate the appropriateness of the KMA symbol. PMID:18175460

  11. Poisoning due to Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 attended at Restauração Hospital in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil: case report Envenenamento por Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 atendido no Hospital da Restauração do Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mendes Correia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Few papers have been published on snake bites caused by Philodryas olfersii. We report here the first case identified at the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica do Hospital da Restauração, Recife, State of Pernambuco. This case was described based on medical protocols, interviewing the patient and identifying the animal that caused the bite. The patient presented pain, heat, erythema, edema and ecchymosis, without other laboratory abnormalities or coagulation disorders. The treatment consisted of administration of eight ampoules of antibothropic serum, and post-administration allergenic reactions were observed. The importance of bites by opistoglyph snakes needs to be reconsidered in research and at specialized treatment centers.Existem poucas publicações de acidentes ofídicos causados pela espécie Philodryas olfersii. Relatamos aqui o primeiro caso identificado no Centro de Assistência Toxicológica do Hospital da Restauração, Recife, Estado de Pernambuco. A descrição do caso foi realizada com base nos protocolos médicos, entrevista com o paciente e identificação do animal causador do acidente. O paciente apresentou dor, calor, eritema, edema e equimose, sem outras alterações laboratoriais ou distúrbios da coagulação. O tratamento executado mediante a administração de oito ampolas de soro antibotrópico apresentou reações alergênicas pós-administração. A relevância dos acidentes por serpentes opistóglifas deve ser reconsiderada na pesquisa e nos centros de tratamento especializados.

  12. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development. PMID:11337752

  13. A novel research reactor concept based on coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A plate fuel based on coated particle fuel (CPF) for research reactors was studied. • Characteristics of the CPF-based core were compared to conventional reactors. • The Doppler effect can be significantly enhanced due to higher fuel temperature. • A very high thermal flux on the order of 1014 neutrons/cm2 sec can be achieved. - Abstract: This work presents a preliminary study of a novel plate-type fuel concept for a high-performance and ultra-safe research reactor. This new fuel type consists of coated particle fuel (CPF) randomly dispersed in an aluminum matrix with a certain packing fraction that can be adjusted depending on the reactor design requirements. The CPF can also be varied in the fuel kernel material between UC and UO2. For the purpose of this study, UO2 was used as the reference fuel type. Using this novel fuel type, a 20 MWth pool-type research reactor was investigated to determine the preliminary performance and safety characteristics of the new fuel. The core thermal analysis was done using the MATRA-P code. The neutronics analysis was done using the Monte Carlo Serpent code for an equilibrium cycle resulting from a multi-batch fuel management. In this analysis, it was found that the Doppler effect is significantly enhanced through the implementation of CPF, in turn improving the inherent safety of the reactor. In addition to the notable improvement in safety, the new fuel type also promises to be able to achieve a high thermal neutron flux, improving the performance and utility of the reactor. It is concluded that the CPF-based fuel concept presented in this paper can enable new high-flux reactor designs using simple plate-type fuels with improved safety

  14. Isotopic change in the tissues of Bothrops atrox in captivity collected from environments of the eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Chalkidis, H. D.; Amazonas, D. R.; da Silva, A. M.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Bothrops atrox is little studied because it is sympatric Amazonian animals, and very little is known about the ecology and natural history of this species. It has a generalist diet and the distribution of this species is very wide. The adult animals forage mostly on the ground, while the younger animals prefer to stay on the vegetation. They are easily find in the rainy months in areas near lakes and seasonally flooded and are difficult to find in the driest months, a period where there is less availability of preys in these environments. Due to its aggressiveness, is considered one of the most feared snakes in South America and in the eastern Amazon, being responsible for the largest number of snakebites in the region. Through stable isotope carbon-13 and nitrogen-15, is intended to characterize the variations of the feeding habits of these collected animals in different environments and also when they are kept in captivity, feeding the animal's bioterium. The serpents were collected in environments with different land uses, such as native forest, savannah, pasture and have been brought to the serpentarium Integrated College Tapajos (FIT), being retained in order to Samplings throughout the experiment with feeding mice's own bioterium. When these snakes came from different locations, samples were collected scales and blood (T0), before receiving the new supply (captive), and every time we fed the mice the vivarium, new tissue samples were collected, (T1, T2, T3) to exchange all the nature of food for the food captivity.Based on the results of δ13C and δ15N, the samples collected in the tissues of snakes of different environments (nature and captivity), it was observed that changes in food sources reflect changes in tissues (blood and scales), also reflecting the production of poison different periods of turnover of absorbed material in those tissues, contributing to the study of animal ecology and behavior in relation to habitat.

  15. Integration of the TNXYZ computer program inside the platform Salome; Integracion del programa de computo TNXYZ dentro de la plataforma Salome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro V, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    The present work shows the procedure carried out to integrate the code TNXYZ as a calculation tool at the graphical simulation platform Salome. The TNXYZ code propose a numerical solution of the neutron transport equation, in several groups of energy, steady-state and three-dimensional geometry. In order to discretized the variables of the transport equation, the code uses the method of discrete ordinates for the angular variable, and a nodal method for the spatial dependence. The Salome platform is a graphical environment designed for building, editing and simulating mechanical models mainly focused on the industry and unlike other software, in order to form a complete scheme of pre and post processing of information, to integrate and control an external source code. Before the integration the in the Salome platform TNXYZ code was upgraded. TNXYZ was programmed in the 90s using Fortran 77 compiler; for this reason the code was adapted to the characteristics of the current Fortran compilers; in addition, with the intention of extracting partial results over the process sequence, the original structure of the program underwent a modularization process, i.e. the main program was divided into sections where the code performs major operations. This procedure is controlled by the information module (YACS) on Salome platform, and it could be useful for a subsequent coupling with thermal-hydraulics codes. Finally, with the help of the Monte Carlo code Serpent several study cases were defined in order to check the process of integration; the verification process consisted in performing a comparison of the results obtained with the code executed as stand-alone and after modernized, integrated and controlled by the Salome platform. (Author)

  16. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  17. Carbon Isotopes of Alkanes in Hydrothermal Abiotic Organic Synthesis Processes at High Temperatures and Pressures: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been reported by different detection techniques [1-4]. With more evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction in Martian history [5-7], abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) synthesis during serpentization reactions may be one possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars [8, 9]. While the experimental studies performed to date leave little doubt that chemical reactions exist for the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds by mineral surface-catalyzed reactions [10-12], little is known about the reaction pathways by which CO2 and/or CO are reduced under hydrothermal conditions. Carbon and hydrogen isotope measurements of alkanes have been used as an effective tool to constrain the origin and reaction pathways of hydrocarbon formation. Alkanes generated by thermal breakdown of high molecular weight organic compounds have carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures completely distinct from those formed abiotically [13-15]. Recent experimental studies, however, showed that different abiogenic hydrocarbon formation processes (e.g., polymerization vs. depolymerization) may have different carbon and hydrogen isotopic patterns [16]. Results from previous experiments studying decomposition of higher molecular weight organic compounds (lignite) also suggested that pressure could be a crucial factor affecting fractionation of carbon isotopes [17]. Under high pressure conditions, no experimental data are available describing fractionation of carbon isotope during mineral catalyzed FTT synthesis. Thus, hydrothermal experiments present an excellent opportunity to provide the requisite carbon isotope data. Such data can also be used to identify reaction pathways of abiotic organic synthesis under experimental conditions.

  18. Buddhist Philosophy: A Study of Buddha Images for Perpetuating Buddhism in Isan Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Duangsin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddha image is a symbol which built for representing the Buddha. At present, the majority of people always misinterpret and misevaluate the real value of Buddha image. As a matter of fact, Buddha image enhances social solidarity and social networks of Northeast-Thai people. Appreciating value of Buddha image is necessary for next generation so a study of Buddhist Philosophy towards Buddha images and current problems concerning interpretation and evaluation is a serious study. This research aimed at investigating a body of knowledge of Buddhist Philosophy towards Buddha image and current problems concerning interpretation and evaluation of Buddha image according to Buddhist Philosophy. Approach: Research areas were Ubon Ratchathani Province, Yasothon Province and Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 116 people consisted of a group of key informants, a group of casual informants and a group of general informants. Research instruments were an observation, a survey, an interview and a focus group interview. Research data were examined by means of a triangulation technique and research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: Buddha images reflect Buddhist philosophy towards 7 postures of the Buddha, they are a Buddha image in a posture of overcoming temptations (Pang Mara Wichai, in a posture of sitting under the protection of the hood of the mythical serpent (Pang Nak Prok, in a posture of sitting in meditation (Pang Samati, in a posture of giving a sermon (Pang Prathan Porn, in a posture of sitting with an aureole around the body (Pang Ruean Kaew and in a posture of displaying the Twin Miracles (Pang Yamok Patihan. A main current problem is people are more interested in the miracle power of Buddha image than the practice according to Buddhist Philosophy which conceals in it. Conclusion/Recommendation: Research result reveals the value of Buddhist Philosophy which conceals in Buddha image and point to

  19. Patterns of coccidial prevalence in lizards of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinwand, Ian; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Cole, Nik; Jones, Carl G; Daszak, Peter

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports prevalence of coccidial oocysts in fecal samples from 6 endemic and 2 introduced lizard species on Mauritius, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. Total coccidian prevalence was 54% (n = 341) for the endemic 'ornate day gecko,' Phelsuma ornata; 48% (n = 159) for the endemic 'Durrell's night gecko,' Nactus durrelli; 53% (n = 15) for the endemic 'Serpent Island night gecko,' N. serpensinsula; and 78% (n = 248) for the introduced gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. These high prevalences may reflect lack of long-lasting immune response to coccidial infection. There were few significant differences in prevalence among age, island, sex, or body condition within species, suggesting that these coccidia are relatively nonpathogenic and have little effect on host fitness. Prevalence was higher in the dry season than the wet season. These data suggest other factors, such as low host immune response to reinfection, affect overall prevalence more significantly than the effect of humidity on oocyst survival on Mauritius. No coccidia were found in samples from the endemic 'Gunner's Quoin night gecko,' N. coindemirensis (n = 155), probably reflecting parasite extinction due to a host population bottleneck following historical introduction of rats. There was no evidence of competitive or facilitative interactions between Eimeria sp. and Isospora sp., but evidence of competition between 2 Eimeria species in the 'ornate day gecko,' Phelsuma ornata. No evidence was found of cross-species infection, suggesting that reptile coccidia have high host specificity and are, therefore, poor subjects for studies of parasite-mediated competition and the evolution of sex. PMID:16419754

  20. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MOOSE based reactor physics tool MAMMOTH provides the capability to seamlessly couple the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the fuels performance application BISON to produce a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulations. The ultimate purpose of this coupling is to provide a tool with the predictive capabilities to gain new knowledge and help resolve fundamental questions in the fuel performance arena, i.e. high-burnup structures, pellet-cladding interaction, missing pellet surface, etc. RATTLESNAKE solves the self-adjoint angular flux transport equation, derived from the linearized Boltzmann transport equation, and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. The coupling within the MOOSE framework allows both applications to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. MAMMOTH uses the power density calculated by RATTLESNAKE to compute the local burnup evolution. Subsequently, MAMMOTH transfers the power density and burnup distribution to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. BISON in turn is able to provide sub-pin level temperature for cross section feed back effects. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way and two-way data transfer in MAMMOTH for RATTLESNAKE-BISON. The one-way eigenvalues obtained show good agreement with the reference values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON4 while the two-way eigenvalue show expected differences. The power distributions obtained are consistent with both DRAGON4 and the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The one-way and two-way calculations produce power density results that are comparable with those of the internal, static, Lassmannstyle model in BISON. Differences in the power densities arise from the use of better neutron energy deposition parameters obtained from the DRAGON4 tabulations, and differences in the fuel

  1. PRESENCIA TEOTIHUACANA EN LA CULTURA BOLAÑOS (Teotihuacan Presence in the Bolaños Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Cabrero G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El cañón de Bolaños fue ocupado durante el periodo prehispánico por un grupo proveniente, posiblemente, del centro de Jalisco, puesto que traían dentro de su bagaje cultural la costumbre de depositar a sus muertos en tumbas de tiro y la construcción de conjuntos circulares como centros ceremoniales. El cañón principia en el altiplano centro-norte y corre hacia el sur hasta desembocar en el río Grande de Santiago en el centro de Jalisco. La presencia de una máscara mortuoria hecha con mosaicos de Spondylus princeps que muestra una nariguera colgante con la representación de una serpiente emplumada y, por otra parte, el descubrimiento de una nariguera con la representación de Tláloc sugieren un contacto con las caravanas teotihuacanas que transitaban a través de la ruta interior de intercambio comercial propuesta por Kelley. ENGLISH: The Bolaños Canyon was occupied during the pre-Hispanic period by a group—possibly coming from the center of Jalisco—as their cultural background included the custom of depositing their dead in shaft tombs and the construction of circular sets as ceremonial centers. The canyon begins in the north central high plateau and flows to the south, ending at the Rio Grande de Santiago in central Jalisco. The presence of a death mask made of Spondylus princeps mosaic, featuring a nose ring pendant with the representation of a feathered serpent and, moreover, the discovery of a nose ring with the representation of Tlaloc, suggest contact with Teotihuacan caravans that traveled through the inland trade route as proposed by Kelley in 1980.

  2. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H isotope measurements. This work compliments our previous work that focused on the extraction and analysis of C isotopes from the same compounds [1]. Together with our carbon isotope analyses our experiments serve as a "proof of concept" for making C and H isotope measurements on more complex mixtures of organic compounds on mineral surfaces in abiotic hydrocarbon formation processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. Our motivation for undertaking this work stems from observations of methane detected within the Martian atmosphere [2-5], coupled with evidence showing extensive water-rock interaction during Mars history [6-8]. Methane production on Mars could be the result of synthesis by mineral surface-catalyzed reduction of CO2 and/or CO by Fischer-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions during serpentization [9,10]. Others have conducted experimental studies to show that FTT reactions are plausible mechanisms for low-molecular weight hydrocarbon formation in hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges [11-13]. Our H isotope measurements utilize an analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). This technique is designed to carry a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQII quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  3. Integration of the TNXYZ computer program inside the platform Salome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows the procedure carried out to integrate the code TNXYZ as a calculation tool at the graphical simulation platform Salome. The TNXYZ code propose a numerical solution of the neutron transport equation, in several groups of energy, steady-state and three-dimensional geometry. In order to discretized the variables of the transport equation, the code uses the method of discrete ordinates for the angular variable, and a nodal method for the spatial dependence. The Salome platform is a graphical environment designed for building, editing and simulating mechanical models mainly focused on the industry and unlike other software, in order to form a complete scheme of pre and post processing of information, to integrate and control an external source code. Before the integration the in the Salome platform TNXYZ code was upgraded. TNXYZ was programmed in the 90s using Fortran 77 compiler; for this reason the code was adapted to the characteristics of the current Fortran compilers; in addition, with the intention of extracting partial results over the process sequence, the original structure of the program underwent a modularization process, i.e. the main program was divided into sections where the code performs major operations. This procedure is controlled by the information module (YACS) on Salome platform, and it could be useful for a subsequent coupling with thermal-hydraulics codes. Finally, with the help of the Monte Carlo code Serpent several study cases were defined in order to check the process of integration; the verification process consisted in performing a comparison of the results obtained with the code executed as stand-alone and after modernized, integrated and controlled by the Salome platform. (Author)

  4. A Conceptual Study of a Supercritical CO2-Cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanyeal Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A neutronics conceptual study of a supercritical CO2-cooled micro modular reactor (MMR has been performed in this work. The suggested MMR is an extremely compact and truck-transportable nuclear reactor. The thermal power of the MMR is 36.2 MWth and it is designed to have a 20-year lifetime without refueling. A salient feature of the MMR is that all the components including the generator are integrated in a small reactor vessel. For a minimal volume and long lifetime of the MMR core, a fast neutron spectrum is utilized in this work. To enhance neutron economy and maximize the fuel volume fraction in the core, a high-density uranium mono-nitride U15N fuel is used in the fast-spectrum MMR. Unlike the conventional supercritical CO2-cooled fast reactors, a replaceable fixed absorber (RFA is introduced in a unique way to minimize the excess reactivity and the power peaking factor of the core. For a compact core design, the drum-type control absorber is adopted as the primary reactivity control mechanism. In this study, the neutronics analyses and depletions have been performed by using the continuous energy Monte Carlo Serpent code with the evaluated nuclear data file ENDF/B-VII.1 Library. The MMR core is characterized in view of several important safety parameters such as control system worth, fuel temperature coefficient (FTC and coolant void reactivity (CVR, etc. In addition, a preliminary thermal-hydraulic analysis has also been performed for the hottest channel of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST MMR.

  5. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

  6. Radionuclide Release from High Burnup Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate the production, evolution and release of radioactive fission products in a light water reactor. The production of the nuclides is determined by the neutronics, their evolution in the fuel by local temperature and by the fuel microstructure and the rate of release is governed by the scenario and the properties of the microstructure where the nuclides reside. The problem combines fields of reactor physics, fuel behaviour analysis and accident analysis. Radionuclide evolution during fuel reactor life is also important for determination of instant release fraction of final repository analysis. The source term problem is investigated by literature study and simulations with reactor physics code Serpent as well as fuel performance code ENIGMA. The capabilities of severe accident management codes MELCOR and ASTEC for describing high burnup structure effects are reviewed. As the problem is multidisciplinary in nature the transfer of information between the codes is studied. While the combining of the different fields as they currently are is challenging, there are some possibilities to synergy. Using reactor physics tools capable of spatial discretization is necessary for determining the HBS inventory. Fuel performance studies can provide insight how the HBS should be modelled in severe accident codes, however the end effect is probably very small considering the energetic nature of the postulated accidents in these scenarios. Nuclide release in severe accidents is affected by fuel oxidation, which is not taken into account by ANSI/ANS-5.4 but could be important in some cases, and as such, following the example of severe accident models would benefit the development of fuel performance code models. (author)

  7. Application of the FAST code system to the static analysis of the low-void core of Gen-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic, thermal-hydraulic, and thermal-mechanic models of the low void core (CFV), a core design similar to the Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) core design, represent the static core at End-of-Cycle and at nominal conditions, using the core specifications provide by the ASTRID core designers. The models are implemented in the FAST code system, a code package that establishes the coupling between 3D core neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic simulations for steady state and transient analysis. The static neutronic analysis, performed by means of the SERPENT 2 Monte-Carlo code, provides the core excess reactivity, power distributions, kinetic parameters, reactivity coefficients, and control rod reactivity worth as the main outcomes. In addition, an extensive study is carried out concerning the coolant void worth by analyzing specific sodium voiding scenarios. It can be confirmed that the ASTRID peculiar core design features a negative global coolant worth. Within the static thermal-hydraulic study, carried out by employing the TRACE code, the core assemblies division into cooling groups is performed. The respective coolant flow rates and temperatures at the core outlet are obtained. Finally, the static thermal-mechanic analysis, which was accomplished by means of the FRED code, gives general insights about the fuel temperature distribution within the fuel pins, gas gap conductance, and fission gas release. As the major outcome, the necessary static parameters of the core to proceed to the planned analyses of core transients are obtained. This document is made up of an abstract and the slides of the presentation. (author)

  8. Axially heterogeneous thorium fuel designs for transuranic burning in reduced-moderation BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced-moderation Boiling Water Reactors (RBWRs) can allow sustained burning of transuranics (TRU), such that full actinide recycle can be achieved. However, the void coefficient (VC) tends to become positive with reduced moderation and high TRU loading, which can severely limit the design feasibility and performance. This motivates use of thorium (Th) as an alternative feed to uranium (U), as this tends to result in a more negative VC, leading to much improved neutronic performance. While axially homogeneous fuel design is preferable for ease of fuel fabrication, it is valuable to evaluate axially heterogeneous fuel designs to see if improved neutronic performance can be realised, which could lead to a reduction in fuel reprocessing and fabrication throughput. Multi-recycled Th-TRU fuel contains Th, U, Pu and MAs, leading to a wide range of possible fuel designs. Axially heterogeneous designs are considered using 3D pincell calculations using the Monte Carlo code Serpent. Radially heterogeneous assembly designs are considered in a companion paper. Spatial separation of Th-TRU and Th-U3 into regions of the order of a few thermal neutron diffusion lengths greatly improves neutronic performance. This can be accomplished radially or axially, but radial separation results in significantly easier fuel fabrication. Axial seed-blanket heterogeneity improves neutron economy at the expense of high power peaking, such that the radially heterogeneous assembly design is preferred. Separation of Th-TRU and Th-U3 into larger regions is not effective, due to increased power density in the Th-TRU region with voiding and with burn-up, leading to a more positive VC. It is therefore concluded that there is no motivation to pursue axially heterogeneous Th-TRU RBWR burner designs. (author)

  9. CURRENT BUILDUP IN EMERGING SERPENTINE FLUX TUBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere during active-region formation involves the transport of the magnetic field from the solar convection zone through the lowest layers of the solar atmosphere, through which the plasma β changes from >1 to <1 with altitude. The crossing of this magnetic transition zone requires the magnetic field to adopt a serpentine shape also known as the sea-serpent topology. In the frame of the resistive flux-emergence model, the rising of the magnetic flux is believed to be dynamically driven by a succession of magnetic reconnections which are commonly observed in emerging flux regions as Ellerman bombs. Using a data-driven, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation of flux emergence occurring in active region 10191 on 2002 November 16-17, we study the development of 3D electric current sheets. We show that these currents buildup along the 3D serpentine magnetic-field structure as a result of photospheric diverging horizontal line-tied motions that emulate the observed photospheric evolution. We observe that reconnection can not only develop following a pinching evolution of the serpentine field line, as usually assumed in two-dimensional geometry, but can also result from 3D shearing deformation of the magnetic structure. In addition, we report for the first time on the observation in the UV domain with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) of extremely transient loop-like features, appearing within the emerging flux domain, which link several Ellermam bombs with one another. We argue that these loop transients can be explained as a consequence of the currents that build up along the serpentine magnetic field.

  10. Tsetse immune system maturation requires the presence of obligate symbionts in larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Weiss

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microbial symbionts serve important functions within their hosts, including dietary supplementation and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Little is known about the mechanisms that enable these bacteria to induce specific host phenotypes during development and into adulthood. Here we used the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, and its obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, to investigate the co-evolutionary adaptations that influence the development of host physiological processes. Wigglesworthia is maternally transmitted to tsetse's intrauterine larvae through milk gland secretions. We can produce flies that lack Wigglesworthia (Gmm(Wgm- yet retain their other symbiotic microbes. Such offspring give rise to adults that exhibit a largely normal phenotype, with the exception being that they are reproductively sterile. Our results indicate that when reared under normal environmental conditions Gmm(Wgm- adults are also immuno-compromised and highly susceptible to hemocoelic E. coli infections while age-matched wild-type individuals are refractory. Adults that lack Wigglesworthia during larval development exhibit exceptionally compromised cellular and humoral immune responses following microbial challenge, including reduced expression of genes that encode antimicrobial peptides (cecropin and attacin, hemocyte-mediated processes (thioester-containing proteins 2 and 4 and prophenoloxidase, and signal-mediating molecules (inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, Gmm(Wgm- adults harbor a reduced population of sessile and circulating hemocytes, a phenomenon that likely results from a significant decrease in larval expression of serpent and lozenge, both of which are associated with the process of early hemocyte differentiation. Our results demonstrate that Wigglesworthia must be present during the development of immature progeny in order for the immune system to function properly in adult tsetse. This phenomenon provides

  11. Cross-Cultural Astronomy in Informal Education Settings - Collaboration with Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryboy, Nancy; Hawkins, I.; Begay, D.; Sakimoto, P.

    2008-05-01

    The richness of astronomical knowledge and traditions from diverse cultures can engage participants of all ages and backgrounds. We will present astronomy-focused programs for museums, planetariums, and community centers designed to enhance participation of underserved populations in celebrating the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) in 2009. We will share examples of how the indigenous astronomies from the Southwestern US and Mesoamerica can be juxtaposed with Western astronomy to enhance education efforts and understanding for all audiences. In these examples, the traditional knowledge has been highlighted and incorporated into the realm of innovative and unique multimedia resources that engage students and the public, and which often ignite a deeper and more authentic interest in western astronomy and astrophysics. We will discuss approaches to displaying the Navajo sky in a digital planetarium in a manner that is true to the Navajo worldview and that also presents images and information from Western astronomy. We will share multi-media resources that highlight the importance of solar alignments in architecture and in landscape within the context of the seasons. We will also discuss how we are exploring ways to protect the intellectual property rights of indigenous sky knowledge while making aspects of it available to the general public. Our collaboration upholds the integrity of both Western and Indigenous astronomy knowledge and research protocols, and honors indigenous languages. We will discuss collaborative and relationship-based evaluation strategies emerging from the above efforts and from a new effort, Cosmic Serpent, a professional development program to increase the capacity of museum practitioners to bridge indigenous and western science learning in informal settings. We will provide links and information to access products and programs to engage all audiences in the wonder, complexity, and beauty of our Universe. We acknowledge the generous

  12. Fine-mesh deterministic modeling of PWR fuel assemblies: Proof-of-principle of coupled neutronic/thermal–hydraulic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We implemented a fine-mesh coupled neutronic/thermal–hydraulic tool. • A CFD approach is used together with the multi-group neutron diffusion approximation. • Temperature-dependent cross-sections are generated with a Monte Carlo method. • We applied the tool to a simplified PWR fuel assembly. • Discrepancies in multiplication factor are seen against radial coarse-mesh averaging. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of developing a fine mesh coupled neutronic/thermal–hydraulic solver within the same computing platform for selected fuel assemblies in nuclear cores. As a first step in this developmental work, a Pressurized Water Reactor at steady-state conditions was considered. The system being simulated has a finite axial size, but is infinite in the radial direction. The platform used for the modeling is based on the open source C++ library OpenFOAM. The thermal–hydraulics is solved using the built-in SIMPLE algorithm for the mass and momentum fields of the fluid, complemented by an equation for the temperature field applied simultaneously to all the regions (i.e. fluid and solid structures). For the neutronics, a two-group neutron diffusion-based solver was developed, with sets of macroscopic cross-sections generated by the Monte Carlo code SERPENT. The meshing of the system was created by the open source software SALOME. Successful convergence of the neutronic and thermal–hydraulic fields was achieved, thus bringing the solution of the coupled problem to an unprecedented level of details. Most importantly, the true interdependence of the different fields is automatically guaranteed at all scales. In addition, comparisons with a coarse-mesh radial averaging of the thermal–hydraulic variables show that a coarse-mesh fuel temperature identical for all fuel pins can lead to discrepancies of up to 0.5% in pin powers, and of several tens of pcm in multiplication factor

  13. A importância dos acidentes ofídicos como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil The importance of snake bites as cause of cattle death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revisão da literatura pertinente indica que as opiniões sobre a importância dos acidentes ofídicos, como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil, são divergentes no meio veterinário. Enquanto alguns acreditam que são pouco importantes, ou que têm menor significado do que lhes é atribuído, outros são da opinião que esses acidentes são freqüentes. Verificou-se que só foi relatado diagnóstico fundamentado de dois casos fatais de envenenamento por Bothrops spp em bovinos, e de nenhum por Crotalus spp. Um questionário por nós submetido a patologistas e clínicos veterinários que atuam em diversos Estados do país, revelou apenas raros casos suspeitos de envenenamento ofídico fatal em bovinos no Brasil. Em nossas viagens de estudo e nos trabalhos de diagnóstico nunca estabelecemos o diagnóstico de morte por acidente ofídico em bovinos. Os casos tidos como envenenamento ofídico, na sua grande maioria, são apenas suposições, sem embasamento. Esses "diagnósticos", em geral, são feitos à distância dos animais que morreram, à revelia de exame clínico, necropsia e estudo histopatológico. Importante foi a constatação de que, no Brasil, embora algumas serpentes do gênero Bothrops possam, teoricamente, produzir quantidades suficientes de veneno para matar um bovino adulto, em experimentos realizados, apenas Bothrops alternatus foi capaz de levar a morte um dos três bovinos experimentalmente por ela picados; esse animal tinha apenas 279 kg. Já as serpentes do gênero Crotalus poderiam inocular quantidades letais de veneno para bovinos adultos. Mesmo assim, tanto para Bothrops spp, como para Crotalus spp, há que se considerar que as serpentes, em geral, só inoculam parte do veneno disponível. Esse estudo indica que é necessário melhor investigar as mortes suspeitas de terem sido causadas por acidente ofídico em bovinos no Brasil. O estabelecimento do diagnóstico de morte por envenenamento ofídico, porém, só é poss

  14. Broad geographic, taxonomic and ecological patterns of interpopulation variation in the dietary habits of snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luiselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique morphological and ecological characteristics (i.e. being obligate carnivorous, solitary, and ingesting their prey whole, snakes are expected to show unusual dietary patterns compared to other ectothermic vertebrates, and the best way to explore this is to analyse the snake dietary patterns globally. Here I review and analyse the peer-reviewed snake diet literature available in order to explore whether there are broad patterns in the interpopulation variability of diet composition in these unique ectothermic predators. I collated data for 181 independent populations belonging to 58 species of snakes from some of the main families (1 Boidae, 2 Pythonidae, 27 Colubridae, 10 Elapidae, and 18 Viperidae and from all the continents (4 from South and Central America, 13 from North America, 12 from Europe, 18 from Africa, 4 from Asia, and 7 from Australia. All these populations satisfied some precise criteria of inclusion, and were therefore re-analysed in a comparative perspective. I classified each literature entry according to 1 snake species, 2 snake family, 3 geographic position (continent of the study areas, 4 climatic region (temperate versus tropical, 5 guild (if the species is aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal, 6 hunting strategy (sit-and-wait versus active forager, and 7 venom (if the species is venomous or not. All these seven factors were analysed by GLM procedures to evaluate their effects on the interpopulation diet variation within snake species, that was assessed by using a univariate similarity index. The various taxonomical categories of snake prey were grouped according to two different levels of taxonomic affinity: a general affinity, e.g. frogs and toads, salamanders, lizards, birds, etc., and b close affinity, by grouping prey types belonging to a same genus. My study revealed that, within-species snake populations showed a very low variability in terms of diet composition. As for the general affinity

  15. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Libia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27% were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements and class II (DNA transposons mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large

  16. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% v/v, gave flux values of 8.0 and 12.7 µg/cm²/h, permeability values of 2.0 and 3.3 cm×10-4/h, and promotion factors of 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. These results indicate that copaíba oil, at the two concentrations studied, has the capacity to promote penetration of kojic acid.A propriedade do óleo de copaíba como agente promotor de penetração cutânea do despigmentante ácido kójico foi avaliada utilizando-se sistema de difusão in vitro com fluxo estático, membrana de pele da serpente cascavel - Crotalus durissus terrificus e solução salina a 34±2 ºC como fluido receptor. As quantidades liberadas do ácido kójico no fluido receptor foram determinadas por espectrofotometria em 268 nm em intervalos de 1:30 h. As membranas pré-tratadas com óleo de copaíba a 25 e 50% v/v apresentaram valores de fluxo de 8,0 e 12,7 µg/cm²/h, permeabilidade de 2,0 e 3,3 cm×10-4/h, e fatores de promoção de 4,1 e 3,7, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o óleo de copaíba, nas duas concentrações estudadas, apresentou capacidade de promoção da penetração do ácido kójico.

  17. Hinode Observations of Bipolar Moving Magnetic Features in Sunspot Penumbra%黑子半影内偶极运动磁特征的Hinode观测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珂君; 申远灯; 杨丽恒; 姜云春

    2009-01-01

    35 obvious bipolar moving magnetic features (MMFs), which appear in sunspot penumbra, are investigated by analyzing filtergrams and magnetograms from Hinode. From analyzing their changes of the configuration, speed and the brightening response of the low solar atmosphere, the following results are obtained: (1) Bipolar MMFs appear in middle penumbra, occur between penumbral filaments with enhanced longitudinal magnetic sig-nals. Both polarities of bipole move radially outward. This indirectly supports the idea that the bipolar MMFs originate from the horizontal magnetic field of the penumbra. There are more than one pair of bipolar MMFs appearing at the same position in 2-8 hours. This provides the evidence of sea-serpent field lines model. (2) The brightening response in photosphere and chromospheres indicates that the motion of the bipoles could heat the low solar atmosphere. (3) The position of bipolar MMFs and the magnetic field distribution of the penumbra provide another support in favor of the uncombed structure of penumbral magnetic fields.%利用Hinode卫星观测的单色像和磁图,对出现在黑子半影内的35对偶极运动磁特征进行形态特征、运动速度以及低层太阳大气响应3方面的研究,得出以下结论:(1)偶极运动磁特征正负两极成对出现在黑子半影较垂直的磁场之间并向着半影外边界运动,间接验证了偶极运动磁特征起源于黑子半影水平磁场,在2-8小时的时间间隔内,同一位置上会反复出现形态特征和运动速度相似的偶极运动磁特征,为海蛇状磁力线模型提供了证据支持. (2)光球和色球在偶极运动磁特征向外运动过程中会出现增亮,说明偶极运动磁特征会加热中低层太阳大气.(3)偶极运动磁特征的出现位置和半影磁场结构分布符合非梳子状黑子半影结构特征.

  18. Assessing uncertainty in climate change impacts on water resources: Bayesian neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change impact studies on water resources have so far provided results difficult to use for policy decision and planning of adaptation measures because of the lack of robust uncertainty estimates. There are various sources of uncertainty due to the global circulation models (GCMs) or the regional climate models (RCMs), the emission scenarios, the downscaling techniques, and the hydrological models. The estimation of the overall impact of those uncertainties on the future streamflow or reservoir inflow simulations at the watershed scale remains a difficult and challenging task. The use of multi-model super-ensembles in order to capture the wide range of uncertainties is cumbersome and requires large computational and human resources. As an alternative, a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) approach is proposed as an effective hydrologic modeling tool for simulating future flows with uncertainty estimates. The BNN model is used with two versions of Canadian GCMs (CGCM1 and CGCM2) with two emission scenarios (SRES B2 and IPCC IS92a), and with one well established statistical downscaling model (SDSM) to simulate daily river flow and reservoir inflow in the Serpent River and the Chute-du-Diable watersheds in northern Quebec. It is found that the 95% uncertainty bands of the BNN mean ensemble flow (i.e. flow simulated using the mean ensemble of downscaled meteorological variables) is capable of encompassing all other possible flows corresponding to various individual downscaled meteorological ensembles whatever the CGCM and the emission scenario used. Specifically, this indicates that the BNN model confidence intervals are capable of including all possible flow variations due to various ensembles of downscaled meteorological variables from two different CGCMs and emission scenarios. Furthermore, the confidence limits of the BNN model also encompasses the flows simulated using another conceptual hydrologic model (namely HBV) whatever the GCM and the emission scenario

  19. Deterministic Modeling of the High Temperature Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortensi, J.; Cogliati, J. J.; Pope, M. A.; Ferrer, R. M.; Ougouag, A. M.

    2010-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with the development of reactor physics analysis capability of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) project. In order to examine INL’s current prismatic reactor deterministic analysis tools, the project is conducting a benchmark exercise based on modeling the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). This exercise entails the development of a model for the initial criticality, a 19 column thin annular core, and the fully loaded core critical condition with 30 columns. Special emphasis is devoted to the annular core modeling, which shares more characteristics with the NGNP base design. The DRAGON code is used in this study because it offers significant ease and versatility in modeling prismatic designs. Despite some geometric limitations, the code performs quite well compared to other lattice physics codes. DRAGON can generate transport solutions via collision probability (CP), method of characteristics (MOC), and discrete ordinates (Sn). A fine group cross section library based on the SHEM 281 energy structure is used in the DRAGON calculations. HEXPEDITE is the hexagonal z full core solver used in this study and is based on the Green’s Function solution of the transverse integrated equations. In addition, two Monte Carlo (MC) based codes, MCNP5 and PSG2/SERPENT, provide benchmarking capability for the DRAGON and the nodal diffusion solver codes. The results from this study show a consistent bias of 2–3% for the core multiplication factor. This systematic error has also been observed in other HTTR benchmark efforts and is well documented in the literature. The ENDF/B VII graphite and U235 cross sections appear to be the main source of the error. The isothermal temperature coefficients calculated with the fully loaded core configuration agree well with other benchmark participants but are 40% higher than the experimental values. This discrepancy with the measurement stems from the fact that during the experiments the

  20. Subnotificação de acidentes por animais peçonhentos registrados pelo SINAN no Estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de 2001 a 2005 Underreporting of accidents with venomous animals registered by SINAN in the State of Rio de Janeiro from 2001 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Tiomny Fiszon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar se o Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN já permite prescindir de sistemas de informação paralelos voltados ao controle da distribuição do soro, essencial ao atendimento das vítimas de acidentes por animais peçonhentos, foram comparados os dados dos acidentes causados por serpentes, aranhas e escorpiões, disponibilizados pelo SINAN para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, com os registrados pela Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro (SES-RJ, de 2001 a 2005. Constatou-se o aumento da capacidade do SINAN para registrar os acidentes e a existência de discrepâncias de dados em municípios e regiões do Estado. Foi especialmente alta a subnotificação de acidentes ofídicos pelo SINAN. Discute-se as implicações desse resultado para estudos e pesquisas, bem como para o planejamento e a gestão dos serviços e distribuição dos soros, e conclui-se que ainda não é possível prescindir dos dados da SES-RJ.This article has the objective of determining if the Disease Reporting Information System (SINAN of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is adequate enough to do without corresponding information systems directed to serum distribution control, essential to provide care to victims of venomous animals. With this purpose, we compared data of accidents caused by snakes, spiders and scorpions reported to the State Health Department of Rio de Janeiro and those registered in the SINAN from 2001 to 2005. We found an increase in the number of cases reported to SINAN and disagreements in data from municipalities and regions of the State. More specifically, we noticed high underreporting of snake accidents in the SINAN. This paper addresses the implications of these results for studies and research, as well as for planning and management of healthcare services and serum distribution. The conclusion is that it is not possible to rule out data from the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department for