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Sample records for bifocal tms study

  1. Normal cortical excitability in Myoclonus-Dystonia - A TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.A. van der Salm; A.F. van Rootselaar; E.M.J. Foncke; J.H.T.M. Koelman; L.J. Bour; K.P. Bhatia; J.C. Rothwell; M.A.J. Tijssen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate cortical excitability in patients with DYT 11 positive Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Silent period, motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve, short interval intracortical inhibition (S

  2. Normal cortical excitability in Myoclonus-Dystonia - A TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, S. M. A.; van Rootselaar, A. F.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Bour, L. J.; Bhatia, K. P.; Rothwell, J. C.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate cortical excitability in patients with DYT 11 positive Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods: Silent period, motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve short interval intracortical, inhibition (S

  3. Effects of parietal TMS on visual and auditory processing at the primary cortical level -- a concurrent TMS-fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Werner, Sebastian; Pohmann, Rolf; Noppeney, Uta

    2013-01-01

    inputs (and vice versa). This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation-functional magnetic resonance imaging (TMS-fMRI) study applied repetitive TMS trains at no, low, and high intensity over right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and vertex to investigate top-down influences on visual and auditory...... cortices under 3 sensory contexts: visual, auditory, and no stimulation. IPS-TMS increased activations in auditory cortices irrespective of sensory context as a result of direct and nonspecific auditory TMS side effects. In contrast, IPS-TMS modulated activations in the visual cortex in a state......-dependent fashion: it deactivated the visual cortex under no and auditory stimulation but amplified the BOLD response to visual stimulation. However, only the response amplification to visual stimulation was selective for IPS-TMS, while the deactivations observed for IPS- and Vertex-TMS resulted from crossmodal...

  4. Task-dependent changes in cortical excitability and effective connectivity: a combined TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey S; Kundu, Bornali; Casali, Adenauer G; Postle, Bradley R

    2012-05-01

    The brain's electrical response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is known to be influenced by exogenous factors such as the frequency and intensity of stimulation and the orientation and positioning of the stimulating coil. Less understood, however, is the influence of endogenous neural factors, such as global brain state, on the TMS-evoked response (TMS-ER). In the present study, we explored how changes in behavioral state affect the TMS-ER by perturbing the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with single pulses of TMS and measuring consequent differences in the frequency, strength, and spatial spread of TMS-evoked currents during the delay period of a spatial short-term memory task and during a period of passive fixation. Results revealed that task performance increased the overall strength of electrical currents induced by TMS, increased the spatial spread of TMS-evoked activity to distal brain regions, and increased the ability of TMS to reset the phase of ongoing broadband cortical oscillations. By contrast, task performance had little effect on the dominant frequency of the TMS-ER, both locally and at distal brain areas. These findings contribute to a growing body of work using combined TMS and neuroimaging methods to explore task-dependent changes in the functional organization of cortical networks implicated in task performance. PMID:22323626

  5. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta;

    2001-01-01

    . Four conditions were investigated: word and nonword reading, colour naming and picture naming. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered over posterior BA37 of the left and right hemispheres (lBA37 and rBA37, respectively) and over the vertex. divisions were significantly slower...... to name pictures when TMS was given over lBA37 compared to vertex or rBA37. rTMS over lBA37 had no significant effect on word reading, nonword reading or colour naming. The picture naming deficit is suggested to result from a disruption to object recognition processes. This study corroborates the...

  6. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Bellamoli; Paolo Manganotti; Schwartz, Robert P.; Claudia Rimondo; Maurizio Gomma; Giovanni Serpelloni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Becau...

  7. Bifocal mandibular fractures: which should be treated first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell' Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Abbate, Vincenzo; Califano, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Fractures of the mandible have been reported to account between 40% and 62% of all facial fractures. Most surveys show that just under 50% are isolated, the same amount are doubly fractured. This study aims to clarify, according to our experience, the correct surgical sequence which should be followed in order to treat bifocal mandibular fractures. From January 2004 to January 2009, we have conducted a retrospective study on a sample of patients operated on in our department because of bifocal mandibular fractures. We include only those cases in which the jaw was fractured in 2 places, in particular patients who suffer a fracture in tooth-bearing areas (symphysis, parasymphysis, and anterior body) and also contralaterally in non-tooth-bearing areas (posterior body, angle, ramus, and condyle). The sample was divided into 2 groups based on the fracture sequence of reduction. At 1-year follow-up, the group of patients who received first the tooth-bearing fractured areas treatment, followed by treatment of non-tooth-bearing fractured area on bifocal mandibular fracture, showed less postoperative complications and reduced surgical time and costs. It is recommended from this study that reduction of the tooth-bearing fragment be prior to that of the tooth-free fragment for the bifocal mandible. PMID:23147333

  8. Effect of low frequency rTMS stimulation over lateral cerebellum: a FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several lines of evidence suggested the involvement of cerebellum in cognitive function as well as motor function. Because of the measurement difficulty of functional connectivity, little is known about the underlying mechanism involvement of cerebellum in motor and cognitive function in living human brain. To understand the role of cerebellum within the neural network, we investigated the changes of neuronal activity elicited by the cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 11 right-handed normal volunteers (age: 23.4±2.5 y;6 males) were studied with FDG PET under two conditions; sham and 1Hz rTMS over left lateral cerebellum. With 10 min inter-block interval, three blocks of rTMS were started with the intravenous injection of [18F]FDG. In each block, 5min rTMS were delivered with an intensity of 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT). Sham rTMS was delivered with same protocol but the coil was positioned perpendicular to the target area with 50% RMT. PET scans were acquired immediately after the rTMS stimulation. Sham and 1Hz rTMS images compared using paired t-test with SPM2. Inhibited neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the stimulated left lateral cerebellum and orbitofrontal gyrus and right motor related areas (S1, SMA and posterior parietal cortex). While enhanced neuronal activity compare to the sham condition were revealed in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri including Broca's area and superior temporal gyrus including primary auditory cortex. Bilateral middle temporal, left precentral and right middle occipital gyri were also showed enhanced neuronal activity. This result showed that rTMS over left lateral cerebellum modulate direct vicinity of the targeted region and a large network of remote interconnected contralateral motor and ipsilateral language related brain regions. Present result provide evidence that cerebellum may contribute to language related cognitive function as well as motor control

  9. Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Gaychet, Jérôme; Carrere, Marcel; Woodman, Marmaduke; Giusiano, Bernard; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain's relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i.e. part of the Default Mode Network (DMN) or the superior parietal lobule (SPL), involved in the Dorsal Attention Network. TMS was triggered by a given brain state, namely an increase in occipital alpha rhythm power. Following the initial TMS-Evoked Potential, TMS at MPFC enhances the induced occipital alpha rhythm, called Event Related Synchronisation, with a longer transient lifetime than TMS at SPL, and a higher amplitude. Our findings show a strong coupling between MPFC and the occipital alpha power. Although the rest state is organized around a core of resting state networks, the DMN functionally takes a special role among these resting state networks. PMID:27488504

  10. Cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in treatment-resistant depression- a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedzior Karina K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in 10 treatment-resistant depression patients. Methods Patients received forty 20-min sessions of fast-frequency (10 Hz rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC over 20 days. Concept-shift ability (accuracy and duration of performance was assessed daily with a Modified Concept-Shifting Task (mCST in patients and in eight healthy volunteers. General cognitive functioning test (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; RBANS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D were applied before the first and after the last rTMS. Results Compared to before rTMS on the first 10 days, the patients performed the mCST significantly more accurately after rTMS on the last 10 days (p p = .256, partial eta squared=.18. A significant improvement in immediate memory on RBANS and reduction in BDI and HAM-D scores were also observed after the last compared to before the first rTMS. Conclusion The rTMS is associated with an improvement in selective cognitive functions that is not explained by practice effects on tasks administered repeatedly. Trial registration Name: "Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in the treatment of depression, assessed with HAM-D over a four week period." URL: www.actr.org.au Registration number: ACTRN012605000145606

  11. [What is the purpose of the German Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS)?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Kirchner, Anna; Duelli, Roman; Resch, Franz; Kadmon, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The German Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS) was implemented in 2007. 12,194 persons registered for this test in 2011, which represents a 91% increase over 2007. The male/female ratio remained constant at 38:62. Its reliability among applicants to Heidelberg Medical Faculty was confirmed by Cronbach's α (≥ 0.75) and inter-item correlation (≥ 0.25, p < 10(-7)). The TMS contains nine items; using factor analysis these were allocated to the two components verbal-mathematical and spatial-figural ability. The verbal-mathematical items moderately correlate with the German Baccalaureate GPA (r = 0.33), while the spatial-figural items do not correlate (r = 0.07). Thus, the TMS is an admission instrument that appraise different cognitive abilities than the GPA. For the admission of students to our faculty their TMS scores are weighted at 39%, which has resulted in a diversification of our student cohorts. PMID:22480896

  12. Surface effects in α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles studied by ILEEMS and TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the particular properties of thin α-Fe2O3 films, hematite nanoparticles with sizes between 20 and 140 nm have been examined by integral low-energy electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (ILEEMS) and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) at room temperature and 80 K. By comparing the results of both Moessbauer variants, surface effects of the Morin transition are studied. The results clearly indicate that the Morin transition takes place at higher temperature in the interior of the particles as compared to the outer layers. It is found that the lowering of the Morin transition is much stronger at the surface of smaller particles.

  13. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchi-cal stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the co-herent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  14. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; HAN ShiHui

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchical stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the coherent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  15. Wide field-of-view bifocal eyeglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    When vision is affected simultaneously by presbyopia and myopia or hyperopia, a solution based on eyeglasses implies a surface with either segmented focal regions (e.g. bifocal lenses) or a progressive addition profile (PALs). However, both options have the drawback of reducing the field-of-view for each power position, which restricts the natural eye-head movements of the wearer. To avoid this serious limitation we propose a new solution which is essentially a bifocal power-adjustable optical design ensuring a wide field-of-view for every viewing distance. The optical system is based on the Alvarez principle. Spherical refraction correction is considered for different eccentric gaze directions covering a field-of-view range up to 45degrees. Eye movements during convergence for near objects are included. We designed three bifocal systems. The first one provides 3 D for far vision (myopic eye) and -1 D for near vision (+2 D Addition). The second one provides a +3 D addition with 3 D for far vision. Finally the last system is an example of reading glasses with +1 D power Addition.

  16. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria included radiologic diagnosis of bifocal germinoma involving the pineal and neurohypophyseal region, no evidence of dissemination on spinal MRI, negative results from cerebrospinal fluid cytologic evaluation, and negative tumor markers. Results: Between 1995 and 2004, 6 patients (5 male, 1 female; median age, 12.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All had symptoms of diabetes insipidus at presentation. On MRI, 4 patients had a pineal and suprasellar mass, and 2 had a pineal mass associated with abnormal neurohypophyseal enhancement. All patients received chemotherapy followed by limited-field radiation and achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. The radiation field involved the whole ventricular system (range, 2,400-4,000 cGy) with or without a boost to the primary lesions. All patients remain in complete remission at a median follow-up of 48.1 months (range, 9-73.4 months). Conclusions: This experience suggests that bifocal germinoma can be considered a locoregional rather than a metastatic disease. Chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy might be sufficient to provide excellent outcomes. Staging refinement with new diagnostic tools will likely increase the incidence of the entity

  17. Academic Performance of Students with the Highest and Mediocre School-leaving Grades: Does the Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS Balance Their Prognoses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadmon, Guni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Admission to undergraduate medical training in Germany occurs by central and local pathways. Central admission includes two distinct groups: Students with top school-leaving grades (best-SLG group and students with inferior school-leaving grades who are admitted with a delay of up to seven years (delayed admission group. Students with academic difficulties and early dropouts are present in both groups. Local admission at our university involves the German Test for Medical Studies (TMS and allows the admission by merit of students with a wide range of school-leaving grades. Aims: To examine the justification of a TMS-based strategy to reduce the admission of potentially weak best school-leavers and enhance the admission of potentially able candidates with mediocre school-leaving grades.Method: The prognostic contribution of the school-leaving (SL GPA and the TMS to academic performance and to continuity in the pre-clinical part of the undergraduate medical program was examined in two study groups: best school leavers (SL grade 1.0, SL-GPA 823-900 points and mediocre school leavers (SL grades 2.0-2.3, SL-GPA 689-660 points. The outcomes in both groups were compared in relation to their TMS results. The prospective study included four consecutive cohorts. Results: In each study group the TMS predicted the academic performance (β=0.442-0.446 and the continuity of studies (OR=0.890-0.853 better than the SL-GPA (β=0.238-0.047; OR=1.009-0.998. Attrition was most strongly associated with failing to take the TMS (OR=0.230-0.380. Mediocre school leavers with TMS scores ≥125 performed as well as the best school leavers. Mediocre school leavers with TMS scores between 110-124 performed on average less well but within the required standards. Best school leavers with mediocre TMS scores and 30% of the best school leavers who hadn't taken the TMS performed less well than most mediocre school leavers with high TMS scores. Discussion: The TMS

  18. Distributed representations of the "preparatory set" in the frontal oculomotor system: a TMS study

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    Kömpf D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The generation of saccades is influenced by the level of "preparatory set activity" in cortical oculomotor areas. This preparatory activity can be examined using the gap-paradigm in which a temporal gap is introduced between the disappearance of a central fixation target and the appearance of an eccentric target. Methods Ten healthy subjects made horizontal pro- or antisaccades in response to lateralized cues after a gap period of 200 ms. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, frontal eye field (FEF, or supplementary eye field (SEF of the right hemisphere 100 or 200 ms after the disappearance of the fixation point. Saccade latencies were measured to probe the disruptive effect of TMS on saccade preparation. In six individuals, we gave realistic sham TMS during the gap period to mimic auditory and somatosensory stimulation without stimulating the cortex. Results TMS to DLPFC, FEF, or SEF increased the latencies of contraversive pro- and antisaccades. This TMS-induced delay of saccade initiation was particularly evident in conditions with a relatively high level of preparatory set activity: The increase in saccade latency was more pronounced at the end of the gap period and when participants prepared for prosaccades rather than antisaccades. Although the "lesion effect" of TMS was stronger with prefrontal TMS, TMS to FEF or SEF also interfered with the initiation of saccades. The delay in saccade onset induced by real TMS was not caused by non-specific effects because sham stimulation shortened the latencies of contra- and ipsiversive anti-saccades, presumably due to intersensory facilitation. Conclusion Our results are compatible with the view that the "preparatory set" for contraversive saccades is represented in a distributed cortical network, including the contralateral DLPFC, FEF and SEF.

  19. The noninvasive dissection of the human visual cortex: using FMRI and TMS to study the organization of the visual brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeefry, Declan J; Gouws, Andre; Burton, Mark P; Morland, Antony B

    2009-10-01

    The development of brain imaging techniques, such as fMRI, has given modern neuroscientists unparalleled access to the inner workings of the living human brain. Visual processing in particular has proven to be particularly amenable to study with fMRI. Studies using this technique have revealed the existence of multiple representations of visual space with differing functional roles across many cortical locations. Yet, although fMRI provides an excellent means by which we can localize and map different areas across the visual brain, it is less well suited to providing information as to whether activation within a particular cortical region is directly related to perception or behavior. These kinds of causal links can be made, however, when fMRI is combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS is a noninvasive technique that can bring about localized, transient disruption of cortical function and can induce functional impairments in the performance of specific tasks. When guided by the detailed localizing and mapping capabilities of fMRI, TMS can be used as a means by which the functional roles of different visual areas can be investigated. This review highlights recent insights that the techniques of fMRI and TMS have given us with regard to the function and contributions of the many different visual areas to human visual perception. PMID:19826171

  20. Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) benefits assessment study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) versus integral spacecraft propulsion, spacecraft maintenance, cost benefits, launch prices, integral propulsion length penalties, remote maintenance versus EVA, potential weight reduction benefits, basing mode, mission models and payload requirements, and program profitability are discussed.

  1. Combining TMS and tACS for Closed-Loop Phase-Dependent Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raco, Valerio; Bauer, Robert; Tharsan, Srikandarajah; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The corticospinal excitability indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex is characterized by large variability. The instantaneous phase of cortical oscillations at the time of the stimulation has been suggested as a possible source of this variability. To explore this hypothesis, a specific phase needs to be targeted by TMS pulses with high temporal precision. Objective: The aim of this feasibility study was to introduce a methodology capable of exploring the effects of phase-dependent stimulation by the concurrent application of alternating current stimulation (tACS) and TMS. Method: We applied online calibration and closed-loop TMS to target four specific phases (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) of simultaneous 20 Hz tACS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of seven healthy subjects. Result: The integrated stimulation system was capable of hitting the target phase with high precision (SD ± 2.05 ms, i.e., ± 14.45°) inducing phase-dependent MEP modulation with a phase lag (CI95% = −40.37° to −99.61°) which was stable across subjects (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The combination of different neuromodulation techniques facilitates highly specific brain state-dependent stimulation, and may constitute a valuable tool for exploring the physiological and therapeutic effect of phase-dependent stimulation, e.g., in the context of neurorehabilitation. PMID:27252625

  2. Long-range neural activity evoked by premotor cortex stimulation: a TMS/EEG co-registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eZanon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The premotor cortex is one of the fundamental structures composing the neural networks of the human brain. It is implicated in many behaviors and cognitive tasks, ranging from movement to attention and eye-related activity. Therefore, neural circuits that are related to premotor cortex have been studied to clarify their connectivity and/or role in different tasks. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the propagation of the neural activity evoked in the dorsal premotor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation/electroencephalography (TMS/EEG. Towards this end, interest was focused on the neural dynamics elicited in long-ranging temporal and spatial networks. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent a single-pulse TMS protocol in a resting condition with eyes closed, and the evoked activity, measured by EEG, was compared to a sham condition in a time window ranging from 45 msec to about 200 msec after TMS. Spatial and temporal investigations were carried out with sLORETA. TMS was found to induce propagation of neural activity mainly in the contralateral sensorimotor and frontal cortices, at about 130 msec after delivery of the stimulus. Different types of analyses showed propagated activity also in posterior, mainly visual, regions, in a time window between 70 and 130 msec. Finally, a likely rebounding activation of the sensorimotor and frontal regions, was observed in various time ranges. Taken together, the present findings further characterize the neural circuits that are driven by dorsal premotor cortex activation in healthy humans.

  3. Distinct control of initiation and metrics of memory-guided saccades and vergence by the FEF: a TMS study.

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    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF. Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay; the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.

  4. Bifocal Stereoscopic Vision for Intelligent Vehicles

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    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous benefits of real-time 3D awareness for autonomous vehicles have motivated the incorporation of stereo cameras to the perception units of intelligent vehicles. The availability of the distance between camera and objects is essential for such applications as automatic guidance and safeguarding; however, a poor estimation of the position of the objects in front of the vehicle can result in dangerous actions. There is an emphasis, therefore, in the design of perception engines that can make available a rich and reliable interval of ranges in front of the camera. The objective of this research is to develop a stereo head that is capable of capturing 3D information from two cameras simultaneously, sensing different, but complementary, fields of view. In order to do so, the concept of bifocal perception was defined and physically materialized in an experimental bifocal stereo camera. The assembled system was validated through field tests, and results showed that each stereo pair of the head excelled at a singular range interval. The fusion of both intervals led to a more faithful representation of reality.

  5. Sensorimotor cortex excitability and connectivity in Alzheimer's disease: A TMS-EEG Co-registration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Florinda; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Vollero, Luca; Guerra, Andrea; Petrichella, Sara; Ponzo, David; Määtta, Sara; Mervaala, Esa; Könönen, Mervi; Ursini, Francesca; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Iannello, Giulio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown that, in spite of the fact that motor symptoms manifest late in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuropathological progression in the motor cortex parallels that in other brain areas generally considered more specific targets of the neurodegenerative process. It has been suggested that motor cortex excitability is enhanced in AD from the early stages, and that this is related to disease's severity and progression. To investigate the neurophysiological hallmarks of motor cortex functionality in early AD we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrated that in mild AD the sensorimotor system is hyperexcitable, despite the lack of clinically evident motor manifestations. This phenomenon causes a stronger response to stimulation in a specific time window, possibly due to locally acting reinforcing circuits, while network activity and connectivity is reduced. These changes could be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism allowing for the preservation of sensorimotor programming and execution over a long period of time, regardless of the disease's progression. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2083-2096, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945686

  6. Quality of vision through diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, J L; Chakrabarti, H S; Morrison, J D

    1991-01-01

    Two elderly women have each received a monofocal intraocular lens in one eye and a 3M diffractive bifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. Both eyes were shown to have equivalent retinal/neural function by measuring contrast sensitivity to laser interference fringes which bypassed refractive and other defects of the ocular media. The eyes with a bifocal intraocular lens displayed a much greater depth of focus, though at the expense of diminished contrast sensitivity compared with the normal...

  7. Traumatic inferior hip dislocation: a rare adult case with ipsilateral bifocal hip fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj Moussa, Majd; Tawk, Charbel; Hoyek, Fadi; Lahoud, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Inferior dislocation is a rare type of hip dislocation, especially in adults. Few cases have been reported; most of them were isolated. This is the case of a traumatic adult hip dislocation after a road traffic accident. Reduction was made under general anaesthesia; a CT-Scan after the reduction showed a bifocal non-displaced hip fracture. In this article, we present a small review of the literature and we discuss the possible mechanism of hip dislocation. We found through our case study that this condition is not exclusive to children and CT-Scan is mandatory after the reduction of hip dislocation to eliminate any associated injury. To our knowledge, a bifocal hip fracture has not previously been documented, in the English language literature. PMID:27141043

  8. Literal, Fictive and Metaphorical Motion Sentences Preserve the Motion Component of the Verb: A TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, C.; Bolognini, N.; Senna, I.; Pellicciari, M. C.; Miniussi, C.; Papagno, C.

    2011-01-01

    We used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to assess whether reading literal, non-literal (i.e., metaphorical, idiomatic) and fictive motion sentences modulates the activity of the motor system. Sentences were divided into three segments visually presented one at a time: the noun phrase, the verb and the final part of the sentence. Single…

  9. Fabrication of bifocal microlens arrays based on controlled electrohydrodynamic reflowing of pre-patterned polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easy method based on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) reflowing of pre-patterned polymer is proposed in this study for the fabrication of bifocal microlens arrays (MLAs). The method comprises two sequential steps, i.e. hot embossing for generating a polymer-based micropillar array and EHD reflowing of the micropillars for the formation of a bifocal MLA with controllable surface shape and optical performance. The EHD reflowing process is achieved by applying a voltage across an electrode pair sandwiching an air gap and the pre-patterned polymer, and the EHD force induced on the air–polymer interface reshapes the pillar array into the MLA. The complex bifocal microlens can be achieved only when the electric intensity is stronger than that required to produce a commonly known Taylor cone, which is formed when the EHD force exactly surpasses the surface tension. Finally, the light through MLA is imaged on a moving charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and leads to an observation of two focal planes. (paper)

  10. Right ventricular bifocal stimulation in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pachón Mateos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a new more efficient method of endocardial cardiac stimulation, which produces a narrower QRS without using the coronary sinus or cardiac veins. METHODS: We studied 5 patients with severe dilated cardiomyopathy, chronic atrial fibrillation and AV block, who underwent definitive endocardial pacemaker implantation, with 2 leads, in the RV, one in the apex and the other in the interventricular septum (sub pulmonary, connected, respectively, to ventricular and atrial bicameral pacemaker outputs. Using Doppler echocardiography, we compared, in the same patient, conventional (VVI, high septal ("AAI" and bifocal ("DDT" with AV interval ~ 0 stimulation. RESULTS: The RV bifocal stimulation had the best results with an increase in ejection fraction and cardiac output and reduction in QRS duration, mitral regurgitation and in the left atrium area (p <= 0.01. The conventional method of stimulation showed the worst result. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, when left ventricular stimulation is not possible, right ventricular bifocal stimulation should be used in patients with severe cardiomyopathy where a pacemaker is indicated.

  11. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeneke Susan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1 in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an internal and an external strategy, our study was designed to specifically test the relation between strategy and M1 activity. Methods Twenty-two subjects were asked to participate in a standard mental rotation task. We used specific picture stimuli that were supposed to trigger either the internal (e.g. pictures of hands or tools or the external strategy (e.g. pictures of houses or abstract figures. The strategy hypothesis predicts an involvement of M1 only in case of stimuli triggering the internal strategy (imagine grasping and rotating the object by oneself. Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was employed to quantify M1 activity during task performance by measuring Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs at the right hand muscle. Results Contrary to the strategy hypothesis, we found no interaction between stimulus category and corticospinal excitability. Instead, corticospinal excitability was generally increased compared with a resting baseline although subjects indicated more frequent use of the external strategy for all object categories. Conclusion This finding suggests that M1 involvement is not exclusively linked with the use of the internal strategy but rather directly with the process of mental rotation. Alternatively, our results might support the hypothesis that M1 is active due to a 'spill-over' effect from adjacent brain regions.

  12. Action Verbs and the Primary Motor Cortex: A Comparative TMS Study of Silent Reading, Frequency Judgments, and Motor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R.; Sparing, Roland; Dafotakis, Manuel; Weiss, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex or, as a control, to the vertex (STIMULATION: TMS[subscript M1] vs. TMS[subscript vertex]) while right-handed volunteers silently read verbs related to hand actions. We examined three different tasks and time points for stimulation…

  13. Evaluation of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration by bifocal distraction osteogenesis with retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in dogs.

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    Yosuke Shogen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects.

  14. Dissociating Parieto-Frontal Networks for Phonological and Semantic Word Decisions: A Condition-and-Perturb TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weigel, Anni; Schuschan, Paul; Siebner, Hartwig R; Weise, David; Classen, Joseph; Saur, Dorothee

    2016-06-01

    Left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are key regions for phonological decisions, whereas angular gyrus (ANG) and anterior IFG (aIFG) are associated with semantics. However, it is less clear whether the functional contribution of one area changes in the presence of a dysfunctional area within the network. Using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we first tested whether perturbing one area would disrupt behavior. Second, we applied a condition-and-perturb approach, combining parietal offline rTMS with frontal online rTMS to investigate how the functional contribution of a frontal region changes in the presence of a dysfunctional parietal region. We found that rTMS over SMG or pIFG delayed phonological decisions, but this was not enhanced by combining supramarginal rTMS with pIFG rTMS. In contrast, semantic decisions were only impaired when angular rTMS was combined with aIFG rTMS. We infer that offline rTMS caused a dysfunction of ANG which increased the functional relevance of aIFG for semantic decisions and sensitized this network to the disruptive effects of aIFG rTMS. The results provide causal evidence that ANG and aIFG contribute to semantics and that the functional significance of one area within this network depends on the functional integrity of the other. PMID:25953770

  15. Performance Case study of Grigoryan FFT over Cooley-Tukey FFT using TMS DSP Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanam Ranganadh , Muni Guravaiah P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency analysis plays vital role in the applications like cryptanalysis, steganalysis [6], system identification, controller tuning, speech recognition, noise filters, etc. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Cooley-Tukey fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT [1] and the other one is the Grigoryan FFT based on the splitting by the paired transform [2]. We evaluate the performance of these algorithms by implementing them on the TMS320C6748 and TMS320C5416 DSPs. We developed C programming for these DSP processors. Finally we show that the paired-transform based algorithm of the FFT is faster than the radix-2 FFT, consequently it is useful for higher sampling rates. Working at higher data rates is a challenge in the applications of Digital Signal Processing.

  16. Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswaryah Radhakrishnan

    Full Text Available Simultaneous vision is an increasingly used solution for the correction of presbyopia (the age-related loss of ability to focus near images. Simultaneous Vision corrections, normally delivered in the form of contact or intraocular lenses, project on the patient's retina a focused image for near vision superimposed with a degraded image for far vision, or a focused image for far vision superimposed with the defocused image of the near scene. It is expected that patients with these corrections are able to adapt to the complex Simultaneous Vision retinal images, although the mechanisms or the extent to which this happens is not known. We studied the neural adaptation to simultaneous vision by studying changes in the Natural Perceived Focus and in the Perceptual Score of image quality in subjects after exposure to Simultaneous Vision. We show that Natural Perceived Focus shifts after a brief period of adaptation to a Simultaneous Vision blur, similar to adaptation to Pure Defocus. This shift strongly correlates with the magnitude and proportion of defocus in the adapting image. The magnitude of defocus affects perceived quality of Simultaneous Vision images, with 0.5 D defocus scored lowest and beyond 1.5 D scored "sharp". Adaptation to Simultaneous Vision shifts the Perceptual Score of these images towards higher rankings. Larger improvements occurred when testing simultaneous images with the same magnitude of defocus as the adapting images, indicating that wearing a particular bifocal correction improves the perception of images provided by that correction.

  17. Brain-mapping using robotized TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, M; Fadini, T; Kantelhardt, S; Giese, A; Matthaus, L; Schweikard, A

    2008-01-01

    We present first results of brain-mapping using robotic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. This non-invasive procedure enables the reliable detection of the representation of individual muscles or muscle groups in the motor-cortex. The accuracy is only exceeded by direct electrical stimulation of the brain during surgery. Brain-mapping using robotic TMS can also be used to detect displacements of brain regions caused by tumors. The advantage of TMS is that it is non-invasive. In this study, we compare results from statistical mapping with robotic TMS to results achieved from direct stimulation done during tumor surgery. To our knowledge this is the first study of this type. We mapped the representation of three muscle groups (forearm, pinky and thumb) in tumor patients with the robot-aided TMS protocol and with direct stimulation. The resulting maps agree within 5mm. PMID:19163572

  18. Bifocal contact lenses: History, types, characteristics, and actual state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Toshida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida, Kozo Takahashi, Kazushige Sado, Atsushi Kanai, Akira MurakamiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Since people who wear contact lenses (CL often continue using CL even when they develop presbyopia, there are growing expectations for bifocal CL. To understand actual state and problems, history, types, and their characteristics are summarized in this review. Bifocal CL have a long history over 70 years. Recently, bifocal CL have achieved remarkable progress. However, there still is an impression that prescription of bifocal CL is not easy. It should also be remembered that bifocal CL have limits, including limited addition for near vision, as well as the effects of aging and eye diseases in the aged, such as dry eye, astigmatism, cataract, etc. Analysis of the long-term users of bifocal CL among our patients has revealed the disappearance of bifocal CL that achieved unsatisfactory vision and poor contrast compared with those provided by other types of CL. Changing the prescription up to 3 times for lenses of the same brand may be appropriate. Lenses that provide poor contrast sensitivity, suffer from glare, or give unsatisfactory vision have been weeded out. The repeated replacement of products due to the emergence of improved or new products will be guessed.Keywords: bifocal contact lens, presbyopia, accommodation

  19. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: A TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eGrau-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician’s brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning. Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.

  20. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy. PMID:24027507

  1. Differential effects of motor cortical excitability and plasticity in young and old individuals: a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Bashir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with changes in the motor system that, over time, can lead to functional impairments and contribute negatively to the ability to recover after brain damage. Unfortunately, there are still many questions surrounding the physiological mechanisms underlying these impairments. We examined cortico-spinal excitability and plasticity in a young cohort (age range: 19-31 and an elderly cohort (age range: 47-73 of healthy right-handed individuals using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS. Subjects were evaluated with a combination of physiological (motor evoked potentials (MEPs, motor threshold (MT, intracortical inhibition (ICI, intracortical facilitation (ICF, and silent period (SP and behavioral (reaction time (RT, pinch force, 9 hole peg task (HPT measures at baseline and following one session of low-frequency (1 Hz navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS to the right (non-dominant hemisphere.In the young cohort, the inhibitory effect of 1 Hz rTMS was significantly in the right hemisphere and a significant facilitatory effect was noted in the unstimulated hemisphere. Conversely, in the elderly cohort, we report only a trend toward a facilitatory effect in the unstimulated hemisphere, suggesting reduced cortical plasticity and interhemispheric commuinication. To this effect, we show that significant differences in hemispheric cortico-spinal excitability were present in the elderly cohort at baseline, with significantly reduced cortico-spinal excitability in the right hemisphere as compared to the left hemisphere. A correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship between cortical thickness of the selected region of interest and MEPs in either young or old subjects prior to and following rTMS. When combined with our preliminary results, further research into this topic could lead to the development of neurophysiological markers pertinent to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of neurological

  2. A multi-center study on low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis in post-stroke patients

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    Kakuda Wataru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and intensive occupational therapy (OT have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Based on these reports, we developed an inpatient combination protocol of these two modalities for the treatment of such patients. The aims of this pilot study were to confirm the safety and feasibility of the protocol in a large number of patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. Methods The study subjects were 204 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (mean age at admission 58.5 ± 13.4 years, mean time after stroke 5.0 ± 4.5 years, ± SD from five institutions in Japan. During 15-day hospitalization, each patient received 22 treatment sessions of 20-min low-frequency rTMS and 120-min intensive OT daily. Low-frequency rTMS of 1 Hz was applied to the contralesional hemisphere over the primary motor area. The intensive OT, consisting of 60-min one-to-one training and 60-min self-exercise, was provided after the application of low-frequency rTMS. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT were performed serially. The physiatrists and occupational therapists involved in this study received training prior to the study to standardize the therapeutic protocol. Results All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score increased and WMFT log performance time decreased significantly at discharge, relative to the respective values at admission (change in FMA score: median at admission, 47 points; median at discharge, 51 points; p Conclusions The 15-day inpatient rTMS plus OT protocol is a safe, feasible, and clinically useful neurorehabilitative intervention for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. The response to the treatment was not influenced by age or time after stroke onset. The

  3. Twelve-month success rates with a hydrogel diffractive bifocal contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, A; Grant, T; Hine, N; Holden, B A

    1992-12-01

    In this study we assessed success rates over 12 months with a hydrogel diffractive bifocal contact lens. A total of 108 presbyopes were fitted with lenses, and after 12 months 46% were still wearing the lenses. Subjects with previous presbyopic lens-wearing experience achieved greater success (58% of those fitted) than neophyte lens wearers (33% of those fitted, and 17% of all neophyte presbyopes initially expressing an interest in contact lenses before screening). More neophytes failed for nonvision-related reasons than experienced subjects (31% vs. 12% of those fitted). Consequently, when nonvision-related failures were excluded from the calculation of success rates, 59% of those fitted with lenses (49% of neophytes and 66% of experienced subjects) were still wearing the lenses at 12 months. Most discontinuations from lens wear occurred in the first month of the study, the major reason for discontinuation being poor near vision (blur and/or ghosting; 47% of discontinuations). PMID:1300517

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke: Ready for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Claire; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-09-01

    The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke research has increased dramatically over the last decade with two emerging and potentially useful functions identified. Firstly, the use of single pulse TMS as a tool for predicting recovery of motor function after stroke, and secondly, the use of repetitive TMS (rTMS) as a treatment adjunct aimed at modifying the excitability of the motor cortex in preparation for rehabilitation. This review discusses recent advances in the use of TMS in both prediction and treatment after stroke. Prediction of recovery after stroke is a complex process and the use of TMS alone is not sufficient to provide accurate prediction for an individual after stroke. However, when applied in conjunction with other tools such as clinical assessment and MRI, accuracy of prediction using TMS is increased. rTMS temporarily modulates cortical excitability after stroke. Very few rTMS studies are completed in the acute or sub-acute stages after stroke and the translation of altered cortical excitability into gains in motor function are modest, with little evidence of long term effects. Although gains have been made in both of these areas, further investigation is needed before these techniques can be applied in routine clinical care. PMID:27394378

  5. Electronically switchable sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Hoeft

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.

  6. TMS320VC5416DSP存储空间配置方法研究%Study on the Configuration Method for the Memory Space Address in TMS320VC5416 DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洪坡; 梁书剑; 张德兴; 王铁军

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the memory structure of TMS320VC5416 DSP. on this basis analyzes the mapping relation between memory space and physical memory, in the end, gives the configuration method of the memory space.%文章介绍了TMS320VC5416 DSP芯片的存储结构,在此基础上重点分析了其存储空间与物理存储器的映射关系,最后给出了存储空间配置方法的一般步骤.

  7. Overt Naming fMRI Pre- and Post-TMS: Two Nonfluent Aphasia Patients, with and without Improved Naming Post-TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paula I.; Naeser, Margaret A.; Ho, Michael; Doron, Karl W.; Kurland, Jacquie; Kaplan, Jerome; Wang, Yunyan; Nicholas, Marjorie; Baker, Errol H.; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Two chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients participated in overt naming fMRI scans, pre- and post-a series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments as part of a TMS study to improve naming. Each patient received 10, 1-Hz rTMS treatments to suppress a part of R pars triangularis. P1 was a "good responder" with improved naming…

  8. Anotaciones sobre la noción de terapia bifocal en la adolescencia Bifocal Therapy in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Corcos

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: A partir de la reflexión alrededor de las especificidades del funcionamiento psíquico en la adolescencia han surgido propuestas novedosas sobre la posibilidad de elaborar un marco terapéutico igualmente específico. La terapia bifocal (propuesta por Jeammet y desarrollada por el autor de este artículo) es una de estas respuestas. Intervienen en ella dos terapeutas, cada uno en un tiempo y un lugar diferentes: un psiquiatra consultante (o referente) y un psicoterapeuta. Desarrollo...

  9. Vegetative versus minimally conscious states: a study using TMS-EEG, sensory and event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Ragazzoni

    Full Text Available Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs and event-related potentials (ERPs. Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity and scalp distributions (connectivity of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and

  10. Meta-Review of Metanalytic Studies with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for the Treatment of Major Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Osso, Bernardo; Camuri, Giulia; Castellano, Filippo; Vecchi, Vittoria; Benedetti, Matteo; Bortolussi, Sara; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Major Depression (MD) and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) are worldwide leading causes of disability and therapeutic strategies for these impairing and prevalent conditions include pharmacological augmentation strategies and brain stimulation techniques. In this perspective, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique with a favorable profile of tolerability which, despite being recently approved by the Food and Drug Admin...

  11. Vegetative versus minimally conscious states: a study using TMS-EEG, sensory and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzoni, Aldo; Pirulli, Cornelia; Veniero, Domenica; Feurra, Matteo; Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Lino, Mario; Rossi, Simone; Miniussi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively) are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity) and scalp distributions (connectivity) of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs) of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and

  12. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Yohana eLévêque; Neil eMuggleton; Lauren eStewart; Daniele eSchön

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the...

  13. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana eLévêque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, reaction times became longer for sung than for machine sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance.

  14. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study(†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for "machine" sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance. PMID:23874314

  15. New insights into Alzheimer's disease progression: a combined TMS and structural MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini Niskanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of structural and functional data of the human brain can provide detailed information of neurodegenerative diseases and the influence of the disease on various local cortical areas. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the relationship between structure and function of the brain the cortical thickness based on structural magnetic resonance images and motor cortex excitability assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation were correlated in Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients as well as in age-matched healthy controls. Motor cortex excitability correlated negatively with cortical thickness on the sensorimotor cortex, the precuneus and the cuneus but the strength of the correlation varied between the study groups. On the sensorimotor cortex the correlation was significant only in MCI subjects. On the precuneus and cuneus the correlation was significant both in AD and MCI subjects. In healthy controls the motor cortex excitability did not correlate with the cortical thickness. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects the motor cortex excitability is not dependent on the cortical thickness, whereas in neurodegenerative diseases the cortical thinning is related to weaker cortical excitability, especially on the precuneus and cuneus. However, in AD subjects there seems to be a protective mechanism of hyperexcitability on the sensorimotor cortex counteracting the prominent loss of cortical volume since the motor cortex excitability did not correlate with the cortical thickness. Such protective mechanism was not found on the precuneus or cuneus nor in the MCI subjects. Therefore, our results indicate that the progression of the disease proceeds with different dynamics in the structure and function of neuronal circuits from normal conditions via MCI to AD.

  16. Utility of TMS to understand the neurobiology of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TakenobuMurakami

    2013-07-01

    In summary, TMS is an innovative tool to investigate processing of speech perception and imitation. TMS studies have provided strong evidence that the sensory system is critically involved in mapping sensory input onto motor output and that the motor system plays an important role in speech perception.

  17. No effects of 20 Hz-rTMS of the primary motor cortex in vegetative state: A randomised, sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Bianco, Giovanni; Godone, Marco; Battista, Donato; Cardinali, Consuelo; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Sighinolfi, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Anna Maria; Breschi, Marco; Dine, Ylli; Lino, Mario; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Rossi, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex in patients with vegetative state (VS) by a randomised, sham-controlled study with a cross-over design. Eleven patients classified as being in VS (9 post-anoxic, 2 post-traumatic, time elapsed from the injury 9-85 months) were included in the study. Real or sham 20 Hz rTMS were applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 5 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were changes in the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale total score and Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Additional measures were EEG changes and impression of the patients' relatives using the CGI-I scale. Evaluations were blindly performed at baseline, after the first day of treatment, immediately after the end of the 5-days treatment, 1 week and 1 month later. Slight changes observed in the CRS-R and CGI-I scores did not significantly differ between real or sham stimulation conditions. EEG was not significantly changed on average, although spots of brain reactivity were occasionally found underneath the stimulation point. Findings did not provide evidence of therapeutic effect of 20 Hz rTMS of the M1 in chronic VS, at least with conventional coils and current safety parameters. Therefore, they might be useful to better allocate human and financial resources in future trials. PMID:26301875

  18. Bifocal orbital and nasopharyngeal amyloidomas presenting as Graves disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert Y; Chapman, William B; Witterick, Ian J; Deangelis, Dan D

    2011-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with a slowly progressive left hyperglobus, left infraduction deficit, bilateral lower eyelid retraction, and dysphagia. He had a notable chin-down head position, diplopia in primary position, and 3 mm of left proptosis. He had been diagnosed with Graves disease 3 years before presentation. CT scans showed enlargement of the left inferior and medial rectus muscles with associated stranding of the retrobulbar fat and a low-density heterogeneous mass in the left aspect of the neck protruding in the nasopharynx. Biopsies of the orbit and nasopharynx revealed focal areas of amyloid. This represents the first report of bifocal amyloidomas of the orbit and nasopharynx. PMID:21178798

  19. Electron collision cross sections for the TMS molecule and electron transport coefficients in TMS-Ar and TMS-O2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Pham Xuan; Tuan, Do Anh; Jeon, Byung-Hoon

    2012-07-01

    A consistent set of low-energy electron-collision cross sections for the tetramethylsilane (TMS) molecule has been derived from the measured electron transport coefficients for a pure TMS molecule by using an electron swarm study and a two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation for energy. The electron transport coefficients, which were calculated by using the derived set, are consistent with the experimental data over a wide range of E/N values (ratio of the electric field E to the neutral number density N). The present set of electron collision cross sections for the TMS molecule, therefore, is the best available so far for quantitative numerical modeling of plasma discharges for processing procedures with materials containing TMS molecules. The electron-transport coefficients in TMS-Ar and TMS-O2 mixtures were also calculated and analyzed in a wide range of E/N ratios for the first time. The presence of a remarkable synergism in the Townsend first ionization coefficient has been pointed out in the TMS-O2 mixtures.

  20. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  1. Cortico-cortical connectivity between right parietal and bilateral primary motor cortices during imagined and observed actions: A combined TMS/tDCS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Feurra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous TMS studies showed functional connections between the parietal cortex (PC and the primary motor cortex (M1 during tasks of different reaching-to-grasp movements. Here, we tested whether the same network is involved in cognitive processes such as imagined or observed actions. Single pulse TMS of the right and left M1 during rest and during a motor imagery and an action observation task (i.e. an index-thumb pinch grip in both cases was used to measure corticospinal excitability changes before and after conditioning of the right PC by 10 minutes of cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Corticospinal excitability was indexed by the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the contralateral FDI (target and ADM (control muscles. Results showed selective ipsilateral effects on the M1 excitability, exclusively for motor imagery processes: anodal tDCS enhanced the MEPs’ size from the FDI muscle, whereas cathodal tDCS decreased it. Only cathodal tDCS impacted corticospinal facilitation induced by action observation. Sham stimulation was always uneffective. These results suggest that motor imagery, differently from action observation, is sustained by a strictly ipsilateral parieto-motor cortex circuits. Results might have implication for neuromodulatory rehabilitative purposes.

  2. TMS320C31 master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this book are explanation of basic conception for DSP, perfect a complete master of TMS320C31, I/O interface design and memory, practice with PC print port, basic programing skill, assembly and C programing technique, timer and interrupt application skill, serial communication programing technique, application of digital conditioning and application of digital servo control. This book is divided into two parts, which is about TMS320C31 master of theory and application.

  3. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder. PMID:25191234

  4. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysianne Beynel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS and (ii mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for three weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1 and just after (S2 the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through MADRS scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the TMS-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a ‘trait vs. state’ objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  5. 基于TMS320F2812的变极性弧焊电源%Study on variable polarity welding power source based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 赵敬云; 姚秋凤

    2011-01-01

    Digitalization is the trends of modern welding power source,soft-switching technology is the research focus of the modern welding power source technology research focus.This combination of the two,designed a TMS320F2812 DSP chip as the core of the dual inverter control system.An inverter with phase-shifted full-bridge inverter circuit output current soft-switching technology to achieve size control.Second inverter half-bridge inverter with coupled inductor topology .The system has good performance of variable polarity output, they also have a hardware circuit structure is simple, low cost, the system efficiency .With DSP control to improve the reliability of welding to ensure that the weld appearance,the basic realization of digital control of welding machine.%数字化是现代电源的发展趋势,软开关技术是当代电源技术的研究热点,将两者融合,设计了以DSP芯片TMS320F2812为核心的双逆变控制系统.一次逆变采用移相全桥逆变电路软开关技术实现输出电流大小控制;二次逆变采用耦合电感的半桥逆变电路拓扑.该系统在具有良好的变极性输出性能的同时,又具有硬件电路结构简单、成本低、系统效率高等优点.使用DSP控制使焊机的可靠性得到提高,保证了焊缝成形美观,实现了焊机数字化控制.

  6. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  7. Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS) mission applications and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramblit, D. C.; Turner, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted by NASA have shown that the operating range of the Shuttle can be substantially increased and cost of payload operation be decreased by making use of the Teleoperator Maneuvering System (TMS). The TMS is remotely controlled, free-flying, orbital mini-tug vehicle capable of performing a wide range of remote satellite services missions. It can operate out of the Shuttle cargo bay, from a space station, or on top of an upper stage like Centaur. For high energy missions up to and including geostationary orbit, the TMS propulsion stage will augment the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) recently proposed for commercial development in providing an effective low-cost second-stage system for delivering intermediate sized payloads to geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Attention is given to TMS capabilities for both long duration and short term orbital missions, taking into account also Space Station support operations.

  8. Fabrication of microlens array and bifocal microlens using the methods of laser ablation and solvent reflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Chian; Ho, Jeng-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Based on the techniques of laser microdrilling and solvent reflow, this study reports on a straightforward approach for fabricating plastic microlens arrays (MLAs). First, we use the ArF excimer laser to drill microholes on a polymethylmethacrylate plate for defining the lens number, initial depth, and diameter. The propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate solvent is then employed to regulate the surface profile that leads to a resulting negative (concave) MLA. The corresponding positive (convex), polydimethyl-siloxane MLA is obtained by the soft-replica-molding technique. Through varying the pattern size and period on the mask and the light intensity for laser drilling and regulating the solvent in the reflow process, we exhibit the feasibility of making MLAs with various sizes and shapes. By modifying the laser ablation step to drill two microholes with different diameters and depths at two levels, we fabricate a bifocal microlens. The obtained microlenses have excellent surface and optical properties: surface roughness down to several nanometers and focal lengths varying from hundreds to thousands of micrometers. This approach is flexible for constructing microlenses with various sizes and shapes and can fabricate MLAs with a high fill factor.

  9. Using the Bifocal Modeling Framework to Resolve "Discrepant Events" Between Physical Experiments and Virtual Models in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstein, Paulo; Fuhrmann, Tamar; Salehi, Shima

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate an approach to supporting students' learning in science through a combination of physical experimentation and virtual modeling. We present a study that utilizes a scientific inquiry framework, which we call "bifocal modeling," to link student-designed experiments and computer models in real time. In this study, a group of high school students designed computer models of bacterial growth with reference to a simultaneous physical experiment they were conducting, and were able to validate the correctness of their model against the results of their experiment. Our findings suggest that as the students compared their virtual models with physical experiments, they encountered "discrepant events" that contradicted their existing conceptions and elicited a state of cognitive disequilibrium. This experience of conflict encouraged students to further examine their ideas and to seek more accurate explanations of the observed natural phenomena, improving the design of their computer models.

  10. Using the Bifocal Modeling Framework to Resolve "Discrepant Events" Between Physical Experiments and Virtual Models in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstein, Paulo; Fuhrmann, Tamar; Salehi, Shima

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate an approach to supporting students' learning in science through a combination of physical experimentation and virtual modeling. We present a study that utilizes a scientific inquiry framework, which we call "bifocal modeling," to link student-designed experiments and computer models in real time. In this study, a group of high school students designed computer models of bacterial growth with reference to a simultaneous physical experiment they were conducting, and were able to validate the correctness of their model against the results of their experiment. Our findings suggest that as the students compared their virtual models with physical experiments, they encountered "discrepant events" that contradicted their existing conceptions and elicited a state of cognitive disequilibrium. This experience of conflict encouraged students to further examine their ideas and to seek more accurate explanations of the observed natural phenomena, improving the design of their computer models.

  11. Ørsteds Yin & Yang: MEG & TMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Christopher; Pallesen, Karen Johanne

    2011-01-01

    A portrait of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from a (bio)physical point of view.......A portrait of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from a (bio)physical point of view....

  12. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmann, Grégory; Azorina, Valeriya; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal...

  13. Very low-frequency rTMS modulates SEPs over the contralateral hemisphere.

    OpenAIRE

    Uguisu, H.; Urushihara, R.; Hosono, Y.; ASANUMA, K; Shimazu, H.; Murase, N.; Kaji, R.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the transcallosal effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we studied median somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) before and after applying monophasic very low-frequency (0.2 Hz) subthreshold rTMS over the right motor cortex. For SEPs, median nerve was stimulated on each side. Sham rTMS served as the control. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. After rTMS over the right hemisphere, the amplitude of N34 component in right median ...

  14. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Nordmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a systematic literature review (April 2014 of 29 studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies, the cerebellum (8 studies, or the temporal cortex (3 studies. One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus. Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls into question the practice of re-adjusting the stimulation intensity according to the motor threshold over the course of the

  15. Evaluating interhemispheric cortical responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic stroke: A TMS-EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, Michael R; Wheaton, Lewis A; Brodie, Sonia M; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-04-01

    TMS-evoked cortical responses can be measured using simultaneous electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to directly quantify cortical connectivity in the human brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interhemispheric cortical connectivity between the primary motor cortices (M1s) in participants with chronic stroke and controls using TMS-EEG. Ten participants with chronic stroke and four controls were tested. TMS-evoked responses were recorded at rest and during a typical TMS assessment of transcallosal inhibition (TCI). EEG recordings from peri-central gyral electrodes (C3 and C4) were evaluated using imaginary phase coherence (IPC) analyses to quantify levels of effective interhemispheric connectivity. Significantly increased TMS-evoked beta (15-30Hz frequency range) IPC was observed in the stroke group during ipsilesional M1 stimulation compared to controls during TCI assessment but not at rest. TMS-evoked beta IPC values were associated with TMS measures of transcallosal inhibition across groups. These results suggest TMS-evoked EEG responses can index abnormal effective interhemispheric connectivity in chronic stroke. PMID:26940237

  16. Applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Over the Dorsal Visual Pathway Induces Schizophrenia-like Disruption of Perceptual Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiaz, Revital; Vainiger, Dana; Gershon, Ari A; Weiser, Mark; Lavidor, Michal; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    Perceptual closure ability is postulated to depend upon rapid transmission of magnocellular information to prefrontal cortex via the dorsal stream. In contrast, illusory contour processing requires only local interactions within primary and ventral stream visual regions, such as lateral occipital complex. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in perceptual closure versus illusory contours processing that is hypothesized to reflect impaired magnocellular/dorsal stream. Perceptual closure and illusory contours performance was evaluated in separate groups of 12 healthy volunteers during no TMS, and during repetitive 10 Hz rTMS stimulation over dorsal stream or vertex (TMS-vertex). Perceptual closure and illusory contours were performed in 11 schizophrenia patients, no TMS was applied in these patients. TMS effects were evaluated with repeated measures ANOVA across treatments. rTMS significantly increased perceptual closure identification thresholds, with significant difference between TMS-dorsal stream and no TMS. TMS-dorsal stream also significantly reduced perceptual closure but not illusory contours accuracy. Schizophrenia patients showed increased perceptual closure identification thresholds relative to controls in the no TMS condition, but similar to controls in the TMS-dorsal stream condition. Conclusions of this study are that magnocellular/dorsal stream input is critical for perceptual closure but not illusory contours performance, supporting both trickledown theories of normal perceptual closure function, and magnocellular/dorsal stream theories of visual dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:27021230

  17. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  18. Rhythm makes the world go round: An MEG-TMS study on the role of right TPJ theta oscillations in embodied perspective taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Callaghan, Eleanor; Gooding-Williams, Gerard; McAllister, Craig; Kessler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    While some aspects of social processing are shared between humans and other species, some aspects are not. The former seems to apply to merely tracking another's visual perspective in the world (i.e., what a conspecific can or cannot perceive), while the latter applies to perspective taking in form of mentally "embodying" another's viewpoint. Our previous behavioural research had indicated that only perspective taking, but not tracking, relies on simulating a body schema rotation into another's viewpoint. In the current study we employed Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and revealed that this mechanism of mental body schema rotation is primarily linked to theta oscillations in a wider brain network of body-schema, somatosensory and motor-related areas, with the right posterior temporo-parietal junction (pTPJ) at its core. The latter was reflected by a convergence of theta oscillatory power in right pTPJ obtained by overlapping the separately localised effects of rotation demands (angular disparity effect), cognitive embodiment (posture congruence effect), and basic body schema involvement (posture relevance effect) during perspective taking in contrast to perspective tracking. In a subsequent experiment we interfered with right pTPJ processing using dual pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dpTMS) and observed a significant reduction of embodied processing. We conclude that right TPJ is the crucial network hub for transforming the embodied self into another's viewpoint, body and/or mind, thus, substantiating how conflicting representations between self and other may be resolved and potentially highlighting the embodied origins of high-level social cognition in general. PMID:26722994

  19. Comparative Assessment of Implantation of Bifocal Diffractiverefractive and Monofocal Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.P. Takhchidi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To assess the functional results of implantation of bifocal diffractiverefractive and monofocal lenses. Material and methods Long-term visual functions in patients with bifocal diffractive-refractive lenses (MIOL-Accord, AcrySof Restor ® and monofocal lens (MIOL-2 were examined. Postop refraction, distance and near visual acuity, visual acuity at low-contrast values and contrast sensitivity were evaluated. Results Distance visual acuity in patients with MIOL-Accord and AcrySof Restor® did not differ from the visual acuity in patients with MIOL-2. Uncorrected and corrected near visual acuity was better in eyes with diffractive lenses. Visual acuity at low-contrast values and with glare, contrast sensitivity in patients with diffractive lenses were comparable (p>0,05, but were slight lower than those with the monofocal lens. Conclusion Despite different design the bifocal diffractive-refractive lenses MIOLAccord and AcrySof Restor® provided comparable postop visual functions. Uncorrected near visual acuity in patients with the multifocal lens was better than in monofocal patients. Uncorrected distance vision show comparable results in multifocal and monofocal patients. Visual acuity at low-contrast values and contrast sensitivity with glare in patients with diffractive lenses were slight lower than with the monofocal lens.

  20. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  1. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  2. A TMS Study of the Ventral Projections from V1 with Implications for the Finding of Neural Correlates of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The study of subliminal perception in normal and brain lesioned subjects has long been of interest to scholars studying the neural mechanisms behind conscious vision. Using brief durations and a developed methodology of introspective reporting, we present an experiment with visual stimuli that gives rise to little or no subliminal perception under…

  3. Modulation of a Fronto-Parietal Network in Event-Based Prospective Memory: An rTMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiacchi, P. S.; Cona, G.; Schiff, S.; Basso, D.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) is a multi-component process that requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue, while being actively engaged in an ongoing task. Some neuroimaging studies have suggested that both prefrontal and parietal areas are involved in the maintenance and…

  4. The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

  5. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer eGrau-Sánchez; Amengual, Julià L.; Nuria eRojo; Misericòrdia eVeciana de las Heras; Jordi eMontero; Francisco eRubio; Eckart eAltenmüller; Münte, Thomas F.; Antoni eRodriguez-Fornells

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority...

  6. Determination of stimulation focality in heterogeneous head models during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erik; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an increasingly popular tool used by both the scientific and medical community to understand and treat the brain. TMS has the potential to help people with a wide range of diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and PTSD, while currently being used to treat people with chronic, drug-resistant depression. Through computer simulations, we are able to see the electric field that TMS induces in anatomical human models, but there is no measure to quantify this electric field in a way that relates to a specific patient undergoing TMS therapy. We propose a way to quantify the focality of the induced electric field in a heterogeneous head model during TMS by relating the surface area of the brain being stimulated to the total volume of the brain being stimulated. This figure would be obtained by conducting finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of TMS therapy on a patient specific head model. Using this figure to assist in TMS therapy will allow clinicians and researchers to more accurately stimulate the desired region of a patient's brain and be more equipped to do comparative studies on the effects of TMS across different patients. This work was funded by the Carver Charitable Trust.

  7. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  8. 23 CFR 500.202 - TMS definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS definitions. 500.202 Section 500.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.202 TMS definitions. Unless...

  9. ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salviati M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Minichino¹, Francesco Saverio Bersani¹, Enrico Capra¹, Rossella Pannese¹, Celeste Bonanno², Massimo Salviati¹, Roberto Delle Chiaie¹, Massimo Biondi¹¹Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ²Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controversial data exist about the efficacy and tolerability of three of the most used somatic treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS. The aim of this review is to investigate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of these three techniques in drug-free patients with pharmacoresistant unipolar depression.Methods: Three independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of methodological reporting of selected studies. The first outcome was the clinical response to the three different techniques defined as a percentage improvement of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The second outcome was the evaluation of their neuropsychological effects. The third outcome was the evaluation of the number of remitted patients; remission was defined as an absolute HDRS-24 score of ≤11 or as an absolute HDRS-17 score of ≤8. Tolerability was the fourth outcome; it was evaluated by examining the number of dropped-out patients.Results: The comparative evaluation of HDRS percentage variations shows ECT as the most effective method after 4 weeks of therapy; on the other hand, a better efficacy is obtainable by deepTMS after 2 weeks of therapy. DeepTMS is the technique that gives the best improvement of cognitive performances. The percentage of remitted patients obtained with ECT treatment is the same obtained in the deepTMS group. Both techniques have a remitted patients percentage two times larger than the rTMS. DeepTMS shows a tolerability

  10. Structural brain changes following left temporal low-frequency rTMS in patients with subjective tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Lehner; Berthold Langguth; Poeppl, Timm B.; Rainer Rupprecht; Göran Hajak; Michael Landgrebe; Martin Schecklmann

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been used to treat patients with subjective tinnitus. While rTMS is known to induce morphological changes in healthy subjects, no study has investigated yet whether rTMS treatment induces grey matter (GM) changes in tinnitus patients as well, whether these changes are correlated with treatment success, and whether GM at baseline is a useful predictor for treatment outcome. Therefore, we examined magnetic resonance ...

  11. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  12. Finger extensor variability in TMS parameters among chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Shannon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study determined the reliability of topographic motor cortical maps and MEP characteristics in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC evoked by single-pulse TMS among patients with chronic stroke. Methods Each of ten patients was studied on three occasions. Measures included location of the EDC hotspot and center of gravity (COG, threshold of activation and average amplitude of the hotspot, number of active sites, map volume, and recruitment curve (RC slope. Results Consistent intrahemispheric measurements were obtained for the three TMS mapping sessions for all measured variables. No statistically significant difference was observed between hemispheres for the number of active sites, COG distance or the RC slope. The magnitude and range of COG movement between sessions were similar to those reported previously with this muscle in able-bodied individuals. The average COG movement over three sessions in both hemispheres was 0.90 cm. The average COG movement in the affected hemisphere was 1.13 (± 0.08 cm, and 0.68 (± 0.04 cm for the less affected hemisphere. However, significant interhemispheric variability was seen for the average MEP amplitude, normalized map volume, and resting motor threshold. Conclusion The physiologic variability in some TMS measurements of EDC suggest that interpretation of TMS mapping data derived from hemiparetic patients in the chronic stage following stroke should be undertaken cautiously. Irrespective of the muscle, potential causes of variability should be resolved to accurately assess the impact of pharmacological or physical interventions on cortical organization as measured by TMS among patients with stroke.

  13. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing

  14. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I.; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. Methods The state‐of‐the‐art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7‐channel receive‐only...

  15. Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Neir; Ruff, Christian C; Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix; Driver, Jon

    2010-10-01

    Interplay between the cerebral hemispheres is vital for coordinating perception and behavior. One influential account holds that the hemispheres engage in rivalry, each inhibiting the other. In the somatosensory domain, a seminal paper claimed to demonstrate such interhemispheric rivalry, reporting improved tactile detection sensitivity on the right hand after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right parietal lobe (Seyal, Ro, & Rafal, 1995). Such improvement in tactile detection ipsilateral to TMS could follow from interhemispheric rivalry, if one assumes that TMS disrupted cortical processing under the coil and thereby released the other hemisphere from inhibition. Here we extended the study by Seyal et al. (1995) to determine the effects of right parietal TMS on tactile processing for either hand, rather than only the ipsilateral hand. We performed two experiments applying TMS in the context of median-nerve stimulation; one experiment required somatosensory detection, the second somatosensory intensity discrimination. We found different TMS effects on detection versus discrimination, but neither set of results followed the prediction from hemispheric rivalry that enhanced performance for one hand should invariably be associated with impaired performance for the other hand, and vice-versa. Our results argue against a strict rivalry interpretation, instead suggesting that parietal TMS can provide a pedestal-like increment in somatosensory response. PMID:20678510

  16. Cortical Excitability Measured with nTMS and MEG during Stroke Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki P. Mäkelä

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Stroke alters cortical excitability both in the lesioned and in the nonlesioned hemisphere. Stroke recovery has been studied using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Spontaneous brain oscillations and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG are modified in stroke patients during recovery. Methods. We recorded SEFs and spontaneous MEG activity and motor threshold (MT short intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF with navigated TMS (nTMS at one and three months after first-ever hemispheric ischemic strokes. Changes of MEG and nTMS parameters attributed to gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate transmission were compared. Results. ICF correlated with the strength and extent of SEF source areas depicted by MEG at three months. The nTMS MT and event-related desynchronization (ERD of beta-band MEG activity and SICI and the beta-band MEG event-related synchronization (ERS were correlated, but less strongly. Conclusions. This first report using sequential nTMS and MEG in stroke recovery found intra- and interhemispheric correlations of nTMS and MEG estimates of cortical excitability. ICF and SEF parameters, MT and the ERD of the lesioned hemisphere, and SICI and ERS of the nonlesioned hemisphere were correlated. Covarying excitability in the lesioned and nonlesioned hemispheres emphasizes the importance of the hemispheric balance of the excitability of the sensorimotor system.

  17. Enhancement of motor coordination by applying high frequency repetitive TMS on the sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Hi; Yoo, Woo-Kyoung; Ohn, Suk Hoon; Ahn, SeungHo; Kim, Han Jun; Jung, Kwang-Ik

    2016-06-01

    The sensory function plays an important role for successful motor performance. We investigated the modulating effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on sensory discrimination and motor coordination. Twenty healthy participants were assigned into two random groups; the real- and sham-rTMS group. Total of 900 rTMS pulses at a frequency of 10Hz (stimulus intensity of 90% RMT) were given over deltoid representational areas of the somatosensory cortex. Sensory discrimination ability was evaluated using two-point discrimination test. Motor coordination was measured by the latency difference between the synchronized contraction of deltoid and abductor pollicis brevis muscles before and after rTMS. The sensory discrimination was significantly increased only in the deltoid area and the difference in the latency of synchronized contraction of two muscles was significantly shortened after real-rTMS compared sham condition, which had tendency of negative correlation following real-rTMS condition. The results of this study demonstrated rTMS-induced enhancement of sensorimotor integration, which may contribute to develop effective therapeutic strategies for rehabilitation of various sensorimotor disorders in the clinical setting. PMID:26978587

  18. TMS-induced theta phase synchrony reveals a bottom-up network in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Eri; Kitajo, Keiichi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2016-05-27

    Global theta phase synchronization between the frontal and sensory areas has been suggested to connect the relevant areas for executive processes of working memory (WM). However, little is known regarding network directionality (i.e. top-down or bottom-up) of this interaction. To address the issue, the present study conducted transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-electroencephalography (EEG) experiment during WM tasks. Results showed that TMS-induced increases in theta phase synchronization were observed only when TMS was delivered to the sensory areas but not the frontal area. These findings suggest that network directionality represented in WM is bottom-up rather than top-down. PMID:27063284

  19. TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.

  20. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  1. Validation of the Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F)

    OpenAIRE

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The validity of the Treatment Motivation Scales for outpatient offender treatment (TMS-F), a self-report questionnaire with scales for the motivation of patients to engage in the treatment and six cognitive and emotional determinants of this motivation, is evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 620), the construct validity of the TMS-F is investigated applying a multitrait-multimethod design with a therapist-rating instrument as the criterion method. All scales were found to have adequate ...

  2. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica McClelland

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC.In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms.The primary outcome measure was 'core AN symptoms', a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood, temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed.Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056: after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060: real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour. Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well-tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention.This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy

  3. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Dew, Tracy; Van den Eynde, Frederique; David, Anthony S.; Rubia, Katya; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms. Outcomes The primary outcome measure was ‘core AN symptoms’, a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood), temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour) and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed. Results Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056): after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060): real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour). Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well–tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention. Conclusions This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate

  4. The progress in the application of rTMS for the treatment of schizo-phrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Handi Zhang; Haiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common severe mental disorder,the etiology and pathogenesis of which remains to be elu-cidated.Some schizophrenia patients respond poorly to the current pharmacological treatments.Repetitive transcranial mag-netic stimulation (rTMS)treatment is a simple,safe and non-intrusive physical therapy with little side-effects,which has been gradually applied as an adjunctive therapeutic technique for schizophrenia.Recent studies indicated that the rTMS treatment has efficacy on medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucination,negative symptoms and cognitive deficits.This article will briefly review the recent progress in rTMS treatment of schizophrenia,and summarize its potential therapeutic mechanisms. We suggest that rTMS may target damaged white matter and impaired neuroimmuomodulation.

  5. Active Head Motion Compensation of TMS Robotic System Using Neuro-Fuzzy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zakaria W.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS allows neuroscientist to study human brain behaviour and also become an important technique for changing the activity of brain neurons and the functions they sub serve. However, conventional manual procedure and robotized TMS are currently unable to precisely position the TMS coil because of unconstrained subject’s head movement and excessive contact force between the coil and subject’s head. This paper addressed this challenge by proposing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy force control to enable low contact force with a moving target surface. A learning and adaption mechanism is included in the control scheme to improve position disturbance estimation. The results show the ability of the proposed force control scheme to compensate subject’s head motions while maintaining desired contact force, thus allowing for more accurate and repeatable TMS procedures.

  6. The role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling gender-stereotypical associations: a TMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Platania, Elisa; Papagno, Costanza

    2011-06-01

    Stereotypes associated with gender, race, ethnicity and religion are powerful forces in human social interactions. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies point to a role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling stereotypical responses. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to highlight the possible causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) in controlling gender-stereotypical responses. Young male and female participants were tested. Our results showed that applying TMS over the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC increased the gender-stereotypical bias in male participants compared to when TMS was applied to a control site (vertex). This suggests that both the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC play a direct role in stereotyping. Females did not show a significant gender bias on the IAT; correspondingly their responses were unaffected by TMS. PMID:21338690

  7. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, an increasing number of studies used geometrically accurate head models and finite element (FEM) or finite difference methods (FDM) to estimate the electric field induced by non-invasive neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial weak current stimulation (tCS; e.g., Datta et al., 2010; Thielscher et al., 2011). A general outcome was that the field estimates based on these more realistic models differ substantially from the ...

  8. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  9. Expression of auxin synthesis gene tms1 under control of tuber-specific promoter enhances potato tuberization in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oksana O Kolachevskaya; Valeriya V Alekseeva; Lidiya I Sergeeva; Elena B Rukavtsova; Irina A Getman; Dick Vreugdenhil; Yaroslav I Buryanov; Georgy A Romanov

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones, auxins in particular, play an important role in plant development and productivity. Earlier data showed positive impact of exogenous auxin on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization. The aim of this study was to generate potato plants with increased auxin level predominantly in tubers. To this end, a pBinB33-tms1 vector was constructed harboring the Agrobacterium auxin biosynthesis gene tms1 fused to tuber-specific promoter of the class I patatin gene (B33-promoter) of potato. Among numerous independently generated B33:tms1 lines, those without visible differences from control were selected for detailed studies. In the majority of transgenic lines, tms1 gene transcription was detected, mostly in tubers rather than in shoots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) content in tubers and the auxin tuber-to-shoot ratio were increased in tms1-expressing transformants. The organ-specific increase in auxin synthesis in B33:tms1-transformants accelerated and intensified the process of tuber formation, reduced the dose of carbohydrate supply required for in vitro tuber-ization, and decreased the photoperiodic dependence of tuber initiation. Overall, a positive correlation was observed between tms1 expression, IAA content in tubers, and stimulation of tuber formation. The revealed proper-ties of B33:tms1 transformants imply an important role for auxin in potato tuberization and offer prospects to magnify potato productivity by a moderate organ-specific enhance-ment of auxin content.

  10. Predictors for rTMS response in chronic tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Lehner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been studied as a treatment option for chronic tinnitus for almost ten years now. Although most of these studies have demonstrated beneficial effects, treatment results show high interindividual variability and yet, little is known about predictors for treatment response. Methods: Data from 538 patients with chronic tinnitus were analysed. Patients received either low-frequency rTMS over the left temporal cortex (n= 345, 1 Hz, 110% motor threshold, 2000 stimuli/day or combined temporal and frontal stimulation (n = 193, 110% motor threshold, 2000 stimuli at 20 Hz, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plus 2000 stimuli at 1 Hz, temporal cortex. Numerous demographic, clinical and audiological variables as well as different tinnitus characteristics were analysed as potential predictors for treatment outcome, which was defined as change in the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ score. Results: Both stimulation protocols resulted in a significant improvement in TQ scores. In the group receiving combined treatment, patients with comorbid temporomandibular complaints benefited more from rTMS than patients without those complaints. In addition, for both stimulation protocols the TQ score at baseline as well as the change in TQ score from screening to baseline correlated significantly with treatment response. Patients with higher TQ scores at baseline had more pronounced TQ reductions than patients with low TQ baseline scores. Also, patients who had already improved from screening to baseline benefited less than patients without initial improvement. Conclusions: The results from this large sample confirm the effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus. Nonetheless, the high interindividual variability in treatment response can only be partly explained by the investigated clinical variables.

  11. In your eyes only: Deficits in executive functioning after frontal TMS reflect in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Henke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the roles of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal (rDLPFC, lDLPFC and the medial frontal cortex (MFC in executive functioning using a theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS approach. Healthy subjects solved two visual search tasks: a number search task with low cognitive demands, and a number and letter search task with high cognitive demands. To observe how subjects solved the tasks, we assessed their behavior with and without TMS using eye movements when subjects were confronted with specific executive demands. To observe executive functions, we were particularly interested in TMS-induced changes in visual exploration strategies found to be associated with good or bad performance in a control condition without TMS stimulation. TMS left processing time unchanged in both tasks. Inhibition of the rDLPFC resulted in a decrease in anticipatory fixations in the number search task, i.e. a decrease in a good strategy in this low demand task. This was paired with a decrease in stimulus fixations. Together, these results point to a role of the rDLPFC in planning and response selection. Inhibition of the lDLPFC and the MFC resulted in an increase in anticipatory fixations in the number and letter search task, i.e. an increase in the application of a good strategy in this task. We interpret these results as a compensatory strategy to account for TMS-induced deficits in attentional switching when faced with high switching demands. After inhibition of the lDLPFC, an increase in regressive fixations was found in the number and letter search task. In the context of high working memory demands, this strategy appears to support TMS-induced working memory deficits. Combining an experimental TMS approach with the recording of eye movements proved sensitive to discrete decrements of executive functions and allows pinpointing the functional organization of the frontal lobes.

  12. Effects of DBS, premotor rTMS, and levodopa on motor function and silent period in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Hidding, Ute; Hamel, Wolfgang;

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used and highly effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive TMS (rTMS) applied to motor cortical areas has also been shown to improve symptoms in PD and modulate motor cortical...... excitability. Here, we compared clinical and neurophysiological effects of STN stimulation with those of 1 Hz rTMS given to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and those following intake of levodopa in a group of PD patients with advanced disease. Ten PD patients were studied on 2 consecutive days before and...... after surgery. Clinical effects were determined using the UPDRS motor score. Motor thresholds, motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes during slight voluntary contraction, and the cortical silent periods (SP) were measured using TMS. Before surgery effects of levodopa and 1 Hz PMd rTMS and after surgery...

  13. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaniqueJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  14. On the Relationship Between TMS and Logic Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献昌; 赵沁平; 等

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between TMS and general logic programs is an important issue in non-monotonic logic programming.In this paper,we prove that,after we translate the TMS theory into a general logic program,the TMS's well-founded assignment (or extension) is equivalent to the corresponding general logic program's stable model.It means that TMS can be completely integrated into a non-monotonic logic programming environment.

  15. Bifocal Intracranial Germinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of Treatment Outcomes in 20 Patients and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bifocal germinoma (BFG) is a rare intracranial neoplasm for which the choice of radiation therapy (RT) field is controversial. Some believe that BFG represents disseminated disease requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI), whereas others believe that BFG represents localized disease and advocate for more limited fields. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 20 BFG patients at our institutions with classic bifocal lesions (pineal gland and suprasellar region). In addition, we identified 60 BFG patients from the literature. The RT fields, use of chemotherapy and extent of disease were recorded and analyzed for each patient. Results: There were 55 patients with bifocal lesions only (Group I), and 25 with bifocal lesions plus ventricular and/or CSF positive disease (Group II). The 5-year progression-free survival was 95% for Group I and 80% for Group II. In Group I, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), two spinal failures in those treated with more limited RT fields without chemotherapy (n = 17), and one spinal failure with chemotherapy (n = 23). In Group II, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), but four spinal failures were observed in patients receiving more limited RT fields with chemotherapy (n = 13); 1 patient who received whole-brain RT without chemotherapy experienced failure in the spine and brain. Conclusions: CSI is associated with excellent PFS in BFG. In Group I BFG patients, omission of spinal irradiation appears to be a reasonable approach, especially when chemotherapy is used. Patients with Group II BFG are best treated with CSI.

  16. Bifocal Intracranial Germinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of Treatment Outcomes in 20 Patients and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, David C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Shibamoto, Yuta [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Bifocal germinoma (BFG) is a rare intracranial neoplasm for which the choice of radiation therapy (RT) field is controversial. Some believe that BFG represents disseminated disease requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI), whereas others believe that BFG represents localized disease and advocate for more limited fields. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 20 BFG patients at our institutions with classic bifocal lesions (pineal gland and suprasellar region). In addition, we identified 60 BFG patients from the literature. The RT fields, use of chemotherapy and extent of disease were recorded and analyzed for each patient. Results: There were 55 patients with bifocal lesions only (Group I), and 25 with bifocal lesions plus ventricular and/or CSF positive disease (Group II). The 5-year progression-free survival was 95% for Group I and 80% for Group II. In Group I, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), two spinal failures in those treated with more limited RT fields without chemotherapy (n = 17), and one spinal failure with chemotherapy (n = 23). In Group II, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), but four spinal failures were observed in patients receiving more limited RT fields with chemotherapy (n = 13); 1 patient who received whole-brain RT without chemotherapy experienced failure in the spine and brain. Conclusions: CSI is associated with excellent PFS in BFG. In Group I BFG patients, omission of spinal irradiation appears to be a reasonable approach, especially when chemotherapy is used. Patients with Group II BFG are best treated with CSI.

  17. I-wave periodicity transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTMS) on corticospinal excitability. A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidgell, D J; Mason, J; Frazer, A; Pearce, A J

    2016-05-13

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an established technique that can modulate excitability of the motor cortex and corticospinal tract, beyond the duration of the stimulation itself. More recently, a newer repetitive technique, known as I-wave periodicity TMS (iTMS) has been purported to show increases in corticospinal excitability following at least 10min of iTMS duration. The aim of this study was to use a systematic review to search the literature from January 2000 to October 2015 with regard to corticospinal outcomes following iTMS intervention. We also rated the quality of studies and assessed the risk of bias by applying the Downs and Black checklist and the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool respectively. From an initial yield of 144, 11 studies were included. Studies were found to be of moderate quality, however a high risk of bias was identified. Despite these issues, evidence from the studies presented in this review so far indicates that iTMS is effective in increasing corticospinal excitability. However, further studies are required from other groups to validate the findings to date. Additional research is required to reduce the variability in corticospinal excitability and also to functional outcomes along with corticospinal excitability following iTMS. PMID:26917270

  18. Performance test of a TMS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described. Normal carbon steel has been used as absorber. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. (orig.)

  19. Brain SPECT guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment resistant major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shailesh; Chadda, Rakesh K; Kumar, Nand; Bal, C S

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a potential treatment in treatment resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is no consensus about the exact site of stimulation for rTMS. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers a potential technique in deciding the site of stimulation. The present study was conducted to assess the difference in outcome of brain SPECT assisted rTMS versus standard protocol of twenty sessions of high frequency rTMS as add on treatment in 20 patients with treatment resistant MDD, given over a period of 4 weeks. Thirteen subjects (group I) received high frequency rTMS over an area of hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex, as identified on SPECT, whereas 7 subjects (group II) were administered rTMS in the left dorsoslateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area. Improvement was monitored using standardized instruments. Patients in the group I showed a significantly better response compared to those in the group II. In group I, 46% of the subjects were responders on MADRS, 38% on BDI and 77% on CGI. The parallel figures of responders in Group II were 0% on MADRS, 14% on BDI and 43% on CGI. There were no remitters in the study. No significant untoward side effects were noticed. The study had limitations of a small sample size and non-controlled design, and all the subjects were also receiving the standard antidepressant therapy. Administration of rTMS over brain SPECT specified area of hypoperfusion may have a better clinical outcome compared to the standard protocol. PMID:27208445

  20. Computational and experimental analysis of TMS-induced electric field vectors critical to neuronal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Todd D.; Salinas, Felipe S.; Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Mogul, David J.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a powerful technique to noninvasively modulate cortical neurophysiology in the brain. However, the relationship between the magnetic fields created by TMS coils and neuronal activation in the cortex is still not well-understood, making predictable cortical activation by TMS difficult to achieve. Our goal in this study was to investigate the relationship between induced electric fields and cortical activation measured by blood flow response. Particularly, we sought to discover the E-field characteristics that lead to cortical activation. Approach. Subject-specific finite element models (FEMs) of the head and brain were constructed for each of six subjects using magnetic resonance image scans. Positron emission tomography (PET) measured each subject’s cortical response to image-guided robotically-positioned TMS to the primary motor cortex. FEM models that employed the given coil position, orientation, and stimulus intensity in experimental applications of TMS were used to calculate the electric field (E-field) vectors within a region of interest for each subject. TMS-induced E-fields were analyzed to better understand what vector components led to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses recorded by PET. Main results. This study found that decomposing the E-field into orthogonal vector components based on the cortical surface geometry (and hence, cortical neuron directions) led to significant differences between the regions of cortex that were active and nonactive. Specifically, active regions had significantly higher E-field components in the normal inward direction (i.e., parallel to pyramidal neurons in the dendrite-to-axon orientation) and in the tangential direction (i.e., parallel to interneurons) at high gradient. In contrast, nonactive regions had higher E-field vectors in the outward normal direction suggesting inhibitory responses. Significance. These results provide critical new

  1. Preparation of bifocal hepatic VX2 tumor model in experimental rabbits by using CT-guided trochar implantation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the feasibility of CT-guided tumor cell implantation through trochar to establish bifocal hepatic VX2 tumor model in experimental rabbits. Methods: Thirty health New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: percutaneous puncture group and laparotomy group. CT-guided tumor cell implantation through trochar was carried out for the rabbits in percutaneous puncture group, while conventional tumor cell implantation was performed for the rabbits in laparotomy group. Tumor cells were implanted into both right and left hepatic lobes to create bifocal hepatic VX2 tumor model in experimental rabbits. MRI was performed two weeks after the procedure. The unifocal and bifocal tumor formation rate, tumor satisfaction rate, tumor volume, operating time, death rate and abdominal implantation metastasis rate were observed, the results were compared between two groups. Results: The unifocal tumor formation rate for percutaneous puncture group and laparotomy group was 80.0% and 83.3% respectively (P>0.05). The bifocal tumor formation rate for percutaneous puncture group and laparotomy group was 73.3% and 75% respectively (P>0.05). The tumor satisfaction rate for percutaneous puncture group and laparotomy group was 80.0% and 33.3% respectively (P>0.05). The operation time was shorter in percutaneous puncture group than in laparotomy group [(14.6±7.3) min vs. (37.3±21.7) min, P3 and (1790±1080) mm3 respectively (P>0.05). No significant difference in death rate existed between two groups (0% vs. 20%, P>0.05). The abdominal implantation metastasis rate for percutaneous puncture group and laparotomy group was 20% and 0% respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion: In preparing bifocal hepatic VX2 tumor model in experimental rabbits, CT-guided tumor cell implantation through trochar can provide higher tumor formation rate as well as tumor satisfaction rate. This technique is time-saving and easily-manipulated. It can be used as an alternative for conventional

  2. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Opitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure–function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  3. The effect of expectation on facilitation of colour/form conjunction tasks by TMS over area V5.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, A.; Battelli, L.; Walsh, V; Cowey, A

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we reported task-specific impairments and improvements caused by applying TMS over cortical visual area V5 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265 (1998) 537]. The phenomenon is further investigated in the present study using two of the previous tasks: a motion/form conjunction in which TMS impaired performance and a colour/form conjunction in which performance was enhanced with TMS. In the earlier experiment, subjects were presented with blocks of trials of one...

  4. Masking the Auditory Evoked Potential in TMS-EEG: A Comparison of Various Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Braack, Esther M; de Vos, Cecile C; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG). Because TMS pulses are accompanied by a clicking sound, it is very likely that part of the response in the EEG consists of an auditory evoked potential (AEP). Different methods have been applied to mask the sound of TMS. However, it is unclear which masking method is most effective in reducing the AEP. In this study we explore the presumed contribution of the AEP to the response and evaluate different ways to mask the TMS clicking sound. Twelve healthy subjects and one completely deaf subject participated in this study. Eight different masking conditions were evaluated in nine hearing subjects. The amplitude of the N100-P180 complex was compared between the different masking conditions. We were not able to completely suppress the N100-P180 when the coil was placed on top of the head. Using an earmuff or exposing the subjects to white or adapted noise caused a small but significant reduction in N100-P180 amplitude, but the largest reduction was achieved when combining a layer of foam, placed between coil and head, with white or adapted noise. The deaf subject also showed a N100-P180 complex. We conclude that both the TMS clicking sound and cortical activation by the magnetic pulse contribute to the N100-P180 amplitude. PMID:23996091

  5. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center complete installation of the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand. The new TMS is a state-of-the-art upgrade from the previous system, which was installed when the testing structure was built in the 1960s. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds. It also will allow engineers to measure thrust as they gimbal (or tilt) engines during tests. The new TMS is part of upgrades for the A-1 Test Stand in preparation for testing the next generation of American space program rocket engines.

  6. Pressure effects on the resistivity of TmS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapierre, F.; Haen, P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures); Coqblin, B.; Ribault, M. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides); Holtzberg, F. (IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (USA))

    Quasi hydrostatic pressure measurements of the resistivity of a single crystal of TmS are reported. The resistivity rho is reduced by pressure P over the full range studied (up to 28 kbar and down to liquid He). It goes through a maximum near 10 K and decreases logarithmically for higher temperatures. Both this behavior and the reduction of the InT slope by P can be explained in a model of resonant scattering as previously done for Ce compounds. The Neel temperature Tsub(N), marked by a small anomaly in rho, increases with P in accordance with previous susceptibility results.

  7. Pressure effects on the resistivity of TmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi hydrostatic pressure measurements of the resistivity of a single crystal of TmS are reported. The resistivity rho is reduced by pressure P over the full range studied (up to 28 kbar and down to liquid He). It goes through a maximum near 10 K and decreases logarithmically for higher temperatures. Both this behavior and the reduction of the InT slope by P can be explained in a model of resonant scattering as previously done for Ce compounds. The Neel temperature Tsub(N), marked by a small anomaly in rho, increases with P in accordance with previous susceptibility results. (orig.)

  8. The timing and neuroanatomy of conscious vision as revealed by TMS-induced blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher P G; Sumner, Petroc; Chambers, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Following damage to the primary visual cortex, some patients exhibit "blindsight," where they report a loss of awareness while retaining the ability to discriminate visual stimuli above chance. Transient disruption of occipital regions with TMS can produce a similar dissociation, known as TMS-induced blindsight. The neural basis of this residual vision is controversial, with some studies attributing it to the retinotectal pathway via the superior colliculus whereas others implicate spared projections that originate predominantly from the LGN. Here we contrasted these accounts by combining TMS with visual stimuli that either activate or bypass the retinotectal and magnocellular (R/M) pathways. We found that the residual capacity of TMS-induced blindsight occurs for stimuli that bypass the R/M pathways, indicating that such pathways, which include those to the superior colliculus, are not critical. We also found that the modulation of conscious vision was time and pathway dependent. TMS applied either early (0-40 msec) or late (280-320 msec) after stimulus onset modulated detection of stimuli that did not bypass R/M pathways, whereas during an intermediate period (90-130 msec) the effect was pathway independent. Our findings thus suggest a prominent role for the R/M pathways in supporting both the preparatory and later stages of conscious vision. This may help resolve apparent conflict in previous literature by demonstrating that the roles of the retinotectal and geniculate pathways are likely to be more nuanced than simply corresponding to the unconscious/conscious dichotomy. PMID:24392895

  9. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination. PMID:27155161

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): compared sensitivity of different motor response parameters in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, J; Trefouret, S; Attarian, S

    2000-06-01

    Owing to the low sensitivity of clinical signs in assessing upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement in ALS, there is a need for investigative tools capable of detecting abnormal function of the pyramidal tract. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may contribute to the diagnosis by reflecting a UMN dysfunction that is not clinically detectable. Several parameters for the motor responses to TMS can be evaluated with different levels of significance in healthy subjects compared with ALS patients. The central motor conduction time, however, is not sensitive in detecting subclinical UMN defects in individual ALS patients. The amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP), expressed as the percentage of the maximum wave, also has a low sensitivity. In some cases, the corticomotor threshold is decreased early in the disease course as a result of corticomotor neuron hyperexcitability induced by glutamate. Later, the threshold increases, indicating a loss of UMN. In our experience, a decreased silent period duration appears to be the most sensitive parameter when using motor TMS in ALS. TMS is also a sensitive technique for investigating the corticobulbar tract, which is difficult to study by other methods. TMS is a widely available, painless and safe technique with a good sensitivity that can visualize both corticospinal and corticobulbar tract abnormalities. The sensitivity can be improved further by taking into account the several MEP parameters, including latency and cortical silent period decreased duration. PMID:11464941

  11. Motor cortex rTMS improves dexterity in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzamarany, Eman; Afifi, Lamia; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Salah, Husam; Nada, Mona

    2016-06-01

    The motor cortex (MC) receives an excitatory input from the cerebellum which is reduced in patients with cerebellar lesions. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces cortical facilitation which can counteract the reduced cerebellar drive to the MC. Our study included 24 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients with dysmetria. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received two sessions of real MC rTMS and Group B received one session of real rTMS and one session of sham rTMS. Ten healthy volunteers formed group C. Evaluation was carried out using the nine-hole pegboard task and the cerebellar functional system score (FSS) of the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Group A patients showed a significant improvement in the time required to finish the pegboard task (P = 0.002) and in their cerebellar FSS (P = 0.000) directly after the second session and 1 month later. The RRMS patients showed more improvement than the SPMS patients. Group B patients did not show any improvement in the pegboard task or the cerebellar FSS. These results indicate that MC rTMS can be a promising option in treating both RRMS or SPMS patients with cerebellar impairment and that its effect can be long-lasting. PMID:26358951

  12. Trend Monitoring System (TMS) graphics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications systems, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to evaluate the bus concept is considered. A set of FORTRAN-callable graphics subroutines for the host MODCOMP comuter, and an approach to splitting graphics work between the host and the system's intelligent graphics terminals are described. The graphics software in the MODCOMP and the operating software package written for the graphics terminals are included.

  13. TMS communications hardware. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Weinrich, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototpye coaxial cable bus communications system was designed to be used in the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) to connect intelligent graphics terminals (based around a Data General NOVA/3 computer) to a MODCOMP IV host minicomputer. The direct memory access (DMA) interfaces which were utilized for each of these computers are identified. It is shown that for the MODCOMP, an off-the-shell board was suitable, while for the NOVAs, custon interface circuitry was designed and implemented.

  14. Performance test of a TMS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.)

  15. Subthreshold rTMS over pre-motor cortex has no effect on tics in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, M.; Kirby, R.; Richardson, M.P.; Snijders, A.H.; Rothwell, J.C.; Trimble, M.R.; Robertson, M.M.; Munchau, A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A previous study showed no effect of 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS). We modified the rTMS protocol in order to investigate some of the possible methodological reasons for the negative outcome in that study. METHODS:

  16. DOE-TMS-11477-Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, David

    2015-02-05

    The Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This annual symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 100 high-level technical talks were delivered over the course of the four day event. In addition, the large number of students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. The science surrounding the utilization of neutrons and x-rays to study advanced materials is becoming increasingly important in increasing the understanding of how the exceptional materials properties of such materials arise. In particular, x-rays and neutrons can be used to visualize material structures at an extremely high resolution and in some cases, three dimensions—allowing unprecedented insights into the mechanisms governing certain materials properties such as strength and toughness. Moreover, some of these techniques allow materials to be visualized without damaging the material, approaches known as non-destructive evaluation or “NDE”. This allows materials to be studied in 3 dimensions while undergoing change in real time which represents an important (and long sought-after) advancement in materials science. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators and students with technical interests in this field provides promise that the United

  17. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Daedalus TMS Imagery Digital Counts in BIL Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The level-0 Daedalus Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information about radiant energy over the primary BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Two flights of the Daedalus TMS instrument were made onboard the ER-2 aircraft on 16-Sep-1994 and 17-Sep-1994.

  18. Modulation of sensory inhibition of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS prior to movement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Gollhofer, Albert; Taube, Wolfgang

    Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) refers to a decrement of the size of a motor evoked potential (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after electrical stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve (PNS) (Tokimura et al. 2000). Since SAI occurs when TMS is applied at the time of the...... ± 9 %) in FDI (the muscle involved in the motor task) compared to MEPs at rest (p < 0.01). There was no change of the MEPs in APB. There were also no changes in either the FDI or APB MEPs for the other tested ISIs prior to movement compared to rest. The main finding of this study was that the MEP...... susceptibility of corticospinal cells to TMS, which starts approximately 100 ms prior to the onset of movement (Chen et al. 1998). Thus, it is hypothesized that the modulation of the MEP prior to movement is linked to the afferent volley arriving at the sensorimotor cortex. It might be speculated that the MEP...

  19. rTMS for PTSD: induced merciful oblivion or elimination of abnormal hypermnesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Simone; Cappa, Stefano F; Ulivelli, Monica; De Capua, Alberto; Bartalini, Sabina; Rossini, Paolo M

    2006-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies and experimental data suggest that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with dysfunctions of neural circuits linking prefrontal cortex and the limbic system that have a role in autobiographic episodic memory. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been suggested to be beneficial to patients with PTSD, transiently alleviating re-experiencing as well as avoidance reactions and associated anxiety symptoms. In healthy humans, converging evidence suggests that rTMS of the right DLPFC interferes with episodic memory retrieval. Hence, we hypothesize that daily applications of rTMS in PTSD patients may reduce access to the set of autobiographical stored events, that, if re-experienced, may cause the overt PTSD symptoms. PMID:17148840

  20. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal tract by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Schubert, Martin;

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is extensively used to study cognitive and motor function in humans and might be of value in the treatment of various disorders. For a better understanding of the effects of rTMS and its more efficient application it is crucial to identify...... is the synapses of the corticomotoneuronal neurones on the spinal motoneurones. Perez et al. (2005). Exp Brain Res 162, 202-212. Speer et al. (2003). Biol Psychiatry 54, 818-825....

  1. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  2. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal pathway by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) may produce depression of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). This depression is commonly assumed to reflect changes in cortical circuits. However, little is known about rTMS-induced effects on subcortical circuits. Therefore, the present...... study aimed to clarify whether rTMS influences corticospinal transmission by altering the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal (CM) synapses. The corticospinal transmission to soleus α-motoneurons was evaluated through conditioning of the soleus H-reflex by magnetic stimulation of either M1 (M1......-conditioning) or the cervicomedullary junction (CMS-conditioning). The first facilitation of the H-reflex (early facilitation) was determined after M1- and CMS-conditioning. Comparison of the early facilitation before and after 20-min low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS revealed suppression with M1- (-17 ± 4%; P = 0...

  3. Minimum number of trials required for within- and between-session reliability of TMS measures of corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, M R; Hordacre, B; Ridding, M C

    2016-04-21

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) exhibit considerable trial-to-trial variability, potentially reducing the sensitivity and reproducibility of this measure. While increasing the number of trials will improve accuracy, prolonged recording blocks are not always feasible. In this study, we investigated the minimum number of trials required to provide a measure of human corticospinal excitability that is stable both within and between sessions. Single-pulse TMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex, and MEPs were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Approximately 20-30 trials were required to provide a stable measure of MEP amplitude with high within- and between-session reliability. Extending the number of trials beyond 30 provided no additional benefit. Collecting 30 trials may be optimal for reliably estimating corticospinal excitability using TMS. These findings may have significant implications for using TMS to measure corticospinal excitability in both basic and clinical research settings. PMID:26872998

  4. BOREAS Level-0 NS001 TMS Imagery: Digital Counts in BIL Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS imagery, along with the other remotely sensed images, was collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Data collections occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns.

  5. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL, lateral IPS (LIPS, and middle occipital gyrus (MoG, showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL, Superior occipital gyrus (SoG, and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+, showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, but that of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction.

  6. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants...

  7. Triple-site rTMS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Greenlee, Mark W; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that tinnitus is related to alterations of neural networks including temporal, parietal, and prefrontal brain regions. The current study examines a rTMS protocol which targets three central nodes of these networks in a two-arm randomized parallel group trial. Overall, 49 patients with chronic tinnitus were randomized to receive either triple-site stimulation (left dorsolateral prefrontal stimulation, 1000 pulses, 20 Hz plus left and right temporoparietal stimulation, 1000 pulses each, 1 Hz) or single-site stimulation (left temporoparietal stimulation, 3000 pulses, 1 Hz). Both groups were treated in ten sessions. Tinnitus severity as measured by the tinnitus questionnaire was assessed before rTMS (day1), after rTMS (day12) and at two follow-up visits (day 90 and day 180). The triple-site protocol was well tolerated. There was a significant reduction in tinnitus severity for both treatment groups. The triple-site group tended to show a more pronounced treatment effect at day 90. However, the measurement time point x group interaction effect was not significant. The current results confirm former studies that indicated a significant reduction of tinnitus severity after rTMS treatment. No significant superiority of the multisite protocol was observed. Future approaches for the enhancement of treatment effects are discussed. PMID:26927363

  8. Numerical analysis and design of single-source multicoil TMS for deep and focused brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis; Cajko, Frantishek; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Grbic, Anthony; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool for noninvasive stimulation of neuronal tissue used for research in cognitive neuroscience and to treat neurological disorders. Many TMS applications call for large electric fields to be sharply focused on regions that often lie deep inside the brain. Unfortunately, the fields generated by present-day TMS coils diffuse and decay rapidly as they penetrate into the head. As a result, they tend to stimulate relatively large regions of tissue near the brain surface. Earlier studies suggested that a focused TMS excitation can be attained using multiple nonuniformly fed coils in a multichannel array. We propose a systematic, genetic algorithm-based technique for synthesizing multichannel arrays that minimize the volume of the excited region required to achieve a prescribed penetration depth and maintain realistic values for the input driving currents. Because multichannel arrays are costly to build, we also propose a method to convert the multichannel arrays into single-channel ones while minimally materially deteriorating performance. Numerical results show that the new multi- and single-channel arrays stimulate tissue 2.4 cm into the head while exciting 3.0 and 2.6 times less volume than conventional Figure-8 coils, respectively. PMID:23708768

  9. TMS delivered for A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A state-of-the-art thrust measurement system for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was delivered March 17. Once completed, the A-3 stand (seen in background) will allow simulated high-altitude testing on the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program. Work on the stand began in 2007, with activation scheduled for 2012. The stand is the first major test structure to be built at Stennis since the 1960s. The recently delivered TMS was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with an accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds.

  10. Acute rCBF changes in depressed patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Electroconvulsant therapy (ECT) is very effective in treatment resistant severe depression with response rates of 70-90%. However, ECT has major limitations including the need for anaesthesia, memory difficulties and public apprehension about its use. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used as a diagnostic technique in neurology with recent reports of potential benefit in depressed patients. In this study, 5 patients (3 females, 2 males aged 36-66 years, mean 48.6 years) with major depression underwent SPET brain scanning using a Picker 3000 triple-headed camera. Each patient had a baseline rCBF scan with 500 MBq of 99TcmHMPAO injected intravenously during sham rTMS. On the following day, each patient received another 500 MBq of 99TcmHMPAo during rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using a Magstim Super Rapid magnetic stimulator with a 70-mm figure eight coil. The stimulator parameters were 15 Hz, 90% of resting motor threshold, 1 s on 3 s off for 30 trains prior to injection and 15-30 trains following injection. Each patient continued to receive their usual medication during this period. The reconstructed SPET data sets were normalized to the global mean, registered to the Talairach template and analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Compared with the baseline group, the rTMS group showed a significant perfusion increase in the pre-frontal cortices, especially on the left, and also in the anterior left temporal lobe (P < 0.05). Frontal lobe perfusion reduction is a common finding in depression. This study demonstrates the ability of rTMS to acutely increase frontal lobe perfusion, and therefore a possible mechanism for its therapeutic use as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy or as an alternative to ECT in depression

  11. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson’s disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson’s disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson’s disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson’s disease.

  12. Event-related rTMS at encoding affects differently deep and shallow memory traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Iglis; Giovannelli, Fabio; Cincotta, Massimo; Feurra, Matteo; Polizzotto, Nicola R; Bianco, Giovanni; Cappa, Stefano F; Rossi, Simone

    2010-10-15

    The "level of processing" effect is a classical finding of the experimental psychology of memory. Actually, the depth of information processing at encoding predicts the accuracy of the subsequent episodic memory performance. When the incoming stimuli are analyzed in terms of their meaning (semantic, or deep, encoding), the memory performance is superior with respect to the case in which the same stimuli are analyzed in terms of their perceptual features (shallow encoding). As suggested by previous neuroimaging studies and by some preliminary findings with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the left prefrontal cortex may play a role in semantic processing requiring the allocation of working memory resources. However, it still remains unclear whether deep and shallow encoding share or not the same cortical networks, as well as how these networks contribute to the "level of processing" effect. To investigate the brain areas casually involved in this phenomenon, we applied event-related repetitive TMS (rTMS) during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding of words. Retrieval was subsequently tested without rTMS interference. RTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) abolished the beneficial effect of deep encoding on memory performance, both in terms of accuracy (decrease) and reaction times (increase). Neither accuracy nor reaction times were instead affected by rTMS to the right DLPFC or to an additional control site excluded by the memory process (vertex). The fact that online measures of semantic processing at encoding were unaffected suggests that the detrimental effect on memory performance for semantically encoded items took place in the subsequent consolidation phase. These results highlight the specific causal role of the left DLPFC among the wide left-lateralized cortical network engaged by long-term memory, suggesting that it probably represents a crucial node responsible for the improved memory performance induced by

  13. Double-Cone Coil TMS Stimulation of the Medial Cortex Inhibits Central Pain Habituation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico D'Agata

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS applied over the medial line of the scalp affects the subjective perception of continuous pain induced by means of electric stimulation. In addition, we wanted to identify the point of stimulation where this effect was maximum.Superficial electrical stimulation was used to induce continuous pain on the dominant hand. At the beginning of the experiment we reached a pain rating of 5 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain and 10 = maximum tolerable pain for each subject by setting individually the current intensity. The TMS (five pulses at increasing intensities was applied on 5 equidistant points (one per session over the medial line of the scalp in 13 healthy volunteers using a double-cone coil to stimulate underlying parts of the brain cortex. In every experimental session the painful stimulation lasted 45 minutes, during which pain and distress intensities NRS were recorded continuously. We calculated the effect of adaptation and the immediate effect of the TMS stimulation for all locations. Additionally, an ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis was performed to compare our results with the neuroimaging literature on subjective pain rating.TMS stimulation temporarily decreased the pain ratings, and pain adaptation was suppressed when applying the TMS over the FCz site on the scalp. No effect was found for distress ratings.The present data suggest that the medial cortex in proximity of the cingulated gyrus has a causal role in adaptation mechanisms and in processing ongoing pain and subjective sensation of pain intensity.

  14. Implementasi Modem Akustik OFDM pada TMS320C6416

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandhika Adhi Widhyatmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Desain sistem komunikasi digital menggunakan sinyal akustik untuk aplikasi bawah air adalah bidang yang sangat menantang karena sifat yang sangat kompleks dari saluran bawah air. Teknologi yang dikenal dengan sebutan underwater acoustic merupakan jawaban atas tantangan terhadap keterbatasan kemampuan pengiriman sinyal informasi pada media air. Hal ini disebabkan karena gelombang elektromagnetik dan radio tidak dapat mencapai jarak yang jauh pada medium air karena akan menghasilkan redaman yang sangat besar, sementara sinyal akustik dapat mencapai jarak yang jauh walaupun dengan kecepatan dan bandwidth yang terbatas. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk merancang sistem tersebut, yang secara efektif dapat menahan efek samping saluran namun tetap memberikan laju data yang memadai. Untuk tujuan ini, sebuah studi mendalam tentang saluran komunikasi bawah air dilakukan dandianalisis. Seiring dengan kemajuan yang signifikan telah dibuat penggunaan modulasi multicarrier dalam bentuk ortogonal frekuensi division multiplexing (OFDM dengan data rate tinggi untuk komunikasi akustik bawah air. Dalam tugas akhir ini, implementasi modem akustik OFDM pada sistem single-input single-output menggunakan modul fixed-point DSP TMS320C6416 di mana inti DSP berjalan pada 1 GHz. Terdapat terdapat tiga kategori untuk mengetahui karakteristik modem akustik OFDM yang ditampilkan dalam grafik Bit Error Rate (BER terhadap Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. Pengujian dilakukan dengan mengirimkan citra 40x64 8bit. Kinerja terbaik terdapat pada implementasi sistem mfile dengan nilai BER mencapai 0,0067 pada 32 subcarrier. Sedangkan kinerja terburuk terdapat pada implementasi sistem pada TMS320C6416 dan sistem simulink rata-rata nilai BER 0,5 dikarenakan kondisi sample rate antar perangkat yang tidak sinkron.

  15. A comparison of the usefulness of canonical analysis, principal components analysis, and band selection for extraction of features from TMS data for landcover analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R. K.; Brumfield, J. O.; Campbell, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Three feature extraction methods, canonical analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and band selection, have been applied to Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data in order to evaluate the relative performance of the methods. The results obtained show that CA is capable of providing a transformation of TMS data which leads to better classification results than provided by all seven bands, by PCA, or by band selection. A second conclusion drawn from the study is that TMS bands 2, 3, 4, and 7 (thermal) are most important for landcover classification.

  16. DSP hardware design by TMS320C24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with DSP hardware design by TMS320C24XX, which includes Instruction of TMS320C24XX with TMS320x240x A and package, part number and reliability data, power management for TMS320C24XX about low drop regulator, switching regulator and charge pump, PLL circuit, reset, outer interrupt and pins of TP1, TP2, VCCP, BOOT EN/XF and BIO/IOPCI, Memory such as 24XX memory map and understanding timing about wait state, writing and reading, ADC input design with explanation of pin and structure of 240 x A and Event manager design with comprehension of PWM, capture and QEP.

  17. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed land cover classifications were performed on the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and MSS data of the Clinton River Basin (acquired on August 19, 1981, and June 28, 1980, respectively) using supervised classification techniques. Differences in interclass separability were compared to select several promising TMS band combinations, selected from the 27 covering the Clinton River Basin. The TMS data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for this study site. While the accuracy of the 4-band TM data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. These results indicate that both the increased spectral discrimination and spatial resolution contribute to improved classification accuracy. The possibility of reducing the data analysis burden associated with large TM data volumes through effective band selection therefore appears promising. The implications of the improved classification accuracy of TMS data are important for hydrologic and economic modeling. In particular, the higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

  18. Cálculo gráfico del centro óptico de la visión de cerca en una bifocal

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Doménech Amigot, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Web con aplicación Java para el cálculo gráfico de la posición (en cm) del centro óptico de visión de cerca en una bifocal a partir de la posición del centro geométrico de la pastilla adicional (en cm), las potencias de los meridianos principales y la adición (en D).

  19. Comparison of visual outcomes and subjective visual quality after bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens and blended implantation of apodized diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell Gunnar; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the visual acuity (VA) and quality of vision between bilateral implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and blended bifocal IOLs with an intermediate add in the dominant eye and a near add in the nondominant eye. Patients and methods Patients with either trifocal or blended bifocal IOLs implanted were recruited after surgery. Subjects returned for a single diagnostic visit between 3 and 24 months after surgery. VA was tested at various distances, including low-contrast acuity and acuity at their preferred reading distance. A binocular defocus curve was obtained, and subjective visual function and quality of vision were evaluated. Results Twenty-five trifocal subjects and 30 blended bifocal subjects were enrolled. There were no significant differences in low-contrast acuity, preferred reading distance, or acuity at that reading distance. Binocular vision at 4 m, 60 cm, and 40 cm was not statistically significantly different. The trifocal provided statistically significantly better visual acuity (Pdashboard or grocery shelf. VA was similar between groups at viewing distances from 60 to 40 cm, corresponding to computer or reading distance. PMID:27274184

  20. Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage using thematic mapper simulator (TMS) and airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    An interpretation of TMS and AIS data sets collected from Lost River, West Virginia, are presented, along with a brief review of the supervised vegetation classification approach to vegetation mapping used at Lost River. A preliminary study of AIS data suggests that contiguous high-spectral resolution data from a very limited portion of the spectrum (1.2-1.5 micron) provide a greater discriminatory capability than do broad-band sensors such as the TMS covering of wider spectral range (0.45-2.35 microns).

  1. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, Jessica Kate; Kekic, Maria; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Dew, Tracy; Van Den Eynde, Frederique Frans; David, Anthony Sion; Rubia, Katya; Campbell, Iain Cameron; Schmidt, Ulrike Hermine

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAnorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).MethodsIn this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was a...

  2. Non-invasive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS of the Motor Cortex for Neuropathic Pain—At the Tipping Point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi Treister

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “neuropathic pain” (NP refers to chronic pain caused by illnesses or injuries that damage peripheral or central pain-sensing neural pathways to cause them to fire inappropriately and signal pain without cause. Neuropathic pain is common, complicating diabetes, shingles, HIV, and cancer. Medications are often ineffective or cause various adverse effects, so better approaches are needed. Half a century ago, electrical stimulation of specific brain regions (neuromodulation was demonstrated to relieve refractory NP without distant effects, but the need for surgical electrode implantation limited use of deep brain stimulation. Next, electrodes applied to the dura outside the brain’s surface to stimulate the motor cortex were shown to relieve NP less invasively. Now, electromagnetic induction permits cortical neurons to be stimulated entirely non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repeated sessions of many TMS pulses (rTMS can trigger neuronal plasticity to produce long-lasting therapeutic benefit. Repeated TMS already has US and European regulatory approval for treating refractory depression, and multiple small studies report efficacy for neuropathic pain. Recent improvements include “frameless stereotactic” neuronavigation systems, in which patients’ head MRIs allow TMS to be applied to precise underlying cortical targets, minimizing variability between sessions and patients, which may enhance efficacy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation appears poised for the larger trials necessary for regulatory approval of a NP indication. Since few clinicians are familiar with TMS, we review its theoretical basis and historical development, summarize the neuropathic pain trial results, and identify issues to resolve before large-scale clinical trials.

  3. Heart Rate Variability and Skin Conductance During Repetitive TMS Course in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Hensley, Marie K; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder marked by difficulty in social interactions and communication. ASD also often present symptoms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning abnormalities. In individuals with autism the sympathetic branch of the ANS presents an over-activation on a background of the parasympathetic activity deficits, creating an autonomic imbalance, evidenced by a faster heart rate with little variation and increased tonic electrodermal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of 12 sessions of 0.5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on autonomic activity in children with ASD. Electrocardiogram and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded and analyzed during each session of rTMS. The measures of interest were time domain (i.e., R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, NN50-cardio-intervals >50 ms different from preceding interval) and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices [i.e., power of high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio]. Based on our prior pilot studies it was proposed that the course of 12 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS bilaterally applied to the DLPFC will improve autonomic balance probably through improved frontal inhibition of the ANS activity, and will be manifested in an increased length of cardiointervals and their variability, and in higher frequency-domain HRV in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power, resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and in decreased SCL. Our post-12 TMS results showed significant increases in cardiac intervals variability measures and decrease of tonic SCL indicative of increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. Behavioral evaluations showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings that correlated with several autonomic variables. PMID

  4. Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Duecker

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is widely used in experimental brain research to manipulate brain activity in humans. Next to the intended neural effects, every TMS pulse produces a distinct clicking sound and sensation on the head which can also influence task performance. This necessitates careful consideration of control conditions in order to ensure that behavioral effects of interest can be attributed to the neural consequences of TMS and not to non-neural effects of a TMS pulse. Surprisingly, even though these non-neural effects of TMS are largely unknown, they are often assumed to be unspecific, i.e. not dependent on TMS parameters. This assumption is inherent to many control strategies in TMS research but has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. Here, we further develop the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research. We investigated the time-dependence and task-dependence of the non-neural effects of TMS and compared real and sham TMS over vertex. Critically, we show that non-neural TMS effects depend on a complex interplay of these factors. Although TMS had no direct neural effects, both pre- and post-stimulus TMS time windows modulated task performance on both a sensory detection task and a cognitive angle judgment task. For the most part, these effects were quantitatively similar across tasks but effect sizes were clearly different. Moreover, the effects of real and sham TMS were almost identical with interesting exceptions that shed light on the relative contribution of auditory and somato-sensory aspects of a TMS pulse. Knowledge of such effects is of critical importance for the interpretation of TMS experiments and helps deciding what constitutes an appropriate control condition. Our results broaden the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research and point at potential pitfalls that should be avoided.

  5. Bilateral theta-burst TMS to influence global gestalt perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ritzinger

    Full Text Available While early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway in the inferotemporal cortex are critical for the recognition of individual objects, the neural representation of human perception of complex global visual scenes remains under debate. Stroke patients with a selective deficit in the perception of a complex global Gestalt with intact recognition of individual objects - a deficit termed simultanagnosia - greatly helped to study this question. Interestingly, simultanagnosia typically results from bilateral lesions of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ. The present study aimed to verify the relevance of this area for human global Gestalt perception. We applied continuous theta-burst TMS either unilaterally (left or right or bilateral simultaneously over TPJ. Healthy subjects were presented with hierarchically organized visual stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. Identification of the global Gestalt was significantly modulated only for the bilateral TPJ stimulation condition. Our results strengthen the view that global Gestalt perception in the human brain involves TPJ and is co-dependent on both hemispheres.

  6. Cortical modulation of short-latency TMS-evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica eVeniero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation - electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG co-registration offers the opportunity to test reactivity of brain areas across distinct conditions through TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. Several TEPs have been described, their functional meaning being largely unknown. In particular, short-latency potentials peaking at 5 (P5 and 8 (N8 ms after the TMS pulse have been recently described, but because of their huge amplitude, the problem of whether their origin is cortical or not has been opened. To gain information about these components, we employed a protocol that modulates primary motor cortex excitability (MI through an exclusively cortical phenomena: low frequency stimulation of premotor area (PMC. TMS was applied simultaneously with EEG recording from 70 electrodes. Amplitude of TEPs evoked by 200 single-pulses TMS delivered over MI at 110% of resting motor threshold was measured before and after applying 900 TMS conditioning stimuli to left premotor cortex with 1 Hz repetition rate. Single subject analyses showed reduction in TEPs amplitude after PMC conditioning in a sample of participants and increase in TEPs amplitude in two subjects. No effects were found on corticospinal excitability as recorded by motor evoked potentials (MEPs. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed an inverse relation between the effects of the conditioning protocol on P5-N8 complex amplitude and MEPs amplitude. Because the effects of the used protocol have been ascribed to a cortical interaction between premotor area and MI, we suggest that despite the sign of P5-N8 amplitude modulation is not consistent across participant, this modulation could indicate, at least in part, their cortical origin. We conclude that with an accurate experimental procedure early-latency components can be used to evaluate the reactivity of the stimulated cortex.

  7. Changes in cerebral activations during movement execution and imagery after parietal cortex TMS interleaved with 3T MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Walker, John A.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2009-01-01

    The left parietal cortex contributes to goal-directed hand movement. In this study, we targeted this region with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess the effects on a wider distributed circuitry related to motor control. Ten healthy subjects underwent 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonan

  8. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach... company controlled by Sherman, Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right...

  9. 23 CFR 500.204 - TMS components for highway traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS components for highway traffic data. 500.204 Section... INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.204 TMS components for highway traffic data. (a) General. Each State's TMS, including those using alternative...

  10. Paired pulse TMS stimulation and human tongue corticomotor pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk;

    .6±0.8 years). ppTMS was applied to the “hot-spot” of the tongue motor cortex and motor evoked potential (MEPs) were recorded from the tongue muscles with surface EMG electrodes. TS intensity was set at 120% of resting motor threshold (rMT). Single pulse and six different ISIs for ppTMS: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 10, 15......Objectives: Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) can be used to assess short-term interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI) and facilitatory (ICF) networks. The degree of SICI and ICF varies with interstimulus intervals (ISI) and stimulus intensities of the conditioning stimulus...... intensities (P = 0.984). Post-hoc tests revealed that there was significant SICI with ppTMS ISI of 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5 ms compared with single pulse stimulation (P<0.003). There was no significant ICF with ISI of 10 or 15 ms compared with single pulse stimulation (P=0.988). There was no interaction between...

  11. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  12. 23 CFR 500.203 - TMS general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inspection and copying as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D. (c) The TMS shall cover all public roads.... Available for inspection as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D. 5 Traffic Monitoring Guide, DOT/FHWA, publication No. FHWA-PL-95-031, February 1995. Available for inspection and copying as prescribed in 49...

  13. Investigating Occipito-Temporal Contributions to Reading with TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    The debate regarding the role of ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC) in visual word recognition arises, in part, from difficulty delineating the functional contributions of vOTC as separate from other areas of the reading network. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using TMS to interfere with vOTC processing in order to explore its…

  14. Structural brain changes following left temporal low-frequency rTMS in patients with subjective tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Astrid; Langguth, Berthold; Poeppl, Timm B; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran; Landgrebe, Michael; Schecklmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been used to treat patients with subjective tinnitus. While rTMS is known to induce morphological changes in healthy subjects, no study has investigated yet whether rTMS treatment induces grey matter (GM) changes in tinnitus patients as well, whether these changes are correlated with treatment success, and whether GM at baseline is a useful predictor for treatment outcome. Therefore, we examined magnetic resonance images of 77 tinnitus patients who were treated with rTMS of the left temporal cortex (10 days, 2000 stimuli/day, 1 Hz). At baseline and after the last treatment session high-resolution structural images of the brain were acquired and tinnitus severity was assessed. For a subgroup of 41 patients, additional brain scans were done after a follow-up period of 90 days. GM changes were analysed by means of voxel based morphometry. Transient GM decreases were detectable in several brain regions, especially in the insula and the inferior frontal cortex. These changes were not related to treatment outcome though. Baseline images correlated with change in tinnitus severity in the frontal cortex and the lingual gyrus, suggesting that GM at baseline might hold potential as a possible predictor for treatment outcome. PMID:24991438

  15. Effects of Weekly Low-Frequency rTMS on Autonomic Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Casanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. ASD may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (EKG and electrodermal activity pre-, post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R, time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV and skin conductance level (SCL. HRV measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals>50 ms different from preceding interval, power of high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate, increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of low frequency rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal.

  16. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  17. 78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast... Trails, Inc. (Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC (Cabana), TMS West Coast, Inc. (TMS), and FSCS Corporation... shareholder of noncarrier holding companies FSCS and TMS. Cabana is owned directly by FSCS and Evergreen...

  18. Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

  19. An investigation of the corrosion of polycrystalline iron by XPS, TMS and CEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idczak, K.; Idczak, R.; Konieczny, R.

    2016-06-01

    The room temperature studies of polycrystalline iron exposed to air at various temperatures were performed using: the transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS), the conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The unique combination of these techniques allows to determine changes of chemical composition and content of iron oxides simultaneously on the surface region, the 300 nm pre-surface region and the bulk of the samples. The results show that the chemical composition of samples changes significantly and it is strongly dependent on temperature at which the iron sample is exposed to air as well as on investigated region.

  20. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D.; Lowe, Andrea S.; Garrett, Andrew R.; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J.; Garry, Michael I.; Hinder, Mark R.; Summers, Jeffery J.; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting.

  1. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  2. Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Papeo

    Full Text Available The embodied cognition hypothesis suggests that motor and premotor areas are automatically and necessarily involved in understanding action language, as word conceptual representations are embodied. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials from right-hand muscles were recorded as a measure of M1 activity, while participants were asked either to judge explicitly whether a verb was action-related (semantic task or to decide on the number of syllables in a verb (syllabic task. TMS was applied in three different experiments at 170, 350 and 500 ms post-stimulus during both tasks to identify when the enhancement of M1 activity occurred during word processing. The delays between stimulus onset and magnetic stimulation were consistent with electrophysiological studies, suggesting that word recognition can be differentiated into early (within 200 ms and late (within 400 ms lexical-semantic stages, and post-conceptual stages. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to measure the extent to which the participants' linguistic performance was affected by the interference of TMS with M1 activity. No enhancement of M1 activity specific for action verbs was found at 170 and 350 ms post-stimulus, when lexical-semantic processes are presumed to occur (Experiments 1-2. When TMS was applied at 500 ms post-stimulus (Experiment 3, processing action verbs, compared with non-action verbs, increased the M1-activity in the semantic task and decreased it in the syllabic task. This effect was specific for hand-action verbs and was not observed for action-verbs related to other body parts. Neither accuracy nor RTs were affected by TMS. These findings suggest that the lexical-semantic processing of action verbs does not automatically activate the M1. This area seems to be rather involved in post-conceptual processing that follows the retrieval of motor

  3. Integrating nTMS Data into a Radiology Picture Archiving System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Teemu; Vitikainen, Anne-Mari; Laakso, Aki; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2015-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is employed in eloquent brain area localization prior to intraoperative direct cortical electrical stimulations and neurosurgery. No commercial archiving or file transfer protocol existed for these studies. The aim of our project was to establish a standardized protocol for the transfer of nTMS results and medical assessments to the end users in pursuance of improving data security and facilitating presurgical planning. The existing infrastructure of the hospital's Radiology Department was used. Hospital information systems and networks were configured to allow communications and archiving of the study results, and in-house software was written for file manipulations and transfers. Graphical user interface with description suggestions and user-defined text legends enabled an easy and straightforward workflow for annotations and archiving of the results. The software and configurations were implemented and have been applied in studies of ten patients. The creation of the study protocol required the involvement of various professionals and interdepartmental cooperation. The introduction of the protocol has ended previously recurrent involvement of staff in the file transfer phase and improved cost-effectiveness. PMID:25617092

  4. Comparison of visual outcomes and subjective visual quality after bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens and blended implantation of apodized diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen KG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kjell G Gundersen,1 Rick Potvin21IFocus Øyeklinikk AS, Haugesund, Norway; 2Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USAPurpose: To compare the visual acuity (VA and quality of vision between bilateral implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL and blended bifocal IOLs with an intermediate add in the dominant eye and a near add in the nondominant eye.Patients and methods: Patients with either trifocal or blended bifocal IOLs implanted were recruited after surgery. Subjects returned for a single diagnostic visit between 3 and 24 months after surgery. VA was tested at various distances, including low-contrast acuity and acuity at their preferred reading distance. A binocular defocus curve was obtained, and subjective visual function and quality of vision were evaluated.Results: Twenty-five trifocal subjects and 30 blended bifocal subjects were enrolled. There were no significant differences in low-contrast acuity, preferred reading distance, or acuity at that reading distance. Binocular vision at 4 m, 60 cm, and 40 cm was not statistically significantly different. The trifocal provided statistically significantly better visual acuity (P<0.05 at vergences from -0.5 to -1.5 D (from 2 m to 67 cm viewing distance, P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the near vision subscale scores of the 39-question National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire or the overall scores of the Quality of Vision questionnaire, though significantly more trifocal subjects reported that the observed visual disturbances were “bothersome” (P<0.05.Conclusion: Both lens modalities provided subjects with excellent binocular near and distance vision, with similar low rates of visual disturbances and good reported functional vision. The trifocal IOL provided significantly better intermediate VA in the viewing distance range of 2 m to 67 cm, corresponding to viewing things such as a car dashboard or grocery shelf. VA was similar between groups at

  5. Effects of Weekly Low-Frequency rTMS on Autonomic Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Fernando Casanova; Marie Hensley; Xiaoli Li

    2014-01-01

    The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. ASD may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (EKG) ...

  6. Effects of weekly low-frequency rTMS on autonomic measures in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Manuel Fernando; Hensley, Marie K.; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on autonomic function in children with ASD by recordin...

  7. Comparison of TMS-induced arm activation and upper limb functional tests in hemiparetic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkka Ina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke has a major impact in the total cost of healthcare in the Western world as stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability [1]. In attempts to enhance motor recovery after stroke effective treatment strategies have been developed in recent years. Appropriate evaluation of the intervention programs requires comprehensive and accurate assessment of the residual abnormal function. In the present study we compare two well-known clinical functional scoring tests developed for the assessment of hemiparetic upper limb function due to stroke and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS, which measures involuntary target muscle response to cortical stimulation. The aim is to investigate the equivalence of these methods and thus add objective evidence of the limb function to strengthen evidence-based practice. In addition to functional tests, four muscles of both arms were studied in twenty chronic stroke patients. Those patients without motor evoked potentials (MEP to nTMS in the affected upper limb had significantly lower total score in Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test and longer performance time than those patients with MEP. Patients, in whom MEP in each of the four target muscles was elicitable, had better than average scores in clinical functional tests while patients, in whom no MEP was elicitable in any target muscle, had worse than average scores. Transcranial magnetic stimulation adds crucial information when clinical assessment based on voluntary activation by command is challenging, e.g. in patients suffering from cognitive deficits.

  8. Spatially specific versus unspecific disruption of visual orientation perception using chronometric pre-stimulus TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Alexander De Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over occipital cortex can impair visual processing. Such ‘TMS masking’ has repeatedly been shown at several stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs, with TMS pulses generally applied after the onset of a visual stimulus. Following increased interest in the neuronal state-dependency of visual processing, we recently explored the efficacy of TMS at ‘negative SOAs’, when no visual processing can yet occur. We could reveal pre-stimulus TMS disruption, with results moreover hinting at two separate mechanisms in occipital cortex biasing subsequent orientation perception. Here we extended this work, including a chronometric design to map the temporal dynamics of spatially specific and unspecific mechanisms of state-dependent visual processing, while moreover controlling for TMS-induced pupil covering. TMS pulses applied 60-40 ms prior to a visual stimulus decreased orientation processing independent of stimulus location, while a local suppressive effect was found for TMS applied 30-10 ms pre-stimulus. These results contribute to our understanding of spatiotemporal mechanisms in occipital cortex underlying the state-dependency of visual processing, providing a basis for future work to link pre-stimulus TMS suppression effects to other known visual biasing mechanisms.

  9. Therapeutic impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tinnitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Robabeh; Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Hasandokht, Tolou

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) compared with sham in chronic tinnitus patients. We searched databases, from their onset up to August 2014, for randomized controlled trials (RCT) in English that assessed the effectiveness of rTMS for chronic tinnitus. RCTs were selected according to inclusion/exclusion criteria before data were extracted. For the meta-analysis weighted mean differences (and standard deviations) of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) scores were determined. Therapeutic success was defined as difference of at least 7 points in the THI score between baseline and the follow-up assessment after treatment. The odds ratio (OR) for this variable was assessed. Results from 15 RCTs were analyzed. The mean difference for TQ score at 1 week after intervention was 3.42. For THI, the data of mean difference score in two groups, 1 and 6 month after intervention, was 6.71 and 12.89, respectively. The all comparisons indicated a significant medium to large effect size in follow-up which is in favor of the rTMS. The pooled OR of therapeutic success of the studies which used THI at 1 month after intervention was 15.75. These data underscore the clinical effect of rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus. However, there is high variability of studies design and reported outcomes. Replication of data in multicenter trials with a large number of patients and long-term follow-up is needed before further conclusions can be drawn. PMID:25968009

  10. Interfering with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex via TMS affects social impressions updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Chiara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Todorov, Alexander; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2016-08-01

    In our everyday social interactions we often need to deal with others' unpredictable behaviors. Integrating unexpected information in a consistent representation of another agent is a cognitively demanding process. Several neuroimaging studies point to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as a critical structure in mediating social evaluations. Our aim here was to shed light on the possible causal role of the mPFC in the dynamic process of forming and updating social impressions about others. We addressed this issue by suppressing activity in the mPFC by means of 1 Hz offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to a task requiring participants to evaluate other agents' trustworthiness after reading about their social behavior. In two different experiments, we found that inhibiting activity in the mPFC increased perceived trustworthiness when inconsistent information about one agent's behavior was provided. In turn, when only negative or positive behaviors of a person were described, TMS over the mPFC did not affect judgments. Our results indicate that the mPFC is causally involved in mediating social impressions updating-at least in cases in which judgment is uncertain due to conflicting information to be processed. PMID:27012713

  11. Different effects of double-pulse TMS of the posterior parietal cortex on reflexive and voluntary saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi KAPOULA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gap and overlap tasks are widely used to promote automatic versus controlled saccades. This study examines the hypothesis that the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC is differently involved in the two tasks. Twelve healthy students participated in the experiment. We used double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS on the right PPC, the first pulse delivered at the target onset and the second 65 or 80ms later. Each subject performed several blocks of gap or overlap task with or without dTMS. Eye movements were recorded with an Eyelink device. The results show an increase of latency of saccades after dTMS of the right PPC for both tasks but for different time windows (0-80ms for the gap task, 0-65ms for the overlap task. Moreover, for rightward saccades the coefficient of variation of latency increased in the gap task but decreased in the overlap task. Finally, in the gap task and for leftward saccades only, dTMS at 0-80ms decreased the amplitude and the speed of saccades. Although the study is preliminary and needs further investigation in detail, the results support the hypothesis that the right PPC is involved differently in the initiation of the saccades for two tasks: in the gap task the PPC controls saccade triggering while in the overlap task it could be a relay to the Frontal Eye Fields which is known to control voluntary saccades, e.g. memory-guided and perhaps the controlled saccades in the overlap task The results have theoretical and clinical significance as gap-overlap tasks are easy to perform even in advanced age and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. TMS in therapy of depressions - the problem of determining the area to be stimulated, i.e., a few words about the anatomy of depressive disorders [Stymulacja TMS w terapii depresji – problem miejsca stymulacji, czyli kilka słów o anatomii zaburzeń depresyjnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyss, Tomasz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS is studied on its antidepressant efficacy. Clinical investigations show, that active stimulation is indeed more effective than placebo; the antidepressant effect itself is however weak. Except the technical parameters of stimulations – the selection of the appropriate stimulation place seems to be the main factor influencing the effectiveness of TMS stimulation in the therapy of the depression. The left dorsolateral prefrontal area is the most often chosen goal of TMS stimulation. It is however one from many places, in which the metabolic dysfunction can be identified in patients with depression. The stimulation „at haphazard” of this area seems to be the main cause of the weak results of hitherto published clinical investigations. The author presents the proposal of the improvement of the effectiveness of TMS stimulation in depression. Marking the place of the metabolic dysfunction – with the help of functional neuroimaging techniques – is the most important element of this algorithm. The necessity of using additional techniques makes however the TMS method difficult in applying, little friendly and expensive.

  13. Long-latency TMS-evoked potentials during motor execution and inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yamanaka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG, which is effective for the direct demonstration of cortical reactivity and corticocortical connectivity during cognitive tasks through the spatio-temporal pattern of long-latency TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. However, it remains unclear what pattern is associated with the inhibition of a planned motor response. Therefore, we performed TMS-EEG recording during a go/stop task, in which participants were instructed to click a computer mouse with a right index finger when an indicator that was moving with a constant velocity reached a target (go trial or to avoid the click when the indicator randomly stopped just before it reached the target (stop trial. Single-pulse TMS to the left (contralateral or right (ipsilateral motor cortex was applied 500 ms before or just at the target time. TEPs related to motor execution and inhibition were obtained by subtractions between averaged EEG waveforms with and without TMS. As a result, in TEPs induced by both contralateral and ipsilateral TMS, small oscillations were followed by a prominent negative deflection around the TMS site peaking at approximately 100 ms post-TMS (N100, and a less pronounced later positive component (LPC over the broad areas that was centered at the midline-central site in both go and stop trials. However, compared to the pattern in go and stop trials with TMS at 500 ms before the target time, N100 and LPC were differently modulated in the go and stop trials with TMS just at the target time. The amplitudes of both N100 and LPC decreased in go trials, while the amplitude of LPC decreased and the latency of LPC was delayed in both go and stop trials. These results suggested that TMS-induced neuronal reactions in the motor cortex and subsequent their propagation to surrounding cortical areas might change functionally according to task demand when executing and inhibiting a motor

  14. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  15. Diagnostic procedures for Trend Monitoring System (TMS) communications. [coaxial cable bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communications sytem was developed to support the trend monitoring system (TMS). Troubleshooting procedures are described at the system level. The procedures can be used by repair personnel to isolate a fault in the TMS and to restore the system to operation by swapping out failed components.

  16. flexTMS--a novel repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation device with freely programmable stimulus currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinger, Norbert; Moessnang, Georg; Gleich, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is able to noninvasively excite neuronal populations due to brief magnetic field pulses. The efficiency and the characteristics of stimulation pulse shapes influence the physiological effect of TMS. However, commercial devices allow only a minimum of control of different pulse shapes. Basically, just sinusoidal and monophasic pulse shapes with fixed pulse widths are available. Only few research groups work on TMS devices with controllable pulse parameters such as pulse shape or pulse width. We describe a novel TMS device with a full-bridge circuit topology incorporating four insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules and one energy storage capacitor to generate arbitrary waveforms. This flexible TMS (flexTMS ) device can generate magnetic pulses which can be adjusted with respect to pulse width, polarity, and intensity. Furthermore, the equipment allows us to set paired pulses with a variable interstimulus interval (ISI) from 0 to 20 ms with a step size of 10  μs. All user-defined pulses can be applied continually with repetition rates up to 30 pulses per second (pps) or, respectively, up to 100 pps in theta burst mode. Offering this variety of flexibility, flexTMS will allow the enhancement of existing TMS paradigms and novel research applications. PMID:22531742

  17. Ionization measurement as a function of the electric field in tetramethyl-silane (TMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WALIC collaboration has built a calorimeter prototype using the tetramethyl-pentane (TMP) as active medium and lead as absorber medium in order to study the response of electrons and hadrons. The aim of this work is to study the response of tetramethyl-silane to high electric fields knowing that TMP and TMS have similar properties and similar behaviour with electric field. A test bench is mounted to measure the charge deposited by electrons emitted by a ruthenium source. The trigger was made using a silicon detector. Low noise amplifiers were designed and built for the signal conditioning and in order to reduce the pick-up noise, the system is completely isolated in a double Faraday cage. A theoretical study of noise has been developed. The signal allowed to study the behaviour of warm liquid in presence of a high electric field

  18. Concurrent Application of TMS and Near-infrared Optical Imaging: Methodological Considerations and Potential Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Parks

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with non-invasive neuroimaging provides a powerful method for investigating functional connectivity in the human brain and the causal relationships between areas in distributed brain networks. TMS has been combined with numerous neuroimaging techniques including, electroencephalography (EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. Recent work has also demonstrated the feasibility and utility of combining TMS with non-invasive near-infrared optical imaging techniques, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and the event-related optical signal (EROS. Simultaneous TMS and optical imaging affords a number of advantages over other neuroimaging methods but also involves a unique set of methodological challenges and considerations. This paper describes the methodology of concurrently performing optical imaging during the administration of TMS, focusing on experimental design, potential artifacts, and approaches to controlling for these artifacts.

  19. A Novel Transcranial Magnetic Stimulator Inducing Near Rectangular Pulses with Controllable Pulse Width (cTMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 7 kA, enabling PW control from 5 μs to over 100 μs. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 22–34% less energy and generate 67–72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 μs, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  20. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it. PMID:26737511

  1. A transcranial magnetic stimulator inducing near-rectangular pulses with controllable pulse width (cTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2008-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near-rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 6 kA, enabling PW control from 5 micros to over 100 micros. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 2%-34% less energy and generate 67%-72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 micros, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  2. General indices to characterize the electrical response of the cerebral cortex to TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Adenauer G; Casarotto, Silvia; Rosanova, Mario; Mariotti, Maurizio; Massimini, Marcello

    2010-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with simultaneous high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) represents a straightforward way to gauge cortical excitability and connectivity in humans. However, the analysis, classification and interpretation of TMS-evoked potentials are hampered by scarce a priori knowledge about the physiological effect of TMS and by lack of an established data analysis framework. Here, we implemented a standardized, data-driven procedure to characterize the electrical response of the cerebral cortex to TMS by means of three synthetic indices: significant current density (SCD), phase-locking (PL) and significant current scattering (SCS). SCD sums up the amplitude of all significant currents induced by TMS, PL reflects the ability of TMS to reset the phase of ongoing cortical oscillations, while SCS measures the average distance of significantly activated sources from the site of stimulation. These indices are aimed at capturing different aspects of brain responsiveness, ranging from global cortical excitability towards global cortical connectivity. We analyzed the EEG responses to TMS of Brodmann's area 19 at increasing intensities in five healthy subjects. The spatial distribution and time course of SCD, PL and SCS revealed a reproducible profile of excitability and connectivity, characterized by a local activation threshold around a TMS-induced electric field of 50 V/m and by a selective propagation of TMS-evoked activation from occipital to ipsilateral frontal areas that reached a maximum at 70-100 ms. These general indices may be used to characterize the effects of TMS on any cortical area and to quantitatively evaluate cortical excitability and connectivity in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:19770048

  3. Effect of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Li Ren

    Full Text Available Small clinical trials have reported that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS might improve language recovery in patients with aphasia after stroke. However, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses studies have investigated the effect of rTMS on aphasia. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies that explored the effects of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients.We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, and Journals@Ovid for randomized controlled trials published between January 1965 and October 2013 using the keywords "aphasia OR language disorders OR anomia OR linguistic disorders AND repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation OR rTMS". We used fixed- and random-effects models to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD and a 95% CI for the language outcomes.Seven eligible studies involving 160 stroke patients were identified in this meta-analysis. A significant effect size of 1.26 was found for the language outcome severity of impairment (95% CI = 0.80 to 1.71 without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.44. Further analyses demonstrated prominent effects for the naming subtest (SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.87, repetition (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.92, writing (SMD = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.22, and comprehension (the Token test: SMD = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.09 without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%. The SMD of AAT and BDAE comprehension subtests was 0.32 (95% CI = -0.08 to 0.72 with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 32%,P = 0.22. The effect size did not change significantly even when any one trial was eliminated. None of the patients from the 7 included articles reported adverse effects from rTMS.Low-frequency rTMS with a 90% resting motor threshold that targets the triangular part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG has a positive effect on language recovery in patients with aphasia following

  4. 41 CFR 301-50.3 - Must I use the ETS or TMS to arrange my travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TMS to arrange my travel? 301-50.3 Section 301-50.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... ETS or TMS to arrange my travel? Yes, if you are an employee of an agency as defined in § 301-1.1 of... then, you must use your agency's existing Travel Management Service (TMS) to make your...

  5. BOREAS Level-2 NS001 TMS Imagery: Reflectance and Temperature in BSQ Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Collection of the NS001 images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 NS001 data are atmospherically corrected versions of some of the best original NS001 imagery and cover the dates of 19-Apr-1994, 07-Jun-1994, 21-Jul-1994, 08-Aug-1994, and 16-Sep-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 INS data in an NS001 scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  6. A correlation analysis of percent canopy closure versus TMS spectral response for selected forest sites in the San Juan National Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation of canopy closure with the signal response of individual thematic mapper simulator (TMS) bands for selected forest sites in the San Juan National Forest, Colorado was investigated. Ground truth consisted of a photointerpreted determination of percent canopy closure of 0 to 100 percent for 32 sites. The sites selected were situated on plateaus at an elevation of approximately 3 km with slope or = 10 percent. The predominant tree species were ponderosa pine and aspen. The mean TMS response per band per site was calculated from data acquired by aircraft during mid-September, 1981. A correlation analysis of TMS response vs. canopy closure resulted in the following correlation coefficients for bands 1 through 7, respectively: -0.757, -0.663, -0.666, -0.088, -0.797, -0.763. Two model regressions were applied to the TMS data set to create a map of predicted percent forest canopy closure for the study area. Results indicated percent predictive accuracies of 71, 74, and 57 for percent canopy closure classes of 0-25, 25-75, and 75-100, respectively.

  7. TUX-TMS: Thapar University Extensible-Trust Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bhanwar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a Grid Computing scenario, where the market players are dynamic; traditional assumptions for establishing and evaluating trust, do not hold good anymore. There are two different methods for handling access controls to the resources either by using policy based approach where logical rules and verifiable properties are encoded in signed credentials or using reputation based approach where trust values are collected, aggregated and evaluated to disseminate reputation among the market players. There is need for a dynamic and flexible general-purpose trust management system. In this paper TUX-TMS: an extensible reputation based Trust Management System is presented for establishing and evaluating trust in grid systems. TUX is an efficient Reputation based trust management system for establishing secure Grids.

  8. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  9. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A.; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  10. Recent Applications of the (TMS3SiH Radical-Based Reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article focuses on the recent applications of tris(trimethylsilylsilane as a radical-based reagent in organic chemistry. Numerous examples of the successful use of (TMS3SiH in radical reductions, hydrosilylation and consecutive radical reactions are given. The use of (TMS3SiH allows reactions to be carried out under mild conditions with excellent yields of products and remarkable chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. The strategic role of (TMS3SiH in polymerization is underlined with emphasis on the photo-induced radical polymerization of olefins and photo-promoted cationic polymerization of epoxides.

  11. Effective electric fields along realistic DTI-based neural trajectories for modelling the stimulation mechanisms of TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an applied alternating magnetic field induces an electric field in the brain that can interact with the neural system. It is generally assumed that this induced electric field is the crucial effect exciting a certain region of the brain. More specifically, it is the component of this field parallel to the neuron’s local orientation, the so-called effective electric field, that can initiate neuronal stimulation. Deeper insights on the stimulation mechanisms can be acquired through extensive TMS modelling. Most models study simple representations of neurons with assumed geometries, whereas we embed realistic neural trajectories computed using tractography based on diffusion tensor images. This way of modelling ensures a more accurate spatial distribution of the effective electric field that is in addition patient and case specific. The case study of this paper focuses on the single pulse stimulation of the left primary motor cortex with a standard figure-of-eight coil. Including realistic neural geometry in the model demonstrates the strong and localized variations of the effective electric field between the tracts themselves and along them due to the interplay of factors such as the tract’s position and orientation in relation to the TMS coil, the neural trajectory and its course along the white and grey matter interface. Furthermore, the influence of changes in the coil orientation is studied. Investigating the impact of tissue anisotropy confirms that its contribution is not negligible. Moreover, assuming isotropic tissues lead to errors of the same size as rotating or tilting the coil with 10 degrees. In contrast, the model proves to be less sensitive towards the not well-known tissue conductivity values. (paper)

  12. SG-TMS 系统在宁夏电力的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁

    2014-01-01

    结合宁夏电力建设 SG-TMS 系统(全称国家电网公司通信管理系统)的实践,对宁夏电力 SG-TMS 系统的结构部署、实现的功能等方面进行了详细的介绍,并对使用 SG-TMS 系统的优势进行了分析,明确了 SG-TMS 系统对电力通信网运维、监控、管理工作的重要性和必要性。

  13. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, G.; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Stippich, C.

    2010-01-01

    essential cortex, it cannot provide information preoperatively for surgical planning.Brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly being used to localize functionally critical cortical...

  14. Do tonic and burst TMS modulate the lemniscal and extralemniscal system differentially?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk De Ridder, Elsa van der Loo, Karolien Van der Kelen, Tomas Menovsky, Paul van de Heyning, Aage Moller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom percept related to tonic and burst hyperactivity of the auditory system. Two parallel pathways supply auditory information to the cerebral cortex: the tonotopically organised lemniscal system, and the non-tonotopic extralemniscal system, firing in tonic mode and burst mode respectively. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a non-invasive method capable of modulating activity of the human cortex, by delivering tonic or burst stimuli. Burst stimulation is shown to be more powerful in activating the cerebral cortex than tonic stimulation and bursts may activate neurons that are not activated by tonic stimulations. Methods: The effect of both tonic and burst TMS in 14 placebo-negative patients presenting narrow band/white noise tinnitus were analysed. Results: Our TMS results show that narrow band/white noise tinnitus is better suppressed with burst TMS in comparison to tonic TMS, t(13=6.4, p=.000. For pure tone tinnitus no difference is found between burst or tonic TMS, t(13=.3, ns. Discussion: Based on the hypothesis that white noise is the result of hyperactivity in the non-tonotopic system and pure tone tinnitus of the tonotopic system, we suggest that burst stimulation modulates the extralemniscal system and lemniscal system and tonic stimulation only the lemniscal system.

  15. Modulation of non-painful phantom sensation in subjects with spinal cord injury by means of rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Höller, Yvonne; Bathke, Arne; Frey, Vanessa N; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-09-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), given as theta burst stimulation (TBS), can interfere with non-painful phantom sensations in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). In double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in five subjects with cervical or thoracic traumatic SCI, we evaluated the effects of a single session of inhibitory (continuous) TBS, excitatory (intermittent) TBS, or placebo TBS, on simplex and complex non-painful phantom sensations. The interventions targeted the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), the primary sensory cortex (S1) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Measurements were carried out at baseline (T0), 5 min (T1) and 30 min later (T2) after the intervention. Descriptive evaluation of results shows that non-painful phantom sensations were not affected by rTMS applied over M1. Continuous (inhibitory) TBS over S1 induced a short-lasting decrease of simple non-painful phantom sensations, while continuous TBS over PPC induced a short-lasting decrease of both simple and complex phantom sensations. Intermittent (excitatory) TBS over PPC induced a slight increase of non-painful phantom sensations. Tests for significance confirm these observations, but must be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size. In conclusion, non-painful phantom sensations may be associated to a hyperexcitability of PPC and to a lesser extent of S1, which can be normalized by inhibitory rTMS. Our preliminary findings provide further evidence that neuromodulatory techniques are able to reverse phantom sensations not only after limb amputation but also in other conditions characterized by deafferentation such as SCI. PMID:26405006

  16. Effect of r-TMS over standard therapy in decreasing muscle tone of spastic cerebral palsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meena; Lal Rajak, Bablu; Bhatia, Dinesh; Mukherjee, Arun

    2016-05-01

    Spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is the one of most common neurological disorders occurring due to damage to the immature brain or any other brain lesion at the time of birth. To aid in making the life of the CP patient meaningful, several interventions such as medical, surgical and rehabilitation have been employed to date. Besides these, recently repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-TMS) is a new found approach which is being employed for treating various neurological and psychological conditions. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of r-TMS on muscle spasticity in CP patients by stimulating the motor cortex area of the brain, which is responsible for muscle movements. In this study, 20 subjects diagnosed with CP were recruited and 10 each were placed in two groups, namely the research group (RG) (mean age, height and weight were 7.99 (SD = 4.66) years, 116.7 (SD = 23.57) cm and 21.40 (SD = 10.95) kg, respectively) and the control group (CG) (mean age, height and weight were 8.41 (SD = 4.32) years, 107.9 (SD = 26.33) cm, 21.40 (SD = 12.63) kg, respectively). r-TMS frequencies of 5 Hz and 10 Hz were administered for 15 min daily to patients in RG followed by standard therapy (ST) of 1 h duration daily for 20 days. Moreover, the patients in the control group (CG) were given only standard therapy (ST) of 1 h duration for 20 days. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used as an outcome measure to determine the level of muscle spasticity. A pre- assessment of MAS score was performed on both RG and CG to determine the level of spasticity prior to starting therapy; and similarly post-assessment after 20 days was done to observe the changes post-therapy. Statistical analysis of pre vs post MAS scores showed that few muscles showed reduction in muscle tightness after administering only ST in the CG. On the contrary, the RG that underwent r-TMS therapy combined with ST showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in muscle tightness for all the

  17. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease. PMID:26514052

  18. The TMS34010 graphic processor - an architecture for image visualization in NMR tomography; O processador grafico TMS34010 - uma arquitetura para visualizacao de imagem em tomografia por RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaets, Jan Frans Willem; Paiva, Maria Stela Veludo de; Almeida, Lirio O.B

    1989-12-31

    This abstract presents a description of the minimum system implemented with the graphic processor TMS34010, which will be used in the reconstruction, treatment and interpretation f images obtained by NMR tomography. The project is being developed in the LIE (Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory), of the Sao Carlos Chemistry and Physical Institute, S P, Brazil and is already in operation 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain: Evidence from dual-site TMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Cathy J. Price; Baumgaertner, Annette; Geiss, Gesine; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we used online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the functional relevance of the right pIFG for auditory and visual phonological decisions. Healthy right-handed individuals made phono...

  20. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  1. Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Cognitive Training: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juyoun; Choi, Byong Hee; Oh, Eungseok; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been examined as a potential treatment for many neurological disorders. High-frequency rTMS in particular improves cognitive functions such as verbal fluency and memory. This study explored the effect of rTMS combined with cognitive training (rTMS-COG) on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed with 27 AD patients (18 and 8 in t...

  2. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghun Ku

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based and non-spatial (feature based. When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants’ performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL as well.

  3. Alternative Stimulation Intensities for Mapping Cortical Motor Area with Navigated TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, Elisa; Julkunen, Petro

    2016-05-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is becoming a popular tool in pre-operative mapping of functional motor areas. The stimulation intensities used in the mapping are commonly suprathreshold intensities with respect to the patient's resting motor threshold (rMT). There is no consensus on which suprathreshold intensity should be used nor on the optimal criteria for selecting the appropriate stimulation intensity (SI). In this study, the left motor cortices of 12 right-handed volunteers (8 males, age 24-61 years) were mapped using motor evoked potentials with an SI of 110 and 120 % of rMT and with an upper threshold (UT) estimated by the Mills-Nithi algorithm. The UT was significantly lower than 120 % of rMT (p < 0.001), while no significant difference was observed between UT and 110 % of rMT (p = 0.112). The representation sizes followed a similar trend, i.e. areas computed based on UT (5.9 cm(2)) and 110 % of rMT (5.0 cm(2)) being smaller than that of 120 % of rMT (8.8 cm(2)) (p ≤ 0.001). There was no difference in representation sizes between 110 % of rMT and UT. The variance in representation size was found to be significantly lower with UT compared to 120 % of rMT (p = 0.048, uncorrected), while there was no difference between 110 % of rMT and UT or 120 % of rMT. Indications of lowest inter-individual variation in representation size were observed with UT; this is possibly due to the fact that it takes into account the individual input-output characteristics of the motor cortex. Therefore, the UT seems to be a good option for SI in motor mapping applications to outline functional motor areas with nTMS and it could potentially reduce the inter-individual variation caused by the selection of SI in motor mapping in pre-surgical applications and radiosurgery planning. PMID:26830768

  4. Assessment of Event-Related EEG Power After Single-Pulse TMS in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Cavinato, Marianna; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Tonin, Paolo; Piccione, Francesco; Manganotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In patients without a behavioral response, non-invasive techniques and new methods of data analysis can complement existing diagnostic tools by providing a method for detecting covert signs of residual cognitive function and awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain oscillatory activities synchronized by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the primary motor area in the time-frequency domain in patients with the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state as compared to healthy controls. A time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet transform was used to characterize rapid modifications of oscillatory EEG rhythms induced by TMS in patients as compared to healthy controls. The pattern of EEG changes in the patients differed from that of healthy controls. In the controls there was an early synchronization of slow waves immediately followed by a desynchronization of alpha and beta frequency bands over the frontal and centro-parietal electrodes, whereas an opposite early synchronization, particularly over motor areas for alpha and beta and over the frontal and parietal electrodes for beta power, was seen in the patients. In addition, no relevant modification in slow rhythms (delta and theta) after TMS was noted in patients. The clinical impact of these findings could be relevant in neurorehabilitation settings for increasing the awareness of these patients and defining new treatment procedures. PMID:26590568

  5. Measurement and imaging of brain function using MRI, MEG, and TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews functional imaging techniques in neuroscience such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional MRI (fMRI), magnetoencephalogray (MEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). fMRI and MEG allow the neuronal activity of the brain to be measured non-invasively. MEG detects an electrical activity as neuronal activity, while, fMRI detects a hemodynamic response as neuronal activity. TMS is the application of a brief magnetic pulse or a train of pulses to the skull, which results in the induction of a local electric current in the underlying surface of the brain, thereby producing a localized axonal depolarization. As a non-invasive and effective method to make reversible lesions in the human brain, TMS has a long and successful history. All of these techniques have major potential for applications in the neuroscience and medicine. (author)

  6. Aspergerin oireyhtymän tutkiminen lapsilta nTMS-menetelmällä

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään tutkimusta, jossa on tutkittu Aspergerin oireyhtymää lapsilta nTMS-menetelmällä. nTMS eli navigoitu transkraniaalinen magneettistimulaatio on tutkimusmenetelmä, jolla saadaan tietoa aivokuoren fysiologiasta ja muovautuvuudesta. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi Kuopion yliopistollisen sairaalan kliinisen neurofysiologian magneettistimulaatioyksikkö. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää terveiden ja Aspergerin oireyhtymää sairastavien lasten ja nuorten ...

  7. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency? 301... Management Service § 301-73.102 May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we... individual case by case exception to required use of your agency's current TMS or to required use of ETS...

  8. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  9. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  10. Reductions in CI amplitude after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the striate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a method capable of transiently inhibiting cortical excitability and disrupting information processing in the visual system. This method can be used to topographically map the functional contribution of different cortical brain areas in vis

  11. The TMS34010 graphic processor - an architecture for image visualization in NMR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This abstract presents a description of the minimum system implemented with the graphic processor TMS34010, which will be used in the reconstruction, treatment and interpretation f images obtained by NMR tomography. The project is being developed in the LIE (Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory), of the Sao Carlos Chemistry and Physical Institute, S P, Brazil and is already in operation

  12. Normalizing biased spatial attention with parietal rTMS in a patient with focal hand dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Siebner, Hartwig R;

    2014-01-01

    We report the following case to highlight the possible relevance of biased spatial attention in focal hand dystonia (FHD). Deficient sensorimotor inhibition is a prominent pathophysiological feature of FHD [1,2]. Low-frequency repetitive Trascranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over contralateral...

  13. TMS stimulation over the inferior parietal cortex disrupts prospective sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Valérian; Moore, James W; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling an external event through one's own action. On one influential view, sense of agency is inferred after an action, by "retrospectively" comparing actual effects of actions against their intended effects. However, it has been recently shown that earlier processes, linked to action selection, may also contribute to sense of agency, in advance of the action itself, and independently of action effects. The inferior parietal cortex (IPC) may underpin this "prospective" contribution to agency, by monitoring signals relating to fluency of action selection in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Here, we combined transcranial stimulation (TMS) with subliminal priming of action selection to investigate the causal role of these regions in the prospective coding of agency. In a first experiment, we showed that TMS over left IPC at the time of action selection disrupts perceived control over subsequent effects of action. In a second experiment, we exploited the temporal specificity of single-pulse TMS to pinpoint the exact timing of IPC contribution to sense of agency. We replicated the reduction in perceived control at the point of action selection, while observing no effect of TMS-induced disruption of IPC at the time of action outcomes. PMID:25134684

  14. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Heidi M.; Ogden, R. Todd; Martínez-Hernández, Isis E.; Lin, Xuejing; Chang, Y. Brenda; Rahman, Asif; Edwards, Dylan J.; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. TMS measures should be used based on their reliability in particular contexts. More work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed. PMID:26388729

  15. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  16. TMS320DM642的视频监控系统硬件设计%Hardware Design of Video Monitoring System Based on TMS320DM642

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美成; 刘浩; 张捷

    2014-01-01

    The system is designed to implement the four-way video input and one-wey output based on TMS320DM642,the system com-bines with the video codec chip,and expands the capacity of the memory.This paper introduces the hardware design of the system,it mainly include video input and output module,power module,external memory module etc,and introduces the way of hardware debug-ging.The system has the advantages of short video transmission delay and high vedio processing speed,it can apply to the real-time video image processing.%该系统是以TMS320 DM642为核心,结合视频编解码芯片,并外扩大容量的存储器,实现4路视频输入与1路视频输出。本文主要介绍了基于TMS320 DM642的视频监控系统的硬件设计,主要包括视频输入/输出模块的设计、电源模块的设计、外部存储器模块的设计,同时介绍了基本的硬件调试方法。该系统具有视频传输延迟短、处理速度快的优点,可应用于实时视频图像处理。

  17. Role of TMS5: staphylococcal multidrug-efflux protein QacA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Bei; ZHOU Ting-quan; HUANG Ai-long; HUANG Wen-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Background QacA,a main exporter mediating the multidrug-resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to a variety of to determine the importance and topology of amino acid residues in and flanking the cytoplasmic end of TMS5.Methods Site-directed mutagenesis was used to mutate 5 residues,including L146,A147,V148,W149 and S150,into cysteine.A minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)and transport assay with or without N-ethylmaleimide(NEM)were performed to analyse the function of these mutants.Results All of the mutants showed comparable protein expression levels.MIC analysis suggested that mutant W149C showed low resistance levels to the drugs,but the mutations at L146,A147,V148,and S150C had little or no effect on the resistance level.And the results of the fluorimetric transport assay were in agreement with those of MIC analysis,that is to say,W149C did not allow transport to the substrates to be tested,while the other mutants retained significant transport ability.The reaction of the different mutant proteins with Fluorescein-NEM revealed that the mutant L146C was highly reactiMe with NEM:the W149C and S150C mutants were moderately reactive;A147C was barely reactive and V148C showed no reactivity.Conclusions The study identified that residues W149 and S150 situated at the intefface of the aqueous:lipid junction as functionally important residues,probably involved ln the substrate binding and translocation of QacA.

  18. 基于 GCC的 TMS320C67xx 汇编代码的优化%TMS320C67xx assembler code optimization based on GCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate higher efficiency assembler code ,design and implement a TMS320C67xx assembler in‐struction level optimization algorithm based on GCC .Firstly ,assembler instructions are divided into different types ac‐cording to the function of instructions .Then ,link assembler instructions to the list .Secondly ,establish a read and write operation instruction list for each register .Finally ,through the judgment of instruction types and the analysis of read and write instructions list for each register ,complete the deletion of redundant code and the merging of instructions .The ex‐perimental results show that the execution efficiency of TMS320C67xx assembler code increased by about 20% after code optimization .Compared with the intermediate code optimization ,execution efficiency increased by about 15% .%为了使生成的汇编代码具有更高的执行效率,设计并实现了一种基于GCC的 TMS320C67xx汇编指令级的代码优化算法。首先,将汇编指令按照功能划分为不同的指令类型,并将汇编指令链接到链表中。然后,针对每一个寄存器建立对该寄存器的读写操作指令链表。最后,通过对指令类型的判断和对寄存器读写操作指令链表的分析,完成了冗余代码的删除和指令合并。实验结果表明,经过代码优化后,TMS320C67xx汇编代码的执行效率提高了20%左右,较中间代码级的优化算法执行效率提高了15%左右。

  19. 基于TMS320F2812的太阳跟踪器设计%Sun-tracker Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培涛; 李成贵

    2010-01-01

    采用传感器和太阳位置计算相结合的方法,设计了基于TI公司的TMS320F2812的高精度太阳跟踪器.一方面可以防止较大误差积累,另一方面可以避免光线、天气情况的影响,跟踪精度得到了较大提高,能够很好地应用于光伏发电系统实现对太阳的精确跟踪.

  20. Inserts type system GUI based on TMS320LF2407 to design the new method%基于TMS320LF2407嵌入系统GUI设计新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国华; 王峰; 孟哲

    2006-01-01

    提出一种基于TMS320LF2407的嵌入式系统GUI图文界面设计新方法.利用TMS320LF2407A程序空间与数据空间分离的特性和内部集成flash存储器的特点,重新设计运行时间支持库,进行片上大容量图文字库设计.

  1. A Conceptual Framework of Knowledge Transfer in Malaysia E-Government IT Outsourcing: An Integration with Transactive Memory System (TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziati Abdul Hamid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research on knowledge transfer issues, there is a dearth of research that has explicitly focused on the role of Transactive Memory System (TMS in enabling inter-organizational knowledge transfer in e-government IT outsourcing. Although the information systems literature has recently acknowledged the role of TMS in improving knowledge processes, most of the research is still remain in theoretical conjecture. Additionally, most of related research was done in the lab based on the physical, virtual or memory recall tasks. None of empirical work has been done in integrating TMS in outsourcing context since most researchers used interpretive approach. To address this gap, we applied positivist approach through operationalization of identified factors that give impact towards Malaysia Public Agencies outsourcing partnership. The present paper attempts to provide an integrated conceptual framework of knowledge transfer with and integration of TMS to facilitate knowledge transfer process which further can be validated.

  2. EIMS Fragmentation Pathways and MRM Quantification of 7α/β-Hydroxy-Dehydroabietic Acid TMS Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontani, Jean-François; Aubert, Claude; Belt, Simon T.

    2015-09-01

    EI mass fragmentation pathways of TMS derivatives οf 7α/β-hydroxy-dehydroabietic acids resulting from NaBH4-reduction of oxidation products of dehydroabietic acid (a component of conifers) were investigated and deduced by a combination of (1) low energy CID-GC-MS/MS, (2) deuterium labeling, (3) different derivatization methods, and (4) GC-QTOF accurate mass measurements. Having identified the main fragmentation pathways, the TMS-derivatized 7α/β-hydroxy-dehydroabietic acids could be quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode in sea ice and sediment samples collected from the Arctic. These newly characterized transformation products of dehydroabietic acid constitute potential tracers of biotic and abiotic degradation of terrestrial higher plants in the environment.

  3. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Schambra, Heidi M.; R. Todd eOgden; Isis eMartínez-Hernández; Xuejing eLin; Y. Brenda eChang; Asif eRahman; Dylan eEdwards; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice dail...

  4. Ultrasonic Doppler Flowmeter Based on TMS320F28335%基于TMS320F28335的超声多普勒流量计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水永辉; 刘艳萍; 赵连环; 王庆山

    2012-01-01

    Based on continuous-wave ultrasonic Doppler method,a pipe-flow measurements system,using TMS320F28335 as the cote control chip,was designed to simplify the circuit of current ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. A detailed block diagram of the system design was given. The feasibility of difference frequency signal demodulation through software was analyzed, and the software design flow chart was presented. The results show that the development can greatly simplify the hardware design, and also has a high dynamic response and accuracy.%针对当前超声波多普勒流量计电路设计复杂的现状,以TMS320F28335作为核心控制芯片,采用连续波超声多普勒测量方法,设计管道流量测量系统.给出详细的系统设计框图,对利用软件实现差频信号的解调的可行性进行了分析,给出软件设计流程图.结果表明;该设计能简化系统硬件设计,同时具有较高的动态响应能力和测量精度.

  5. 基于TMS320F2812的高速数据采集系统%High-speed Data Acquisition System Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠钦; 杨威棣; 潘雪峰

    2011-01-01

    8 roads sync signal was collection by using TMS320F2812 DSP and MAX13O8 AD coverter. Collected data rela-time transited to the computer by CH372 USB inerface chip, and the data acquisition process controled and displayed by computer. The system can realized 800kbps real-time date transmission in single road of date acquisition and 400kbps in 8 roads synchronous collection.%采用TMS320F2812型号的DSP和MAX1308型号的AD转换器完成对8路同步信号的采集,通过USB接口芯片CH372将采集到的数据实时传输给计算机,计算机对整个数据采集过程进行控制并显示.该系统对单路的数据采集,可以实现800kbps的实时数据传输,8路同步采集可以实现400kbps的实时数据传输.

  6. Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Eshel, N; Ruff, Christian C.; Spitzer, B; Blankenburg, F; Driver, J.

    2010-01-01

    Interplay between the cerebral hemispheres is vital for coordinating perception and behavior. One influential account holds that the hemispheres engage in rivalry, each inhibiting the other. In the somatosensory domain, a seminal paper claimed to demonstrate such interhemispheric rivalry, reporting improved tactile detection sensitivity on the right hand after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right parietal lobe (Seyal, Ro, & Rafal, 1995). Such improvement in tactile detection i...

  7. TMS enhances retention of a motor skill in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisello, Clara; Blanco, Daniella; Fontanesi, Cecilia; Lin, Jing; Biagioni, Milton; Kumar, Pawan; Brys, Miroslaw; Loggini, Andrea; Marinelli, Lucio; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Quartarone, Angelo; Tononi, Giulio; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background In Parkinson’s disease (PD), skill retention is poor, even when acquisition rate is generally preserved. Recent work in normal subjects suggests that 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (5Hz-rTMS) may induce phenomena of long-term potentiation at the cortical level. Objective/Hypothesis We thus verified whether, in PD, 5Hz-rTMS enhances retention of a visuo-motor skill that involves the activity of the right posterior parietal cortex. Methods A group of patients with PD was tested in two two-day sessions, separated by one week (treatment and placebo sessions). The first day of each session, they learned to adapt their movements to a step-wise 60° visual rotation. Immediately after the task, either real 5Hz-rTMS (treatment) or sham (placebo) stimulation was applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (P6). Retention of this motor skill was tested the following day. Results In patients with PD, adaptation achieved at the end of training was comparable in the treatment and placebo sessions and was similar to that of a group of age-matched controls. However, retention indices tested on the following day were significantly lower in the placebo compared to the treatment session in which retention indices were restored to the level of the controls. Importantly, reaction and movement time as well as other kinematic measures were the same in the treatment and placebo sessions. Conclusion These results suggest that rTMS applied after the acquisition of a motor skill over specific areas involved in this process might enhance skill retention in PD. PMID:25533243

  8. Tetramethyl Silane (TMS) physical properties and safety considerations for use as a calorimeter fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetramethyl Silane, or TMS, has been proposed as a detector working fluid for the forward calorimeters of possible detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). It has the empirical formula C4H12Si. There is a considerable body of information and misinformation available about this compound. This report is intended to gather the safety-related information into one place and to point out and eliminate misconceptions encountered. 2 refs

  9. Performance Analysis of Code OptimizationBased on TMS320C6678 Multi-core DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In the development of modern DSP, more and more use of C/C++ as a development language has become a trend. Optimizationof C/C++ program has become an important link of the DSP software development. This article describes the structure features ofTMS320C6678 processor, illustrates the principle of efficient optimization method for C/C++, and analyzes the results.

  10. Spatial localization and distribution of the TMS-related 'hotspot' of the tibialis anterior muscle representation in the healthy and post-stroke motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Tahara-Eckl, Lenore; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a type of noninvasive brain stimulation used to study corticomotor excitability of the intact and injured brain. Identification of muscle representations in the motor cortex is typically done using a procedure called 'hotspotting', which involves establishing the optimal location on the scalp that evokes a maximum TMS response with minimum stimulator intensity. The purpose of this study was to report the hotspot locations for the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle representation in the motor cortex of healthy and post stroke individuals. A retrospective data analyses from 42 stroke participants and 32 healthy participants was conducted for reporting TMS hotspot locations and their spatial patterns. Single pulse TMS, using a 110mm double cone coil, was used to identify the motor representation of the TA. The hotspot locations were represented as x and y-distances from the vertex for each participant. The mediolateral extent of the loci from the vertex (x-coordinate) and anteroposterior extent of the loci from the vertex (y-coordinate) was reported for each hemisphere: non-lesioned (XNLes, YNLes), lesioned (XLes, YLes) and healthy (XH, YH). We found that the mean hotspot loci for TA muscle from the vertex were approximately: 1.29cm lateral and 0.55cm posterior in the non-lesioned hemisphere, 1.25cm lateral and 0.5cm posterior in the lesioned hemisphere and 1.6cm lateral and 0.8cm posterior in the healthy brain. There was no significant difference in the x- and y-coordinates between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres. However, the locations of the XNLes (p=0.01) and XLes (p=0.004) were significantly different from XH. The YNLes and YLes showed no significant differences from YH loci. Analyses of spatial clustering patterns using the Moran's I index showed a negative autocorrelation in stroke participants (NLes: Moran's I=-0.09, p<0.001; Les: Moran's I=-0.14, p=0.002), and a positive autocorrelation in healthy participants

  11. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field).

  12. Comparison of AIS Versus TMS Data Collected over the Virginia Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R.; Evans, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS, NS001 Thematic Mapper Simlulator (TMS), and Zeiss camera collected remotely sensed data simultaneously on October 27, 1983, at an altitude of 6860 meters (22,500 feet). AIS data were collected in 32 channels covering 1200 to 1500 nm. A simple atmospheric correction was applied to the AIS data, after which spectra for four cover types were plotted. Spectra for these ground cover classes showed a telescoping effect for the wavelength endpoints. Principal components were extracted from the shortwave region of the AIS (1200 to 1280 nm), full spectrum AIS (1200 to 1500 nm) and TMS (450 to 12,500 nm) to create three separate three-component color image composites. A comparison of the TMS band 5 (1000 to 1300 nm) to the six principal components from the shortwave AIS region (1200 to 1280 nm) showed improved visual discrimination of ground cover types. Contrast of color image composites created from principal components showed the AIS composites to exhibit a clearer demarcation between certain ground cover types but subtle differences within other regions of the imagery were not as readily seen.

  13. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field). (paper)

  14. Implementasi Encoder dan Decoder Cyclic Redundancy Check Pada TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Natalia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CRC merupakan metode yang paling populer digunakan saat ini karena kemampuanya paling baik dalam mendeteksi error. Pada Tugas Akhir ini memaparkan bagaimana CRC diimplementasikan pada TMS320C6416T. Evaluasi yang akan diteliti yaitu kinerja proses encoder dan decoder CRC sebagai fungsi Eb/No dari error per blok melalui kanal ideal AWGN  dengan modulasi BPSK serta melihat seberapa besar kemampuan CRC dalam mendeteksi kesalahan. Pengujian yang dilakukan melalui simulink matlab dan implementasi secara real ke dalam TMS320C6416T.  Adapun kode CRC yang dipilih yaitu CRC-8 dan CRC-16 dimana pada implementasi pada TMS dilakukan pengiriman sebesar 100.000 bit dalam 12.500 frame.  Hasil pengujian yang diperoleh yaitu jumlah error yang dideteksi pada CRC-8 rata-rata jumlah error adalah 2.750 frame dan rata-rata jumlah error bit informasi  1.957 bit. Sedangkan untuk CRC-16  rata-rata jumlah error adalah 3.520 frame dan rata-rata jumlah error per bit informasi yaitu 1.971 bit. Dari pengujian membuktikan bahwa kemampuan CRC-16 dalam menjaga keamanan data bit informasi jauh lebih baik dibandingkan dengan CRC-8.

  15. [ECT versus transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): preliminary data of computer modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, T; Krawczyk, A; Drzymała, P; Starzyński, J

    1999-01-01

    The essential issue of electroshock therapy (ECT) is the activity of physical stimulus, i.e., the electric current, on the disturbed structures of the brain. ECT sessions--when chronically applied for evoking antidepressive effects--are responsible for the appearance of excessive incitement in the neuronal net in the brain tissue in a form of self-sustaining after-discharge (SSAD) (convulsive attack characteristic for ECT). The study presents the computer research on basic biophysical phenomena of electroshock therapy (flow of electric current in the structures of the head just before convulsive attack). Five-layer 3-D model of the head was created in OPERA-3D (Vector Fields Ltd., Oxford), general 3 dimensional issues solver. Geometrical dimensions and electrophysical properties of each layer correspond with natural properties. The model was subjected to the action of electric stimulation (parameters identical to those applied in clinical conditions). Analysis of the flow in particular layers revealed the crawling/spreading effect present not only in the scalp layer but also in the layer of cerebrospinal fluid. The effect is conditioned by "deeper situated" lesser conduction of electricity-respectively skull bones, brain tissue. Crawling effect is the reason why only 5-15% of the electricity applied on the surface of the head reaches the surface of the brain. Electro-stimulation examinations also showed that the values of the so called density of the current in layers of brain tissue balanced between 1-10 mA/mm2. The current parameters of ECT were effective in evoking subsequent convulsive attack and safe for the brain tissue. The model was subjected to the action of magnetic stimulation according to the parameters of neurologic technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). ELECTRA module was used to solve wire-current issues. The examination showed more regular distribution of current vectors in all layers of the head. The density of cerebral cortex was 0

  16. Neuronavigation Increases the Physiologic and Behavioral Effects of Low-Frequency rTMS of Primary Motor Cortex in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, S.; Edwards, D; Pascual-Leone, A

    2010-01-01

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can exert local and inter-hemispheric neuromodulatory effects on cortical excitability. These physiologic effects can translate into changes in motor behavior, and may offer valuable therapeutic interventions in recovery from stroke. Neuronavigated TMS can maximize accurate and consistent targeting of a given cortical region, but is a lot more involved that conventional TMS. We aimed to assess whether neuronavigation enhances t...

  17. 41 CFR 301-50.4 - May I be granted an exception to the required use of TMS or ETS once my agency has fully deployed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exception to the required use of TMS or ETS once my agency has fully deployed ETS? 301-50.4 Section 301-50.4... TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.4 May I be granted an exception to the required use of TMS or ETS once my agency... exception to required use of your agency's current TMS or to required use of ETS once your agency has...

  18. Reversal of TMS-induced motor twitch by training is associated with a reduction in excitability of the antagonist muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregni Felipe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single session of isolated repetitive movements of the thumb can alter the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, such that the related muscle twitch measured post-training occurs in the trained direction. This response is attributed to transient excitability changes in primary motor cortex (M1 that form the early part of learning. We investigated; (1 whether this phenomenon might occur for movements at the wrist, and (2 how specific TMS activation patterns of opposing muscles underlie the practice-induced change in direction. Methods We used single-pulse suprathreshold TMS over the M1 forearm area, to evoke wrist movements in 20 healthy subjects. We measured the preferential direction of the TMS-induced twitch in both the sagittal and coronal plane using an optical goniometer fixed to the dorsum of the wrist, and recorded electromyographic (EMG activity from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR and extensor carpi radialis (ECR muscles. Subjects performed gentle voluntary movements, in the direction opposite to the initial twitch for 5 minutes at 0.2 Hz. We collected motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by TMS at baseline and for 10 minutes after training. Results Repetitive motor training was sufficient for TMS to evoke movements in the practiced direction opposite to the original twitch. For most subjects the effect of the newly-acquired direction was retained for at least 10 minutes before reverting to the original. Importantly, the direction change of the movement was associated with a significant decrease in MEP amplitude of the antagonist to the trained muscle, rather than an increase in MEP amplitude of the trained muscle. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that a TMS-twitch direction change following a simple practice paradigm may result from reduced corticospinal drive to muscles antagonizing the trained direction. Such findings may have implications for training paradigms in

  19. Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

  20. TMS 19 ÇALIŞANLARA SAĞLANAN FAYDALAR STANDARDININ İMKB’DEKİ ŞİRKETLERDE UYGULANMA DÜZEYİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    DURGUT, Mehmet; Kaya, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to present either financial or non financial reflections of regulations brought in the frame of human resources activities of TMS 19 Employee Benefits Standards on financial statements of corporations whose shares traded in Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). As a result of the research which adopts content analysis method, it is found out that all of the corporations which took part in the research have reported various information about the employee benefits regulated ...

  1. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-generated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Ninija Karabanov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects’ SoA during self-generated movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-generated movements and 2/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition, over the vertex (CZ (sham condition or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-generated movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P=0.002 and the stimulation-free control (P=0.042. The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in order to correctly determine the agent of movements.

  2. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26487181

  3. Digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter using TMS320LF2407A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Li Xinglin; Wu Shuifeng

    2008-01-01

    A digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter was proposed. A control system consisting of analogue parts was replaced with a new digital control implemented in a TMS320LF2407A DSP chip. The design and constructional features of the whole digital control were presented. The resources of the DSP chip were efficiently utilized and the circuits are very concise, which can enhance the stability and reliability of welding inverter. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed digital control has the ability to accomplish the excellent pulsed gas metal arc welding process and the merits of the developed digital control are stable welding process, little spatter and perfect weld appearance.

  4. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    (www.simnibs.de) that allows for the automatic creation of accurate head models from structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) (Windhoff et al., 2011). This enables us to perform field calculations for multiple subjects, as required in neuroscientific studies. We substantially...... improved the software in order to improve its usability in a group analysis. At the moment, we are performing field calculations and are acquiring motor mapping data in a group of subjects for a systematic comparison of both data sets.I will give an overview on the status of the SimNIBS project. I will......NIBS that include the import of coil positions from neuronavigation systems, improved support for diffusion-weighted MRI and transformation of the estimated fields into MNI space for group analysis. Preliminary results on the comparison between field estimates and motor mapping data will be presented...

  5. Method of auto-gain-control technolog based on TMS320C6414%一种基于TMS320C6414的自动增益控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登科; 时永鹏

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduced one technique of Auto-Gain-Control which is based on the TMS320C6414 of , the technique is important constituent of the infrared detection system, it must complete real-time Auto-Gain-Control of 8 analog signals. The design uses TMS320C6414 as the main processor, by using the software to control the digital potentiometer AD5290 to realize Auto-Gain-Control function. . This paper describes the TMS320C6414 and AD5290 properties and working principle, and its peripheral circuit design, hardware circuit and interface design, as well as the software design. The technology has complete product development, testing shows that, the technology to complete the system of set function, stable and reliable work.%一种基于TMS320C6414的自动增益控制技术的设计与实现,该技术是某红外探测系统的重要组成部分,需完成8路模拟信号的实时自动增益调节.该设计技术采用TMS320C6414作为主处理器,通过软件控制数字电位器AD5290来实现自动增益调节功能.TMS320C6414及AD5290的性能和工作原理,及其外围电路设计,硬件电路及接口的设计,以及底层软件的开发设计.该文介绍的技术已经完成产品研制,试验表明,该技术完成了系统规定的功能,工作稳定可靠.

  6. Theta Burst Stimulation of the Cerebellum Modifies the TMS-Evoked N100 Potential, a Marker of GABA Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allanah Harrington

    Full Text Available Theta burst stimulation (TBS of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP, a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18-30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS, continuous TBS (cTBS or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions. The first 8 participants received TBS at a stimulus intensity of 80% of active motor threshold (AMT, while the remainder received 90% of AMT. Motor evoked potentials (MEP and TEP were recorded before and after each treatment, by stimulating the first dorsal interosseus area of the left motor cortex. Analysis of the 13 right handed participants showed that iTBS at 90% of AMT increased the N100 amplitude compared to sham and cTBS, without significantly altering MEP amplitude. cTBS at 80% of active motor threshold decreased the N100 amplitude and cTBS overall reduced resting MEP amplitude. The study demonstrates effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on inhibitory cortical networks that may be useful for treatment of neurological conditions associated with dysfunctional intracortical inhibition.

  7. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  8. Effectiveness of ketamine in depressed patients resistant to ECT or rTMS therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosek, Paweł

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the last decade several authors described a robust and clinically relevant alleviation of depressive symptoms after infusions of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist - ketamine. In the majority of published reports ketamine was administrated to patients with depression resistant to pharmacotherapy, but not to ECT. We present a series of 5 subjects suffering from multimodal treatment-resistant depression (including ECT or rTMS and various medications treated with intravenous infusions of ketamine in a subanesthetic dose of 0.5 mg/kg in the naturalistic setting. To the best of our knowledge it is the first report on ketamine infusion in patient resistant to antidepressants and rTMS Methods. Two subjects have been diagnosed with MDD, one with BD, two with severe depressive episode. The efficacy and possible adverse events were monitored using psychometric scales. Basic life parameters and ECG were observed. Results. Ketamine’s infusions showed transient antidepressant efficacy. Improvement rate in our group was significant lower than in previously reported. Ketamine was generally well tolerated. We noted transient BP variations and appearance of mild and transient dissociative symptoms. Low early response rate may be correlated with resistance to previous multimodal treatment, high rate of somatization and anxiety comorbidity or heterogeneity of our group. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of ketamine infusions as the monotherapy in the subgroup of patients with multimodal treatment resistant depression.

  9. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT MSS and Airborne TMS for Hydrological Applications: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Hallada, W. A.; Marcell, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Land cover information for the Clinton River Basin (Michigan) derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data was compared with that from airborne thematic mapper simulator (TMS) to investigate the probable capabilities of the thematic mapper (TM) launched aboard LANDSAT-4 in July 1982. The preliminary findings for one 7.5 minute topographic map, Mt. Clemens West, are reported. Significant improvements in land cover classification accuracy were obtained using TMS data as compared with MSS data. Overall mapping accuracy increased from 49 to 61 percent with an improvement from 71 to 84 percent in the residential category. A combination of four bands with one band in each major region of the spectrum (visible, near IR, middle IR and thermal IR) provided as good a discrimination of land cover as all seven TM bands. Based on the improved land cover classification accuracy of TM, TM data has the potential to provide more useful and effective input to US Army Corps of Engineers flood forecasting and flood damage prediction/assessment models.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ir-Ta coatings on nickel-base single-crystal superalloy TMS-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a methodology for the controlled addition of tantalum in iridium--alloy coatings prepared by dc magnetron sputtering from a composite target has been proposed. Ir-Ta coatings with 16.2, 23.9, 40.7, and 65.1 at. % Ta were deposited at 573 K on the oriented nickel-base single-crystal superalloy, TMS-75, by suitably selecting the ratio of the surface area of the iridium target to the surface area of the tantalum target on the basis of reported values of the sputtering yield of the respective elements. The microstructural analysis indicates that pure coatings of iridium and tantalum form polycrystalline films with rms roughness of ∼5 nm, while the Ir-Ta coatings form a nanocrystalline structure whose crystallite size and rms roughness decrease with the increase in tantalum content. Measurement of mechanical properties using the nanoindentation technique shows that the Young's modulus and hardness of the coatings generally decrease with the increase in the tantalum content. However, there is a peaking of hardness in the composition range 16.2-23.9 at. % tantalum. This could be due to the formation of the nanocrystalline Ir3Ta phase. The data on the mechanical properties are presented to explore the possibility of using Ir-Ta as an oxidation-resistant material on nickel-base single-crystal superalloy

  11. The left visual-field advantage in rapid visual presentation is amplified rather than reduced by posterior-parietal rTMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Möller, Friderike; Kuniecki, Michal;

    2010-01-01

    right over the left hemisphere. If so, then repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right parietal cortex might release the left hemisphere from right-hemispheric control, thereby improving T2 identification in the right visual field. Alternatively or additionally, the asymmetry in T2...... identification might reflect capacity limitations of the left hemisphere, which might be aggravated by rTMS to the left parietal cortex. Therefore, rTMS pulses were applied during each trial, beginning simultaneously with T1 presentation. rTMS was directed either to P4 or to P3 (right or left parietal cortex......) either as effective or as sham stimulation. In two experiments, either one of these two factors, hemisphere and effectiveness of rTMS, was varied within or between participants. Again, T2 was much better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field was...

  12. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications. [Clinton River Basin, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for the Clinton River Basin in Michigan. While the accuracy of the 4-band TMS data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. The combination of bands selected based on the transformed divergence technique provided one band in each of the major regions of the spectrum: visible (band 3), near IR (band 4), middle IR (band 5) and thermal IR (band 7). These results should be viewed with some caution, since the data are from a TMS rather than the actual TM and the MSS data were obtained in early summer while the TMS was flown in late summer. The higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

  13. 基于TMS320F2812伺服矢量控制系统的研究%Research on Servo Vector Control System Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏燕兰

    2011-01-01

    It analyzed the designing method of the servo vector control system, which is based on TMS320F2812 chip, both hardware and software. It was proved that the servo vector control system with TMS320F2812 of 32 bit DSP chip has the advantages of high precision and high speed. Meanwhile, it was shown that the C language with high programming efficiency has simplified the digitization of this complex system.%对以 TMS320F2812 为核心芯片的伺服矢量控制系统硬件、软件的设计方法进行阐述与论证.实践表明,利用 32 位 DSP 芯片 TMS320F2812 进行伺服矢量控制,运算速度快、精度高,而且高编译效率的 C 语言编程使复杂系统的数字化实现简单.

  14. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation. PMID:26959337

  15. Research on Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Based on TMS320LF2407A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufei, Xu; Guangqun, Nan

    The direct torque control of Induction Motor is one of the high performance control system, which was proposed after the vector control scheme. During the recent 20 years, It has been developed rapidly for its concise system scheme, excellent dynamic and static performances. DTC system directly controls the electromagnetic torque and stator flux, using the analyzing method of space vector and stator flux orientation. This paper establishes the mathematical model of direct torque control (DTC) system of induction motor, and direct torque control (DTC) scheme of induction motor based on TMS320LF2407A is introduced. The control scheme gets the switch control signal of inverter with the space voltage vector modulation technology. Finally the approach has been implemented on DSP in a 1.1 kW drive. The results show that the DTC with SVPWM has many merits such as simple realization, good running performance and high voltage utilization ratio.

  16. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens;

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic...... stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex...... polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical...

  17. TMS320F2812 BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR BLDC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.R.VIJAYARAJESWARAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to develop a novel sensorless control scheme suitable for brushless dc permanent magnet (BLDC-PM motor with a view to elaborate its flexible operating status. It orients its focus to detect the zero crossing instant of the back emf and there from assuage a methodology to control the speed of the motor. The state of the art technology facilitates the use of a powerful processor to realize the strategy in real time. It includes MATLAB simulation to evaluate its performance and seeks the role of DSP (Digital Signal Processor TMS320F2812 controller to validate the same using a prototype. The results illustrate the ability of the proposedtechnique to improve the input power factor in addition to regulating the speed of the motor.

  18. Design of one large telescope direct drive control system based on TMS320F28xx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-xing; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-chao; Chen, Li-yan; Ren, Chang-zhi

    2014-08-01

    The mount drive control is the key technique which mostly affects astronomical telescope's resolution and its speed. However, the ultra -lower speed and the giant moment of inertia make it very difficult to be controlled. In this paper, one segmented permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), 4m diameter, is suggested for the mount driving. A method is presented to drive the motor directly, which is based on TMS320F28XX and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) , also, HEIDENHAIN tape is used to detect the absolute position of the motor together with the Hall sensor. The segmented PMSM can work stable and the mount drive can realize nice tracking performance at ultra -lower speed with this drive system.

  19. [European Blood Alliance (EBA) and EuroNet TMS: what challenges for the transfusion of tomorrow?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, G; de Wit, J; Rouger, P

    2011-04-01

    The primary mission of the European Blood Alliance (EBA) is to contribute to the safety and efficiency of the supply of blood products, cells and tissues, in developing an active network of blood establishments in Europe (25 countries). Its strategic objectives are to improve performance (through working groups and projects funded by the European Union), to engage in regulatory affairs (particularly at the European Commission level) to promote best practices and to facilitate a network to collect and share knowledge and experiences. The main objective of EuroNet TMS, combining the blood scientific societies from more than 30 countries in Europe, is to update and publish regularly, intended for policymakers, a White Book on the transfusion chain from donor to patient and probable or possible changes in the coming 5 years. Since 2008, EBA and EuroNet TMS actively collaborate on the drafting of the 2nd edition to be published in 2011. The two presidents jointly drafted the final chapter outlining the major issues of transfusion for tomorrow, summarized thereafter. Transfusion will still be useful for a long time and for reasons of safety and ethics the voluntary and unpaid donations, with non-profit blood establishments, will remain, the cornerstone of the supply of blood products. This renders crucial the continuous improvement of donor management and optimal blood use. On the regulatory side, after 5 years of implementation, EU directives must be independently evaluated and the Blood Guide of the Council of Europe should gradually become a regulatory standard. Finally, if a competition should be introduced for the blood products, it should be strictly regulated to prevent any threat to the security of their supply and quality for patients. PMID:21458349

  20. Implementasi Hybrid DS/FH Spread Spectrum menggunakan DSK TMS302C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Wisnu Laksita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spread spectrum adalah sebuah metode komunikasi dimana semua sinyal komunikasi disebar di seluruh spektrum frekuensi yang tersedia. Sinyal informasi akan ditebarkan pada seluruh pita frekuensi yang disediakan dan dilakukan secara acak. Metode spread spectrum merupakan metode komunikasi yang memiliki ketahan terhadap jamming.Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum adalah sistem komunikasi spread spectrum yang menggabungkan antara sistem komunikasi direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS dan frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS. Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum dapat diprogram dengan menggunakan DSP processor. DSK TMS320C6416T adalah suatu hardware untuk memproses sinyal yang termasuk dalam prosesor TMS320 produksi Texas Instrument. Sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum diharapkan memiliki ketahanan yang lebih terhadap gangguan seperti kondisi kanal AWGN dan jamming yang berupa singletone jamming dan multitone jamming.Pada kondisi kanal AWGN yang buruk dengan tingkat signal to noise ratio (S/N rendah dengan EbNo 0 dB, sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum memiliki nilai bit error rate (BER 0.04. Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum memiliki kehandalan yang sangat baik terhadap jamming yang berupa singletone jamming dan multitone jamming terbukti pada pengujian kehandalan terhadap pengaruh singletone jamming dengan daya tone dua kali daya sinyal carrier sistem dan melewati kanal AWGN dengan EbNo 10 dB, sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum memiliki BER 0.00001 dan 0.03 untuk multitone jamming dengan parameter yang sama. Berdasarkan uraian tersebut dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum tahan terhadap gangguan seperti kondisi kanal AWGN dan jamming yang berupa singletone jamming dan multitone jamming.

  1. 一种利用Tornado Shell调试多片TMS320VC5416的方法%Debugging Multi-piece TMS320VC5416 under Tornado Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹仕祥

    2007-01-01

    在目标板调试DSP代码,通常要用到仿真器.但用仿真器调试多DSP系统,不仅成本高,而且不方便.文中介绍了一种由1片MPC860和3片TMS320VC5416组成,并且采用HPI接口的信道板的调试方法.调试过程中,不用仿真器,实现了代码下载、运行以及变量查看.它充分利用了MPC860、TMS320VC5416、VxWorks的特点,调试过程简单、快捷.

  2. Application of milling machine control system based on TMS320C240 DSP and single chip micro processor%基于TMS320C240 DSP的龙门铣床控制系统应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祖林; 周冬芳

    2003-01-01

    TMS320C24X是专为电机数字控制和其它控制应用系统而设计的系列DSP芯片,针对龙门铣床直流拖动控制系统,设计了以TMS320C240 DSP为控制核心与单片机相结合的数字控制系统,介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件设计算法,实际运行结果表明该系统具有良好的动态性能和较高的速度控制精度.

  3. The Hardware Design of Power Quality Analysis Board Based on TMS320F206%基于TMS320F206的电网数据处理板设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亮; 程丽萍

    2004-01-01

    介绍了基于DSP芯片TMS320F206的电网采样处理板的软、硬件设计方法,对硬件各模块电路的工作原理作了重点的讨论,同时给出了该电网数据处理板的主程序和中断处理程序流程图.

  4. Efficacy of low-frequency rTMS to the right frontal cortex for depression:a meta-analysis%右侧额叶低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗抑郁症的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁亚杰; 夏麟; 武圣君

    2015-01-01

    目的:系统评价右侧额叶低频重复经颅磁刺激(repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation,rTMS)治疗抑郁症的疗效。方法检索PubMed、Web of Science、CBM、CNKI、VIP数据库中有关低频rTMS刺激右侧额叶背外侧皮质(dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,DLPFC)治疗抑郁症的临床随机对照研究(randomized controlled trials, RCT)。采用RevMan 5.2软件,根据对照组刺激方法的不同,分别以无效刺激及高频rTMS为对照,对治疗应答率进行meta分析。结果纳入以无效刺激为对照的RCT研究9项,其中低频rTMS组156例抑郁症患者,无效刺激组162例,meta分析显示低频rTMS刺激右侧DLPFC治疗抑郁症,其治疗应答率相比无效刺激组,差异有统计学意义RR=2.15(95%CI:1.57~2.95,P<0.01);纳入以高频rTMS刺激左侧DLPFC为对照的RCT研究11项,其中低频rTMS组178例患者,高频rTMS组200例,meta分析表明两组间应答率差异无统计学意义(RR=0.80,95%CI:0.63~1.02,P=0.07)。结论低频rTMS刺激右侧DLPFC治疗抑郁症有效,但相比高频rTMS刺激左侧DLPFC方法而言,不具有疗效优势。%Objective To systematically assess the efficacy of the low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right frontal cortex for depression. Methods Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies about low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for depression were collected from database such as PubMed, SCI, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. The meta-analysis using the software of RevMan 5.2 was conducted to com⁃pare the response rate of low-frequency rTMS to the right DLPFC with sham stimulation and high-frequency rTMS to the left DLPFC, respectively. Results Nine RCT studies with 156 patients in low-frequency rTMS group and 162 patients in sham stimulation group were included. Meta-analysis showed that low-frequency rTMS to the right DLPFC significantly

  5. Anhedonia and reward-circuit connectivity distinguish nonresponders from responders to dorsomedial prefrontal rTMS in major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Downar, J.; Geraci, J.; Salomons, Tim; Dunlop, K; Wheeler, S.; McAndrews, M. P.; Bakker, N.; Blumberger, D. M.; Daskalakis, Z.J.; Kennedy, S H; Flint, A. J.; Giacobbe, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a heterogeneous mental illness. Neurostimulation treatments, by targeting specific nodes within the brain’s emotion-regulation network, may be useful both as therapies and as probes for identifying clinically relevant depression subtypes. Methods Here, we applied 20 sessions of magnetic resonance imaging-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in 47 unipolar or bipolar patients with a medication-resista...

  6. Time-frequency analysis of short-lasting modulation of EEG induced by TMS during wake, sleep deprivation and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Manganotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dynamic changes in spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG rhythms in the awake state or sleep is highly variable. These rhythms can be externally modulated during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with a perturbation method to trigger oscillatory brain activity. EEG-TMS co-registration was performed during standard wake, during wake after sleep deprivation and in sleep in 6 healthy subjects. Dynamic changes in the regional neural oscillatory activity of the cortical areas were characterized using time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet method, and the modulation of induced oscillations were related to different vigilance states. A reciprocal synchronizing/desynchronizing effect on slow and fast oscillatory activity was observed in response to focal TMS after sleep deprivation and sleep. We observed a sleep-related slight desynchronization of alpha mainly over the frontal areas, and a widespread increase in theta synchronization. These findings could be interpreted as proof of the interference external brain stimulation can exert on the cortex, and how this could be modulated by the vigilance state. Potential clinical applications may include evaluation of hyperexcitable states such as epilepsy or disturbed states of consciousness such as minimal consciousness.

  7. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  8. Implementasi Encoder dan Decoder BCH Menggunakan DSK TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sutarto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada sistem komunikasi digital yang berkembang sangat pesat sekarang ini perlu dihasilkan sistem komunikasi yang handal. Kode BCH merupakan salah satu metode pendeteksi dan pengoreksi error yang terjadi secara acak, yang mampu mengoreksi beberapa kesalahan (multiple error sekaligus dan merupakan pengembangan dari metode kode Hamming. Pada Tugas Akhir ini dibuat sistem kode BCH yang terdiri dari encoder dan decoder BCH, dimana modulasi yang digunakan adalah BPSK. Sistem ini diimplementasikan menggunakan perangkat DSP Starter Kit TMS320C6416T dan diuji ketahanan sistem terhadap kanal AWGN. Analisa meliputi nilai BER hasil pengujian yang diperoleh dengan mengubah parameter Eb/N0 pada kanal AWGN. Hasil pengujian simulasi dan implementasi ditampilkan dalam bentuk grafik BER terhadap variasi Eb/N0 dengan mengirimkan 100,000 bit. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa sistem kode BCH mampu mengurangi nilai BER secara signifikan, Kinerja sistem terbaik terdapat pada implementasi sistem dengan ukuran kode BCH(15,5 yang mampu mencapai BER= 0 pada kondisi Eb/N0= 5 dB. Nilai coding gain pada implementasi kode BCH(15,7 sebesar 3.75 dB untuk BER= 10-3. Hasil pengujian sistem implementasi relatif sama dengan hasil pengujian sistem simulasi.

  9. 基于单目双焦及SIFT特征匹配的深度估计方法%Depth Estimation Method Based on Monocular Bifocal Imaging and SIFT Feature Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜立婵; 覃团发; 黎相成

    2013-01-01

    A depth estimation method based on monocular bifocal imaging and SIFT feature matching is proposed.According to the geometrical relationship between the position vector of space scene depth at different focal lengths and the corresponding formation of focal length,a single camera to get images is used in two different focal lengths,obtaines the position offset ratio of the pixel to the center.Finally,the pixel depth values is calculated by the formulation of geometrical relationship.Since this method is based on monocular focal imaging,compares to the multi-view images,avoids the problems of the multiple cameras location calibration and synchronization.Meanwhile,the arithmetic based on SIFT feature matching can solve the problem of extracting feature points better in two different brightness images with the characteristics of affine and zooming.%提出一种基于单目双焦及SIFT特征匹配的深度估计方法.根据空间景物的深度在不同焦距下其成像的矢量位置和对应的焦距形成几何关系的原理,通过单相机获取两幅不同焦距下的图像后,运用SIFT算法对两幅图像进行特征提取和特征匹配,得出同一景物像素点距中心点的偏移位置比,从而通过几何关系公式计算出像素点的深度值,以此获取深度图.经实验验证了该方法的可行性,实验结果表明,使用该方法获取深度值仅需单台相机这一设备,方法简单易行,且成本低,具有广阔的应用范围.

  10. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Livia Drumond Marra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen’s MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction p=0.05, favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration.

  12. Kısa Vadeli Amaçlarla Satın Alınan Finansal Varlıkların Türkiye Muhasebe Standartları (TMS) ve Türkiye Finansal Raporlama Standartları (TFRS) Kapsamında Muhasebeleştirilmesi / The Accounting under Turkish Accounting Standarts (TAS) and Turkish Financial

    OpenAIRE

    DIZMAN, Şakir

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of accounting and financial statements with the new Turkish Trade Code has been started on the basis of Turkey Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS) and Turkey Accounting Standards (TAS), which is the counterpart in Turkey’s International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Accounting Standards (IAS). The purpose of this study is to show how to manage short-term financial assets purchased for purposes of accounting records within the scope of TFRS and the TMS....

  13. Design and implement of UTOPIA interface of TMS320C64x series DSP%TMS320C64x系列DSP的UTOPIA接口设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 谢绍斌

    2007-01-01

    ATM传输是宽带综合业务数字网的重要技术,为使DSP能接入ATM系统,利用TMS320C64x特有的UTOPIA接口构建了一个ATM系统的从设备.介绍了UTOPIA接口基本的发送和接收操作流程,设计了与主控制器MPC8260连接的接口电路,重点探讨了UTOPIA从设备端的参数设置要点,并给出部分程序段代码.

  14. 基于TMS320VC5402的甚高频全向信标系统的实现%Utilization of VOR Navigation Receiver on TMS320VC5402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永东; 阔永红

    2003-01-01

    本文介绍了飞机导航系统-甚高频全向信标系统(VOR)的导航原理、导航信号形式及其数字信号处理原理,提出了一种新的VOR相差处理技术-相关技术,并说明了TMS320VC5402在导航接收机数字处理单元中的应用.

  15. A study on triple-membrane-separator (TMS) process to treat aqueous effluents containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective process incorporated with the novel membrane separation technology was developed to recover uranium from the filtrate effluent of uranium dioxide conversion processes. The prominent feature of the process is that it utilizes separation characteristics of three different types of membranes as follow: separation of uranium species from effluent of high fluoride content by ultrafiltration membrane, separation of uranium species from effluent of low fluoride content by reverse osmosis membrane, precipitation of uranium species with hydrogen peroxide, and filtration of uranium bearing precipitates by microfiltration membrane. The process is simple and feasible for treatment of liquid waste containing both soluble and suspended uranium species. The recovery of uranium can be as high as 95% and the treated effluents meet the current environmental standards. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base

  17. Performance Case study of Grigoryan FFT over Cooley-Tukey FFT using TMS DSP Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanam Ranganadh , Muni Guravaiah P

    2012-01-01

    Frequency analysis plays vital role in the applications like cryptanalysis, steganalysis [6], system identification, controller tuning, speech recognition, noise filters, etc. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Cooley-Tukey...

  18. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr. [ed.

    1992-11-01

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base.

  19. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base.

  20. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N; Christensen, Mark Schram;

    2014-01-01

    task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects' SoA during self-controlled movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-controlled movements and (2)/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents......-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-controlled movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P = 0.002) and the stimulation-free control (P = 0.042). The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in...

  1. Tramway et TMS : une mise en veille de la santé et de la sécurité

    OpenAIRE

    Doniol-Shaw, Ghislaine; Foot, Robin; Franchi, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cette communication traite de la prévention des TMS chez des conducteurs de tramway. Beaucoup souffrent des avant-bras, des mains et des doigts. Trois dimensions ont été identifiées : biomécanique, cognitive et psychique. Au niveau biomécanique, nous avons établi un lien entre ces douleurs et la conception du poste de conduite et particulièrement du système de veille dit aussi système d'homme-mort. Sur le plan cognitif, nous avons constaté que l'activation du système de veille entrait en conc...

  2. Realización de un simulador del DSP TMS320C3x en C++ Builder

    OpenAIRE

    León Galván, José Ignacio; Barrero, Federico; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Sánchez Segura, Juan Antonio

    2002-01-01

    En este documento se presenta un software realizado en C++ Builder que simula el comportamiento de un Procesador Digital de Señal de la familia TMS320C3x de Texas Instruments. El trabajo realizado en el Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica de la Escuela Superior de Ingenieros de Sevilla formará parte del material didáctico que se empleará en las clases prácticas de la asignatura “Complemento de Sistemas Electrónicos Digitales”, de tercer curso de Ingeniero de Telecomunicación...

  3. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

    1988-01-01

    The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

  4. Diversité des acteurs : quelles coopérations pour la prévention des TMS ?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroly, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Nombreux sont les acteurs intervenant dans le domaine de la santé au travail et préoccupés par les questions de prévention des TMS : médecins du travail, ergonomes, IPRP, ingénieurs sécurité, DRH, infirmières du travail, ergothérapeutes, kinésithérapeutes, rhumatologues, psychologues du travail, etc. Autour de ces professionnels gravitent d'autres acteurs qui jouent un rôle important dans les dynamiques de prévention : les salariés, les responsables d'entreprise, les chefs d'atelier, les part...

  5. Research on the controlling of rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor based on TMS320C242%基于TMS320C242的稀土永磁无刷直流电机控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艺

    2012-01-01

    对用TMS320C242控制稀土永磁无刷直流电机(REPMBLDCM)进行了深入的探讨。作为驱动设备,稀土永磁无刷直流电机在很多方面性能优于普通直流电机;作为控制核心,TMS320C242无论是集成度还是控制速度都远超普通的单片机。所以用TMS320C242控制REPMBLDCM可获得极为优秀的控制效果和驱动性能。%A deep discussion has been made on how to control rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor with TMS320C242. As a driving device, rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor is superior to the common DC motor in many ways. As a core of the control system, TMS320C242 is far more superior to the common single chip microcontroller unit whether on its integration or its controlling speed. Therefore, excellent control effects and driving properties can be obtained by adopting TMS320C242 to control REPMBLDCM.

  6. CVD facility electrical system captor/dapper study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project W-441, CVD Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses

  7. Software design of serial communication between TMS320LF2407A and PC based on modbus%基于MODBUS协议的TMS320LF2407A与PC机串口通信软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 文小玲; 刘义亭; 孙谋

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the software design method of slave serial communications between the master PC and slave TMS320LF2407A DSP based on Modbus.The interrupt mode is used for the data receiving and between the master and the slave in order to guarantee the reliability of the communication.The DSP communication software is programmed using C language and can be easily transplanted to other microprocessors.The experimental results show that phase A input current of nonlinear load diode rectifier circuit can be displayed by the Labview, realizing the simple, reliable and stable data transmission between DSP and PC.%主要阐述了基于MODBUS协议的DSP从机通信软件的设计方法.以PC机作为上位机,TMS320LF2407A DSP作为下位机,采用中断方式实现数据的接收和发送,保证了数据传输的可靠性.利用C语言编写DSP从站通信程序,以便于程序的移植.经实验验证,非线性负载二极管整流电路的A相输入电流波形能通过Labview显示,实现了DSP与PC机之间简单、可靠、稳定的数据传输.

  8. Network Video Monitor System Based on TMS320DM365%基于TMS320DM365的网络视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项昌晨; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    The background of this paper is a network camera development projects with Shanghai Guanlin Co. , Ltd. In this paper, a video surveillance system with the core chip TMS320DM365 is designed. This system takes full advantage of the powerful multimedia processing in DM365. Its external interface is complete. The other features include functional, compact, high integration, support for the network transmission with 720p high-definition video. Test results show that the system is efficiency with the stability network transmission and achieve practical application.%以同上海冠林公司合作开发的IP网络摄像机项目为背景,开发设计了以TMS320DM365为处理核心的网络视频监控系统.该系统充分利用了DM365强大的多媒体处理功能,对外接口齐全,功能完善,体积小巧,集成度高,可支持720p高清晰视频网络传输.测试结果表明,系统性能高效,网络传输稳定,达到了实际应用的要求.

  9. Design and Implementation of VOR Software Receiver Based on TMS320VC5402%基于TMS320VC5402的VOR软件接收机的设计实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小天; 陈健; 陈吉锋

    2005-01-01

    VOR(甚高频全向信标系统)是一种近程无线电导航系统,可以向收音机提供方位信息.以往的VOR接收机都是模拟硬件实现的,其精度和误差越来越难以满足现代收音机对导航的精密要求,而且也不如软件接收机灵活可靠.文中简要介绍了VOR的导航原理和VOR的信号形式,论述了VOR软件接收机的算法,基中主要包括解调算法和比相算法,并且证明了相关比相算法的原理,给出了VOR软件接收机的算法框图,最后介绍了软件算法在硬件平台上的实现以及TMS320VC5402在其中的应用,同时给出了以TMS320VC5402为中心的硬件框图.

  10. Design of Iris Acquisition and Recognition System Based on TMS320DM6437%基于 TMS320DM6437的虹膜采集和识别系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓飞; 李临生

    2014-01-01

    The iris recognition technology is considered to be one of most promising biometric authentication technologies,and it has been widely used in finance,electronic commerce,defense and other areas.A real-time iris acquisition and recognition platform is designed based on TI TMS320DM6437.The system framework,and the relevant software design such as the Codec Engine software framework and network transmission are analyzed.The platform can be applied to the different image recognition fields.%虹膜识别技术被认为是最有前途的生物认证技术之一,并且已经广泛应用于金融、电子商务、国防等领域。本课题基于 TI 公司的 TMS320DM6437设计了一款实时的虹膜采集和识别平台,介绍了系统的框架,并分析了相关的软件设计,如 Codec Engine 软件框架和网络传输。该平台也可以应用于不同的图像识别领域。

  11. Comparison of physicochemical and electrochemical characterization of PVC incorporated ZT and ZM composite membranes and their applicability on TMS theoretical equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Mohd; Zeeshan, Mohd; Rafiuddin

    2015-10-01

    PVC incorporated ZT/ZM composite materials have been synthesized via qualitative sol-gel method of material synthesis. Both the composite materials have the combination of inorganic ion-exchanger of different metal salt as well as same organic polymers, which is used to design a new class of organic-inorganic composite ion exchange membrane with much better chemical and mechanical properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher thermal stability, reproducibility, selectivity etc. The physicochemical, electrochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of both the membranes were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR and simultaneous TGA-DTA studies were carried out to understand the ion exchange behavior of materials. The above analysis demonstrated the functional groups, material nature, thermal stability, surface structure, porosity, elemental percentages, ion transportation etc. The electrochemical properties have been studied by TMS theoretical approach which easily determined the important parameters of membranes like transport number, mobility ratio, charge density, charge effectiveness etc. The observed ionic potential and graphical fixed-charge density of both the membranes follows KCl NaCl > LiCl order respectively.

  12. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  13. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  14. Sex-Specific Automatic Responses to Infant Cries: TMS Reveals Greater Excitability in Females than Males in Motor Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Cattaneo, Luigi; Venuti, Paola; de Pisapia, Nicola; Serra, Mauro; Esposito, Gianluca; Rigo, Paola; Farneti, Alessandra; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the biceps brachii (BB) and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1) muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms after sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry and absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this response is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. PMID:26779061

  15. Proprioceptive drift in the rubber hand illusion is intensified following 1 Hz TMS of the left EBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rubber hand illusion (RHI is a paradigm used to induce an illusory feeling of owning a dummy hand through congruent multisensory stimulation. Thus, it can grant insights into how our brain represents our body as our own. Recent research has demonstrated an involvement of the extrastriate body area (EBA, an area of the brain that is typically implicated in the perception of non-face body parts, in illusory body ownership. In this experiment we sought causal evidence for the involvement of the EBA in the RHI. 16 participants took part in a sham controlled, 1 Hz repetitive TMS (1200 pulse experiment where they received synchronous (RHI condition or asynchronous (control stroking and were asked to report the perceived location of their real hand as well as the intensity and the temporal onset of experienced ownership of the dummy hand. Following TMS of the left EBA, participants misjudged their real hand's location significantly more towards the rubber hand during synchronous stroking than after sham stimulation. This difference in "proprioceptive drift" provides the first causal evidence that the EBA is involved in the RHI and subsequently in body representation and further supports the view that the EBA is necessary for multimodal integration.

  16. Impaired Organization of Paired-Pulse TMS-Induced I-Waves After Human Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, John; Calabro, Finnegan J; Perez, Monica A

    2016-05-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human motor cortex results in consecutive facilitatory motor-evoked potential (MEP) peaks in surface electromyography in intact humans. Here, we tested the effect of an incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) on early (first) and late (second and third) MEP peaks in a resting intrinsic finger muscle. We found that all peaks had decreased amplitude in SCI subjects compared with controls. The second and third peaks were delayed with the third peak also showing an increased duration. The delay of the third peak was smaller than that seen in controls at lower stimulation intensity, suggesting lesser influence of decreased corticospinal inputs. A mathematical model showed that after SCI the third peak aberrantly contributed to spinal motoneurone recruitment, regardless on the motor unit threshold tested. Temporal and spatial aspects of the late peaks correlated with MEP size and hand motor output. Thus, early and late TMS-induced MEP peaks undergo distinct modulation after SCI, with the third peak likely reflecting a decreased ability to summate descending volleys at the spinal level. We argue that the later corticospinal inputs on the spinal cord might be crucial for recruitment of motoneurones after human SCI. PMID:25814508

  17. Sulvanite Compounds Cu3TMS4 (TM= V, Nb and Ta): Elastic, Electronic, Optical and Thermal Properties using First-principles Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, M A; Islam, A K M A

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic first-principles study of the structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermodynamics properties of the sulvanite compounds Cu3TMS4 (TM = V, Nb and Ta). The structural, elastic and electronic properties are in fact revisited using a different calculation code than that used by other workers and the results are compared. The band gaps are found to be 1.041, 1.667 and 1.815 eV for Cu3VS4, Cu3NbS4 and Cu3TaS4, respectively which are comparable to other available calculated results. The optical properties such as dielectric function, refractive index, photoconductivity, absorption coefficients, reflectivity and loss function have been calculated for the first time. The calculated results are compared with the limited measured data on energy dependent refractive index and reflectivity coefficient available only for Cu3TaS4. All the materials are dielectric, transparent in the visible range. The values of plasma frequencies are found to be 15.36, 15.58 and 15.64 eV for Cu3VS4, Cu3NbS4 an...

  18. Quelle est la relation entre les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) liés au travail et les facteurs psychosociaux ?

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Susan; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Messing, Karen; Turcot, Alice; Raiq, Hicham

    2013-01-01

    La littérature scientifique reconnaît l’origine multifactorielle des troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS) liés au travail. Au-delà des facteurs biomécaniques et personnels, les facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux contribuent également à la genèse des TMS liés au travail, mais les relations entre ces problèmes de santé et ces facteurs d’exposition sont complexes et largement méconnues. De plus, il y a un manque de consensus sur ce que signifient les « facteurs psychosociaux du travail »...

  19. [Bifocal atypical rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlov, V A; Baiarrnaa Dondovyn; Gnezditskiĭ, V V

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological analysis of a case of a 7 year old patient with typical benign partial seizures with rolandic spikes and speech disorder, differing from those in Landau-Kleffner syndrome and in typical benign partial epilepsy of childhood presenting as speech dyspraxia. Two independent foci (in the premotor cortex of the left front lobe (dominant hemisphere) and in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere were found. Significant clinical improvement and electrographical positive effect in EEG were achiered after prednisolone and sodium valproate treatment. PMID:15849864

  20. Environmental Myopia: The Case for Bifocals

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris; Hutson, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Domestic and international tourists have major impacts on Aotearoa/New Zealand, both positive and negative. In 2010, tourism was the biggest export earner and continues to grow. Environmental consequences of tourism are also growing. Ways of addressing the environmental impacts caused by a mobile society continue to be debated from a variety of…

  1. TMS 2014 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Annual Meeting Supplemental Proceedings (ISBN: 978-1-118-88972-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K; Zhukov, A; Ipatov, M; Talaat, A; Blanco, J; Zhukova, V; Churyukanova, M; Kaloshkin, S; Zamiatkina, E; Shuvaeva, E; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L; Hernando, B

    2015-03-02

    The Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications IV, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 50 high-level technical talks were planned over the course of the event. In addition, the students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. Meeting global energy needs in a clean, efficient, secure and sustainable manner is arguably the greatest challenge facing mankind today. Magnetic materials play a critical role in myriad devices for the collection, conversion, transmission and storage of energy. For example, high performance permanent magnets are currently in great demand for the generators in wind turbines and electric motors in hybrid vehicles. Other classes of advanced magnetic materials are essential for efficient inductors/transformers and motors. Energy efficient cooling based on the magnetocaloric effect is another exciting possibility which is rapidly becoming industrially viable. The potential energy savings related to refrigeration and air conditioning based on magnetocaloric materials are highly attractive. This symposium allowed experts in areas relating to the advanced characterization, simulation, and optimization of magnetic materials to convene and present their latest research. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators

  2. Primary structure of the tms and prs genes of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Arnvig, Kirsten

    1989-01-01

    products remains to be established. The prs gene contains an open reading frame of 317 codons resulting in a subunit Mr of 34828. An open reading frame comprising the tms gene contained 456 codons resulting in a putative translation product with an Mr of 49,554. Comparison of the deduced B. subtilis PRPP...

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS as a tool for early diagnosis and prognostication in Cortico-basal ganglia degeneration (CBD syndromes: Review of literature and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortico basal degeneration (CBD of the brain is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which encompasses unique neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is essential for initiating proper treatment and favorable outcome. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS, a well-known technique for assessment of cortical excitatory and inhibitory properties. It was suggested that in a degenerative disease like CBD which involves the cortex as well as the subcortical structures, comparing both hemispheres, a differential pattern in TMS can be obtained which would help in early identification, prognostication and early therapeutic intervention. Case Report: We describe a case of CBD with corroborative clinical and imaging picture wherein single pulse TMS was used over both the hemispheres measuring the following parameters of interest which included: Motor Threshold (MT, Central Motor Conduction Time (CMCT and Silent Period (SP. Results and Conclusion: Differential patterns of MT, CMCT and SP was obtained by stimulating over both the hemispheres with the affected hemisphere showing significantly reduced MT and prolonged CMCT implying early impairment of cortical and subcortical structures thereby revealing the potential application of TMS being utilized in a novel way for early detection and prognostication in CBD syndromes.

  4. Design of data acquisition system based on TMS320F2812%基于TMS320F2812的数据采集系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超波; 何宁; 袁晓伟

    2011-01-01

    To meet the requirement of practical production at oil field and master the parameter variations of internal well fully, a data acquisition system based on TMS320F2812 is proposed. The design applies abundant internal devices of DSP to accomplish hardware modules of data acquisition system, complete USB2. 0 protocol to improve data transmission under the cooperation of SCI interface and CH375, and also design FIR digital filter to ensure the effective of data processing results in software. The practice has proved that this system meets the requirement and has broad application prospects.%为了满足油田实际生产的要求,全面掌握油井内部的参数变化情况,提出了一种基于TMS320F2812的数据采集系统的设计方案.该设计方案使用了DSP丰富的片内外设,构建了数据采集系统的硬件电路模块,并利用SCI接口与CH375相互配合实现了USB2.0协议,提高了系统的数据传输速率,而软件部分则设计了FIR数字滤波器,明显增强了数据处理结果的有效性.实践证明,该系统能够满足生产测井的需要,具有广阔的应用前景.

  5. Design of CAN-USB Communication System Based on TMS320F2812 and USB100%基于TMS320F2812和USBl00的CAN-USB总线通信系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成; 刘晓刚; 刘春生

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种基于DSP的CAN控制器和USB芯片的USB总线和CAN总线的通信模块的设计,提出了一种使用USB接口实现CAN总线网络与计算机连接的方案.利用USB100芯片可在不了解任何USB协议的情况下,完成计算机RS 232串口升级为USB接口,同时CAN接口采用DSP片上CAN控制器,硬件设计极为简单.在DSP的控制下,PC机与CAN节点可以双向通信,通信波特率可高达1 Mb/s,传输数据稳定,可靠.实验证明,运用TMS320F2812片上eCAN模块来构成CAN总线通信系统更为简单,实用.%The design of a communication module between USB and CAN bus hased on CAN controller of DSP and USB chip is presented.A scheme that implements the connection between CAN bus network and the computer by USB interface is proposed.With the help of USB100, it can update the RS232 serial port of a computer to USB interface in the situation of unknowing anything about USB protocol.The hardware of system is extremely simple as a result of using CAN controller on DSP chip.Under the control of DSP, PC and CAN node can communicate with the baud rate of 1 Mb/s.The data transmission is stable and reliable.The experimental results show that the system of CAN bus communication made up of eCAN module which is on the chip of TMS320F2812 is simple and much more practical.

  6. Application of the six sigma quality standard in evaluation of the TMS-1024i%6σ质量标准在TMS-1024i全自动生化分析仪上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琳; 崔涌泉

    2011-01-01

    Objective Application of 6 sigma quality standard for the evaluation of TMS-1024i automatic biochemical analyzer test item analysis performance,guide the biochemical quality control management,better clinical services. Methods Selected the following 6 items,the urea nitrogen(BUN) , creatinine(Cre) , glucose(Glu) , uric acid(UA) , triglyceride(TG) and cholesterol (TC) , theTMS-1024i automatic biochemical analyzer for precision testing,medical decision level concentrations were 6 sigma quality estimation,using the normalized OPSpecs chart to determine the quality control rules. Results TG, Cre reached 6 sigma quality standards,the quality control method of 13.5s rules,select 2 control measurements(n = 2)to offer a 90% guarantee detection error; UA and Glu relatived to the 6 sigma quality standards of performance in general,UA using 12.5s(n= 4) could only provide 50% guaranteed detection error,Glu using 12.5s(n = 4) could provide 90% guaranteed detection error,and TC,BUN sigma value relative to the 6 sigma quality standard were relatively low, should be used more rules of 13S/22S/R4s/41s/8x (n = 4 ,r = 2). Conclusion The TMS-1024i automatic biochemical analyzer test item analysis performance indicators have reached the united states national committee for clinical laboratory standards(CLSI) standard, the result is reliable, suitable for clinical use. There are some indicators have reached or close to the 6 sigma quality standards,some indicators of the quality level in accordance with the 6 sigma quality standards still need further improvement.%目的 应用6σ质量标准评价TMS-1024i全自动生化分析仪部分检测项目的分析性能,指导生化检验的质量控制管理,更好地为临床服务.方法 选定以下6个项目:尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cre)、葡萄糖(Glu)、尿酸(UA)、三酰甘油(TG)和总胆固醇(TC),对TMS-1024i全自动生化分析仪进行精密度检测,对医学决定水平浓度进行6σ质量估计,用标准化OPSpecs图确定

  7. Commissioning of 3D treatment planning system Helax TMS 6.1 for Co-60 Machine Gammatron-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commissioning process has the following aims: 1) To compare the calculated beam characteristics with measured data; 2) To assess the performance of Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) according to criteria of acceptance, i.e. limits of accuracy; 3) To observe and record under what conditions the TPS is acceptable or not acceptable; 4) To monitor the use of the TPS and ensure that the standards of acceptance are maintained. The equipment used for the test measurements was: the Automatic Water Phantom System PTW MP3 with water phantom (70/60/50 cm), ionization chamber type PTW 31002- 0.125 cm3 and electrometer Tandem. Analysis of depth dose data for squire fields shows a good agreement between measured and TPS data, in the case when the calculated Percentage Depth Doses (PDDs) are obtained at different set-up from that used for the reference input data. The tendency of calculating narrower dose profiles from Helax TMS, most pronounced for maximum 16x16 field size, was found out. As a result, an underestimating of dose in the penumbra regions is observed. This is of great importance in the case of adjacent fields and when the radiation field is close to the organ at risk. For these cases, one should take note of unacceptable performance of Helax TMS, when one of the radiation field size is 16 cm or close to it. The results from other tests show good agreement between measured and calculated data. It should be noted that this is not a complete commissioning of TPS and more test (for oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, complex field shapes, 3-D calculations) should be preformed

  8. A Study of Retentive Properties of Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Yanina, I V; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the size and shape of pores in track membranes (TMs) on the retention of polystyrene particles with the sizes from 40 to 100 nm has been studied. The relationship between the structural parameters of TMs and the efficiency of filtration of calibrated particles has been analyzed. Determination of the efficiency is based on measurements of absorption in ultraviolet spectral region. Potentialities and limitations of the method applied to nanometer-sized latex beads have been considered.

  9. Eignung von HAM-Nat und TMS-Modul "Medizinisch-naturwissenschaftliches Grundverständnis" für die Studienbewerberauswahl in der Medizin [Suitability of the HAM-Nat test and TMS module "basic medical-scientific understanding" for medical school selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hissbach, Johanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Tests with natural-scientific content are predictive of the success in the first semesters of medical studies. Some universities in the German speaking countries use the ‘Test for medical studies’ (TMS for student selection. One of its test modules, namely “medical and scientific comprehension”, measures the ability for deductive reasoning. In contrast, the Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine, Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat evaluates knowledge in natural sciences. In this study the predictive power of the HAM-Nat test will be compared to that of the NatDenk test, which is similar to the TMS module “medical and scientific comprehension” in content and structure. Methods: 162 medical school beginners volunteered to complete either the HAM-Nat (N=77 or the NatDenk test (N=85 in 2007. Until spring 2011, 84.2% of these successfully completed the first part of the medical state examination in Hamburg. Via different logistic regression models we tested the predictive power of high school grade point average (GPA or “Abiturnote” and the test results (HAM-Nat and NatDenk with regard to the study success criterion “first part of the medical state examination passed successfully up to the end of the 7 semester” (Success7Sem. The Odds Ratios (OR for study success are reported.Results: For both test groups a significant correlation existed between test results and study success (HAM-Nat: OR=2.07; NatDenk: OR=2.58. If both admission criteria are estimated in one model, the main effects (GPA: OR=2.45; test: OR=2.32 and their interaction effect (OR=1.80 are significant in the HAM-Nat test group, whereas in the NatDenk test group only the test result (OR=2.21 significantly contributes to the variance explained. Conclusions: On their own both HAM-Nat and NatDenk have predictive power for study success, but only the HAM-Nat explains additional variance if combined with GPA. The selection according to HAM-Nat and GPA has under the

  10. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Shitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Changes Cerebral Oxygenation on the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Bulimia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Koga, Yasuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Numata, Noriko; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Iyo, Masaomi; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that food craving in eating disorders can be weakened with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aims of this study were to assess cerebral oxygenation change induced with rTMS and to assess the short-term impact of rTMS on food craving and other bulimic symptoms in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Eight women diagnosed with BN according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria participated in this study. We measured haemoglobin concentration changes in the DLPFC with near-infrared spectroscopy during cognitive tasks measuring self-regulatory control in response to food photo stimuli, both at baseline and after a single session of rTMS. Subjective ratings for food cravings demonstrated significant reduction. A significant decrease in cerebral oxygenation of the left DLPFC was also observed after a single session of rTMS. Measurement with NIRS after rTMS intervention may be applicable for discussing the mechanisms underlying rTMS modulation in patients with BN. PMID:26481583

  12. A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation to study the motor system: An international consensus study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipchase, Lucy; Schabrun, Siobhan; Cohen, Leonardo; Hodges, Paul; Ridding, Michael; Rothwell, John; Taylor, Janet; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been the subject of more than 20,000 original research articles. Despite this popularity, TMS responses are known to be highly variable and this variability can impact on interpretation of research findings. There are no guidelines regarding the factors that should be reported and/or controlled in TMS studies. This study aimed to develop a checklist to be recommended to evaluate the methodology and reporting of studies that use single or paired pulse TMS to study the motor system. A two round international web-based Delphi study was conducted. Panellists rated the importance of a number of subject, methodological and analytical factors to be reported and/or controlled in studies that use single or paired pulse TMS to study the motor system. Twenty-seven items for single pulse studies and 30 items for paired pulse studies were included in the final checklist. Eight items related to subjects (e.g. age, gender), 21 to methodology (e.g. coil type, stimulus intensity) and two to analysis (e.g. size of the unconditioned motor evoked potential). The checklist is recommended for inclusion when submitting manuscripts for publication to ensure transparency of reporting and could also be used to critically appraise previously published work. It is envisaged that factors could be added and deleted from the checklist on the basis of future research. Use of the TMS methodological checklist should improve the quality of data collection and reporting in TMS studies of the motor system. PMID:22647458

  13. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a Tool for Early Diagnosis and Prognostication in Cortico-Basal Ganglia Degeneration (CBD) Syndromes: Review of Literature and Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gregor Issac; Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra; Nagaraju, B. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cortico basal degeneration (CBD) of the brain is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which encompasses unique neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is essential for initiating proper treatment and favorable outcome. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a well-known technique for assessment of cortical excitatory and inhibitory properties. It was suggested that in a degenerative disease like CBD which involves the cortex as well as the subcortical structures...

  14. Mapping of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 with EST and SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the cDNA suppression subtraction hybridization method, a spikelet-specific cDNA library was constructed that expressed at meiosis stage in rice. A total of 121 cDNA fragments were selected from the library and used as EST (expressed sequence tags) markers to detect the polymorphism between Annong N, a normal fertile Indica rice line and Annong S-1, its spontaneous mutant with thermo-sensitive genic male sterility, using the RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique. HN57, one of the EST probes, could detect polymorphism between them. The results of segregation analysis with the F2 population developed from Annong S-1 and Annong N indicate that HN57 co-seg- regates with the thermo-sensitive genic male-sterility controlled by tms5, the recessive gene in Annong S-1. This marker is located on the 31.2-cM region of the chromosome 2 of RGP (rice genome research program) genetic map. To further determine the location of tms5, 80 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers around this region were developed, and 12 of them were polymorphic. And finally, the tms5 was mapped within region of 181 kb by using these new markers.

  15. How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Kassuba, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    cortex is at the time the stimulus is applied: if many neurones are close to firing threshold then the more of them are recruited by the pulse than at rest. Many studies have noted this context-dependent modulation. However, it is often assumed that the excitability of an area has a simple relationship......Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) uses a magnetic field to "carry" a short lasting electrical current pulse into the brain where it stimulates neurones, particularly in superficial regions of cerebral cortex. TMS can interfere with cognitive functions in two ways. A high intensity TMS pulse...... in the human brain. This transient neurodisruption has been termed a "virtual lesion". Smaller intensities of stimulation produce less activity; in such cases, cognitive operations can probably continue but are disrupted because of the added noisy input from the TMS pulse. It is usually argued that...

  16. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sato

    Full Text Available Whole-body water immersion (WI has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI. The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0, intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1, a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2, a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3, a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4. SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  17. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism-a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Na Zhou; Hai-Yang Fu; Yi-Fei Du; Jian-Hua Sun; Jing-Lu Zhang; Chen Wang; Peter Svensson; Ke-Lun Wang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the ‘hot spot’ of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P 5 0.04; P 5 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P,0.01). These findings indicated a significant inhibition of jaw-closing muscle activity during sleep along with a decrease of muscle soreness. This pilot study raises the possibility of therapeutic benefits from rTMS in patients with bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies.

  18. Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexandria; Zenitsky, Gary; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive surgery-free tool used to stimulate the brain by time-varying magnetic fields. TMS is currently being investigated as a treatment for neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and TBI. Before moving to human TMS/TBI trials, animal testing should be pursued to determine suitability and adverse effects. As an initial study, four healthy mice were treated with TMS at different power levels to determine short-term behavioral effects and set a control group baseline. The mouse's behavior was studied using the Rotorod test, which measures the animal's latency to fall off a rotating rod, and the Versamax test, which measures horizontal and vertical movement, and total distance traveled. The Rotorod test has shown for TMS power levels >=90% the mice begin to fall directly post-treatment. Similarly, the Versamax test has shown for power levels >=80% the mice are less mobile directly post-treatment. Versamax mobility was found to return to normal the day following treatment. These mice were housed in the facility for 4 months and the behavioral tests were repeated. Versamax results showed there was no significant variation in mobility indicating there are no long-term side effects of TMS treatment on the mice. This work was supported by the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment and the Carver Charitable Trust at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University.

  19. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the prevention of relapse of depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaning; Xue, Yunyun; Chen, Yunchun; Zhang, Ruiguo; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic illness that generally requires lifelong therapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique with few side effects that has been reported to be useful in the treatment of depression. However, no studies to date have evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the efficacy of rTMS for maintenance treatment of depression. Methods/design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a randomized, single-blind, pl...

  20. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  1. 二处截骨骨搬运治疗胫骨干大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损的再认识%Bifocal corticotomy and bone transport for large segmental defects of the infected tibia and soft tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永清; 朱跃良; 范新宇; 林玮; 何晓清; 李阳; 王毅

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨二处截骨骨搬运治疗胫骨干大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损的疗效及并发症发生情况. 方法 回顾性分析2009年5月至2014年5月收治的25例胫骨干大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损患者资料,男23例,女2例;年龄2 ~52岁,平均31.2岁.骨折分型均为GustiloⅢB型.胫前软组织缺损面积为8 cm×4cm~24cm×12cm,胫骨干缺损长度为8.5 ~ 18.2 cm,平均12.3cm.清创后采用半环槽外固定支架或Ilizarov外固定支架固定,胫骨远、近干骺端截骨向胫骨中部骨搬运,术后近端截骨端起始骨搬运速度为1 mm/d,远端速度为0.6 mm/d;根据情况逐步降低至0.5~0.6 mm/d,直至骨端对合,患者搬移时间为40 ~ 150 d,平均69.6d.结果 25例患者术后获12 ~72个月(平均26.6个月)随访.软组织缺损创面全部愈合,骨缺损获重建.22例患者骨断端一期愈合,1例患者出现骨断端不愈合,1例患者出现骨延长区伤口感染及成骨不良,1例患者出现胫骨端骨质疏松克氏针切割拔出,分别行对症处理后骨获愈合.2例患者出现严重钉道感染,1例患者拆除外固定支架后出现再骨折,2例患者出现胫骨力线偏移,经对症处理后消失. 结论 二处截骨可以有效缩短胫骨大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损的骨搬运时间,疗效良好,但应注意手术细节和并发症的处理.%Objective To evaluate the techniques of bifocal corticotomy and bone transport for large segmental defects of the infected tibia and soft tissue and their complications as well.Methods From May,2009 to May,2014,25 patients with large segmental defects of the infected tibia and soft tissue were treated at our center.They were 23 males and 2 females,from 2 to 52 years of age (average,31.2 years).All the cases were Gustilo type Ⅲ B.The defect size of the soft tissue ranged from 8 cm ×4 cm to 24 cm × 12 cm;the length of tibia defects was from 8.5 cm to 18.2 cm,averaging 12.3 cm

  2. PAIRED FASTER FFT: GRIGORYAN FFT IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ON XILINX FPGAS AND TMS DSPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*, Artyom M. Grigoryan, Parimal A. Patel, Bindu Tushara D

    2016-01-01

    Discrete Fourier Transform is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis and has wide applications in Engineering and Sciences. Because the DFT is so ubiquitous, fast methods for computing DFT have been studied extensively, and continuous to be an active research. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Coo...

  3. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study†

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the ...

  4. Corticospinal Facilitation of Erector Spinae and Rectus Abdominis Muscles During Graded Voluntary Contractions is Task Specific: A Pilot Study on Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Zoghi, Maryam; Morgan, Prue; Storr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study we compared transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a postural (bilateral low back extension: BLBE) and a respiratory (forced expiration during breath holding: FEBH) task. Methods Using TMS of the left motor cortex, simultaneous patterns of corticospinal facilitation of the contralateral erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles during graded voluntary activation were compared in seven healthy subjects. Result T...

  5. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Helen M.; Jackson, Margaret C.; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G.; Shapiro, Kimron L.; Linden, David E. J.

    2013-01-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activ...

  6. Mapping dynamical properties of cortical microcircuits using robotized TMS and EEG: Towards functional cytoarchitectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harquel, Sylvain; Bacle, Thibault; Beynel, Lysianne; Marendaz, Christian; Chauvin, Alan; David, Olivier

    2016-07-15

    Brain dynamics at rest depend on the large-scale interactions between oscillating cortical microcircuits arranged into macrocolumns. Cytoarchitectonic studies have shown that the structure of those microcircuits differs between cortical regions, but very little is known about interregional differences of their intrinsic dynamics at a macro-scale in human. We developed here a new method aiming at mapping the dynamical properties of cortical microcircuits non-invasively using the coupling between robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography. We recorded the responses evoked by the stimulation of 18 cortical targets largely covering the accessible neocortex in 22 healthy volunteers. Specific data processing methods were developed to map the local source activity of each cortical target, which showed inter-regional differences with very good interhemispheric reproducibility. Functional signatures of cortical microcircuits were further studied using spatio-temporal decomposition of local source activities in order to highlight principal brain modes. The identified brain modes revealed that cortical areas with similar intrinsic dynamical properties could be distributed either locally or not, with a spatial signature that was somewhat reminiscent of resting state networks. Our results provide the proof of concept of "functional cytoarchitectonics", that would guide the parcellation of the human cortex using not only its cytoarchitecture but also its intrinsic responses to local perturbations. This opens new avenues for brain modelling and physiopathology readouts. PMID:27153976

  7. Somatotopic mapping of piano fingering errors in sensorimotor experts: TMS studies in pianists and visually trained musically naives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Mega, Ilaria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-02-01

    Virtuosic musical performance requires fine sensorimotor skills and high predictive control of the fast finger movements that produce the intended sounds, and cannot be corrected once the notes have been played. The anticipatory nature of motor control in experts explains why musical performance is barely affected by auditory feedback. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we provide evidence that, in expert pianists (Experiment 1), the observation of a mute piano fingering error induces 1) a time-locked facilitation of hand corticospinal representation which occurred 300 and 700 ms but not 100 ms after error onset, and 2) a somatotopic corticospinal facilitation of the very same finger that commits the error. In a second experiment, we show that no corticospinal modulation is found in non-pianist naïve individuals who were experimentally trained to visually detect the observed fingering errors (Experiment 2). This is the first evidence showing that the refined somatosensory and motor skills of musicians exceed the domain of individual motor control and may provide the brain with fine anticipatory, simulative error monitoring systems for the evaluation of others' movements. PMID:23064109

  8. Gender differences in the neural network of facial mimicry of smiles – An rTMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia; Rieger, Sebastian Walter; Schwab, Samir; Niedenthal, Paula M.; Grandjean, Didier Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Under theories of embodied emotion, exposure to a facial expression triggers facial mimicry. Facial feedback is then used to recognize and judge the perceived expression. However, the neural bases of facial mimicry and of the use of facial feedback remain poorly understood. Furthermore, gender differences in facial mimicry and emotion recognition suggest that different neural substrates might accompany the production of facial mimicry, and the processing of facial feedback, in men and women. ...

  9. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  10. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Na; Fu, Hai-Yang; Du, Yi-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Lu; Wang, Chen; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Ke-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the ‘hot spot' of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P = 0.04; P = 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies. PMID:27025267

  11. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Na; Fu, Hai-Yang; Du, Yi-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Lu; Wang, Chen; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Ke-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the 'hot spot' of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P = 0.04; P = 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies. PMID:27025267

  12. Cortical hemoglobin concentration changes underneath the coil after single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Terao, Yasuo; Arai, Noritoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Hamada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Nakatani-Enomoto, Setsu; Okabe, Shingo; Yugeta, Akihiro; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-03-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multichannel probes, we studied hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes when single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). Seventeen measurement probes were centered over left M1. Subjects were studied in both active and relaxed conditions, with TMS intensity set at 100%, 120%, and 140% of the active motor threshold. The magnetic coils were placed so as to induce anteromedially directed currents in the brain. Hb concentration changes were more prominent at channels over M1 and posterior to it. Importantly, Hb concentration changes at M1 after TMS differed depending on whether the target muscle was in an active or relaxed condition. In the relaxed condition, Hb concentration increased up to 3-6 s after TMS, peaking at ∼6 s, and returned to the baseline. In the active condition, a smaller increase in Hb concentrations continued up to 3-6 s after TMS (early activation), followed by a decrease in Hb concentration from 9 to 12 s after TMS (delayed deactivation). Hb concentration changes in the active condition at higher stimulus intensities were more pronounced at locations posterior to M1 than at M1. We conclude that early activation occurs when M1 is activated transsynaptically. The relatively late deactivation may result from the prolonged inhibition of the cerebral cortex after activation. The posterior-dominant activation at higher intensities in the active condition may result from an additional activation of the sensory cortex due to afferent inputs from muscle contraction evoked by the TMS. PMID:23274310

  13. Hardware design and implement of multi-channel video capturing and processing PCI board based on TMS320DM642%基于TMS320DM642的多路视频采集处理板卡的硬件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊炜

    2006-01-01

    针对构建高稳定性、高鲁棒性的多媒体数字监控系统设计并实现了一款基于TMS320DM642型数字信号处理器的四路实时MPEG-4视频采集兼压缩处理PCI板卡.详细介绍TMS320DM642的硬件架构、板卡的硬件构成和核心模块的实现,分析板卡设计中的难点及关键技术.实验结果表明,该板卡在不降低视频质量的前提下能够满足对4路CIF分辨率的视频图像进行采集、实时编码和通过PCI接口传输的要求,为远程视频监控提供有效的硬件支持,具有广阔的市场前景.

  14. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangen Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Patients and methods Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. Results This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2% and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. Trial registration This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096.

  15. Real-time implementation of the echo signal processing and digital scan conversion for medical ultrasound imaging with a single TMS320C6416 DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong; Sohn, Hak-Yeol; Han, Dong-Hoon; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2008-03-01

    Software implementation of a medical ultrasound imaging system using commercial DSPs (Digital Signal Processor) has advantages over FPGA- or ASIC-based system in development cost and time. The authors have developed a full software-based ultrasound scanner consisting of a typical analog front-end block and a DSP system. In this work, we present efficient methods for software realization of an echo processor to perform all the ultrasound signal processing functions following the receive beamforming. For implementation with a single TMS320C6416 DSP, the most computationally demanding functions such as dynamic filtering, quadrature demodulation, decimation, magnitude calculation, and log compression are implemented using modified algorithms and structures optimized to best match the DSP architecture for fast computation. The DSC (digital scan converter) is realized with an LUT for generating memory addresses and interpolation coefficients for each display point. The LUT table is stored in a single external SDRAM so that the internal DSP memory can be fully utilized by the DSP core to maximize the processing speed. The possible memory stall that can be caused by the external memory access is removed by properly employing the enhanced direct memory access channels. Experimental results show that the proposed implementation can support up to 4 kHz PRF (pulse repetition frequency) when the input data rate is 40 MHz.

  16. Moessbauer studies in a 3He--4He dilution refrigerator: search for nuclear cooperative phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials containing 141Pr and 169Tm were studied in the dilution refrigerator, most progress being made with 169Tm. Experimental techniques are described, and results are given for the hyperfine interactions in Tm compounds known to order magnetically. The studied materials are thullium metal, TmAl2, TmS, and TmSe. 6 references

  17. A Two Layers Novel Low-Cost and Optimized Embedded Board Based on TMS320C6713 DSP and Spartan-3 FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Rashidi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a new low-cost and minimum embedded board based on TMS320C6713 (PYP 208-PIN (PQFP DSP and Spartan-3 (XCS400-4PQG208C FPGA in two layers with mount elements on two sides of the board. The proposed embedded board was developed satisfactorily for different applications such as data acquisition of sensor’s with serial port, control units, finite state machines, signal processing algorithms, navigation computing, Kalman filtering etc. Goal of the design was to implement as many as possible low-cost and minimum sizes of the board, also to receive input signals in a short time period and as real time. The board features are include: mount elements in two side of the board for minimization of the proposed board and also placed decoupling capacitors (by pass for the DSP and FPGA in bottom layer of board strictly below these two ICs because should be placed as close as possible to the power supply pins DSP and FPGA, GND polygon layer is used in total top layer and microcomputer ground for DSP & FPGA in bottom layer, use FPGA for two aim ones for implementation of glue logic total of board and interface between serial connectors, use three RS-232 serial port, one RS-422, and SPI serial port on FPGA, use MT48LC16M16A SDRAM-256MB(4*4MB*16, Am29LV400B Flash memory 4 Megabit (512 K x 8-Bit/256 K x 16-Bit and XCF02S configuration PROM. The size of the proposed embedded board is 11.1cm*17. 7cm so this board is optimized of aspect cost, performance, power, weight, and size.

  18. Characterizations and identification of the candidate gene of rice thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 by mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Previous study indicated that the thermo-sensitive genic malesterile(TGMS) gene in rice was regulated by temperature.TGMS rice plays an important role in hybrid rice production,because the application of the TGMS system in two-line breeding is laborsaving,timesaving,simple,inexpensive,efficient,and eliminating the limitations of the cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS) system.'AnnongS' is the first discovered and deeply studied TGMS rice lines in China.'AnnongS-1' and 'Y58S',two derivatives of TGMS line AnnongS,...

  19. Further Studies of the Spur Process of Positronium Formation in Mixtures of Organic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, P.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    To test some predictions of the spur model of positronium (Ps) formation, positron lifetime studies were made of the following binary organic mixtures: (a) carbondisulphide mixtures with n-tetradecane, n-hexane, isooctane, neopentane, and tetramethylsilane (TMS); (b) neopentane mixtures with...

  20. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  1. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation, as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%, lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%, α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34% and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80% were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption.

  2. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  3. Text Messages as a Reminder Aid and Educational Tool in Adults and Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venessa Pena-Robichaux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal management of atopic dermatitis (AD requires patients to adhere to self-care behaviors. Technologies, such as cell phones, have been widely adopted in the USA and have potential to reinforce positive health behaviors. We conducted a pilot study with 25 adolescents and adults age 14 years and older [mean 30.5 yrs, SD 13.4] with AD. Daily text messages (TMs that provided medication reminders and AD education were sent for six weeks to participants. Our goals were to (1 measure changes in pre- and posttest scores in treatment adherence, self-care behaviors, disease severity, and quality of life and (2 assess the usability and satisfaction of the TM system. Significant improvements in treatment adherence, self-care behaviors, skin severity, and quality of life ( ≤ .001, .002, <.001, and .014, resp. were noted postintervention. User feedback on the TM system was positive with 88% and 92% of participants reporting that the reminder TMs and educational TMs were helpful, respectively. In conclusion, study participants were receptive to using TMs as a reminder aid and educational tool. The positive trends observed are promising and lay the ground work for further studies needed to elucidate the full potential of this simple and cost-effective intervention.

  4. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation add-on for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Oded

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 25% of schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations are refractory to pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy. We conducted a deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pilot study in order to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of repeated left temporoparietal cortex stimulation in these patients. The results were encouraging, but a sham-controlled study was needed to rule out a placebo effect. Methods A total of 18 schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, from Beer Yaakov MHC and other hospitals outpatient populations. Patients received 10 daily treatment sessions with low-frequency (1 Hz for 10 min deep TMS applied over the left temporoparietal cortex, using the H1 coil at the intensity of 110% of the motor threshold. Procedure was either real or sham according to patient randomization. Patients were evaluated via the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms-Negative Symptoms, Clinical Global Impressions, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results In all, 10 patients completed the treatment (10 TMS sessions. Auditory hallucination scores of both groups improved; however, there was no statistical difference in any of the scales between the active and the sham treated groups. Conclusions Low-frequency deep TMS to the left temporoparietal cortex using the protocol mentioned above has no statistically significant effect on auditory hallucinations or the other clinical scales measured in schizophrenic patients. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00564096.

  5. Retrospective Cohort Study of 207 Cases of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel W.; Arbucci, John; Silberman, Jason; Luderowski, Eva; Uppstrom, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Joseph; Tuca, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics, image findings, and outcomes of patients with juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) of the knee. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-surgeon cohort of JOCD patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of knee JOCD patients assessed by a single pediatric orthopaedic surgeon at a tertiary care center between 2005-2015. All diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with patellar dislocations or osteochondral fractures were excluded. Demographic data, sports played, comorbidities, surgical procedures, and clinical data were extracted from charts. Images were analyzed to identify the location and size of lesions. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare discrete variables, and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests to compare continuous variables between groups. P-values of basketball (29.4%). JOCD was present bilaterally in 27 patients (15%), 14 knees had bifocal OCD (6.8%), and only 1 patient had bifocal lesions in both knees. Most common location was medial femoral condyle (56.3%) followed by lateral femoral condyle (23.1%), trochlea (11.4%), patella (9%), and tibia (0.5%). In the sagittal view, most common location was the middle third of the condyles (48.7%). Surgery was performed in 72 knees (34.8%), with an average age at surgery of 14.1 years (9.3-18.1). Bilateral JOCD was present in 13 surgical patients (18.8%), but only 3 patients had bilateral surgery. Two operative patients had bifocal JOCD (2.7%) and surgery on both lesions. Location distribution did not differ between surgical and non-surgical lesions. The average normalized area of non-surgical JOCD lesions was 6.8 (0.1-18), whereas surgical lesions averaged a significantly higher area of 7.7 (0.5-17) (p=0.023). Average BMI was 21.6 versus 20.2 for surgical and non-surgical patients, respectively, significantly higher for those who underwent surgery (p=0.002). Most common procedure was fixation

  6. Une formation-action comme outil de prévention des TMS dans le secteur viticole : Leviers et freins identifiés par le biais de la recherche évaluative

    OpenAIRE

    Barbet-Detray, Rachel; Landry, Aurelie; Tran Van, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Notre présentation vise à montrer comment la conception d'un module de formation-action et son transfert ont permis d'impulser une dynamique de prévention des TMS tout en permettant une adaptation locale garantissant les conditions d'une implantation réussie. Forte de son savoir-faire dans la mise en oeuvre de la démarche du " couteau qui coupe " dans la filière viande, la Mutualité sociale agricole (MSA) a décidé d'adapter ses connaissances au déploiement de l'action en viticulture. Elle s'e...

  7. TMS320LF2407型DSP和EPM7128型CPLD在移动机器人驱动与控制系统中的应用%Hardware design of driving and controlling system for greenhouse robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉莉; 阎勤劳; 张莉

    2005-01-01

    为实现移动机器人的实时响应性和鲁棒性、实现多电机协调驱动算法和高效智能控制算法以适应复杂的作业环境,采用了面向数字控制应用的TMS320LF2407型DSP作为电机控制的主控制器,由DSP发出电机PWM控制信号,将其他传感器及数控接口集成到EPM7128型CPLD上,由CPLD输送到DSP,完成驱动系统的闭环控制.整个控制系统性能优异,硬件结构简单、经济、可靠.

  8. Intercambio gaseoso y contenido de azúcares en raíces de los genotipos de yuca TMS60444 y CAGBS1A8-3A crecidos bajo condiciones de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Valero, Bibiana Andrea

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se estudiaron los genotipos de yuca TMS60444 “silvestre” y CAGBS1A8-3A “transgénico” por su potencial promisorio para producción de bioetanol. En plantas de 3, 8 y 13 meses de edad, se evaluó en hojas mediante el análisis de gases en infrarrojo IRGA el intercambio gaseoso en relación con factores climáticos, y se determinaron en raíces los niveles de glucosa Glc, fructosa Frc y sacarosa Suc con cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia HPLC. La respuesta fotosintét...

  9. Design of a placebo-controlled, randomized study of the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of chronic tinntius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichhammer Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic tinnitus is a frequent condition, which can have enormous impact on patient's life and which is very difficult to treat. Accumulating data indicate that chronic tinnitus is related to dysfunctional neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive method which allows to focally modulate neuronal activity. An increasing amount of studies demonstrate reduction of tinnitus after repeated sessions of low-frequency rTMS and indicate that rTMS might represent a new promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus. However available studies have been mono-centric and are characterized by small sample sizes. Therefore, this multi-center trial will test the efficacy of rTMS treatment in a large sample of chronic tinnitus patients. Methods/Design This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multi-center trial of two weeks 1 Hz rTMS-treatment in chronic tinnitus patients. Eligible patients will be randomized to either 2 weeks real or sham rTMS treatment. Main eligibility criteria: male or female individuals aged 18–70 years with chronic tinnitus (duration > 6 months, tinnitus-handicap-inventory-score ≥ 38, age-adjusted normal sensorineural hearing (i.e. not more than 5 dB below the 10% percentile of the appropriate age and gender group (DIN EN ISO 7029, conductive hearing loss ≤ 15dB. The primary endpoint is a change of tinnitus severity according to the tinnitus questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller (baseline vs. end of treatment period. A total of 138 patients are needed to detect a clinical relevant change of tinnitus severity (i.e. 5 points on the questionnaire of Goebel and Hiller; alpha = 0.05; 1-beta = 0.80. Assuming a drop-out rate of less than 5% until the primary endpoint, 150 patients have to be randomized to guarantee the target number of 138 evaluable patients. The study will be conducted by otorhinolaryngologists and psychiatrists of 7

  10. Bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of the combination of bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis in poststroke patients. The study participants were eight poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (age at intervention: 62.8±4.9 years, time after stroke: 84.3±87.2 months, mean±SD). During 15 days of hospitalization, each patient received 10 sessions of 40-min bihemispheric rTMS and 240-min intensive OT (120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training). One session of bihemispheric rTMS comprised the application of both 1 and 10 Hz rTMS (2000 stimuli for each hemisphere). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, and the Modified Ashworth Scale were administered on the day of admission and at discharge. All patients completed the treatment without any adverse effects. Motor function of the affected upper limb improved significantly, on the basis of changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test (P<0.05, each). A significant decrease in the Modified Ashworth Scale score was noted in the elbow, wrist, and finger flexors of the affected upper limb (P<0.05, each). The combination of bihemispheric rTMS and intensive OT was safe and feasible therapy for poststroke hemiparetic patients, and improved motor function of the hemiparetic upper limb in poststroke patients. The findings provide a new avenue for the treatment of patients with poststroke hemiparesis. PMID:23797616

  11. Second time around:Corticospinal responses following repeated sports-related concussions within the same season. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan J Pearce; Daniel T Corp; Charlotte B Davies; Brendan P Major; Jerome J Maller

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the degree of neurophysiological and cognitive performance changes resulting from repeat concussions sustained in a single season ofAustralianRules football. Methods:Three amateur football players were recruited after sustainingtwo concussions during a single season of playing.Each player was assessed at multiple time points by transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) and electromyography, as well as tested for fine motor and cognitive performance after each concussion.Results:In all three cases, concussions resulted in reduction in fine dexterity and visuomotor reaction time, cognitive attention performance and increase in intracortical inhibition fromTMS.No changes in performance orTMS outcomes were found as a result of the order of the concussions.However, changes observed were dependent on the severity of the concussion.Conclusions:This multiple-case study has demonstrated that concussion result in increased intracortical inhibition and reduction in cognitive and motor performance. Further,TMS, in conjunction with tests of cognitive and motor performance, can be useful as a prognostic technique in assessing recovery from acute concussion injury.

  12. The Role of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Phasic Alertness: Evidence from a Contingent Negative Variation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Grippo, Antonello; Amantini, Aldo; Augugliaro, Vito; Currà, Antonio; Missori, Paolo; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; De Lucia, Maria C; Rinalduzzi, Steno; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Phasic alertness represents the ability to increase response readiness to a target following an external warning stimulus. Specific networks in the frontal and parietal regions appear to be involved in the alert state. In this study, we examined the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the attentional processing of a stimulus using a cued double-choice reaction time task. The evaluation of these processes was conducted by means of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), in particular by using the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV), and repetitive 1-Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Transient virtual inhibition of the right DLPFC induced by real 1-Hz rTMS stimulation led to a significant decrease in total CNV and W1-CNV areas if compared with the basal and post-sham rTMS conditions. Reaction times (RTs) did not decrease after inhibitory rTMS, but they did improve after sham stimulation. These results suggest that the right DLPFC plays a crucial role in the genesis and maintenance of the alerting state and learning processes. PMID:26090234

  13. Kinetics of the Thermal Decomposition of Tetramethylsilane behind the Reflected Shock Waves in a Single Pulse Shock Tube (SPST) and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandaman, A.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Thermal reactions of Tetramethylsilane (TMS) diluted in argon were studied behind the reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube (SPST) over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K and pressures varied between 10.6 and 22.8 atm. The stable products resulting from the decomposition of TMS were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and also verified with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The major reaction products are methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). The minor reaction products are ethane (C2H6) and propylene (C3H6). The initiation of mechanism in the decomposition of TMS takes plays via the Si-C bond scission by ejecting the methyl radicals (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals ((CH3)3Si). The measured temperature dependent rate coefficient for the total decomposition of TMS was to be ktotal = 1.66 ×1015 exp (-64.46/RT) s-1 and for the formation of CH4 reaction channel was to be k = 2.20 × 1014 exp (-60.15/RT) s-1, where the activation energies are given in kcal mol-1. A kinetic scheme containing 17 species and 28 elementary reactions was used for the simulation using chemical kinetic simulator over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K. The agreement between the experimental and simulated results was satisfactory.

  14. Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: A modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Tim; Eden, Uri; Rushmore, Jarrett; Russo, Christopher J.; Dipietro, Laura; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, Stephen; Rotman, Stephen; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; PASCUAL-LEONE, ALVARO; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Zahn, Markus; Valero-Cabre, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has guided our fundamental understanding and application of these methods, from electrophysiologic theory to clinical dosing-metrics. Nonethe...

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Electrical System Captor and Dapper Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to Validate and as-build the Load and Fault hand calculations performed by Meier Associates. Perform a protective device coordination study, not performed by Meier's, and furnish any recommendations, including recommended device settings. Perform Transient Motor Starting (TMS) analysis for the chillers and also the motors on the standby generator system. Indicate any design problems or NEC Code Violations, if found

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with early cortical dementia: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gregor Issac; S R Chandra; Nagaraju, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The diagnostic accuracy of the currently available tools carries poor sensitivity resulting in significant delay in specific diagnosis of cortical dementias. Considering the properties of default mode networking of the brain it is highly probable that specific changes may be seen in frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) and Alzheimer's disease sufficiently early. Aim: The aim of this study is to look for changes in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in cortical dementia. Materials and...

  17. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumas, Jean-Claude, E-mail: jumas@univ-montp2.fr; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Perea, Alexis; Aldon, Laurent; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette [Universite Montpellier 2, Institut Charles Gerhardt (UMR 5253 CNRS) (France)

    2013-04-15

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}PO{sub 4} as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  18. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumas, Jean-Claude; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Perea, Alexis; Aldon, Laurent; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette

    2013-04-01

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe0.75Mn0.25PO4 as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  19. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe0.75Mn0.25PO4 as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  20. Perceiving what is reachable depends on motor representations: evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Coello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visually determining what is reachable in peripersonal space requires information about the egocentric location of objects but also information about the possibilities of action with the body, which are context dependent. The aim of the present study was to test the role of motor representations in the visual perception of peripersonal space. METHODOLOGY: Seven healthy participants underwent a TMS study while performing a right-left decision (control task or perceptually judging whether a visual target was reachable or not with their right hand. An actual grasping movement task was also included. Single pulse TMS was delivered 80% of the trials on the left motor and premotor cortex and on a control site (the temporo-occipital area, at 90% of the resting motor threshold and at different SOA conditions (50ms, 100ms, 200ms or 300ms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results showed a facilitation effect of the TMS on reaction times in all tasks, whatever the site stimulated and until 200ms after stimulus presentation. However, the facilitation effect was on average 34ms lower when stimulating the motor cortex in the perceptual judgement task, especially for stimuli located at the boundary of peripersonal space. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that brain motor area participate in the visual determination of what is reachable. We discuss how motor representations may feed the perceptual system with information about possible interactions with nearby objects and thus may contribute to the perception of the boundary of peripersonal space.

  1. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with early cortical dementia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The diagnostic accuracy of the currently available tools carries poor sensitivity resulting in significant delay in specific diagnosis of cortical dementias. Considering the properties of default mode networking of the brain it is highly probable that specific changes may be seen in frontotemporal dementias (FTDs and Alzheimer′s disease sufficiently early. Aim: The aim of this study is to look for changes in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS in cortical dementia. Materials and Methods: Evaluated with a single pulse TMS with the figure of eight coil and recorded from right first dorsal interossei (FDI. Resting Motor Threshold (RMT was estimated on the opposite motor cortex (T1. Second site of stimulation was cervical spine at C7-T2. Central motor conduction time (CMCT is equal toT1-T2.Silent Period (SP identified by applying TMS pulse to contracting FDI. Conclusions: RMT was reduced in seven out of eight Alzheimer′s dementias. CMCT was in the upper limit of normal in both patients with FTD. The most consistent observation was that SP was reduced and there were escape discharges noticed during the SP suggesting increased cortical excitability and decreased cortical inhibition. This suggests probable early asymptomatic changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA nergic and cholinergic system is taking place. This if confirmed may give some insight into early diagnosis and therapeutic role of GABA agonists in these disorders.

  2. Relationship Between Soil Apparent Electrical Conductivity and Cassava Plant (TMS 98/0505) Growth at Early Stages on Sandy Loam Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Olugbemi Joshua; Olanrewaju Adewunmi Mokuolu

    2014-01-01

    A thorough study of major soil properties such as soil Apparent Electrical Conductivity (ECa) which influences plant productivity is of utmost importance if losses in output and input cost from a farm are to be minimized. Soil ECa is a measure of the soil’s ability to conduct electric current as well as its nutrient contents. It is affected by a combination of several soil properties such as soil water content, organic matter, clay and mineralogy, bulk density, soluble salts etc. This study d...

  3. The Right Posterior Inferior Frontal Gyrus Contributes to Phonological Word Decisions in the Healthy Brain: Evidence from Dual-Site TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J.; Baumgaertner, Annette; Geiss, Gesine; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we used online transcranial magnetic stimulation…

  4. Analyse et exploitation de la variabilité gestuelle dans la prévention des TMS Analysis and utilization of gestic variability in MSD prevention Análisis y explotación de la variabilidad gestual en la prevención de los TME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Brunet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude de la variabilité gestuelle d’opérateurs d’une ligne d’assemblage, inscrite dans une démarche de prévention des TMS et visant la construction individuelle et collective de la santé.A partir d’un positionnement mettant l’accent sur le caractère situé des gestes, ceux-ci sont décrits finement et étudiés du point de vue de leurs déterminants, ressentis et de leurs logiques opératoires. Les méthodes combinent des données d’observation participante, d’entretiens et observations aux postes de travail et devant des traces vidéo.Diverses formes de variabilités ont été identifiées (façons de contrôler son travail, d’utiliser les outils, de coordonner ses bras. Les analyses ont été utilisées pour la prévention des TMS, en favorisant notamment l’attention et la délibération des opérateurs sur leurs gestes. Une réflexion sur la notion de variabilité gestuelle et sa formalisation est proposée. Enfin, nous envisageons des conditions nécessaires à la systématisation des analyses et des moyens pour évaluer les effets de ce type d’étude.This article presents a study of the gestic variability of workers on an assembly line. It is part of an MSD prevention process and its aim is the collective and individual construction of health.The paper begins with a theory emphasizing the situated nature of movements, which are described in detail and studied from the standpoint of their determinants, sensations and operational logic. The methods combine participant observation and interview data as well as observations at the workstations and about videos. Different types of variability were identified (how to control one’s work, use tools, coordinate the movement of one’s arms. The analyses were used in MSD prevention by mainly promoting the operators’ attention and deliberation about their movements. Reflection on the concept of gestic variability and its formalization is

  5. The metallurgic furnaces at the Curamba Inca site (Peru): a study by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inca site at Curamba is located in the Province of Apurimac in the southern highlands of Peru where, according to some historians, several thousand furnaces used for ore smelting were found. For this work, four samples of burned soil were gathered from these furnaces and classified as Curamba1, Curamba2, Curamba3, and Curamba4, and studied using transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The mineralogical composition of the samples was determined by XRD and the structural sites in the minerals occupied by iron cations were characterized by TMS. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the maximum temperature reached in these furnaces using the refiring technique of the samples in an oxidizing environment and monitoring the structural modifications at the iron sites by changes in the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. The TMS results of Curamba2 show that the maximum temperature reached in this furnace was about 900 deg. C, in agreement with the mineralogical composition found by XRD. In the case of Curamba1 and Curamba4 the maximum temperature estimated was about 400 deg. C.

  6. Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Intensive Swallowing Rehabilitation for Chronic Stroke Dysphagia: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Momosaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety and feasibility of a 6-day protocol of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic poststroke dysphagia. In-hospital treatment was provided to 4 poststroke patients (age at treatment: 56-80 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 24-37 months with dysphagia. Over 6 consecutive days, each patient received 10 sessions of rTMS at 3 Hz applied to the pharyngeal motor cortex bilaterally, followed by 20 min of intensive swallowing rehabilitation exercise. The swallowing function was evaluated by the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS, Modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MMASA, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS, laryngeal elevation delay time (LEDT and Repetitive Saliva-Swallowing Test (RSST on admission and at discharge. All patients completed the 6-day treatment protocol and none showed any adverse reactions throughout the treatment. The combination treatment improved laryngeal elevation delay time in all patients. Our proposed protocol of rTMS plus swallowing rehabilitation exercise seems to be safe and feasible for chronic stroke dysphagia, although its efficacy needs to be confirmed in a large number of patients.

  7. Musical training-induced functional reorganization of the adult brain: functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study on amateur string players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eog; Shin, Min-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Kon; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Ro; Song, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jun-Won; Park, Seong-Ho; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2004-12-01

    We used the combined technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to observe changes that occur in adult brains after the practice of stringed musical instruments. We carried out fMRI on eight volunteers (aged 20-22 years): five novices and three individuals who had discontinued practice for more than 5 years. The motor paradigm contained a repetitive lift-abduction/fall-adduction movement of the left/right little finger, carried out with maximum efforts without pacing. The sensory paradigm was to stimulate the same little finger using a string. In parallel to the fMRI acquisition, TMS motor maps for the little finger were obtained using a frameless stereotactic neuronavigation system. After the baseline study, each participant began to learn a stringed instrument. Newly developed fMRI activations for the left little finger were observed 6 months after practice at multiple brain regions including inferior parietal lobule, premotor area (PMA), left precuneus, right anterior superior temporal gyrus, and posterior middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, new activations were rarely observed for the right little finger. The TMS study revealed new motor representation sites for the left little finger in the PMA or supplementary motor area (SMA). Unexpectedly, TMS motor maps for the right little finger were reduced significantly. Among new fMRI activations for sensory stimuli of the left little finger, the cluster of highest activation was located in the SMA. Collectively, these data provide insight into orchestrated reorganization of the sensorimotor and temporal association cortices contributing to the skillful fingering and musical processing after the practice of playing stringed instruments. PMID:15449354

  8. La dimension de genre dans la reconnaissance des TMS comme maladies professionnelles The gender dimension in the recognition of MSDs as occupational diseases La dimensión de género en el reconocimiento de las lesiones músculo esqueléticas (LMS como enfermedades profesionales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Probst

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En Suisse, les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS sont rarement reconnus comme maladies professionnelles et leur prévention est peu développée. L’analyse des statistiques d’indemnisation concernant les TMS montre que les troubles affectant les travailleuses sont encore moins souvent déclarés et reconnus que ceux des travailleurs. La reconnaissance des TMS comme maladies professionnelles est donc marquée par une dimension de genre. Cette situation peut s’expliquer par divers facteurs, comme l’état des connaissances scientifiques, mais aussi le cadre légal, la jurisprudence, les critères appliqués par les assurances et les pratiques de déclaration. Au niveau des décisions des assurances, deux processus semblent jouer un rôle dans la sous-estimation des TMS d’origine professionnelle chez les travailleuses : d’une part, l’incidence plus élevée de certains TMS chez les femmes est interprétée comme résultant de prédispositions liées au sexe féminin et d’autre part, le travail des femmes est considéré comme moins sollicitant que celui des hommes.In Switzerland, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are seldom recognized as occupational diseases, and their prevention has not been extensively developed. The analysis of MSD compensation statistics shows that disorders affecting female workers are still reported and recognized less often than those affecting male workers. The recognition of MSDs as occupational diseases therefore has a gendered dimension. This situation can be explained by various factors, such as the state of scientific knowledge, but also the legal framework, jurisprudence, criteria applied by insurance companies, and reporting practices. Regarding insurance decisions, two processes seem to play a role in underestimating work-related MSDs in female workers: on the one hand, the higher incidence of certain types of MSDs in women is interpreted as being the result of predispositions linked to the female

  9. 重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗慢性主观性耳鸣的短期疗效分析%The Short-term Effect Analysis of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Chronic Tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海弟; 郑亿庆; 区永康; 黄夏茵

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the therapeutic effect of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tinnitus. Methods 46 chronic tinnitus patients were treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for two weeks and the therapeutic effects were assessed afterward. Results rTMS treatment could improve tinnitus obviously. The overall effec⁃tive rate is 63.1%in subjective tinnitus, The effective rate is higher in decompensated tinnitus(THI≥40) than compensatory tinnitus (THI<40) (77%vs 45%;P<0.001), The THI score of tinnitus patients before and after treatment were r 51.8 ± 23.5 and 37 ± 18.8;espectively (t=5.94, p<0.001), VAS were 6.3 ± 2.4 and 4.9 ± 1.8;(t=5.27, p<0.01.) The difference of the changes of THI between decompensated tinnitus and compensated tinnitus group after rTMS treatment was 19.4 ± 8.5 (df=42, T=4.95, P<0.001). Conclusions rTMS could improve tinnitus, especially for decompensated tinnitus patients.%目的:采取1Hz低频重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗慢性主观性耳鸣并评价其治疗效果。方法对慢性主观性耳鸣患者46例行1Hz低频rTMS连续治疗2周,治疗前后分别行耳鸣残疾量表评分(THI)评分及主观疗效评估。结果 rTMS对耳鸣治疗有明显效果,对主观耳鸣症状总体有效率为63.1%,其中失代偿性耳鸣(THI≥40)的有效率明显高于代偿性耳鸣(THI<40)(77%vs 45%;P<0.001),耳鸣患者治疗前后THI为(51.8±23.5 vs 37.0±18.8;t=5.94,p<0.001), VAS为(6.3±2.4 vs 4.9±1.8;t=5.27,p<0.01),治疗前后有统计学差异。失代偿组与代偿组耳鸣rTMS治疗后THI变化存在显著差异,两组差值为19.4±8.5(df=42,T=4.95,P<0.001)。结论 rTMS治疗耳鸣有效,可明显降低THI得分,改善耳鸣症状,特别在失代偿性耳鸣效果更明显。

  10. Personality goes a long a way: an interhemispheric connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S. Hoppenbrouwers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the development of psychology the delineation of personality has played a central role. Together with the NEO-PI-R, a questionnaire derived from the Five Factor Model of Personality, and recent advances in research technology it is now possible to investigate the relationship between personality features and neurophysiological brain processes. The NEO-FFI, the short version of the NEO-PI-R, reliably measures five main personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. As behaviour and some psychiatric disorders have been related to interhemispheric connectivity, the present study used the combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and electroencephalography (EEG to measure frontal interhemispheric connectivity and its association with personality as indexed by the NEO-FFI. Results demonstrated that prefrontal interhemispheric connectivity between the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC correlates with Agreeableness in healthy subjects. This is the first study to relate personality features to interhemispheric connectivity through TMS-EEG and suggests that Agreeableness relates to the effectiveness of prefrontal communication between hemispheres.

  11. [New approaches in the study of neuroplasticity process in patients with central nervous system lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, L A; Kremneva, E I; Cherviakov, A V; Saenko, I V; Konovalov, R N; Piramidov, M A; Kozlovskaia, I B

    2013-01-01

    Methods which on one hand can ensure the patient's mobility and on other hand activate afferents inputs are the main in rehabilitation treatment. Recent studies has shown that plasticity is structural base of recovery after central nervous system injury. Reorganization of cortical areas and increase of preserved structures functional effectiveness (intensification afferent input) are an anatomical basis of plasticity. However, sensory correction methods, without accounting of functional condition of patients, can lead to the formation of pathological symptoms: spasticity, hyperreflexia, etc. So the main aim is to study adequate management of the neuroplasticity process. This problem cannot be solving without modern methods of neuroimaging and brain mapping. The new approach for study cortical mechanisms of neuroplasticity, responsible for locomotion, was developed in the present study. This approach is complex use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and navigation transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). It was showed that vast fMRI activation area in the first and the second sensorimotor area emerges with passive sensorimotor paradigm using that imitate backing load during walking. The mechanical stimulator footsteps backing zones "Corvit" uses for create this paradigm, nTMS examination, which used after fMRI, help localize the motor representation of muscles which control locomotion more accurately. We guess that new approach can be used for neuroplasticity process study and assessment of neuroplasticity changes during rehabilitation for restore and correct the walking. PMID:23885553

  12. Myopia Control: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walline, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has

  13. Influence of dual-task on postexercise facilitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Abagyan, Anaida; Cao, Yisheng; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Coira, Diego; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2016-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of a dual task (DT) comprised of a nonfatiguing leg and foot extension coupled with a calculation task on postexercise facilitation (PEF) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) tested by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in the study. They were required to perform a motor task, a cognitive task and a DT. The motor task consisted of extending the right leg and foot for 30 sec at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The cognitive task consisted of a 30-sec backward calculation. In the DT condition, motor and cognitive tasks were performed concurrently. Resting motor threshold and 10 MEPs were collected before and immediately after each task. TMS was delivered to the motor hot spot of the right vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results showed that exercise induced a significant PEF in both VL and TA muscles while calculation was not associated with significant PEF. Furthermore, DT was associated with lack of significant PEF in both muscles (VL, 116.1%±9.6%; TA, 115.7%±9%). Our data indicates DT interference on corticospinal excitability after a nonfatiguing exercise. Our experimental paradigm may be used to address postexercise motor cortex plastic adaptations induced by motor and cognitive tasks of different complexity in sport, aging and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27419111

  14. Adaptive Motor Imagery: A Multimodal Study of Immobilization-Induced Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Sowman, Paul F; Marstaller, Lars; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Savage, Greg; Al-Janabi, Shahd; de Lissa, Peter; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-03-01

    The consequences of losing the ability to move a limb are traumatic. One approach that examines the impact of pathological limb nonuse on the brain involves temporary immobilization of a healthy limb. Here, we investigated immobilization-induced plasticity in the motor imagery (MI) circuitry during hand immobilization. We assessed these changes with a multimodal paradigm, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural activation, magnetoencephalography (MEG) to track neuronal oscillatory dynamics, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal excitability. fMRI results show a significant decrease in neural activation for MI of the constrained hand, localized to sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. MEG results show a significant decrease in beta desynchronization and faster resynchronization in sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. TMS results show a significant increase in resting motor threshold in motor cortex contralateral to the constrained hand, suggesting a decrease in corticospinal excitability in the projections to the constrained hand. These results demonstrate a direct and rapid effect of immobilization on MI processes of the constrained hand, suggesting that limb nonuse may not only affect motor execution, as evidenced by previous studies, but also MI. These findings have important implications for the effectiveness of therapeutic approaches that use MI as a rehabilitation tool to ameliorate the negative effects of limb nonuse. PMID:25477368

  15. Intrahemispheric dysfunction in primary motor cortex without corpus callosum: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassonde Maryse

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two human cerebral hemispheres are continuously interacting, through excitatory and inhibitory influences and one critical structure subserving this interhemispheric balance is the corpus callosum. Interhemispheric neurophysiological abnormalities and intrahemispheric behavioral impairments have been reported in individuals lacking the corpus callosum. The aim of this study was to examine intrahemispheric neurophysiological function in primary motor cortex devoid of callosal projections. Methods Intracortical excitatory and inhibitory systems were tested in three individuals with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and sixteen healthy individuals. These systems were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocols: motor threshold at rest, paired-pulse curve, and cortical silent period. Results TMS revealed no difference between the patient and control groups on the motor threshold measure, as well as intracortical facilitation and intracortical inhibition systems as tested by paired stimulation. However, intrahemispheric inhibitory function was found to be abnormal in participants without callosal projections, as the cortical silent period duration was significantly increased in the patient group. Conclusion These data suggest that in addition to previously reported impaired interhemispheric function, patients lacking the entire corpus callosum also display abnormal intrahemispheric excitability of the primary motor cortex.

  16. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metals embedded graphene-like carbon nitride sheet: A DFT + U study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Chi, Runze; Li, Chong; Jia, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we have investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition-metals (TMs) embedded two dimensional graphene-like carbon nitride sheet (TMs@g-CN). Our results show that TMs embed in the cavity of g-CN sheet regularly and keep intact of the planar structure, though there is Jahn-Teller distortion inevitably. Additionally, the nonmagnetic and semiconducting sheet can be significantly modulated to be magnetic and metallic behaviors induced by the resonant impurity states between TMs 3d and g-CN 2p orbitals. Moreover, we also explore the magnetic coupling of TMs@g-CN and find that it varies dramatically with the change of the distance between TMs, i.e., from ferromagnetic (FM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition. Finally, the underlying physical mechanism of the above findings is discussed.

  17. Prognostic factors associated with radiosurgery for malignant glioma: results of a multi-institutional gamma knife study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: It is thought that focally increased dose results in improved survival in selected patients with malignant glioma, and many patients receive radiosurgery as part of their therapy. However, the association between selection and outcome is poorly understood. We performed a retrospective multi-institutional analysis to determine factors associated with better or worse survival and complications. The 9 participating Gamma Knife facilities provided a broad range of selection criteria and clinical and technical data that could be related to outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 202 tumors were treated in 189 patients (176 patients with unifocal tumor; 13 patients with bifocal tumors treated on the same day), with 30% of patients treated for primary tumor and 70% for recurrent tumor. Pathological diagnoses included glioblastoma (51%), anaplastic astrocytoma (23%), astrocytoma (23%), and pilocytic astrocytoma (3%). Median (range) characteristics were: age 47 years (2-84 years), KPS 90 (40-100), minimum tumor dose 16 Gy (5-37.5 Gy), prescription isodose percent 50% (20-90%), number of isocenters per tumor 5 (1-15), and median treatment volume 64 cc (0.3-96.0 cc). Brachytherapy selection criteria were satisfied in 65% of patients. The primary endpoints of the study were survival and complications. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 65 weeks after radiosurgery (maximum 341 weeks). Results: Acute complications were seen in 9% of evaluated patients, chronic complications in 17% of evaluated patients followed at least one year, and chronic steroid dependency in 36% of evaluated patients followed at least one year. Long-term KPS was found to improve or remain stable in approximately half of surviving patients. No factors were identified that were significantly associated with risk of chronic complications. Risk of acute complications and chronic corticosteroid dependency were associated with older patient age. Multivariate analysis showed that

  18. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven;

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during ne...

  19. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Probe State- and Trait-Like Conditions in Chronic Tinnitus: A Proof-of-Principle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schecklmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Several neuroscience tools showed the involvement of auditory cortex in chronic tinnitus. In this proof-of-principle study we probed the capability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS for the measurement of brain oxygenation in auditory cortex in dependence from chronic tinnitus and from intervention with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Methods. Twenty-three patients received continuous theta burst stimulation over the left primary auditory cortex in a randomized sham-controlled neuronavigated trial (verum = 12; placebo = 11. Before and after treatment, sound-evoked brain oxygenation in temporal areas was measured with fNIRS. Brain oxygenation was measured once in healthy controls (n=12. Results. Sound-evoked activity in right temporal areas was increased in the patients in contrast to healthy controls. Left-sided temporal activity under the stimulated area changed over the course of the trial; high baseline oxygenation was reduced and vice versa. Conclusions. By demonstrating that rTMS interacts with auditory evoked brain activity, our results confirm earlier electrophysiological findings and indicate the sensitivity of fNIRS for detecting rTMS induced changes in brain activity. Moreover, our findings of trait- and state-related oxygenation changes indicate the potential of fNIRS for the investigation of tinnitus pathophysiology and treatment response.

  20. DFT+U study of electrical levels and migration barriers of early 3 d and 4 d transition metals in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulos, A. G.; Santos, P.; Coutinho, J.

    2015-08-01

    Owing to their strong interaction with carriers, early 3 d -row (Ti, V, and Cr) and 4 d -row (Zr, Nb, and Mo) transition metals (TMs) are undesired contaminants in solar- and electronic-grade Si. The increasing stringent control of contamination levels is urging an accurate picture of their electronic structure. In the present work, the electrical levels and migration energies of these TMs are determined by means of standard density-functional theory (DFT) and a rotationally invariant formulation of DFT+U . The latter approach improves on the treatment of electronic correlations at the TM sites and relies on on-site Hubbard Coulomb and Hund's exchange parameters U and J , respectively. These are calculated self-consistently from linear-response theory without fitting to experimental data. The effect of correlation was found more pronounced for Ti and V, with a strong impact on the location of their electrical levels. In most cases, the agreement with the experimental data is satisfactory allowing the identification of the type and character of the levels. For Cr and Mo in particular, the results resolve longstanding controversies concerning the type and position of the levels. The obtained migration barriers display moderate charge-state and correlation dependency. High barriers were found for all metals studied, with the exception of Cr, confirming them as slow diffusers in silicon among the whole TM family.

  1. TMS for Instantiating a Knowledge Base With Incomplete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A computer program that belongs to the class known among software experts as output truth-maintenance-systems (output TMSs) has been devised as one of a number of software tools for reducing the size of the knowledge base that must be searched during execution of artificial- intelligence software of the rule-based inference-engine type in a case in which data are missing. This program determines whether the consequences of activation of two or more rules can be combined without causing a logical inconsistency. For example, in a case involving hypothetical scenarios that could lead to turning a given device on or off, the program determines whether a scenario involving a given combination of rules could lead to turning the device both on and off at the same time, in which case that combination of rules would not be included in the scenario.

  2. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  3. Prévention des TMS dans la durée : des acteurs institutionnels facilitent une démarche d’entreprise Sustainable prevention of musculoskeletal disorders: institutional actors make a company approach easier Prevención de las lesions músculo esqueléticas a largo plazo: los actors institucionales facilitan un proceso en la empresa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tayar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un projet départemental de prévention des TMS est né en 2003 à l’initiative du Service Médical Inter-entreprises de l’Anjou et de l’Action Régionale pour l’Amélioration des Conditions de Travail des Pays de Loire pour répondre aux difficultés des entreprises à mettre en place des projets efficaces et pérennes. Il réunit dans un engagement pour 5 ans, 6 entreprises volontaires qui en acceptent les exigences.Les acteurs institutionnels de prévention apportent, dans une approche pluridisciplinaire, une méthodologie de projet et la possibilité d’échanges et de retours d’expérience entre les entreprises. Cet accompagnement est orienté sur la constitution de groupes de travail animés par des consultants privés pour réfléchir sur des situations à risques de TMS et mettre en commun des décisions de changement.Après 3 ans de conduite du projet dans un abattoir de viande bovine, un processus d’appropriation est à l’œuvre. Les évaluations mettent en lumière des changements humains, organisationnels et techniques. Cette expérience interroge le rôle des acteurs institutionnels et l’intérêt de l’articulation entre les acteurs externes et internes à l’entreprise.A departmental musculoskeletal disorder (MSD prevention project was begun in 2003 on the initiative of the Anjou inter-company medical service and the Regional action for the improvement of working conditions in the Pays de Loire to respond to companies’ difficulties in establishing effective and ongoing projects. It brought together 6 volunteer companies in a commitment to a 5-year agreement.The institutional prevention actors provide, in a multi-disciplinary approach, a project methodology and the opportunity for exchanges and feedback between the companies. This accompanying action focused on the creation of working groups led by private consultants to consider situations that could lead to musculoskeletal disorders and to share decisions for

  4. ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Salviati M; Bonanno C; Pannese R; Capra E; Bersani FS; Minichino A; Delle Chiaie R; Biondi M

    2012-01-01

    Amedeo Minichino¹, Francesco Saverio Bersani¹, Enrico Capra¹, Rossella Pannese¹, Celeste Bonanno², Massimo Salviati¹, Roberto Delle Chiaie¹, Massimo Biondi¹¹Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ²Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controvers...

  5. Dynamics of the tympanic membrane: Multiple-specimen study of digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Jérémie; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2015-12-01

    Stroboscopic digital holography has been used to measure sound-induced tympanic membrane (TM) surface motion with a high spatial resolution. In the current state of the art, holograms from different specimens can be compared qualitatively by inspection and quantitatively by manual identification of regions of interest. However, anatomical variations in the shape of the TM and geometrical variations due to changes in relative position and orientation of the specimen with respect to the camera preclude point-by-point metrics across specimens. The aim of this study is to create a set of shape-normalized TM motion maps in order to quantify the average motion and variability in a set of specimens. We present a method in which the motion maps of 5 cadaveric human TMs were rotated, translated, scaled and sheared to normalize TM orientation, size, and position, and we show preliminary results of cross-specimen analysis of motion.

  6. Spectroscopic ellipsometry time study of low-temperature plasma-polymerized plain trimethylsilane thin films deposited on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Agez, Taher M; Taya, Sofyan A [Physics Department, Islamic University of Gaza, PO Box 108, Gaza (Palestinian Territory, Occupied); Wieliczka, David M [Physics Department, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Moffitt, Chris E, E-mail: staya@iugaza.edu.p [Kratos Analytical Inc, 100 Red Schoolhouse Road, Chestnut Ridge, NY 10952 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the ageing process and composition of plain trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma-polymerized films using a rotating polarizer and analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer. Moreover, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling studies on these films will be presented for a more detailed understanding of the ageing process as well as the modeling of these films. An ellipsometric study of the refractive index of these films shows that the index undergoes a substantial change with time especially in fresh films. Moreover, XPS depth profiling measurements done on these films reveal that the chemical atomic ratios of the constituents change with time. In particular, the strength of the total oxygen signal shows an increase while the strength of the total carbon signal shows a decrease with time.

  7. Spectroscopic ellipsometry time study of low-temperature plasma-polymerized plain trimethylsilane thin films deposited on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the ageing process and composition of plain trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma-polymerized films using a rotating polarizer and analyzer spectroscopic ellipsometer. Moreover, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling studies on these films will be presented for a more detailed understanding of the ageing process as well as the modeling of these films. An ellipsometric study of the refractive index of these films shows that the index undergoes a substantial change with time especially in fresh films. Moreover, XPS depth profiling measurements done on these films reveal that the chemical atomic ratios of the constituents change with time. In particular, the strength of the total oxygen signal shows an increase while the strength of the total carbon signal shows a decrease with time.

  8. New perspectives in transcranial magnetic stimulation: epilepsy, consciousness and the perturbational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganotti, Paolo; Del Felice, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evolved from a simple method to stimulate the motor cortex to an invaluable tool for multiple diagnostic, research, and therapeutic applications. A further development of this noninvasive brain stimulation technique is concomitant electroencephalographic (EEG) recording during TMS. The theoretical underpinnings and the technological innovation of TMS-EEG co-registration have opened new ways to study brain excitability in neurological conditions previously investigated with conventional EEG alone. A further advance in TMS research applications is the perturbational approach: magnetic pulses can interfere not only with dynamic, often pathological rhythms in epilepsy or altered consciousness states, but also modulate physiological states such as sleep and sleep deprivation. So applied, TMS-EEG co-registration can reveal different neurophysiological and behavioral patterns in the awake state, sleep or sleep deprivation. In this review, we discuss the use of TMS and TMS-EEG co-registration in epilepsy, a still rather limited although promising area of study. PMID:23001632

  9. Food cravings and the effects of left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using an improved sham condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eBarth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left prefrontal cortex would inhibit food cravings in healthy women who endorsed frequent food cravings. Ten participants viewed images of food and completed ratings for food cravings before and after receiving either real or sham rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex (10Hz, 100% rMT, 10 seconds-on, 20 seconds-off for 15 minutes; 3000 pulses. Sham TMS was matched with real TMS with respect to perceived painfulness of the stimulation. Each participant received both real and sham rTMS in random order and were blind to the condition in a within-subject cross-over design. With an improved sham control condition, prefrontal rTMS inhibited food cravings no better than sham rTMS. The mild pain from the real and sham rTMS may distract or inhibit food craving, and the decreased craving may not be caused by the effect of rTMS itself. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether rTMS has any true effects on food craving and whether painful stimuli inhibit food or other cravings. A sham condition which matches the painfulness is important to understand the true effects of TMS on behaviors and diseases.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits van den Noort

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, exist. The working mechanism behind TMS is a rapidly changing magnetic field that generates an electric current via electromagnetic induction. When the coil is placed on the scalp, the magnetic field generates a physiological reaction in the underlying neural tissue. The TMS-induced change in the participant′s behavior is used by researchers to investigate the causal relations between specific brain areas and cognitive functions such as language. A variant of TMS has been developed, which is called rapid-rate TMS (rTMS. In this review, three databases (Medline, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus were searched for rTMS studies on normal reading and dyslexia with a cut-off date of October 31, 2014. rTMS was found to be a valuable tool for investigating questions related to reading research, both on the word and the sentence level. Moreover, it can be successfully used in research on dyslexia. Recently, (high-frequency rTMS has been used as a "clinical" intervention technique for treating dyslexia and for improving reading performance by exciting underactive reading pathways in the brain. Finally, we end the paper with a discussion of future directions in the field of rTMS research and dyslexia, for instance, the promising prospect of combining TMS with simultaneous electroencephalographic imaging.

  11. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual...... the tongue dorsum in four different conditions: (1) immediately prior to anaesthesia (baseline), (2) during bilateral LA block of the lingual nerve, (3) after anaesthesia had subjectively subsided (recovery) and (4) 3 hrs after bilateral lingual block injection. MEPs were assessed using stimulus......–response curves in steps of 10% of motor threshold (T). Eight stimuli were given at each stimulus level. Results: The amplitudes of the tongue MEPs were significantly influenced by the stimulus intensity (P<0.001) but not by condition (P=0.186). However, post hoc tests showed that MEPS were statistically...

  12. A STUDY REGARDING THE USE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS IN THE LOGISTIC ACTIVITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIANA ŢARCĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study regarding the necessary means for small and medium enterprises to effectively interact and cooperate in terms of obtaining a maximum profit from transport infrastructures and communications using available and predictable information technology and communications means. The diversity of structures among enterprises has led to the development of new software products, which are more competitive and efficient and are covering a wider domain of application. As the majority of logistics activities are focused on planning, realizing and tracking cargo, managing vehicles and afferent activities, specific software products were designed and developed, generically called TMS. An analysis of current situation shows that small and medium enterprises are using just a small part of available software. They are treat customers individually and does not enable collaboration between customers to reduce transportation costs or sharing the transport resources.

  13. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  14. Suppression of motor cortical excitability in anesthetized rats by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Muller

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a widely-used method for modulating cortical excitability in humans, by mechanisms thought to involve use-dependent synaptic plasticity. For example, when low frequency rTMS (LF rTMS is applied over the motor cortex, in humans, it predictably leads to a suppression of the motor evoked potential (MEP, presumably reflecting long-term depression (LTD -like mechanisms. Yet how closely such rTMS effects actually match LTD is unknown. We therefore sought to (1 reproduce cortico-spinal depression by LF rTMS in rats, (2 establish a reliable animal model for rTMS effects that may enable mechanistic studies, and (3 test whether LTD-like properties are evident in the rat LF rTMS setup. Lateralized MEPs were obtained from anesthetized Long-Evans rats. To test frequency-dependence of LF rTMS, rats underwent rTMS at one of three frequencies, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 Hz. We next tested the dependence of rTMS effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR, by application of two NMDAR antagonists. We find that 1 Hz rTMS preferentially depresses unilateral MEP in rats, and that this LTD-like effect is blocked by NMDAR antagonists. These are the first electrophysiological data showing depression of cortical excitability following LF rTMS in rats, and the first to demonstrate dependence of this form of cortical plasticity on the NMDAR. We also note that our report is the first to show that the capacity for LTD-type cortical suppression by rTMS is present under barbiturate anesthesia, suggesting that future neuromodulatory rTMS applications under anesthesia may be considered.

  15. The Effects of Sex Hormonal Fluctuations during Menstrual Cycle on Cortical Excitability and Manual Dexterity (a Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zoghi

    Full Text Available To investigate whether hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle affect corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition (ICI or facilitation (ICF in primary motor cortex, and also whether the hormonal fluctuations have any effect on manual dexterity in neurologically intact women.Twenty volunteers (10 Female, 10 Male were included in this study. The levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured from saliva during the women's menstrual follicular, ovulation and mid-luteal phases. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Single and paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS were delivered in a block of 20 stimuli. With paired-pulse technique, 3ms and 10ms inter-stimulus intervals were used to assess ICI and ICF, respectively. The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT was completed in each session before the TMS assessments. Male participants were tested at similar time intervals as female participants.Mixed design ANOVA revealed that GPT score in female participants was significantly lower at the mid-luteal phase compared to the ovulation phase (p = 0.017. However, it was not correlated with progesterone or estrogen fluctuations during the menstrual cycle. The results also showed that the effect of phase, sex and the interaction of phase by sex for resting motor threshold, ICI or ICF were not significant (p > 0.05.Manual dexterity performance fluctuates during the menstrual cycle in neurologically intact women, which might be due to the balance of the neuromodulatory effects of P4 and E2 in the motor cortex during different phases.

  16. Acceptance of different multifocal contact lenses depending on the binocular findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnolati, W

    1993-04-01

    In a clinical study the subjective acceptance as well as the quality of different visual functions was examined during the wearing of three multifocal lenses (Ciba Spectrum Bifocal, Allergan Echelon, and Essilor Variations). Ten subjects wore each of the 3 contact lens types for a period of 12 to 21 days after the binocular finding (bicentral or disparate vision within the Panum's area); further functions such as contrast or scotopic vision were qualified and/or quantified in a basic examination. All subjects (N = 5) with the binocular finding orthophoria/motorcompensated heterophoria preferred the Ciba Spectrum Bifocal. Furthermore, all visual functions of the 10 test persons were clearly reduced with all 3 multifocal contact lenses. A correlation between the "preferred contact lens and the detailed subjective acceptance" and/or the "subjective acceptance and the functional measurements" could not be proven as statistically significant. PMID:8502460

  17. A study of energy resolution in a gridded ionization chamber filled with tetramethylsilane and tetramethylgermanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy resolutions of 976 keV conversion electrons from a 207Bi source are measured in a gridded ionization chamber filled with tetramethylsilane (TMS) and tetramethylgermanium (TMG), and are found to be about 5.7 and 5.5% (rms) for TMS and TMG, respectively. We also deduce a simple method of estimating the electron lifetime using a gridded ionization chamber. The electron lifetime, free ion yield and thermalization length for these liquids are measured by this simple method

  18. Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction studies of the Fe sub 8 sub 7 Zr sub 6 B sub 6 Cu sub 1 nanocrystallization process

    CERN Document Server

    Bibicu, I; Plazaola, F; Apinaniz, E

    2001-01-01

    Fe sub 8 sub 7 Zr sub 6 B sub 6 Cu sub 1 amorphous ribbon were obtained by the melt spinning technique under a controlled atmosphere. One-hour isothermal treatments at different temperatures were performed in a differential thermal analyzer apparatus in an Ar atmosphere. The Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectrometry (CEMS) and X-ray diffraction measurements of the Fe sub 8 sub 7 Zr sub 6 B sub 6 Cu sub 1 sample in different steps of the nanocrystallization process have been performed. The results have been compared with those obtained by means of Transmission Moessbauer Spectrometry (TMS) technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns and CEMS spectra of the studied samples present systematically higher crystallized fractions than those corresponding to spectra obtained by transmission geometry. As these techniques offer us information about different regions of the sample, the differences among the obtained results have been related to an inhomogenization of the crystallization process into the sample induced b...

  19. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Its Applications in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Lin Lin

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS provides a non-invasive method of inductionof focal currents in the brain as well as transient modulation of the function of the targetedcortex. TMS is now widely used as a diagnostic tool in adults. In children, its application todate has been limited, even though TMS offers unique opportunities to gain insights into theneurophysiology of a child's brain. Using the single-pulse TMS technique, investigators canmeasure motor thresholds, motor evoked potentials, silent periods, central conduction times,and the paired-pulse curve to study central nervous system development and central motorreorganization after a cerebral lesion. Repetitive TMS (rTMS is a novel treatment for psychiatricillness that is undergoing trials for a range of disorders in adults. Although there arerare published data on rTMS as a treatment for neuropsychiatric diseases in young persons,the benefits from TMS are nevertheless encouraging. Two important issues of pediatricTMS are safety considerations and methodology. In the future, rTMS may play an importantrole in the study and possibly in the therapy of children's diseases after more safetystudies are completed.

  20. Solving the orientation specific constraints in transcranial magnetic stimulation by rotating fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Rotem

    Full Text Available Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS is a promising technology for both neurology and psychiatry. Positive treatment outcome has been reported, for instance in double blind, multi-center studies on depression. Nonetheless, the application of TMS towards studying and treating brain disorders is still limited by inter-subject variability and lack of model systems accessible to TMS. The latter are required to obtain a deeper understanding of the biophysical foundations of TMS so that the stimulus protocol can be optimized for maximal brain response, while inter-subject variability hinders precise and reliable delivery of stimuli across subjects. Recent studies showed that both of these limitations are in part due to the angular sensitivity of TMS. Thus, a technique that would eradicate the need for precise angular orientation of the coil would improve both the inter-subject reliability of TMS and its effectiveness in model systems. We show here how rotation of the stimulating field relieves the angular sensitivity of TMS and provides improvements in both issues. Field rotation is attained by superposing the fields of two coils positioned orthogonal to each other and operated with a relative phase shift in time. Rotating field TMS (rfTMS efficiently stimulates both cultured hippocampal networks and rat motor cortex, two neuronal systems that are notoriously difficult to excite magnetically. This opens the possibility of pharmacological and invasive TMS experiments in these model systems. Application of rfTMS to human subjects overcomes the orientation dependence of standard TMS. Thus, rfTMS yields optimal targeting of brain regions where correct orientation cannot be determined (e.g., via motor feedback and will enable stimulation in brain regions where a preferred axonal orientation does not exist.

  1. Sites and reactivity of sulfides in hydro-treatment catalysis: theoretical ab-initio study; Sites et reactivite des sulfures en catalyse d`hydrotraitement: etude theorique ab-initio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybaud, P.

    1998-10-28

    Ab-initio calculations within the DFT and GGA have been carried out in an attempt to understand better which property sets the activity of transition metal sulfides (TMS) in the hydro-desulfurization reaction (HDS), a most important step in the refining of crude oil. A systematic study of the structural cohesive and electronic properties of more than thirty bulk TMS has allowed us to find a new simple relationship between the experimental catalytic activities known in HDS, and the properly defined sulfur-metal (S-M) bond energy. On this volcano curve reminiscent of the Sabatier principles, ionic metallic sulfides (as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, Ci{sub 9}S{sub 8}) exhibit the weakest bonds whereas ion-covalent semi-conductors (as MoS{sub 2}) exhibit the strongest bonds: the highest activities correspond to intermediate bond strengths (RuS{sub 2}). Our study of the electronic structure of the MoS{sub 2} edge surfaces has revealed acceptor surface states localized on Coordinatively Unsaturated Mo ions and the significance of those states for the activation of hetero-aromatic molecules like thiophene. On such surfaces, the energetic profiles we establish for the thiophene HDS reaction point out the surface anionic vacancy regeneration steps as rate determining. We have calculated the optimal positions of Co (Ni) in decoration on the MoS{sub 2} edge planes, in excellent agreement with available EXAFS data on real catalysts. Introducing the promoter Co (Ni) induces a lower optimal sulfur coverage and a lower surface S-M bond strength in proportion of the Co (Ni) coverage, and lower for Ni than for Co. Simplified energy profiles for the thiophene HDS reactions on promoted (101-bar 0) surfaces show that the C-S scission step is likely to become rate determining. Our results show altogether that bulk and surface S-M strengths in TMS systems show similar trends, insofar as they are primarily determined by the local electronic structure. (author)

  2. Adjunctive treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment resistant depression:a randomized,double-blind,sham-controlled study%经颅磁刺激治疗难治性抑郁症的双盲随机对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张选红; 王立伟; 王继军; 刘强; 樊晔

    2011-01-01

    法,但对认知功能改善作用不明显.%Background:High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS)to the left prefrontal cortex is a promising antidepressant treatment but the appropriate duration of treatment and its effect on cognitive symptoms in treatment resistant patients is uncertain.Hypothesis: Patients with treatment resistant depression on standard antidepressant medication who receive four weeks of adjunctive treatment with high-frequency rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex will have better clinical outcomes and better cognitive functioning than those who receive sham rTMS treatments. Methods: Thirty patients with treatment resistant depression(defined as failure to respond to two or more antidepressants of different classes administered for at least 6 weeks at or above two-thirds of the recommended maximum dose)receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were randomly assigned to receive adjunctive treatment with either real rTMS(n=15)or sham rTMS(n=15)5 times a week for 4 consecutive weeks.Blinded pre-post evaluations were conducted using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale(HAMD),the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale(MADRS),the severity of illness measure from the Clinical Global Impression rating scale(CGI-S),the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale(WAIS),the Wechsler Memory Scale(WMS),and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test(WCST).Results:14 subjects from each group completed the study.There was no significant diffefence in the HAMD total scores between the two groups after 2 weeks of treatment but after 4 weeks of treatment the mean percentage drop in the HAMD total score was significantly greater in the real rTMS group(49%,SD=19%)than in the sham rTMS group(29%,SD=25%),with a mean difference of 20%[95%Cl=3%-37%;t(26)=2.42;P=0.023].At 4 weeks the mean(SD)reduction in the MADRS total score was also greater in the real rTMS group[47%(23%)vs 16% (40%),Mann-Whitney Z=2

  3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced global propagation of transient phase resetting associated with directional information flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eKawasaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG phase synchronization analyses can reveal large-scale communication between distant brain areas. However, it is not possible to identify the directional information flow between distant areas using conventional phase synchronization analyses. In the present study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the occipital area in subjects who were resting with their eyes closed, and analyzed the spatial propagation of transient TMS-induced phase resetting by using the transfer entropy (TE, to quantify the causal and directional flow of information. The time-frequency EEG analysis indicated that the theta (5 Hz phase locking factor (PLF reached its highest value at the distant area (the motor area in this study, with a time lag that followed the peak of the transient PLF enhancements of the TMS-targeted area at the TMS onset. PPI (phase-preservation index analyses demonstrated significant phase resetting at the TMS-targeted area and distant area. Moreover, the TE from the TMS-targeted area to the distant area increased clearly during the delay that followed TMS onset. Interestingly, the time lags were almost coincident between the PLF and TE results (152 vs. 165 ms, which provides strong evidence that the emergence of the delayed PLF reflects the causal information flow. Such tendencies were observed only in the higher-intensity TMS condition, and not in the lower-intensity or sham TMS conditions. Thus, TMS may manipulate large-scale causal relationships between brain areas in an intensity-dependent manner. We demonstrated that single-pulse TMS modulated global phase dynamics and directional information flow among synchronized brain networks. Therefore, our results suggest that single-pulse TMS can manipulate both incoming and outgoing information in the TMS-targeted area associated with functional changes.

  4. A systematic review for the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Qing; Li, Guangming; Wang, Anguo; Liu, Tao; Feng, Shenggang; Guo, Zhiwei; Chen, Huaping; He, Bin; McClure, Morgan A.; Ou, Jun; Xing, Guoqiang; Mu, Qiwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been commonly used to treat depression. Recent studies suggest that co-therapy with rTMS and SD may produce better therapeutic effects than either therapy alone. Therefore, this study was to review the current findings to determine if rTMS can augment the therapeutic effects of SD on depression. Methods Embase, JSTOR, Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Tr...

  5. Sequential Systemic Administrations of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate and Radioiodinated Hypericin Exert Synergistic Targeted Theranostic Effects with Prolonged Survival on SCID Mice Carrying Bifocal Tumor Xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Feng, Yuanbo; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Guozhi; Nuyts, Johan; de Witte, Peter; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Jie; Oyen, Raymond; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Based on the soil-to-seeds principle, we explored the small-molecular sequential dual-targeting theranostic strategy (SMSDTTS) for prolonged survival and imaging detectability in a xenograft tumor model. Materials and Methods: Thirty severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing bilateral radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) subcutaneously were divided into group A of SMSDTTS with sequential intravenous injections of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) and 131I-iodohyper...

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, Yasaman; Khorrami, Anahita; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have unequivocally identified the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a crucial structure for top-down control of working memory (WM) processes. By modulating the excitability of neurons in a targeted cortical area, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers a unique way to modulate DLPFC function, opening the possibility of WM facilitation. Even though TMS neuromodulation effects over the left DLPFC have successfully improved WM performance in patients with depression and schizophrenia in a multitude of studies, raising the potential of TMS as a safe efficacious treatment for WM deficits, TMS interventions in healthy individuals have produced mixed and inconclusive results. Here, we stimulated the left DLPFC of healthy individuals using a high-frequency repetitive TMS protocol and evaluated behavioral performance in a battery of cognitive tasks. We found that TMS treatment enhanced WM performance in a verbal digit span and a visuospatial 2-back task. PMID:26884132

  7. Novel Methods to Study Aphasia Recovery after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. It has been argued that the functional reorganization of language networks after left-hemisphere stroke may engage perilesional left brain areas as well as homologous right-hemisphere regions. In this chapter, we su...... effect sizes are not striking. Future studies on larger patient collectives are needed to explore whether noninvasive brain stimulation can enhance language functions at a level that is clinically relevant.......The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. It has been argued that the functional reorganization of language networks after left-hemisphere stroke may engage perilesional left brain areas as well as homologous right-hemisphere regions. In this chapter, we...... summarize how noninvasive brain stimulation can be used to elucidate mechanisms of plasticity in language networks and enhance language recovery after stroke. We first outline some basic principles of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We then present...

  8. Adiponectin isoforms differentially affect gene expression and lipidome of primary human hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Wanninger; Gerhard Liebisch; Kristina Eisinger; Markus Neumeier; Charalampos Aslanidis; Lisa Voggenreiter; Rebekka Pohl; Weiss, Thomas S.; Sabrina Krautbauer; Christa Buechler

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been used to treat patients with subjective tinnitus. While rTMS is known to induce morphological changes in healthy subjects, no study has investigated yet whether rTMS treatment induces grey matter (GM) changes in tinnitus patients as well, whether these changes are correlated with treatment success, and whether GM at baseline is a useful predictor for treatment outcome. Therefore, we examined magnetic resonance ...

  9. Utilisation de la stimulation magnétique transcrânienne dans l'évaluation de la fonction motrice : aspects méthodologiques et application à l'exercice extrême

    OpenAIRE

    Temesi, John

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely-used investigative technique in motor cortical evaluation. TMS is now being used in the investigation of fatigue to help partition the effects of central fatigue. Few studies have utilized this technique to evaluate the effects of locomotor exercise and none in conditions of extreme exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was twofold; first, to answer methodological questions pertaining to the use of TMS in fatigue evaluation, partic...

  10. The application of C12 biochip in the diagnosis and monitoring of colorectal cancer: Systematic evaluation and suggestion for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen C; Chen L; Yang G; Li Y

    2008-01-01

    Background: The 12 tumor markers′ (TMs) biochip diagnostic (C12) system has been proven useful in some previous studies but its value for colorectal cancer (CRC) only was not systematically investigated. Aims: To evaluate the value of C12 system for CRC. Settings and Design: The associations between TMs and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. The most relevant TMs, the most useful combinations, and the correlations between TM levels were assessed. Materials and Methods...

  11. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools.

  12. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J WallineThe Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or

  13. Efficacy of Adjunctive High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Right Prefrontal Cortex in Adolescent Mania: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Vijay; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of adjunctive right prefrontal high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment in adolescent mania patients as compared to sham stimulation. Methods Twenty six right handed patients aged 12–17 years diagnosed with bipolar mania were randomized to receive daily sessions of active or sham rTMS (20 Hz, 110% of motor threshold, 20 trains, 10 s intertrain interval) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 10 days. Mania was ra...

  14. Tumefactive demyelinating disease with isolated spinal cord involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (TMS) is an unusual variant of demyelinating disease. TMS has a variable and unknown progression and presents with features similar to a neoplasm making the determination a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. This report presents one of the very few reported cases of isolated spinal cord TMS, and the second case to describe TMS of the lower spinal cord, given that the lesions are typically cervical. This case study presents a diagnostic approach based on clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics, as well as sheds some light on the response to therapy and disease evolution

  15. Frontal non-invasive neurostimulation modulates antisaccade preparation in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Valero-Cabre

    Full Text Available A combination of oculometric measurements, invasive electrophysiological recordings and microstimulation have proven instrumental to study the role of the Frontal Eye Field (FEF in saccadic activity. We hereby gauged the ability of a non-invasive neurostimulation technology, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS, to causally interfere with frontal activity in two macaque rhesus monkeys trained to perform a saccadic antisaccade task. We show that online single pulse TMS significantly modulated antisaccade latencies. Such effects proved dependent on TMS site (effects on FEF but not on an actively stimulated control site, TMS modality (present under active but not sham TMS on the FEF area, TMS intensity (intensities of at least 40% of the TMS machine maximal output required, TMS timing (more robust for pulses delivered at 150 ms than at 100 post target onset and visual hemifield (relative latency decreases mainly for ipsilateral AS. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using TMS to causally modulate antisaccade-associated computations in the non-human primate brain and support the use of this approach in monkeys to study brain function and its non-invasive neuromodulation for exploratory and therapeutic purposes.

  16. The temporal dynamics of early visual cortex involvement in behavioral priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Jacobs

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS allows for non-invasive interference with ongoing neural processing. Applied in a chronometric design over early visual cortex (EVC, TMS has proved valuable in indicating at which particular time point EVC must remain unperturbed for (conscious vision to be established. In the current study, we set out to examine the effect of EVC TMS across a broad range of time points, both before (pre-stimulus and after (post-stimulus the onset of symbolic visual stimuli. Behavioral priming studies have shown that the behavioral impact of a visual stimulus can be independent from its conscious perception, suggesting two independent neural signatures. To assess whether TMS-induced suppression of visual awareness can be dissociated from behavioral priming in the temporal domain, we thus implemented three different measures of visual processing, namely performance on a standard visual discrimination task, a subjective rating of stimulus visibility, and a visual priming task. To control for non-neural TMS effects, we performed electrooculographical recordings, placebo TMS (sham, and control site TMS (vertex. Our results suggest that, when considering the appropriate control data, the temporal pattern of EVC TMS disruption on visual discrimination, subjective awareness and behavioral priming are not dissociable. Instead, TMS to EVC disrupts visual perception holistically, both when applied before and after the onset of a visual stimulus. The current findings are discussed in light of their implications on models of visual awareness and (subliminal priming.

  17. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on event-related potential P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tetsuya; Sato, Aya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2012-04-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on brain activity. P300 latency of event-related potential (ERP) was used to evaluate the effects of low-frequency and short-term rTMS by stimulating the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is considered to be the related area of P300 origin. In addition, the prolonged stimulation effects on P300 latency were analyzed after applying rTMS. A figure-eight coil was used to stimulate left-right SMG, and intensity of magnetic stimulation was 80% of motor threshold. A total of 100 magnetic pulses were applied for rTMS. The effects of stimulus frequency at 0.5 or 1 Hz were determined. Following rTMS, an odd-ball task was performed and P300 latency of ERP was measured. The odd-ball task was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min post-rTMS. ERP was measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was measured at Fz, Cz, and Pz that were indicated by the international 10-20 electrode system. Results demonstrated that different effects on P300 latency occurred between 0.5-1 Hz rTMS. With 1 Hz low-frequency magnetic stimulation to the left SMG, P300 latency decreased. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 15 ms at Cz. This decrease continued for approximately 10 min post-rTMS. In contrast, 0.5 Hz rTMS resulted in delayed P300 latency. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 20 ms at Fz, and this delayed effect continued for approximately 15 min post-rTMS. Results demonstrated that P300 latency varied according to rTMS frequency. Furthermore, the duration of the effect was not similar for stimulus frequency of low-frequency rTMS.

  18. Language function distribution in left-handers: A navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussis, Lorena; Sollmann, Nico; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that in left-handers, the right hemisphere (RH) is more involved in language function when compared to right-handed subjects. Since data on lesion-based approaches is lacking, we aimed to investigate language distribution of left-handers by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, rTMS was applied to the left hemisphere (LH) and RH in 15 healthy left-handers during an object-naming task, and resulting naming errors were categorized. Then, we calculated error rates (ERs=number of errors per number of stimulations) for both hemispheres separately and defined a laterality score as the quotient of the LH ER - RH ER through the LH ER + RH ER (abbreviated as (L-R)/(L+R)). In this context, (L-R)/(L+R)>0 indicates that the LH is dominant, whereas (L-R)/(L+R)p=0.94; all errors without hesitation: mean LH 12.4±9.8%, mean RH 12.9±10.0%, p=0.65; no responses: mean LH 9.3±9.2%, mean RH 11.5±10.3%, p=0.84). However, a significant difference between the results of (L-R)/(L+R) of left-handers and right-handers (source data of another study) for all errors (mean 0.01±0.14 vs. 0.19±0.20, p=0.0019) and all errors without hesitation (mean -0.02±0.20 vs. 0.19±0.28, p=0.0051) was revealed, whereas the comparison for no responses did not show a significant difference (mean: -0.004±0.27 vs. 0.09±0.44, p=0.64). Accordingly, left-handers present a comparatively equal language distribution across both hemispheres with language dominance being nearly equally distributed between hemispheres in contrast to right-handers. PMID:26792365

  19. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  20. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on adenosine triphosphate content and microtubule associated protein-2 expression after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hong-lin; YAN Li; CUI Li-ying

    2008-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) research has mainly been focused on the therapeutic effect of psychiatric disorders and Parkinson's disease. A few studies have shown that rTMS might protect against delayed neuronal death induced by transient ischemia, enhance long-term potentiation in ischemic conditions and affect regional brain blood flow and metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) expression in rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion.Methods To study the effects of different timecourses of rTMS on ATP content and MAP-2 expression, 90 rats were randomly divided into three groups (30 rats in each group). To study the effects of multiple rTMS parameters on ATP content and MAP-2 expression, the rats in each group were further divided into six subgroups (five rats each). The rats were sacrificr, 24-hour and 48-hour intervals after reperfusion, and the brain tissues were collected for the detection of ATP and MAP-2.Results rTMS could significantly increase ATP content and MAP-2 expression in the left brain following ischemic insult (P<0.01) and different rTMS parameters had different effects on the ATP level and the MAP-2 expression in the left striatum. A high-frequency rTMS played an important role in MAP-2 expression and ATP preservation.Conclusions This study revealed that rTMS induced significant increase of ATP content and MAP-2 expression in the injured area of the brain, suggesting that the regulation of both ATP and MAP-2 may be involved in the biological mechanism of the effect of rTMS on neural recovery. Therefore, rTMS may become a potential adjunctive therapy for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  1. TMS320C6678的LPI雷达信号检测模型设计%LPI Radar Signal Detection Model Based on TMS320C6678

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏; 肖卫华; 吴宏超

    2015-01-01

    本文围绕低截获概率雷达信号处理的特点和实时性的要求,设计了基于FPGA和DSP传统组合模式的LPI雷达信号检测处理平台.在一款基于Keystone构架的多核DSP处理板上,创新性地运用并行关联流水线体系结构和多层任务调度分配信号处理机制,构建了针对LPI雷达信号从预处理到检测结果输出的一整套信号处理模型.经过仿真实验验证,该信号处理模型适合在低信噪比条件下对LPI雷达信号进行检测,且系统资源分配合理占用逻辑资源少,具有实时检测LPI雷达信号的潜力.

  2. Transmembrane segment (TMS) VIII of the Na+/citrate transporter CitS requires downstream TMS IX for insertion in the Escherichia coli membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, M; Lolkema, JS

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the sodium ion-dependent citrate transporter CitS of IL pneumoniae contains 12 hydrophobic stretches that could form membrane-spanning segments. A previous analysis of the membrane topology in Escherichia coli using the PhoA gene fusion technique indicated that only nine o

  3. The number of full-sine cycles per pulse influences the efficacy of multicycle transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pechmann, Astrid; Delvendahl, Igor; Bergmann, Til O; Ritter, Christoph; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert; Mall, Volker; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to excite corticospinal neurons depends on pulse waveform. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESES: In this study, we examined whether the effectiveness of polyphasic TMS can be increased by using a pulse profile that consists of...

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and preparation of visually-guided reaching movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Busan

    2012-08-01

    The neural system highlighted by TMS/EEG experiments is wider with respect to the one disclosed by the TMS behavioral approach. Further studies are needed to unravel this paucity of overlap. Moreover, the understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for the comprehension of response inhibition and changes in prepared actions, which are common behaviors in everyday life.

  5. Electromagnetic characteristics of eccentric figure-eight coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takuya; Sekino, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Saitoh, Youichi; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is effective for treatment of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. We proposed an eccentric figure-eight coil, which induces strong eddy currents in the target brain tissue. In this study, numerical analyses were carried out to obtain magnetic field distribution of the eccentric figure-eight coil and eddy current in the brain. The analyses were performed with various coil design parameters, such as the outer and inner diameters and number of turns, to investigate the influence of these parameters on the coil characteristics. Increases in the inner diameter, outer diameter, and number of turns caused increases in the maximum eddy current densities. Coil inductance, working voltage, and heat generation also became higher with the increases in these design parameters. In order to develop a compact stimulator system for use at home, we need to obtain strong eddy current density, keeping the working voltage as low as possible. Our results show that it is effective to enlarge the outer diameter.

  6. Preparation, characterization, biological activity, and transport study of polystyrene based calcium–barium phosphate composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium–barium phosphate (CBP) composite membrane with 25% polystyrene was prepared by co-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the membrane. The membrane was found to be crystalline in nature with consistent arrangement of particles and no indication of visible cracks. The electrical potentials measured across the composite membrane in contact with univalent electrolytes (KCl, NaCl and LiCl), have been found to increase with decrease in concentrations. Thus the membrane was found to be cation-selective. Transport properties of developed membranes may be utilized for the efficient desalination of saline water and more importantly demineralization process. The antibacterial study of this composite membrane shows good results for killing the disease causing bacteria along with waste water treatment. Highlights: • Transport properties of composite membrane are evaluated. • The composite membrane was found to be stable in all media. • TMS method is used for electrochemical characterization. • The membrane was found to be cation selective. • The order of surface charge density was found to be LiCl < NaCl < KCl

  7. First-principles study of hydrogen dissociation and diffusion on transition metal-doped Mg(0 0 0 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) have been carried out to study hydrogen molecules dissociation and diffusion on clean and transition metals (TMs) doped Mg(0 0 0 1) surfaces following Pozzo et al. work. Firstly, the stability of Mg(0 0 0 1) surface doped with transition metals atom has been studied. The results showed that transition metals on the left of the table tend to substitute Mg in the second layer, while the other transition metals prefer to substitute Mg in the first layer. Secondly, we studied hydrogen molecules dissociation and diffusion on clean and Mg(0 0 0 1) surfaces which the transition metal atoms substituted both in the first layer and second layer. When transition metal atoms substitute in the first layer, the results agree with the Pozzo et al. result; when transition metal atoms substitute in the second layer, the results showed that the transition metals on the left of the periodic table impact on the dissociation barriers is less. However, for the transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) on the right, there is a great impact on the barriers. The transition metals doped surfaces bind the dissociated H atoms loosely, making them easily diffused. The results further reveal that the Fe dopant on the Mg surface is the best choice for H2 dissociation and hydrogen storage.

  8. Maintenance deep transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions is associated with reduced depressive relapses in patients with unipolar or bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eRapinesi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS is a new form of TMS allowing safe stimulation of deep brain regions. The objective of this perspective study was to assess the role of dTMS maintenance sessions in protecting patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD or recurrent Major Depressive Disorder (MDD from developing depressive or manic relapses in a 12-month follow-up period.Methods: 24 drug-resistant patients with a current depressive episode and a diagnosis of MDD or BD have been enrolled in the study. All the participants underwent daily dTMS sessions for 4 weeks. One group (maintenance – M - group received additional maintenance dTMS sessions weekly or twice a week.Results: After the first dTMS cycle a significant reduction of HDRS scores was observed in all participants. Subsequently, the HDRS mean scores did not significantly change over time in the M group, while it significantly increased in the non M group after 6 and 12 months.Discussion: This perspective study confirms previous evidence of a positive therapeutic effect of dTMS on depressive symptoms and suggests that, after recovery from acute episodes, maintenance dTMS sessions may be helpful in maintaining euthymia in a 12-month follow-up period

  9. Meta-Analysis of Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy Combined With Traditional Medicines for Colorectal Cancer: Contributions of Specific Plants to Tumor Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Menghua; May, Brian H; Zhou, Iris W; Xue, Charlie C L; Zhang, Anthony L

    2016-03-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the clinical evidence for the addition of traditional medicines (TMs) to oxaliplatin-based regimens for colorectal cancer (CRC) in terms of tumor response rate (TRR). Eight electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy combined with TMs compared to the same oxaliplatin-based regimen. Data on TRR from 42 randomized controlled trials were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1. Studies were conducted in China or Japan. Publication bias was not evident. The meta-analyses suggest that the combination of the TMs with oxaliplatin-based regimens increased TRR in the palliative treatment of CRC (risk ratio [RR] 1.31 [1.20-1.42], I(2) = 0%). Benefits were evident for both injection products (RR 1.36 [1.18-1.57], I(2) = 0%) and orally administered TMs (RR 1.27 [1.15-1.41], I(2) = 0%). Further sensitivity analysis of specific plant-based TMs found that Paeonia, Curcuma, and Sophora produced consistently higher contributions to the RR results. Compounds in each of these TMs have shown growth-inhibitory effects in CRC cell-line studies. Specific combinations of TMs appeared to produce higher contributions to TRR than the TMs individually. Notable among these was the combination of Hedyotis, Astragalus, and Scutellaria. PMID:26254190

  10. Cognitive Impairment After Sleep Deprivation Rescued by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Application in Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, C; López, D; Conesa, A; Fernández-Gómez, F J; Gonzalez-Cuello, A; Toledo, F; Tunez, I; Blin, O; Bordet, R; Richardson, J C; Fernandez-Villalba, E; Herrero, M T

    2015-11-01

    Sleep is indispensable for maintaining regular daily life activities and is of fundamental physiological importance for cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation (SD) may affect learning capacity and the ability to form new memories, particularly with regard to hippocampus-dependent tasks. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure of electromagnetic induction that generates electric currents, activating nearby nerve cells in the stimulated cortical area. Several studies have looked into the potential therapeutic use of TMS. The present study was designed to evaluate how TMS could improve learning and memory functions following SD in Octodon degus. Thirty juvenile (18 months old) females were divided into three groups (control, acute, and chronic TMS treatment-with and without SD). TMS-treated groups were placed in plastic cylindrical cages designed to keep them immobile, while receiving head magnetic stimulation. SD was achieved by gently handling the animals to keep them awake during the night. Behavioral tests included radial arm maze (RAM), Barnes maze (BM), and novel object recognition. When TMS treatment was applied over several days, there was significant improvement of cognitive performance after SD, with no side effects. A single TMS session reduced the number of errors for the RAM test and improved latency and reduced errors for the BM test, which both evaluate spatial memory. Moreover, chronic TMS treatment brings about a significant improvement in both spatial and working memories. PMID:26194615

  11. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-01-01

    hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS...... perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over......Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right...

  12. New therapeutic perspectives in neurorehabilitation: transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a non-invasive tool for the electrical stimulation of neural tissue, including the cerebral cortex, and is an excellent method to study brain physiology. Trains of stimuli (repetitive TMS can modify excitability of the cerebral cortex at the stimulated site and also at remote areas along anatomo-functional connexions. Repetitive TMS is used to modulate cortical excitability in a frequency-dependent manner, for a period of time that outlasts the duration of stimulation, inducing plastic changes in the brain. Repetitive TMS may become an additional tool for early rehabilitation and might be useful for promoting cortical plasticity in neurologic patients. Its utility have been demonstrated by many clinical studies in various disabling conditions, as stroke, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and many more, where rTMS opens a new field of therapeutic possibilities.

  13. An Open-Label Feasibility Trial of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Major Depressive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaki; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Higuchi, Yuji; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Terada, Seishi; Kodama, Masafumi; Kishi, Yoshiki; Yamada, Norihito

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to be a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. In Japan, there has been limited research into its feasibility, efficacy, and tolerability. We have launched a trial of rTMS for treating medication-resistant major depressive disorder and bipolar depression. We are investigating low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and traditional high-frequency rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in 20 patients. The primary outcome of the study is the treatment completion rate. This study will provide new data on the usefulness of rTMS for treatment-resistant depression in Japan. PMID:27549679

  14. Study on Chemical Structures of Tetrafluoroethylene-Perfluoro-Alkyl-Vinylether Copolymer by EB-Irradiation in the Molten State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluorinated polymers such as tetrafluoroethylene-perfluoroalkylvinylether copolymer (PFA) with remarkable chemical durability and thermal stability have been applied for industry. However, PFA has been classified to be typical radiation-degradable polymer. In our previous work, it has been found that crosslinked PFA has been obtained by irradiation under oxygen-free atmosphere in its molten state. In this study, the change of thermo-physical properties and the chemical structures of crosslinked PFA were studied by DSC and 19F-NMR. PFA was irradiated by soft electron beam (soft-EB) under nitrogen atmosphere at 583 K±3 K. By DSC analysis, the melting temperature (Tm) shifted to lower temperatures, and crystallinity decreased with increasing dose. Of course, in the case of room temperature irradiation, Tms were hardly changed, and crystallinity increased with increasing dose. For 19F-NMR spectroscopy, the several new signals, which should be due to the changed chemical structures, were observed besides the intense peak of CF2 at -124 ppm. The detected new signals assigned to the tertiary carbon (CF) group with Y-type crosslinking site and fluoro-propylene site, and chain end group, respectively. That is, it was found that the Y-type crosslinking reactions and chain scission should occur simultaneously in the melting temperature irradiation. The crosslinking density calculated by concentration of CF with Y-type crosslinking site increased with increasing of dose. The crosslinking density estimated for the 1200 kGy irradiated PFA showed about 1.03%

  15. The THERMOSENSITIVE MALE STERILE 1 Interacts with the BiPs via DnaJ Domain and Stimulates Their ATPase Enzyme Activities in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Ma

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis TMS1 encodes a heat shock protein identical to the Hsp40 protein AtERdj3A and plays important roles in the thermotolerance of pollen tubes and other plant tissues. Despite its importance to plant growth and reproduction, little has been known about its mechanisms underlying thermotolerance of plants. In this study, the relationship between TMS1 and the Hsp70 proteins, Binding Immunoglobulin Proteins (BiPs was explored to understand the molecular mechanisms of TMS1 in thermotolerance of plants. The expression of TMS1 was induced not only by heat shock, but also by dithiothreitol (DTT and L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (AZC, similarly to the three BiP genes, indicating that TMS1 may be involved in unfolded protein response (UPR. The firefly luciferase complementary imaging (LCI, GST pull-down and ATPase enzyme activity assays demonstrated that the DnaJ domain of TMS1 could interact with BiP1 and BiP3, and could stimulate their ATPase enzyme activities. In addition, the expression level of TMS1 was reduced in the bzip28 bzip60 double mutant. These results suggest that TMS1 may function at the downstream of bZIP28 and bZIP60 and be involved in termotolerance of plants, possibly by participating in refolding or degradation of unfolded and misfolded proteins through interaction with the BiPs.

  16. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on rectal function and emotion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous brain imaging study demonstrated activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during visceral nociception, and this activation was associated with anxiety. We hypothesized that functional modulation of the right DLPFC by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reveal the actual role of right DLPFC in brain-gut interactions in humans. Subjects were 11 healthy males aged 23.5±1.4 (mean±spin echo (SE)) years. Viscerosensory evoked potential (VEP) with sham (0 mA) or actual (30 mA) electrical stimulation (ES) of the rectum was taken after sham, low frequency rTMS at 0.1 Hz, and high frequency rTMS at 10 Hz to the right DLPFC. Rectal tone was measured with a rectal barostat. Visceral perception and emotion were analyzed using an ordinate scale, rectal barostat, and VEP. Low frequency rTMS significantly reduced anxiety evoked by ES at 30 mA (p<0.05). High frequency rTMS-30 mA ES significantly produced more phasic volume events than sham rTMS-30 mA ES (p<0.05). We successfully modulated the gastrointestinal function of healthy individuals through rTMS to the right DLPFC. Thus, rTMS to the DLPFC appears to modulate the affective, but not direct, component of visceral perception and motility of the rectum. (author)

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia: the contribution of neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-de; Wang, R; Prakash, Ravi; Chaudhury, S; Dayananda, G

    2012-01-01

    At the most basic level, the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS) is a neuro-scientific tool that exerts its action by influencing the neo-cortical functions. However, in-spite of so many well-evidenced roles of TMS in neuropsychiatric conditions, its exact mechanism of action remains to be known. More intriguing are its therapeutic effects in Schizophrenia at the Cerebral-level. In this review, we adopt a neuro-imaging approach for this exploration. We review the present literature for the studies in Schizophrenia which have used a combination of rTMS with 1) Electroenchephalogram (EEG) 2)The functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and the 3) Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography. The TMS-EEG combination provides direct effects of TMS on the electro- magnetic field (EMF) of brain. The TMS-fMRI/PET/SPECT combinations are very effective in exploring the functional connectivity in brains of Schizophrenia patients as well as in performing rTMS guided neuro-navigation. Our review suggests that TMS combined with other neuroimaging modalities are needed for a better clarification of its neural actions. PMID:23409741

  18. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne;

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex....... Stimulus–response curves were constructed by recording the intensity of the reported phosphenes evoked in the contralateral visual field at range of TMS intensities. Phosphene measurements revealed that MD produced a rapid and robust decrease in cortical excitability relative to a control condition without...

  19. Theta, alpha and beta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation: brain modulation in tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk De Ridder, Elsa van der Loo, Karolien Van der Kelen, Tomas Menovsky, Paul van de Heyning, Aage Moller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some forms of tinnitus are considered to be auditory phantom phenomena related to reorganization and hyperactivity of the auditory central nervous system. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive tool capable of modulating human brain activity, using single pulse or burst stimuli. Burst rTMS has only been performed in the theta range, and has not been used clinically. The authors analyze whether burst TMS at theta (5 Hz, alpha (10 Hz and beta (20 Hz frequencies can temporarily suppress narrow band noise/white noise tinnitus, which has been demonstrated to be intractable to tonic stimulation. Methods: rTMS is performed both in tonic and burst mode in 46 patients contralateral to the tinnitus side, at 5, 10 and 20 Hz. Fourteen placebo negative rTMS responders are further analyzed. Results: In 5 patients, maximal tinnitus suppression is obtained with theta, in 2 with alpha and in 7 with beta burst stimulation. Burst rTMS suppresses narrow band/white tinnitus much better than tonic rTMS t(13=6.4, p<.000. Women experience greater suppression of their tinnitus with burst stimulation than men, t(12=2.9, p<.05. Furthermore left sided tinnitus is perceived as more distressing on the TQ than right sided tinnitus, t(12=3.2, p<.01. The lower the tinnitus pitch the more effectively rTMS suppresses tinnitus(r=-0.65, p<0.05. Discussion: Burst rTMS can be used clinically, not only theta burst, but also alpha and beta burst. Burst rTMS is capable of suppressing narrow band/white noise tinnitus very much better than tonic rTMS. This could be due the simple fact that burst neuromodulation is more powerful than tonic neuromodulation or to a differential effect of burst and tonic stimulation on the lemniscal and extralemniscal auditory system. In some patients only alpha or beta burst rTMS is capable of suppressing tinnitus, and theta burst not. Therefore in future rTMS studies it could be worthwhile not to limit burst

  20. Mapping different intra-hemispheric parietal-motor networks using twin Coil TMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Chao, Chi-Chao; Paine, Rainer; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests anatomical and functional differences in connectivity between the anterior and posterior parts of the inferior-parietal lobule (IPL) and the frontal motor areas.......Accumulating evidence suggests anatomical and functional differences in connectivity between the anterior and posterior parts of the inferior-parietal lobule (IPL) and the frontal motor areas....

  1. Development of TMS320F2810 DSP Based Bidirectional buck-boost Chopper

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. K.S. Chakradhar*1,; M.Ayesha siddiqa2; T.Vandhana3

    2014-01-01

    A DC - DC converter is an electronic circuit which converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another. It is a class of power converter. One common application of DC - DC converters is DC motor control. The Buck - Boost Chopper is a type of DC - DC converter. They are static devices which are used to obtain variable DC voltage from the source of constant DC voltage. Besides the saving in power, Buck-Boost choppers offer greater efficiency, faster respon...

  2. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here,...

  3. Les tasques motrius significatives (TMS: òptims procediments d'ensenyament i d'aprenentatge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Buscà Donet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los referentes teóricos de este artículo son, por un lado, la dimensión pedagógica de la motricidad y, por otro, la necesidad de plantear un aprendizaje significativo de los temas transversales. La realidad educativa actual requiere acrecentar el valor y la incidencia educativa de estos contenidos. Al respecto opinamos que su esencia curricular, más cercana a situaciones de aprendizaje activas, participativas i vivenciadas, permiten planteamientos pedagógicos y didácticos basados en la acción motriz. Es en este sentido que se requiere un diseño lógico de las tareas motrices. La vertiente empírica del artículo aporta un diseño que fomente en el alumnado la utilización estratégica de los procedimientos de aprendizaje y, por lo tanto, la posibilidad de obtener aprendizajes significativos y contextualizados con su realidad y sus intereses. Como instrumento metodológico el artículo aporta un sistema de categorías de las tareas motrices significativas y los procedimientos de aprendizaje. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Les références théoriques de cet article sont, d’une part, la dimension pédagogique de la motricité et, d’autre part, la nécessité d’envisager un apprentissage significatif des thèmes transversaux. La réalité éducative actuelle exige un accroissement de la valeur et de l’incidence éducatives de ces contenus. À cet égard, nous considérons que leur essence dans le cursus, plus proche de situations d’apprentissage actives, participatives et vécues, permet des approches pédagogiques et didactiques basées sur l’action motrice. C’est de ce point de vue qu’une conception logique des tâches motrices est nécessaire. L’aspect empirique de l’article apporte une conception développant chez les élèves l’utilisation stratégique des procédés d’apprentissage et, par conséquent, la possibilité d’obtenir des apprentissages significatifs et contextualisés avec leur réalité et leurs centres d’intérêts. Comme instrument méthodologique, l’article apporte un système de catégorisation des tâches motrices significatives ainsi que des procédés d’apprentissage.From a theoretical point of view this article examines two issues: the educational dimension of motor functions and the need to enable meaningful learning of those aspects which cut across different subject areas. Today’s educational context is such that the value and impact of these issues must be increased. In this regard we believe that the essence of their contribution to the curriculum, which is more akin to active, participatory and experiential learning, enables the development of educational approaches based on motor activity. Therefore, what is required is a clearly thought out plan of motor tasks. The empirical part of the article presents a plan that fosters the strategic use of learning procedures by pupils, and thus enables them to achieve meaningful learning goals that are consistent with their own reality and interests. As a methodological instrument the article describes a category system covering the most important motor tasks and the associated learning procedures.Los referentes teóricos de este artículo son, por un lado, la dimensión pedagógica de la motricidad y, por otro, la necesidad de plantear un aprendizaje significativo de los temas transversales. La realidad educativa actual requiere acrecentar el valor y la incidencia educativa de estos contenidos. Al respecto opinamos que su esencia curricular, más cercana a situaciones de aprendizaje activas, participativas i vivenciadas, permiten planteamientos pedagógicos y didácticos basados en la acción motriz. Es en este sentido que se requiere un diseño lógico de las tareas motrices. La vertiente empírica del artículo aporta un diseño que fomente en el alumnado la utilización estratégica de los procedimientos de aprendizaje y, por lo tanto, la posibilidad de obtener aprendizajes significativos y contextualizados con su realidad y sus intereses. Como instrumento metodológico el artículo aporta un sistema de categorías de las tareas motrices significativas y los procedimientos de aprendizaje.

  4. Control System of Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Based on TMS320F240

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zeng; Zicheng Li

    2011-01-01

    A brushless DC(BLDC) motor with the characteristics of high speed and high power density has been more widely used in industrial area. The BLDC motor requires the position and speed sensors for control. However the position sensors are undesirable from standpoints of size, cost, maintenance and reliability. There are some different ways that can solve this problem, depending on the flux distribution. This paper describes a control system of sensorless BLDC motor. The back-EMF is adopted to de...

  5. Reduced parietal activation in cervical dystonia after parietal TMS interleaved with fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Hinson, Vanessa K.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinically normal hand movement with altered cerebral activation patterns in cervical dystonia (CD) may imply cerebral adaptation. Since impaired sensorimotor integration appears to play a role in dystonia, left superior parietal cortex modulation with repetitive transcranial magnetic sti

  6. Control System of Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Based on TMS320F240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC(BLDC motor with the characteristics of high speed and high power density has been more widely used in industrial area. The BLDC motor requires the position and speed sensors for control. However the position sensors are undesirable from standpoints of size, cost, maintenance and reliability. There are some different ways that can solve this problem, depending on the flux distribution. This paper describes a control system of sensorless BLDC motor. The back-EMF is adopted to detect the rotor position. The back-EMF is very small in the motor starting process, and it is difficult to obtain rotor position efficiently. A re-setting method of the rotor is proposed in the paper, and current closed loop is used for high-speed and safety in the motor starting process. A good speed and current double closed loops system is designed. The speed and current regulators are implemented by a digital signal processor(DSP. A simple algorithm is used to calculate motor speed indirectly by the software, which simplifies the system hardware structure. The hardware structure and software design of sensorless BLDC motor control system are described in details. The simulation and experimental results have shown the validity of the sensorless control system and the accuracy of the detective position signal obtained.

  7. Aircraft Scanners = NASA Digital Aerial Scanners (TMS, TIMS, NS001): Pre 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Aircraft Scanners data set contains digital imagery acquired from several multispectral scanners including NS-001 Mutispectral scanner, Daedalus thematic mapper...

  8. TMS320C25 Digital Signal Processor For 2-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourier transform is one of the most important mathematical tool in signal processing and analysis, which converts information from the time/spatial domain into the frequency domain. Even with implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms in imaging data, the discrete Fourier transform execution consume a lot of time. Digital signal processors are designed specifically to perform computation intensive digital signal processing algorithms. By taking advantage of the advanced architecture. parallel processing, and dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) instruction sets. This device can execute million of DSP operations per second. The device architecture, characteristics and feature suitable for fast Fourier transform application and speed-up are discussed

  9. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; André-Obadia, Nathalie; Antal, Andrea;

    2014-01-01

    , consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) r...

  10. TMS-Induced Modulation of Action Sentence Priming in the Ventral Premotor Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence that cortical motor areas, particularly the lateral premotor cortex, are activated during language comprehension, the question of whether motor processes help mediate the semantic encoding of language remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined whether low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial…

  11. Implementasi Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) pada DSK TMS320C6416T

    OpenAIRE

    Ocki Aditya Muhammad; Suwadi Suwadi; Titiek Suryani

    2014-01-01

    Teknik Spread Spectrum  (spektral tersebar) merupakan salah satu jenis teknik pengiriman sinyal yang tahan terhadap gangguan berupa noise maupun jamming. Pada saat proses melakukan pengiriman informasi, teknik ini mempunyai tingkat keamanan informasi yang cukup tinggi. Pada komunikasi Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), sinyal informasi akan dilompatkan secara acak pada beberapa frekuensi pembawa yang tersedia. Teknik FHSS ini memiliki ketahanan yang tinggi terhadap jammin...

  12. Implementasi Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS pada DSK TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocki Aditya Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Teknik Spread Spectrum  (spektral tersebar merupakan salah satu jenis teknik pengiriman sinyal yang tahan terhadap gangguan berupa noise maupun jamming. Pada saat proses melakukan pengiriman informasi, teknik ini mempunyai tingkat keamanan informasi yang cukup tinggi. Pada komunikasi Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS, sinyal informasi akan dilompatkan secara acak pada beberapa frekuensi pembawa yang tersedia. Teknik FHSS ini memiliki ketahanan yang tinggi terhadap jamming, khususnya jenis Single Tone Jamming (STJ dan Multi Tone Jamming (MTJ. Hasil pengujian akan ditampilkan dalam bentuk grafik BER terhadap variasi nilai Eb/No dan grafik BER terhadap variasi Amplitudo Jamming. STJ dan MTJ mulai mengganggu sistem FHSS saat kondisi Eb/No 20dB, frekuensi jamming sama dengan frekuensi pembawa, dan amplitudo jamming lebih dari 100% terhadap amplitudo sinyal pembawa, jika dibawah 100% menghasilkan nilai BER 10-5 jadi masih dalam kondisi terbaik. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sistem FHSS lebih tahan terhadap Single Tone dan Multi Tone Jamming dibandingkan sistem 4-ary FSK.

  13. Implementasi Hybrid DS/FH Spread Spectrum menggunakan DSK TMS302C6416T

    OpenAIRE

    Aji Wisnu Laksita; Suwadi Suwadi; Titiek Suryani

    2014-01-01

    Spread spectrum adalah sebuah metode komunikasi dimana semua sinyal komunikasi disebar di seluruh spektrum frekuensi yang tersedia. Sinyal informasi akan ditebarkan pada seluruh pita frekuensi yang disediakan dan dilakukan secara acak. Metode spread spectrum merupakan metode komunikasi yang memiliki ketahan terhadap jamming.Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum adalah sistem komunikasi spread spectrum yang menggabungkan antara sistem komunikasi direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) dan frequency hopp...

  14. Implementasi Encoder dan Decoder BCH Menggunakan DSK TMS320C6416T

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sutarto; Suwadi Suwadi; Titiek Suryani

    2014-01-01

    Pada sistem komunikasi digital yang berkembang sangat pesat sekarang ini perlu dihasilkan sistem komunikasi yang handal. Kode BCH merupakan salah satu metode pendeteksi dan pengoreksi error yang terjadi secara acak, yang mampu mengoreksi beberapa kesalahan (multiple error) sekaligus dan merupakan pengembangan dari metode kode Hamming. Pada Tugas Akhir ini dibuat sistem kode BCH yang terdiri dari encoder dan decoder BCH, dimana modulasi yang digunakan adalah BPSK. Sistem ini diimplementasikan ...

  15. Neural Correlates of Perception for Action in Humans Using TMS and fMRI

    OpenAIRE

    Reichenbach, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Movements are humans interface to their social and physical environment. The human brain processes numerous complex computations during everyday actions, such as reaching for a door knob. It must recognize and localize the knob visually, and calculate its spatial relation to the hand. Then, the movement of the arm and hand with all their muscles has to be planned. During the movement, these parameters are monitored, and when the environment changes, for instance when the door is opened, the m...

  16. Reflecting on mirror mechanisms: motor resonance effects during action observation only present with low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Loporto

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies indicate that the observation of other people's actions influences the excitability of the observer's motor system. Motor evoked potential (MEP amplitudes typically increase in muscles which would be active during the execution of the observed action. This 'motor resonance' effect is thought to result from activity in mirror neuron regions, which enhance the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1 via cortico-cortical pathways. The importance of TMS intensity has not yet been recognised in this area of research. Low-intensity TMS predominately activates corticospinal neurons indirectly, whereas high-intensity TMS can directly activate corticospinal axons. This indicates that motor resonance effects should be more prominent when using low-intensity TMS. A related issue is that TMS is typically applied over a single optimal scalp position (OSP to simultaneously elicit MEPs from several muscles. Whether this confounds results, due to differences in the manner that TMS activates spatially separate cortical representations, has not yet been explored. In the current study, MEP amplitudes, resulting from single-pulse TMS applied over M1, were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI and abductor digiti minimi (ADM muscles during the observation of simple finger abductions. We tested if the TMS intensity (110% vs. 130% resting motor threshold or stimulating position (FDI-OSP vs. ADM-OSP influenced the magnitude of the motor resonance effects. Results showed that the MEP facilitation recorded in the FDI muscle during the observation of index-finger abductions was only detected using low-intensity TMS. In contrast, changes in the OSP had a negligible effect on the presence of motor resonance effects in either the FDI or ADM muscles. These findings support the hypothesis that MN activity enhances M1 excitability via cortico-cortical pathways and highlight a methodological framework by which the

  17. STUDI ANALISIS SETTING RELAY PENGAMAN DI PENYULANG NGURAH RAI I DAN PENYULANG NGURAH RAI II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Komang Sutarjana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan gangguan di jaringan distribusi 20 kV seringkali menyebabkan terputusnya pasokan daya listrik kepada pelanggan. Salah satu penyebab keandalan sistem kurang baik adalah kesalahan koordinasi setting relay pada penyulang. Seperti yang terjadi pada penyulang Ngurah Rai I dan Penyulang Ngurah Rai II dimana terdapat kesalahan koordinasi setting antara relay pada pangkal penyulang yang terletak di Gardu Induk (GI dengan relay pada di ujung jaringan yang terletak di Gardu Hubung (GH. Untuk memecahkan masalah tersebut maka perlu dianalisis setting relay yang sudah ada (eksisting. Untuk membuktikan koordinasi setting relay sudah sempurna, maka akan dilakukan simulasi menggunakan bantuan program computer yaitu Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh nilai setting dimulai dari setting Over Current Relay (OCR pada pangkal penyulang (GI 360 A dan Tms 0,36 sedangkan untuk nilai setting arus OCR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional 330 A dan TMS 0,16. Kemudian untuk setting GFR pada pangkal penyulang (GI diperoleh nilai 34 A dan TMS 0,2. Sedangkan setting GFR pada ujung penyulang (GH yang menggunakan relay directional diperoleh nilai 31 A dan TMS 0,1.

  18. A study of the 3D radiative transfer effect in cloudy atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okata, M.; Teruyuki, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effect of clouds in the atmosphere is a significant problem in the Earth's radiation budget study with their large uncertainties of microphysics and the optical properties. In this situation, we still need more investigations of 3D cloud radiative transer problems using not only models but also satellite observational data.For this purpose, we have developed a 3D-Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is implemented with various functions compatible with the OpenCLASTR R-Star radiation code for radiance and flux computation, i.e. forward and backward tracing routines, non-linear k-distribution parameterization (Sekiguchi and Nakajima, 2008) for broad band solar flux calculation, and DM-method for flux and TMS-method for upward radiance (Nakajima and Tnaka 1998). We also developed a Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM) as a method for a construction of 3D cloud field with MODIS/AQUA and CPR/CloudSat data. We then selected a best-matched radar reflectivity factor profile from the library for each of off-nadir pixels of MODIS where CPR profile is not available, by minimizing the deviation between library MODIS parameters and those at the pixel. In this study, we have used three cloud microphysical parameters as key parameters for the MIDPM, i.e. effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and top of cloud temperature, and estimated 3D cloud radiation budget. We examined the discrepancies between satellite observed and mode-simulated radiances and three cloud microphysical parameter's pattern for studying the effects of cloud optical and microphysical properties on the radiation budget of the cloud-laden atmospheres.

  19. Unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms of repetitive magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Müller-Dahlhaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous clinical studies, which have investigated the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in various brain diseases, our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying rTMS-based therapies remains limited. Thus, a deeper understanding of rTMS-induced neural plasticity is required to optimize current treatment protocols. Studies in small animals or appropriate in vitro preparations (including models of brain diseases provide highly useful experimental approaches in this context. State-of-the-art electrophysiological and live-cell imaging techniques that are well established in basic neuroscience can help answering some of the major questions in the field, such as (i which neural structures are activated during TMS, (ii how does rTMS induce Hebbian plasticity, and (iii are other forms of plasticity (e.g., metaplasticity, structural plasticity induced by rTMS? We argue that data gained from these studies will support the development of more effective and specific applications of rTMS in clinical practice.

  20. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC50 values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G2/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like PDEs, SIRT1, or

  1. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  2. The application of C12 biochip in the diagnosis and monitoring of colorectal cancer: Systematic evaluation and suggestion for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 12 tumor markers′ (TMs biochip diagnostic (C12 system has been proven useful in some previous studies but its value for colorectal cancer (CRC only was not systematically investigated. Aims: To evaluate the value of C12 system for CRC. Settings and Design: The associations between TMs and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. The most relevant TMs, the most useful combinations, and the correlations between TM levels were assessed. Materials and Methods: The TMs detected by the C12 system in the sera of 170 pathologically confirmed CRC patients were analyzed. One or more TMs higher than or equal to reference value were defined as positive. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, Spearman rank correlation test and Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves were used for the analysis. Results: The overall positive rate was 41.76%, and was low in stage 0-I (12.90%. Carcinoembryonic cantigen (CEA had the highest positive rate of 36.47%. The positive rates were significantly correlated to clinical stages and lymph node status, but not to age, sex, tumor location and pathological types. Any combinations of the five highest positive TMs did not have significantly improvements. The levels of three most related TMs (CEA, CA19-9, CA242 of CRC had positive correlation with each other. CA242 and β-HCG levels were associated with lymph node metastasis. Conclusions: C12 system has some value in advanced CRC, but not in early CRC.

  3. Novel transcranial magnetic stimulation coil for mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Stephen; Stark, Spencer; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows potential for non-invasive treatment of various neurological disorders. Significant work has been performed on the design of coils used for TMS on human subjects but few reports have been made on the design of coils for use on the brains of animals such as mice. This work is needed as TMS studies utilizing mice can allow rapid preclinical development of TMS for human disorders but the coil designs developed for use on humans are inadequate for optimal stimulation of the much smaller mouse brain. A novel TMS coil has been developed with the goal of inducing strong and focused electric fields for the stimulation of small animals such as mice. Calculations of induced electric fields were performed utilizing an MRI derived inhomogeneous model of an adult male mouse. Mechanical and thermal analysis of this new TMS helmet-coil design have also been performed at anticipated TMS operating conditions to ensure mechanical stability of the new coil and establish expected linear attraction and rotational force values. Calculated temperature increases for typical stimulation periods indicate the helmet-coil system is capable of operating within established medical standards. A prototype of the coil has been fabricated and characterization results are presented.

  4. Right and left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation at 1 Hz does not affect mood in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lappin Julia M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been used to induce side-specific mood changes in volunteers and patients. To clarify inconsistencies between reports that used different stimulation frequencies, we conducted a controlled study with a low (1 Hz frequency, comparing left with right-sided stimulation Methods Nineteen healthy volunteers received randomised left or right prefrontal rTMS at a frequency of 1 Hz and 100% of motor threshold in two sessions two weeks apart. Results There were significant improvements with TMS for performance in the digit symbol substitution and verbal fluency tests, but no change of mood on a number of measures. There was also a reduction of pulse rate after TMS. The only side-specific TMS-effect was on mean arterial pressure, which decreased pressure after left, but not after right prefrontal TMS. Conclusions Apart from the unexpected and so far unreplicated effect on mean arterial pressure, there were no side-specific effects on mood in volunteers. It is unlikely that a simple laterality model of mood together with the assumed activating effect of higher and 'quenching' effect of lower stimulation frequency can account for the effects of TMS on mood.

  5. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T1 and T2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P2=0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  6. Cross-Language Competition is Modulated by Individual Differences in Executive Function: An Aging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Sudarshan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence from empirical and clinical studies has shown evidence suggesting that lexical selection is more difficult when there is greater cross-language competition. These studies further suggest that higher cognitive mechanisms, particularly inhibitory control, may play a crucial role in the regulation of languages in the bilingual brain. An important implication of this finding is that the process of lexical selection in a bilingual context may be particularly difficult for older adults for whom a vast body of literature has demonstrated a decline in cognitive functions required for language processing and production. However, benefits in executive functions (EF conferred by life-long bilingualism may protect against age-related difficulties in language skills (1. Here, we sought to investigate whether older adults resolved within- and cross-language lexical competition differently from younger adults and whether factors such as word status (cognate and non-cognate word processing and individual differences in domain-general executive control modulated cross-language interference resolution. Methods: In a picture-word interference paradigm, French-English bilingual younger and older adults named cognate and non-cognate pictures in English while ignoring within- and cross-language auditory distractor words (at varying SOAs. The distractors exhibited three different relations to the cognate target picture (Cactus: semantic (Thorn or Épine, phonological (Canvas or Cahier (notebook and unrelated control (Soap or Meuble (furniture. An additional target-distractor relation was included for the non-cognate target pictures: phonological relation to the translation (Gâteau of the target (Cake – (Garden or Garçon (boy. Additionally, to evaluate whether cross-language interference is modulated by individual differences in executive control, a battery of EF tests was administered. To further imply causality to EF and

  7. Cortical mapping with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in low-grade glioma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva1, Erich T Fonoff1, Marco A Marcolin2, Hector N Cabrera1, Manoel J Teixeira11Division of Functional Neurosurgery, Hospital das Clinicas, 2TMS Laboratory of the Psychiatry Institute, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a promising method for both investigation and therapeutic treatment of psychiatric and neurologic disorders and, more recently, for brain mapping. This study describes the application of navigated TMS for motor cortex mapping in patients with a brain tumor located close to the precentral gyrus.Materials and methods: In this prospective study, six patients with low-grade gliomas in or near the precentral gyrus underwent TMS, and their motor responses were correlated to locations in the cortex around the lesion, generating a functional map overlaid on three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans of the brain. To determine the accuracy of this new method, we compared TMS mapping with the gold standard mapping with direct cortical electrical stimulation in surgery. The same navigation system and TMS-generated map were used during the surgical resection procedure.Results: The motor cortex could be clearly mapped using both methods. The locations corresponding to the hand and forearm, found during intraoperative mapping, showed a close spatial relationship to the homotopic areas identified by TMS mapping. The mean distance between TMS and direct cortical electrical stimulation (DES was 4.16 ± 1.02 mm (range: 2.56–5.27 mm.Conclusion: Preoperative mapping of the motor cortex with navigated TMS prior to brain tumor resection is a useful presurgical planning tool with good accuracy.Keywords: transcranial magnetic stimulation, cortical mapping, brain tumor, motor cortex

  8. Tibialis anterior stretch reflex in early stance is suppressed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T; Christensen, Mark Schram; Sinkjær, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A rapid plantar flexion perturbation in the early stance phase of walking elicits a large stretch reflex in tibialis anterior (TA). In this study we use repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to test if this response is mediated through a transcortical pathway. TA stretch...... reflexes were elicited in the early stance phase of the step cycle during treadmill walking. 20 minutes of 1 Hz rTMS at 115% resting motor threshold (MTr) significantly decreased (p<0.05) the magnitude of the later component of the reflex at a latency of ~100 ms up to 25 min after the rTMS. Control...

  9. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ağırman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSPP is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by progressive spasticity of lower extremities. Spasticity is a major cause of long-term disability in HSPP and significantly affects the functional life of patients. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is widely used in diagnosis and treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although the positive impacts of rTMS for spasticity have been reported, no study has been found on HSPP. We present two HSPP patients treated with low frequency rTMS (20 minutes at a frequency of 1 Hz (1200 pulses, for a period of 10 treatment sessions.

  10. Experimental therapy of epilepsy with transcranial magnetic stimulation: lack of additional benefit with prolonged treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brasil-Neto Joaquim P.; Araújo Doralúcia P. de; Teixeira Wagner A.; Araújo Valéria P.; Boechat-Barros Raphael

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of three months of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment in intractable epilepsy. METHODS: Five patients (four males, one female; ages 6 to 50 years), were enrolled in the study; their epilepsy could not be controlled by medical treatment and surgery was not indicated. rTMS was performed twice a week for three months; patients kept records of seizure frequency for an equal period of time before, during, and after rTMS ...

  11. Enhanced accuracy in novel mirror drawing after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced proprioceptive deafferentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Christensen, Lars O.D.; Lee, Ji-hang;

    2004-01-01

    When performing visually guided actions under conditions of perturbed visual feedback, e.g., in a mirror or a video camera, there is a spatial conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Recent studies have shown that subjects without proprioception avoid this conflict and show a......TMS over the somatosensory cortex contralateral to the hand or sham stimulation. Mirror tracing was more accurate after rTMS than after sham stimulation. Using a position-matching task, we confirmed that rTMS reduced proprioceptive acuity and that this reduction was largest when the coil was placed at an...

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation:potential treatment for co-occurring alcohol, traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy AHerrold; Sandra LKletzel; Brett CHarton; R.Andrew Chambers; Neil Jordan; Teresa Louise-Bender Pape

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and posttraumatic stress dis-order (PTSD) commonly co-occur (AUD + mTBI + PTSD). These conditions have overlapping symptoms which are, in part, relfective of overlapping neuropathology. These conditions become problematic because their co-occurrence can exacerbate symptoms. Therefore, treatments must be developed that are inclusive to all three conditions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimu-lation (rTMS) is non-invasive and may be an ideal treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI +PTSD. There is accumulating evidence on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, mTBI, and PTSD each alone. However, there are no published studies to date on rTMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review article advances the knowledge base for rTMS as a treatment for AUD + mTBI + PTSD. This review provides background information about these co-occurring conditions as well as rTMS. The existing literature on rTMS as a treatment for people with AUD, TBI, and PTSD each alone is reviewed. Finally, neurobiological ifndings in support of a theoretical model are discussed to inform TMS as a treatment for co-occurring AUD + mTBI + PTSD. The peer-reviewed literature was identiifed by targeted literature searches using PubMed and supplemented by cross-referencing the bibliographies of relevant review arti-cles. The existing evidence on rTMS as a treatment for these conditions in isolation, coupled with the overlapping neuropathology and symptomology of these conditions, suggests that rTMS may be well suited for the treatment of these conditions together.

  13. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  14. Mapping the after-effects of theta burst stimulation on the human auditory cortex with functional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Zatorre, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Auditory cortex pertains to the processing of sound, which is at the basis of speech or music-related processing. However, despite considerable recent progress, the functional properties and lateralization of the human auditory cortex are far from being fully understood. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that can transiently or lastingly modulate cortical excitability via the application of localized magnetic field pulses, and represents a unique method of exploring plasticity and connectivity. It has only recently begun to be applied to understand auditory cortical function. An important issue in using TMS is that the physiological consequences of the stimulation are difficult to establish. Although many TMS studies make the implicit assumption that the area targeted by the coil is the area affected, this need not be the case, particularly for complex cognitive functions which depend on interactions across many brain regions. One solution to this problem is to combine TMS with functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The idea here is that fMRI will provide an index of changes in brain activity associated with TMS. Thus, fMRI would give an independent means of assessing which areas are affected by TMS and how they are modulated. In addition, fMRI allows the assessment of functional connectivity, which represents a measure of the temporal coupling between distant regions. It can thus be useful not only to measure the net activity modulation induced by TMS in given locations, but also the degree to which the network properties are affected by TMS, via any observed changes in functional connectivity. Different approaches exist to combine TMS and functional imaging according to the temporal order of the methods. Functional MRI can be applied before, during, after, or both before and after TMS. Recently, some studies interleaved TMS and fMRI in order to provide online mapping of the functional changes induced by TMS. However, this

  15. The infrared stage Linkam FTIR 600 for microthermometric studies in dark and opaque minerals associated to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid composition studies, throughout fluid inclusions (FI), contribute to improve the understanding of mineral deposits. FI correspond to small portions of fluids trapped in minerals by many processes that preserve relevant information related to fluid composition which forms ore deposits. Microscopy and microthermometry techniques applied to fluid inclusions studies of opaque and/or dark minerals use infrared light (IR). A specific stage heating/cooling that allows working in the near infrared (NIR). Thus, the infrared stage model FTIR600 Linkam coupled the IR OLYMPUS BX51, with the automatic controllers LNP 94/2 and TMS 94, and software Linksys 32 - Linkam installed in computer was implemented and tested. An infrared QUICAM fast 1394 QIMAGINGTM camera with the program QCAPTURE SUITE was acquisition for images capture and adapted the new system. This infrared stage Linkam FTIR600 reach temperatures between -196 deg C to +600 deg C, with the differential of working in the NIR; it is all automated, obtaining computerized data, graphics in real time of analysis and storage the data. It also controls the speed of the experiment (up to 130 deg C/min); it runs consecutively heating and cooling with a small N2 (l) consuming; besides greater results repeatability, obtaining accurate and precise temperatures. Actually the Linkam stage FTIR600 is operating in the Metallogenesis and Fluid Inclusions Laboratory (LIFM) at CDTN/CNEN. Uranium ore and/or others mineralization studies which shows dark or opaque mineral have been developed. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real Uraniferous Province, Bahia, Brazil, shows several rock-forming minerals together with the dark and opaque minerals (garnet, magnetite, pyroxene) emphasized in the present work. (author)

  16. Motor mapping of implied actions during perception of emotional body language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perceiving and understanding emotional cues is critical for survival. Using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) previous TMS studies have found that watching humans in emotional pictures increases motor excitability relative to seeing landscapes or household objects, sugges

  17. Dorsolateral prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression locally affects alpha power of REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Pellicciari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep alterations are among the most important disabling manifestation symptoms of Major Depression Disorder (MDD. A critical role of sleep importance is also underlined by the fact that its adjustment has been proposed as an objective marker of clinical remission in MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS represents a relatively novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of drug-resistant depression. Nevertheless besides clinical evaluation of the mood improvement after rTMS, we have no clear understanding of what are the neurophysiological correlates of such treatment. One possible marker underlying the clinical outcome of rTMS in MDD could be cortical changes on wakefulness and sleep activity.The aim of this open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy of a sequential bilateral rTMS treatment over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to improve the mood in MDD patients, and to determine if rTMS can induce changes on the sleep structure, and if those changes can be used as a surrogate marker of the clinical state of the patient. Ten drug-resistant depressed patients participated to ten daily sessions of sequential bilateral rTMS with a low-frequency TMS (1 Hz over right-DLPFC and a subsequent high-frequency (10 Hz TMS over left-DLPFC. The clinical and neurophysiological effects induced by rTMS were evaluated respectively by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and by comparing the sleep pattern modulations and the spatial changes of EEG frequency bands during both NREM and REM sleep, before and after the real rTMS treatment. The sequential bilateral rTMS treatment over the DLPFC induced topographical-specific decrease of the alpha activity during REM sleep over left-DLPFC, which is significantly associated to the clinical outcome. In line with the notion of a left frontal hypoactivation in MDD patients, the observed local decrease of alpha activity after rTMS treatment during the REM sleep suggests that

  18. Airflow and Aerosol-Drug Delivery in a CT Scan based Human Respiratory Tract with Tumor using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K.Srivastav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on to study the effect of a tumor present in the respiratory tract (in trachea on airflow pattern and aerosol-drug deposition. A realistic model of human respiratory tract was constructed from spiral computed tomography (CT scan data and a bifocal tumor (Glomus tumor was constructed in the tract. The inspiratory flow characteristics of the realistic human airway models (with and without tumor was numerically solved using the realizable k turbulence model for airflow and Shear Stress Transport (SST k-ω turbulence model for two-phase flow. The velocity (contours and vector plots, wall shear stress and deposition efficiency of aerosol were obtained at different locations to the upstream and downstream region of the bifocal tumor in respiratory tract. The flow pattern shows that the maximum flow disturbance occurs around the tumor and at downstream of the flow. Magnitude and location of maximum wall shear stress in the presence of the tumor helps in identifying the extent and probable location of the wall injury during the normal and heavy breathing conditions. Deposition efficiency of aerosol-drug on tumor location will be useful for designing the efficient targeted drug delivery system.

  19. Carry out the System of Job Management Responsibility With Bifocal Course to Preention and Treatment Livestock Disease%实施双轨目标管理责任制开展畜禽疫病防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有靖; 王发鹏

    2002-01-01

    @@ 城郊乡地处城镇周围,全乡共有15个行政村,其中属脑山地区的有7个村,城镇区域的有8个村,近年来乡政府把发展畜牧业生产做为振兴全乡农村经济,增加农民收入的突破口来抓,在我国加入世贸组织后,为创出地方品牌畜产品,在畜禽防疫上实行行政与业务双轨目标管理责任制,积极做好兽医防治工作,为本乡畜牧业生产发展起到保驾护航作用.

  20. Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation According to the Stimulation Site in Stroke Patients With Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Lee, Sook Joung; Lee, Jae Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) according to the stimulation site in subacute stroke patients with dysphagia. Methods This study was designed as a matched comparative study. Twenty-four patients who had dysphagia after ischemic stroke were recruited, and they were divided into two groups after matching for age and stroke lesion. The patients in group A received rTMS over the brain cortex where motor evoked potential (MEP) was obtained...