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Sample records for bifocal tms study

  1. Inhibitory and facilitatory connectivity from ventral premotor to primary motor cortex in healthy humans at rest--a bifocal TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, T; Schippling, S; Kroeger, J;

    2009-01-01

    stimulation (TMS) to examine intrahemispheric connectivity between left PMv and M1 in humans. A conditioning stimulus (CS) was applied to PMv at intensities of 80% and 90% of active motor threshold (AMT) and 90% and 110% of resting motor threshold (RMT). A supra-threshold test stimulus (TS) was given 2, 4, 6...... corticospinal excitability when the stimulus intensity was increased to 90% RMT. Conditioning effects were site-specific because conditioning the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) at three different sites produced different effects. Using neuronavigated TMS the PMv site where applied CS produced changes...

  2. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding.

  3. Ortho- and heterotopic bone grafts in bifocal transport osteogenesis for craniofacial reconstruction--an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, F-J; Mueller, M; Rahmstorf, M; Swennen, G R J; Dempf, R; Schierle, H

    2004-09-01

    Bifocal transport osteogenesis (BTO) is a promising technique for the reconstruction of extended osseous craniofacial defects. Aim of this study was to determine the potential of this technique related to various donor sites of the transport segment. In 10 adult sheep critical size defects of the calvaria were treated by gradual movement of a transport segment consisting either of autogenous regional free calvarial bone grafts (n=5) or autogenous illiac free bone grafts (n=5). Latency period was 5 days; the rate of distraction was 1mm per day and extended approximately 40 days. The consolidation period was 28 days. After harvesting, specimens were investigated by conventional radiography, CT-scans, histologically and by fluorescence. In both groups transport osteogenesis resulted in a complete closure of the critical size defect. Membranous bone formation and remodeling occurred during the entire period of distraction and consolidation. The volumes and thickness of newly formed bone at the defect site were increased significantly when calvarial bone grafts were used (P<0.05). Iliac bone grafts became progrediently smaller during distraction, while the volume of calvarial grafts remained relatively constant (P<0.05). In conclusion, transport segments consisting of calvarial and iliac bone resulted in a reliable closure of craniofacial critical size defects in adult organisms; the application of calvarial bone grafts resulted in an increased extend of bone formation.

  4. Normal cortical excitability in Myoclonus-Dystonia - A TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.A. van der Salm; A.F. van Rootselaar; E.M.J. Foncke; J.H.T.M. Koelman; L.J. Bour; K.P. Bhatia; J.C. Rothwell; M.A.J. Tijssen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to investigate cortical excitability in patients with DYT 11 positive Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Silent period, motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve, short interval intracortical inhibition (S

  5. Normal cortical excitability in Myoclonus-Dystonia - A TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, S. M. A.; van Rootselaar, A. F.; Foncke, E. M. J.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Bour, L. J.; Bhatia, K. P.; Rothwell, J. C.; Tijssen, M. A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate cortical excitability in patients with DYT 11 positive Myoclonus-Dystonia (M-D), using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods: Silent period, motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curve short interval intracortical, inhibition (S

  6. Effects of parietal TMS on visual and auditory processing at the primary cortical level -- a concurrent TMS-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Werner, Sebastian; Pohmann, Rolf; Noppeney, Uta

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that multisensory interactions emerge already at the primary cortical level. Specifically, auditory inputs were shown to suppress activations in visual cortices when presented alone but amplify the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to concurrent visual inputs (and vice versa). This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation-functional magnetic resonance imaging (TMS-fMRI) study applied repetitive TMS trains at no, low, and high intensity over right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and vertex to investigate top-down influences on visual and auditory cortices under 3 sensory contexts: visual, auditory, and no stimulation. IPS-TMS increased activations in auditory cortices irrespective of sensory context as a result of direct and nonspecific auditory TMS side effects. In contrast, IPS-TMS modulated activations in the visual cortex in a state-dependent fashion: it deactivated the visual cortex under no and auditory stimulation but amplified the BOLD response to visual stimulation. However, only the response amplification to visual stimulation was selective for IPS-TMS, while the deactivations observed for IPS- and Vertex-TMS resulted from crossmodal deactivations induced by auditory activity to TMS sounds. TMS to IPS may increase the responses in visual (or auditory) cortices to visual (or auditory) stimulation via a gain control mechanism or crossmodal interactions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that understanding TMS effects on (uni)sensory processing requires a multisensory perspective.

  7. Understanding communicative actions: A repetitive TMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Elswijk, van Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols

  8. Bifocal mandibular fractures: which should be treated first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell' Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Abbate, Vincenzo; Califano, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Fractures of the mandible have been reported to account between 40% and 62% of all facial fractures. Most surveys show that just under 50% are isolated, the same amount are doubly fractured. This study aims to clarify, according to our experience, the correct surgical sequence which should be followed in order to treat bifocal mandibular fractures. From January 2004 to January 2009, we have conducted a retrospective study on a sample of patients operated on in our department because of bifocal mandibular fractures. We include only those cases in which the jaw was fractured in 2 places, in particular patients who suffer a fracture in tooth-bearing areas (symphysis, parasymphysis, and anterior body) and also contralaterally in non-tooth-bearing areas (posterior body, angle, ramus, and condyle). The sample was divided into 2 groups based on the fracture sequence of reduction. At 1-year follow-up, the group of patients who received first the tooth-bearing fractured areas treatment, followed by treatment of non-tooth-bearing fractured area on bifocal mandibular fracture, showed less postoperative complications and reduced surgical time and costs. It is recommended from this study that reduction of the tooth-bearing fragment be prior to that of the tooth-free fragment for the bifocal mandible. PMID:23147333

  9. The chronometry of visual perception: review of occipital TMS masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Koivisto, Mika; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) continues to deliver on its promise as a research tool. In this review article we focus on the application of TMS to early visual cortex (V1, V2, V3) in studies of visual perception and visual awareness. Depending on the asynchrony between visual stimulus onset and TMS pulse (SOA), TMS can suppress visual perception, allowing one to track the time course of functional relevance (chronometry) of early visual cortex for vision. This procedure has revealed multiple masking effects ('dips'), some consistently (∼+100ms SOA) but others less so (∼-50ms, ∼-20ms, ∼+30ms, ∼+200ms SOA). We review the state of TMS masking research, focusing on the evidence for these multiple dips, the relevance of several experimental parameters to the obtained 'masking curve', and the use of multiple measures of visual processing (subjective measures of awareness, objective discrimination tasks, priming effects). Lastly, we consider possible future directions for this field. We conclude that while TMS masking has yielded many fundamental insights into the chronometry of visual perception already, much remains unknown. Not only are there several temporal windows when TMS pulses can induce visual suppression, even the well-established 'classical' masking effect (∼+100ms) may reflect more than one functional visual process.

  10. Differential roles of the dorsal prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in visual search: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulong; Wei, Rizhen; Zhang, Qian; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2016-07-25

    Although previous studies have shown that fronto-parietal attentional networks play a crucial role in bottom-up and top-down processes, the relative contribution of the frontal and parietal cortices to these processes remains elusive. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with the activity of the right dorsal prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), immediately prior to the onset of the visual search display. Participants searched a target defined by color and orientation in "pop-out" or "search" condition. Repetitive TMS was applied to either the right DLPFC or the right PPC on different days. Performance was evaluated at baseline (no TMS), during TMS, and after TMS (Post-session). RTs were prolonged when TMS was applied over the DLPFC in the search, but not in the pop-out condition, relative to the baseline session. In comparison, TMS over the PPC prolonged RTs in the pop-out condition, and when the target appeared in the left visual field for the search condition. Taken together these findings provide evidence for a differential role of DLPFC and PPC in the visual search, indicating that DLPFC has a specific involvement in the "search" condition, while PPC is mainly involved in detecting "pop-out" targets.

  11. Left posterior BA37 is involved in object recognition: a TMS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Meyer, Bernd-Ulrich; Frith, Uta;

    2001-01-01

    . Four conditions were investigated: word and nonword reading, colour naming and picture naming. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered over posterior BA37 of the left and right hemispheres (lBA37 and rBA37, respectively) and over the vertex. divisions were significantly slower...... to name pictures when TMS was given over lBA37 compared to vertex or rBA37. rTMS over lBA37 had no significant effect on word reading, nonword reading or colour naming. The picture naming deficit is suggested to result from a disruption to object recognition processes. This study corroborates the finding...

  12. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Bellamoli; Paolo Manganotti; Schwartz, Robert P.; Claudia Rimondo; Maurizio Gomma; Giovanni Serpelloni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Becau...

  13. Top-down interference and cortical responsiveness in face processing: a TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2013-08-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have shown the involvement of a fronto-temporo-occipital network in face processing, but the functional relation among these areas remains unclear. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to explore the local and global cortical excitability at rest and during two different face processing behavioral tasks. Single-pulse TMS was delivered (100 ms after face stimulus onset) over the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during a face identity or a face expression matching task, while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier. We examined TMS effects on the occipital face-specific ERP component and compared TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) recorded during task performance and a passive point fixation control task. TMS reduced the P1-N1 component recorded at the occipital electrodes. Moreover, performing face tasks significantly modulated TEPs recorded at the occipital and temporal electrodes within the first 30 ms after right mPFC stimulation, with a specific increase of temporal TEPs in the right hemisphere for the facial expression task. Furthermore, in order to test the site-specificity of the reported effects, TMS was applied over the right premotor cortex (PMC) as a control site using the same experimental paradigm. Results showed that TMS over the right PMC did not affect ERP components in posterior regions during the face tasks and TEP amplitude did not change between task and no task condition, either at fronto-central electrodes near the stimulation or at temporal and occipital electrodes. These findings support the notion that the prefrontal cortex exerts a very early influence over the occipital cortex during face processing tasks and that excitability across right fronto-temporal cortical regions is significantly modulated during explicit facial expression processing.

  14. Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Gaychet, Jérôme; Carrere, Marcel; Woodman, Marmaduke; Giusiano, Bernard; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain’s relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i.e. part of the Default Mode Network (DMN) or the superior parietal lobule (SPL), involved in the Dorsal Attention Network. TMS was triggered by a given brain state, namely an increase in occipital alpha rhythm power. Following the initial TMS-Evoked Potential, TMS at MPFC enhances the induced occipital alpha rhythm, called Event Related Synchronisation, with a longer transient lifetime than TMS at SPL, and a higher amplitude. Our findings show a strong coupling between MPFC and the occipital alpha power. Although the rest state is organized around a core of resting state networks, the DMN functionally takes a special role among these resting state networks. PMID:27488504

  15. Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Gaychet, Jérôme; Carrere, Marcel; Woodman, Marmaduke; Giusiano, Bernard; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain's relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i.e. part of the Default Mode Network (DMN) or the superior parietal lobule (SPL), involved in the Dorsal Attention Network. TMS was triggered by a given brain state, namely an increase in occipital alpha rhythm power. Following the initial TMS-Evoked Potential, TMS at MPFC enhances the induced occipital alpha rhythm, called Event Related Synchronisation, with a longer transient lifetime than TMS at SPL, and a higher amplitude. Our findings show a strong coupling between MPFC and the occipital alpha power. Although the rest state is organized around a core of resting state networks, the DMN functionally takes a special role among these resting state networks. PMID:27488504

  16. Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Gaychet, Jérôme; Carrere, Marcel; Woodman, Marmaduke; Giusiano, Bernard; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-08-04

    The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain's relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i.e. part of the Default Mode Network (DMN) or the superior parietal lobule (SPL), involved in the Dorsal Attention Network. TMS was triggered by a given brain state, namely an increase in occipital alpha rhythm power. Following the initial TMS-Evoked Potential, TMS at MPFC enhances the induced occipital alpha rhythm, called Event Related Synchronisation, with a longer transient lifetime than TMS at SPL, and a higher amplitude. Our findings show a strong coupling between MPFC and the occipital alpha power. Although the rest state is organized around a core of resting state networks, the DMN functionally takes a special role among these resting state networks.

  17. Psychophysical Vision Simulation of Diffractive Bifocal and Trifocal Intraocular Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezna, Wolfgang; Lux, Kirsten; Dragostinoff, Nikolaus; Krutzler, Christian; Plank, Nicole; Tobisch, Rainer; Boltz, Agnes; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Told, Reinhard; Witkowska, Katarzyna; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The visual performance of monofocal, bifocal, and trifocal intraocular lenses was evaluated by human individuals using a vision simulator device. This allowed investigation of the visual impression after cataract surgery, without the need actually to implant the lenses. Methods The randomized, double-masked, three-way cross-over study was conducted on 60 healthy male and female subjects aged between 18 and 35 years. Visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; ETDRS) and contrast sensitivity tests (Pelli-Robson) under different lighting conditions (luminosities from 0.14–55 cd/m2, mesopic to photopic) were performed at different distances. Results Visual acuity tests showed no difference for corrected distance visual acuity data of bi- and trifocal lens prototypes (P = 0.851), but better results for the trifocal than for the bifocal lenses at distance corrected intermediate (P = 0.021) and distance corrected near visual acuity (P = 0.044). Contrast sensitivity showed no differences between bifocal and trifocal lenses at the distant (P = 0.984) and at the near position (P = 0.925), but better results for the trifocal lens at the intermediate position (P = 0.043). Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity showed a strong dependence on luminosity (P < 0.001). Conclusions At all investigated distances and all lighting conditions, the trifocal lens prototype often performed better, but never worse than the bifocal lens prototype. Translational Relevance The vision simulator can fill the gap between preclinical lens development and implantation studies by providing information of the perceived vision quality after cataract surgery without implantation. This can reduce implantation risks and promotes the development of new lens concepts due to the cost effective test procedure. PMID:27777828

  18. Cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in treatment-resistant depression- a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedzior Karina K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in 10 treatment-resistant depression patients. Methods Patients received forty 20-min sessions of fast-frequency (10 Hz rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC over 20 days. Concept-shift ability (accuracy and duration of performance was assessed daily with a Modified Concept-Shifting Task (mCST in patients and in eight healthy volunteers. General cognitive functioning test (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; RBANS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D were applied before the first and after the last rTMS. Results Compared to before rTMS on the first 10 days, the patients performed the mCST significantly more accurately after rTMS on the last 10 days (p p = .256, partial eta squared=.18. A significant improvement in immediate memory on RBANS and reduction in BDI and HAM-D scores were also observed after the last compared to before the first rTMS. Conclusion The rTMS is associated with an improvement in selective cognitive functions that is not explained by practice effects on tasks administered repeatedly. Trial registration Name: "Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in the treatment of depression, assessed with HAM-D over a four week period." URL: www.actr.org.au Registration number: ACTRN012605000145606

  19. TMS and drugs revisited 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Ulf; Reis, Janine; Schwenkreis, Peter; Rosanova, Mario; Strafella, Antonio; Badawy, Radwa; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian

    2015-10-01

    The combination of pharmacology and transcranial magnetic stimulation to study the effects of drugs on TMS-evoked EMG responses (pharmaco-TMS-EMG) has considerably improved our understanding of the effects of TMS on the human brain. Ten years have elapsed since an influential review on this topic has been published in this journal (Ziemann, 2004). Since then, several major developments have taken place: TMS has been combined with EEG to measure TMS evoked responses directly from brain activity rather than by motor evoked potentials in a muscle, and pharmacological characterization of the TMS-evoked EEG potentials, although still in its infancy, has started (pharmaco-TMS-EEG). Furthermore, the knowledge from pharmaco-TMS-EMG that has been primarily obtained in healthy subjects is now applied to clinical settings, for instance, to monitor or even predict clinical drug responses in neurological or psychiatric patients. Finally, pharmaco-TMS-EMG has been applied to understand the effects of CNS active drugs on non-invasive brain stimulation induced long-term potentiation-like and long-term depression-like plasticity. This is a new field that may help to develop rationales of pharmacological treatment for enhancement of recovery and re-learning after CNS lesions. This up-dated review will highlight important knowledge and recent advances in the contribution of pharmaco-TMS-EMG and pharmaco-TMS-EEG to our understanding of normal and dysfunctional excitability, connectivity and plasticity of the human brain.

  20. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  1. No evidence for mirror system dysfunction in schizophrenia from a multimodal TMS/EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sophie C; Enticott, Peter G; Hoy, Kate E; Thomson, Richard H; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-08-30

    Dysfunctional mirror neuron systems have been proposed to contribute to the social cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. A few studies have explored mirror systems in schizophrenia using various techniques such as TMS (levels of motor resonance) or EEG (levels of mu suppression), with mixed results. This study aimed to use a novel multimodal approach (i.e. concurrent TMS and EEG) to further investigate mirror systems and social cognition in schizophrenia. Nineteen individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 19 healthy controls participated. Single-pulse TMS was applied to M1 during the observation of hand movements designed to elicit mirror system activity. Single EEG electrodes (C3, CZ, C4) recorded brain activity. Participants also completed facial affect recognition and theory of mind tasks. The schizophrenia group showed significant deficits in facial affect recognition and higher level theory of mind compared to healthy controls. A significant positive relationship was revealed between mu suppression and motor resonance for the overall sample, indicating concurrent validity of these measures. Levels of mu suppression and motor resonance were not significantly different between groups. These findings indicate that in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, mirror system functioning is intact, and therefore their social cognitive difficulties may be caused by alternative pathophysiology.

  2. Different Stimulation Frequencies Alter Synchronous Fluctuations in Motor Evoked Potential Amplitude of Intrinsic Hand Muscles-a TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Rogasch, Nigel C; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.

  3. Effects of parietal TMS on visual and auditory processing at the primary cortical level -- a concurrent TMS-fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Werner, Sebastian;

    2013-01-01

    cortices under 3 sensory contexts: visual, auditory, and no stimulation. IPS-TMS increased activations in auditory cortices irrespective of sensory context as a result of direct and nonspecific auditory TMS side effects. In contrast, IPS-TMS modulated activations in the visual cortex in a state...... deactivations induced by auditory activity to TMS sounds. TMS to IPS may increase the responses in visual (or auditory) cortices to visual (or auditory) stimulation via a gain control mechanism or crossmodal interactions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that understanding TMS effects on (uni......Accumulating evidence suggests that multisensory interactions emerge already at the primary cortical level. Specifically, auditory inputs were shown to suppress activations in visual cortices when presented alone but amplify the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to concurrent visual...

  4. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria included radiologic diagnosis of bifocal germinoma involving the pineal and neurohypophyseal region, no evidence of dissemination on spinal MRI, negative results from cerebrospinal fluid cytologic evaluation, and negative tumor markers. Results: Between 1995 and 2004, 6 patients (5 male, 1 female; median age, 12.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All had symptoms of diabetes insipidus at presentation. On MRI, 4 patients had a pineal and suprasellar mass, and 2 had a pineal mass associated with abnormal neurohypophyseal enhancement. All patients received chemotherapy followed by limited-field radiation and achieved complete remission after chemotherapy. The radiation field involved the whole ventricular system (range, 2,400-4,000 cGy) with or without a boost to the primary lesions. All patients remain in complete remission at a median follow-up of 48.1 months (range, 9-73.4 months). Conclusions: This experience suggests that bifocal germinoma can be considered a locoregional rather than a metastatic disease. Chemotherapy and focal radiotherapy might be sufficient to provide excellent outcomes. Staging refinement with new diagnostic tools will likely increase the incidence of the entity

  5. Wide field-of-view bifocal eyeglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio; Rubinstein, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    When vision is affected simultaneously by presbyopia and myopia or hyperopia, a solution based on eyeglasses implies a surface with either segmented focal regions (e.g. bifocal lenses) or a progressive addition profile (PALs). However, both options have the drawback of reducing the field-of-view for each power position, which restricts the natural eye-head movements of the wearer. To avoid this serious limitation we propose a new solution which is essentially a bifocal power-adjustable optical design ensuring a wide field-of-view for every viewing distance. The optical system is based on the Alvarez principle. Spherical refraction correction is considered for different eccentric gaze directions covering a field-of-view range up to 45degrees. Eye movements during convergence for near objects are included. We designed three bifocal systems. The first one provides 3 D for far vision (myopic eye) and -1 D for near vision (+2 D Addition). The second one provides a +3 D addition with 3 D for far vision. Finally the last system is an example of reading glasses with +1 D power Addition.

  6. Cortical excitability in patients with focal epilepsy: a study with high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriele

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Epileptogenesis involves an increase in excitatory synaptic strength in the brain in a manner similar to synaptic potentiation. In the present study we investigated the mechanisms of short-term synaptic potentiation in patients with focal epilepsy by using 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, a non invasive neurophysiological technique able to investigate the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in humans. Ten patients with focal idiopathic cortical epilepsy were studied. 5 Hz-rTMS (10 stimuli-trains, 120% of motor threshold, RMT was delivered over the first dorsal interosseus (FDI motor area of both (affected and unaffected hemispheres. Changes in the motor evoked potential (MEP size in the FDI muscle during the trains and the RMT were measured and compared between the hemispheres. 5 Hz-rTMS was also delivered in a group of healthy subjects over both hemispheres. 5 Hz-rTMS in patients elicited a reduced MEP facilitation compared to normal subjects. The reduced MEP amplitude was more evident in the affected hemisphere than in the unaffected hemisphere. RMT in the affected hemisphere was higher than in the unaffected hemisphere and in healthy subjects. Our findings showing a decreased response to 5 Hz-rTMS over the affected hemisphere, differently from the expected results suggest a reduced cortical excitability in epileptic patients. We hypothesize an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits in epileptic patients under chronic therapy.

  7. A combined TMS-EEG study of short-latency afferent inhibition in the motor and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Cash, Robin F H; Zomorrodi, Reza; Dominguez, Luis Garcia; Farzan, Faranak; Rajji, Tarek K; Barr, Mera S; Chen, Robert; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Blumberger, Daniel M

    2016-09-01

    Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) enables noninvasive neurophysiological investigation of the human cortex. A TMS paradigm of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is characterized by attenuation of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) and modulation of N100 of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP) when TMS is delivered to motor cortex (M1) following median nerve stimulation. SAI is a marker of cholinergic activity in the motor cortex; however, the SAI has not been tested from the prefrontal cortex. We aimed to explore the effect of SAI in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). SAI was examined in 12 healthy subjects with median nerve stimulation and TMS delivered to M1 and DLPFC at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) relative to the individual N20 latency. SAI in M1 was tested at the optimal ISI of N20 + 2 ms. SAI in DLPFC was investigated at a range of ISI from N20 + 2 to N20 + 20 ms to explore its temporal profile. For SAI in M1, the attenuation of MEP amplitude was correlated with an increase of TEP N100 from the left central area. A similar spatiotemporal neural signature of SAI in DLPFC was observed with a marked increase of N100 amplitude. SAI in DLPFC was maximal at ISI N20 + 4 ms at the left frontal area. These findings establish the neural signature of SAI in DLPFC. Future studies could explore whether DLPFC-SAI is neurophysiological marker of cholinergic dysfunction in cognitive disorders.

  8. Enhanced awareness followed reversible inhibition of human visual cortex: a combined TMS, MRS and MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P G Allen

    Full Text Available This series of experiments investigated the neural basis of conscious vision in humans using a form of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS known as continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Previous studies have shown that occipital TMS, when time-locked to the onset of visual stimuli, can induce a phenomenon analogous to blindsight in which conscious detection is impaired while the ability to discriminate 'unseen' stimuli is preserved above chance. Here we sought to reproduce this phenomenon using offline occipital cTBS, which has been shown to induce an inhibitory cortical aftereffect lasting 45-60 minutes. Contrary to expectations, our first experiment revealed the opposite effect: cTBS enhanced conscious vision relative to a sham control. We then sought to replicate this cTBS-induced potentiation of consciousness in conjunction with magnetoencephalography (MEG and undertook additional experiments to assess its relationship to visual cortical excitability and levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; via magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS. Occipital cTBS decreased cortical excitability and increased regional GABA concentration. No significant effects of cTBS on MEG measures were observed, although the results provided weak evidence for potentiation of event related desynchronisation in the β band. Collectively these experiments suggest that, through the suppression of noise, cTBS can increase the signal-to-noise ratio of neural activity underlying conscious vision. We speculate that gating-by-inhibition in the visual cortex may provide a key foundation of consciousness.

  9. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other.

  10. Long-Range Temporal Correlations in the amplitude of alpha oscillations predict and reflect strength of intracortical facilitation: Combined TMS and EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Tommaso; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Nazarova, Maria; Iscan, Zafer; Moiseeva, Victoria; Nikulin, Vadim V

    2016-09-01

    While variability of the motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely acknowledged, little is known about its central origin. One plausible explanation for such variability may relate to different neuronal states defining the reactivity of the cortex to TMS. In this study intrinsic spatio-temporal neuronal dynamics were estimated with Long-Range Temporal Correlations (LRTC) in order to predict the inter-individual differences in the strength of intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) produced by paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS) of the left primary motor cortex. LRTC in the alpha frequency range were assessed from multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) obtained at rest before and after the application of and single-pulse TMS (spTMS) and ppTMS protocols. For the EEG session, preceding TMS application, we showed a positive correlation across subjects between the strength of ICF and LRTC in the fronto-central and parietal areas. This in turn attests to the existence of subject-specific neuronal phenotypes defining the reactivity of the brain to ppTMS. In addition, we also showed that ICF was associated with the changes in neuronal dynamics in the EEG session after the application of the stimulation. This result provides a complementary evidence for the recent findings demonstrating that the cortical stimulation with sparse non-regular stimuli might have considerable long-lasting effects on the cortical activity.

  11. Age-related weakness of proximal muscle studied with motor cortical mapping: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    Full Text Available Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1 relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6 ± 0.90 years and 27 old (74.96 ± 1.35 years. We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1 center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2 size of map, 3 volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4 response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001, though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = -0.34, p = 0.005, while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008. Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms that

  12. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices:Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchi-cal stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the co-herent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  13. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; HAN ShiHui

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchical stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the coherent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  14. Bifocal Stereoscopic Vision for Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous benefits of real-time 3D awareness for autonomous vehicles have motivated the incorporation of stereo cameras to the perception units of intelligent vehicles. The availability of the distance between camera and objects is essential for such applications as automatic guidance and safeguarding; however, a poor estimation of the position of the objects in front of the vehicle can result in dangerous actions. There is an emphasis, therefore, in the design of perception engines that can make available a rich and reliable interval of ranges in front of the camera. The objective of this research is to develop a stereo head that is capable of capturing 3D information from two cameras simultaneously, sensing different, but complementary, fields of view. In order to do so, the concept of bifocal perception was defined and physically materialized in an experimental bifocal stereo camera. The assembled system was validated through field tests, and results showed that each stereo pair of the head excelled at a singular range interval. The fusion of both intervals led to a more faithful representation of reality.

  15. Long-range neural activity evoked by premotor cortex stimulation: a TMS/EEG co-registration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eZanon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The premotor cortex is one of the fundamental structures composing the neural networks of the human brain. It is implicated in many behaviors and cognitive tasks, ranging from movement to attention and eye-related activity. Therefore, neural circuits that are related to premotor cortex have been studied to clarify their connectivity and/or role in different tasks. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the propagation of the neural activity evoked in the dorsal premotor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation/electroencephalography (TMS/EEG. Towards this end, interest was focused on the neural dynamics elicited in long-ranging temporal and spatial networks. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent a single-pulse TMS protocol in a resting condition with eyes closed, and the evoked activity, measured by EEG, was compared to a sham condition in a time window ranging from 45 msec to about 200 msec after TMS. Spatial and temporal investigations were carried out with sLORETA. TMS was found to induce propagation of neural activity mainly in the contralateral sensorimotor and frontal cortices, at about 130 msec after delivery of the stimulus. Different types of analyses showed propagated activity also in posterior, mainly visual, regions, in a time window between 70 and 130 msec. Finally, a likely rebounding activation of the sensorimotor and frontal regions, was observed in various time ranges. Taken together, the present findings further characterize the neural circuits that are driven by dorsal premotor cortex activation in healthy humans.

  16. Maturation of interhemispheric signal propagation in autism spectrum disorder and typically developing controls: a TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczok, Tomasz A; Fritsch, Merve; Kröger, Anne; Schneider, Anna Lisa; Althen, Heike; Siniatchkin, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Bender, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Brain maturation from childhood to adulthood is associated with changes in structural and functional connectivity between remote brain regions. Altered connectivity plays an important role in the pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. ASD is associated with abnormal brain development and structurally altered interhemispheric connections. Cortico-cortical connectivity can be studied by a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with concurrent EEG (TMS-EEG). TMS-evoked Interhemispheric Signal Propagation (ISP) is a correlate of interhemispheric connectivity related to the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC). We used TMS-EEG to measure ISP in 22 ASD subjects (10-21 years) and 22 typically developing control subjects (9-19 years). We expected (1) maturational changes of ISP from childhood to young adulthood and also (2) reduced interhemispheric signal transfer in ASD. ISP was positively correlated with age in both ASD and typically developing control subjects. No difference in ISP between ASD and typically developing controls was found. Our findings demonstrate maturation of effective interhemispheric connectivity during adolescence. As ISP is related to the microstructure of the CC, the developmental change of ISP likely reflects maturation of the CC during the second life decade. The results support ISP as a valid parameter reflecting functional interhemispheric connectivity. Our results do not support a global deficit of interhemispheric connectivity in ASD.

  17. Quality of vision through diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, J L; Chakrabarti, H S; Morrison, J D

    1991-01-01

    Two elderly women have each received a monofocal intraocular lens in one eye and a 3M diffractive bifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. Both eyes were shown to have equivalent retinal/neural function by measuring contrast sensitivity to laser interference fringes which bypassed refractive and other defects of the ocular media. The eyes with a bifocal intraocular lens displayed a much greater depth of focus, though at the expense of diminished contrast sensitivity compared with the normal...

  18. Using the Bifocal Modeling Framework to Resolve "Discrepant Events" between Physical Experiments and Virtual Models in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstein, Paulo; Fuhrmann, Tamar; Salehi, Shima

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an approach to supporting students' learning in science through a combination of physical experimentation and virtual modeling. We present a study that utilizes a scientific inquiry framework, which we call "bifocal modeling," to link student-designed experiments and computer models in real time. In this…

  19. Right ventricular bifocal stimulation in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pachón Mateos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a new more efficient method of endocardial cardiac stimulation, which produces a narrower QRS without using the coronary sinus or cardiac veins. METHODS: We studied 5 patients with severe dilated cardiomyopathy, chronic atrial fibrillation and AV block, who underwent definitive endocardial pacemaker implantation, with 2 leads, in the RV, one in the apex and the other in the interventricular septum (sub pulmonary, connected, respectively, to ventricular and atrial bicameral pacemaker outputs. Using Doppler echocardiography, we compared, in the same patient, conventional (VVI, high septal ("AAI" and bifocal ("DDT" with AV interval ~ 0 stimulation. RESULTS: The RV bifocal stimulation had the best results with an increase in ejection fraction and cardiac output and reduction in QRS duration, mitral regurgitation and in the left atrium area (p <= 0.01. The conventional method of stimulation showed the worst result. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, when left ventricular stimulation is not possible, right ventricular bifocal stimulation should be used in patients with severe cardiomyopathy where a pacemaker is indicated.

  20. Evaluation of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration by bifocal distraction osteogenesis with retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Shogen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects.

  1. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)/repetitive TMS in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, R; Tezzon, F; Höller, Y; Golaszewski, S; Trinka, E; Brigo, F

    2014-06-01

    Several Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) techniques can be applied to noninvasively measure cortical excitability and brain plasticity in humans. TMS has been used to assess neuroplastic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), corroborating findings that cortical physiology is altered in AD due to the underlying neurodegenerative process. In fact, many TMS studies have provided physiological evidence of abnormalities in cortical excitability, connectivity, and plasticity in patients with AD. Moreover, the combination of TMS with other neurophysiological techniques, such as high-density electroencephalography (EEG), makes it possible to study local and network cortical plasticity directly. Interestingly, several TMS studies revealed abnormalities in patients with early AD and even with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), thus enabling early identification of subjects in whom the cholinergic degeneration has occurred. Furthermore, TMS can influence brain function if delivered repetitively; repetitive TMS (rTMS) is capable of modulating cortical excitability and inducing long-lasting neuroplastic changes. Preliminary findings have suggested that rTMS can enhance performances on several cognitive functions impaired in AD and MCI. However, further well-controlled studies with appropriate methodology in larger patient cohorts are needed to replicate and extend the initial findings. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated and comprehensive systematic review of the studies that have employed TMS/rTMS in patients with MCI and AD.

  3. Literal, Fictive and Metaphorical Motion Sentences Preserve the Motion Component of the Verb: A TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciari, C.; Bolognini, N.; Senna, I.; Pellicciari, M. C.; Miniussi, C.; Papagno, C.

    2011-01-01

    We used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to assess whether reading literal, non-literal (i.e., metaphorical, idiomatic) and fictive motion sentences modulates the activity of the motor system. Sentences were divided into three segments visually presented one at a time: the noun phrase, the verb and the final part of the sentence. Single…

  4. Action Verbs and the Primary Motor Cortex: A Comparative TMS Study of Silent Reading, Frequency Judgments, and Motor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R.; Sparing, Roland; Dafotakis, Manuel; Weiss, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex or, as a control, to the vertex (STIMULATION: TMS[subscript M1] vs. TMS[subscript vertex]) while right-handed volunteers silently read verbs related to hand actions. We examined three different tasks and time points for stimulation…

  5. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeneke Susan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1 in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an internal and an external strategy, our study was designed to specifically test the relation between strategy and M1 activity. Methods Twenty-two subjects were asked to participate in a standard mental rotation task. We used specific picture stimuli that were supposed to trigger either the internal (e.g. pictures of hands or tools or the external strategy (e.g. pictures of houses or abstract figures. The strategy hypothesis predicts an involvement of M1 only in case of stimuli triggering the internal strategy (imagine grasping and rotating the object by oneself. Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was employed to quantify M1 activity during task performance by measuring Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs at the right hand muscle. Results Contrary to the strategy hypothesis, we found no interaction between stimulus category and corticospinal excitability. Instead, corticospinal excitability was generally increased compared with a resting baseline although subjects indicated more frequent use of the external strategy for all object categories. Conclusion This finding suggests that M1 involvement is not exclusively linked with the use of the internal strategy but rather directly with the process of mental rotation. Alternatively, our results might support the hypothesis that M1 is active due to a 'spill-over' effect from adjacent brain regions.

  6. Short-term neural adaptation to simultaneous bifocal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswaryah Radhakrishnan

    Full Text Available Simultaneous vision is an increasingly used solution for the correction of presbyopia (the age-related loss of ability to focus near images. Simultaneous Vision corrections, normally delivered in the form of contact or intraocular lenses, project on the patient's retina a focused image for near vision superimposed with a degraded image for far vision, or a focused image for far vision superimposed with the defocused image of the near scene. It is expected that patients with these corrections are able to adapt to the complex Simultaneous Vision retinal images, although the mechanisms or the extent to which this happens is not known. We studied the neural adaptation to simultaneous vision by studying changes in the Natural Perceived Focus and in the Perceptual Score of image quality in subjects after exposure to Simultaneous Vision. We show that Natural Perceived Focus shifts after a brief period of adaptation to a Simultaneous Vision blur, similar to adaptation to Pure Defocus. This shift strongly correlates with the magnitude and proportion of defocus in the adapting image. The magnitude of defocus affects perceived quality of Simultaneous Vision images, with 0.5 D defocus scored lowest and beyond 1.5 D scored "sharp". Adaptation to Simultaneous Vision shifts the Perceptual Score of these images towards higher rankings. Larger improvements occurred when testing simultaneous images with the same magnitude of defocus as the adapting images, indicating that wearing a particular bifocal correction improves the perception of images provided by that correction.

  7. Academic Performance of Students with the Highest and Mediocre School-leaving Grades: Does the Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS) Balance Their Prognoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Kadmon, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Die Auswahl Medizinstudierender wird in Deutschland teils zentral, teils lokal durchgeführt. Die zentrale Auswahl umfasst zwei Gruppen: Studierende mit den besten Hochschulzulassungsnoten (Abiturbeste) und Studierende mit schlechteren Abiturnoten, die erst nach einer Wartezeit von bis zu sieben Jahren nach Schulabschluss zum Studium zugelassen werden (Wartezeitquote). Studierende mit Lernschwierigkeiten sowie solche, die das Studium frühzeitig abbrechen, befinden sich in beiden Gruppen. Die hochschuleigene Studierendenauswahl (AdH) unserer Fakultät berücksichtigt das Ergebnis des Tests für Medizinische Studiengänge (TMS) und ermöglicht die leistungsbezogene Zulassung von Studierenden mit einer breiten Spannweite an Abiturnoten. Ziel: Zu untersuchen, ob die Gewichtung des TMS in der hochschuleigenen Auswahl gerechtfertigt ist, die darauf abzielt, die Zulassung potentiell leistungsschwacher Abiturbesten zu reduzieren und stattdessen die Zulassung potentiell leistungsstarker Bewerber zu fördern, die mittelmäßige Schulabgangsnoten mitbringen.Methode: Der prognostische Beitrag der Abiturpunktzahl und des TMS zur Studienleistung und zur Studienkontinuität im vorklinischen Abschnitt des Medizinstudiums wurde an zwei Studierendengruppen untersucht: Abiturbeste (Abiturnote 1,0, Abiturpunkte 823-900) und mittelmäßige Abiturienten (Abiturnoten 2,0-2,3, Abiturpunkte 689-660). Das Outcome beider Gruppen wurde im Verhältnis zu ihren TMS-Ergebnissen verglichen. Die Studie umfasste vier aufeinander folgende Kohorten. Ergebnisse: In beiden Gruppen sagte der TMS die Studienleistung (β=0,442-0,446) und die Studienkontinuität (OR=0,890-0,853) besser vorher als die Abiturnote (β=0,238-0,047; OR=1,009-0,998). Die Studienverlängerungs- und -abbruchsrate war am stärksten mit der Nicht-Teilnahme am TMS assoziiert (OR=0,230-0,380). Studierende mit mittelmäßigen Abiturnoten und TMS-Ergebnissen (standardisiertem Testwert) ≥125 erzielten ähnlich gute

  8. Bifocal reflector antenna system for radar imaging at 300 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    García Pino, Antonio; González Valdes, Borja; Mencia Oliva, Beatriz; Grajal de la Fuente, Jesús; Rubiños López, Oscar; Besada Sanmartin, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    A 300 GHz radar imaging system is presented, including descriptions of the radar sensor and antenna subsystems. The antenna consists of a Bifocal Ellipsoidal Gregorian Reflector whose beam is scanned by a combination of the rotation and vertical tilting of a flat small secondary mirror. A prototype is being mounted and its characterization will be presented.

  9. Double-blind, randomized sham controlled study of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabany, Liron; Deutsch, Lisa; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-07-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia, yet treatment for them remains inadequate. Deep-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel technology that enables non-invasive stimulation of deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. Preliminary evidence suggests that deep-TMS could be effective in the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The current study is the first double-blind, randomized sham-controlled study to examine the feasibility of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Twenty daily H1 deep-TMS treatments (20Hz, 120% MT) were delivered, in a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled design (n=30). Extensive clinical and cognitive assessments were carried out throughout the study and for an additional one month follow-up period. The results indicate that at the end of the treatment period, negative symptoms (as indicated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)) significantly reduced in the TMS group (-7.7), but not in the sham group (-1.9). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant.

  10. Single pulse TMS differentially modulates reward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Arielle D; Luber, Bruce; Unger, Layla; Cycowicz, Yael M; Malaspina, Dolores; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2013-12-01

    Greater knowledge of cortical brain regions in reward processing may set the stage for using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment in patients with avolition, apathy or other drive-related symptoms. This study examined the effects of single pulse (sp) TMS to two reward circuit targets on drive in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects performed the monetary incentive delay task (MID) while receiving fMRI-guided spTMS to either inferior parietal lobe (IPL) or supplemental motor area (SMA). The study demonstrated decreasing reaction times (RT) for increasing reward. It also showed significant differences in RT modulation for TMS pulses to the IPL versus the SMA. TMS pulses during the delay period produced significantly more RT slowing when targeting the IPL than those to the SMA. This RT slowing carried over into subsequent trials without TMS stimulation, with significantly slower RTs in sessions that had targeted the IPL compared to those targeting SMA. The results of this study suggest that both SMA and IPL are involved in reward processing, with opposite effects on RT in response to TMS stimulation. TMS to these target cortical regions may be useful in modulating reward circuit deficits in psychiatric populations.

  11. Action verbs and the primary motor cortex: a comparative TMS study of silent reading, frequency judgments, and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R; Sparing, Roland; Dafotakis, Manuel; Weiss, Peter H

    2008-01-01

    Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex or, as a control, to the vertex (STIMULATION: TMS(M1) vs. TMS(vertex)) while right-handed volunteers silently read verbs related to hand actions. We examined three different tasks and time points for stimulation within the same experiment: subjects indicated with their left foot when they (i) had finished reading, (ii) had judged whether the corresponding movement involved a hand rotation after simulating the hand movement, and (iii) had judged whether they would frequently encounter the action verb in a newspaper (TASK: silent reading, motor imagery, and frequency judgment). Response times were compared between TMS(M1) and TMS(vertex), both applied at different time points after stimulus onset (DELAY: 150, 300, 450, 600, and 750 ms). TMS(M1) differentially modulated task performance: there was a significant facilitatory effect of TMS(M1) for the imagery task only (about 88 ms), with subjects responding about 10% faster (compared to TMS(vertex)). In contrast, response times for silent reading and frequency judgments were unaffected by TMS(M1). No differential effect of the time point of TMS(M1) was observed. The differential effect of TMS(M1) when subjects performed a motor imagery task (relative to performing silent reading or frequency judgments with the same set of verbs) suggests that the primary motor cortex is critically involved in processing action verbs only when subjects are simulating the corresponding movement. This task-dependent effect of hand motor cortex TMS on the processing of hand-related action verbs is discussed with respect to the notion of embodied cognition and the associationist theory. PMID:18328510

  12. Performance Case study of Grigoryan FFT over Cooley-Tukey FFT using TMS DSP Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanam Ranganadh , Muni Guravaiah P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequency analysis plays vital role in the applications like cryptanalysis, steganalysis [6], system identification, controller tuning, speech recognition, noise filters, etc. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Cooley-Tukey fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT [1] and the other one is the Grigoryan FFT based on the splitting by the paired transform [2]. We evaluate the performance of these algorithms by implementing them on the TMS320C6748 and TMS320C5416 DSPs. We developed C programming for these DSP processors. Finally we show that the paired-transform based algorithm of the FFT is faster than the radix-2 FFT, consequently it is useful for higher sampling rates. Working at higher data rates is a challenge in the applications of Digital Signal Processing.

  13. Where does TMS Stimulate the Motor Cortex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungert, Andreas; Antunes, André; Espenhahn, Svenja;

    2016-01-01

    Much of our knowledge on the physiological mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stems from studies which targeted the human motor cortex. However, it is still unclear which part of the motor cortex is predominantly affected by TMS. Considering that the motor cortex consists...... of functionally and histologically distinct subareas, this also renders the hypotheses on the physiological TMS effects uncertain. We use the finite element method (FEM) and magnetic resonance image-based individual head models to get realistic estimates of the electric field induced by TMS. The field changes...... in different subparts of the motor cortex are compared with electrophysiological threshold changes of 2 hand muscles when systematically varying the coil orientation in measurements. We demonstrate that TMS stimulates the region around the gyral crown and that the maximal electric field strength in this region...

  14. Comparison of visual outcomes after implantation of diffractive trifocal toric intraocular lens and a diffractive apodized bifocal toric intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell Gunnar; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare a new diffractive trifocal toric lens with an apodized diffractive bifocal toric lens in terms of refractive and visual acuity (VA) outcomes, including low-contrast VA (LCVA), as well as the patient’s visual function 3 months after implantation. Patients and methods This is a randomized prospective study involving bilateral implantation of a trifocal toric or a bifocal toric lens. At 3 months postoperatively, the subject’s vision was tested both uncorrected and with his/her best distance correction at: distance (4 m), intermediate (63 cm), and near (40 cm). Binocular defocus curves were measured with no correction and with the subject’s best distance correction in place. Quality of vision was measured using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire. Results A total of 22 patients were enrolled (eleven in each group). There was no statistically significant difference in the absolute change in measured rotation between 1 month and 3 months postoperatively between the two intraocular lens (IOL) groups (P=0.98). At 3 months, the postoperative refraction and distance VA by eye were similar between groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured LCVA between groups (P=0.39). The defocus curve showed that at 67 cm, the trifocal toric lens had statistically significantly better VA when compared to the bifocal toric lens. There were no statistically significant differences by group for any of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire scores (P>0.26 in all cases). Conclusion The trifocal toric IOL improved the intermediate vision without negatively impacting visual function and distance, near, or low-contrast VA when compared to a bifocal toric IOL. The toric component of the trifocal lens effectively reduced astigmatism and provided good rotational stability. PMID:27051269

  15. Assessing cortical network properties using TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2013-07-01

    The past decade has seen significant developments in the concurrent use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to directly assess cortical network properties such as excitability and connectivity in humans. New hardware solutions, improved EEG amplifier technology, and advanced data processing techniques have allowed substantial reduction of the TMS-induced artifact, which had previously rendered concurrent TMS-EEG impossible. Various physiological artifacts resulting from TMS have also been identified, and methods are being developed to either minimize or remove these sources of artifact. With these developments, TMS-EEG has unlocked regions of the cortex to researchers that were previously inaccessible to TMS. By recording the TMS-evoked response directly from the cortex, TMS-EEG provides information on the excitability, effective connectivity, and oscillatory tuning of a given cortical area, removing the need to infer such measurements from indirect measures. In the following review, we investigate the different online and offline methods for reducing artifacts in TMS-EEG recordings and the physiological information contained within the TMS-evoked cortical response. We then address the use of TMS-EEG to assess different cortical mechanisms such as cortical inhibition and neural plasticity, before briefly reviewing studies that have utilized TMS-EEG to explore cortical network properties at rest and during different functional brain states.

  16. Effects of navigated TMS on object and action naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Hernandez-Pavon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.

  17. Therapeutic administration of atomoxetine combined with rTMS and occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a case series study of three patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Momosaki, Ryo; Okuma, Ryo; Watanabe, Shu; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has been reported to enhance brain plasticity, but has not yet been used in stroke patients. We reported the feasibility and clinical benefits on motor functional recovery of the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) in stroke patients. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the additive effects of oral atomoxetine to rTMS/OT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. The study included three post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Treatment with 40 mg/day atomoxetine commenced 2 weeks before admission. After confirming tolerance, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day. Low-frequency rTMS/OT was provided daily for 15 days during continued atomoxetine therapy. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function test. All patients completed the protocol and showed motor improvement up to 4 weeks after the treatment. No atomoxetine-related side effects were noted. Our protocol of triple therapy of atomoxetine, low-frequency rTMS, and OT is safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  18. Bifocal contact lenses: History, types, characteristics, and actual state and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Toshida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida, Kozo Takahashi, Kazushige Sado, Atsushi Kanai, Akira MurakamiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Since people who wear contact lenses (CL often continue using CL even when they develop presbyopia, there are growing expectations for bifocal CL. To understand actual state and problems, history, types, and their characteristics are summarized in this review. Bifocal CL have a long history over 70 years. Recently, bifocal CL have achieved remarkable progress. However, there still is an impression that prescription of bifocal CL is not easy. It should also be remembered that bifocal CL have limits, including limited addition for near vision, as well as the effects of aging and eye diseases in the aged, such as dry eye, astigmatism, cataract, etc. Analysis of the long-term users of bifocal CL among our patients has revealed the disappearance of bifocal CL that achieved unsatisfactory vision and poor contrast compared with those provided by other types of CL. Changing the prescription up to 3 times for lenses of the same brand may be appropriate. Lenses that provide poor contrast sensitivity, suffer from glare, or give unsatisfactory vision have been weeded out. The repeated replacement of products due to the emergence of improved or new products will be guessed.Keywords: bifocal contact lens, presbyopia, accommodation

  19. Twelve-month success rates with a hydrogel diffractive bifocal contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, A; Grant, T; Hine, N; Holden, B A

    1992-12-01

    In this study we assessed success rates over 12 months with a hydrogel diffractive bifocal contact lens. A total of 108 presbyopes were fitted with lenses, and after 12 months 46% were still wearing the lenses. Subjects with previous presbyopic lens-wearing experience achieved greater success (58% of those fitted) than neophyte lens wearers (33% of those fitted, and 17% of all neophyte presbyopes initially expressing an interest in contact lenses before screening). More neophytes failed for nonvision-related reasons than experienced subjects (31% vs. 12% of those fitted). Consequently, when nonvision-related failures were excluded from the calculation of success rates, 59% of those fitted with lenses (49% of neophytes and 66% of experienced subjects) were still wearing the lenses at 12 months. Most discontinuations from lens wear occurred in the first month of the study, the major reason for discontinuation being poor near vision (blur and/or ghosting; 47% of discontinuations). PMID:1300517

  20. Results of a pilot study on the involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception: an rTMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoekert Marjolijn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right hemisphere may play an important role in paralinguistic features such as the emotional melody in speech. The extent of this involvement however is unclear. Imaging studies have shown involvement of both left and right inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception. The present pilot study examined whether these brain areas are critically involved in the processing of emotional prosody and of semantics in 9 healthy subjects. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was used with a coil centred over left and right inferior frontal gyri, as localized by neuronavigation based on the subject's MRI. A sham condition was included. An online-TMS approach was applied; an emotional language task was completed during stimulation. This computerized task consisted of sentences pronounced by actors. In the semantics condition an emotion (fear, anger or neutral was expressed in the content pronounced with a neutral intonation. In the prosody condition the emotion was expressed in the intonation, while the content was neutral. Results Reaction times on the emotional prosody task condition were significantly longer after rTMS over both the right and the left inferior frontal gyrus as compared to sham stimulation and after controlling for learning effects associated with order of condition. When taking all emotions together, there was no difference in effect on reaction times between the right and left stimulation. For the emotion Fear, reaction times were significantly longer after stimulating the left inferior frontal gyrus as compared to the right inferior frontal gyrus. Reaction times in the semantics task condition were not significantly different between the three TMS conditions. Conclusions The data indicate a critical involvement of both the right and the left inferior frontal gyrus in emotional prosody perception. The findings of this pilot study need replication. Future studies should include more subjects and

  1. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: A TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eGrau-Sánchez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician’s brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning. Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.

  2. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy. PMID:24027507

  3. No effects of 20 Hz-rTMS of the primary motor cortex in vegetative state: A randomised, sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Bianco, Giovanni; Godone, Marco; Battista, Donato; Cardinali, Consuelo; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Sighinolfi, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Anna Maria; Breschi, Marco; Dine, Ylli; Lino, Mario; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Rossi, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex in patients with vegetative state (VS) by a randomised, sham-controlled study with a cross-over design. Eleven patients classified as being in VS (9 post-anoxic, 2 post-traumatic, time elapsed from the injury 9-85 months) were included in the study. Real or sham 20 Hz rTMS were applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 5 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were changes in the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale total score and Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Additional measures were EEG changes and impression of the patients' relatives using the CGI-I scale. Evaluations were blindly performed at baseline, after the first day of treatment, immediately after the end of the 5-days treatment, 1 week and 1 month later. Slight changes observed in the CRS-R and CGI-I scores did not significantly differ between real or sham stimulation conditions. EEG was not significantly changed on average, although spots of brain reactivity were occasionally found underneath the stimulation point. Findings did not provide evidence of therapeutic effect of 20 Hz rTMS of the M1 in chronic VS, at least with conventional coils and current safety parameters. Therefore, they might be useful to better allocate human and financial resources in future trials.

  4. Effect of rTMS on brain activation in schizophrenia with negative symptoms : A proof-of-principle study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlabac-de Lange, Jozarni J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Bais, Leonie; Renken, Remco J.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia and is thought to underlie negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) can modulate neuronal activity and has been shown to improve negative symptoms in patients with schiz

  5. A multi-center study on low-frequency rTMS combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis in post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakuda Wataru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and intensive occupational therapy (OT have been recently reported to be clinically beneficial for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Based on these reports, we developed an inpatient combination protocol of these two modalities for the treatment of such patients. The aims of this pilot study were to confirm the safety and feasibility of the protocol in a large number of patients from different institutions, and identify predictors of the clinical response to the treatment. Methods The study subjects were 204 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (mean age at admission 58.5 ± 13.4 years, mean time after stroke 5.0 ± 4.5 years, ± SD from five institutions in Japan. During 15-day hospitalization, each patient received 22 treatment sessions of 20-min low-frequency rTMS and 120-min intensive OT daily. Low-frequency rTMS of 1 Hz was applied to the contralesional hemisphere over the primary motor area. The intensive OT, consisting of 60-min one-to-one training and 60-min self-exercise, was provided after the application of low-frequency rTMS. Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT were performed serially. The physiatrists and occupational therapists involved in this study received training prior to the study to standardize the therapeutic protocol. Results All patients completed the protocol without any adverse effects. The FMA score increased and WMFT log performance time decreased significantly at discharge, relative to the respective values at admission (change in FMA score: median at admission, 47 points; median at discharge, 51 points; p Conclusions The 15-day inpatient rTMS plus OT protocol is a safe, feasible, and clinically useful neurorehabilitative intervention for post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. The response to the treatment was not influenced by age or time after stroke onset. The

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke: Ready for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Claire; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-09-01

    The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke research has increased dramatically over the last decade with two emerging and potentially useful functions identified. Firstly, the use of single pulse TMS as a tool for predicting recovery of motor function after stroke, and secondly, the use of repetitive TMS (rTMS) as a treatment adjunct aimed at modifying the excitability of the motor cortex in preparation for rehabilitation. This review discusses recent advances in the use of TMS in both prediction and treatment after stroke. Prediction of recovery after stroke is a complex process and the use of TMS alone is not sufficient to provide accurate prediction for an individual after stroke. However, when applied in conjunction with other tools such as clinical assessment and MRI, accuracy of prediction using TMS is increased. rTMS temporarily modulates cortical excitability after stroke. Very few rTMS studies are completed in the acute or sub-acute stages after stroke and the translation of altered cortical excitability into gains in motor function are modest, with little evidence of long term effects. Although gains have been made in both of these areas, further investigation is needed before these techniques can be applied in routine clinical care. PMID:27394378

  7. Electronically switchable sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Hoeft

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke: Ready for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie-Claire; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-09-01

    The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in stroke research has increased dramatically over the last decade with two emerging and potentially useful functions identified. Firstly, the use of single pulse TMS as a tool for predicting recovery of motor function after stroke, and secondly, the use of repetitive TMS (rTMS) as a treatment adjunct aimed at modifying the excitability of the motor cortex in preparation for rehabilitation. This review discusses recent advances in the use of TMS in both prediction and treatment after stroke. Prediction of recovery after stroke is a complex process and the use of TMS alone is not sufficient to provide accurate prediction for an individual after stroke. However, when applied in conjunction with other tools such as clinical assessment and MRI, accuracy of prediction using TMS is increased. rTMS temporarily modulates cortical excitability after stroke. Very few rTMS studies are completed in the acute or sub-acute stages after stroke and the translation of altered cortical excitability into gains in motor function are modest, with little evidence of long term effects. Although gains have been made in both of these areas, further investigation is needed before these techniques can be applied in routine clinical care.

  9. Overt Naming fMRI Pre- and Post-TMS: Two Nonfluent Aphasia Patients, with and without Improved Naming Post-TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paula I.; Naeser, Margaret A.; Ho, Michael; Doron, Karl W.; Kurland, Jacquie; Kaplan, Jerome; Wang, Yunyan; Nicholas, Marjorie; Baker, Errol H.; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Two chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients participated in overt naming fMRI scans, pre- and post-a series of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatments as part of a TMS study to improve naming. Each patient received 10, 1-Hz rTMS treatments to suppress a part of R pars triangularis. P1 was a "good responder" with improved naming…

  10. Bifocal orbital and nasopharyngeal amyloidomas presenting as Graves disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert Y; Chapman, William B; Witterick, Ian J; Deangelis, Dan D

    2011-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with a slowly progressive left hyperglobus, left infraduction deficit, bilateral lower eyelid retraction, and dysphagia. He had a notable chin-down head position, diplopia in primary position, and 3 mm of left proptosis. He had been diagnosed with Graves disease 3 years before presentation. CT scans showed enlargement of the left inferior and medial rectus muscles with associated stranding of the retrobulbar fat and a low-density heterogeneous mass in the left aspect of the neck protruding in the nasopharynx. Biopsies of the orbit and nasopharynx revealed focal areas of amyloid. This represents the first report of bifocal amyloidomas of the orbit and nasopharynx. PMID:21178798

  11. TMS320VC5416DSP存储空间配置方法研究%Study on the Configuration Method for the Memory Space Address in TMS320VC5416 DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洪坡; 梁书剑; 张德兴; 王铁军

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the memory structure of TMS320VC5416 DSP. on this basis analyzes the mapping relation between memory space and physical memory, in the end, gives the configuration method of the memory space.%文章介绍了TMS320VC5416 DSP芯片的存储结构,在此基础上重点分析了其存储空间与物理存储器的映射关系,最后给出了存储空间配置方法的一般步骤.

  12. Basic principles of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive TMS (rTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomjai, Wanalee; Katz, Rose; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive TMS (rTMS) are indirect and non-invasive methods used to induce excitability changes in the motor cortex via a wire coil generating a magnetic field that passes through the scalp. Today, TMS has become a key method to investigate brain functioning in humans. Moreover, because rTMS can lead to long-lasting after-effects in the brain, it is thought to be able to induce plasticity. This tool appears to be a potential therapy for neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects induced by TMS and rTMS have not yet been clearly identified. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the main knowledge available for TMS and rTMS to allow for understanding their mode of action and to specify the different parameters that influence their effects. This review takes an inventory of the most-used rTMS paradigms in clinical research and exhibits the hypotheses commonly assumed to explain rTMS after-effects.

  13. Vegetative versus minimally conscious states: a study using TMS-EEG, sensory and event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Ragazzoni

    Full Text Available Differential diagnoses between vegetative and minimally conscious states (VS and MCS, respectively are frequently incorrect. Hence, further research is necessary to improve the diagnostic accuracy at the bedside. The main neuropathological feature of VS is the diffuse damage of cortical and subcortical connections. Starting with this premise, we used electroencephalography (EEG recordings to evaluate the cortical reactivity and effective connectivity during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in chronic VS or MCS patients. Moreover, the TMS-EEG data were compared with the results from standard somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs and event-related potentials (ERPs. Thirteen patients with chronic consciousness disorders were examined at their bedsides. A group of healthy volunteers served as the control group. The amplitudes (reactivity and scalp distributions (connectivity of the cortical potentials evoked by TMS (TEPs of the primary motor cortex were measured. Short-latency median nerve SEPs and auditory ERPs were also recorded. Reproducible TEPs were present in all control subjects in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral hemispheres relative to the site of the TMS. The amplitudes of the ipsilateral and contralateral TEPs were reduced in four of the five MCS patients, and the TEPs were bilaterally absent in one MCS patient. Among the VS patients, five did not manifest ipsilateral or contralateral TEPs, and three of the patients exhibited only ipsilateral TEPs with reduced amplitudes. The SEPs were altered in five VS and two MCS patients but did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. The ERPs were impaired in all patients and did not correlate with the clinical diagnosis. These TEP results suggest that cortical reactivity and connectivity are severely impaired in all VS patients, whereas in most MCS patients, the TEPs are preserved but with abnormal features. Therefore, TEPs may add valuable information to the current clinical and

  14. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Yohana eLévêque; Neil eMuggleton; Lauren eStewart; Daniele eSchön

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the...

  15. Very low-frequency rTMS modulates SEPs over the contralateral hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Uguisu, Haruo; Urushihara, Ryo; Hosono, Yuki; Asanuma, Kotaro; Shimazu, Hideki; Murase, Nagako; Kaji, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the transcallosal effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we studied median somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) before and after applying monophasic very low-frequency (0.2 Hz) subthreshold rTMS over the right motor cortex. For SEPs, median nerve was stimulated on each side. Sham rTMS served as the control. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. After rTMS over the right hemisphere, the amplitude of N34 component i...

  16. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana eLévêque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx pre-motor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, reaction times became longer for sung than for machine sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance.

  17. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study(†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for "machine" sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance. PMID:23874314

  18. New insights into Alzheimer's disease progression: a combined TMS and structural MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini Niskanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of structural and functional data of the human brain can provide detailed information of neurodegenerative diseases and the influence of the disease on various local cortical areas. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the relationship between structure and function of the brain the cortical thickness based on structural magnetic resonance images and motor cortex excitability assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation were correlated in Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients as well as in age-matched healthy controls. Motor cortex excitability correlated negatively with cortical thickness on the sensorimotor cortex, the precuneus and the cuneus but the strength of the correlation varied between the study groups. On the sensorimotor cortex the correlation was significant only in MCI subjects. On the precuneus and cuneus the correlation was significant both in AD and MCI subjects. In healthy controls the motor cortex excitability did not correlate with the cortical thickness. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects the motor cortex excitability is not dependent on the cortical thickness, whereas in neurodegenerative diseases the cortical thinning is related to weaker cortical excitability, especially on the precuneus and cuneus. However, in AD subjects there seems to be a protective mechanism of hyperexcitability on the sensorimotor cortex counteracting the prominent loss of cortical volume since the motor cortex excitability did not correlate with the cortical thickness. Such protective mechanism was not found on the precuneus or cuneus nor in the MCI subjects. Therefore, our results indicate that the progression of the disease proceeds with different dynamics in the structure and function of neuronal circuits from normal conditions via MCI to AD.

  19. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Stefani

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed when the observed (and simulated movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  20. TMS-evoked changes in brain-state dynamics quantified by using EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Tuomas; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    2013-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) method in general, it is important to study how the dynamics of the TMS-modulated brain activity differs from the dynamics of spontaneous activity. In this paper, we introduce two quantitative measures based on EEG data, called mean state shift (MSS) and state variance (SV), for evaluating the TMS-evoked changes in the brain-state dynamics. MSS quantifies the immediate TMS-elicited change in the brain state, whereas SV shows whether the rate at which the brain state changes is modulated by TMS. We report a statistically significant increase for a period of 100-200 ms after the TMS pulse in both MSS and SV at the group level. This indicates that the TMS-modulated brain state differs from the spontaneous one. Moreover, the TMS-modulated activity is more vigorous than the natural activity.

  1. No effects of 20 Hz-rTMS of the primary motor cortex in vegetative state: A randomised, sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Massimo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Chiaramonti, Roberta; Bianco, Giovanni; Godone, Marco; Battista, Donato; Cardinali, Consuelo; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Sighinolfi, Antonella; D'Avanzo, Anna Maria; Breschi, Marco; Dine, Ylli; Lino, Mario; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Rossi, Simone

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the effects of a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex in patients with vegetative state (VS) by a randomised, sham-controlled study with a cross-over design. Eleven patients classified as being in VS (9 post-anoxic, 2 post-traumatic, time elapsed from the injury 9-85 months) were included in the study. Real or sham 20 Hz rTMS were applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) for 5 consecutive days. Primary outcome measures were changes in the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale total score and Clinical Global Impression Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Additional measures were EEG changes and impression of the patients' relatives using the CGI-I scale. Evaluations were blindly performed at baseline, after the first day of treatment, immediately after the end of the 5-days treatment, 1 week and 1 month later. Slight changes observed in the CRS-R and CGI-I scores did not significantly differ between real or sham stimulation conditions. EEG was not significantly changed on average, although spots of brain reactivity were occasionally found underneath the stimulation point. Findings did not provide evidence of therapeutic effect of 20 Hz rTMS of the M1 in chronic VS, at least with conventional coils and current safety parameters. Therefore, they might be useful to better allocate human and financial resources in future trials. PMID:26301875

  2. Electron collision cross sections for the TMS molecule and electron transport coefficients in TMS-Ar and TMS-O2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Pham Xuan; Tuan, Do Anh; Jeon, Byung-Hoon

    2012-07-01

    A consistent set of low-energy electron-collision cross sections for the tetramethylsilane (TMS) molecule has been derived from the measured electron transport coefficients for a pure TMS molecule by using an electron swarm study and a two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation for energy. The electron transport coefficients, which were calculated by using the derived set, are consistent with the experimental data over a wide range of E/N values (ratio of the electric field E to the neutral number density N). The present set of electron collision cross sections for the TMS molecule, therefore, is the best available so far for quantitative numerical modeling of plasma discharges for processing procedures with materials containing TMS molecules. The electron-transport coefficients in TMS-Ar and TMS-O2 mixtures were also calculated and analyzed in a wide range of E/N ratios for the first time. The presence of a remarkable synergism in the Townsend first ionization coefficient has been pointed out in the TMS-O2 mixtures.

  3. Correlation between Motor Cortex Excitability Changes and Cognitive Impairment in Vascular Depression: Pathophysiological Insights from a Longitudinal TMS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pennisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND. Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment. After approximately two years, all participants were prospectively reevaluated. Results. At baseline, a significant more pronounced intracortical facilitation (ICF was found in VCI-ND patients. Reevaluation revealed an increase of the global excitability in both VCI-ND and VD subjects. At follow-up, the ICF of VCI-ND becomes similar to the other groups. Only VD patients showed cognitive deterioration. Conclusions. Unlike VD, the hyperfacilitation found at baseline in VCI-ND patients suggests enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission that might contribute to the preservation of cognitive functioning. The hyperexcitability observed at follow-up in both groups of patients also indicates functional changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission. The mechanisms enhancing the risk of dementia in VD might be related either to subcortical vascular lesions or to the lack of compensatory functional cortical changes.

  4. Correlation between Motor Cortex Excitability Changes and Cognitive Impairment in Vascular Depression: Pathophysiological Insights from a Longitudinal TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Manuela; Lanza, Giuseppe; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Ricceri, Riccardo; Spampinato, Concetto; Pennisi, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Bella, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD) on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment. After approximately two years, all participants were prospectively reevaluated. Results. At baseline, a significant more pronounced intracortical facilitation (ICF) was found in VCI-ND patients. Reevaluation revealed an increase of the global excitability in both VCI-ND and VD subjects. At follow-up, the ICF of VCI-ND becomes similar to the other groups. Only VD patients showed cognitive deterioration. Conclusions. Unlike VD, the hyperfacilitation found at baseline in VCI-ND patients suggests enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission that might contribute to the preservation of cognitive functioning. The hyperexcitability observed at follow-up in both groups of patients also indicates functional changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission. The mechanisms enhancing the risk of dementia in VD might be related either to subcortical vascular lesions or to the lack of compensatory functional cortical changes. PMID:27525127

  5. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  6. Cortico-cortical connectivity between right parietal and bilateral primary motor cortices during imagined and observed actions: A combined TMS/tDCS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eFeurra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous TMS studies showed functional connections between the parietal cortex (PC and the primary motor cortex (M1 during tasks of different reaching-to-grasp movements. Here, we tested whether the same network is involved in cognitive processes such as imagined or observed actions. Single pulse TMS of the right and left M1 during rest and during a motor imagery and an action observation task (i.e. an index-thumb pinch grip in both cases was used to measure corticospinal excitability changes before and after conditioning of the right PC by 10 minutes of cathodal, anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Corticospinal excitability was indexed by the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the contralateral FDI (target and ADM (control muscles. Results showed selective ipsilateral effects on the M1 excitability, exclusively for motor imagery processes: anodal tDCS enhanced the MEPs’ size from the FDI muscle, whereas cathodal tDCS decreased it. Only cathodal tDCS impacted corticospinal facilitation induced by action observation. Sham stimulation was always uneffective. These results suggest that motor imagery, differently from action observation, is sustained by a strictly ipsilateral parieto-motor cortex circuits. Results might have implication for neuromodulatory rehabilitative purposes.

  7. Utility of TMS to understand the neurobiology of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    According to a traditional view, speech perception and production are processed largely separately in sensory and motor brain areas. Recent psycholinguistic and neuroimaging studies provide novel evidence that the sensory and motor systems dynamically interact in speech processing, by demonstrating that speech perception and imitation share regional brain activations. However, the exact nature and mechanisms of these sensorimotor interactions are not completely understood yet. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has often been used in the cognitive neurosciences, including speech research, as a complementary technique to behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Here we provide an up-to-date review focusing on TMS studies that explored speech perception and imitation. Single-pulse TMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) demonstrated a speech specific and somatotopically specific increase of excitability of the M1 lip area during speech perception (listening to speech or lip reading). A paired-coil TMS approach showed increases in effective connectivity from brain regions that are involved in speech processing to the M1 lip area when listening to speech. TMS in virtual lesion mode applied to speech processing areas modulated performance of phonological recognition and imitation of perceived speech. In summary, TMS is an innovative tool to investigate processing of speech perception and imitation. TMS studies have provided strong evidence that the sensory system is critically involved in mapping sensory input onto motor output and that the motor system plays an important role in speech perception.

  8. Utility of TMS to understand the neurobiology of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu eMurakami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to a traditional view, speech perception and production are processed largely separately in sensory and motor brain areas. Recent psycholinguistic and neuroimaging studies provide novel evidence that the sensory and motor systems dynamically interact in speech processing, by demonstrating that speech perception and imitation share regional brain activations. However, the exact nature and mechanisms of these sensorimotor interactions are not completely understood yet.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in the cognitive neurosciences, including speech research, as a complementary technique to behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Here we provide an up-to-date review focusing on TMS studies that explored speech perception and imitation.Single-pulse TMS of the primary motor cortex (M1 demonstrated a speech specific and somatotopically specific increase of excitability of the M1 lip area during speech perception (listening to speech or lip reading. A paired-coil TMS approach showed increases in effective connectivity from brain regions that are involved in speech processing to the M1 lip area when listening to speech. TMS in virtual lesion mode applied to speech processing areas modulated performance of phonological recognition and imitation of perceived speech.In summary, TMS is an innovative tool to investigate processing of speech perception and imitation. TMS studies have provided strong evidence that the sensory system is critically involved in mapping sensory input onto motor output and that the motor system plays an important role in speech perception.

  9. Enhancement of human cognitive performance using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2014-01-15

    Here we review the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in modulating cortical networks in ways that might produce performance enhancements in healthy human subjects. To date over sixty studies have reported significant improvements in speed and accuracy in a variety of tasks involving perceptual, motor, and executive processing. Two basic categories of enhancement mechanisms are suggested by this literature: direct modulation of a cortical region or network that leads to more efficient processing, and addition-by-subtraction, which is disruption of processing which competes or distracts from task performance. Potential applications of TMS cognitive enhancement, including research into cortical function, rehabilitation therapy in neurological and psychiatric illness, and accelerated skill acquisition in healthy individuals are discussed, as are methods of optimizing the magnitude and duration of TMS-induced performance enhancement, such as improvement of targeting through further integration of brain imaging with TMS. One technique, combining multiple sessions of TMS with concurrent TMS/task performance to induce Hebbian-like learning, appears to be promising for prolonging enhancement effects. While further refinements in the application of TMS to cognitive enhancement can still be made, and questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the observed effects, this appears to be a fruitful area of investigation that may shed light on the basic mechanisms of cognitive function and their therapeutic modulation.

  10. Using the Bifocal Modeling Framework to Resolve "Discrepant Events" Between Physical Experiments and Virtual Models in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstein, Paulo; Fuhrmann, Tamar; Salehi, Shima

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate an approach to supporting students' learning in science through a combination of physical experimentation and virtual modeling. We present a study that utilizes a scientific inquiry framework, which we call "bifocal modeling," to link student-designed experiments and computer models in real time. In this study, a group of high school students designed computer models of bacterial growth with reference to a simultaneous physical experiment they were conducting, and were able to validate the correctness of their model against the results of their experiment. Our findings suggest that as the students compared their virtual models with physical experiments, they encountered "discrepant events" that contradicted their existing conceptions and elicited a state of cognitive disequilibrium. This experience of conflict encouraged students to further examine their ideas and to seek more accurate explanations of the observed natural phenomena, improving the design of their computer models.

  11. Using the Bifocal Modeling Framework to Resolve "Discrepant Events" Between Physical Experiments and Virtual Models in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstein, Paulo; Fuhrmann, Tamar; Salehi, Shima

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate an approach to supporting students' learning in science through a combination of physical experimentation and virtual modeling. We present a study that utilizes a scientific inquiry framework, which we call "bifocal modeling," to link student-designed experiments and computer models in real time. In this study, a group of high school students designed computer models of bacterial growth with reference to a simultaneous physical experiment they were conducting, and were able to validate the correctness of their model against the results of their experiment. Our findings suggest that as the students compared their virtual models with physical experiments, they encountered "discrepant events" that contradicted their existing conceptions and elicited a state of cognitive disequilibrium. This experience of conflict encouraged students to further examine their ideas and to seek more accurate explanations of the observed natural phenomena, improving the design of their computer models.

  12. TMS as a Tool for Examining Cognitive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevler, Naomi; Ash, Elissa L

    2015-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method where an externally placed, rapidly changing magnetic field causes induction of weak electric currents that lead to changes in neuronal polarization and activity. TMS is a modality that has emerged as a unique tool in the study of functional neuroscience for several reasons. TMS can be used to selectively activate or inhibit specific cortical structures, leading to transient perturbations in their function. Systematic study of these perturbations has been employed to determine the function of specific cortical structures and to investigate structure-function relationships. These studies extend to the functional mapping of brain structures as well as brain networks. While TMS was first validated in studies of motor cortex function, it has been applied to the study of cognition and cognitive processing. "Virtual lesions" can be transiently induced in areas of eloquent cortex that allow for the evaluation of their function in cognition and behavior and can be used to evaluate the modes and hierarchy of control of these functions. When TMS is delivered in a repetitive fashion, long-term alterations of cortical function are induced which can be used to study functional brain plasticity, and the changes in brain plasticity in different cognitive states, including aging and diseases involving cognition. Furthermore, repetitive TMS strategies have been developed as possible modulators of cognitive function, with potential to serve as cognitive enhancers in both healthy and disease states. In this review, specific attention is given to the use of TMS in the evaluation of neurophysiologic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as the potential role of TMS as a cognitive enhancing therapy in AD.

  13. 基于TMS320F2812的变极性弧焊电源%Study on variable polarity welding power source based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 赵敬云; 姚秋凤

    2011-01-01

    Digitalization is the trends of modern welding power source,soft-switching technology is the research focus of the modern welding power source technology research focus.This combination of the two,designed a TMS320F2812 DSP chip as the core of the dual inverter control system.An inverter with phase-shifted full-bridge inverter circuit output current soft-switching technology to achieve size control.Second inverter half-bridge inverter with coupled inductor topology .The system has good performance of variable polarity output, they also have a hardware circuit structure is simple, low cost, the system efficiency .With DSP control to improve the reliability of welding to ensure that the weld appearance,the basic realization of digital control of welding machine.%数字化是现代电源的发展趋势,软开关技术是当代电源技术的研究热点,将两者融合,设计了以DSP芯片TMS320F2812为核心的双逆变控制系统.一次逆变采用移相全桥逆变电路软开关技术实现输出电流大小控制;二次逆变采用耦合电感的半桥逆变电路拓扑.该系统在具有良好的变极性输出性能的同时,又具有硬件电路结构简单、成本低、系统效率高等优点.使用DSP控制使焊机的可靠性得到提高,保证了焊缝成形美观,实现了焊机数字化控制.

  14. Rethinking the role of sham TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Felix; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approaches are widely used in basic and clinical research to ensure that observed effects are due to the intended neural manipulation instead of being caused by various possible side effects. We here critically discuss several methodological aspects of sham TMS. Importantly, we propose to carefully distinguish between the placebo versus sensory side effects of TMS. In line with this conceptual distinction, we describe current limitations of sham TMS approaches in the context of placebo effects and blinding success, followed by a short review of our own work demonstrating that the sensory side effects of sham TMS are not unspecific as often falsely assumed. Lastly, we argue that sham TMS approaches are inherently insufficient as full-fledged control conditions as they fail to demonstrate the specificity of TMS effects to a particular brain area or time point of stimulation. Sham TMS should therefore only complement alternative control strategies in TMS research.

  15. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  16. Ørsteds Yin & Yang: MEG & TMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Christopher; Pallesen, Karen Johanne

    2011-01-01

    A portrait of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from a (bio)physical point of view.......A portrait of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) from a (bio)physical point of view....

  17. Very low-frequency rTMS modulates SEPs over the contralateral hemisphere.

    OpenAIRE

    Uguisu, H.; Urushihara, R; Hosono, Y.; Asanuma, K; Shimazu, H.; Murase, N.; Kaji, R

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the transcallosal effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we studied median somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) before and after applying monophasic very low-frequency (0.2 Hz) subthreshold rTMS over the right motor cortex. For SEPs, median nerve was stimulated on each side. Sham rTMS served as the control. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. After rTMS over the right hemisphere, the amplitude of N34 component in right median ...

  18. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  19. Development and control of a three-axis satellite simulator for the bifocal relay mirror initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Chernesky, Vincent S.

    2001-01-01

    The Three Axis Satellite Simulator (TASS) is a 4-foot diameter octagonal platform supported on a spherical air bearing. The platform hosts several satellite subsystems, including rate gyros, reaction wheels, thrusters, sun sensors, and an onboard control computer. This free-floating design allows for realistic emulation of satellite attitude dynamics in a laboratory environment. The bifocal relay mirror spacecraft system is composed of two optically coupled telescopes used to redirect the las...

  20. On how the motor cortices resolve an inter-hemispheric response conflict: an event-related EEG potential-guided TMS study of the flankers task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Kuniecki, Michal; Möller, Friderike;

    2009-01-01

    An important aspect of human motor control is the ability to resolve conflicting response tendencies. Here we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to track the time course of excitability changes in the primary motor hand areas (M1(HAND)) while the motor system resolved...... of maximum premature activation was individually measured as peak latency of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) in the EEG. In the subsequent TMS experiment, single pulses were applied to left or right M1(HAND) during the same flanker task. The amplitude of the motor evoked potentials...

  1. Prestimulation phase predicts the TMS-evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bornali; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Postle, Bradley R

    2014-10-15

    Prestimulation oscillatory phase and power in particular frequency bands predict perception of at-threshold visual stimuli and of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced phosphenes. These effects may be due to changes in cortical excitability, such that certain ranges of power and/or phase values result in a state in which a particular brain area is more receptive to input, thereby biasing behavior. However, the effects of trial-by-trial fluctuations in phase and power of ongoing oscillations on the brain's electrical response to TMS itself have thus far not been addressed. The present study adopts a combined TMS and electroencepalography (EEG) approach to determine whether the TMS-evoked response is sensitive to momentary fluctuations in prestimulation phase and/or power in different frequency bands. Specifically, TMS was applied to superior parietal lobule while subjects performed a short-term memory task. Results showed that the prestimulation phase, particularly within the beta (15-25 Hz) band, predicted pulse-by-pulse variations in the global mean field amplitude. No such relationship was observed between prestimulation power and the global mean field amplitude. Furthermore, TMS-evoked power in the beta band fluctuated with prestimulation phase in the beta band in a manner that differed from spontaneous brain activity. These effects were observed in areas at and distal to the stimulation site. Together, these results confirm the idea that fluctuating phase of ongoing neuronal oscillations create "windows of excitability" in the brain, and they give insight into how TMS interacts with ongoing brain activity on a pulse-by-pulse basis.

  2. Evaluating interhemispheric cortical responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic stroke: A TMS-EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, Michael R; Wheaton, Lewis A; Brodie, Sonia M; Lakhani, Bimal; Boyd, Lara A

    2016-04-01

    TMS-evoked cortical responses can be measured using simultaneous electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to directly quantify cortical connectivity in the human brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interhemispheric cortical connectivity between the primary motor cortices (M1s) in participants with chronic stroke and controls using TMS-EEG. Ten participants with chronic stroke and four controls were tested. TMS-evoked responses were recorded at rest and during a typical TMS assessment of transcallosal inhibition (TCI). EEG recordings from peri-central gyral electrodes (C3 and C4) were evaluated using imaginary phase coherence (IPC) analyses to quantify levels of effective interhemispheric connectivity. Significantly increased TMS-evoked beta (15-30Hz frequency range) IPC was observed in the stroke group during ipsilesional M1 stimulation compared to controls during TCI assessment but not at rest. TMS-evoked beta IPC values were associated with TMS measures of transcallosal inhibition across groups. These results suggest TMS-evoked EEG responses can index abnormal effective interhemispheric connectivity in chronic stroke.

  3. Applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Over the Dorsal Visual Pathway Induces Schizophrenia-like Disruption of Perceptual Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiaz, Revital; Vainiger, Dana; Gershon, Ari A; Weiser, Mark; Lavidor, Michal; Javitt, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    Perceptual closure ability is postulated to depend upon rapid transmission of magnocellular information to prefrontal cortex via the dorsal stream. In contrast, illusory contour processing requires only local interactions within primary and ventral stream visual regions, such as lateral occipital complex. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in perceptual closure versus illusory contours processing that is hypothesized to reflect impaired magnocellular/dorsal stream. Perceptual closure and illusory contours performance was evaluated in separate groups of 12 healthy volunteers during no TMS, and during repetitive 10 Hz rTMS stimulation over dorsal stream or vertex (TMS-vertex). Perceptual closure and illusory contours were performed in 11 schizophrenia patients, no TMS was applied in these patients. TMS effects were evaluated with repeated measures ANOVA across treatments. rTMS significantly increased perceptual closure identification thresholds, with significant difference between TMS-dorsal stream and no TMS. TMS-dorsal stream also significantly reduced perceptual closure but not illusory contours accuracy. Schizophrenia patients showed increased perceptual closure identification thresholds relative to controls in the no TMS condition, but similar to controls in the TMS-dorsal stream condition. Conclusions of this study are that magnocellular/dorsal stream input is critical for perceptual closure but not illusory contours performance, supporting both trickledown theories of normal perceptual closure function, and magnocellular/dorsal stream theories of visual dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  4. On the feasibility of concurrent human TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Judith C; Reithler, Joel; Schuhmann, Teresa; de Graaf, Tom; Uludag, Kâmil; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneously combining the complementary assets of EEG, functional MRI (fMRI), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) within one experimental session provides synergetic results, offering insights into brain function that go beyond the scope of each method when used in isolation. The steady increase of concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-EEG, and TMS-fMRI studies further underlines the added value of such multimodal imaging approaches. Whereas concurrent EEG-fMRI enables monitoring of brain-wide network dynamics with high temporal and spatial resolution, the combination with TMS provides insights in causal interactions within these networks. Thus the simultaneous use of all three methods would allow studying fast, spatially accurate, and distributed causal interactions in the perturbed system and its functional relevance for intact behavior. Concurrent EEG-fMRI, TMS-EEG, and TMS-fMRI experiments are already technically challenging, and the three-way combination of TMS-EEG-fMRI might yield additional difficulties in terms of hardware strain or signal quality. The present study explored the feasibility of concurrent TMS-EEG-fMRI studies by performing safety and quality assurance tests based on phantom and human data combining existing commercially available hardware. Results revealed that combined TMS-EEG-fMRI measurements were technically feasible, safe in terms of induced temperature changes, allowed functional MRI acquisition with comparable image quality as during concurrent EEG-fMRI or TMS-fMRI, and provided artifact-free EEG before and from 300 ms after TMS pulse application. Based on these empirical findings, we discuss the conceptual benefits of this novel complementary approach to investigate the working human brain and list a number of precautions and caveats to be heeded when setting up such multimodal imaging facilities with current hardware.

  5. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  6. TMS Suppression of Right Pars Triangularis, but Not Pars Opercularis, Improves Naming in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm[squared] area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in…

  7. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) inhibits cortical dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C; Palmer, Lucy M; Nyffeler, Thomas; Müri, René M; Larkum, Matthew E

    2016-03-18

    One of the leading approaches to non-invasively treat a variety of brain disorders is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, despite its clinical prevalence, very little is known about the action of TMS at the cellular level let alone what effect it might have at the subcellular level (e.g. dendrites). Here, we examine the effect of single-pulse TMS on dendritic activity in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex using an optical fiber imaging approach. We find that TMS causes GABAB-mediated inhibition of sensory-evoked dendritic Ca(2+) activity. We conclude that TMS directly activates fibers within the upper cortical layers that leads to the activation of dendrite-targeting inhibitory neurons which in turn suppress dendritic Ca(2+) activity. This result implies a specificity of TMS at the dendritic level that could in principle be exploited for investigating these structures non-invasively.

  9. Parietal theta burst TMS: Functional fractionation observed during bistable perception not evident in attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Kanai, Ryota; Brascamp, Jan W

    2016-02-01

    When visual input is ambiguous, perception spontaneously alternates between interpretations: bistable perception. Studies have identified two distinct sites near the right intraparietal sulcus where inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) affects the frequency of occurrence of these alternations, but strikingly with opposite directions of effect for the two sites. Lesion and TMS studies on spatial and sustained attention have also indicated a parcellation of right parietal cortex, into areas serving distinct attentional functions. We used the exact TMS procedure previously employed to affect bistable perception, yet measured its effect on spatial and sustained attention tasks. Although there was a trend for TMS to affect performance, trends were consistently similar for both parietal sites, with no indication of opposite effects. We interpret this as signifying that the previously observed parietal fractionation of function regarding the perception of ambiguous stimuli is not due to TMS-induced modification of spatial or sustained attention.

  10. A TMS Study of the Ventral Projections from V1 with Implications for the Finding of Neural Correlates of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The study of subliminal perception in normal and brain lesioned subjects has long been of interest to scholars studying the neural mechanisms behind conscious vision. Using brief durations and a developed methodology of introspective reporting, we present an experiment with visual stimuli that gives rise to little or no subliminal perception under…

  11. Determination of stimulation focality in heterogeneous head models during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erik; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an increasingly popular tool used by both the scientific and medical community to understand and treat the brain. TMS has the potential to help people with a wide range of diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and PTSD, while currently being used to treat people with chronic, drug-resistant depression. Through computer simulations, we are able to see the electric field that TMS induces in anatomical human models, but there is no measure to quantify this electric field in a way that relates to a specific patient undergoing TMS therapy. We propose a way to quantify the focality of the induced electric field in a heterogeneous head model during TMS by relating the surface area of the brain being stimulated to the total volume of the brain being stimulated. This figure would be obtained by conducting finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of TMS therapy on a patient specific head model. Using this figure to assist in TMS therapy will allow clinicians and researchers to more accurately stimulate the desired region of a patient's brain and be more equipped to do comparative studies on the effects of TMS across different patients. This work was funded by the Carver Charitable Trust.

  12. Modulation of a Fronto-Parietal Network in Event-Based Prospective Memory: An rTMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiacchi, P. S.; Cona, G.; Schiff, S.; Basso, D.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) is a multi-component process that requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue, while being actively engaged in an ongoing task. Some neuroimaging studies have suggested that both prefrontal and parietal areas are involved in the maintenance and…

  13. The Role of the Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex in Mirror Symmetry Discrimination: A TMS-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Herbert, Andrew; Silvanto, Juha

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system is able to efficiently extract symmetry information from the visual environment. Prior neuroimaging evidence has revealed symmetry-preferring neuronal representations in the dorsolateral extrastriate visual cortex; the objective of the present study was to investigate the necessity of these representations in symmetry…

  14. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer eGrau-Sánchez; Amengual, Julià L.; Nuria eRojo; Misericòrdia eVeciana de las Heras; Jordi eMontero; Francisco eRubio; Eckart eAltenmüller; Münte, Thomas F.; Antoni eRodriguez-Fornells

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority...

  15. Interhemispheric Connectivity Influences the Degree of Modulation of TMS-Induced Effects during Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Zatorre, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic, and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on nonlinguistic auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl's gyrus (HG). We aimed to investigate the behavioral and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG, and the Vertex as a control site. Response times (RT) were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex) and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change). We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10 Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10 Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  16. 23 CFR 500.202 - TMS definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS definitions. 500.202 Section 500.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.202 TMS definitions. Unless...

  17. Bifocal osseous avulsion of the patellar tendon from the distal patella and tibial tuberosity in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Lars L; Freund, Knud G

    2016-03-01

    This case report describes a 12-year-old boy, who suffered an injury to the right knee in a skateboard accident. Radiographs and surgery confirmed the extremely rare bifocal avulsion fracture including the distal patellar pole and tibial tuberosity. Open reduction and internal fixation was accomplished, and 4-month follow-up demonstrated a good outcome.

  18. ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salviati M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Minichino¹, Francesco Saverio Bersani¹, Enrico Capra¹, Rossella Pannese¹, Celeste Bonanno², Massimo Salviati¹, Roberto Delle Chiaie¹, Massimo Biondi¹¹Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ²Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controversial data exist about the efficacy and tolerability of three of the most used somatic treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS. The aim of this review is to investigate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of these three techniques in drug-free patients with pharmacoresistant unipolar depression.Methods: Three independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of methodological reporting of selected studies. The first outcome was the clinical response to the three different techniques defined as a percentage improvement of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The second outcome was the evaluation of their neuropsychological effects. The third outcome was the evaluation of the number of remitted patients; remission was defined as an absolute HDRS-24 score of ≤11 or as an absolute HDRS-17 score of ≤8. Tolerability was the fourth outcome; it was evaluated by examining the number of dropped-out patients.Results: The comparative evaluation of HDRS percentage variations shows ECT as the most effective method after 4 weeks of therapy; on the other hand, a better efficacy is obtainable by deepTMS after 2 weeks of therapy. DeepTMS is the technique that gives the best improvement of cognitive performances. The percentage of remitted patients obtained with ECT treatment is the same obtained in the deepTMS group. Both techniques have a remitted patients percentage two times larger than the rTMS. DeepTMS shows a tolerability

  19. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  20. Measuring Brain Stimulation Induced Changes in Cortical Properties Using TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Wook; Rogasch, Nigel C; Hoy, Kate E; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulatory brain stimulation can induce plastic reorganization of cortical circuits that persist beyond the period of stimulation. Most of our current knowledge about the physiological properties has been derived from the motor cortex. The integration of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable method for directly probing excitability, connectivity and oscillatory dynamics of regions throughout the brain. Offering in depth measurement of cortical reactivity, TMS-EEG allows the evaluation of TMS-evoked components that may act as a marker for cortical excitation and inhibition. A growing body of research is using concurrent TMS and EEG (TMS-EEG) to explore the effects of different neuromodulatory techniques such as repetitive TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation on cortical function, particularly in non-motor regions. In this review, we outline studies examining TMS-evoked potentials and oscillations before and after, or during a single session of brain stimulation. Investigating these studies will aid in our understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of excitability and inhibition by neuroplasticity following different stimulation paradigms.

  1. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing

  2. A novel coil array for combined TMS/fMRI experiments at 3 T

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro de Lara, Lucia I.; Windischberger, Christian; Kuehne, Andre; Woletz, Michael; Sieg, Jürgen; Bestmann, Sven; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Strasser, Bernhard; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To overcome current limitations in combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies by employing a dedicated coil array design for 3 Tesla. Methods The state‐of‐the‐art setup for concurrent TMS/fMRI is to use a large birdcage head coil, with the TMS between the subject's head and the MR coil. This setup has drawbacks in sensitivity, positioning, and available imaging techniques. In this study, an ultraslim 7‐channel receive‐only...

  3. Finger extensor variability in TMS parameters among chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Shannon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study determined the reliability of topographic motor cortical maps and MEP characteristics in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC evoked by single-pulse TMS among patients with chronic stroke. Methods Each of ten patients was studied on three occasions. Measures included location of the EDC hotspot and center of gravity (COG, threshold of activation and average amplitude of the hotspot, number of active sites, map volume, and recruitment curve (RC slope. Results Consistent intrahemispheric measurements were obtained for the three TMS mapping sessions for all measured variables. No statistically significant difference was observed between hemispheres for the number of active sites, COG distance or the RC slope. The magnitude and range of COG movement between sessions were similar to those reported previously with this muscle in able-bodied individuals. The average COG movement over three sessions in both hemispheres was 0.90 cm. The average COG movement in the affected hemisphere was 1.13 (± 0.08 cm, and 0.68 (± 0.04 cm for the less affected hemisphere. However, significant interhemispheric variability was seen for the average MEP amplitude, normalized map volume, and resting motor threshold. Conclusion The physiologic variability in some TMS measurements of EDC suggest that interpretation of TMS mapping data derived from hemiparetic patients in the chronic stage following stroke should be undertaken cautiously. Irrespective of the muscle, potential causes of variability should be resolved to accurately assess the impact of pharmacological or physical interventions on cortical organization as measured by TMS among patients with stroke.

  4. Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Neir; Ruff, Christian C; Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix; Driver, Jon

    2010-10-01

    Interplay between the cerebral hemispheres is vital for coordinating perception and behavior. One influential account holds that the hemispheres engage in rivalry, each inhibiting the other. In the somatosensory domain, a seminal paper claimed to demonstrate such interhemispheric rivalry, reporting improved tactile detection sensitivity on the right hand after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right parietal lobe (Seyal, Ro, & Rafal, 1995). Such improvement in tactile detection ipsilateral to TMS could follow from interhemispheric rivalry, if one assumes that TMS disrupted cortical processing under the coil and thereby released the other hemisphere from inhibition. Here we extended the study by Seyal et al. (1995) to determine the effects of right parietal TMS on tactile processing for either hand, rather than only the ipsilateral hand. We performed two experiments applying TMS in the context of median-nerve stimulation; one experiment required somatosensory detection, the second somatosensory intensity discrimination. We found different TMS effects on detection versus discrimination, but neither set of results followed the prediction from hemispheric rivalry that enhanced performance for one hand should invariably be associated with impaired performance for the other hand, and vice-versa. Our results argue against a strict rivalry interpretation, instead suggesting that parietal TMS can provide a pedestal-like increment in somatosensory response. PMID:20678510

  5. Cortical Excitability Measured with nTMS and MEG during Stroke Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki P. Mäkelä

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Stroke alters cortical excitability both in the lesioned and in the nonlesioned hemisphere. Stroke recovery has been studied using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Spontaneous brain oscillations and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG are modified in stroke patients during recovery. Methods. We recorded SEFs and spontaneous MEG activity and motor threshold (MT short intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF with navigated TMS (nTMS at one and three months after first-ever hemispheric ischemic strokes. Changes of MEG and nTMS parameters attributed to gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate transmission were compared. Results. ICF correlated with the strength and extent of SEF source areas depicted by MEG at three months. The nTMS MT and event-related desynchronization (ERD of beta-band MEG activity and SICI and the beta-band MEG event-related synchronization (ERS were correlated, but less strongly. Conclusions. This first report using sequential nTMS and MEG in stroke recovery found intra- and interhemispheric correlations of nTMS and MEG estimates of cortical excitability. ICF and SEF parameters, MT and the ERD of the lesioned hemisphere, and SICI and ERS of the nonlesioned hemisphere were correlated. Covarying excitability in the lesioned and nonlesioned hemispheres emphasizes the importance of the hemispheric balance of the excitability of the sensorimotor system.

  6. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L.; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K.; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant’s individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  7. Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Georg; Chang, Acer; Schwartzman, David; Rae, Charlotte L; Iriye, Heather; Seth, Anil K; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of parietal function by use of combined TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Specifically, while participants viewed either a bistable stimulus, a replay stimulus, or resting-state fixation, we applied single pulse TMS to either location independently while simultaneously recording EEG. Combined with participant's individual structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, this dataset allows for complex analyses of the effect of TMS on neural time series data, which may further elucidate the causal role of the parietal cortex in ambiguous perception. PMID:27529410

  8. rTMS of the occipital cortex abolishes Braille reading and repetition priming in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupers, R; Pappens, M; de Noordhout, A Maertens; Schoenen, J; Ptito, M; Fumal, A

    2007-02-27

    To study the functional involvement of the visual cortex in Braille reading, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over midoccipital (MOC) and primary somatosensory (SI) cortex in blind subjects. After rTMS of MOC, but not SI, subjects made significantly more errors and showed an abolishment of the improvement in reading speed following repetitive presentation of the same word list, suggesting a role of the visual cortex in repetition priming in the blind.

  9. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica McClelland

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC.In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms.The primary outcome measure was 'core AN symptoms', a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood, temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed.Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056: after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060: real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour. Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well-tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention.This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy

  10. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Dew, Tracy; Van den Eynde, Frederique; David, Anthony S.; Rubia, Katya; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms. Outcomes The primary outcome measure was ‘core AN symptoms’, a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood), temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour) and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed. Results Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056): after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060): real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour). Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well–tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention. Conclusions This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate

  11. The progress in the application of rTMS for the treatment of schizo-phrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Handi Zhang; Haiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common severe mental disorder,the etiology and pathogenesis of which remains to be elu-cidated.Some schizophrenia patients respond poorly to the current pharmacological treatments.Repetitive transcranial mag-netic stimulation (rTMS)treatment is a simple,safe and non-intrusive physical therapy with little side-effects,which has been gradually applied as an adjunctive therapeutic technique for schizophrenia.Recent studies indicated that the rTMS treatment has efficacy on medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucination,negative symptoms and cognitive deficits.This article will briefly review the recent progress in rTMS treatment of schizophrenia,and summarize its potential therapeutic mechanisms. We suggest that rTMS may target damaged white matter and impaired neuroimmuomodulation.

  12. Active Head Motion Compensation of TMS Robotic System Using Neuro-Fuzzy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Zakaria W.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS allows neuroscientist to study human brain behaviour and also become an important technique for changing the activity of brain neurons and the functions they sub serve. However, conventional manual procedure and robotized TMS are currently unable to precisely position the TMS coil because of unconstrained subject’s head movement and excessive contact force between the coil and subject’s head. This paper addressed this challenge by proposing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy force control to enable low contact force with a moving target surface. A learning and adaption mechanism is included in the control scheme to improve position disturbance estimation. The results show the ability of the proposed force control scheme to compensate subject’s head motions while maintaining desired contact force, thus allowing for more accurate and repeatable TMS procedures.

  13. Bifocal Intracranial Germinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of Treatment Outcomes in 20 Patients and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, David C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Shibamoto, Yuta [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Bifocal germinoma (BFG) is a rare intracranial neoplasm for which the choice of radiation therapy (RT) field is controversial. Some believe that BFG represents disseminated disease requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI), whereas others believe that BFG represents localized disease and advocate for more limited fields. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 20 BFG patients at our institutions with classic bifocal lesions (pineal gland and suprasellar region). In addition, we identified 60 BFG patients from the literature. The RT fields, use of chemotherapy and extent of disease were recorded and analyzed for each patient. Results: There were 55 patients with bifocal lesions only (Group I), and 25 with bifocal lesions plus ventricular and/or CSF positive disease (Group II). The 5-year progression-free survival was 95% for Group I and 80% for Group II. In Group I, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), two spinal failures in those treated with more limited RT fields without chemotherapy (n = 17), and one spinal failure with chemotherapy (n = 23). In Group II, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), but four spinal failures were observed in patients receiving more limited RT fields with chemotherapy (n = 13); 1 patient who received whole-brain RT without chemotherapy experienced failure in the spine and brain. Conclusions: CSI is associated with excellent PFS in BFG. In Group I BFG patients, omission of spinal irradiation appears to be a reasonable approach, especially when chemotherapy is used. Patients with Group II BFG are best treated with CSI.

  14. Bifocal Intracranial Germinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of Treatment Outcomes in 20 Patients and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bifocal germinoma (BFG) is a rare intracranial neoplasm for which the choice of radiation therapy (RT) field is controversial. Some believe that BFG represents disseminated disease requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI), whereas others believe that BFG represents localized disease and advocate for more limited fields. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 20 BFG patients at our institutions with classic bifocal lesions (pineal gland and suprasellar region). In addition, we identified 60 BFG patients from the literature. The RT fields, use of chemotherapy and extent of disease were recorded and analyzed for each patient. Results: There were 55 patients with bifocal lesions only (Group I), and 25 with bifocal lesions plus ventricular and/or CSF positive disease (Group II). The 5-year progression-free survival was 95% for Group I and 80% for Group II. In Group I, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), two spinal failures in those treated with more limited RT fields without chemotherapy (n = 17), and one spinal failure with chemotherapy (n = 23). In Group II, there were no failures in patients receiving CSI (n = 11), but four spinal failures were observed in patients receiving more limited RT fields with chemotherapy (n = 13); 1 patient who received whole-brain RT without chemotherapy experienced failure in the spine and brain. Conclusions: CSI is associated with excellent PFS in BFG. In Group I BFG patients, omission of spinal irradiation appears to be a reasonable approach, especially when chemotherapy is used. Patients with Group II BFG are best treated with CSI.

  15. Predictive value of brain perfusion SPECT for rTMS response in pharmacoresistant depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richieri, Raphaelle; Lancon, Christophe [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); Boyer, Laurent [La Timone University, EA 3279 - Self-perceived Health Assessment Research Unit, School of Medicine, Marseille (France); La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Department of Public Health, Marseille (France); Farisse, Jean [Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Marseille (France); Colavolpe, Cecile; Mundler, Olivier [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [La Timone University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Marseille, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Centre Europeen de Recherche en Imagerie Medicale (CERIMED), Marseille (France); Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of whole-brain voxel-based regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) response in patients with pharmacoresistant depression. Thirty-three right-handed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (unipolar or bipolar depression) were included before rTMS. rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction in the baseline Beck Depression Inventory scores. The predictive value of {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for rTMS response was studied before treatment by comparing rTMS responders to non-responders at voxel level using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Of the patients, 18 (54.5%) were responders to rTMS and 15 were non-responders (45.5%). There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics (p > 0.10). In comparison to responders, non-responders showed significant hypoperfusions (p < 0.001, uncorrected) in the left medial and bilateral superior frontal cortices (BA10), the left uncus/parahippocampal cortex (BA20/BA35) and the right thalamus. The area under the curve for the combination of SPECT clusters to predict rTMS response was 0.89 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the combination of clusters were: 94, 73, 81 and 92%, respectively. This study shows that, in pharmacoresistant depression, pretreatment rCBF of specific brain regions is a strong predictor for response to rTMS in patients with homogeneous demographic/clinical features. (orig.)

  16. Expression of auxin synthesis gene tms1 under control of tuber-specific promoter enhances potato tuberization in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oksana O Kolachevskaya; Valeriya V Alekseeva; Lidiya I Sergeeva; Elena B Rukavtsova; Irina A Getman; Dick Vreugdenhil; Yaroslav I Buryanov; Georgy A Romanov

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones, auxins in particular, play an important role in plant development and productivity. Earlier data showed positive impact of exogenous auxin on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization. The aim of this study was to generate potato plants with increased auxin level predominantly in tubers. To this end, a pBinB33-tms1 vector was constructed harboring the Agrobacterium auxin biosynthesis gene tms1 fused to tuber-specific promoter of the class I patatin gene (B33-promoter) of potato. Among numerous independently generated B33:tms1 lines, those without visible differences from control were selected for detailed studies. In the majority of transgenic lines, tms1 gene transcription was detected, mostly in tubers rather than in shoots. Indoleacetic acid (IAA) content in tubers and the auxin tuber-to-shoot ratio were increased in tms1-expressing transformants. The organ-specific increase in auxin synthesis in B33:tms1-transformants accelerated and intensified the process of tuber formation, reduced the dose of carbohydrate supply required for in vitro tuber-ization, and decreased the photoperiodic dependence of tuber initiation. Overall, a positive correlation was observed between tms1 expression, IAA content in tubers, and stimulation of tuber formation. The revealed proper-ties of B33:tms1 transformants imply an important role for auxin in potato tuberization and offer prospects to magnify potato productivity by a moderate organ-specific enhance-ment of auxin content.

  17. Improved stability of TMS derivatives for the robust quantification of plant polar metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéro, Anthony; Jousse, Cyril; Lequart-Pillon, Michelle; Gontier, Eric; Guillot, Xavier; Courtois, Bernard; Courtois, Josiane; Pau-Roblot, Corinne

    2014-11-01

    Plant metabolite profiling is commonly carried out by GC-MS of methoximated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. This technique is robust and enables a library search for spectra produced by electron ionization. However, recent articles have described problems associated with the low stability of some TMS derivatives. This limits the use of GC-MS for metabolomic studies that need large sets of qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this work is to determine the experimental conditions in which the stability of TMS derivatives could be improved. This would facilitate the analysis of the large-scale experimental designs needed in the metabolomics approach. For good repeatability, the sampling conditions and the storage temperature of samples during analysis were investigated. Multiple injections of one sample from one vial led to high variations while injection of one sample from different vials improved the analysis. However, before injection, some amino acid TMS derivatives were degraded during the storage of vials in the autosampler. Only 10% of the initial quantity of glutamine 3 TMS and glutamate 3 TMS and 66% of α-alanine 2 TMS was detected 48 h after derivatization. When stored at 4 °C until injection, all TMS derivatives remained stable for 12 h; at -20 °C, they remained stable for 72 h. From the integration of all these results, a detailed analytical procedure is thus proposed. It enables a robust quantification of polar metabolites, useful for further plant metabolomics studies using GC-MS.

  18. Methylation mediated silencing of TMS1/ASC gene in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopisetty Gopal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional silencing associated with aberrant promoter methylation has been established as an alternate pathway for the development of cancer by inactivating tumor suppressor genes. TMS1 (Target of Methylation induced Silencing, also known as ASC (Apoptosis Speck like protein containing a CARD is a tumor suppressor gene which encodes for a CARD (caspase recruitment domain containing regulatory protein and has been shown to promote apoptosis directly and by activation of downstream caspases. This study describes the methylation induced silencing of TMS1/ASC gene in prostate cancer cell lines. We also examined the prevalence of TMS1/ASC gene methylation in prostate cancer tissue samples in an effort to correlate race and clinico-pathological features with TMS1/ASC gene methylation. Results Loss of TMS1/ASC gene expression associated with complete methylation of the promoter region was observed in LNCaP cells. Gene expression was restored by a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine, but not by a histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay showed enrichment of MBD3 (methyl binding domain protein 3 to a higher degree than commonly associated MBDs and MeCP2. We evaluated the methylation pattern in 66 prostate cancer and 34 benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue samples. TMS1/ASC gene methylation was more prevalent in prostate cancer cases than controls in White patients (OR 7.6, p 0.002 while no difference between the cases and controls was seen in Black patients (OR 1.1, p 0.91. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that methylation-mediated silencing of TMS1/ASC is a frequent event in prostate cancer, thus identifying a new potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for the treatment of the disease. Racial differences in TMS1/ASC methylation patterns implicate the probable role of molecular markers in determining in susceptibility to prostate cancer in different ethnic groups.

  19. Paired pulse TMS stimulation and human tongue corticomotor pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk;

    (CS) and the test stimulus (TS). The aim of the present methodological study was to optimize stimulus parameters for ppTMS studies of tongue motor control by examining the influence of different ISI and intensities of the CS on SICI and ICF. Methods: 17 healthy volunteers participated (mean age: 22.......6±0.8 years). ppTMS was applied to the “hot-spot” of the tongue motor cortex and motor evoked potential (MEPs) were recorded from the tongue muscles with surface EMG electrodes. TS intensity was set at 120% of resting motor threshold (rMT). Single pulse and six different ISIs for ppTMS: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 10, 15...... different intensities of CS and ISIs. Conclusion: Significant SICI but no ICF was evoked with the present stimulus paradigms. The two stimulus intensities of the CS evoked similar responses. These results may be applied in future studies on the effect of tongue training on SICI and ICF in the tongue motor...

  20. In your eyes only: deficits in executive functioning after frontal TMS reflect in eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Mathias; Henke, Katharina; Gutbrod, Klemens; Nyffeler, Thomas; Chaves, Silvia; Müri, René M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal (rDLPFC, lDLPFC) and the medial frontal cortex (MFC) in executive functioning using a theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach. Healthy subjects solved two visual search tasks: a number search task with low cognitive demands, and a number and letter search task with high cognitive demands. To observe how subjects solved the tasks, we assessed their behavior with and without TMS using eye movements when subjects were confronted with specific executive demands. To observe executive functions, we were particularly interested in TMS-induced changes in visual exploration strategies found to be associated with good or bad performance in a control condition without TMS stimulation. TMS left processing time unchanged in both tasks. Inhibition of the rDLPFC resulted in a decrease in anticipatory fixations in the number search task, i.e., a decrease in a good strategy in this low demand task. This was paired with a decrease in stimulus fixations. Together, these results point to a role of the rDLPFC in planning and response selection. Inhibition of the lDLPFC and the MFC resulted in an increase in anticipatory fixations in the number and letter search task, i.e., an increase in the application of a good strategy in this task. We interpret these results as a compensatory strategy to account for TMS-induced deficits in attentional switching when faced with high switching demands. After inhibition of the lDLPFC, an increase in regressive fixations was found in the number and letter search task. In the context of high working memory demands, this strategy appears to support TMS-induced working memory deficits. Combining an experimental TMS approach with the recording of eye movements proved sensitive to discrete decrements of executive functions and allows pinpointing the functional organization of the frontal lobes.

  1. Effects of DBS, premotor rTMS, and levodopa on motor function and silent period in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Hidding, Ute; Hamel, Wolfgang;

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used and highly effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive TMS (rTMS) applied to motor cortical areas has also been shown to improve symptoms in PD and modulate motor cortical...... excitability. Here, we compared clinical and neurophysiological effects of STN stimulation with those of 1 Hz rTMS given to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and those following intake of levodopa in a group of PD patients with advanced disease. Ten PD patients were studied on 2 consecutive days before and...... after surgery. Clinical effects were determined using the UPDRS motor score. Motor thresholds, motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes during slight voluntary contraction, and the cortical silent periods (SP) were measured using TMS. Before surgery effects of levodopa and 1 Hz PMd rTMS and after surgery...

  2. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique eJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  3. Effectiveness of rTMS and retraining in the treatment of focal hand dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Jacobson Kimberley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Though the pathophysiology of dystonia remains uncertain, two primary factors implicated in the development of dystonic symptoms are excessive cortical excitability and impaired sensorimotor processing. The aim of this study was to determine the functional efficacy of a sensorimotor intervention combining rTMS and sensorimotor retraining. A randomized, single-subject, multiple baseline design with crossover was used to examine participants with focal hand dystonia (FHD (n=9. Intervention: 5 days rTMS + sensorimotor retraining (SMR vs. 5 days rTMS + control therapy (CTL (which included stretching and massage. The rTMS was applied to the premotor cortex at 1 Hz at 80% resting motor threshold for 1200 pulses. For sensorimotor retraining, a subset of the Learning-based Sensorimotor Training program was followed. Each session consisted of rTMS followed immediately by 30 minutes of the therapy intervention (SMR or CTL. Group analyses revealed no additional benefit from the SMR training vs CTL, which was contrary to our hypothesis. When analyzed across group however, there was significant improvement from first baseline in several measures, including tests of sensory ability and self-rated changes. The patient rated improvements were accompanied by a moderate effect size suggesting clinical meaningfulness. These results provide encouragement for further investigation of rTMS in FHD with a need to optimized a secondary intervention and determine likely responders vs. non-responders.

  4. Shining new light on dark percepts: visual sensations induced by TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ramisha; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are sensations of light, whereas a missing region in the visual field induced by TMS is generally referred to as a scotoma. It is believed that phosphenes are caused by neural excitation, while scotomas are due to neural inhibition. In light of the recent literature it might, however, be surmised that both phenomena are the result of neural noise injected into the cortex by TMS and that the likelihood of perceiving the two kinds of percepts depends on the state of the cortex at the time of stimulation. In the present study, TMS was applied over the left occipital cortex under different background conditions (Experiments 1-2) and using different TMS intensities (Experiment 3). Behavioral responses indicate the visual system processes luminance in a standardized manner, as lighter percepts were reacted to faster than darker percepts; this effect, however, did not extend to percept size. Our results suggest that phenomenological characteristics of artificial visual percepts are in line with the proposed effects of TMS as the induction of random neural noise interfering with the neural dynamics (the state of the cortex) at the time of stimulation.

  5. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  6. Acquisition Tracking and Pointing Control of the Bifocal Relay Mirror Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Marcello; Agrawal, Brij N.

    This spacecraft consists of two large gimbaled telescopes, that are optically coupled and used to redirect a laser beam from a ground-based or spacecraft based source to a distant point on the earth or in space. The attitude control system consists of reaction wheels, star trackers and gyros. The optical control system consists of two fast steering mirrors and two optical tracker sensors. The very tight pointing and jitter requirements, together with the multi-body nature of the spacecraft, make the acquisition, tracking and pointing control very challenging. The control techniques developed in this research can be applied to imaging spacecrafts and spacecrafts with optical communications. numerical simulations. The simulations were performed to analyze two different control approaches proposed for the tracking and pointing of the Bifocal Relay Mirror spacecraft during operational phase. In the first control option considered, feed forward and feedback control are used for the spacecraft attitude control, while independent feedback is used by the optical subsystem in order to compensate the pointing error of the spacecraft. In the second control approach, the spacecraft and optical control systems are integrated. In case of uncertainty in target position and use of realistic sensors, using star tracker and rate gyros with Kalman Filter, the integrated control provides better performance. dynamics and control simulator of the Spacecraft Research and Design Center of Naval Postgraduate School. The attitude of this spherical air bearing based test-bed was controlled by three reaction wheels, while its attitude and angular velocity were sensed by an optical attitude sensor and three rate gyros, respectively. The three axes simulator platform included as payload a fully functional model of the transmitter section of the Bifocal Relay Mirror Spacecraft, consisting in one telescope with fast steering mirror and one optical tracker sensor. Two preliminary experiments have

  7. FMRI effective connectivity and TMS chronometry: complementary accounts of causality in the visuospatial judgment network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A de Graaf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While traditionally quite distinct, functional neuroimaging (e.g. functional magnetic resonance imaging: fMRI and functional interference techniques (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation: TMS increasingly address similar questions of functional brain organization, including connectivity, interactions, and causality in the brain. Time-resolved TMS over multiple brain network nodes can elucidate the relative timings of functional relevance for behavior ("TMS chronometry", while fMRI functional or effective connectivity (fMRI EC can map task-specific interactions between brain regions based on the interrelation of measured signals. The current study empirically assessed the relation between these different methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One group of 15 participants took part in two experiments: one fMRI EC study, and one TMS chronometry study, both of which used an established cognitive paradigm involving one visuospatial judgment task and one color judgment control task. Granger causality mapping (GCM, a data-driven variant of fMRI EC analysis, revealed a frontal-to-parietal flow of information, from inferior/middle frontal gyrus (MFG to posterior parietal cortex (PPC. FMRI EC-guided Neuronavigated TMS had behavioral effects when applied to both PPC and to MFG, but the temporal pattern of these effects was similar for both stimulation sites. At first glance, this would seem in contradiction to the fMRI EC results. However, we discuss how TMS chronometry and fMRI EC are conceptually different and show how they can be complementary and mutually constraining, rather than contradictory, on the basis of our data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings that fMRI EC could successfully localize functionally relevant TMS target regions on the single subject level, and conversely, that TMS confirmed an fMRI EC identified functional network to be behaviorally relevant, have important methodological and theoretical implications. Our

  8. Low-frequency rTMS inhibitory effects in the primary motor cortex: Insights from TMS-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Elias P; Tarantino, Vincenza; Basso, Demis; Arcara, Giorgio; Marino, Giuliana; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Rothwell, John C; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2014-09-01

    The neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been mostly investigated by peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). New TMS-compatible EEG systems allow a direct investigation of the stimulation effects through the analysis of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). We investigated the effects of 1-Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of 15 healthy volunteers on TEP evoked by single pulse TMS over the same area. A second experiment in which rTMS was delivered over the primary visual cortex (V1) of 15 healthy volunteers was conducted to examine the spatial specificity of the effects. Single-pulse TMS evoked four main components: P30, N45, P60 and N100. M1-rTMS resulted in a significant decrease of MEP amplitude and in a significant increase of P60 and N100 amplitude. There was no effect after V1-rTMS. 1-Hz rTMS appears to increase the amount of inhibition following a TMS pulse, as demonstrated by the higher N100 and P60, which are thought to originate from GABAb-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Our results confirm the reliability of the TMS-evoked N100 as a marker of cortical inhibition and provide insight into the neuromodulatory effects of 1-Hz rTMS. The present finding could be of relevance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  9. On the Relationship Between TMS and Logic Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献昌; 赵沁平; 等

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between TMS and general logic programs is an important issue in non-monotonic logic programming.In this paper,we prove that,after we translate the TMS theory into a general logic program,the TMS's well-founded assignment (or extension) is equivalent to the corresponding general logic program's stable model.It means that TMS can be completely integrated into a non-monotonic logic programming environment.

  10. Computational and experimental analysis of TMS-induced electric field vectors critical to neuronal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Todd D.; Salinas, Felipe S.; Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Mogul, David J.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a powerful technique to noninvasively modulate cortical neurophysiology in the brain. However, the relationship between the magnetic fields created by TMS coils and neuronal activation in the cortex is still not well-understood, making predictable cortical activation by TMS difficult to achieve. Our goal in this study was to investigate the relationship between induced electric fields and cortical activation measured by blood flow response. Particularly, we sought to discover the E-field characteristics that lead to cortical activation. Approach. Subject-specific finite element models (FEMs) of the head and brain were constructed for each of six subjects using magnetic resonance image scans. Positron emission tomography (PET) measured each subject’s cortical response to image-guided robotically-positioned TMS to the primary motor cortex. FEM models that employed the given coil position, orientation, and stimulus intensity in experimental applications of TMS were used to calculate the electric field (E-field) vectors within a region of interest for each subject. TMS-induced E-fields were analyzed to better understand what vector components led to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses recorded by PET. Main results. This study found that decomposing the E-field into orthogonal vector components based on the cortical surface geometry (and hence, cortical neuron directions) led to significant differences between the regions of cortex that were active and nonactive. Specifically, active regions had significantly higher E-field components in the normal inward direction (i.e., parallel to pyramidal neurons in the dendrite-to-axon orientation) and in the tangential direction (i.e., parallel to interneurons) at high gradient. In contrast, nonactive regions had higher E-field vectors in the outward normal direction suggesting inhibitory responses. Significance. These results provide critical new

  11. Performance test of a TMS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described. Normal carbon steel has been used as absorber. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. (orig.)

  12. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Dollfus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS. Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI. After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities.

  13. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  14. The Impact of Accelerated Right Prefrontal High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Cue-Reactivity: An fMRI Study on Craving in Recently Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Herremans

    Full Text Available In alcohol-dependent patients craving is a difficult-to-treat phenomenon. It has been suggested that high-frequency (HF repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS may have beneficial effects. However, exactly how this application exerts its effect on the underlying craving neurocircuit is currently unclear. In an effort to induce alcohol craving and to maximize detection of HF-rTMS effects to cue-induced alcohol craving, patients were exposed to a block and event-related alcohol cue-reactivity paradigm while being scanned with fMRI. Hence, we assessed the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on cue-induced and general alcohol craving, and the related craving neurocircuit. Twenty-six recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were included. First, we evaluated the impact of one sham-controlled stimulation session. Second, we examined the effect of accelerated right DLPFC HF-rTMS treatment: here patients received 15 sessions in an open label accelerated design, spread over 4 consecutive days. General craving significantly decreased after 15 active HF-rTMS sessions. However, cue-induced alcohol craving was not altered. Our brain imaging results did not show that the cue-exposure affected the underlying craving neurocircuit after both one and fifteen active HF-rTMS sessions. Yet, brain activation changes after one and 15 HF-rTMS sessions, respectively, were observed in regions associated with the extended reward system and the default mode network, but only during the presentation of the event-related paradigm. Our findings indicate that accelerated HF-rTMS applied to the right DLPFC does not manifestly affect the craving neurocircuit during an alcohol-related cue-exposure, but instead it may influence the attentional network.

  15. The effect of expectation on facilitation of colour/form conjunction tasks by TMS over area V5.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, A.; Battelli, L.; Walsh, V; Cowey, A

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we reported task-specific impairments and improvements caused by applying TMS over cortical visual area V5 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265 (1998) 537]. The phenomenon is further investigated in the present study using two of the previous tasks: a motion/form conjunction in which TMS impaired performance and a colour/form conjunction in which performance was enhanced with TMS. In the earlier experiment, subjects were presented with blocks of trials of one...

  16. Results of a pilot study on the involvement of bilateral inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception : an rTMS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekert, Marjolijn; Vingerhoets, Guy; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Background: The right hemisphere may play an important role in paralinguistic features such as the emotional melody in speech. The extent of this involvement however is unclear. Imaging studies have shown involvement of both left and right inferior frontal gyri in emotional prosody perception. The p

  17. Subthreshold rTMS over pre-motor cortex has no effect on tics in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, M.; Kirby, R.; Richardson, M.P.; Snijders, A.H.; Rothwell, J.C.; Trimble, M.R.; Robertson, M.M.; Munchau, A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A previous study showed no effect of 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS). We modified the rTMS protocol in order to investigate some of the possible methodological reasons for the negative outcome in that study. METHODS:

  18. Motor cortex rTMS improves dexterity in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzamarany, Eman; Afifi, Lamia; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Salah, Husam; Nada, Mona

    2016-06-01

    The motor cortex (MC) receives an excitatory input from the cerebellum which is reduced in patients with cerebellar lesions. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces cortical facilitation which can counteract the reduced cerebellar drive to the MC. Our study included 24 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients with dysmetria. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received two sessions of real MC rTMS and Group B received one session of real rTMS and one session of sham rTMS. Ten healthy volunteers formed group C. Evaluation was carried out using the nine-hole pegboard task and the cerebellar functional system score (FSS) of the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Group A patients showed a significant improvement in the time required to finish the pegboard task (P = 0.002) and in their cerebellar FSS (P = 0.000) directly after the second session and 1 month later. The RRMS patients showed more improvement than the SPMS patients. Group B patients did not show any improvement in the pegboard task or the cerebellar FSS. These results indicate that MC rTMS can be a promising option in treating both RRMS or SPMS patients with cerebellar impairment and that its effect can be long-lasting.

  19. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination. PMID:27155161

  20. Motor cortex rTMS improves dexterity in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzamarany, Eman; Afifi, Lamia; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Salah, Husam; Nada, Mona

    2016-06-01

    The motor cortex (MC) receives an excitatory input from the cerebellum which is reduced in patients with cerebellar lesions. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces cortical facilitation which can counteract the reduced cerebellar drive to the MC. Our study included 24 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients with dysmetria. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received two sessions of real MC rTMS and Group B received one session of real rTMS and one session of sham rTMS. Ten healthy volunteers formed group C. Evaluation was carried out using the nine-hole pegboard task and the cerebellar functional system score (FSS) of the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Group A patients showed a significant improvement in the time required to finish the pegboard task (P = 0.002) and in their cerebellar FSS (P = 0.000) directly after the second session and 1 month later. The RRMS patients showed more improvement than the SPMS patients. Group B patients did not show any improvement in the pegboard task or the cerebellar FSS. These results indicate that MC rTMS can be a promising option in treating both RRMS or SPMS patients with cerebellar impairment and that its effect can be long-lasting. PMID:26358951

  1. The timing and neuroanatomy of conscious vision as revealed by TMS-induced blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher P G; Sumner, Petroc; Chambers, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Following damage to the primary visual cortex, some patients exhibit "blindsight," where they report a loss of awareness while retaining the ability to discriminate visual stimuli above chance. Transient disruption of occipital regions with TMS can produce a similar dissociation, known as TMS-induced blindsight. The neural basis of this residual vision is controversial, with some studies attributing it to the retinotectal pathway via the superior colliculus whereas others implicate spared projections that originate predominantly from the LGN. Here we contrasted these accounts by combining TMS with visual stimuli that either activate or bypass the retinotectal and magnocellular (R/M) pathways. We found that the residual capacity of TMS-induced blindsight occurs for stimuli that bypass the R/M pathways, indicating that such pathways, which include those to the superior colliculus, are not critical. We also found that the modulation of conscious vision was time and pathway dependent. TMS applied either early (0-40 msec) or late (280-320 msec) after stimulus onset modulated detection of stimuli that did not bypass R/M pathways, whereas during an intermediate period (90-130 msec) the effect was pathway independent. Our findings thus suggest a prominent role for the R/M pathways in supporting both the preparatory and later stages of conscious vision. This may help resolve apparent conflict in previous literature by demonstrating that the roles of the retinotectal and geniculate pathways are likely to be more nuanced than simply corresponding to the unconscious/conscious dichotomy. PMID:24392895

  2. Timing of emotion representation in right and left occipital region: Evidence from combined TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattavelli, Giulia; Rosanova, Mario; Casali, Adenauer G; Papagno, Costanza; Romero Lauro, Leonor J

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies provide evidence of hemispheric differences in processing faces and, in particular, emotional expressions. However, the timing of emotion representation in the right and left hemisphere is still unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was used to explore cortical responsiveness during behavioural tasks requiring processing of either identity or expression of faces. Single-pulse TMS was delivered 100ms after face onset over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) while continuous EEG was recorded using a 60-channel TMS-compatible amplifier; right premotor cortex (rPMC) was also stimulated as control site. The same face stimuli with neutral, happy and fearful expressions were presented in separate blocks and participants were asked to complete either a facial identity or facial emotion matching task. Analyses performed on posterior face specific EEG components revealed that mPFC-TMS reduced the P1-N1 component. In particular, only when an explicit expression processing was required, mPFC-TMS interacted with emotion type in relation to hemispheric side at different timing; the first P1-N1 component was affected in the right hemisphere whereas the later N1-P2 component was modulated in the left hemisphere. These findings support the hypothesis that the frontal cortex exerts an early influence on the occipital cortex during face processing and suggest a different timing of the right and left hemisphere involvement in emotion discrimination.

  3. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center complete installation of the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand. The new TMS is a state-of-the-art upgrade from the previous system, which was installed when the testing structure was built in the 1960s. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds. It also will allow engineers to measure thrust as they gimbal (or tilt) engines during tests. The new TMS is part of upgrades for the A-1 Test Stand in preparation for testing the next generation of American space program rocket engines.

  4. 右前额叶参与自我面孔识别的经颅磁刺激研究%TMS study on the right prefrontal cortex in self-face recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李稳; 张力; 付一铭; 滕西群; 陈雯; 卢焕华; 赵翠苓; 刘雪芹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨右前额叶在区分自我和他人面孔是否是必要的,从而更加全面地理解自我意识的神经基础.方法 采用1Hz重复经颅磁刺激(TMS)施加6名正常大学生被试的左或右侧背外侧前额叶,收集刺激施加前后的行为数据.结果 刺激右侧背外侧前额叶的被试出现自己面孔识别的辨别力显著降低(t=4.05,P0.05).此外,左、右侧背外侧前额叶刺激施加前后的反应时差异不显著(左侧TMS:t=1.43, P>0.05; 右侧TMS:t=1.80, P>0.05),说明被试辨别力下降不是因为加快反应所致.结论 1Hz重复经颅磁刺激右侧背外侧前额叶抑制了被试识别自己面孔的成绩,提示右侧背外侧前额叶参与了自己面孔识别的神经机制.%ObjectiveTo investigate the role of right prefrontal cortex in self-other discrimination for understanding carefully the neural system of self-awareness.MethodsHere 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation(rTMS) was used to create a "virtual lesion" over the right dorsal-lateral Prefrontal cortex(rDLPFC) in 6 subjects to test whether this region is necessary for discriminating self faces from other faces.ResultsThe current results showed that 1 Hz rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex selectively disrupts performance on a self-other discrimination task(t=4.05, P0.05). Reaction time has no significant difference before and after rTMS (TMS-lPFC:t=1.43, P>0.05; TMS-rPFC:t=1.80, P>0.05). ConclusionIt appears that activity in the right DLPFC is essential to the task,thus indicating that right DLPFC is involved in self-other faces discrimination.

  5. Subcortical substrates of TMS induced modulation of the cortico-cortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Otto, Birte;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can modulate transiently the physiological brain oscillations, e.g. the alpha rhythm. It has been hypothesized that this effect is not limited to the stimulated region but involves subcortical and distant cortical areas. METHODS: We applied single...... pulse TMS to the primary motor cortex (M1) of healthy subjects to interfere the cortical oscillatory activity recorded by simultaneous EEG and calculated the cortico-cortical coherence and power in the alpha and beta band. To study the structural substrate of the functional connectivity we performed...... diffusion tensor imaging and fractional anisotropy analysis (FA). To capture the pathways involved we applied probabilistic tractography to reconstruct the entire network. RESULTS: Suprathreshold TMS of M1 induced a consistent enhancement of interhemispheric cortico-cortical alpha band coherence that lasted...

  6. TMS-EEG signatures of GABAergic neurotransmission in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premoli, Isabella; Castellanos, Nazareth; Rivolta, Davide; Belardinelli, Paolo; Bajo, Ricardo; Zipser, Carl; Espenhahn, Svenja; Heidegger, Tonio; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ziemann, Ulf

    2014-04-16

    Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) constitutes a powerful tool to directly assess human cortical excitability and connectivity. TMS of the primary motor cortex elicits a sequence of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs). It is thought that inhibitory neurotransmission through GABA-A receptors (GABAAR) modulates early TEPs (TMS), whereas GABA-B receptors (GABABR) play a role for later TEPs (at ∼100 ms after TMS). However, the physiological underpinnings of TEPs have not been clearly elucidated yet. Here, we studied the role of GABAA/B-ergic neurotransmission for TEPs in healthy subjects using a pharmaco-TMS-EEG approach. In Experiment 1, we tested the effects of a single oral dose of alprazolam (a classical benzodiazepine acting as allosteric-positive modulator at α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunit-containing GABAARs) and zolpidem (a positive modulator mainly at the α1 GABAAR) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In Experiment 2, we tested the influence of baclofen (a GABABR agonist) and diazepam (a classical benzodiazepine) versus placebo on TEPs. Alprazolam and diazepam increased the amplitude of the negative potential at 45 ms after stimulation (N45) and decreased the negative component at 100 ms (N100), whereas zolpidem increased the N45 only. In contrast, baclofen specifically increased the N100 amplitude. These results provide strong evidence that the N45 represents activity of α1-subunit-containing GABAARs, whereas the N100 represents activity of GABABRs. Findings open a novel window of opportunity to study alteration of GABAA-/GABAB-related inhibition in disorders, such as epilepsy or schizophrenia.

  7. DOE-TMS-11477-Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, David

    2015-02-05

    The Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials VII Symposium, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This annual symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 100 high-level technical talks were delivered over the course of the four day event. In addition, the large number of students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. The science surrounding the utilization of neutrons and x-rays to study advanced materials is becoming increasingly important in increasing the understanding of how the exceptional materials properties of such materials arise. In particular, x-rays and neutrons can be used to visualize material structures at an extremely high resolution and in some cases, three dimensions—allowing unprecedented insights into the mechanisms governing certain materials properties such as strength and toughness. Moreover, some of these techniques allow materials to be visualized without damaging the material, approaches known as non-destructive evaluation or “NDE”. This allows materials to be studied in 3 dimensions while undergoing change in real time which represents an important (and long sought-after) advancement in materials science. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators and students with technical interests in this field provides promise that the United

  8. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal pathway by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) may produce depression of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). This depression is commonly assumed to reflect changes in cortical circuits. However, little is known about rTMS-induced effects on subcortical circuits. Therefore, the present...... study aimed to clarify whether rTMS influences corticospinal transmission by altering the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal (CM) synapses. The corticospinal transmission to soleus α-motoneurons was evaluated through conditioning of the soleus H-reflex by magnetic stimulation of either M1 (M1......-conditioning) or the cervicomedullary junction (CMS-conditioning). The first facilitation of the H-reflex (early facilitation) was determined after M1- and CMS-conditioning. Comparison of the early facilitation before and after 20-min low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS revealed suppression with M1- (-17 ± 4%; P = 0...

  9. A chronometric exploration of high-resolution 'sensitive TMS masking' effects on subjective and objective measures of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Herring, Jim; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used to evaluate masking was objective in nature. Recent studies have begun to incorporate subjective measures of vision, alongside objective ones. The current study goes beyond previous work in two regards. First, we explored both objective vision (an orientation discrimination task) and subjective vision (a stimulus visibility rating on a four-point scale), across a wide range of time windows with high temporal resolution. Second, we used a very sensitive TMS-masking paradigm: stimulation was at relatively low TMS intensities, with a figure-8 coil, and the small stimulus was difficult to discriminate already at baseline level. We hypothesized that this should increase the effective temporal resolution of our paradigm. Perhaps for this reason, we are able to report a rather interesting masking curve. Within the classical-masking time window, previously reported to encompass broad SOAs anywhere between 60 and 120 ms, we report not one, but at least two dips in objective performance, with no masking in-between. The subjective measure of vision did not mirror this pattern. These preliminary data from our exploratory design suggest that, with sensitive TMS masking, we might be able to reveal visual processes in early visual cortex previously unreported. PMID:21161191

  10. 双光镜延缓近视学龄儿童近视进展的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of bifocal lenses for retarding myopia progression in school-aged myopic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕明; 武珊珊; 詹思延; 王波; 李偲圆; 张丰菊; 王宁利

    2011-01-01

    背景 关于双光镜是否能够延缓学龄儿童近视的发展一直存在争议,应用循证医学的方法对双光镜的效果进行评估具有重要的临床意义.目的 系统评价双光镜和单焦点眼镜在延缓近视学龄儿童近视进展中的效果.方法 系统检索MEDLINE(1966-2010年10月)、EMBASE(1974-2010年10月)、Cochrane Library、中国生物医学文献数据库(1978-2010年10月)和中国临床试验注册中心中关于双光镜治疗近视的随机对照试验,辅以手工检索相关期刊书籍,对检索所得文献进行双人筛选、评估和数据提取,针对屈光度进展量和眼轴长度进展量对纳入的研究进行Meta分析.结果 有3项符合标准的高质量随机对照试验被纳入.在最长随访期时,双光镜和单焦点眼镜延缓近视学龄儿童屈光度进展量的加权平均差为0.22D(95%CI:-0.24~0.67),差异无统计学意义(P=0.35),在6、12、18、24个月和>30个月时的差异量分别为0.15(95%CI:-0.09~0.38)、0.17(95%CI:-0.05~0.39)、0.42(95%CI:-0.14~0.98)、0.23(95%CI:-0.21~0.66)和0.03(95%CI:-0.40~0.46),差异均无统计学意义.二者延缓近视学龄儿童眼轴长度进展量的加权平均差为-0.17mm(95%CI:-0.26~0.08),差异有统计学意义(P=0.0003).结论 基于现有研究,双光镜和单焦点眼镜相比在延缓近视学龄儿童的近视进展方面差异无统计学意义.由于目前的高质量研究数量较少,上述结果仍需更多大样本的研究进一步证实.%Background Whether the wearing of bifocal lenses can delay the development of myopia in school childhood is in controversy.To assess the effect of bifocal lenses using evidence-based medicine method is of important significance.Objective Present study was to compare the effect of bifocal lenses with single vision lenses in retarding myopia progression in school-aged myopic children.Methods This was a evidence-based medicine study.The systematical literature search was performed

  11. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL, lateral IPS (LIPS, and middle occipital gyrus (MoG, showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL, Superior occipital gyrus (SoG, and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+, showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, but that of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction.

  12. Validation of the Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The validity of the Treatment Motivation Scales for outpatient offender treatment (TMS-F), a self-report questionnaire with scales for the motivation of patients to engage in the treatment and six cognitive and emotional determinants of this motivation, is evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 6

  13. Pre-stimulus Alpha Oscillations and Inter-subject Variability of Motor Evoked Potentials in Single- and Paired-Pulse TMS Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Zafer; Nazarova, Maria; Fedele, Tommaso; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Nikulin, Vadim V.

    2016-01-01

    Inter- and intra-subject variability of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS is a well-known phenomenon. Although a possible link between this variability and ongoing brain oscillations was demonstrated, the results of the studies are not consistent with each other. Exploring this topic further is important since the modulation of MEPs provides unique possibility to relate oscillatory cortical phenomena to the state of the motor cortex probed with TMS. Given that alpha oscillations were shown to reflect cortical excitability, we hypothesized that their power and variability might explain the modulation of subject-specific MEPs to single- and paired-pulse TMS (spTMS, ppTMS, respectively). Neuronal activity was recorded with multichannel electroencephalogram. We used spTMS and two ppTMS conditions: intracortical facilitation (ICF) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Spearman correlations were calculated within and across subjects between MEPs and the pre-stimulus power of alpha oscillations in low (8–10 Hz) and high (10–12 Hz) frequency bands. Coefficient of quartile variation was used to measure variability. Across-subject analysis revealed no difference in the pre-stimulus alpha power among the TMS conditions. However, the variability of high-alpha power in spTMS condition was larger than in the SICI condition. In ICF condition pre-stimulus high-alpha power variability correlated positively with MEP amplitude variability. No correlation has been observed between the pre-stimulus alpha power and MEP responses in any of the conditions. Our results show that the variability of the alpha oscillations can be more predictive of TMS effects than the commonly used power of oscillations and we provide further support for the dissociation of high and low-alpha bands in predicting responses produced by the stimulation of the motor cortex. PMID:27774060

  14. CpG island methylation of TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamandani DM

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is an acquired epigenetic alteration that serves as an alternative to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor and other genes in human cancers. Aims This study describes the methylation status of TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes in cervical cancer. We also examined the prevalence of TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes methylation in cervical cancer tissue and none - neo plastic samples in an effort to correlate with smoking habit and clinicopathological features. Method Target DNA was modified by sodium bisulfite, converting all unmethylated, but not methylated, cytosines to uracil, and subsequently amplified by Methylation Specific (MS PCR with primers specific for methylated versus unmethylated DNA. The PCR product was detected by gel electrophoresis and combined with the clinical records of patients. Results The methylation pattern of the TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes in specimens of cervical cancer and adjacent normal tissues were detected [5/80 (6.2%, 3/80 (3.75%-2/80 (2.5%, 1/80 (1.2% respectively]. No statistical differences were seen in the extent of differentiation, invasion, pathological type and smoking habit between the methylated and unmethylated tissues (P > 0.05. Conclusion The present study conclude that the frequency of TMS1/ASC and CASP8 genes methylation in cervical cancer are rare (

  15. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus–response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus–response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings. PMID:27683548

  16. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  17. Numerical analysis and design of single-source multicoil TMS for deep and focused brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis; Cajko, Frantishek; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Grbic, Anthony; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool for noninvasive stimulation of neuronal tissue used for research in cognitive neuroscience and to treat neurological disorders. Many TMS applications call for large electric fields to be sharply focused on regions that often lie deep inside the brain. Unfortunately, the fields generated by present-day TMS coils diffuse and decay rapidly as they penetrate into the head. As a result, they tend to stimulate relatively large regions of tissue near the brain surface. Earlier studies suggested that a focused TMS excitation can be attained using multiple nonuniformly fed coils in a multichannel array. We propose a systematic, genetic algorithm-based technique for synthesizing multichannel arrays that minimize the volume of the excited region required to achieve a prescribed penetration depth and maintain realistic values for the input driving currents. Because multichannel arrays are costly to build, we also propose a method to convert the multichannel arrays into single-channel ones while minimally materially deteriorating performance. Numerical results show that the new multi- and single-channel arrays stimulate tissue 2.4 cm into the head while exciting 3.0 and 2.6 times less volume than conventional Figure-8 coils, respectively. PMID:23708768

  18. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), inhibition processes and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Thomas; Bender, Stephan; Buchmann, Johannes; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Motor system excitability can be tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation CFMS). In this article, an overview of recent methodological developments and research findings related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is provided. Different TMS parameters that reflect the function of interneurons in the motor cortex may represent neurophysiological markers of inhibition in ADHD, particularly the so-called intracortical inhibition. In children with a high level of hyperactivity and impulsivity, intracortical inhibition was comparably low at rest as shortly before the execution of a movement. TMS-evoked potentials can also be measured in the EEG so that investigating processes of excitability is not restricted to motor areas in future studies. The effects of methylphenidate on motor system excitability may be interpreted in the sense of a 'fine-tuning' with these mainly dopaminergic effects also depending on genetic parameters (DAT1 transporter). A differentiated view on the organization of motor control can be achieved by a combined analysis of TMS parameters and event-related potentials. Applying this bimodal approach, strong evidence for a deviant implementation of motor control in children with ADHD and probably compensatory mechanisms (with involvement of the prefrontal cortex) was obtained. These findings, which contribute to a better understanding of hyperactivity/impulsivity, inhibitory processes and motor control in ADHD as well as the mechanisms of medication, underline the relevance of TMS as a neurophysiological method in ADHD research.

  19. Different Effects of Startling Acoustic Stimuli (SAS) on TMS-Induced Responses at Rest and during Sustained Voluntary Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Li, Shengai; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a habituated startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) can cause a transient suppression of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during light muscle contraction. However, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon persists when at rest or during a sustained voluntary contraction task. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning SAS has different effects. TMS was delivered to the hot spot for the left biceps on 11 subjects at rest both with and without a conditioning SAS. Of the 11subjects, 9 also had TMS delivered during isometric flexion of the left elbow, also with and without a conditioning SAS. TMS-induced MEPs, TMS-induced force, and silent periods were used to determine the effect of conditioning SAS. Consistent with previous findings, TMS-induced MEPs were smaller with a conditioning SAS (0.49 ± 0.37 mV) as compared without the SAS (0.69 ± 0.52 mV) at rest. However, a conditioning SAS during the voluntary contraction tasks resulted in a significant shortening of the MEP silent period (187.22 ± 22.99 ms with SAS vs. 200.56 ± 29.71 ms without SAS) without any changes in the amplitude of the MEP (1.37 ± 0.9 mV with SAS V.S. 1.32 ± 0.92 mV without SAS) or the TMS-induced force (3.11 ± 2.03 N-m with SAS V.S. 3.62 ± 1.33 N-m without SAS). Our results provide novel evidence that a conditioning SAS has different effects on the excitability of the motor cortex when at rest or during sustained voluntary contractions. PMID:27547181

  20. Different Effects of Startling Acoustic Stimuli (SAS) on TMS-Induced Responses at Rest and during Sustained Voluntary Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Li, Shengai; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a habituated startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) can cause a transient suppression of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during light muscle contraction. However, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon persists when at rest or during a sustained voluntary contraction task. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning SAS has different effects. TMS was delivered to the hot spot for the left biceps on 11 subjects at rest both with and without a conditioning SAS. Of the 11subjects, 9 also had TMS delivered during isometric flexion of the left elbow, also with and without a conditioning SAS. TMS-induced MEPs, TMS-induced force, and silent periods were used to determine the effect of conditioning SAS. Consistent with previous findings, TMS-induced MEPs were smaller with a conditioning SAS (0.49 ± 0.37 mV) as compared without the SAS (0.69 ± 0.52 mV) at rest. However, a conditioning SAS during the voluntary contraction tasks resulted in a significant shortening of the MEP silent period (187.22 ± 22.99 ms with SAS vs. 200.56 ± 29.71 ms without SAS) without any changes in the amplitude of the MEP (1.37 ± 0.9 mV with SAS V.S. 1.32 ± 0.92 mV without SAS) or the TMS-induced force (3.11 ± 2.03 N-m with SAS V.S. 3.62 ± 1.33 N-m without SAS). Our results provide novel evidence that a conditioning SAS has different effects on the excitability of the motor cortex when at rest or during sustained voluntary contractions.

  1. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson’s Disease Model Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson’s disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson’s disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson’s disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson’s disease.

  2. Cálculo gráfico del centro óptico de la visión de cerca en una bifocal

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Doménech Amigot, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    Web con aplicación Java para el cálculo gráfico de la posición (en cm) del centro óptico de visión de cerca en una bifocal a partir de la posición del centro geométrico de la pastilla adicional (en cm), las potencias de los meridianos principales y la adición (en D).

  3. Comparison of visual outcomes and subjective visual quality after bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens and blended implantation of apodized diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell Gunnar; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the visual acuity (VA) and quality of vision between bilateral implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and blended bifocal IOLs with an intermediate add in the dominant eye and a near add in the nondominant eye. Patients and methods Patients with either trifocal or blended bifocal IOLs implanted were recruited after surgery. Subjects returned for a single diagnostic visit between 3 and 24 months after surgery. VA was tested at various distances, including low-contrast acuity and acuity at their preferred reading distance. A binocular defocus curve was obtained, and subjective visual function and quality of vision were evaluated. Results Twenty-five trifocal subjects and 30 blended bifocal subjects were enrolled. There were no significant differences in low-contrast acuity, preferred reading distance, or acuity at that reading distance. Binocular vision at 4 m, 60 cm, and 40 cm was not statistically significantly different. The trifocal provided statistically significantly better visual acuity (Pdashboard or grocery shelf. VA was similar between groups at viewing distances from 60 to 40 cm, corresponding to computer or reading distance. PMID:27274184

  4. TMS T-F10Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    最新上市的TMS T-F10Q外壳采用了银灰色铝金属外壳,表面经过磨砂工艺处理.细腻的磨砂颗粒表面具有良好的质感。T—F10Q的前面板整体采用镜面材质.高反光度的镜面材质内嵌有一块双色OLED液晶屏幕。在不开机的状态下.完全感觉不到屏幕的存在。

  5. TMS delivered for A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A state-of-the-art thrust measurement system for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was delivered March 17. Once completed, the A-3 stand (seen in background) will allow simulated high-altitude testing on the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program. Work on the stand began in 2007, with activation scheduled for 2012. The stand is the first major test structure to be built at Stennis since the 1960s. The recently delivered TMS was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with an accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds.

  6. Double-Cone Coil TMS Stimulation of the Medial Cortex Inhibits Central Pain Habituation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico D'Agata

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS applied over the medial line of the scalp affects the subjective perception of continuous pain induced by means of electric stimulation. In addition, we wanted to identify the point of stimulation where this effect was maximum.Superficial electrical stimulation was used to induce continuous pain on the dominant hand. At the beginning of the experiment we reached a pain rating of 5 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain and 10 = maximum tolerable pain for each subject by setting individually the current intensity. The TMS (five pulses at increasing intensities was applied on 5 equidistant points (one per session over the medial line of the scalp in 13 healthy volunteers using a double-cone coil to stimulate underlying parts of the brain cortex. In every experimental session the painful stimulation lasted 45 minutes, during which pain and distress intensities NRS were recorded continuously. We calculated the effect of adaptation and the immediate effect of the TMS stimulation for all locations. Additionally, an ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis was performed to compare our results with the neuroimaging literature on subjective pain rating.TMS stimulation temporarily decreased the pain ratings, and pain adaptation was suppressed when applying the TMS over the FCz site on the scalp. No effect was found for distress ratings.The present data suggest that the medial cortex in proximity of the cingulated gyrus has a causal role in adaptation mechanisms and in processing ongoing pain and subjective sensation of pain intensity.

  7. The cortex-based alignment approach to TMS coil positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Felix; Frost, Martin A; de Graaf, Tom A; Graewe, Britta; Jacobs, Christianne; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-10-01

    TMS allows noninvasive manipulation of brain activity in healthy participants and patients. The effectiveness of TMS experiments critically depends on precise TMS coil positioning, which is best for most brain areas when a frameless stereotactic system is used to target activation foci based on individual fMRI data. From a purely scientific perspective, individual fMRI-guided TMS is thus the method of choice to ensure optimal TMS efficiency. Yet, from a more practical perspective, such individual functional data are not always available, and therefore alternative TMS coil positioning approaches are often applied, for example, based on functional group data reported in Talairach coordinates. We here propose a novel method for TMS coil positioning that is based on functional group data, yet only requires individual anatomical data. We used cortex-based alignment (CBA) to transform individual anatomical data to an atlas brain that includes probabilistic group maps of two functional regions (FEF and hMT+/V5). Then, these functional group maps were back-transformed to the individual brain anatomy, preserving functional-anatomical correspondence. As a proof of principle, the resulting CBA-based functional targets in individual brain space were compared with individual FEF and hMT+/V5 hotspots as conventionally localized with individual fMRI data and with targets based on Talairach coordinates as commonly done in TMS research in case only individual anatomical data are available. The CBA-based approach significantly improved localization of functional brain areas compared with traditional Talairach-based targeting. Given the widespread availability of CBA schemes and preexisting functional group data, the proposed procedure is easy to implement and at no additional measurement costs. However, the accuracy of individual fMRI-guided TMS remains unparalleled, and the CBA-based approach should only be the method of choice when individual functional data cannot be obtained or

  8. Differences between a single session and repeated sessions of 1 Hz TMS by double-cone coil prefrontal stimulation for the improvement of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Tinnitus related distress is associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In a recent study, it was demonstrated that a single session of low frequency prefrontal TMS using a double-cone coil (DCC) modulating the ACC (AC/DC TMS, anterior cingulate cortex targeted modulation by Double-Cone coil) yields a transient improvement in subjects with chronic tinnitus. An increasing number of studies demonstrated that repeated sessions of low frequency TMS to the temporoparietal area can significantly improve tinnitus complaints. Our aim is to determine the extent to which repeated sessions of AC/DC TMS can modulate tinnitus in comparison to a single session. Seventy-three tinnitus patients received a single (N = 46) or repetitive (N = 27) session(s) of TMS using a DCC placed over the prefrontal cortex. Our results indicate that both single sessions as well as multiple sessions (i.e. 8 sessions) of AC/DC TMS suppress both tinnitus distress (respectively 7.60% vs. 26.19%) and tinnitus intensity (respectively 7.12% vs. 19.60%) transiently. It was further shown that multiple sessions of AC/DC TMS generate a higher suppression effect in comparison to a single session of AC/DC TMS and that more patients responded to repeated sessions of 1 Hz stimulation in comparison to a single session. Our findings give further support to the fact that non-auditory areas are involved in tinnitus intensity and tinnitus distress and that more patients respond to repeated sessions with a higher suppression effect in comparison to patients who received a single session, suggesting that the approach of daily TMS sessions is relevant.

  9. Implementasi Modem Akustik OFDM pada TMS320C6416

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuandhika Adhi Widhyatmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Desain sistem komunikasi digital menggunakan sinyal akustik untuk aplikasi bawah air adalah bidang yang sangat menantang karena sifat yang sangat kompleks dari saluran bawah air. Teknologi yang dikenal dengan sebutan underwater acoustic merupakan jawaban atas tantangan terhadap keterbatasan kemampuan pengiriman sinyal informasi pada media air. Hal ini disebabkan karena gelombang elektromagnetik dan radio tidak dapat mencapai jarak yang jauh pada medium air karena akan menghasilkan redaman yang sangat besar, sementara sinyal akustik dapat mencapai jarak yang jauh walaupun dengan kecepatan dan bandwidth yang terbatas. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk merancang sistem tersebut, yang secara efektif dapat menahan efek samping saluran namun tetap memberikan laju data yang memadai. Untuk tujuan ini, sebuah studi mendalam tentang saluran komunikasi bawah air dilakukan dandianalisis. Seiring dengan kemajuan yang signifikan telah dibuat penggunaan modulasi multicarrier dalam bentuk ortogonal frekuensi division multiplexing (OFDM dengan data rate tinggi untuk komunikasi akustik bawah air. Dalam tugas akhir ini, implementasi modem akustik OFDM pada sistem single-input single-output menggunakan modul fixed-point DSP TMS320C6416 di mana inti DSP berjalan pada 1 GHz. Terdapat terdapat tiga kategori untuk mengetahui karakteristik modem akustik OFDM yang ditampilkan dalam grafik Bit Error Rate (BER terhadap Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. Pengujian dilakukan dengan mengirimkan citra 40x64 8bit. Kinerja terbaik terdapat pada implementasi sistem mfile dengan nilai BER mencapai 0,0067 pada 32 subcarrier. Sedangkan kinerja terburuk terdapat pada implementasi sistem pada TMS320C6416 dan sistem simulink rata-rata nilai BER 0,5 dikarenakan kondisi sample rate antar perangkat yang tidak sinkron.

  10. Linking physics with physiology in TMS: a sphere field model to determine the cortical stimulation site in TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Axel; Kammer, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    A fundamental problem of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is determining the site and size of the stimulated cortical area. In the motor system, the most common procedure for this is motor mapping. The obtained two-dimensional distribution of coil positions with associated muscle responses is used to calculate a center of gravity on the skull. However, even in motor mapping the exact stimulation site on the cortex is not known and only rough estimates of its size are possible. We report a new method which combines physiological measurements with a physical model used to predict the electric field induced by the TMS coil. In four subjects motor responses in a small hand muscle were mapped with 9-13 stimulation sites at the head perpendicular to the central sulcus in order to keep the induced current direction constant in a given cortical region of interest. Input-output functions from these head locations were used to determine stimulator intensities that elicit half-maximal muscle responses. Based on these stimulator intensities the field distribution on the individual cortical surface was calculated as rendered from anatomical MR data. The region on the cortical surface in which the different stimulation sites produced the same electric field strength (minimal variance, 4.2 +/- 0.8%.) was determined as the most likely stimulation site on the cortex. In all subjects, it was located at the lateral part of the hand knob in the motor cortex. Comparisons of model calculations with the solutions obtained in this manner reveal that the stimulated cortex area innervating the target muscle is substantially smaller than the size of the electric field induced by the coil. Our results help to resolve fundamental questions raised by motor mapping studies as well as motor threshold measurements.

  11. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal tract by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Schubert, Martin;

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is extensively used to study cognitive and motor function in humans and might be of value in the treatment of various disorders. For a better understanding of the effects of rTMS and its more efficient application it is crucial to identify the s...... is the synapses of the corticomotoneuronal neurones on the spinal motoneurones. Perez et al. (2005). Exp Brain Res 162, 202-212. Speer et al. (2003). Biol Psychiatry 54, 818-825....

  12. A comparative study of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to improve anxiety symptoms and psychological craving of patients with methamphetamine dependence%重复经颅磁刺激改善甲基苯丙胺依赖者焦虑及心理渴求症状的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱纬国; 刘书奎; 刘增训

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨重复经颅磁刺激( rTMS)对甲基苯丙胺依赖者焦虑及心理渴求症状的疗效。方法将112例甲基苯丙胺依赖患者随机分为研究组和对照组,研究组接受系统的rTMS治疗,对照组接受类似rTMS 的假性刺激治疗,共8周。在基线及治疗后第1、2、4、6、8周末应用焦虑自评量表( SAS)和视觉模拟标尺( VAS)评定患者的焦虑症状和心理渴求状况。结果治疗后第1、2、4、6、8周末,研究组SAS评分及VAS评分较基线评分均降低(P<0.05),对照组治疗后第4、6、8周末SAS、VAS评分较基线时降低(P<0.05),研究组治疗后第1、2、4、6、8周末SAS评分及VAS评分均低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论 rTMS可显著改善甲基苯丙胺依赖患者的焦虑症状与心理渴求状况,安全性高。%Objective To explore the effects of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation ( rTMS ) to improve anxiety symptoms and psychological craving of patients with methamphetamine dependence.Method A total of 112 patients with methamphetamine dependence were randomly divided into study group with rTMS and control group without rTMS for treatment of 8 weeks.They were assessed with Self-rating Anxiety Scale(SAS)and Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) on baseline, the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weekend of treatment.Result On the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weekend of treatment, the scores of SAS and VAS in study group were significantly lower than those on baseline (P<0.05), and were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05).On the 4th 6th and 8th weekend of treatment,the scores of SAS and VAS in control group were significantly lower than those on baseline ( P <0.05 ) .Conclusion It is effective and safe for rTMS to improve anxiety symptoms and psychological craving of patients with methamphetamine dependence.

  13. Non-invasive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS of the Motor Cortex for Neuropathic Pain—At the Tipping Point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roi Treister

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “neuropathic pain” (NP refers to chronic pain caused by illnesses or injuries that damage peripheral or central pain-sensing neural pathways to cause them to fire inappropriately and signal pain without cause. Neuropathic pain is common, complicating diabetes, shingles, HIV, and cancer. Medications are often ineffective or cause various adverse effects, so better approaches are needed. Half a century ago, electrical stimulation of specific brain regions (neuromodulation was demonstrated to relieve refractory NP without distant effects, but the need for surgical electrode implantation limited use of deep brain stimulation. Next, electrodes applied to the dura outside the brain’s surface to stimulate the motor cortex were shown to relieve NP less invasively. Now, electromagnetic induction permits cortical neurons to be stimulated entirely non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repeated sessions of many TMS pulses (rTMS can trigger neuronal plasticity to produce long-lasting therapeutic benefit. Repeated TMS already has US and European regulatory approval for treating refractory depression, and multiple small studies report efficacy for neuropathic pain. Recent improvements include “frameless stereotactic” neuronavigation systems, in which patients’ head MRIs allow TMS to be applied to precise underlying cortical targets, minimizing variability between sessions and patients, which may enhance efficacy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation appears poised for the larger trials necessary for regulatory approval of a NP indication. Since few clinicians are familiar with TMS, we review its theoretical basis and historical development, summarize the neuropathic pain trial results, and identify issues to resolve before large-scale clinical trials.

  14. Comparison of visual outcomes and subjective visual quality after bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens and blended implantation of apodized diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Kjell Gunnar; Potvin, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the visual acuity (VA) and quality of vision between bilateral implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and blended bifocal IOLs with an intermediate add in the dominant eye and a near add in the nondominant eye. Patients and methods Patients with either trifocal or blended bifocal IOLs implanted were recruited after surgery. Subjects returned for a single diagnostic visit between 3 and 24 months after surgery. VA was tested at various distances, including low-contrast acuity and acuity at their preferred reading distance. A binocular defocus curve was obtained, and subjective visual function and quality of vision were evaluated. Results Twenty-five trifocal subjects and 30 blended bifocal subjects were enrolled. There were no significant differences in low-contrast acuity, preferred reading distance, or acuity at that reading distance. Binocular vision at 4 m, 60 cm, and 40 cm was not statistically significantly different. The trifocal provided statistically significantly better visual acuity (P<0.05) at vergences from −0.5 to −1.5 D (from 2 m to 67 cm viewing distance, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the near vision subscale scores of the 39-question National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire or the overall scores of the Quality of Vision questionnaire, though significantly more trifocal subjects reported that the observed visual disturbances were “bothersome” (P<0.05). Conclusion Both lens modalities provided subjects with excellent binocular near and distance vision, with similar low rates of visual disturbances and good reported functional vision. The trifocal IOL provided significantly better intermediate VA in the viewing distance range of 2 m to 67 cm, corresponding to viewing things such as a car dashboard or grocery shelf. VA was similar between groups at viewing distances from 60 to 40 cm, corresponding to computer or reading distance. PMID:27274184

  15. Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Duecker

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is widely used in experimental brain research to manipulate brain activity in humans. Next to the intended neural effects, every TMS pulse produces a distinct clicking sound and sensation on the head which can also influence task performance. This necessitates careful consideration of control conditions in order to ensure that behavioral effects of interest can be attributed to the neural consequences of TMS and not to non-neural effects of a TMS pulse. Surprisingly, even though these non-neural effects of TMS are largely unknown, they are often assumed to be unspecific, i.e. not dependent on TMS parameters. This assumption is inherent to many control strategies in TMS research but has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. Here, we further develop the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research. We investigated the time-dependence and task-dependence of the non-neural effects of TMS and compared real and sham TMS over vertex. Critically, we show that non-neural TMS effects depend on a complex interplay of these factors. Although TMS had no direct neural effects, both pre- and post-stimulus TMS time windows modulated task performance on both a sensory detection task and a cognitive angle judgment task. For the most part, these effects were quantitatively similar across tasks but effect sizes were clearly different. Moreover, the effects of real and sham TMS were almost identical with interesting exceptions that shed light on the relative contribution of auditory and somato-sensory aspects of a TMS pulse. Knowledge of such effects is of critical importance for the interpretation of TMS experiments and helps deciding what constitutes an appropriate control condition. Our results broaden the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research and point at potential pitfalls that should be avoided.

  16. Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Felix; de Graaf, Tom A; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely used in experimental brain research to manipulate brain activity in humans. Next to the intended neural effects, every TMS pulse produces a distinct clicking sound and sensation on the head which can also influence task performance. This necessitates careful consideration of control conditions in order to ensure that behavioral effects of interest can be attributed to the neural consequences of TMS and not to non-neural effects of a TMS pulse. Surprisingly, even though these non-neural effects of TMS are largely unknown, they are often assumed to be unspecific, i.e. not dependent on TMS parameters. This assumption is inherent to many control strategies in TMS research but has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. Here, we further develop the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research. We investigated the time-dependence and task-dependence of the non-neural effects of TMS and compared real and sham TMS over vertex. Critically, we show that non-neural TMS effects depend on a complex interplay of these factors. Although TMS had no direct neural effects, both pre- and post-stimulus TMS time windows modulated task performance on both a sensory detection task and a cognitive angle judgment task. For the most part, these effects were quantitatively similar across tasks but effect sizes were clearly different. Moreover, the effects of real and sham TMS were almost identical with interesting exceptions that shed light on the relative contribution of auditory and somato-sensory aspects of a TMS pulse. Knowledge of such effects is of critical importance for the interpretation of TMS experiments and helps deciding what constitutes an appropriate control condition. Our results broaden the empirical basis of control strategies in TMS research and point at potential pitfalls that should be avoided.

  17. Bilateral theta-burst TMS to influence global gestalt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzinger, Bernd; Huberle, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    While early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway in the inferotemporal cortex are critical for the recognition of individual objects, the neural representation of human perception of complex global visual scenes remains under debate. Stroke patients with a selective deficit in the perception of a complex global Gestalt with intact recognition of individual objects - a deficit termed simultanagnosia - greatly helped to study this question. Interestingly, simultanagnosia typically results from bilateral lesions of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The present study aimed to verify the relevance of this area for human global Gestalt perception. We applied continuous theta-burst TMS either unilaterally (left or right) or bilateral simultaneously over TPJ. Healthy subjects were presented with hierarchically organized visual stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. Identification of the global Gestalt was significantly modulated only for the bilateral TPJ stimulation condition. Our results strengthen the view that global Gestalt perception in the human brain involves TPJ and is co-dependent on both hemispheres.

  18. Bilateral theta-burst TMS to influence global gestalt perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ritzinger

    Full Text Available While early and higher visual areas along the ventral visual pathway in the inferotemporal cortex are critical for the recognition of individual objects, the neural representation of human perception of complex global visual scenes remains under debate. Stroke patients with a selective deficit in the perception of a complex global Gestalt with intact recognition of individual objects - a deficit termed simultanagnosia - greatly helped to study this question. Interestingly, simultanagnosia typically results from bilateral lesions of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ. The present study aimed to verify the relevance of this area for human global Gestalt perception. We applied continuous theta-burst TMS either unilaterally (left or right or bilateral simultaneously over TPJ. Healthy subjects were presented with hierarchically organized visual stimuli that allowed parametrical degrading of the object at the global level. Identification of the global Gestalt was significantly modulated only for the bilateral TPJ stimulation condition. Our results strengthen the view that global Gestalt perception in the human brain involves TPJ and is co-dependent on both hemispheres.

  19. Changes in cerebral activations during movement execution and imagery after parietal cortex TMS interleaved with 3T MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Paulien M.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Bohning, Daryl E.; Walker, John A.; George, Mark S.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2009-01-01

    The left parietal cortex contributes to goal-directed hand movement. In this study, we targeted this region with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess the effects on a wider distributed circuitry related to motor control. Ten healthy subjects underwent 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonan

  20. Cortical modulation of short-latency TMS-evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica eVeniero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation - electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG co-registration offers the opportunity to test reactivity of brain areas across distinct conditions through TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. Several TEPs have been described, their functional meaning being largely unknown. In particular, short-latency potentials peaking at 5 (P5 and 8 (N8 ms after the TMS pulse have been recently described, but because of their huge amplitude, the problem of whether their origin is cortical or not has been opened. To gain information about these components, we employed a protocol that modulates primary motor cortex excitability (MI through an exclusively cortical phenomena: low frequency stimulation of premotor area (PMC. TMS was applied simultaneously with EEG recording from 70 electrodes. Amplitude of TEPs evoked by 200 single-pulses TMS delivered over MI at 110% of resting motor threshold was measured before and after applying 900 TMS conditioning stimuli to left premotor cortex with 1 Hz repetition rate. Single subject analyses showed reduction in TEPs amplitude after PMC conditioning in a sample of participants and increase in TEPs amplitude in two subjects. No effects were found on corticospinal excitability as recorded by motor evoked potentials (MEPs. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed an inverse relation between the effects of the conditioning protocol on P5-N8 complex amplitude and MEPs amplitude. Because the effects of the used protocol have been ascribed to a cortical interaction between premotor area and MI, we suggest that despite the sign of P5-N8 amplitude modulation is not consistent across participant, this modulation could indicate, at least in part, their cortical origin. We conclude that with an accurate experimental procedure early-latency components can be used to evaluate the reactivity of the stimulated cortex.

  1. Musical groove modulates motor cortex excitability: a TMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupacher, Jan; Hove, Michael J; Novembre, Giacomo; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Keller, Peter E

    2013-07-01

    Groove is often described as a musical quality that can induce movement in a listener. This study examines the effects of listening to groove music on corticospinal excitability. Musicians and non-musicians listened to high-groove music, low-groove music, and spectrally matched noise, while receiving single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex either on-beat or off-beat. We examined changes in the amplitude of the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), recorded from hand and arm muscles, as an index of activity within the motor system. Musicians and non-musicians rated groove similarly. MEP results showed that high-groove music modulated corticospinal excitability, whereas no difference occurred between low-groove music and noise. More specifically, musicians' MEPs were larger with high-groove than low-groove music, and this effect was especially pronounced for on-beat compared to off-beat pulses. These results indicate that high-groove music increasingly engages the motor system, and the temporal modulation of corticospinal excitability with the beat could stem from tight auditory-motor links in musicians. Conversely, non-musicians' MEPs were smaller for high-groove than low-groove music, and there was no effect of on- versus off-beat pulses, potentially stemming from suppression of overt movement. In sum, high-groove music engages the motor system, and previous training modulates how listening to music with a strong groove activates the motor system.

  2. Imaging the neural mechanisms of TMS neglect-like bias in healthy volunteers with the interleaved TMS/fMRI technique: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Li, Xingbao; Funk, Agnes P; Logan, Sarah L; Mu, Qiwen; Johnson, Kevin A; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Applying a precisely timed pulse of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can produce temporary visuo-spatial neglect-like effects. Although the TMS is applied over PPC, it is not clear what other brain regions are involved. We applied TMS within a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner to investigate brain activity during TMS induction of neglect-like bias in three healthy volunteers, while they performed a line bisection judgment task (i.e., the landmark task). Single-pulse TMS at 115% of motor threshold was applied 150 ms after the visual stimulus onset. Participants completed two different TMS/fMRI sessions while performing this task: one session while single-pulse TMS was intermittently and time-locked applied to the right PPC and a control session with TMS positioned over the vertex. Perceptual rightward bias was observed when TMS was delivered over the right PPC. During neglect-like behavior, the fMRI maps showed decreased neural activity within parieto-frontal areas, which are often lesioned or dysfunctional in patients with left neglect. Vertex TMS induced behavioral effects compatible with leftward response bias and increased BOLD signal in the left caudate (a site which has been linked to response bias). These results are discussed in relation to recent findings on neural networks subserving attention in space.

  3. 23 CFR 500.204 - TMS components for highway traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS components for highway traffic data. 500.204 Section... INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.204 TMS components for highway traffic data. (a) General. Each State's TMS, including those using alternative...

  4. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach... company controlled by Sherman, Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right...

  5. Hunting for right and left parietal hot spots using single-pulse TMS: modulation of visuospatial perception during line bisection judgment in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Adriana; Poncini, Marisa; George, Mark S; Ricci, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    A series of studies have consistently reproduced left neglect-like bias on line length estimation tasks in healthy participants by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), while no significant changes have been reported when stimulating the left PPC. However, a notable inter-individual variability in the right parietal site where TMS modulates visuospatial perception can be observed, and no general agreement exists on how to identify the optimal parietal site of stimulation. In the present study, we propose a new site-finding TMS protocol to easily identify the optimum parietal location, or "hot spot," where TMS may modulate visuospatial perception on a line length estimation task (the Landmark task). Single-pulse TMS at 115% of motor threshold was applied 150 ms after the visual stimulus onset over nine different sites of a 3 cm × 3 cm grid, centred over right or left PPC (P4 and P3 according to the 10-20 EEG system, respectively) in eight healthy participants. Stimulation of right PPC induced a significant left neglect-like bias, when the coil was applied over the most posterior and dorso-posterior sites. Unexpectedly, TMS over left PPC also produced left neglect-like bias. However, in this case significant effects were found when targeting the most anterior and dorso-anterior portions of the grid. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings on neural networks underlying spatial cognition. The hunting protocol we propose might offer an economical and easy-to-use tool to functionally identify the optimal parietal site where TMS can modulate visuospatial perception, in healthy subjects and possibly in post-stroke patients undergoing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment.

  6. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  7. 23 CFR 500.203 - TMS general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inspection and copying as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D. (c) The TMS shall cover all public roads.... Available for inspection as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D. 5 Traffic Monitoring Guide, DOT/FHWA, publication No. FHWA-PL-95-031, February 1995. Available for inspection and copying as prescribed in 49...

  8. Investigating Occipito-Temporal Contributions to Reading with TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    The debate regarding the role of ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC) in visual word recognition arises, in part, from difficulty delineating the functional contributions of vOTC as separate from other areas of the reading network. Here, we investigated the feasibility of using TMS to interfere with vOTC processing in order to explore its…

  9. Effects of Weekly Low-Frequency rTMS on Autonomic Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Casanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. ASD may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (EKG and electrodermal activity pre-, post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R, time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV and skin conductance level (SCL. HRV measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals>50 ms different from preceding interval, power of high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate, increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of low frequency rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal.

  10. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  11. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system.

  12. Testing the Role of Dorsal Premotor Cortex in Auditory-Motor Association Learning Using Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Carlotta; Stephan, Marianne A.; Zatorre, Robert J.; Penhune, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between the auditory and the motor systems are critical in music as well as in other domains, such as speech. The premotor cortex, specifically the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), seems to play a key role in auditory-motor integration, and in mapping the association between a sound and the movement used to produce it. In the present studies we tested the causal role of the dPMC in learning and applying auditory-motor associations using 1 Hz repetitive Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). In this paradigm, non-musicians learn a set of auditory-motor associations through melody training in two contexts: first when the sound to key-press mapping was in a conventional sequential order (low to high tones mapped onto keys from left to right), and then when it was in a novel scrambled order. Participant’s ability to match the four pitches to four computer keys was tested before and after the training. In both experiments, the group that received 1 Hz rTMS over the dPMC showed no significant improvement on the pitch-matching task following training, whereas the control group (who received rTMS to visual cortex) did. Moreover, in Experiment 2 where the pitch-key mapping was novel, rTMS over the dPMC also interfered with learning. These findings suggest that rTMS over dPMC disturbs the formation of auditory-motor associations, especially when the association is novel and must be learned rather explicitly. The present results contribute to a better understanding of the role of dPMC in auditory-motor integration, suggesting a critical role of dPMC in learning the link between an action and its associated sound. PMID:27684369

  13. TMS to object cortex affects both object and scene remote networks while TMS to scene cortex only affects scene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2015-12-01

    Viewing the world involves many computations across a great number of regions of the brain, all the while appearing seamless and effortless. We sought to determine the connectivity of object and scene processing regions of cortex through the influence of transient focal neural noise in discrete nodes within these networks. We consecutively paired repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with functional magnetic resonance-adaptation (fMR-A) to measure the effect of rTMS on functional response properties at the stimulation site and in remote regions. In separate sessions, rTMS was applied to the object preferential lateral occipital region (LO) and scene preferential transverse occipital sulcus (TOS). Pre- and post-stimulation responses were compared using fMR-A. In addition to modulating BOLD signal at the stimulation site, TMS affected remote regions revealing inter and intrahemispheric connections between LO, TOS, and the posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA). Moreover, we show remote effects from object preferential LO to outside the ventral perception network, in parietal and frontal areas, indicating an interaction of dorsal and ventral streams and possibly a shared common framework of perception and action.

  14. 41 CFR 301-73.106 - What are the basic services that should be covered by a TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services that should be covered by a TMS? 301-73.106 Section 301-73.106 Public Contracts and Property... that should be covered by a TMS? The TMS must, at a minimum— (a) Include a Travel Management Center... the basic services of a TMS. You have the option to use the contracted travel agent service(s) of...

  15. 78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast... Trails, Inc. (Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC (Cabana), TMS West Coast, Inc. (TMS), and FSCS Corporation... shareholder of noncarrier holding companies FSCS and TMS. Cabana is owned directly by FSCS and Evergreen...

  16. Inter-processor communication method of TMS320C6678 multicore DSP%TMS320C6678多核DSP的核间通信方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灏; 肖吉阳; 范红旗; 付强

    2012-01-01

    嵌入式应用中采用多处理系统所面临的主要难题是多处理器内核之间的通信.对Key-Stone架构TMS320C6678处理器的多核间通信机制进行研究,利用处理器间中断和核间通信寄存器,设计并实现了多核之间的通信.从系统的角度出发,设计与仿真了两种多核通信拓扑结构,并分析对比了性能.对设计多核DSP处理器的核间通信有一定的指导价值.%Inter-processor communication is the main problem of chip multi-processor system. Based on the study of the inter-processor interrupt and the inter-processor communication registers, the inter-processor communication mechanism of TMS320C6678 multi-processor is analyzed, and two topological structures of inter-processor communication are compared. Some reference value is provided for designing inter梡rocessor communication.

  17. Comparison of visual outcomes and subjective visual quality after bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal intraocular lens and blended implantation of apodized diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundersen KG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kjell G Gundersen,1 Rick Potvin21IFocus Øyeklinikk AS, Haugesund, Norway; 2Science in Vision, Akron, NY, USAPurpose: To compare the visual acuity (VA and quality of vision between bilateral implantation of a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL and blended bifocal IOLs with an intermediate add in the dominant eye and a near add in the nondominant eye.Patients and methods: Patients with either trifocal or blended bifocal IOLs implanted were recruited after surgery. Subjects returned for a single diagnostic visit between 3 and 24 months after surgery. VA was tested at various distances, including low-contrast acuity and acuity at their preferred reading distance. A binocular defocus curve was obtained, and subjective visual function and quality of vision were evaluated.Results: Twenty-five trifocal subjects and 30 blended bifocal subjects were enrolled. There were no significant differences in low-contrast acuity, preferred reading distance, or acuity at that reading distance. Binocular vision at 4 m, 60 cm, and 40 cm was not statistically significantly different. The trifocal provided statistically significantly better visual acuity (P<0.05 at vergences from -0.5 to -1.5 D (from 2 m to 67 cm viewing distance, P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the near vision subscale scores of the 39-question National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire or the overall scores of the Quality of Vision questionnaire, though significantly more trifocal subjects reported that the observed visual disturbances were “bothersome” (P<0.05.Conclusion: Both lens modalities provided subjects with excellent binocular near and distance vision, with similar low rates of visual disturbances and good reported functional vision. The trifocal IOL provided significantly better intermediate VA in the viewing distance range of 2 m to 67 cm, corresponding to viewing things such as a car dashboard or grocery shelf. VA was similar between groups at

  18. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  19. An investigation of the corrosion of polycrystalline iron by XPS, TMS and CEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idczak, K.; Idczak, R.; Konieczny, R.

    2016-06-01

    The room temperature studies of polycrystalline iron exposed to air at various temperatures were performed using: the transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS), the conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The unique combination of these techniques allows to determine changes of chemical composition and content of iron oxides simultaneously on the surface region, the 300 nm pre-surface region and the bulk of the samples. The results show that the chemical composition of samples changes significantly and it is strongly dependent on temperature at which the iron sample is exposed to air as well as on investigated region.

  20. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D.; Lowe, Andrea S.; Garrett, Andrew R.; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J.; Garry, Michael I.; Hinder, Mark R.; Summers, Jeffery J.; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting.

  1. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alexander D; Lowe, Andrea S; Garrett, Andrew R; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J; Garry, Michael I; Hinder, Mark R; Summers, Jeffery J; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting. PMID:27445702

  2. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    will start by summarizing the key findings on how the individual brain anatomy shapes the electric field induced by TMS (Thielscher et al., 2011; Opitz, 2011). The putative link between the modeling results and basic physiological TMS effects is highlighted. I will then introduce the novel features of Sim...... to realistically capture the field distribution in the brain. However, it is unclear how accurate even these more advanced models are and, in particular, to which extent they allow predicting the physiological outcome of stimulation. An experimental validation of the novel methods for field calculation is thus...... in differences in the MEP responses. This would indicate that the field calculations accurately capture the impact of individual macroanatomical features of the head and brain on the induced field distribution, in turn strongly supporting their plausibility.Our approach is based on the SimNIBS software pipeline...

  3. Investigating occipito-temporal contributions to reading with TMS

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    The debate regarding the role of ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC) in visual word recognition arises in part from difficulty delineating the functional contributions of vOTC as separate from other areas of the reading network. Here we investigated the feasibility of using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with vOTC processing in order to explore its specific contributions to visual word recognition. Three visual lexical decision experiments were conducted using neuro-...

  4. Right prefrontal TMS disrupts interregional anticipatory EEG alpha activity during shifting of visuospatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSauseng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual attention can be shifted in space without moving the eyes. Amplitude decrease of rhythmical brain activity around 10 Hz (so called alpha activity at contralateral posterior sites has been reported during covert shifts of visuospatial attention to one visual hemifield. Alpha amplitude increase, on the other hand, can be found at ipsilateral visual cortex. There is some evidence suggesting an involvement of prefrontal brain areas during the control of attention-related anticipatory alpha amplitude asymmetry. However, the exact neural mechanism by which prefrontal cortex influences visual processing has not been completely clear yet. This open question has been studied in detail using a multimodal approach combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and multichannel electroencephalography (EEG in healthy humans. Slow (1 Hz repetitive TMS inducing an inhibitory effect at the stimulation site was delivered either to right frontal eye field or a control site (vertex. Subsequently, participants had to perform a spatial cueing task in which covert shifts of attention were required to either the left or the right visual hemi-field. After stimulation at the vertex (control condition a pattern of anticipatory, attention-related ipsilateral alpha increase / contralateral alpha decrease over posterior recording sites could be obtained. Additionally, there was pronounced coupling between (in particular right FEF and posterior brain sites. When, however, the right prefrontal cortex had been virtually lesioned preceding the task, these EEG correlates of visuospatial attention were attenuated. Notably, the effect of TMS at the right FEF on interregional fronto-parietal alpha coupling predicted the effect on response times. This suggests that visual attention processes associated with posterior EEG alpha activity are at least partly top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex.

  5. Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Papeo

    Full Text Available The embodied cognition hypothesis suggests that motor and premotor areas are automatically and necessarily involved in understanding action language, as word conceptual representations are embodied. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials from right-hand muscles were recorded as a measure of M1 activity, while participants were asked either to judge explicitly whether a verb was action-related (semantic task or to decide on the number of syllables in a verb (syllabic task. TMS was applied in three different experiments at 170, 350 and 500 ms post-stimulus during both tasks to identify when the enhancement of M1 activity occurred during word processing. The delays between stimulus onset and magnetic stimulation were consistent with electrophysiological studies, suggesting that word recognition can be differentiated into early (within 200 ms and late (within 400 ms lexical-semantic stages, and post-conceptual stages. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to measure the extent to which the participants' linguistic performance was affected by the interference of TMS with M1 activity. No enhancement of M1 activity specific for action verbs was found at 170 and 350 ms post-stimulus, when lexical-semantic processes are presumed to occur (Experiments 1-2. When TMS was applied at 500 ms post-stimulus (Experiment 3, processing action verbs, compared with non-action verbs, increased the M1-activity in the semantic task and decreased it in the syllabic task. This effect was specific for hand-action verbs and was not observed for action-verbs related to other body parts. Neither accuracy nor RTs were affected by TMS. These findings suggest that the lexical-semantic processing of action verbs does not automatically activate the M1. This area seems to be rather involved in post-conceptual processing that follows the retrieval of motor

  6. rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates dopamine release in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain dopamine is implicated in the regulation of movement, attention, reward and learning and plays an important role in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Animal experiments have demonstrated that brain stimulation is able to induce significant dopaminergic changes in extrastriatal areas. Given the up-growing interest of non-invasive brain stimulation as potential tool for treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders, it would be critical to investigate dopaminergic functional interactions in the prefrontal cortex and more in particular the effect of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (areas 9/46 stimulation on prefrontal dopamine (DA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Healthy volunteers were studied with a high-affinity DA D2-receptor radioligand, [(11C]FLB 457-PET following 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left and right DLPFC. rTMS on the left DLPFC induced a significant reduction in [(11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BP in the ipsilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC (BA 25/12, pregenual ACC (BA 32 and medial orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11. There were no significant changes in [(11C]FLB 457 BP following right DLPFC rTMS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence of extrastriatal DA modulation following acute rTMS of DLPFC with its effect limited to the specific areas of medial prefrontal cortex. [(11C]FLB 457-PET combined with rTMS may allow to explore the neurochemical functions of specific cortical neural networks and help to identify the neurobiological effects of TMS for the treatment of different neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  7. Effects of arsenic trioxide on the methylation of TMS1 gene in K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the methylation status of TMS1gene and its demethylation by arsenic trioxide(As2O2)in K562 cells.Methods K562 cells were treated with different concentrations of As2O2for 48 hours.Methylationspecific PCR(MSP)was used to determine the methylation status of TMS1.RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the levels of TMS1 mRNA and protein.

  8. Comparison of TMS-induced arm activation and upper limb functional tests in hemiparetic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkka Ina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke has a major impact in the total cost of healthcare in the Western world as stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability [1]. In attempts to enhance motor recovery after stroke effective treatment strategies have been developed in recent years. Appropriate evaluation of the intervention programs requires comprehensive and accurate assessment of the residual abnormal function. In the present study we compare two well-known clinical functional scoring tests developed for the assessment of hemiparetic upper limb function due to stroke and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS, which measures involuntary target muscle response to cortical stimulation. The aim is to investigate the equivalence of these methods and thus add objective evidence of the limb function to strengthen evidence-based practice. In addition to functional tests, four muscles of both arms were studied in twenty chronic stroke patients. Those patients without motor evoked potentials (MEP to nTMS in the affected upper limb had significantly lower total score in Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test and longer performance time than those patients with MEP. Patients, in whom MEP in each of the four target muscles was elicitable, had better than average scores in clinical functional tests while patients, in whom no MEP was elicitable in any target muscle, had worse than average scores. Transcranial magnetic stimulation adds crucial information when clinical assessment based on voluntary activation by command is challenging, e.g. in patients suffering from cognitive deficits.

  9. Spatially specific vs. unspecific disruption of visual orientation perception using chronometric pre-stimulus TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Duecker, Felix; Fernholz, Martin H P; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over occipital cortex can impair visual processing. Such "TMS masking" has repeatedly been shown at several stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with TMS pulses generally applied after the onset of a visual stimulus. Following increased interest in the neuronal state-dependency of visual processing, we recently explored the efficacy of TMS at "negative SOAs", when no visual processing can yet occur. We could reveal pre-stimulus TMS disruption, with results moreover hinting at two separate mechanisms in occipital cortex biasing subsequent orientation perception. Here we extended this work, including a chronometric design to map the temporal dynamics of spatially specific and unspecific mechanisms of state-dependent visual processing, while moreover controlling for TMS-induced pupil covering. TMS pulses applied 60-40 ms prior to a visual stimulus decreased orientation processing independent of stimulus location, while a local suppressive effect was found for TMS applied 30-10 ms pre-stimulus. These results contribute to our understanding of spatiotemporal mechanisms in occipital cortex underlying the state-dependency of visual processing, providing a basis for future work to link pre-stimulus TMS suppression effects to other known visual biasing mechanisms.

  10. Spatially specific versus unspecific disruption of visual orientation perception using chronometric pre-stimulus TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Alexander De Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over occipital cortex can impair visual processing. Such ‘TMS masking’ has repeatedly been shown at several stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs, with TMS pulses generally applied after the onset of a visual stimulus. Following increased interest in the neuronal state-dependency of visual processing, we recently explored the efficacy of TMS at ‘negative SOAs’, when no visual processing can yet occur. We could reveal pre-stimulus TMS disruption, with results moreover hinting at two separate mechanisms in occipital cortex biasing subsequent orientation perception. Here we extended this work, including a chronometric design to map the temporal dynamics of spatially specific and unspecific mechanisms of state-dependent visual processing, while moreover controlling for TMS-induced pupil covering. TMS pulses applied 60-40 ms prior to a visual stimulus decreased orientation processing independent of stimulus location, while a local suppressive effect was found for TMS applied 30-10 ms pre-stimulus. These results contribute to our understanding of spatiotemporal mechanisms in occipital cortex underlying the state-dependency of visual processing, providing a basis for future work to link pre-stimulus TMS suppression effects to other known visual biasing mechanisms.

  11. Therapeutic impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tinnitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Robabeh; Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Hasandokht, Tolou

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) compared with sham in chronic tinnitus patients. We searched databases, from their onset up to August 2014, for randomized controlled trials (RCT) in English that assessed the effectiveness of rTMS for chronic tinnitus. RCTs were selected according to inclusion/exclusion criteria before data were extracted. For the meta-analysis weighted mean differences (and standard deviations) of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) scores were determined. Therapeutic success was defined as difference of at least 7 points in the THI score between baseline and the follow-up assessment after treatment. The odds ratio (OR) for this variable was assessed. Results from 15 RCTs were analyzed. The mean difference for TQ score at 1 week after intervention was 3.42. For THI, the data of mean difference score in two groups, 1 and 6 month after intervention, was 6.71 and 12.89, respectively. The all comparisons indicated a significant medium to large effect size in follow-up which is in favor of the rTMS. The pooled OR of therapeutic success of the studies which used THI at 1 month after intervention was 15.75. These data underscore the clinical effect of rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus. However, there is high variability of studies design and reported outcomes. Replication of data in multicenter trials with a large number of patients and long-term follow-up is needed before further conclusions can be drawn. PMID:25968009

  12. Removing TMS-induced artifacts from EEG%经颅磁刺激同步脑电活动伪迹去除方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 麻蔓芳; 李颖洁

    2011-01-01

    The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG) is an effective means for understanding the network of brain functions.The development of TMS-EEG,however,has been hampered by strong TMS-induced artifacts in the electrode leads.This article first introduces the TMS technology and expounds the causes of TMS-induced artifacts.According to the source of the artifact,the study reviews the artifact removing methods reported in the recent ten years regarding TMS discharge,muscle artifacts and auditory artifacts and residual artifacts.Perspectives of the related techniques are introduced at the end of the article.It is expectable that there will be a great breakthrough not only on the TMS theory but also in clinical research due to the attractive prospect in application and high research value of TMS.TMS-induced artifacts will be well solved at that time.%经颅磁刺激同步脑电( TMS-EEG)技术是研究大脑功能网络的有效手段,但TMS过程中诱发的伪迹一直是阻碍TMS-EEG技术发展的瓶颈.阐述了TMS和EEG技术结合产生伪迹的原因,从伪迹的来源入手,就TMS放电伪迹、肌电伪迹、听觉伪迹及残留伪迹等方面,总结了近十几年来文献中提到的伪迹去除方法,并对相关技术的未来发展作了展望.可以预计,由于其诱人的应用前景和极高的研究价值,在未来几年里经颅磁刺激技术无论在理论上还是临床上,将会有一个大的突破,TMS诱发伪迹的问题也将会得到很好的解决.

  13. TMS in therapy of depressions - the problem of determining the area to be stimulated, i.e., a few words about the anatomy of depressive disorders [Stymulacja TMS w terapii depresji – problem miejsca stymulacji, czyli kilka słów o anatomii zaburzeń depresyjnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyss, Tomasz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS is studied on its antidepressant efficacy. Clinical investigations show, that active stimulation is indeed more effective than placebo; the antidepressant effect itself is however weak. Except the technical parameters of stimulations – the selection of the appropriate stimulation place seems to be the main factor influencing the effectiveness of TMS stimulation in the therapy of the depression. The left dorsolateral prefrontal area is the most often chosen goal of TMS stimulation. It is however one from many places, in which the metabolic dysfunction can be identified in patients with depression. The stimulation „at haphazard” of this area seems to be the main cause of the weak results of hitherto published clinical investigations. The author presents the proposal of the improvement of the effectiveness of TMS stimulation in depression. Marking the place of the metabolic dysfunction – with the help of functional neuroimaging techniques – is the most important element of this algorithm. The necessity of using additional techniques makes however the TMS method difficult in applying, little friendly and expensive.

  14. Interfering with activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex via TMS affects social impressions updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Chiara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Todorov, Alexander; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2016-08-01

    In our everyday social interactions we often need to deal with others' unpredictable behaviors. Integrating unexpected information in a consistent representation of another agent is a cognitively demanding process. Several neuroimaging studies point to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as a critical structure in mediating social evaluations. Our aim here was to shed light on the possible causal role of the mPFC in the dynamic process of forming and updating social impressions about others. We addressed this issue by suppressing activity in the mPFC by means of 1 Hz offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to a task requiring participants to evaluate other agents' trustworthiness after reading about their social behavior. In two different experiments, we found that inhibiting activity in the mPFC increased perceived trustworthiness when inconsistent information about one agent's behavior was provided. In turn, when only negative or positive behaviors of a person were described, TMS over the mPFC did not affect judgments. Our results indicate that the mPFC is causally involved in mediating social impressions updating-at least in cases in which judgment is uncertain due to conflicting information to be processed. PMID:27012713

  15. Left occipitotemporal cortex contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions: fMRI and TMS evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca ePerini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the left lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC in both tool and hand perception but the functional role of this region is not fully known. Here, by using a task manipulation, we tested whether tool-/hand-selective LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions. Participants viewed briefly presented pictures of kitchen and garage tools while they performed one of two tasks: in the action task, they judged whether the tool is associated with a hand rotation action (e.g., screwdriver or a hand squeeze action (e.g., garlic press, while in the location task they judged whether the tool is typically found in the kitchen (e.g., garlic press or in the garage (e.g., screwdriver. Both tasks were performed on the same stimulus set and were matched for difficulty. Contrasting fMRI responses between these tasks showed stronger activity during the action task than the location task in both tool- and hand-selective LOTC regions, which closely overlapped. No differences were found in nearby object- and motion-selective control regions. Importantly, these findings were confirmed by a TMS study, which showed that effective TMS over the tool-/hand-selective LOTC region significantly slowed responses for tool action discriminations relative to tool location discriminations, with no such difference during sham TMS. We conclude that left LOTC contributes to the discrimination of tool-associated hand actions.

  16. Detection of TV goniometer based on TMS320DM642%基于TMS320DM642的电视测角仪检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟伟; 王竹林; 张自宾; 张晓龙

    2011-01-01

    According to the testing requirements of TV Goniomete, a video test system with TMS320DM642 as the core framework was proposed by combining digital image processing technique, and the main circuit design was introduced in detail.According to the correlation of CCD pixels with the pixels in the digital images and the characteristics of television goniometer to capture the marked bullet, a treatment program was proposed to calculate the offset of marked bullet in the digital image.Using the proposed system, the range of data processing was reduced by locating the tracking window, and the real time quality of test system was improved.The entire system is designed based on video acquisition system with digital image processing as the core, which provides a new way for television goniometer test study.%通过分析电视测角仪的检测需求,结合数字图像处理技术,提出了以TMS320DM642为核心的视频检测系统框架,并对主要电路的设计进行了详细的介绍.根据CCD像元与数字图像中像素的对应关系,提出了在数字图像中计算弹标偏移量的处理方案,结合电视测角仪捕捉弹标信号的特点,通过追踪窗口的定位缩小了数据处理范围,提高了检测系统的实时性.整个系统以视频采集系统为基础,以数字图像处理为核心,为电视测角仪的检测研究提供了一种新的思路.

  17. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H2(15)O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy.

  18. Long-latency TMS-evoked potentials during motor execution and inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eYamanaka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG, which is effective for the direct demonstration of cortical reactivity and corticocortical connectivity during cognitive tasks through the spatio-temporal pattern of long-latency TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. However, it remains unclear what pattern is associated with the inhibition of a planned motor response. Therefore, we performed TMS-EEG recording during a go/stop task, in which participants were instructed to click a computer mouse with a right index finger when an indicator that was moving with a constant velocity reached a target (go trial or to avoid the click when the indicator randomly stopped just before it reached the target (stop trial. Single-pulse TMS to the left (contralateral or right (ipsilateral motor cortex was applied 500 ms before or just at the target time. TEPs related to motor execution and inhibition were obtained by subtractions between averaged EEG waveforms with and without TMS. As a result, in TEPs induced by both contralateral and ipsilateral TMS, small oscillations were followed by a prominent negative deflection around the TMS site peaking at approximately 100 ms post-TMS (N100, and a less pronounced later positive component (LPC over the broad areas that was centered at the midline-central site in both go and stop trials. However, compared to the pattern in go and stop trials with TMS at 500 ms before the target time, N100 and LPC were differently modulated in the go and stop trials with TMS just at the target time. The amplitudes of both N100 and LPC decreased in go trials, while the amplitude of LPC decreased and the latency of LPC was delayed in both go and stop trials. These results suggested that TMS-induced neuronal reactions in the motor cortex and subsequent their propagation to surrounding cortical areas might change functionally according to task demand when executing and inhibiting a motor

  19. Long-latency TMS-evoked potentials during motor execution and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Kentaro; Kadota, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has often been used in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG), which is effective for the direct demonstration of cortical reactivity and corticocortical connectivity during cognitive tasks through the spatio-temporal pattern of long-latency TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). However, it remains unclear what pattern is associated with the inhibition of a planned motor response. Therefore, we performed TMS-EEG recording during a go/stop task, in which participants were instructed to click a computer mouse with a right index finger when an indicator that was moving with a constant velocity reached a target (go trial) or to avoid the click when the indicator randomly stopped just before it reached the target (stop trial). Single-pulse TMS to the left (contralateral) or right (ipsilateral) motor cortex was applied 500 ms before or just at the target time. TEPs related to motor execution and inhibition were obtained by subtractions between averaged EEG waveforms with and without TMS. As a result, in TEPs induced by both contralateral and ipsilateral TMS, small oscillations were followed by a prominent negative deflection around the TMS site peaking at approximately 100 ms post-TMS (N100), and a less pronounced later positive component (LPC) over the broad areas that was centered at the midline-central site in both go and stop trials. However, compared to the pattern in go and stop trials with TMS at 500 ms before the target time, N100 and LPC were differently modulated in the go and stop trials with TMS just at the target time. The amplitudes of both N100 and LPC decreased in go trials, while the amplitude of LPC decreased and the latency of LPC was delayed in both go and stop trials. These results suggested that TMS-induced neuronal reactions in the motor cortex and subsequent their propagation to surrounding cortical areas might change functionally according to task demand when executing and inhibiting a motor response.

  20. A MPEG-4 encoder based on TMS320C6416

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui-ju; Liu, Wei-ning

    2013-08-01

    Engineering and products need to achieve real-time video encoding by DSP, but the high computational complexity and huge amount of data requires that system has high data throughput. In this paper, a real-time MPEG-4 video encoder is designed based on TMS320C6416 platform. The kernel is the DSP of TMS320C6416T and FPGA chip f as the organization and management of video data. In order to control the flow of input and output data. Encoded stream is output using the synchronous serial port. The system has the clock frequency of 1GHz and has up to 8000 MIPS speed processing capacity when running at full speed. Due to the low coding efficiency of MPEG-4 video encoder transferred directly to DSP platform, it is needed to improve the program structure, data structures and algorithms combined with TMS320C6416T characteristics. First: Design the image storage architecture by balancing the calculation spending, storage space cost and EDMA read time factors. Open up a more buffer in memory, each buffer cache 16 lines of video data to be encoded, reconstruction image and reference image including search range. By using the variable alignment mode of the DSP, modifying the definition of structure variables and change the look-up table which occupy larger space with a direct calculation array to save memory space. After the program structure optimization, the program code, all variables, buffering buffers and the interpolation image including the search range can be placed in memory. Then, as to the time-consuming process modules and some functions which are called many times, the corresponding modules are written in parallel assembly language of TMS320C6416T which can increase the running speed. Besides, the motion estimation algorithm is improved by using a cross-hexagon search algorithm, The search speed can be increased obviously. Finally, the execution time, signal-to-noise ratio and compression ratio of a real-time image acquisition sequence is given. The experimental

  1. Improvement of the Oxidation Resistance of the Single-Crystal Ni-Based TMS-82+ Superalloy by Ni–Al Coatings with/without the Diffusion Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.W.; Song, G.M.; Wang, Y.M.; Narita, T.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation behavior of the uncoated base, Ni–Al coated and Re–Cr-Ni plus Ni–Al coated single-crystal (SC) Ni-based TMS-82+ superalloy is studied under cyclic air at 900ºC for 200 h to assess the oxidation resistance. Regardless of the coating processing, Ni–Al coating is effective in improving the ox

  2. flexTMS--a novel repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation device with freely programmable stimulus currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattinger, Norbert; Moessnang, Georg; Gleich, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is able to noninvasively excite neuronal populations due to brief magnetic field pulses. The efficiency and the characteristics of stimulation pulse shapes influence the physiological effect of TMS. However, commercial devices allow only a minimum of control of different pulse shapes. Basically, just sinusoidal and monophasic pulse shapes with fixed pulse widths are available. Only few research groups work on TMS devices with controllable pulse parameters such as pulse shape or pulse width. We describe a novel TMS device with a full-bridge circuit topology incorporating four insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules and one energy storage capacitor to generate arbitrary waveforms. This flexible TMS (flexTMS ) device can generate magnetic pulses which can be adjusted with respect to pulse width, polarity, and intensity. Furthermore, the equipment allows us to set paired pulses with a variable interstimulus interval (ISI) from 0 to 20 ms with a step size of 10  μs. All user-defined pulses can be applied continually with repetition rates up to 30 pulses per second (pps) or, respectively, up to 100 pps in theta burst mode. Offering this variety of flexibility, flexTMS will allow the enhancement of existing TMS paradigms and novel research applications. PMID:22531742

  3. CELP语音编码与TMS 320 C54x%CELP Speech Coding and TMS 320 C54x

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镐炜; 黄芝平; 王跃科

    2000-01-01

    介绍了码激励线性预测(CELP)编码的基本原理和新近推出的TMS 320 C54x定点DSP芯片,结合其指令特点探讨了TMS 320 C54x在实现CELP类语音编码方案时的一些有效的编程方法.

  4. Concurrent Application of TMS and Near-infrared Optical Imaging: Methodological Considerations and Potential Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Parks

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with non-invasive neuroimaging provides a powerful method for investigating functional connectivity in the human brain and the causal relationships between areas in distributed brain networks. TMS has been combined with numerous neuroimaging techniques including, electroencephalography (EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. Recent work has also demonstrated the feasibility and utility of combining TMS with non-invasive near-infrared optical imaging techniques, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and the event-related optical signal (EROS. Simultaneous TMS and optical imaging affords a number of advantages over other neuroimaging methods but also involves a unique set of methodological challenges and considerations. This paper describes the methodology of concurrently performing optical imaging during the administration of TMS, focusing on experimental design, potential artifacts, and approaches to controlling for these artifacts.

  5. A Novel Transcranial Magnetic Stimulator Inducing Near Rectangular Pulses with Controllable Pulse Width (cTMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 7 kA, enabling PW control from 5 μs to over 100 μs. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 22–34% less energy and generate 67–72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 μs, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  6. Modulation of sensory inhibition of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS prior to movement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) refers to a decrement of the size of a motor evoked potential (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after electrical stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve (PNS) (Tokimura et al. 2000). Since SAI occurs when TMS is applied at the time...... to rest. In 9 healthy subjects (23 ± 3 years) MEPs were recorded in m. first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and m. abductor pollicis brevis (APB). To induce SAI, n. medianus was stimulated 20 ms prior to TMS over the motorcortex. In control trials, interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between afferent stimulation...... and TMS of 15, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ms were additionally tested. When moving, subjects were told to react to the afferent stimulus, and the delay between TMS and EMG onset was 343 ± 160 ms. When tested prior to movement, MEPs elicited with a delay of 20 ms after PNS were significantly greater (23 ± 9...

  7. A transcranial magnetic stimulator inducing near-rectangular pulses with controllable pulse width (cTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2008-01-01

    A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near-rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 6 kA, enabling PW control from 5 micros to over 100 micros. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 2%-34% less energy and generate 67%-72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 micros, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369

  8. Effect of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Li Ren

    Full Text Available Small clinical trials have reported that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS might improve language recovery in patients with aphasia after stroke. However, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses studies have investigated the effect of rTMS on aphasia. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies that explored the effects of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients.We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, and Journals@Ovid for randomized controlled trials published between January 1965 and October 2013 using the keywords "aphasia OR language disorders OR anomia OR linguistic disorders AND repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation OR rTMS". We used fixed- and random-effects models to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD and a 95% CI for the language outcomes.Seven eligible studies involving 160 stroke patients were identified in this meta-analysis. A significant effect size of 1.26 was found for the language outcome severity of impairment (95% CI = 0.80 to 1.71 without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.44. Further analyses demonstrated prominent effects for the naming subtest (SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.87, repetition (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.92, writing (SMD = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.22, and comprehension (the Token test: SMD = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.09 without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%. The SMD of AAT and BDAE comprehension subtests was 0.32 (95% CI = -0.08 to 0.72 with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 32%,P = 0.22. The effect size did not change significantly even when any one trial was eliminated. None of the patients from the 7 included articles reported adverse effects from rTMS.Low-frequency rTMS with a 90% resting motor threshold that targets the triangular part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG has a positive effect on language recovery in patients with aphasia following

  9. 41 CFR 301-50.3 - Must I use the ETS or TMS to arrange my travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TMS to arrange my travel? 301-50.3 Section 301-50.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... ETS or TMS to arrange my travel? Yes, if you are an employee of an agency as defined in § 301-1.1 of... then, you must use your agency's existing Travel Management Service (TMS) to make your...

  10. The effects of low- and high-frequency repetitive TMS on the input/output properties of the human corticospinal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdayer, E; Degardin, A; Cassim, F; Bocquillon, P; Derambure, P; Devanne, H

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of various parameters (notably the frequency and intensity) of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the primary motor (M1) and premotor (PMC) cortices on the excitability of the first dorsalis interosseus (FDI) corticospinal pathway. To this end, we applied a comprehensive input-output analysis after fitting the experimental results to a sigmoidal function. Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in the experiments. Repetitive TMS was applied either over M1 or PMC at 1 Hz (LF) for 30 min (1,800 pulses) or at 20 Hz (HF) for 20 min (1,600 pulses). In the HF condition, the TMS intensity was set to 90% (HF(90)) of the FDI's resting motor threshold (RMT). In the LF condition, the TMS intensity was set to either 90% (LF(90)) or 115% (LF(115)) of the RMT. The FDI input/output (I/O) curve was measured on both sides of the body before rTMS (the Pre session) and then during two Post sessions. For each subject, the I/O curves (i.e., the integral of the FDI motor-evoked potential (MEP) vs. stimulus intensity) were fitted using a Boltzmann sigmoidal function. The graph's maximum slope, S (50) and plateau value were then compared between Pre and Post sessions. LF(115) over M1 increased the slope of the FDI I/O curve but did not change the S (50) and plateau value. This also suggested an increase in the RMT. HF(90) led to a more complex effect, with an increase in the slope and a decrease in the S (50) and plateau value. We did not see a cross effect on the homologous FDI corticospinal pathway, and only PMC LF(90) had an effect on ipsilateral corticospinal excitability. Our results suggest that rTMS may exert a more complex influence on cortical network excitability than is usually reported (i.e. simple inhibitory or facilitatory effects). Analysis of the fitted stimulus response curve indicates a dichotomous influence of both low- and high-frequency rTMS on M1 cortical excitability; this may

  11. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  12. Investigating Emotional Top Down Modulation of Ambiguous Faces by Single Pulse TMS on Early Visual Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary A.; Vakhrushev, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces. PMID:27445674

  13. TUX-TMS: Thapar University Extensible-Trust Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bhanwar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a Grid Computing scenario, where the market players are dynamic; traditional assumptions for establishing and evaluating trust, do not hold good anymore. There are two different methods for handling access controls to the resources either by using policy based approach where logical rules and verifiable properties are encoded in signed credentials or using reputation based approach where trust values are collected, aggregated and evaluated to disseminate reputation among the market players. There is need for a dynamic and flexible general-purpose trust management system. In this paper TUX-TMS: an extensible reputation based Trust Management System is presented for establishing and evaluating trust in grid systems. TUX is an efficient Reputation based trust management system for establishing secure Grids.

  14. Attention Modulates TMS-Locked Alpha Oscillations in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jim D; Thut, Gregor; Jensen, Ole; Bergmann, Til O

    2015-10-28

    Cortical oscillations, such as 8-12 Hz alpha-band activity, are thought to subserve gating of information processing in the human brain. While most of the supporting evidence is correlational, causal evidence comes from attempts to externally drive ("entrain") these oscillations by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Indeed, the frequency profile of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) closely resembles that of oscillations spontaneously emerging in the same brain region. However, it is unclear whether TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are produced by the same neuronal mechanisms. If so, they should react in a similar manner to top-down modulation by endogenous attention. To test this prediction, we assessed the alpha-like EEG response to TMS of the visual cortex during periods of high and low visual attention while participants attended to either the visual or auditory modality in a cross-modal attention task. We observed a TMS-locked local oscillatory alpha response lasting several cycles after TMS (but not after sham stimulation). Importantly, TMS-locked alpha power was suppressed during deployment of visual relative to auditory attention, mirroring spontaneous alpha amplitudes. In addition, the early N40 TEP component, located at the stimulation site, was amplified by visual attention. The extent of attentional modulation for both TMS-locked alpha power and N40 amplitude did depend, with opposite sign, on the individual ability to modulate spontaneous alpha power at the stimulation site. We therefore argue that TMS-locked and spontaneous oscillations are of common neurophysiological origin, whereas the N40 TEP component may serve as an index of current cortical excitability at the time of stimulation.

  15. Primary structure of the tms and prs genes of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Arnvig, Kirsten

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence was determined of a 3211 nucleotide pair EcoRI-PvuII DNA fragment containing the tms and prs genes as well as a part of the ctc gene of Bacillus subtilis. The prs gene encodes phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase, whereas the functioning of the tms and ctc gene...... products remains to be established. The prs gene contains an open reading frame of 317 codons resulting in a subunit Mr of 34828. An open reading frame comprising the tms gene contained 456 codons resulting in a putative translation product with an Mr of 49,554. Comparison of the deduced B. subtilis PRPP...

  16. Potential diagnostic significance of HSP90, ACS/TMS1, and L-plastin in the identification of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Allen G; Vasquez, Juan G; Yates, Nathan; Ho, Jonhan

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest cancers, yet it remains a diagnostic and prognostic challenge. The lack of effective treatment modalities compounds this challenge. Characterizing the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of melanoma is the first step to understanding the pathophysiology of melanoma. Numerous molecular studies have helped us understand critical changes that occur in the transition from a benign nevus to melanoma. However, many of these processes remain undiscovered. The goal of the current project was to characterize the proteomes of benign nevi and malignant melanomas using proteomic methods, with confirmation by immunohistochemical analysis. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified proteins potentially involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Several of the identified proteins have known roles in oncogenesis, melanogenesis, or both. We selected Hsp90-β, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC/TMS1), and L-plastin from these to analyze nevi and melanoma samples by immunohistochemical analysis. Hsp90-β and ASC/TMS1 staining was higher in melanoma when compared with nevi, whereas L-plastin protein expression was not significantly different between cells of these tumor types; however, it was expressed in the inflammatory milieu of melanoma. ACS/TMS1 showed staining in normal and junctional melanocytes, as well as in superficial nevomelanocytes, but deeper dermal nevomelanocytes gradually lost expression. This study helps validate the use of proteomics to aid in characterizing protein differences between nevi and melanomas and also underscores the importance of correlating proteomic results with histomorphology to understand the context of the information. The proteins in the current study may hold potential in differentiating between melanoma and benign nevi in diagnostically challenging cases.

  17. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, G.; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Stippich, C.

    2010-01-01

    of essential cortex, it cannot provide information preoperatively for surgical planning.Brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly being used to localize functionally critical cortical...

  18. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS......Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection...

  19. SG-TMS 系统在宁夏电力的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁

    2014-01-01

    结合宁夏电力建设 SG-TMS 系统(全称国家电网公司通信管理系统)的实践,对宁夏电力 SG-TMS 系统的结构部署、实现的功能等方面进行了详细的介绍,并对使用 SG-TMS 系统的优势进行了分析,明确了 SG-TMS 系统对电力通信网运维、监控、管理工作的重要性和必要性。

  20. Visual masking with frontally applied pre-stimulus TMS and its subject-specific neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutiku, Renate; Tulver, Kadi; Aru, Jaan; Bachmann, Talis

    2016-07-01

    The visibility of a visual target stimulus depends on the local state of the early visual cortex shortly before the stimulus itself is presented. This view is supported by the observation that occipitally applied pre-stimulus TMS can disrupt subsequent information processing leading to visual masking effects. According to another line of accumulating evidence, however, global pre-stimulus connectivity patterns could be as crucial as local cortical states. In line with the latter view we show that pre-stimulus masking occurs even if TMS is directed to the frontal cortex. Importantly, the individual extent of this effect is strongly correlated with the subject-specific peak latency of a late positive TMS-evoked potential. Our results thus suggest a third type of masking occurring neither through direct interaction with visual areas nor by a modal visual masking input. Our results also shed light on the inter-individual differences in TMS research in general.

  1. The effects of TMS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on trans-saccadic memory of multiple objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, L L; Dessing, J C; Malik, P; Prime, S L; Crawford, J D

    2014-10-01

    Humans typically make several rapid eye movements (saccades) per second. It is thought that visual working memory can retain and spatially integrate three to four objects or features across each saccade but little is known about this neural mechanism. Previously we showed that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the posterior parietal cortex and frontal eye fields degrade trans-saccadic memory of multiple object features (Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2008, Journal of Neuroscience, 28(27), 6938-6949; Prime, Vesia, & Crawford, 2010, Cerebral Cortex, 20(4), 759-772.). Here, we used a similar protocol to investigate whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area involved in spatial working memory, is also involved in trans-saccadic memory. Subjects were required to report changes in stimulus orientation with (saccade task) or without (fixation task) an eye movement in the intervening memory interval. We applied single-pulse TMS to left and right DLPFC during the memory delay, timed at three intervals to arrive approximately 100 ms before, 100 ms after, or at saccade onset. In the fixation task, left DLPFC TMS produced inconsistent results, whereas right DLPFC TMS disrupted performance at all three intervals (significantly for presaccadic TMS). In contrast, in the saccade task, TMS consistently facilitated performance (significantly for left DLPFC/perisaccadic TMS and right DLPFC/postsaccadic TMS) suggesting a dis-inhibition of trans-saccadic processing. These results are consistent with a neural circuit of trans-saccadic memory that overlaps and interacts with, but is partially separate from the circuit for visual working memory during sustained fixation.

  2. Do tonic and burst TMS modulate the lemniscal and extralemniscal system differentially?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk De Ridder, Elsa van der Loo, Karolien Van der Kelen, Tomas Menovsky, Paul van de Heyning, Aage Moller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom percept related to tonic and burst hyperactivity of the auditory system. Two parallel pathways supply auditory information to the cerebral cortex: the tonotopically organised lemniscal system, and the non-tonotopic extralemniscal system, firing in tonic mode and burst mode respectively. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a non-invasive method capable of modulating activity of the human cortex, by delivering tonic or burst stimuli. Burst stimulation is shown to be more powerful in activating the cerebral cortex than tonic stimulation and bursts may activate neurons that are not activated by tonic stimulations. Methods: The effect of both tonic and burst TMS in 14 placebo-negative patients presenting narrow band/white noise tinnitus were analysed. Results: Our TMS results show that narrow band/white noise tinnitus is better suppressed with burst TMS in comparison to tonic TMS, t(13=6.4, p=.000. For pure tone tinnitus no difference is found between burst or tonic TMS, t(13=.3, ns. Discussion: Based on the hypothesis that white noise is the result of hyperactivity in the non-tonotopic system and pure tone tinnitus of the tonotopic system, we suggest that burst stimulation modulates the extralemniscal system and lemniscal system and tonic stimulation only the lemniscal system.

  3. Effect of r-TMS over standard therapy in decreasing muscle tone of spastic cerebral palsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meena; Lal Rajak, Bablu; Bhatia, Dinesh; Mukherjee, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is the one of most common neurological disorders occurring due to damage to the immature brain or any other brain lesion at the time of birth. To aid in making the life of the CP patient meaningful, several interventions such as medical, surgical and rehabilitation have been employed to date. Besides these, recently repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-TMS) is a new found approach which is being employed for treating various neurological and psychological conditions. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of r-TMS on muscle spasticity in CP patients by stimulating the motor cortex area of the brain, which is responsible for muscle movements. In this study, 20 subjects diagnosed with CP were recruited and 10 each were placed in two groups, namely the research group (RG) (mean age, height and weight were 7.99 (SD = 4.66) years, 116.7 (SD = 23.57) cm and 21.40 (SD = 10.95) kg, respectively) and the control group (CG) (mean age, height and weight were 8.41 (SD = 4.32) years, 107.9 (SD = 26.33) cm, 21.40 (SD = 12.63) kg, respectively). r-TMS frequencies of 5 Hz and 10 Hz were administered for 15 min daily to patients in RG followed by standard therapy (ST) of 1 h duration daily for 20 days. Moreover, the patients in the control group (CG) were given only standard therapy (ST) of 1 h duration for 20 days. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used as an outcome measure to determine the level of muscle spasticity. A pre- assessment of MAS score was performed on both RG and CG to determine the level of spasticity prior to starting therapy; and similarly post-assessment after 20 days was done to observe the changes post-therapy. Statistical analysis of pre vs post MAS scores showed that few muscles showed reduction in muscle tightness after administering only ST in the CG. On the contrary, the RG that underwent r-TMS therapy combined with ST showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in muscle tightness for all the

  4. Brain responses evoked by high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hamidi; H.A. Slagter; G. Tononi; B.R. Postle

    2010-01-01

    Background Many recent studies have used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to study brain-behavior relationships. However, the pulse-to-pulse neural effects of rapid delivery of multiple TMS pulses are unknown largely because of TMS-evoked electrical artifacts limiting recording of

  5. Implementing VLPR systems based on TMS320DM642

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a practical schema for using DSP boards to construct Vehicle License Plate Recognition (VLPR) modules that could be embedded in any Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Using DSP can avoid the heavy investment in dedicated VLPR system and improve the computational power compared to PC software environment. Low cost, high computational power, and high flexibility of DSP provide the License Plate Recognition System (LPRS) an excellent cost-effective solution to execute the major part of the recognition tasks. This paper describes a successful implementation of VLPR system based on Texas Instruments (TI)'s TMS320DM642. The DSP board acquires video (which could be output to a monitor for surveillance)from a camera, captures images from the video, locates and recognizes the license plates in images, and then sends the recognized results and related images after compression to a host PC through the network. Finally, the overall software is optimized according to the features of DM642 chip. Experiments showed that the DSP VLPR system performs well on the local license plates, and that the processing speed and accuracy can meet the requirement of practical applications.

  6. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease. PMID:26514052

  7. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease.

  8. Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Cognitive Training: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juyoun; Choi, Byong Hee; Oh, Eungseok; Sohn, Eun Hee; Lee, Ae Young

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been examined as a potential treatment for many neurological disorders. High-frequency rTMS in particular improves cognitive functions such as verbal fluency and memory. This study explored the effect of rTMS combined with cognitive training (rTMS-COG) on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed with 27 AD patients (18 and 8 in t...

  9. Interface Design between AD7656 and TMS320F2812%AD7656与TMS320F2812的接口设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩露

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the requirment of high-precision data collection ,a system based on digital singal processor TMS320F2812 and communications with 16-bit A/D converter AD7656 through CPLD was designed. Interfacing AD7656 to TMS320F2812 and the key programming was given in this paper ,as well as the attentions of using AD7656 was discussed.%为了满足高精度数据采集的需要,业内设计了一种基于TMS320F2812 DSP芯片并通过CPLD与16位模数转换芯片AD7656通讯的数据采集系统。文章给出了AD7656与TMS320F2812的接口设计与关键编程,并讨论了AD7656使用中需要注意的事项。

  10. The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain: Evidence from dual-site TMS

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Cathy J. Price; Baumgaertner, Annette; Geiss, Gesine; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we used online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the functional relevance of the right pIFG for auditory and visual phonological decisions. Healthy right-handed individuals made phono...

  11. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N; Christensen, Mark Schram;

    2014-01-01

    task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects' SoA during self-controlled movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-controlled movements and (2)/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents...... of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition), over the vertex (CZ) (sham condition) or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements...

  12. Frontal brain asymmetry as a marker of depression and effectiveness of TMS therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Resting frontal brain electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry has been hypothesi sed as a diagnostic marker for depression. A number of studies have shown that depressed individuals are characterised by diminished left sided activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is indicated by greater left than right alpha-band power. Relative left frontal region activity is believed to be associated with positive approach related behaviour and relative right frontal activity is seen to be linked to negative withdrawal related behaviour. In this study, frontal brain EEG was recorded from 17 depressed and 19 control subjects, from which frontal brain asymmetry ratios were calculated. The results confirmed the trend of relative left anterior hypoaclivation for individuals with depression compared to the healthy controls. This study also looked at beta and theta band ratios and found theta for depressed is predominantly negative, while the control group dis played mainly positive values. Beta comparison showed little significant difference between control and depressed groups. In addition, there have been few studies that examined frontal brain asymmetry in depression soon after treatment to gauge its effectiv ness. In a very preliminary study, the effect of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy on the alpha band frontal brain asymmetry ratio for 5 depl'essed subjects before and after treatment found a slight increase in FBA ratio for 4 subjects. Further research and a larger subject group is required to validate these results.

  13. 山羊用作下颌骨转移盘牵引成骨实验动物%Goats in bifocal distraction osteogenesis of mandibular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圃; 顾晓明

    2001-01-01

    @@0 引言牵引成骨(Distraction Osteogenesis)整复下颌骨节段性缺损主要是转移盘牵引成骨(Bifocal Distraction Osteogenesis, BDO; Trifocal Distraction Osteogenesis,TDO),所用实验动物为犬[12],本研究以下颌骨结构与人类接近的山羊为实验对象,探讨山羊用于下颌骨转移盘牵引成骨的特点及可行性. 1 材料与方法关中山羊3只,10~12 mo龄,体质量17~ 23 kg,雄性,有山羊角,排除羊类传染病后确定为实验动物,驱虫处理,青饲料与精饲料(麸子等)混合喂养,适应性训养时间7~10 d. 术前12 h禁饮食,全麻药使用速眠新,肌肉注射,0.06~0.1 mL*kg-1 ,必要时减量追加,局麻药物用10 g*L-1利多卡因局部浸润麻醉. 建立静脉通道者还可输入100 g*L-1葡萄糖液+维生素B1. 麻醉中注意观察呼吸、心跳情况. 为预防舌后坠产生阻塞性窒息,可将舌体牵出口外. 利用羊下颌骨前牙区、后牙区之间的无牙骨区制备节段性下颌骨缺损15~20 mm,,形成的创腔不与口腔相通,缺损远中端制备转移盘,安置骨牵引器. 手术结束后注意动物保暖,完全清醒后给予半流精饲料或切碎的青饲料.

  14. TMS-induced cortical potentiation during wakefulness locally increases slow wave activity during sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Huber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep slow wave activity (SWA is thought to reflect sleep need, increasing in proportion to the length of prior wakefulness and decreasing during sleep. However, the process responsible for SWA regulation is not known. We showed recently that SWA increases locally after a learning task involving a circumscribed brain region, suggesting that SWA may reflect plastic changes triggered by learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis directly, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in conjunction with high-density EEG in humans. We show that 5-Hz TMS applied to motor cortex induces a localized potentiation of TMS-evoked cortical EEG responses. We then show that, in the sleep episode following 5-Hz TMS, SWA increases markedly (+39.1+/-17.4%, p<0.01, n = 10. Electrode coregistration with magnetic resonance images localized the increase in SWA to the same premotor site as the maximum TMS-induced potentiation during wakefulness. Moreover, the magnitude of potentiation during wakefulness predicts the local increase in SWA during sleep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide direct evidence for a link between plastic changes and the local regulation of sleep need.

  15. Assessment of Event-Related EEG Power After Single-Pulse TMS in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome and Minimally Conscious State Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, Emanuela; Cavinato, Marianna; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Tonin, Paolo; Piccione, Francesco; Manganotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In patients without a behavioral response, non-invasive techniques and new methods of data analysis can complement existing diagnostic tools by providing a method for detecting covert signs of residual cognitive function and awareness. The aim of this study was to investigate the brain oscillatory activities synchronized by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the primary motor area in the time-frequency domain in patients with the unresponsive wakefulness syndrome or in a minimally conscious state as compared to healthy controls. A time-frequency analysis based on the wavelet transform was used to characterize rapid modifications of oscillatory EEG rhythms induced by TMS in patients as compared to healthy controls. The pattern of EEG changes in the patients differed from that of healthy controls. In the controls there was an early synchronization of slow waves immediately followed by a desynchronization of alpha and beta frequency bands over the frontal and centro-parietal electrodes, whereas an opposite early synchronization, particularly over motor areas for alpha and beta and over the frontal and parietal electrodes for beta power, was seen in the patients. In addition, no relevant modification in slow rhythms (delta and theta) after TMS was noted in patients. The clinical impact of these findings could be relevant in neurorehabilitation settings for increasing the awareness of these patients and defining new treatment procedures. PMID:26590568

  16. A Method for Evaluation and Comparison of Parallel Robots for Safe Human Interaction, Applied to Robotic TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Stienen, A.H.A.; Wijk, van der V.; Wessels, M.; Kooij, van der H.

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to modify behaviour of neurons in the brain. TMS is applied by running large currents through a coil close to the scalp. For consistent results it is required to maintain the coil position within millimetres of the targeted location, bu

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cyano-bridged Bimetallic Complex K3(TMS)2(H2O)2Cr(CN)6 [TMS = Tetramethylene Sulfone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; CHE Yun-Xia; ZHENG Ji-Min

    2005-01-01

    The cyano-bridged bimetallic complex K3(TMS)2(H2O)2Cr(CN)6 with three- dimensional microporous structure was synthesized and characterized. The title complex (C14H20CrK3N, Mr = 601.78) crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 14.357(4), b = 9.331(3), c = 19.180(6)(A), β = 96.754(5)o, V = 2551.6(13) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.567 g/m3, μ(MoKα) = 1.141 mm-1, F(000) = 1228, the final R = 0.0440 and wR = 0.0990 for 1760 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). In the crystal, two [Cr(CN) 6]3- units, four K+ ions and two oxygen atoms of two TMS molecules are linked to form a sixteen-membered ring and an extended three-dimensional structure.

  18. TMS320F28xx DSP中内部Flash的应用研究%Research of internal Flash memory on the TMS320F28xx DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 陈富林

    2006-01-01

    TMS320F28xx DSP器件中Flash的用法进行了总结.Flash的基本用法包括:从Flash拷贝段到RAM、代码安全模式(CSM)密码的编程、在DSP复位后从Flash运行代码、在进行C环境引导时禁止看门狗计时.

  19. 41 CFR 301-50.5 - What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I do not use my agency's TMS or the E-Gov Travel Service, and an exception has not been approved... REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.5 What is my liability if I do not use my agency's TMS... resulting from the failure to use the TMS or E-Gov Travel Service, including service fees,...

  20. 41 CFR 301-73.105 - What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? 301-73.105 Section 301-73.105 Public... What are the consequences of an employee not using the E-Gov Travel Service or the TMS? If an employee does not use the ETS (when available) or your agency's designated TMS, he/she is responsible for...

  1. 41 CFR 301-73.102 - May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we have fully deployed ETS within the agency? 301... Management Service § 301-73.102 May we grant a traveler an exception from required use of TMS or ETS once we... individual case by case exception to required use of your agency's current TMS or to required use of ETS...

  2. Distinct changes in cortical and spinal excitability following high-frequency repetitive TMS to the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Angelo; Bagnato, Sergio; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Morgante, Francesca; Sant'angelo, Antonio; Battaglia, Fortunato; Messina, Corrado; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Girlanda, Paolo

    2005-02-01

    It has been shown that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the human primary motor hand area (M1-HAND) can induce a lasting increase in corticospinal excitability. Here we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseus muscle to investigate how sub-threshold high-frequency rTMS to the M1-HAND modulates cortical and spinal excitability. In a first experiment, we gave 1500 stimuli of 5 Hz rTMS. At an intensity of 90% of active motor threshold, rTMS produced no effect on MEP amplitude at rest. Increasing the intensity to 90% of resting motor threshold (RMT), rTMS produced an increase in MEP amplitude. This facilitatory effect gradually built up during the course of rTMS, reaching significance after the administration of 900 stimuli. In a second experiment, MEPs were elicited during tonic contraction using weak anodal electrical or magnetic test stimuli. 1500 (but not 600) conditioning stimuli at 90% of RMT induced a facilitation of MEPs in the contracting FDI muscle. In a third experiment, 600 conditioning stimuli were given at 90% of RMT to the M1-HAND. Using two well-established conditioning-test paradigms, we found a decrease in short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), and a facilitation of the first peak of facilitatory I-waves interaction (SICF). There was no correlation between the relative changes in SICI and SICF. These results demonstrate that subthreshold 5 Hz rTMS can induce lasting changes in specific neuronal subpopulations in the human corticospinal motor system, depending on the intensity and duration of rTMS. Short 5 Hz rTMS (600 stimuli) at 90% of RMT can selectively shape the excitability of distinct intracortical circuits, whereas prolonged 5 Hz rTMS (> or =900 stimuli) provokes an overall increase in excitability of the corticospinal output system, including spinal motoneurones.

  3. The Treatment Motivation Scales for Forensic Outpatient Treatment (TMS-F) : Construction and Psychometric Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) is a Dutch 85-item self-report questionnaire for the motivation of forensic outpatients to engage in their treatment and six cognitive and affective determinants of this motivation. Following descriptions of the conceptual bas

  4. The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) - Construction and psychometric evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieschner, Klaus H.; Boomsma, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Treatment Motivation Scales for forensic outpatient treatment (TMS-F) is a Dutch 85-item self-report questionnaire for the motivation of forensic outpatients to engage in their treatment and six cognitive and affective determinants of this motivation. Following descriptions of the conceptual bas

  5. TMS stimulation over the inferior parietal cortex disrupts prospective sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Valérian; Moore, James W; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling an external event through one's own action. On one influential view, sense of agency is inferred after an action, by "retrospectively" comparing actual effects of actions against their intended effects. However, it has been recently shown that earlier processes, linked to action selection, may also contribute to sense of agency, in advance of the action itself, and independently of action effects. The inferior parietal cortex (IPC) may underpin this "prospective" contribution to agency, by monitoring signals relating to fluency of action selection in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Here, we combined transcranial stimulation (TMS) with subliminal priming of action selection to investigate the causal role of these regions in the prospective coding of agency. In a first experiment, we showed that TMS over left IPC at the time of action selection disrupts perceived control over subsequent effects of action. In a second experiment, we exploited the temporal specificity of single-pulse TMS to pinpoint the exact timing of IPC contribution to sense of agency. We replicated the reduction in perceived control at the point of action selection, while observing no effect of TMS-induced disruption of IPC at the time of action outcomes. PMID:25134684

  6. Reductions in CI amplitude after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the striate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a method capable of transiently inhibiting cortical excitability and disrupting information processing in the visual system. This method can be used to topographically map the functional contribution of different cortical brain areas in vis

  7. Normalizing biased spatial attention with parietal rTMS in a patient with focal hand dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Siebner, Hartwig R;

    2014-01-01

    We report the following case to highlight the possible relevance of biased spatial attention in focal hand dystonia (FHD). Deficient sensorimotor inhibition is a prominent pathophysiological feature of FHD [1,2]. Low-frequency repetitive Trascranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over contralateral...

  8. MEG evaluation of pico-Tesla external TMS on multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, P; Adamopoulos, A; Kotini, A; Tsagas, N

    2016-07-01

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of 10 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients (2 men, 8 women, mean 41.3±9.5 years, mean disease duration 12.7±7.2 years) were obtained using a whole-head 122 - channel MEG system in a magnetically shielded room of low magnetic noise. Our experimental design was double-blind in order to look for possible effect of external pico - Tesla Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pT-TMS). The external pT-TMS was applied on the MS patients with proper field characteristics (magnetic field amplitude: 1-7.5pT, frequency: the alpha-rhythm of the patient 8-13Hz) which were obtained prior to the application of pT-TMS. Each MS patient had two separate recording sessions consisting of 3 runs in between where were given real or sham pT-TMS. It was then tried to predict the real and sham stimulation sessions based on the changes in the mean peak frequency difference (MPFD) observed in the brain of the patients in the 2-7Hz frequency band. After unblinding it was found a significant effect of an increase of frequencies in the range of 2-7Hz across the subjects followed by an improvement and normalization of the MEG.

  9. Plasticity-Inducing TMS Protocols to Investigate Somatosensory Control of Hand Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand function depends on sensory feedback to direct an appropriate motor response. There is clear evidence that somatosensory cortices modulate motor behaviour and physiology within primary motor cortex. However, this information is mainly from research in animals and the bridge to human hand control is needed. Emerging evidence in humans supports the notion that somatosensory cortices modulate motor behaviour, physiology and sensory perception. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS allows for the investigation of primary and higher-order somatosensory cortices and their role in control of hand movement in humans. This review provides a summary of several TMS protocols in the investigation of hand control via the somatosensory cortices. TMS plasticity inducing protocols reviewed include paired associative stimulation, repetitive TMS, theta-burst stimulation as well as other techniques that aim to modulate cortical excitability in sensorimotor cortices. Although the discussed techniques may modulate cortical excitability, careful consideration of experimental design is needed to isolate factors that may interfere with desired results of the plasticity-inducing protocol, specifically events that may lead to metaplasticity within the targeted cortex.

  10. Estimulação magnética transcraniana na esquizofrenia Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Odebrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A estimulação magnética transcraniana (EMT é uma nova técnica capaz de estimular o cérebro através de um método indolor, não-invasivo e simples de ser aplicado. A utilização da EMT em pacientes com esquizofrenia tem sido alvo de alguns estudos. Neste artigo é feita uma revisão destes estudos. Inicialmente é feita uma breve descrição dos fundamentos fisiopatológicos que explicariam a sua eficácia e o seu possível mecanismo de ação. A seguir, são analisados os primeiros estudos não controlados e, depois, os estudos sobre os efeitos em sintomas positivos, sintomas negativos e na catatonia. O número de pesquisas neste assunto é crescente, mas a utilização da EMT ainda está no início e é muito cedo para ser usada na prática clínica diária.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a new technique capable of stimulating the brain through a painless, non-invasive and simple method. Its use in patients with schizophrenia has been the target of some studies. This article reviews these studies. Initially a brief discussion is offered about phisiopathologic basis that could explain its efficacy and its possible mechanism of action. The first open studies are analysed and, at last, studies about effects on positive and negative symptoms and catatonia are discussed. Research in this field is growing, although the use of TMS is in its beginning and it is early to draw any conclusions about its practical use on daily practice.

  11. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Heidi M.; Ogden, R. Todd; Martínez-Hernández, Isis E.; Lin, Xuejing; Chang, Y. Brenda; Rahman, Asif; Edwards, Dylan J.; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. TMS measures should be used based on their reliability in particular contexts. More work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed. PMID:26388729

  12. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  13. rTMS as a Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease with and without Comorbidity of Depression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Rutherford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing population of Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients worldwide, a noninvasive treatment for AD is needed. In this paper, the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulus (rTMS as a treatment for patients with probable AD is compared to the application of rTMS as a treatment for depression. Comorbidity of depression and dementia is discussed, as well as possible links between the two diseases. The possible confounding antidepressant effects of rTMS on cognitive improvements in AD patients are discussed.

  14. Role of TMS5: staphylococcal multidrug-efflux protein QacA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Bei; ZHOU Ting-quan; HUANG Ai-long; HUANG Wen-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Background QacA,a main exporter mediating the multidrug-resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to a variety of to determine the importance and topology of amino acid residues in and flanking the cytoplasmic end of TMS5.Methods Site-directed mutagenesis was used to mutate 5 residues,including L146,A147,V148,W149 and S150,into cysteine.A minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)and transport assay with or without N-ethylmaleimide(NEM)were performed to analyse the function of these mutants.Results All of the mutants showed comparable protein expression levels.MIC analysis suggested that mutant W149C showed low resistance levels to the drugs,but the mutations at L146,A147,V148,and S150C had little or no effect on the resistance level.And the results of the fluorimetric transport assay were in agreement with those of MIC analysis,that is to say,W149C did not allow transport to the substrates to be tested,while the other mutants retained significant transport ability.The reaction of the different mutant proteins with Fluorescein-NEM revealed that the mutant L146C was highly reactiMe with NEM:the W149C and S150C mutants were moderately reactive;A147C was barely reactive and V148C showed no reactivity.Conclusions The study identified that residues W149 and S150 situated at the intefface of the aqueous:lipid junction as functionally important residues,probably involved ln the substrate binding and translocation of QacA.

  15. TMS320DM642的视频监控系统硬件设计%Hardware Design of Video Monitoring System Based on TMS320DM642

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美成; 刘浩; 张捷

    2014-01-01

    The system is designed to implement the four-way video input and one-wey output based on TMS320DM642,the system com-bines with the video codec chip,and expands the capacity of the memory.This paper introduces the hardware design of the system,it mainly include video input and output module,power module,external memory module etc,and introduces the way of hardware debug-ging.The system has the advantages of short video transmission delay and high vedio processing speed,it can apply to the real-time video image processing.%该系统是以TMS320 DM642为核心,结合视频编解码芯片,并外扩大容量的存储器,实现4路视频输入与1路视频输出。本文主要介绍了基于TMS320 DM642的视频监控系统的硬件设计,主要包括视频输入/输出模块的设计、电源模块的设计、外部存储器模块的设计,同时介绍了基本的硬件调试方法。该系统具有视频传输延迟短、处理速度快的优点,可应用于实时视频图像处理。

  16. 基于TMS320F2812的太阳跟踪器设计%Sun-tracker Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培涛; 李成贵

    2010-01-01

    采用传感器和太阳位置计算相结合的方法,设计了基于TI公司的TMS320F2812的高精度太阳跟踪器.一方面可以防止较大误差积累,另一方面可以避免光线、天气情况的影响,跟踪精度得到了较大提高,能够很好地应用于光伏发电系统实现对太阳的精确跟踪.

  17. 基于 GCC的 TMS320C67xx 汇编代码的优化%TMS320C67xx assembler code optimization based on GCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate higher efficiency assembler code ,design and implement a TMS320C67xx assembler in‐struction level optimization algorithm based on GCC .Firstly ,assembler instructions are divided into different types ac‐cording to the function of instructions .Then ,link assembler instructions to the list .Secondly ,establish a read and write operation instruction list for each register .Finally ,through the judgment of instruction types and the analysis of read and write instructions list for each register ,complete the deletion of redundant code and the merging of instructions .The ex‐perimental results show that the execution efficiency of TMS320C67xx assembler code increased by about 20% after code optimization .Compared with the intermediate code optimization ,execution efficiency increased by about 15% .%为了使生成的汇编代码具有更高的执行效率,设计并实现了一种基于GCC的 TMS320C67xx汇编指令级的代码优化算法。首先,将汇编指令按照功能划分为不同的指令类型,并将汇编指令链接到链表中。然后,针对每一个寄存器建立对该寄存器的读写操作指令链表。最后,通过对指令类型的判断和对寄存器读写操作指令链表的分析,完成了冗余代码的删除和指令合并。实验结果表明,经过代码优化后,TMS320C67xx汇编代码的执行效率提高了20%左右,较中间代码级的优化算法执行效率提高了15%左右。

  18. Inserts type system GUI based on TMS320LF2407 to design the new method%基于TMS320LF2407嵌入系统GUI设计新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国华; 王峰; 孟哲

    2006-01-01

    提出一种基于TMS320LF2407的嵌入式系统GUI图文界面设计新方法.利用TMS320LF2407A程序空间与数据空间分离的特性和内部集成flash存储器的特点,重新设计运行时间支持库,进行片上大容量图文字库设计.

  19. AD1376A/D转换器与TMS320C32 DPS的接口设计%A/D Converter AD1376 and Its Interface With TMS320C32 DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金华; 张先鹤

    2000-01-01

    文章在简要介绍了AD1376芯片的功能特点及TMS320C32 DSP(数字信号处理器)的结构特点的基础上,重点介绍了AD1376模数转换器与TMS320C32 DSP的硬件接口电路和软件设计方法.

  20. A Conceptual Framework of Knowledge Transfer in Malaysia E-Government IT Outsourcing: An Integration with Transactive Memory System (TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aziati Abdul Hamid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research on knowledge transfer issues, there is a dearth of research that has explicitly focused on the role of Transactive Memory System (TMS in enabling inter-organizational knowledge transfer in e-government IT outsourcing. Although the information systems literature has recently acknowledged the role of TMS in improving knowledge processes, most of the research is still remain in theoretical conjecture. Additionally, most of related research was done in the lab based on the physical, virtual or memory recall tasks. None of empirical work has been done in integrating TMS in outsourcing context since most researchers used interpretive approach. To address this gap, we applied positivist approach through operationalization of identified factors that give impact towards Malaysia Public Agencies outsourcing partnership. The present paper attempts to provide an integrated conceptual framework of knowledge transfer with and integration of TMS to facilitate knowledge transfer process which further can be validated.

  1. A setup for administering TMS to medial and lateral cortical areas during whole-brain FMRI recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, A.D. de; Sommer, I.E.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Bloemendaal, M.; Bakker, C.J.; Klomp, D.W.J.; Bestmann, S.; Neggers, S.F.W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Stimulating brain areas with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while concurrently and noninvasively recording brain activity changes through functional MRI enables a new range of investigations about causal interregional interactions in the human brain. However, standard head-coil arr

  2. The effects of 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by tDCS on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Papen, Mitra; Fisse, Mirabell; Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2014-07-01

    Hypokinetic gait is a common and very disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the motor cortex has been used with variable effectiveness to treat hypokinesia in PD. Preconditioning rTMS by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance its effectiveness to treat hypokinetic gait in PD. Three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis was performed (1) prior to, (2) immediately after and (3) 30 min after low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz, 900 pulses, 80% of resting motor threshold) over M1 contralateral to the more affected body side preconditioned by (1) cathodal, (2) anodal or (3) sham tDCS (amperage: 1 mA, duration: 10 min) in ten subjects with PD (7 females, mean age 63 ± 9 years) and ten healthy subjects (four females, mean age 50 ± 11 years). The effects of tDCS-preconditioned rTMS on gait kinematics were assessed by the following parameters: number of steps, step length, stride length, double support time, cadence, swing and stance phases. Our data suggest a bilateral improvement of hypokinetic gait in PD after 1 Hz rTMS over M1 of the more affected body side preceded by anodal tDCS. In contrast, 1 Hz rTMS alone (preceded by sham tDCS) and 1 Hz rTMS preceded by cathodal tDCS were ineffective to improve gait kinematics in PD. In healthy subjects, gait kinematics was unaffected by either intervention. Preconditioning motor cortex rTMS by tDCS is a promising approach to treat hypokinetic gait in PD.

  3. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Schambra, Heidi M.; R. Todd eOgden; Isis eMartínez-Hernández; Xuejing eLin; Y. Brenda eChang; Asif eRahman; Dylan eEdwards; Krakauer, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice dail...

  4. Spatial localization and distribution of the TMS-related 'hotspot' of the tibialis anterior muscle representation in the healthy and post-stroke motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Tahara-Eckl, Lenore; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a type of noninvasive brain stimulation used to study corticomotor excitability of the intact and injured brain. Identification of muscle representations in the motor cortex is typically done using a procedure called 'hotspotting', which involves establishing the optimal location on the scalp that evokes a maximum TMS response with minimum stimulator intensity. The purpose of this study was to report the hotspot locations for the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle representation in the motor cortex of healthy and post stroke individuals. A retrospective data analyses from 42 stroke participants and 32 healthy participants was conducted for reporting TMS hotspot locations and their spatial patterns. Single pulse TMS, using a 110mm double cone coil, was used to identify the motor representation of the TA. The hotspot locations were represented as x and y-distances from the vertex for each participant. The mediolateral extent of the loci from the vertex (x-coordinate) and anteroposterior extent of the loci from the vertex (y-coordinate) was reported for each hemisphere: non-lesioned (XNLes, YNLes), lesioned (XLes, YLes) and healthy (XH, YH). We found that the mean hotspot loci for TA muscle from the vertex were approximately: 1.29cm lateral and 0.55cm posterior in the non-lesioned hemisphere, 1.25cm lateral and 0.5cm posterior in the lesioned hemisphere and 1.6cm lateral and 0.8cm posterior in the healthy brain. There was no significant difference in the x- and y-coordinates between the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres. However, the locations of the XNLes (p=0.01) and XLes (p=0.004) were significantly different from XH. The YNLes and YLes showed no significant differences from YH loci. Analyses of spatial clustering patterns using the Moran's I index showed a negative autocorrelation in stroke participants (NLes: Moran's I=-0.09, p<0.001; Les: Moran's I=-0.14, p=0.002), and a positive autocorrelation in healthy participants

  5. 基于TMS320F2812的高速数据采集系统%High-speed Data Acquisition System Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠钦; 杨威棣; 潘雪峰

    2011-01-01

    8 roads sync signal was collection by using TMS320F2812 DSP and MAX13O8 AD coverter. Collected data rela-time transited to the computer by CH372 USB inerface chip, and the data acquisition process controled and displayed by computer. The system can realized 800kbps real-time date transmission in single road of date acquisition and 400kbps in 8 roads synchronous collection.%采用TMS320F2812型号的DSP和MAX1308型号的AD转换器完成对8路同步信号的采集,通过USB接口芯片CH372将采集到的数据实时传输给计算机,计算机对整个数据采集过程进行控制并显示.该系统对单路的数据采集,可以实现800kbps的实时数据传输,8路同步采集可以实现400kbps的实时数据传输.

  6. The design of user Bootloader based on TMS320VC54x series DSP%TMS320VC54x系列DSP的用户Bootloader设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小莉

    2012-01-01

    TMS320VC54x系列DSP的内部ROM固化了一个称为Bootloader程序。在DSP上电时Bootloader将外部Flash中的用户程序搬移到DSP的片上RAM或片外RAM程序区中,并将程序指针指向用户程序运行时的首地址执行。在16bit并行自举方式下,DSP提供的这个Bootloader程序要求用户程序代码长度不能超过32KB。文介绍了一种用户Bootloader的设计方法,通过二次自举可实现对应用程序代码长度超过32KB的加载。%TMS320VC54x series DSP has a Bootloader program. It transfers code from external Flash into internal or external program memory following power-up. The length of user coder must be under 32 KB in the paraller boot mode. This paper provides a design methods of user Bootloader program. The method supports booting program, which length beyond 32 KB.

  7. Ultrasonic Doppler Flowmeter Based on TMS320F28335%基于TMS320F28335的超声多普勒流量计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    水永辉; 刘艳萍; 赵连环; 王庆山

    2012-01-01

    Based on continuous-wave ultrasonic Doppler method,a pipe-flow measurements system,using TMS320F28335 as the cote control chip,was designed to simplify the circuit of current ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. A detailed block diagram of the system design was given. The feasibility of difference frequency signal demodulation through software was analyzed, and the software design flow chart was presented. The results show that the development can greatly simplify the hardware design, and also has a high dynamic response and accuracy.%针对当前超声波多普勒流量计电路设计复杂的现状,以TMS320F28335作为核心控制芯片,采用连续波超声多普勒测量方法,设计管道流量测量系统.给出详细的系统设计框图,对利用软件实现差频信号的解调的可行性进行了分析,给出软件设计流程图.结果表明;该设计能简化系统硬件设计,同时具有较高的动态响应能力和测量精度.

  8. Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Eshel, N; Ruff, Christian C.; Spitzer, B; Blankenburg, F; Driver, J.

    2010-01-01

    Interplay between the cerebral hemispheres is vital for coordinating perception and behavior. One influential account holds that the hemispheres engage in rivalry, each inhibiting the other. In the somatosensory domain, a seminal paper claimed to demonstrate such interhemispheric rivalry, reporting improved tactile detection sensitivity on the right hand after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the right parietal lobe (Seyal, Ro, & Rafal, 1995). Such improvement in tactile detection i...

  9. TMS enhances retention of a motor skill in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisello, Clara; Blanco, Daniella; Fontanesi, Cecilia; Lin, Jing; Biagioni, Milton; Kumar, Pawan; Brys, Miroslaw; Loggini, Andrea; Marinelli, Lucio; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Quartarone, Angelo; Tononi, Giulio; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Ghilardi, Maria Felice

    2015-01-01

    Background In Parkinson’s disease (PD), skill retention is poor, even when acquisition rate is generally preserved. Recent work in normal subjects suggests that 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (5Hz-rTMS) may induce phenomena of long-term potentiation at the cortical level. Objective/Hypothesis We thus verified whether, in PD, 5Hz-rTMS enhances retention of a visuo-motor skill that involves the activity of the right posterior parietal cortex. Methods A group of patients with PD was tested in two two-day sessions, separated by one week (treatment and placebo sessions). The first day of each session, they learned to adapt their movements to a step-wise 60° visual rotation. Immediately after the task, either real 5Hz-rTMS (treatment) or sham (placebo) stimulation was applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (P6). Retention of this motor skill was tested the following day. Results In patients with PD, adaptation achieved at the end of training was comparable in the treatment and placebo sessions and was similar to that of a group of age-matched controls. However, retention indices tested on the following day were significantly lower in the placebo compared to the treatment session in which retention indices were restored to the level of the controls. Importantly, reaction and movement time as well as other kinematic measures were the same in the treatment and placebo sessions. Conclusion These results suggest that rTMS applied after the acquisition of a motor skill over specific areas involved in this process might enhance skill retention in PD. PMID:25533243

  10. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; André-Obadia, Nathalie; Antal, Andrea;

    2014-01-01

    A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy......, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) r...

  11. Performance Analysis of Code OptimizationBased on TMS320C6678 Multi-core DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In the development of modern DSP, more and more use of C/C++ as a development language has become a trend. Optimizationof C/C++ program has become an important link of the DSP software development. This article describes the structure features ofTMS320C6678 processor, illustrates the principle of efficient optimization method for C/C++, and analyzes the results.

  12. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field).

  13. Implementasi Encoder dan Decoder Cyclic Redundancy Check Pada TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Natalia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CRC merupakan metode yang paling populer digunakan saat ini karena kemampuanya paling baik dalam mendeteksi error. Pada Tugas Akhir ini memaparkan bagaimana CRC diimplementasikan pada TMS320C6416T. Evaluasi yang akan diteliti yaitu kinerja proses encoder dan decoder CRC sebagai fungsi Eb/No dari error per blok melalui kanal ideal AWGN  dengan modulasi BPSK serta melihat seberapa besar kemampuan CRC dalam mendeteksi kesalahan. Pengujian yang dilakukan melalui simulink matlab dan implementasi secara real ke dalam TMS320C6416T.  Adapun kode CRC yang dipilih yaitu CRC-8 dan CRC-16 dimana pada implementasi pada TMS dilakukan pengiriman sebesar 100.000 bit dalam 12.500 frame.  Hasil pengujian yang diperoleh yaitu jumlah error yang dideteksi pada CRC-8 rata-rata jumlah error adalah 2.750 frame dan rata-rata jumlah error bit informasi  1.957 bit. Sedangkan untuk CRC-16  rata-rata jumlah error adalah 3.520 frame dan rata-rata jumlah error per bit informasi yaitu 1.971 bit. Dari pengujian membuktikan bahwa kemampuan CRC-16 dalam menjaga keamanan data bit informasi jauh lebih baik dibandingkan dengan CRC-8.

  14. Benefits of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS for Spastic Subjects: Clinical, Functional, and Biomechanical Parameters for Lower Limb and Walking in Five Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Terreaux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle. Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in Hmax⁡ /Mmax⁡ and T/Mmax⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  15. 41 CFR 301-50.4 - May I be granted an exception to the required use of TMS or ETS once my agency has fully deployed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exception to the required use of TMS or ETS once my agency has fully deployed ETS? 301-50.4 Section 301-50.4... TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.4 May I be granted an exception to the required use of TMS or ETS once my agency... exception to required use of your agency's current TMS or to required use of ETS once your agency has...

  16. Bifocal distraction osteogenesis for reconstruction of mandibular defects in goat%转移盘牵引成骨整复山羊下颌骨缺损体内实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圃; 顾晓明

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察自行研制的转移盘牵引成骨器(bifocal distraction osteogenesis)整复山羊下颌骨节段性缺损的治疗效果.方法:采用皮质骨切开术制备转移盘,修复下颌骨缺损15 mm,延迟期7 d,骨牵引每日1.o mm,每日2次,牵引完成后转移盘与对侧骨残端加力压迫3 d,固定期X线观察及组织学研究.结果:转移盘为带有下牙槽动脉血供的骨块,骨牵引器固位良好,下颌骨在解剖关系状态下完成骨缺损修复,固定期2周放射影象可见新骨生成,4周可见骨样结构,2~3月骨质修复完成.结论:该牵引器设计合理,固位可靠,手术方法简单,治疗程序有效,可以完成下颌骨缺损的整复.

  17. Reversal of TMS-induced motor twitch by training is associated with a reduction in excitability of the antagonist muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregni Felipe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single session of isolated repetitive movements of the thumb can alter the response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, such that the related muscle twitch measured post-training occurs in the trained direction. This response is attributed to transient excitability changes in primary motor cortex (M1 that form the early part of learning. We investigated; (1 whether this phenomenon might occur for movements at the wrist, and (2 how specific TMS activation patterns of opposing muscles underlie the practice-induced change in direction. Methods We used single-pulse suprathreshold TMS over the M1 forearm area, to evoke wrist movements in 20 healthy subjects. We measured the preferential direction of the TMS-induced twitch in both the sagittal and coronal plane using an optical goniometer fixed to the dorsum of the wrist, and recorded electromyographic (EMG activity from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR and extensor carpi radialis (ECR muscles. Subjects performed gentle voluntary movements, in the direction opposite to the initial twitch for 5 minutes at 0.2 Hz. We collected motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by TMS at baseline and for 10 minutes after training. Results Repetitive motor training was sufficient for TMS to evoke movements in the practiced direction opposite to the original twitch. For most subjects the effect of the newly-acquired direction was retained for at least 10 minutes before reverting to the original. Importantly, the direction change of the movement was associated with a significant decrease in MEP amplitude of the antagonist to the trained muscle, rather than an increase in MEP amplitude of the trained muscle. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that a TMS-twitch direction change following a simple practice paradigm may result from reduced corticospinal drive to muscles antagonizing the trained direction. Such findings may have implications for training paradigms in

  18. 基于TMS320LF2407的LED显示屏的设计%Design of LED display-screen system based on TMS320LF2407

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁康有; 杨保亮

    2013-01-01

    文章设计了一种LED显示屏系统,控制系统采用TI公司的数字信号处理器TMS320LF2407作为主控制器,采用通用分组无线服务技术的方式与手机或信息平台进行数字通信,方便远程控制,同时通过CAN总线方便构成大型LED显示屏.实验证明:该方案结构合理、稳定,操作方便、灵活,环境适应能力强,价格低廉,具有广泛的应用前景.

  19. Design of External Extended Memory System for TMS320VC5509%TMS320VC5509的片外扩展存储系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华山; 胡建学; 丁德胜

    2007-01-01

    介绍了利用IS42S16400A同步动态RAM(SDRAM)扩展TMS320VC5509DSP系统外部存储空间的设计方法.在研究了IS42S16400A的工作特性和C5509EMIF(External Memory Interface)性能的基础上,详细讨论了配置EMIF访问SDRAM的步骤、SDRAM的初始化和自动刷新.随后讲述了EMIF对SDRAM的控制,分别给出了各种控制命令与EMIF引脚的对应关系、命令的实现过程,并具体介绍了C5509与IS42S16400A硬件接口的实现和相应的寄存器配置程序.

  20. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-generated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina eRitterband-Rosenbaum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects’ SoA during self-generated movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-generated movements and 2/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition, over the vertex (CZ (sham condition or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-generated movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P=0.002 and the stimulation-free control (P=0.042. The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in order to correctly determine the agent of movements.

  1. Implementation of FFT Algorithm using DSP TMS320F28335 for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinkal Jashvantbhai; Patel, Rajesh M.; Patel, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    This work presents simulation, analysis and experimental verification of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm for shunt active power filter based on three-level inverter. Different types of filters can be used for elimination of harmonics in the power system. In this work, FFT algorithm for reference current generation is discussed. FFT control algorithm is verified using PSIM simulation results with DLL block and C-code. Simulation results are compared with experimental results for FFT algorithm using DSP TMS320F28335 for shunt active power filter application.

  2. Développement du geste et prévention des TMS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Atelier 5 : La fonction du geste dans la reconquête du sens au travail : une question de reconnaissance; International audience; La prévention des TMS est devenue un objectif prioritaire de la politique de santé au travail non seulement pour les autorités sanitaires, mais aussi et surtout pour bon nombre d'entreprises. La difficulté d'une telle prévention tient au grand nombre de facteurs pathogènes, de nature différente, responsables de ces maladies. L'expérience désormais accumulée dans ce ...

  3. Digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter using TMS320LF2407A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kaiyuan; Huang Shisheng; Li Xinglin; Wu Shuifeng

    2008-01-01

    A digital control of pulsed gas metal arc welding inverter was proposed. A control system consisting of analogue parts was replaced with a new digital control implemented in a TMS320LF2407A DSP chip. The design and constructional features of the whole digital control were presented. The resources of the DSP chip were efficiently utilized and the circuits are very concise, which can enhance the stability and reliability of welding inverter. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed digital control has the ability to accomplish the excellent pulsed gas metal arc welding process and the merits of the developed digital control are stable welding process, little spatter and perfect weld appearance.

  4. Method of auto-gain-control technolog based on TMS320C6414%一种基于TMS320C6414的自动增益控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登科; 时永鹏

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduced one technique of Auto-Gain-Control which is based on the TMS320C6414 of , the technique is important constituent of the infrared detection system, it must complete real-time Auto-Gain-Control of 8 analog signals. The design uses TMS320C6414 as the main processor, by using the software to control the digital potentiometer AD5290 to realize Auto-Gain-Control function. . This paper describes the TMS320C6414 and AD5290 properties and working principle, and its peripheral circuit design, hardware circuit and interface design, as well as the software design. The technology has complete product development, testing shows that, the technology to complete the system of set function, stable and reliable work.%一种基于TMS320C6414的自动增益控制技术的设计与实现,该技术是某红外探测系统的重要组成部分,需完成8路模拟信号的实时自动增益调节.该设计技术采用TMS320C6414作为主处理器,通过软件控制数字电位器AD5290来实现自动增益调节功能.TMS320C6414及AD5290的性能和工作原理,及其外围电路设计,硬件电路及接口的设计,以及底层软件的开发设计.该文介绍的技术已经完成产品研制,试验表明,该技术完成了系统规定的功能,工作稳定可靠.

  5. Memory System of TMS320F281x DSP%DSP芯片应用系列讲座(二)第4讲TMS320F281x DSP的存储器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨峡; 张雄伟

    2005-01-01

    TI公司新近推出的TMS320F281x系列32位定点DSP芯片具有丰富的存储器资源,尤其是片内FLASH与其它系列DSP芯片的存储器相比,有许多突出的优点.文中介绍了TMS320F281x存储器,着重介绍了片内FLASH、Boot ROM及代码保护模块的特点及用法.

  6. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  7. Reductions in phenomenological, physiological and attentional indices of depressive mood after 2 Hz rTMS over the right parietal cortex in healthy human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Putman, P.L.J.; Haan, E.H.F. de; d'Alfonso, A.A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Research into emotion and emotional disorders by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has largely been restricted to the prefrontal regions. There is, however, also evidence for the parietal cortex being implicated in emotional (dys-)functioning. Here we used rTMS to investigate a rol

  8. Implementasi Convolutional Code dan Viterbi Decode pada DSK TMS320C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kusumasari Rosita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam sistem komunikasi digital modern, dimana data ditransmisikan dalam bentuk bit-bit biner, dibutuhkan sistem yang tahan terhadap noise yang terdapat pada kanal transmisi, hal ini dibutuhkan agar data yang ditransmisikan  tersebut dapat diterima dengan benar. Kesalahan dalam pengiriman atau penerimaan data merupakan permasalahan yang mendasar yang memberikan dampak yang sangat signifikan pada sistem komunikasi. Untuk mengatasinya, maka diperlukan suatu metode pengkodean kanal yang mampu  mendeteksi kesalahan dan mengkoreksi kesalahan. Pada tugas akhir ini konvolusi code diimplementasikan pada sebuah DSP card seri TMS320C6416T untuk mengatasi masalah sistem komunikasi tersebut. Kode konvolusi  merupakan teknik Error Control Coding  untuk mendeteksi dan mengkoreksi error pada informasi akibat pengaruh noise. Analisis meliputi nilai BER yang diperoleh dengan mengubah parameter Eb/No pada blok AWGN,  dan uji coba rangkaian menggunakan DSK TMS320C6416T. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sistem yang menggunakan konvolusi code dan viterbi decode dapat menurunkan probabilitas error dibandingkan dengan sistem model yang tidak menggunakan konvolusi code dan viterbi decode.

  9. Effectiveness of ketamine in depressed patients resistant to ECT or rTMS therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosek, Paweł

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the last decade several authors described a robust and clinically relevant alleviation of depressive symptoms after infusions of the uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist - ketamine. In the majority of published reports ketamine was administrated to patients with depression resistant to pharmacotherapy, but not to ECT. We present a series of 5 subjects suffering from multimodal treatment-resistant depression (including ECT or rTMS and various medications treated with intravenous infusions of ketamine in a subanesthetic dose of 0.5 mg/kg in the naturalistic setting. To the best of our knowledge it is the first report on ketamine infusion in patient resistant to antidepressants and rTMS Methods. Two subjects have been diagnosed with MDD, one with BD, two with severe depressive episode. The efficacy and possible adverse events were monitored using psychometric scales. Basic life parameters and ECG were observed. Results. Ketamine’s infusions showed transient antidepressant efficacy. Improvement rate in our group was significant lower than in previously reported. Ketamine was generally well tolerated. We noted transient BP variations and appearance of mild and transient dissociative symptoms. Low early response rate may be correlated with resistance to previous multimodal treatment, high rate of somatization and anxiety comorbidity or heterogeneity of our group. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of ketamine infusions as the monotherapy in the subgroup of patients with multimodal treatment resistant depression.

  10. Should We Expand the Toolbox of Psychiatric Treatment Methods to Include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of rTMS in Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, Christina W.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Hoek, Hans W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe treatment method with few side effects However, efficacy for various psychiatric disorders is currently not clear Data sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2008 using PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase

  11. 基于TMS320F2812伺服矢量控制系统的研究%Research on Servo Vector Control System Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏燕兰

    2011-01-01

    It analyzed the designing method of the servo vector control system, which is based on TMS320F2812 chip, both hardware and software. It was proved that the servo vector control system with TMS320F2812 of 32 bit DSP chip has the advantages of high precision and high speed. Meanwhile, it was shown that the C language with high programming efficiency has simplified the digitization of this complex system.%对以 TMS320F2812 为核心芯片的伺服矢量控制系统硬件、软件的设计方法进行阐述与论证.实践表明,利用 32 位 DSP 芯片 TMS320F2812 进行伺服矢量控制,运算速度快、精度高,而且高编译效率的 C 语言编程使复杂系统的数字化实现简单.

  12. Cross-adaptation combined with TMS reveals a functional overlap between vision and imagery in the early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Bona, Silvia; Silvanto, Juha

    2012-02-01

    The extent to which the generation of mental images draws on the neuronal representations involved in visual perception has been the subject of much debate. To investigate this overlap, we assessed whether adaptation to visual stimuli affects the ability to generate visual mental images; such cross-adaptation would indicate shared neural representations between visual perception and imagery. Mental imagery was tested using a modified version of the clock task, in which subjects are presented with a digital time (e.g. "2.15") and are asked to generate a mental image of the clock hands displaying this time on an empty clock face. Participants were adapted to oriented lines either on the upper or lower side of the clock face prior to the mental image generation. The results showed that mental imagery was impaired when the mental image had to be generated in the adapted region of visual space (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, we used TMS to determine whether this adaptation effect occurs in the early visual cortex (EVC; V1/V2). Relative to control conditions (No TMS and Vertex TMS), EVC TMS facilitated mental imagery generation when the mental image spatially overlapped with the adapter. Our results thus show that neuronal representations in the EVC which encode (and are suppressed by) visual input play a causal role in visual mental imagery.

  13. Effective electric fields along realistic DTI-based neural trajectories for modelling the stimulation mechanisms of TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Geeter, N.; Crevecoeur, G.; Leemans, A.; Dupré, L.

    2015-01-01

    In transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an applied alternating magnetic field induces an electric field in the brain that can interact with the neural system. It is generally assumed that this induced electric field is the crucial effect exciting a certain region of the brain. More specifically,

  14. Comparison of the corneal power measurements with the tms4-topographer, pentacam hr, iol master, and javal keratometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dehnavi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the correlation of Pentacam, TMS4-topography, IOL Master, and Javal keratometer in measuring keratometry was high, only the IOL Master showed no significant difference with the Javal keratometer. The IOL Master had the best agreement with Javal keratometry.

  15. Stimulating the brain's language network: syntactic ambiguity resolution after TMS to the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Daniel J; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic information and the IFG in unification operations that maintain, select, and integrate multiple sources of information over time. In the present investigation, we tested for causal evidence of this dissociation by modulating activity in IFG and MTG using an offline TMS procedure: continuous theta-burst stimulation. Lexical-syntactic retrieval was manipulated by using sentences with and without a temporarily word-class (noun/verb) ambiguity (e.g., run). In one group of participants, TMS was applied to the IFG and MTG, and in a control group, no TMS was applied. Eye movements were recorded and quantified at two critical sentence regions: a temporarily ambiguous region and a disambiguating region. Results show that stimulation of the IFG led to a modulation of the ambiguity effect (ambiguous-unambiguous) at the disambiguating sentence region in three measures: first fixation durations, total reading times, and regressive eye movements into the region. Both IFG and MTG stimulation modulated the ambiguity effect for total reading times in the temporarily ambiguous sentence region relative to the control group. The current results demonstrate that an offline repetitive TMS protocol can have influences at a different point in time during online processing and provide causal evidence for IFG involvement in unification operations during sentence comprehension.

  16. TMS-EEG: A window into the neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation in non-motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Hoy, Kate E

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are able to induce changes in cortical excitability and plasticity through the administration of weak currents to the brain and are currently being used to manipulate a vast array of cognitive processes. Despite the widespread use of tES technologies within both research and remedial settings, their precise neurophysiological mechanisms of action are not well established outside of the motor cortex. The expanding use of tES within non-motor brain regions highlights the growing need for a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of stimulation across a diversity of cortical locations. The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) provides a method of directly probing both local and widespread changes in brain neurophysiology, through the recording of TMS-evoked potentials and cortical oscillations. In this review we explore TMS-EEG as a tool for examining the impact of tES on cortical function and argue that multimodal approaches which combine tES with TMS-EEG could lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms which underlie tES-induced cognitive modulation.

  17. TMS320F2812 BASED IMPLEMENTATION OF SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR BLDC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.R.VIJAYARAJESWARAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to develop a novel sensorless control scheme suitable for brushless dc permanent magnet (BLDC-PM motor with a view to elaborate its flexible operating status. It orients its focus to detect the zero crossing instant of the back emf and there from assuage a methodology to control the speed of the motor. The state of the art technology facilitates the use of a powerful processor to realize the strategy in real time. It includes MATLAB simulation to evaluate its performance and seeks the role of DSP (Digital Signal Processor TMS320F2812 controller to validate the same using a prototype. The results illustrate the ability of the proposedtechnique to improve the input power factor in addition to regulating the speed of the motor.

  18. Design of one large telescope direct drive control system based on TMS320F28xx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-xing; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-chao; Chen, Li-yan; Ren, Chang-zhi

    2014-08-01

    The mount drive control is the key technique which mostly affects astronomical telescope's resolution and its speed. However, the ultra -lower speed and the giant moment of inertia make it very difficult to be controlled. In this paper, one segmented permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), 4m diameter, is suggested for the mount driving. A method is presented to drive the motor directly, which is based on TMS320F28XX and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) , also, HEIDENHAIN tape is used to detect the absolute position of the motor together with the Hall sensor. The segmented PMSM can work stable and the mount drive can realize nice tracking performance at ultra -lower speed with this drive system.

  19. Implementasi Hybrid DS/FH Spread Spectrum menggunakan DSK TMS302C6416T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Wisnu Laksita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spread spectrum adalah sebuah metode komunikasi dimana semua sinyal komunikasi disebar di seluruh spektrum frekuensi yang tersedia. Sinyal informasi akan ditebarkan pada seluruh pita frekuensi yang disediakan dan dilakukan secara acak. Metode spread spectrum merupakan metode komunikasi yang memiliki ketahan terhadap jamming.Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum adalah sistem komunikasi spread spectrum yang menggabungkan antara sistem komunikasi direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS dan frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS. Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum dapat diprogram dengan menggunakan DSP processor. DSK TMS320C6416T adalah suatu hardware untuk memproses sinyal yang termasuk dalam prosesor TMS320 produksi Texas Instrument. Sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum diharapkan memiliki ketahanan yang lebih terhadap gangguan seperti kondisi kanal AWGN dan jamming yang berupa singletone jamming dan multitone jamming.Pada kondisi kanal AWGN yang buruk dengan tingkat signal to noise ratio (S/N rendah dengan EbNo 0 dB, sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum memiliki nilai bit error rate (BER 0.04. Hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum memiliki kehandalan yang sangat baik terhadap jamming yang berupa singletone jamming dan multitone jamming terbukti pada pengujian kehandalan terhadap pengaruh singletone jamming dengan daya tone dua kali daya sinyal carrier sistem dan melewati kanal AWGN dengan EbNo 10 dB, sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum memiliki BER 0.00001 dan 0.03 untuk multitone jamming dengan parameter yang sama. Berdasarkan uraian tersebut dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa sistem komunikasi hybrid DS/FH spread spectrum tahan terhadap gangguan seperti kondisi kanal AWGN dan jamming yang berupa singletone jamming dan multitone jamming.

  20. [European Blood Alliance (EBA) and EuroNet TMS: what challenges for the transfusion of tomorrow?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, G; de Wit, J; Rouger, P

    2011-04-01

    The primary mission of the European Blood Alliance (EBA) is to contribute to the safety and efficiency of the supply of blood products, cells and tissues, in developing an active network of blood establishments in Europe (25 countries). Its strategic objectives are to improve performance (through working groups and projects funded by the European Union), to engage in regulatory affairs (particularly at the European Commission level) to promote best practices and to facilitate a network to collect and share knowledge and experiences. The main objective of EuroNet TMS, combining the blood scientific societies from more than 30 countries in Europe, is to update and publish regularly, intended for policymakers, a White Book on the transfusion chain from donor to patient and probable or possible changes in the coming 5 years. Since 2008, EBA and EuroNet TMS actively collaborate on the drafting of the 2nd edition to be published in 2011. The two presidents jointly drafted the final chapter outlining the major issues of transfusion for tomorrow, summarized thereafter. Transfusion will still be useful for a long time and for reasons of safety and ethics the voluntary and unpaid donations, with non-profit blood establishments, will remain, the cornerstone of the supply of blood products. This renders crucial the continuous improvement of donor management and optimal blood use. On the regulatory side, after 5 years of implementation, EU directives must be independently evaluated and the Blood Guide of the Council of Europe should gradually become a regulatory standard. Finally, if a competition should be introduced for the blood products, it should be strictly regulated to prevent any threat to the security of their supply and quality for patients. PMID:21458349

  1. 基于单目双焦及SIFT特征匹配的深度估计方法%Depth Estimation Method Based on Monocular Bifocal Imaging and SIFT Feature Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜立婵; 覃团发; 黎相成

    2013-01-01

    A depth estimation method based on monocular bifocal imaging and SIFT feature matching is proposed.According to the geometrical relationship between the position vector of space scene depth at different focal lengths and the corresponding formation of focal length,a single camera to get images is used in two different focal lengths,obtaines the position offset ratio of the pixel to the center.Finally,the pixel depth values is calculated by the formulation of geometrical relationship.Since this method is based on monocular focal imaging,compares to the multi-view images,avoids the problems of the multiple cameras location calibration and synchronization.Meanwhile,the arithmetic based on SIFT feature matching can solve the problem of extracting feature points better in two different brightness images with the characteristics of affine and zooming.%提出一种基于单目双焦及SIFT特征匹配的深度估计方法.根据空间景物的深度在不同焦距下其成像的矢量位置和对应的焦距形成几何关系的原理,通过单相机获取两幅不同焦距下的图像后,运用SIFT算法对两幅图像进行特征提取和特征匹配,得出同一景物像素点距中心点的偏移位置比,从而通过几何关系公式计算出像素点的深度值,以此获取深度图.经实验验证了该方法的可行性,实验结果表明,使用该方法获取深度值仅需单台相机这一设备,方法简单易行,且成本低,具有广阔的应用范围.

  2. Application of milling machine control system based on TMS320C240 DSP and single chip micro processor%基于TMS320C240 DSP的龙门铣床控制系统应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祖林; 周冬芳

    2003-01-01

    TMS320C24X是专为电机数字控制和其它控制应用系统而设计的系列DSP芯片,针对龙门铣床直流拖动控制系统,设计了以TMS320C240 DSP为控制核心与单片机相结合的数字控制系统,介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件设计算法,实际运行结果表明该系统具有良好的动态性能和较高的速度控制精度.

  3. 一种利用Tornado Shell调试多片TMS320VC5416的方法%Debugging Multi-piece TMS320VC5416 under Tornado Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹仕祥

    2007-01-01

    在目标板调试DSP代码,通常要用到仿真器.但用仿真器调试多DSP系统,不仅成本高,而且不方便.文中介绍了一种由1片MPC860和3片TMS320VC5416组成,并且采用HPI接口的信道板的调试方法.调试过程中,不用仿真器,实现了代码下载、运行以及变量查看.它充分利用了MPC860、TMS320VC5416、VxWorks的特点,调试过程简单、快捷.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF MESSAY ITERATION ALGORITHM USING TMS320C25 ASSEMBLE LANGUAGE%用TMS320C25汇编语言实现梅西迭代算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志红; 廖进昆

    2000-01-01

    In digital communication system, Messay iteration algorithm is a common method used frequently to get a production polynomial of a 1inear shift register from a known sequence. The authors giye the method using TMS320C25 assemble language to implement Messay iteration algorithm.%在实际数字通信系统中,梅西迭代算法是由已知序列求线性移位寄存器的生成多项式的一种常用方法.给出了利用TMS320C25汇编语言实现梅西迭代算法的方法.

  5. The Hardware Design of Power Quality Analysis Board Based on TMS320F206%基于TMS320F206的电网数据处理板设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亮; 程丽萍

    2004-01-01

    介绍了基于DSP芯片TMS320F206的电网采样处理板的软、硬件设计方法,对硬件各模块电路的工作原理作了重点的讨论,同时给出了该电网数据处理板的主程序和中断处理程序流程图.

  6. Efficacy of low-frequency rTMS to the right frontal cortex for depression:a meta-analysis%右侧额叶低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗抑郁症的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁亚杰; 夏麟; 武圣君

    2015-01-01

    目的:系统评价右侧额叶低频重复经颅磁刺激(repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation,rTMS)治疗抑郁症的疗效。方法检索PubMed、Web of Science、CBM、CNKI、VIP数据库中有关低频rTMS刺激右侧额叶背外侧皮质(dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,DLPFC)治疗抑郁症的临床随机对照研究(randomized controlled trials, RCT)。采用RevMan 5.2软件,根据对照组刺激方法的不同,分别以无效刺激及高频rTMS为对照,对治疗应答率进行meta分析。结果纳入以无效刺激为对照的RCT研究9项,其中低频rTMS组156例抑郁症患者,无效刺激组162例,meta分析显示低频rTMS刺激右侧DLPFC治疗抑郁症,其治疗应答率相比无效刺激组,差异有统计学意义RR=2.15(95%CI:1.57~2.95,P<0.01);纳入以高频rTMS刺激左侧DLPFC为对照的RCT研究11项,其中低频rTMS组178例患者,高频rTMS组200例,meta分析表明两组间应答率差异无统计学意义(RR=0.80,95%CI:0.63~1.02,P=0.07)。结论低频rTMS刺激右侧DLPFC治疗抑郁症有效,但相比高频rTMS刺激左侧DLPFC方法而言,不具有疗效优势。%Objective To systematically assess the efficacy of the low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right frontal cortex for depression. Methods Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies about low-frequency rTMS to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for depression were collected from database such as PubMed, SCI, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. The meta-analysis using the software of RevMan 5.2 was conducted to com⁃pare the response rate of low-frequency rTMS to the right DLPFC with sham stimulation and high-frequency rTMS to the left DLPFC, respectively. Results Nine RCT studies with 156 patients in low-frequency rTMS group and 162 patients in sham stimulation group were included. Meta-analysis showed that low-frequency rTMS to the right DLPFC significantly

  7. μC/OS-Π在DSP芯片TMS320F2812的移植及应用%Migration and Application of μC/OS on DSP TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯嘉鹏; 王喜顺

    2012-01-01

    针对实时操作系统μC/OS-Π的特点和DSP芯片TMS320F2812硬件特性,详细论述了将μC/OS-Π移植到TMS320F2812的过程。并针对运动控制领域,在系统创建并运行多任务,测试移植后的μC/OS-Π在CAN和RS232通信、脉冲信号输出和捕捉、模数转换等方面的性能。测试结果表明,移植后的系统实时性强,可靠性高。%This paper discusses the process of Migration of RTOS μC/OS-Π according to the characteristics of μC/OS-Π and DSP TMS320F2812.In the end,several tasks,such as CAN and RS232 communication,output and capture of pulse signal,analog-digital conversion,ect,were created and opterated in order to test performance of μC/OS-Π.The test results showed that the migrated μC/OS-Π was strong real-time and high reliability.

  8. Anhedonia and reward-circuit connectivity distinguish nonresponders from responders to dorsomedial prefrontal rTMS in major depression

    OpenAIRE

    Downar, J.; Geraci, J.; Salomons, Tim; Dunlop, K; Wheeler, S.; McAndrews, M. P.; Bakker, N.; Blumberger, D. M.; Daskalakis, Z.J.; Kennedy, S H; Flint, A. J.; Giacobbe, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a heterogeneous mental illness. Neurostimulation treatments, by targeting specific nodes within the brain’s emotion-regulation network, may be useful both as therapies and as probes for identifying clinically relevant depression subtypes. Methods Here, we applied 20 sessions of magnetic resonance imaging-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex in 47 unipolar or bipolar patients with a medication-resista...

  9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  10. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Livia Drumond Marra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen’s MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction p=0.05, favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration.

  11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  12. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  13. THE EFFECT OF BORON AND CARBON ADDITION ON WELDABILITY OF DS TMS-75 SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C.Chaturvedi; Y.L.Wang; N.L.Richards

    2005-01-01

    Four alloys TMS-75 (Base), Base+B, Base+C and TMD-103 (Base+B+C) with varying levels of B, C were directionally solidified (DS), and their weldability was investigated by bead-onplate electron beam welding.It was found that cracking occurred in the weld-metal, as well as in the heat affected zone (HAZ).Both γ/γ' and/or γ/carbide eutectic contributed to the weld-metal cracking, and the γ/γ' eutectic was found to be mainly responsible for cracking in HAZ However, constitutional liquation of carbides seems to have made some contribution also.The B addition had a detrimental effect on HAZ cracking susceptibility, while C addition improved it appreciably even in the presence of B.In addition, no obvious differences were observed in cracking susceptibility of weld-metal in the four alloys.The cracking modes and mechanisms underlying the effect of B and C addition on weldability could be explained on the basis of microstructures of the four alloys.

  14. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  15. 数字电影影院管理系统(TMS)的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪培; 张鑫

    2010-01-01

    数字电影影院管理系统(TMS)是信息化管理的有效技术手段,其主要包括内容管理、播放控制管理、授权管理、放映与计划管理、日志管理等功能.为了推动TMS系统的研究和应用,中国电影科学技术研究所专门立项,开发出银幕管理开发接口(SMI)和配套软件开发工具包(SDK).在此基础上又开发出一套TMS原型系统,该系统不仅具有TMS系统固有的功能和技术特点,同时充分考虑了未来系统应用的要求.本文介绍了此TMS系统开发设计所涉及的关键技术和系统总体设计思路,并对未来影院信息化管理模式进行了分析和思考.

  16. Combination Protocol of Low-Frequency rTMS and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Post-stroke Upper Limb Hemiparesis: a 6-year Experience of More Than 1700 Japanese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Sasanuma, Jinichi; Shimizu, Masato; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Kimura, Chikou; Kakita, Kiyohito; Hara, Hiroyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Several years ago, we proposed a combination protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Subsequently, the number of patients treated with the protocol has increased in Japan. We aimed to present the latest data on our proposed combination protocol for post-stroke upper limb hemiparesis as a result of a multi-institutional study. After confirming that a patient met the inclusion criteria for the protocol, they were scheduled to receive the 15-day inpatient protocol. In the protocol, two sessions of 20-min rTMS and 120-min occupational therapy were provided daily, except for Sundays and the days of admission/discharge. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wolf motor function test (WMFT) at admission/discharge and at 4 weeks after discharge if possible. A total of 1725 post-stroke patients were studied (mean age at admission 61.4 ± 13.0 years). The scheduled 15-day protocol was completed by all patients. At discharge, the increase in FMA score, shortening in performance time of WMFT, and increase in functional ability scale (FAS) score of WMFT were significant (FMA score 46.8 ± 12.2 to 50.9 ± 11.4 points, p stroke, although its efficacy should be confirmed in a randomized controlled study.

  17. Kısa Vadeli Amaçlarla Satın Alınan Finansal Varlıkların Türkiye Muhasebe Standartları (TMS) ve Türkiye Finansal Raporlama Standartları (TFRS) Kapsamında Muhasebeleştirilmesi / The Accounting under Turkish Accounting Standarts (TAS) and Turkish Financial

    OpenAIRE

    DIZMAN, Şakir

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of accounting and financial statements with the new Turkish Trade Code has been started on the basis of Turkey Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS) and Turkey Accounting Standards (TAS), which is the counterpart in Turkey’s International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Accounting Standards (IAS). The purpose of this study is to show how to manage short-term financial assets purchased for purposes of accounting records within the scope of TFRS and the TMS....

  18. The characteristic and changes of the event-related potentials (ERP and brain topographic maps before and after treatment with rTMS in subjective tinnitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS treatment. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. RESULTS: Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating soundsin control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN and late discriminative negativity (LDNcomponent at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect.

  19. Environmental Myopia: The Case for Bifocals

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris; Hutson, Garrett

    2011-01-01

    Domestic and international tourists have major impacts on Aotearoa/New Zealand, both positive and negative. In 2010, tourism was the biggest export earner and continues to grow. Environmental consequences of tourism are also growing. Ways of addressing the environmental impacts caused by a mobile society continue to be debated from a variety of…

  20. [Bifocal atypical rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlov, V A; Baiarrnaa Dondovyn; Gnezditskiĭ, V V

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological analysis of a case of a 7 year old patient with typical benign partial seizures with rolandic spikes and speech disorder, differing from those in Landau-Kleffner syndrome and in typical benign partial epilepsy of childhood presenting as speech dyspraxia. Two independent foci (in the premotor cortex of the left front lobe (dominant hemisphere) and in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere were found. Significant clinical improvement and electrographical positive effect in EEG were achiered after prednisolone and sodium valproate treatment. PMID:15849864

  1. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Waghmare, Avinash V; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Virtual lesions in the mirror neuron network using inhibitory low-frequency (1Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been employed to understand its spatio-functional properties. However, no studies have examined the influence of neuro-enhancement by using excitatory high-frequency (20Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on these networks. We used three forms of TMS stimulation (HF-rTMS, single and paired pulse) to investigate whether the mirror neuron system facilitates the motor system during goal-directed action observation relative to inanimate motion (motor resonance), a marker of putative mirror neuron activity. 31 healthy individuals were randomized to receive single-sessions of true or sham HF-rTMS delivered to the left inferior frontal gyrus - a component of the human mirror system. Motor resonance was assessed before and after HF-rTMS using three TMS cortical reactivity paradigms: (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke motor evoked potential of 1-millivolt amplitude (SI1mV) and (c) a short latency paired pulse paradigm. Two-way RMANOVA showed a significant group (true versus sham) X occasion (pre- and post-HF-rTMS motor resonance) interaction effect for SI1mV [F(df)=6.26 (1, 29), p=0.018] and 120% RMT stimuli [F(df)=7.01 (1, 29), p=0.013] indicating greater enhancement of motor resonance in the true HF-rTMS group than the sham-group. This suggests that HF-rTMS could adaptively modulate properties of the mirror neuron system. This neuro-enhancement effect is a preliminary step that can open translational avenues for novel brain stimulation therapeutics targeting social-cognition deficits in schizophrenia and autism.

  2. 基于TMS320F28335的DSP/BIOS系统从FLASH到RAM运行%TMS320F28335-based DSP/BIOS system running from FLASH to RAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠纲; 黎驱

    2015-01-01

    DSP/BIOS is a Real⁃time operating system kernel on DSP of TMS320F28xxx series. When DSP/BIOS system runs directly in the on⁃chip FLASH,the DSP/BIOS system would be much slower than it runs in RAM because of the perfor⁃mance limitation of FLASH in TMS320F28335,which affects the DSP/BIOS’s real⁃time performance seriously. To solve the problem,By analyzing the start⁃up procedure of TMS320F28335 and the procedure of moving a program from FLASH to RAM, and the Memory Sections features of DSP/BIOS and none DSP/BIOS,a method to add a function named Copy_Sections before c_int00 to copy DSP/BIOS system and user program from FLASH to RAM is proposed in this paper. By doing this,the Function that DSP/BIOS system is automatically copied from on⁃chip FLASH to RAM after reset or power on the DSP is realized,which improves the efficiency of DSP/BIOS system and its real⁃time performance. This method was validated by experiment and used in practical project.%DSP/BIOS是TMS320F28xxx系列DSP上的一个实时操作系统内核。由于TMS320F28335内部FLASH性能的限制,当DSP/BIOS系统直接在芯片内FLASH上运行时,程序运行的速度往往比在RAM上运行时慢得多,严重影响了DSP/BI⁃OS的实时性。为了解决这个问题,通过分析TMS320F28335的启动过程和程序从FLASH搬移到RAM上运行的一般流程,以及DSP/BIOS与非DSP/BIOS工程的Memory Sections特点,提出一种通过在c_int00之前增加Copy_Sections等一系列操作对DSP/BIOS系统及用户程序进行搬移的方法。由此实现在芯片启动后自动把DSP/BIOS系统从片内FLASH搬移到RAM上运行的功能,从而提高DSP/BIOS系统的运行效率和实时性。该方法已经通过实验验证并在实际的工程项目中应用,获得良好的效果,因此值得推广。

  3. Airplane's video image real-time compression system with TMS320DM642%基于TMS320DM642的机载视频图像实时压缩与处理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈步康; 王元钦; 周成刚

    2011-01-01

    为了实现机载视频图像的高分辨率实时传输,设计了一种基于TMS320DM642 DSP的机载视频图像实时压缩与处理系统.在分析DM642芯片集成的片内外设特点基础上,设计了基于TMS320DM642 DSP的高集度的视频图像压缩处理平台,并采用基于C64X CPU的软件优化技术对DSP中MPEG-4压缩算法进行了优化,实现了对25帧/秒D1(704×576)或CIF(352×288)分辨率机载视频图像的实时压缩和恒定码率无线传输.%In order to transmit airplane's video image immediately and graphically, this paper designed an airplane's video image real-time MPEG-4 compression system which is based on the newest media processor TMS320DM642. Based on the analysis of the characteristic of the processor,the paper designed the hardware of the system. By using the optimization technique of the software which is based on C64X CPU,the system achieved the optimization of MPEG-4 arithmetic.The experiment shows that the compression system can real-timely compress 25 frames' D1 or CIF images per second according to the command , and transmit it with invariable rate.

  4. 基于TMS320VC5402的甚高频全向信标系统的实现%Utilization of VOR Navigation Receiver on TMS320VC5402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永东; 阔永红

    2003-01-01

    本文介绍了飞机导航系统-甚高频全向信标系统(VOR)的导航原理、导航信号形式及其数字信号处理原理,提出了一种新的VOR相差处理技术-相关技术,并说明了TMS320VC5402在导航接收机数字处理单元中的应用.

  5. 基于TMS320VC5416的图像采集系统的存储空间管理%Memory management of image acquisition system based on TMS320VC5416

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧岩松; 张景元

    2008-01-01

    TMS320VC5416的数据空间采用分时映射技术,使其分时映射到片外FLASH和片内RAM,提高了数据空间的使用效率.根据程序空间的结构,对它采用不连续映射技术,让程序空间分段映射到片外RAM和片内RAM上,使程序空间的使用效率也得到提高.

  6. Design and implement of UTOPIA interface of TMS320C64x series DSP%TMS320C64x系列DSP的UTOPIA接口设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 谢绍斌

    2007-01-01

    ATM传输是宽带综合业务数字网的重要技术,为使DSP能接入ATM系统,利用TMS320C64x特有的UTOPIA接口构建了一个ATM系统的从设备.介绍了UTOPIA接口基本的发送和接收操作流程,设计了与主控制器MPC8260连接的接口电路,重点探讨了UTOPIA从设备端的参数设置要点,并给出部分程序段代码.

  7. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base.

  8. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, C.L. Jr. [ed.

    1992-11-01

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base.

  9. Disentangling Brain Networks in Adult ADHD: Studies with fMRI and TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.F-F. Schneider (Marc )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAttention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is not only limited to young patients. It is increasingly diagnosed in adults. Although the estimated prevalence in Europe ranges between 2 and 3% (48), the knowledge about adult ADHD pathophysiology and its neurobiological basis developed

  10. Performance Case study of Grigoryan FFT over Cooley-Tukey FFT using TMS DSP Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanam Ranganadh , Muni Guravaiah P

    2012-01-01

    Frequency analysis plays vital role in the applications like cryptanalysis, steganalysis [6], system identification, controller tuning, speech recognition, noise filters, etc. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Cooley-Tukey...

  11. Proceedings of the TMS symposium on radiation facilities and defect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intent of the symposium is to highlight the various means of producing and characterizing irradition-induced defects in materials of interest in nuclear applications. Viewgraphs are presented for 18 papers. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base

  12. Research on the controlling of rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor based on TMS320C242%基于TMS320C242的稀土永磁无刷直流电机控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艺

    2012-01-01

    对用TMS320C242控制稀土永磁无刷直流电机(REPMBLDCM)进行了深入的探讨。作为驱动设备,稀土永磁无刷直流电机在很多方面性能优于普通直流电机;作为控制核心,TMS320C242无论是集成度还是控制速度都远超普通的单片机。所以用TMS320C242控制REPMBLDCM可获得极为优秀的控制效果和驱动性能。%A deep discussion has been made on how to control rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor with TMS320C242. As a driving device, rare earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor is superior to the common DC motor in many ways. As a core of the control system, TMS320C242 is far more superior to the common single chip microcontroller unit whether on its integration or its controlling speed. Therefore, excellent control effects and driving properties can be obtained by adopting TMS320C242 to control REPMBLDCM.

  13. rTMS vs Risperidone in the Treatment of BPSD of Alzheimer's Disease%rTMS与利培酮治疗阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婵娟; 张若曦; 方雅秀; 王丹逢; 韩海英; 刘文滔; 谭燕

    2015-01-01

    treatment .There was no statistical significance in TESS between two groups .Conc lusion:In this study ,rTMS seems a promising effective and safe therapies for BPSD of mild-to-moderate AD.

  14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Studies in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although motor deficits affect patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD only at later stages, recent studies demonstrated that primary motor cortex is precociously affected by neuronal degeneration. It is conceivable that neuronal loss is compensated by reorganization of the neural circuitries, thereby maintaining motor performances in daily living. Effectively several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies have demonstrated that cortical excitability is enhanced in AD and primary motor cortex presents functional reorganization. Although the best hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AD remains the degeneration of cholinergic neurons in specific regions of the basal forebrain, the application of specific TMS protocols pointed out a role of other neurotransmitters. The present paper provides a perspective of the TMS techniques used to study neurophysiological aspects of AD showing also that, based on different patterns of cortical excitability, TMS may be useful in discriminating between physiological and pathological brain aging at least at the group level. Moreover repetitive TMS might become useful in the rehabilitation of AD patients. Finally integrated approaches utilizing TMS together with others neuro-physiological techniques, such as high-density EEG, and structural and functional imaging as well as biological markers are proposed as promising tool for large-scale, low-cost, and noninvasive evaluation of at-risk populations.

  15. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  16. Network Video Monitor System Based on TMS320DM365%基于TMS320DM365的网络视频监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项昌晨; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    The background of this paper is a network camera development projects with Shanghai Guanlin Co. , Ltd. In this paper, a video surveillance system with the core chip TMS320DM365 is designed. This system takes full advantage of the powerful multimedia processing in DM365. Its external interface is complete. The other features include functional, compact, high integration, support for the network transmission with 720p high-definition video. Test results show that the system is efficiency with the stability network transmission and achieve practical application.%以同上海冠林公司合作开发的IP网络摄像机项目为背景,开发设计了以TMS320DM365为处理核心的网络视频监控系统.该系统充分利用了DM365强大的多媒体处理功能,对外接口齐全,功能完善,体积小巧,集成度高,可支持720p高清晰视频网络传输.测试结果表明,系统性能高效,网络传输稳定,达到了实际应用的要求.

  17. Design of a missile servo stabilization platform control system based on TMS320F2812%基于TMS320F2812的弹载伺服稳定平台控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曼

    2015-01-01

    文章介绍了弹载伺服稳定平台功能及控制要求,分析了平台控制系统组成及工作原理,说明了系统核心器件、传感器及伺服电机的选型方案,通过基于TMS320F2812高性能DSP的控制系统硬件、软件设计,完成伺服稳定平台控制系统设计。试验结果表明,该弹载伺服稳定平台各项指标满足设计要求,设计方法正确、有效。%This paper introduces the function and the control requirements of missile servo stabilization platform control system, analyses the composition and working principle of the platform control system, illustrates the selection scheme of the main electric circuit chips, sensors and servo motor. Through the hard ware and the soft ware design which based on the high-performance DSP chip TMS320F2812,fulfills the servo stabilization platform control system design. The experiment results indicates that the designed platform implements all the system design specifications, the design method which introduced is correct and effective.

  18. Design and Implementation of VOR Software Receiver Based on TMS320VC5402%基于TMS320VC5402的VOR软件接收机的设计实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚小天; 陈健; 陈吉锋

    2005-01-01

    VOR(甚高频全向信标系统)是一种近程无线电导航系统,可以向收音机提供方位信息.以往的VOR接收机都是模拟硬件实现的,其精度和误差越来越难以满足现代收音机对导航的精密要求,而且也不如软件接收机灵活可靠.文中简要介绍了VOR的导航原理和VOR的信号形式,论述了VOR软件接收机的算法,基中主要包括解调算法和比相算法,并且证明了相关比相算法的原理,给出了VOR软件接收机的算法框图,最后介绍了软件算法在硬件平台上的实现以及TMS320VC5402在其中的应用,同时给出了以TMS320VC5402为中心的硬件框图.

  19. Design and Realization of Active Noise Control System Based on TMS320VC5509 DSP%基于TMS320VC5509 DSP的有源噪声控制系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有鹏; 陈春明; 李国海

    2011-01-01

    介绍了有源噪声控制技术的理论基础和算法,以自适应有源噪声前馈控制系统为研究核心,选用TMS320VC5509 DSP作为控制器,给出了系统的硬件解决方案,并用C语言编程在硬件系统上实现了基于FX-LMS算法的有源噪声实时控制.对800 Hz单频噪声的实验结果表明系统可降低噪声幅度9 dB.%The foundational theory and algorithm of active noise control technology are introduced. The feed-forward a-daptive active noise control ( AANC) system is presented, the hardware solution of the system is proposed by selecting TMS320VC5509 DSP as the controller. Using the C language, the active noise real-time control system is realized based on the FX-LMS algorithm. It's proved that 9dB cancellation on 800 Hz is achieved by the experiment.

  20. Software design of serial communication between TMS320LF2407A and PC based on modbus%基于MODBUS协议的TMS320LF2407A与PC机串口通信软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 文小玲; 刘义亭; 孙谋

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the software design method of slave serial communications between the master PC and slave TMS320LF2407A DSP based on Modbus.The interrupt mode is used for the data receiving and between the master and the slave in order to guarantee the reliability of the communication.The DSP communication software is programmed using C language and can be easily transplanted to other microprocessors.The experimental results show that phase A input current of nonlinear load diode rectifier circuit can be displayed by the Labview, realizing the simple, reliable and stable data transmission between DSP and PC.%主要阐述了基于MODBUS协议的DSP从机通信软件的设计方法.以PC机作为上位机,TMS320LF2407A DSP作为下位机,采用中断方式实现数据的接收和发送,保证了数据传输的可靠性.利用C语言编写DSP从站通信程序,以便于程序的移植.经实验验证,非线性负载二极管整流电路的A相输入电流波形能通过Labview显示,实现了DSP与PC机之间简单、可靠、稳定的数据传输.

  1. Design of Self-balancing Robot Control System Based on TMS320F28069%基于TMS320F28069的自平衡机器人控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红涛; 王国胜; 吕强; 刘峰

    2012-01-01

    Hardware circuit of self-balancing robot control system is designed after analyzing the working principle of self-balance robot. Taking TI TMS320F28069 as main controller, the design controls self-balancing robot to keep its own balance using peripheral circuits, move forward, back off and finish steering movement. Finally, PID control algorithm is used to run closed-loop control for attitude angle and motor speed of self-balancing robot so as to largely improve the control accuracy.%通过分析自平衡机器人的工作原理,设计了自平衡机器人控制系统的硬件电路.将TI公司研制的TMS320F28069作为主控制器,利用外围电路控制自平衡机器人保持自身平衡,并完成前进、后退和转向运动.最后,采用PID控制算法对自平衡机器人的姿态角和电机转速进行闭环控制,大大提高了控制精度.

  2. Design of Iris Acquisition and Recognition System Based on TMS320DM6437%基于 TMS320DM6437的虹膜采集和识别系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓飞; 李临生

    2014-01-01

    The iris recognition technology is considered to be one of most promising biometric authentication technologies,and it has been widely used in finance,electronic commerce,defense and other areas.A real-time iris acquisition and recognition platform is designed based on TI TMS320DM6437.The system framework,and the relevant software design such as the Codec Engine software framework and network transmission are analyzed.The platform can be applied to the different image recognition fields.%虹膜识别技术被认为是最有前途的生物认证技术之一,并且已经广泛应用于金融、电子商务、国防等领域。本课题基于 TI 公司的 TMS320DM6437设计了一款实时的虹膜采集和识别平台,介绍了系统的框架,并分析了相关的软件设计,如 Codec Engine 软件框架和网络传输。该平台也可以应用于不同的图像识别领域。

  3. TMS320F28335与串行A/D转换器ADS7863的接口设计%Design of Interface Between TMS320F28335 and Serial AD Converter ADS7863

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑛

    2011-01-01

    为了实现DSP芯片与串行A/D芯片的多信号通信,设计了TMS320F28335的多通道缓冲串口(McBSP)与串行A/D转换器ADS7863的硬件与软件接口.该设计中A/D转换器与McBSP串口直接相连,不需要占用并行数据总线,避免了总线冲突.通过在CCS环境下编程、调试,得到了满意的实验结果,验证了该接口设计的正确性.%The hardware and software interface between TMS320F28335 McBSP and ADS7863 was designed for the realization of multi-signal communication between DSP and serial A/D converter. In this design, the A/D converter is directly connected to the serial port McBSP without occupying DSP s parallel data bus. The solution avoids the bus impact. By programming and debugging under CCS environment, the satisfied experimental result is achieved, and the correctness of the interface design is verified.

  4. Sulvanite Compounds Cu3TMS4 (TM= V, Nb and Ta): Elastic, Electronic, Optical and Thermal Properties using First-principles Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, M A; Islam, A K M A

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic first-principles study of the structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermodynamics properties of the sulvanite compounds Cu3TMS4 (TM = V, Nb and Ta). The structural, elastic and electronic properties are in fact revisited using a different calculation code than that used by other workers and the results are compared. The band gaps are found to be 1.041, 1.667 and 1.815 eV for Cu3VS4, Cu3NbS4 and Cu3TaS4, respectively which are comparable to other available calculated results. The optical properties such as dielectric function, refractive index, photoconductivity, absorption coefficients, reflectivity and loss function have been calculated for the first time. The calculated results are compared with the limited measured data on energy dependent refractive index and reflectivity coefficient available only for Cu3TaS4. All the materials are dielectric, transparent in the visible range. The values of plasma frequencies are found to be 15.36, 15.58 and 15.64 eV for Cu3VS4, Cu3NbS4 an...

  5. Inter-hemispheric remapping between arm proprioception and vision of the hand is disrupted by single pulse TMS on the left parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Barbieri, Guillaume; Bonnetblanc, François

    2013-07-01

    Parietal cortical areas are involved in sensori-motor transformations for their respective contralateral hemifield/body. When arms of the subjects are crossed while their gaze is fixed straight ahead, vision of the hand is processed by the hemisphere ipsilateral to the arm position and proprioception of the arm by the contralateral hemisphere. It induces interhemispheric transfer and remapping. Our objective was to investigate whether a single pulse TMS applied to the left parietal cortical area would disturb interhemispheric remapping in a similar case, and would increase a simple reaction time (RT) with respect to a control single pulse TMS applied to the frontal cortical area. Two LED were superimposed and located in front of the subjects on the saggital axis. Subjects were asked to carefully fixate on these LED during each trial. The lighting of the red LED was used as a warning signal. Following the green one was illuminated after a variable delay and served as a go-signal. The hand for the response was determined before the start of each trial. TMS was applied to the left parietal, the left frontal cortical areas, or not applied to the subject. Results revealed that: (1) Irrespective of its location, single pulse TMS induced a non-specific effect similar to a startle reflex and reduced RT substantially (15ms on average) with respect to a control condition without TMS (mean value=153ms). (2) Irrespective of TMS, RT were shorter when the right or the left hand was positioned in the right visual hemi-field (i.e. normal and crossed positions respectively). (3) Finally, RT increased when single pulse TMS was applied to the left parietal area and when hands were crossed irrespective of which hand was used. We concluded that interhemispheric sensori-motor remapping was disrupted by a single pulse TMS that was applied to the left parietal cortex. This effect was also combined with some visual attention directed towards the hand located on the right visual hemi-field.

  6. The effect of local anatomy on the electric field induced by TMS: evaluation at 14 different target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Arno M; Oostendorp, Thom F; Stegeman, Dick F

    2014-10-01

    Many human cortical regions are targeted with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The stimulus intensity used for a certain region is generally based on the motor threshold stimulation intensity determined over the motor cortex (M1). However, it is well known that differences exist in coil-target distance and target site anatomy between cortical regions. These differences may well make the stimulation intensity derived from M1 sub-optimal for other regions. Our goal was to determine in what way the induced electric fields differ between cortical target regions. We used finite element method modeling to calculate the induced electric field for multiple target sites in a realistic head model. The effects on the electric field due to coil-target distance and target site anatomy have been quantified. The results show that a correction based on the distance alone does not correctly adjust the induced electric field for regions other than M1. In addition, a correction based solely on the TMS-induced electric field (primary field) does not suffice. A precise adjustment should include coil-target distance, the secondary field caused by charge accumulation at conductivity discontinuities and the direction of the field relative to the local cerebrospinal fluid-grey matter boundary.

  7. Sex-Specific Automatic Responses to Infant Cries: TMS Reveals Greater Excitability in Females than Males in Motor Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Cattaneo, Luigi; Venuti, Paola; de Pisapia, Nicola; Serra, Mauro; Esposito, Gianluca; Rigo, Paola; Farneti, Alessandra; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the biceps brachii (BB) and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1) muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms after sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry and absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this response is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. PMID:26779061

  8. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  9. Proprioceptive drift in the rubber hand illusion is intensified following 1 Hz TMS of the left EBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eWold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rubber hand illusion (RHI is a paradigm used to induce an illusory feeling of owning a dummy hand through congruent multisensory stimulation. Thus, it can grant insights into how our brain represents our body as our own. Recent research has demonstrated an involvement of the extrastriate body area (EBA, an area of the brain that is typically implicated in the perception of non-face body parts, in illusory body ownership. In this experiment we sought causal evidence for the involvement of the EBA in the RHI. 16 participants took part in a sham controlled, 1 Hz repetitive TMS (1200 pulse experiment where they received synchronous (RHI condition or asynchronous (control stroking and were asked to report the perceived location of their real hand as well as the intensity and the temporal onset of experienced ownership of the dummy hand. Following TMS of the left EBA, participants misjudged their real hand's location significantly more towards the rubber hand during synchronous stroking than after sham stimulation. This difference in proprioceptive drift provides the first causal evidence that the EBA is involved in the RHI and subsequently in body representation and further supports the view that the EBA is necessary for multimodal integration.

  10. Safety and Tolerability of Theta Burst Stimulation versus Single and Paired Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Comparative Study of 165 Pediatric Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaejee H Hong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although single- and paired-pulse (sp/pp transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies are considered minimal risk in adults and children, the safety profile for theta-burst TMS (TBS is unknown.Objective: In this comparative analysis, we explored the rate, severity, and specific symptoms of TMS-related adverse effects (AEs between sp/ppTMS and TBS in subjects between ages 6 and 18 years.Method: Data from 165 participants from 2009-2014 were analyzed. Assessment of AEs was performed based on baseline and post-TMS administration of a symptom-based questionnaire that rated AEs on a 5-level ordinal scale (minimal, mild, moderate, marked, severe. AE rates and severity were compared using Chi Square or Fisher’s Exact Test depending on data characteristics.Result: Overall, no seizures or severe-rated AEs were reported by 165 pediatric participants. The rate of AE in all TBS sessions was 10.5% (n=76, 95% CI: 4.7 - 19.7%, whereas the rate of AE in all sp/ppTMS sessions was 12.4% (n=89, 95% CI: 6.3 - 21.0%. There was no statistical difference in AE rates between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=0.71. In all sp/ppTMS and TBS sessions, 20 subjects reported a total of 35 AEs, among these 31 (~88.6% were rated as minimal or mild. There was no difference in the severity of AE between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=1.0. Only one of 76 TBS participants reported an AE rated as more than minimal/mild.Conclusion: Our comparative analysis showed that TBS appears to be as safe as sp/ppTMS in terms of AE rate and severity. This report supports further investigation of TBS in children.

  11. 基于TMS320F2812的光伏并网发电模拟装置%Grid-connected photovoltaic generation prototype system based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢慧芬; 陈慧; 张国鹏; 马大勇

    2012-01-01

    A grid- connected photovoltaic generation prototype system was presented based on TMS320F2812,in order to realize the simulation function of photovoltaic grid-connected system including power inversion, phase and frequency follower and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function. The TMS320F2812 was used as the core component of the control system to implement the solar cell's MPPT by looking for the best controlling method. Meanwhile, SPWM controlling method and PI controller were utilized to rapidly transform the DC current into standard one phase alternative power of 50 Hz. The experimental results were demonstrated to verify the proposed system. It is proved that the system has the advantages in terms of high efficiency, low total harmonic distortion, good tracking performance, consummate over-current protection ( OVC) and under-voltage protection ( UVP) , and provides a solid foundation of further design for the high power grid-connected photovoltaic system .%为实现模拟光伏并网系统的功能,并集逆变、相位频率跟踪和最大功率点追踪等功能于一体,设计了以TMS320F2812为系统控制核心的控制系统,实现了太阳电池的最大功率点跟踪(MPPT),其逆变器使用SPWM控制方式和软件PI调节器,将直流电源快速逆变为50 Hz的标准单相正弦波交流电源.研究结果表明,该系统具有效率高、并网波形总谐波失真低、跟踪性能优异、抗干扰措施和保护功能完善的特点,为进一步开展大功率并网发电实验奠定了很好的基础.

  12. A Study of Retentive Properties of Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Oganesyan, V R; Yanina, I V; Apel, P Yu

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the size and shape of pores in track membranes (TMs) on the retention of polystyrene particles with the sizes from 40 to 100 nm has been studied. The relationship between the structural parameters of TMs and the efficiency of filtration of calibrated particles has been analyzed. Determination of the efficiency is based on measurements of absorption in ultraviolet spectral region. Potentialities and limitations of the method applied to nanometer-sized latex beads have been considered.

  13. TMS 2014 143rd Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Annual Meeting Supplemental Proceedings (ISBN: 978-1-118-88972-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, K; Zhukov, A; Ipatov, M; Talaat, A; Blanco, J; Zhukova, V; Churyukanova, M; Kaloshkin, S; Zamiatkina, E; Shuvaeva, E; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L; Hernando, B

    2015-03-02

    The Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications IV, held at the 2014, 143rd Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), brought together experts, young investigators, and students from this sub-discipline of materials science in order for them to share their latest discoveries and develop collaborations. This symposium, which is organized by The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, is an important event for this community of scientists. This year, over 50 high-level technical talks were planned over the course of the event. In addition, the students and young investigators in attendance ensured the maximum benefit to the next generation’s work force in this area of study. Meeting global energy needs in a clean, efficient, secure and sustainable manner is arguably the greatest challenge facing mankind today. Magnetic materials play a critical role in myriad devices for the collection, conversion, transmission and storage of energy. For example, high performance permanent magnets are currently in great demand for the generators in wind turbines and electric motors in hybrid vehicles. Other classes of advanced magnetic materials are essential for efficient inductors/transformers and motors. Energy efficient cooling based on the magnetocaloric effect is another exciting possibility which is rapidly becoming industrially viable. The potential energy savings related to refrigeration and air conditioning based on magnetocaloric materials are highly attractive. This symposium allowed experts in areas relating to the advanced characterization, simulation, and optimization of magnetic materials to convene and present their latest research. The types of interactions afforded by this event are beneficial to society at large primarily because they provide opportunities for the leaders within this field to learn from one another and thus improve the quality and productivity of their investigations. Additionally, the presence of young investigators

  14. Primary structure of the tms and prs genes of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Arnvig, Kirsten

    1989-01-01

    products remains to be established. The prs gene contains an open reading frame of 317 codons resulting in a subunit Mr of 34828. An open reading frame comprising the tms gene contained 456 codons resulting in a putative translation product with an Mr of 49,554. Comparison of the deduced B. subtilis PRPP...

  15. Functional localization in the human brain: Gradient-echo, spin-echo, and arterial spin-labeling fMRI compared with neuronavigated TMS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekhoff, S.; Uludag, K.; Sparing, R.; Tittgemeyer, M.; von Cramon, D.Y.; Grefkes, C.

    2010-01-01

    A spatial mismatch of up to 14 mm between optimal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) site and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal has consistently been reported for the primary motor cortex. The underlying cause might be the effect of magnetic susceptibility around large drainin

  16. 一种基于TMS的瓦片金字塔切分方法%A Tile Pyramid Slicing Based on TMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘让国; 刘晓杰; 刘顺喜; 韦二龙

    2015-01-01

    为了有效提高大数据量下的切片效率, 从瓦片地图服务 ( Tile Map Service, TMS) 元文件、 瓦片划分规则和瓦片命名规则等方面对TMS技术进行了研究, 对切片算法进行了设计实现, 并结合多线程机制进行了优化改进, 从而提出一种基于TMS的瓦片金字塔切分方法. 试验结果表明, 该方法能提高瓦片的切片效率.%For raising slice efficiency effectively under of big data quantity,research is performed on TMS technology,its metafile, the rule of tile slicing,tile naming and so on.A realization of TMS slice algorithm is designed.And a kind of method is put forward that tile pyramid slicing based on TMS,which improves slice algorithm combined with multithreading.Experiment results show that this meth-od can raise the slice efficiency of tile.

  17. Investigation of application of TMS320 serials DSP in inverter welding machine%TMS320系列DSP在逆变焊机中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹤岐; 路广; 尤志春; 李虹; 王珊

    2005-01-01

    研究设计了以TMS320F240为核心的IGBT逆变焊机控制系统.介绍了DSP最小系统、SCI、SPI电路,并且结合DSP输出的PWM波形,设计了专门的分频电路.说明了DSP开发环境和CCS的使用及DSP软件的开发.分析了COFF文件、命令文件、头文件的特点和系统软件的功能,采用模块化软件设计方法,实现了逆变焊机的数字化控制程序.试验结果显示系统电路工作可靠、控制容易,体现了数字化焊机的优越性.

  18. The design of heliostat tracking system based on TMS320F2812 DSP%基于TMS320F2812 DSP的定日镜跟踪控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯作全; 贺成柱

    2012-01-01

    在传统的定日镜跟踪控制系统中,大部分采用光电跟踪法或视日运动轨迹跟踪法,这使其存在很多局限性.为了克服这些不足,将上述两种方法有机结合,采用TMS320F2812 DSP芯片为控制核心,搭建硬件开发平台,利用CCS2000软件支撑环境,实现了对定日镜的自动跟踪和控制,系统具有性能稳定,实时跟踪响应速度快的优点,具有良好的开发应用价值.

  19. Design of CAN-USB Communication System Based on TMS320F2812 and USB100%基于TMS320F2812和USBl00的CAN-USB总线通信系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成; 刘晓刚; 刘春生

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种基于DSP的CAN控制器和USB芯片的USB总线和CAN总线的通信模块的设计,提出了一种使用USB接口实现CAN总线网络与计算机连接的方案.利用USB100芯片可在不了解任何USB协议的情况下,完成计算机RS 232串口升级为USB接口,同时CAN接口采用DSP片上CAN控制器,硬件设计极为简单.在DSP的控制下,PC机与CAN节点可以双向通信,通信波特率可高达1 Mb/s,传输数据稳定,可靠.实验证明,运用TMS320F2812片上eCAN模块来构成CAN总线通信系统更为简单,实用.%The design of a communication module between USB and CAN bus hased on CAN controller of DSP and USB chip is presented.A scheme that implements the connection between CAN bus network and the computer by USB interface is proposed.With the help of USB100, it can update the RS232 serial port of a computer to USB interface in the situation of unknowing anything about USB protocol.The hardware of system is extremely simple as a result of using CAN controller on DSP chip.Under the control of DSP, PC and CAN node can communicate with the baud rate of 1 Mb/s.The data transmission is stable and reliable.The experimental results show that the system of CAN bus communication made up of eCAN module which is on the chip of TMS320F2812 is simple and much more practical.

  20. Design of data acquisition system based on TMS320F2812%基于TMS320F2812的数据采集系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超波; 何宁; 袁晓伟

    2011-01-01

    To meet the requirement of practical production at oil field and master the parameter variations of internal well fully, a data acquisition system based on TMS320F2812 is proposed. The design applies abundant internal devices of DSP to accomplish hardware modules of data acquisition system, complete USB2. 0 protocol to improve data transmission under the cooperation of SCI interface and CH375, and also design FIR digital filter to ensure the effective of data processing results in software. The practice has proved that this system meets the requirement and has broad application prospects.%为了满足油田实际生产的要求,全面掌握油井内部的参数变化情况,提出了一种基于TMS320F2812的数据采集系统的设计方案.该设计方案使用了DSP丰富的片内外设,构建了数据采集系统的硬件电路模块,并利用SCI接口与CH375相互配合实现了USB2.0协议,提高了系统的数据传输速率,而软件部分则设计了FIR数字滤波器,明显增强了数据处理结果的有效性.实践证明,该系统能够满足生产测井的需要,具有广阔的应用前景.

  1. 基于TMS320F2812的移动机器人控制系统设计%Control System Design of Mobile Robot Based on TMS320F2812

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁红岩; 梁燕华

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve real-time and speed of control system for mobile robot, the motor control system with TMS320F2812DSP chip produced by TI has been developed. The traditional PID control has been improved. The integral separation PID control was used in the speed regulator. M/T method was used to measure the motor's speed. Simulation model of motor control system was found with Matlab/Simulink. The results of simulation are consistent with the theoretical analysis, which prove the control system is feasible.%为了提高移动机器人控制系统的实时性和快速性,选用直流伺服电机作为驱动系统的动力源,以Tl公司生产的TMS320F2812DSP芯片为核心,设计了基于DSP的移动机器人控制系统。对传统的PID控制算法进行了改进,采用了积分分离PID作为速度调节器的控制算法。电机的转速采用M/T测速法检测。利用Matlab/Simulink建立了电机控制系统的仿真模型。通过仿真得到了与理论分析相一致的结果,证明了所采用控制方案的可行性。

  2. Design of high-speed data acquisition circuit based on TMS320F28335%基于TMS320F28335的高速数据采集电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文磊; 赵洪亮

    2013-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit with the function of 12-bit resolution,20 MHz sampling frequency data acquisition is designed based on 32-bit floating-point real-time MCU chip TMS320F28335 and high-speed A/D converter ADS805E,aiming to be used in ultrasonic flowmeter design.The data interface is achieved by expanding ADS805E through external interface(XINTF),transferring the converted date by high-speed DMA.The control interface is realized by GPIO.Hardware circuit,bottom-layer software and testing results are given in the paper.This circuit owns following advantages,such as,excellent performance,simple interface,and low cost,etc,and it has been applied in the ultrasonic flowmeter developed by our group.%针对超声波流量计中高速数据采集的需求,采用32位浮点实时MCU芯片TMS320F28335和高速A/D转换器ADS805E设计了一种12位分辨率,20MSPS的高速数据采集电路.数据接口通过外部扩展接口Xintf扩展,使用DMA高速读取转换后的数据,控制接口通过GPIO口实现.文中给出了硬、软件设计及测试结果,该接口电路具有高性能,接口简单,低成本等特点,已经在研制的超声波流量计中应用.

  3. Application of the six sigma quality standard in evaluation of the TMS-1024i%6σ质量标准在TMS-1024i全自动生化分析仪上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琳; 崔涌泉

    2011-01-01

    Objective Application of 6 sigma quality standard for the evaluation of TMS-1024i automatic biochemical analyzer test item analysis performance,guide the biochemical quality control management,better clinical services. Methods Selected the following 6 items,the urea nitrogen(BUN) , creatinine(Cre) , glucose(Glu) , uric acid(UA) , triglyceride(TG) and cholesterol (TC) , theTMS-1024i automatic biochemical analyzer for precision testing,medical decision level concentrations were 6 sigma quality estimation,using the normalized OPSpecs chart to determine the quality control rules. Results TG, Cre reached 6 sigma quality standards,the quality control method of 13.5s rules,select 2 control measurements(n = 2)to offer a 90% guarantee detection error; UA and Glu relatived to the 6 sigma quality standards of performance in general,UA using 12.5s(n= 4) could only provide 50% guaranteed detection error,Glu using 12.5s(n = 4) could provide 90% guaranteed detection error,and TC,BUN sigma value relative to the 6 sigma quality standard were relatively low, should be used more rules of 13S/22S/R4s/41s/8x (n = 4 ,r = 2). Conclusion The TMS-1024i automatic biochemical analyzer test item analysis performance indicators have reached the united states national committee for clinical laboratory standards(CLSI) standard, the result is reliable, suitable for clinical use. There are some indicators have reached or close to the 6 sigma quality standards,some indicators of the quality level in accordance with the 6 sigma quality standards still need further improvement.%目的 应用6σ质量标准评价TMS-1024i全自动生化分析仪部分检测项目的分析性能,指导生化检验的质量控制管理,更好地为临床服务.方法 选定以下6个项目:尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cre)、葡萄糖(Glu)、尿酸(UA)、三酰甘油(TG)和总胆固醇(TC),对TMS-1024i全自动生化分析仪进行精密度检测,对医学决定水平浓度进行6σ质量估计,用标准化OPSpecs图确定

  4. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Changes Cerebral Oxygenation on the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Bulimia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Koga, Yasuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Numata, Noriko; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Iyo, Masaomi; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that food craving in eating disorders can be weakened with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aims of this study were to assess cerebral oxygenation change induced with rTMS and to assess the short-term impact of rTMS on food craving and other bulimic symptoms in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). Eight women diagnosed with BN according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria participated in this study. We measured haemoglobin concentration changes in the DLPFC with near-infrared spectroscopy during cognitive tasks measuring self-regulatory control in response to food photo stimuli, both at baseline and after a single session of rTMS. Subjective ratings for food cravings demonstrated significant reduction. A significant decrease in cerebral oxygenation of the left DLPFC was also observed after a single session of rTMS. Measurement with NIRS after rTMS intervention may be applicable for discussing the mechanisms underlying rTMS modulation in patients with BN.

  6. Commissioning of 3D treatment planning system Helax TMS 6.1 for Co-60 Machine Gammatron-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commissioning process has the following aims: 1) To compare the calculated beam characteristics with measured data; 2) To assess the performance of Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) according to criteria of acceptance, i.e. limits of accuracy; 3) To observe and record under what conditions the TPS is acceptable or not acceptable; 4) To monitor the use of the TPS and ensure that the standards of acceptance are maintained. The equipment used for the test measurements was: the Automatic Water Phantom System PTW MP3 with water phantom (70/60/50 cm), ionization chamber type PTW 31002- 0.125 cm3 and electrometer Tandem. Analysis of depth dose data for squire fields shows a good agreement between measured and TPS data, in the case when the calculated Percentage Depth Doses (PDDs) are obtained at different set-up from that used for the reference input data. The tendency of calculating narrower dose profiles from Helax TMS, most pronounced for maximum 16x16 field size, was found out. As a result, an underestimating of dose in the penumbra regions is observed. This is of great importance in the case of adjacent fields and when the radiation field is close to the organ at risk. For these cases, one should take note of unacceptable performance of Helax TMS, when one of the radiation field size is 16 cm or close to it. The results from other tests show good agreement between measured and calculated data. It should be noted that this is not a complete commissioning of TPS and more test (for oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, complex field shapes, 3-D calculations) should be preformed

  7. Eignung von HAM-Nat und TMS-Modul "Medizinisch-naturwissenschaftliches Grundverständnis" für die Studienbewerberauswahl in der Medizin [Suitability of the HAM-Nat test and TMS module "basic medical-scientific understanding" for medical school selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hissbach, Johanna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Tests with natural-scientific content are predictive of the success in the first semesters of medical studies. Some universities in the German speaking countries use the ‘Test for medical studies’ (TMS for student selection. One of its test modules, namely “medical and scientific comprehension”, measures the ability for deductive reasoning. In contrast, the Hamburg Assessment Test for Medicine, Natural Sciences (HAM-Nat evaluates knowledge in natural sciences. In this study the predictive power of the HAM-Nat test will be compared to that of the NatDenk test, which is similar to the TMS module “medical and scientific comprehension” in content and structure. Methods: 162 medical school beginners volunteered to complete either the HAM-Nat (N=77 or the NatDenk test (N=85 in 2007. Until spring 2011, 84.2% of these successfully completed the first part of the medical state examination in Hamburg. Via different logistic regression models we tested the predictive power of high school grade point average (GPA or “Abiturnote” and the test results (HAM-Nat and NatDenk with regard to the study success criterion “first part of the medical state examination passed successfully up to the end of the 7 semester” (Success7Sem. The Odds Ratios (OR for study success are reported.Results: For both test groups a significant correlation existed between test results and study success (HAM-Nat: OR=2.07; NatDenk: OR=2.58. If both admission criteria are estimated in one model, the main effects (GPA: OR=2.45; test: OR=2.32 and their interaction effect (OR=1.80 are significant in the HAM-Nat test group, whereas in the NatDenk test group only the test result (OR=2.21 significantly contributes to the variance explained. Conclusions: On their own both HAM-Nat and NatDenk have predictive power for study success, but only the HAM-Nat explains additional variance if combined with GPA. The selection according to HAM-Nat and GPA has under the

  8. A higher number of TMS-elicited MEP from a combined hotspot improves intra- and inter-session reliability of the upper limb muscles in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Andisheh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the number of elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) that induces the highest intra- and inter-sessions reliability for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study on two separate days. Single pulse magnetic stimuli were triggered with Magstim 200(2) to obtain MEPs from the muscles of interest, with the subjects in a relaxed position. Reliability of MEP responses was investigated in three blocks of 5, 10 and 15 trials. The intra- and inter-session reliability of the MEPs' amplitudes and latencies were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests revealed no significant time effect in the MEP amplitude and latency measurements (P>0.05). The ICCs indicated high intra-session reliability in the MEPs' amplitudes for the ECR and FDI muscles (0.77 to 0.99, 0.90 to 0.99, respectively) and latency (0.80 to 1.00, 0.75 to 0.97, respectively). The MEPs' amplitudes also had high inter-session reliability (0.84 to 0.97, 0.88 to 0.93, respectively), as did their latency (0.80 to 0.90, 0.75 to 0.97, respectively). Highest intra- and inter-session reliability was achieved for blocks of 10 and 15 trials. Our data suggest that intra- and inter-session comparisons should be performed using at least 10 MEPs in "combined hotspot" stimulation technique to ensure highest reliability.

  9. A higher number of TMS-elicited MEP from a combined hotspot improves intra- and inter-session reliability of the upper limb muscles in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andisheh Bastani

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, the number of elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs that induces the highest intra- and inter-sessions reliability for the extensor carpi radialis (ECR and first dorsal interosseus (FDI muscles. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study on two separate days. Single pulse magnetic stimuli were triggered with Magstim 200(2 to obtain MEPs from the muscles of interest, with the subjects in a relaxed position. Reliability of MEP responses was investigated in three blocks of 5, 10 and 15 trials. The intra- and inter-session reliability of the MEPs' amplitudes and latencies were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests revealed no significant time effect in the MEP amplitude and latency measurements (P>0.05. The ICCs indicated high intra-session reliability in the MEPs' amplitudes for the ECR and FDI muscles (0.77 to 0.99, 0.90 to 0.99, respectively and latency (0.80 to 1.00, 0.75 to 0.97, respectively. The MEPs' amplitudes also had high inter-session reliability (0.84 to 0.97, 0.88 to 0.93, respectively, as did their latency (0.80 to 0.90, 0.75 to 0.97, respectively. Highest intra- and inter-session reliability was achieved for blocks of 10 and 15 trials. Our data suggest that intra- and inter-session comparisons should be performed using at least 10 MEPs in "combined hotspot" stimulation technique to ensure highest reliability.

  10. 基于TMS320F28035 CLA的IIR低通滤波器设计%Design of Infinite Impulse Response Low Pass Filter Based on TMS320F28035 Control Law Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传海; 肖兵

    2012-01-01

    在基于TI公司Piccolo系列DSP芯片的变频控制中,ADC采样的信号不可避免的要受到开关电源高频开关信号或者IGBT高频开关信号的影响,使采样得到的信号夹带有高频信号干扰,从而导致控制算法得到错误的信号,产生误动作,使控制效果下降甚至失效.在DSP芯片CPU中虽然可以设计滤波器,但是滤波器的运行会增加CPU开销,使CPU无暇处理其他诸如通信、诊断之类的系统任务.正是基于上述原因,在TMS320F28035芯片CLA硬件平台上设计出IIR低通滤波器,它能有效的滤除高频信号的干扰,解决三相变频控制信号受高频信号干扰的难题,提高控制系统的控制精度,同时减少CPU的开销.给出IIR低通滤波器的Matlab/Simulink仿真设计和在TMS320F28035芯片CLA上的软件设计.最后通过实验验证IIR低通滤波器设计的正确性.%In the variable frequency control based on TI company Piccolo series DSP chips, the signals input to the analog to digital converter(ADC) are inevitably impacted by the switching power supply high switching frequency signals or insulated gate bipolar transistor(IGBT) high switching frequency signals , this impact will make the control algorithm get the wrong signal and will lead to a fault control effect. Though infinite impulse response(IIR) filters could be designed in the CPU of the DSP chips.it will take CPU much time to run the IIR filters and thus the CPU will have no time to perform other system tasks such as communications and diagnostics. Based on these, a design of IIR low pass filter based on the control law accelerator (CLA) of TMS320F28035 was given. It can effectively filter out the high switching frequency signals to make sure the accuracy of the control system and to mitigate the CPU overhead. The Matlab/Simulink design and the software design on the CLA were given. Finally,the validity of the IIR low pass filter is demonstrated by the experimental results.

  11. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sato

    Full Text Available Whole-body water immersion (WI has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI. The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0, intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1, a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2, a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3, a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4. SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  12. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism-a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Na Zhou; Hai-Yang Fu; Yi-Fei Du; Jian-Hua Sun; Jing-Lu Zhang; Chen Wang; Peter Svensson; Ke-Lun Wang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the ‘hot spot’ of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P 5 0.04; P 5 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P,0.01). These findings indicated a significant inhibition of jaw-closing muscle activity during sleep along with a decrease of muscle soreness. This pilot study raises the possibility of therapeutic benefits from rTMS in patients with bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies.

  13. Applications of Spectrum Scanning with Shortwave Direct Sampling Based on TMS320C6455%基于TMS320C6455短波直采频谱扫描应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周存麒; 刘德保; 李健

    2013-01-01

    频谱扫描技术是提高频谱资源利用的重要手段,短波宽带硬件平台能够更好地实现频谱扫描功能,直采技术是短波接收发展的趋势.提出了短波直采接收机设计方案,介绍了短波信号经过滤波放大直采处理,以DSP芯片(TMS320C6455 BZTZA)为处理核心,经过FFT处理后,数据通过网口上传,在计算机终端上显示频谱扫描的谱线和相关参数,从而实现频谱扫描功能.详细阐述了DSP作FFT变换原理和处理方法以及DSP芯片的引脚功能,同时给出DSP外围接口电路框图.

  14. Mapping of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 with EST and SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the cDNA suppression subtraction hybridization method, a spikelet-specific cDNA library was constructed that expressed at meiosis stage in rice. A total of 121 cDNA fragments were selected from the library and used as EST (expressed sequence tags) markers to detect the polymorphism between Annong N, a normal fertile Indica rice line and Annong S-1, its spontaneous mutant with thermo-sensitive genic male sterility, using the RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique. HN57, one of the EST probes, could detect polymorphism between them. The results of segregation analysis with the F2 population developed from Annong S-1 and Annong N indicate that HN57 co-seg- regates with the thermo-sensitive genic male-sterility controlled by tms5, the recessive gene in Annong S-1. This marker is located on the 31.2-cM region of the chromosome 2 of RGP (rice genome research program) genetic map. To further determine the location of tms5, 80 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers around this region were developed, and 12 of them were polymorphic. And finally, the tms5 was mapped within region of 181 kb by using these new markers.

  15. Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the prevention of relapse of depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaning; Xue, Yunyun; Chen, Yunchun; Zhang, Ruiguo; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a chronic illness that generally requires lifelong therapy. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique with few side effects that has been reported to be useful in the treatment of depression. However, no studies to date have evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the efficacy of rTMS for maintenance treatment of depression. Methods/design In this article, we report the design and protocol of a randomized, single-blind, pl...

  16. 二处截骨骨搬运治疗胫骨干大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损的再认识%Bifocal corticotomy and bone transport for large segmental defects of the infected tibia and soft tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永清; 朱跃良; 范新宇; 林玮; 何晓清; 李阳; 王毅

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨二处截骨骨搬运治疗胫骨干大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损的疗效及并发症发生情况. 方法 回顾性分析2009年5月至2014年5月收治的25例胫骨干大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损患者资料,男23例,女2例;年龄2 ~52岁,平均31.2岁.骨折分型均为GustiloⅢB型.胫前软组织缺损面积为8 cm×4cm~24cm×12cm,胫骨干缺损长度为8.5 ~ 18.2 cm,平均12.3cm.清创后采用半环槽外固定支架或Ilizarov外固定支架固定,胫骨远、近干骺端截骨向胫骨中部骨搬运,术后近端截骨端起始骨搬运速度为1 mm/d,远端速度为0.6 mm/d;根据情况逐步降低至0.5~0.6 mm/d,直至骨端对合,患者搬移时间为40 ~ 150 d,平均69.6d.结果 25例患者术后获12 ~72个月(平均26.6个月)随访.软组织缺损创面全部愈合,骨缺损获重建.22例患者骨断端一期愈合,1例患者出现骨断端不愈合,1例患者出现骨延长区伤口感染及成骨不良,1例患者出现胫骨端骨质疏松克氏针切割拔出,分别行对症处理后骨获愈合.2例患者出现严重钉道感染,1例患者拆除外固定支架后出现再骨折,2例患者出现胫骨力线偏移,经对症处理后消失. 结论 二处截骨可以有效缩短胫骨大段感染性骨缺损合并软组织缺损的骨搬运时间,疗效良好,但应注意手术细节和并发症的处理.%Objective To evaluate the techniques of bifocal corticotomy and bone transport for large segmental defects of the infected tibia and soft tissue and their complications as well.Methods From May,2009 to May,2014,25 patients with large segmental defects of the infected tibia and soft tissue were treated at our center.They were 23 males and 2 females,from 2 to 52 years of age (average,31.2 years).All the cases were Gustilo type Ⅲ B.The defect size of the soft tissue ranged from 8 cm ×4 cm to 24 cm × 12 cm;the length of tibia defects was from 8.5 cm to 18.2 cm,averaging 12.3 cm

  17. Corticospinal Facilitation of Erector Spinae and Rectus Abdominis Muscles During Graded Voluntary Contractions is Task Specific: A Pilot Study on Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Zoghi, Maryam; Morgan, Prue; Storr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study we compared transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a postural (bilateral low back extension: BLBE) and a respiratory (forced expiration during breath holding: FEBH) task. Methods Using TMS of the left motor cortex, simultaneous patterns of corticospinal facilitation of the contralateral erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles during graded voluntary activation were compared in seven healthy subjects. Result T...

  18. Reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(μ-Cl)₂Li(THF)₂] (BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh₂NSiMe₃)₂}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates: metallo-Wittig, adduct formation, C-F bond activation, and [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Oliver J; Mills, David P; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2014-10-14

    The reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (1, BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh2NSiMe3)2}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates is reported. Reaction of 1 with benzophenone proceeds to give the metallo-Wittig terminal alkene product Ph2C=C(PPh2NSiMe3)2 (2); the likely "UOCl2" byproduct could not be isolated. Addition of the bulky ketone PhCOBu(t) to 1 resulted in loss of LiCl, coordination of the ketone, and dimerisation to give [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(μ-Cl){OC(Ph)(Bu(t))}]2 (3). The reaction of 1 with coumarin resulted in ring opening of the cyclic ester and a metallo-Wittig-type reaction to afford [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(O)(CHCHC6H4O-2)]-κ(3)-N,O,O'}(Cl)2(THF)] (4) where the enolate product remains coordinated to uranium. The reaction of PhCOF with 1 resulted in C-F bond activation and oxidation resulting in isolation of [U(O)2(Cl)2(μ-Cl)2{(μ-LiDME)OC(Ph)=C(PPh2NSiMe3)(PPh2NHSiMe3)}2] (5) along with [U(Cl)2(F)2(py)4] (6). The reactions of 1 with tert-butylisocyanate or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide resulted in the isolation of the [2 + 2]-cycloaddition products [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NBu(t)){OLi(THF)2(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3}]-κ(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)3] (7) and [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NCy)2]-κ(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)(μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (8). Complexes 2-8 have been variously characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, multi-nuclear NMR and FTIR spectroscopies, Evans method solution magnetic moments, variable temperature SQUID magnetometry, and elemental analyses.

  19. TMS-induced motor evoked potentials in Wilson's disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenek, Jan P; Kurczych, Katarzyna; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a metabolic brain disease resulting from improper copper metabolism. Although pyramidal symptoms are rarely observed, subclinical injury is highly possible as copper accumulates in all brain structures. The usefulness of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in pyramidal tracts damage evaluation still appears to be somehow equivocal. We searched for original papers assessing the value of transcranial magnetic stimulation elicited MEPs with respect to motor function of upper and lower extremity in WD. We searched PubMed for original papers evaluating use of MEPs in WD using key words: "motor evoked potentials Wilson's disease" and "transcranial magnetic stimulation Wilson's disease." We found six articles using the above key words. One additional article and one case report were found while viewing the references lists. Therefore, we included eight studies. Number of patients in studies was low and their clinical characteristic was variable. There were also differences in methodology. Abnormal MEPs were confirmed in 20-70% of study participants. MEPs were not recorded in 7.6-66.7% of patients. Four studies reported significantly increased cortical excitability (up to 70% of patients). Prolonged central motor conduction time was observed in four studies (30-100% of patients). One study reported absent or prolonged central motor latency in 66.7% of patients. Although MEPs may be abnormal in WD, this has not been thoroughly assessed. Hence, further studies are indispensable to evaluate MEPs' usefulness in assessing pyramidal tract damage in WD.

  20. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  1. An Introduction to tne Memory of TMS320C54X--analyse the memory via analysing and comparing the two programes%TMS320C54X存储器的介绍--通过两个程序实例的分析和对比对存储器进行分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程翔; 罗岗; 袁东风

    2003-01-01

    本论文通过对两个不同FIR滤波器程序的分析和比较,从而进一步介绍了TMS320C54X存储器中三个不同存储空间其各自的特点,使读者对其有一个更加直接、全面和深入的认识.

  2. 基于TMS320DM642 DSP的H.264编码算法的移植与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒

    2010-01-01

    H.264是最新的视频压缩标准,本文将H.264的开源代码X264移植到TMS320DM642 DSP中,并根据DM642的结构,采用多种优化策略对移植后的算法进行了优化。实验结果表明,优化后的编码速度有了显著提高。

  3. PAIRED FASTER FFT: GRIGORYAN FFT IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ON XILINX FPGAS AND TMS DSPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*, Artyom M. Grigoryan, Parimal A. Patel, Bindu Tushara D

    2016-01-01

    Discrete Fourier Transform is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis and has wide applications in Engineering and Sciences. Because the DFT is so ubiquitous, fast methods for computing DFT have been studied extensively, and continuous to be an active research. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Coo...

  4. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study†

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the ...

  5. Mapping dynamical properties of cortical microcircuits using robotized TMS and EEG: Towards functional cytoarchitectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harquel, Sylvain; Bacle, Thibault; Beynel, Lysianne; Marendaz, Christian; Chauvin, Alan; David, Olivier

    2016-07-15

    Brain dynamics at rest depend on the large-scale interactions between oscillating cortical microcircuits arranged into macrocolumns. Cytoarchitectonic studies have shown that the structure of those microcircuits differs between cortical regions, but very little is known about interregional differences of their intrinsic dynamics at a macro-scale in human. We developed here a new method aiming at mapping the dynamical properties of cortical microcircuits non-invasively using the coupling between robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography. We recorded the responses evoked by the stimulation of 18 cortical targets largely covering the accessible neocortex in 22 healthy volunteers. Specific data processing methods were developed to map the local source activity of each cortical target, which showed inter-regional differences with very good interhemispheric reproducibility. Functional signatures of cortical microcircuits were further studied using spatio-temporal decomposition of local source activities in order to highlight principal brain modes. The identified brain modes revealed that cortical areas with similar intrinsic dynamical properties could be distributed either locally or not, with a spatial signature that was somewhat reminiscent of resting state networks. Our results provide the proof of concept of "functional cytoarchitectonics", that would guide the parcellation of the human cortex using not only its cytoarchitecture but also its intrinsic responses to local perturbations. This opens new avenues for brain modelling and physiopathology readouts. PMID:27153976

  6. 基于生命库存理论的刀具管理系统研究与开发%Research and Development of TMS Based on LIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英豪; 许超

    2012-01-01

    针对现有刀具管理系统在库存管理方面研究不足的问题,本文基于生命库存理论研制了一种新型的刀具管理系统.系统的应用可以实现从刀具需求到报废的整个生命周期的信息实时有效的管理.研制的系统能够满足一般制造企业的需求,并从根本上提升刀具的管理品质.%In this paper, the problem of inventory management in the existing tool management systems have been pointed out and a new type of tool management system (TMS) has been developed. The system, which based on life inventory theory (LIT) and the study of tool management, could manage the tool information across its lifecycle effectively and can be used for most of manufacturing enterprises enhance the management quality of tools.

  7. 经颅磁刺激对局灶性脑缺血大鼠脑神经细胞凋亡、NO的影响%Effects of TMS on apoptosis rate and NO content in rats motor cortical excitability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏牟潇; 陈忠伦; 唐宇凤; 姚丽英

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察经颅磁刺激对局灶性脑缺血大鼠脑组织的神经细胞凋亡数、NO的影响.方法 制备一侧大脑中动脉闭塞(MCAO)模型,造成大鼠左脑缺血24h,以改良的神经系统损害严重程度评分表(modified neurological severity score,NSS)评定神经功能缺损程度并筛选大鼠.随机分为对照组和磁刺激组(TMS).两组大鼠神经功能缺损无统计学差异.对照组给予5d假TMS刺激,TMS组给予5dTMS刺激.5d后采用干重湿重法测定脑含水量,采用流式细胞仪及硝酸还原酶法分别检测脑组织神经细胞凋亡率及一氧化氮含量变化.结果 TMS组大鼠的脑水肿程度明显减轻(P<0.05);TMS组神经细胞凋亡率及一氧化氮含量明显减少(P<0.05).结论 TMS对脑缺血损伤具有神经保护作用.%Objective To observe effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on apoptosis rate and NO content after cerebral infarction in rats. Methods The rats are introduced to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 24hour. the extent of NSSwere evaluated. The rats were randomly divided into model group and TMS group, there is no statisticly difference of the NSS beteen the two groups. 5day' s TMS are applied to the TMS group. Results The severity of cerebral edema in TMS group was lessened (P< 0.05) , Apoptosis rate and NO content of TMS group are significantly lower than the model group(P<0. 05). Conclusion TMS may have a neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral injuries induced by ischemia.

  8. Somatotopic mapping of piano fingering errors in sensorimotor experts: TMS studies in pianists and visually trained musically naives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Mega, Ilaria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-02-01

    Virtuosic musical performance requires fine sensorimotor skills and high predictive control of the fast finger movements that produce the intended sounds, and cannot be corrected once the notes have been played. The anticipatory nature of motor control in experts explains why musical performance is barely affected by auditory feedback. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we provide evidence that, in expert pianists (Experiment 1), the observation of a mute piano fingering error induces 1) a time-locked facilitation of hand corticospinal representation which occurred 300 and 700 ms but not 100 ms after error onset, and 2) a somatotopic corticospinal facilitation of the very same finger that commits the error. In a second experiment, we show that no corticospinal modulation is found in non-pianist naïve individuals who were experimentally trained to visually detect the observed fingering errors (Experiment 2). This is the first evidence showing that the refined somatosensory and motor skills of musicians exceed the domain of individual motor control and may provide the brain with fine anticipatory, simulative error monitoring systems for the evaluation of others' movements. PMID:23064109

  9. Gender differences in the neural network of facial mimicry of smiles – An rTMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia; Rieger, Sebastian Walter; Schwab, Samir; Niedenthal, Paula M.; Grandjean, Didier Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Under theories of embodied emotion, exposure to a facial expression triggers facial mimicry. Facial feedback is then used to recognize and judge the perceived expression. However, the neural bases of facial mimicry and of the use of facial feedback remain poorly understood. Furthermore, gender differences in facial mimicry and emotion recognition suggest that different neural substrates might accompany the production of facial mimicry, and the processing of facial feedback, in men and women. ...

  10. Study of the competitive viability of minority fuel oil marketers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-30

    Previous studies on the competitive viability of the fuel oil heating market had addressed some of the unique problems facing minority fuel oil marketers (MFMs) within the total market sector (TMS). This study focused on identifying and developing quantitative information on MFMs in the TMS. The specific objective was to determine whether the business problems experienced by MFMs were directly related to their minority status or were characterstic of any firm in the TMS operating under comparable conditions. As an overall conclusion, thorough investigation of the MFMs considered to constitute the universe of minoriy firms within the TMS did not reveal any evidence of overt discrimination affecting the competitive viability of MFMs. Upon analysis, the problems reported by MFMs could not be reasonably ascribed to discrimination on the basis of their minority business status. The study, however, did point up problems unique to MFMs as the result of typical operational and financial characteristics. For example, MFMs, compared to the TMS norm, have not been in the market as long and are smaller in terms of total assets, number of employees, number of trucks, number of accounts and annual volume of oil delivered. Their primary customers are low-income families in urban areas. Financial indicators suggest that the average MFM does not have long-term financial stability. The basis for this overall conclusion, derived by analyses of information from MFMs, as well as many independent sources, is summarized in three parts: (1) MFM industry profile; (2) financial analyses; and (3) problem analyses.

  11. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Na; Fu, Hai-Yang; Du, Yi-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Lu; Wang, Chen; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Ke-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the 'hot spot' of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P = 0.04; P = 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies. PMID:27025267

  12. Short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sleep bruxism – a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Na; Fu, Hai-Yang; Du, Yi-Fei; Sun, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Lu; Wang, Chen; Svensson, Peter; Wang, Ke-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on patients with sleep bruxism (SB). Twelve patients with SB were included in an open, single-intervention pilot study. rTMS at 1 Hz and an intensity of 80% of the active motor threshold was applied to the ‘hot spot' of the masseter muscle representation at the primary motor cortex bilaterally for 20 min per side each day for 5 consecutive days. The jaw-closing muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep was recorded with a portable EMG recorder at baseline, during rTMS treatment and at follow-up for 5 days. In addition, patients scored their jaw-closing muscle soreness on a 0–10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Data were analysed with analysis of variance. The intensity of the EMG activity was suppressed during and after rTMS compared to the baseline (P = 0.04; P = 0.02, respectively). The NRS score of soreness decreased significantly during and after rTMS compared with baseline (P bruxism and calls for further and more controlled studies. PMID:27025267

  13. Cortical hemoglobin concentration changes underneath the coil after single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Terao, Yasuo; Arai, Noritoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Hamada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Nakatani-Enomoto, Setsu; Okabe, Shingo; Yugeta, Akihiro; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-03-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multichannel probes, we studied hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes when single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). Seventeen measurement probes were centered over left M1. Subjects were studied in both active and relaxed conditions, with TMS intensity set at 100%, 120%, and 140% of the active motor threshold. The magnetic coils were placed so as to induce anteromedially directed currents in the brain. Hb concentration changes were more prominent at channels over M1 and posterior to it. Importantly, Hb concentration changes at M1 after TMS differed depending on whether the target muscle was in an active or relaxed condition. In the relaxed condition, Hb concentration increased up to 3-6 s after TMS, peaking at ∼6 s, and returned to the baseline. In the active condition, a smaller increase in Hb concentrations continued up to 3-6 s after TMS (early activation), followed by a decrease in Hb concentration from 9 to 12 s after TMS (delayed deactivation). Hb concentration changes in the active condition at higher stimulus intensities were more pronounced at locations posterior to M1 than at M1. We conclude that early activation occurs when M1 is activated transsynaptically. The relatively late deactivation may result from the prolonged inhibition of the cerebral cortex after activation. The posterior-dominant activation at higher intensities in the active condition may result from an additional activation of the sensory cortex due to afferent inputs from muscle contraction evoked by the TMS. PMID:23274310

  14. Design and implementation of a hybrid digital phase-locked loop with a TMS320C25: An application to a transponder receiver breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    Design, modeling, analysis, and simulation of a phase-locked loop (PLL) with a digital loop filter are presented in this article. A TMS320C25 digital signal processor (DSP) is used to implement this digital loop filter. In order to keep the compatibility, the main design goal was to replace the analog PLL (APLL) of the Deep-Space Transponder (DST) receiver breadboard's loop filter with a digital loop filter without changing anything else. This replacement results in a hybrid digital PLL (HDPLL). Both the original APLL and the designed HDPLL are Type I second-order systems. The real-time performance of the HDPLL and the receiver is provided and evaluated.

  15. 基于 TMS320 F28335的新型恒流源偏置磁轴承控制方案设计%Design of a New Type of Consta nt Current Source Bias Mga netic Bearing Control Scheme Based on TMS320 F28335

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 宗鸣

    2016-01-01

    The research progress of the constant current source bias magnetic bearing is introduced .And the control scheme of a new type of constant current source bias magnetic bearing is designed .The scheme takes the TMS320F28355 DSP chip as the con-trol core.The circuit schematic diagram of switching power amplifier and the winding structure and control principle of a new type of constant current source bias magnetic bearing are introduced in detail .Research shows that the new control scheme can improve the response speed and control precision of constant current source biased magnetic bearings , and have a good reference value .%介绍了恒流源偏置磁轴承的研究进展,并设计一种新型恒流源偏置电磁轴承控制方案。该方案以TMS320 F28335 DSP芯片为控制核心,详细介绍了所用开关功放的电路原理图以及新型恒流源偏置磁轴承的绕组结构与控制原理。研究表明,新型控制方案有助于提高恒流源偏置磁轴承的响应速度和控制精度,有很好的参考价值。

  16. Hardware design and implement of multi-channel video capturing and processing PCI board based on TMS320DM642%基于TMS320DM642的多路视频采集处理板卡的硬件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊炜

    2006-01-01

    针对构建高稳定性、高鲁棒性的多媒体数字监控系统设计并实现了一款基于TMS320DM642型数字信号处理器的四路实时MPEG-4视频采集兼压缩处理PCI板卡.详细介绍TMS320DM642的硬件架构、板卡的硬件构成和核心模块的实现,分析板卡设计中的难点及关键技术.实验结果表明,该板卡在不降低视频质量的前提下能够满足对4路CIF分辨率的视频图像进行采集、实时编码和通过PCI接口传输的要求,为远程视频监控提供有效的硬件支持,具有广阔的市场前景.

  17. AKILLI KARTLAR İLE YAPILAN MAL VE HİZMET SATIŞLARININ TMS-18 HASILAT STANDARDI ÇERÇEVESİNDE MUHASEBELEŞTİRİLMESİ-RECOGNITION OF SOLD GOODS AND SERVICES BY SMART CARDS WITHIN TMS-18 REVENUE STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abitter ÖZULUCAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada;, önce akıllı kart / yemek çekleri sistemi tanıtılmakta, tarafların sağladıkları fayda ve maliyetler belirtilmekte ve gerçekleşen satış işleminin taraflarca kayda geçirilmesi hususu TMS 18 Hasılat standardı kapsamında ele alınmaktadır. Elde edilen hasılatın ölçümünde, sistemin işleyişinde temel unsur olan ve üye iş yeri tarafından yemek kartı tedavül eden işletmeye hizmet faturası karşılığında ödenen komisyonların, hasılatla doğrudan ilişkilendirilebilen bir gider niteliği taşıyıp taşımaması; bu türden giderlerin Tekdüzen Muhasebe Sistemi’nden farklı olarak, TMS 18 kapsamındaki ölçümünün ve muhasebeleştirilmesinin farklı olup olmadığının belirlenmesi amacıyla kaleme alınan bu çalışma, giriş ve sonuç bölümlerinin dışında dört bölümden oluşmaktadır.-The main part of the smart card system is sellers and while they are measuring of their revenue, they should associate the commissions with revenues to record at inception. So in this paper, after the smart card system is introduced, the advantages and disadvantages of this system are exposed and then how to recognise of the selling is considered within TMS 18, Revenues Standard. In other words, the reason that we conduct this paper can be expressed that the expense of the selling commissions which arise from the selling products with smart card whether should or should not deduct to revenue while the revenue is been measured.

  18. 基于DSP的汽车防撞信号处理系统设计与实现%The Design and Implementation Signal Processing System of the Automotive Collision Avoidance Based on TMS320VC5402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于敬泉; 陈照章; 梁品

    2007-01-01

    介绍了一种基于TMS320VC5402 DSP芯片的汽车防撞信号处理系统的软硬件设计方法.该系统对车载毫米波雷达的接收信号进行自适应噪声消除,为报警提示做好了准备.

  19. 基于TMS320F28335的恒流型馈能式电子负载的设计%Design of a kind of constant-current energy-feedback electric load based on TMS320F28335

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜高; 张庆范; 王思尧; 侯典立

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the energy-wasting problem of power devices in the process of burn-in test, a kind of constant- current energy-feedback electric load based on TMS320F28335DSP is designed. It describes the operating feathers of a phase shifting full bridge ZVS PWM converter with clamping diodes in the primary side of transformer; and a feasible phase shifting PWM wave digital control method is adopted. Based on the method of voltage feed-forward in DC/DC, and current-voltage dual loop control in DC/AC, a 3.5 kW electric load is made. The test results show that this device has stable performance, fast corresponding speed, and can meet the requirements of burn-in test and grid feedback.%针对电源设备出厂老化测试电能浪费问题,设计了一种基于TMS320F28335DSP的恒流型馈能式电子负载。描述了一种原边带箝位二极管的ZVS移相全桥变换器的工作特点,采用了一种简便易行的移相波形数字控制方法 ;基于DC/DC电压前馈、DC/AC电压电流双环控制方法,研制出一台3.5 kW试验样机。实验结果表明:该系统性能稳定、调节速度快,能很好地满足测试老化及馈网要求。

  20. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel O.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  1. Moessbauer studies in a 3He--4He dilution refrigerator: search for nuclear cooperative phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials containing 141Pr and 169Tm were studied in the dilution refrigerator, most progress being made with 169Tm. Experimental techniques are described, and results are given for the hyperfine interactions in Tm compounds known to order magnetically. The studied materials are thullium metal, TmAl2, TmS, and TmSe. 6 references

  2. An electrophysiological link between the cerebellum, cognition and emotion: Frontal theta EEG activity to single-pulse cerebellar TMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Early intracranial electrical stimulation studies in animals demonstrated cerebellar connectivity to brain structures involved in cognitive and emotive functions. Human electrophysiological data to support cerebellum involvement in the latter functions are however lacking. In the present study, elec

  3. Further Studies of the Spur Process of Positronium Formation in Mixtures of Organic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, P.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1977-01-01

    To test some predictions of the spur model of positronium (Ps) formation, positron lifetime studies were made of the following binary organic mixtures: (a) carbondisulphide mixtures with n-tetradecane, n-hexane, isooctane, neopentane, and tetramethylsilane (TMS); (b) neopentane mixtures with...

  4. The Cerebellum in Emotion Regulation: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Honk, E.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the cerebellum may play a role in the regulation of emotion. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that inhibition of cerebellar function using slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) would lead to increased negative mood as a

  5. Adjunctive treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment resistant depression: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang LIU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex is a promising antidepressant treatment but the appropriate duration of treatment andits effect on cognitive symptoms in treatment resistant patients is uncertain.Hypotheis: Patients with treatment resistant depression on standard antidepressant medication who receive four weeks of adjunctive treatment with high-frequency rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex will have better clinical outcomes and better cognitive functioning than those who receive sham rTMS treatments.Methods: Thirty patients with treatment resistant depression (defined as failure to respond to two or more antidepressants of different classes administered for at least 6 weeks at or above two-thirds of the recommended maximum dose receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors wererandomly assigned to receive adjundive treatment with either real rTMS (n=15 or sham rTMS (n=15 5 times a week for 4 conseculive weeks. Blinded pre-post evaluations were conducted using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the severity of illness measure from the Clinical Global Impression Rating scale(CGI-S, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaIe (WAIS, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, and the Wisconsjn Card Sorting Test(WC5T.Results:14 subjects from each group completed the study. There was no significant difference in the HAMD total scores between the two groups after 2 weeks of treatment but after 4 weeks of treatment the mean percentage drop in the HAMD total score was significantly greater in the real rTMS group (49%, SD=19% than in the sham rTMS group(29%, SD=25%, with a mean difference of 20% [95%CI=3%-37%;t26=2.42; P=0.023]. At 4 weeks the mean (SD reduction in the MADRS total score was also greater in the real rTMS group [47%(23% vs 16%(40

  6. Characterizations and identification of the candidate gene of rice thermo-sensitive genic male sterile gene tms5 by mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Previous study indicated that the thermo-sensitive genic malesterile(TGMS) gene in rice was regulated by temperature.TGMS rice plays an important role in hybrid rice production,because the application of the TGMS system in two-line breeding is laborsaving,timesaving,simple,inexpensive,efficient,and eliminating the limitations of the cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS) system.'AnnongS' is the first discovered and deeply studied TGMS rice lines in China.'AnnongS-1' and 'Y58S',two derivatives of TGMS line AnnongS,...

  7. Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Servo Control System Design Based on TMS320F2812%基于TMS320F2812的永磁同步直线电机伺服控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑俊; 曾岳南; 吴一祥

    2012-01-01

    研究永磁同步直线电机在id=0动子磁场定向矢量控制策略下的三闭环伺服控制系统设计,对动子初始磁极位置采用逐渐逼近的方法进行检测,并搭建了软硬件系统,进行相应的实验,实验证明系统动子初始磁极对位准确,具有良好的动态性能和控制精度.%This paper makes a study of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor(PMLSM) three closed-loop servo control system design in which d-axis current of stator is set to be zero in the rotor flux-oriented control strategy. Testing the rotor initial pole position using the method of gradually approximation and set up the hardware and software system for the corresponding experiment. The experiment prove the rotor initial position testing is accurate, have good dynamic performance and control precision.

  8. 经颅磁刺激运动诱发电位对脊髓损伤的评价及法医学意义%The Evaluation of SCI by TMS-MEP and Its Forensic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蕾; 刘兴本; 朱镕霆; 徐晓明; 郑传斐; 周禹鑫

    2013-01-01

    目的 为脊髓损伤(spinal cord injury,SCI)的法医临床学鉴定寻找客观且准确的检查方法.方法 采用经颅磁刺激运动诱发电位(transcranial magnetic stimulation-motor evoked potential,TMS-MEP)测定68例SCI患者(颈段损伤23例,胸腰段损伤45例)拇短展肌和胫前肌的皮层起始潜伏期、N1峰潜伏期、中枢运动传导时间(central motor conduction time,CMCT)和波宽,并以30例正常人作为对照,比较两组差异. 结果 实验组随拇短展肌、胫前肌肌力下降或消失,皮层起始潜伏期、N1峰潜伏期、CMCT延长,波宽增宽,且实验组中的2、3级肌力者上述指标均高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 TMS-MEP检测可以直接、客观地反映脊髓锥体束的运动功能状态,为法医学鉴定提供更客观、准确的依据.%Objective To find an objective and accurate examination for evaluation of spinal cord injury (SCI) in forensic clinical medicine.Methods The onset latency of cortex,peak latency of N1,central motor conduction time (CMCT) and wave width of the abductor pollicis brevis and the anterior tibialis were calculated by transcranial magnetic stimulation-motor evoked potential (TMS-MEP).The data of 68 patients suffered from SCI including 23 cervical levels and 45 thoracolumbar levels were collected and compared with that of 30 normal controls.Results In experimental group,when the muscle strength of the abductor pollicis brevis or the anterior tibialis decreased or disappeared,the onset latency of cortex,the peak latency of N1,and CMCT prolonged and the wave width broadened.And these indexes of grade 2 and 3 muscle strength in experimental group were higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The TMS-MEP can determine directly and objectively the motor functional status of pyramidal tract of spinal cord in order to provide more accurate and objective evidences in forensic medicine.

  9. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  10. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  11. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation, as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%, lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%, α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34% and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80% were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption.

  12. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  13. Sensorimotor integration in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Ailie J; McCabe, Candida S; Harris, Nigel; Filipovic, Sasa R

    2007-02-01

    There is evidence that patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) have altered central sensorimotor processing. Sensory input can influence motor output either through indirect pathways or through direct connections from the sensory to motor cortex. The purpose of this study was to investigate sensorimotor interaction via direct connections in patients with CRPS and to compare the results with normal subjects'. Direct short-latency sensory-motor interaction was evaluated in eight patients with CRPS1 affecting a hand. Modulation of EMG responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced by concomitant median nerve stimulation was measured, the so-called, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI). Results were compared with eight normal subjects who were age and sex matched with the patients. As expected, all the normal subjects' EMG responses to TMS with median nerve stimulation were smaller than responses to TMS alone. In seven of the eight CRPS patients EMG responses to TMS were suppressed when paired with median nerve stimulation. Only one CRPS patient's results showed no suppression of EMG responses. These results suggest that the disease mechanisms of CRPS1 do not typically affect the direct neural circuit between sensory and motor cortex and that normal sensorimotor interaction is occurring via this route.

  14. Text Messages as a Reminder Aid and Educational Tool in Adults and Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venessa Pena-Robichaux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal management of atopic dermatitis (AD requires patients to adhere to self-care behaviors. Technologies, such as cell phones, have been widely adopted in the USA and have potential to reinforce positive health behaviors. We conducted a pilot study with 25 adolescents and adults age 14 years and older [mean 30.5 yrs, SD 13.4] with AD. Daily text messages (TMs that provided medication reminders and AD education were sent for six weeks to participants. Our goals were to (1 measure changes in pre- and posttest scores in treatment adherence, self-care behaviors, disease severity, and quality of life and (2 assess the usability and satisfaction of the TM system. Significant improvements in treatment adherence, self-care behaviors, skin severity, and quality of life ( ≤ .001, .002, <.001, and .014, resp. were noted postintervention. User feedback on the TM system was positive with 88% and 92% of participants reporting that the reminder TMs and educational TMs were helpful, respectively. In conclusion, study participants were receptive to using TMs as a reminder aid and educational tool. The positive trends observed are promising and lay the ground work for further studies needed to elucidate the full potential of this simple and cost-effective intervention.

  15. Progamming Technology of Flash Memory in TMS320F2SS DSP%TM320F2XX系列DSP闪速存储器编程技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王六顺; 刘文波; 陈小平; 于盛林

    2001-01-01

    嵌入在TMS320F2XX片内的闪存(flash memory)是DSP可供开发的片内资源,它具有ROM和传统的闪存、E2PROM不可比拟的优点,但对其编程必须遵守一些特定的规则。本文以F206为例,对闪存编程的编程(清零)规则、擦除规则以及快写规则作了较为详细的描述。%Embedded flash memory in TMS320F2XX DSP system is the developing on-chip resource, which has many advantages beyond ROM and conventional EEPROM. During programming, however, some rules must be abided by. In this paper, the rules of program (clear), erase and flash-write are introduced in detail with an example of F206.

  16. Priming does not enhance the efficacy of 1 Hertz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations : Results of a randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, Christina Wilhelmina; Blom, Jan Dirk; de Weijer, Antoin Dave; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Sommer, Iris Else

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporoparietal area (TP) has been investigated as a treatment method for auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) yielding inconsistent results. In vitro studies have indicated that the effects of low-frequ

  17. Bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of the combination of bihemispheric repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis in poststroke patients. The study participants were eight poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis (age at intervention: 62.8±4.9 years, time after stroke: 84.3±87.2 months, mean±SD). During 15 days of hospitalization, each patient received 10 sessions of 40-min bihemispheric rTMS and 240-min intensive OT (120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training). One session of bihemispheric rTMS comprised the application of both 1 and 10 Hz rTMS (2000 stimuli for each hemisphere). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, and the Modified Ashworth Scale were administered on the day of admission and at discharge. All patients completed the treatment without any adverse effects. Motor function of the affected upper limb improved significantly, on the basis of changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test (Ptherapy for poststroke hemiparetic patients, and improved motor function of the hemiparetic upper limb in poststroke patients. The findings provide a new avenue for the treatment of patients with poststroke hemiparesis.

  18. Retrospective Cohort Study of 207 Cases of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel W.; Arbucci, John; Silberman, Jason; Luderowski, Eva; Uppstrom, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Joseph; Tuca, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics, image findings, and outcomes of patients with juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) of the knee. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-surgeon cohort of JOCD patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of knee JOCD patients assessed by a single pediatric orthopaedic surgeon at a tertiary care center between 2005-2015. All diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with patellar dislocations or osteochondral fractures were excluded. Demographic data, sports played, comorbidities, surgical procedures, and clinical data were extracted from charts. Images were analyzed to identify the location and size of lesions. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare discrete variables, and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests to compare continuous variables between groups. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Sample consisted of 180 patients (207 knees), 124 boys and 56 girls. Average age at diagnosis was 12.8 years (7.5-17.5). Majority were active in sports (80.8%), primary soccer (36.7%) and basketball (29.4%). JOCD was present bilaterally in 27 patients (15%), 14 knees had bifocal OCD (6.8%), and only 1 patient had bifocal lesions in both knees. Most common location was medial femoral condyle (56.3%) followed by lateral femoral condyle (23.1%), trochlea (11.4%), patella (9%), and tibia (0.5%). In the sagittal view, most common location was the middle third of the condyles (48.7%). Surgery was performed in 72 knees (34.8%), with an average age at surgery of 14.1 years (9.3-18.1). Bilateral JOCD was present in 13 surgical patients (18.8%), but only 3 patients had bilateral surgery. Two operative patients had bifocal JOCD (2.7%) and surgery on both lesions. Location distribution did not differ between surgical and non-surgical lesions. The average normalized area of non-surgical JOCD lesions was 6.8 (0.1-18), whereas surgical lesions averaged a

  19. Retrospective Cohort Study of 207 Cases of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel W.; Arbucci, John; Silberman, Jason; Luderowski, Eva; Uppstrom, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Joseph; Tuca, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics, image findings, and outcomes of patients with juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) of the knee. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-surgeon cohort of JOCD patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of knee JOCD patients assessed by a single pediatric orthopaedic surgeon at a tertiary care center between 2005-2015. All diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with patellar dislocations or osteochondral fractures were excluded. Demographic data, sports played, comorbidities, surgical procedures, and clinical data were extracted from charts. Images were analyzed to identify the location and size of lesions. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare discrete variables, and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests to compare continuous variables between groups. P-values of basketball (29.4%). JOCD was present bilaterally in 27 patients (15%), 14 knees had bifocal OCD (6.8%), and only 1 patient had bifocal lesions in both knees. Most common location was medial femoral condyle (56.3%) followed by lateral femoral condyle (23.1%), trochlea (11.4%), patella (9%), and tibia (0.5%). In the sagittal view, most common location was the middle third of the condyles (48.7%). Surgery was performed in 72 knees (34.8%), with an average age at surgery of 14.1 years (9.3-18.1). Bilateral JOCD was present in 13 surgical patients (18.8%), but only 3 patients had bilateral surgery. Two operative patients had bifocal JOCD (2.7%) and surgery on both lesions. Location distribution did not differ between surgical and non-surgical lesions. The average normalized area of non-surgical JOCD lesions was 6.8 (0.1-18), whereas surgical lesions averaged a significantly higher area of 7.7 (0.5-17) (p=0.023). Average BMI was 21.6 versus 20.2 for surgical and non-surgical patients, respectively, significantly higher for those who underwent surgery (p=0.002). Most common procedure was fixation

  20. TMS对子宫内膜癌Ishikawa细胞增殖、凋亡的影响及机制探讨%Effect and mechanism of TMS on proliferation and apoptosis in human endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢雪景; 马俊英; 徐培培; 齐润辉; 程建新; 李利

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察细胞色素酶P4501B1( CYP1B1)抑制剂2,3',4,5'-四甲氧基二苯乙烯(TMS)对人子宫内膜癌细胞株Ishikawa增殖和凋亡的影响,并探讨其机制.方法 采用免疫细胞化学方法检测Ishikawa细胞中的CYP1B1蛋白.采用MTT法检测10、20、40、80 μmol/L TMS培养24、48、72 h后Ishikawa细胞增殖抑制率,并于培养48 h时用倒置显微镜对Ishikawa细胞进行形态学观察.采用流式细胞术检测10、20、40、80 μmol/L TMS培养48 h后的Ishikawa细胞凋亡率、细胞周期以及细胞中的Bcl-2、Bax及Survivin.结果 CYP1B1蛋白在Ishikawa细胞中为阳性表达.TMS可呈时间和剂量依赖性抑制Ishikawa细胞增殖(P均<0.05).用不同TMS培养48 h后镜下观察可见部分Ishikawa细胞皱缩变形,崩解坏死,细胞脱壁悬浮,并出现细胞核浓缩、核碎裂等细胞凋亡特征性形态学改变.TMS可剂量依赖性促进Ishikawa细胞凋亡,并使细胞周期中G0/G1期比例降低,G2/M期比例增高(P均<0.05),同时降低凋亡相关蛋白Bcl-2和Surivin的表达(P均<0.05),升高Bax的表达(P均<0.05).结论 TMS能抑制人子宫内膜癌Ishikawa细胞的增殖,诱导细胞凋亡,阻滞细胞周期于G2/M期,其机制可能是通过下调凋亡抑制蛋白Bcl-2、Survivin,上调促凋亡蛋白Bax而实现的.%Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene(TMS) , the inhibitor of Cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) , on the proliferation and apoptosis in human endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Methods Immunocytochemistry assay was applied to detect the expression of CYP1B1 protein. MTT method was used to measure cell proliferation after Ishikawa cells were treated with TMS, and the morphology of the cells was observed by inverted microscope. Flow cytometry was employed to investigate cell apoptosis, cell cycle and the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Survivin. Results The expression of CYP1 Bl protein was found in Ishikawa cells. TMS could

  1. Second time around:Corticospinal responses following repeated sports-related concussions within the same season. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan J Pearce; Daniel T Corp; Charlotte B Davies; Brendan P Major; Jerome J Maller

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the degree of neurophysiological and cognitive performance changes resulting from repeat concussions sustained in a single season ofAustralianRules football. Methods:Three amateur football players were recruited after sustainingtwo concussions during a single season of playing.Each player was assessed at multiple time points by transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) and electromyography, as well as tested for fine motor and cognitive performance after each concussion.Results:In all three cases, concussions resulted in reduction in fine dexterity and visuomotor reaction time, cognitive attention performance and increase in intracortical inhibition fromTMS.No changes in performance orTMS outcomes were found as a result of the order of the concussions.However, changes observed were dependent on the severity of the concussion.Conclusions:This multiple-case study has demonstrated that concussion result in increased intracortical inhibition and reduction in cognitive and motor performance. Further,TMS, in conjunction with tests of cognitive and motor performance, can be useful as a prognostic technique in assessing recovery from acute concussion injury.

  2. Intercambio gaseoso y contenido de azúcares en raíces de los genotipos de yuca TMS60444 y CAGBS1A8-3A crecidos bajo condiciones de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Valero, Bibiana Andrea

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se estudiaron los genotipos de yuca TMS60444 “silvestre” y CAGBS1A8-3A “transgénico” por su potencial promisorio para producción de bioetanol. En plantas de 3, 8 y 13 meses de edad, se evaluó en hojas mediante el análisis de gases en infrarrojo IRGA el intercambio gaseoso en relación con factores climáticos, y se determinaron en raíces los niveles de glucosa Glc, fructosa Frc y sacarosa Suc con cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia HPLC. La respuesta fotosintét...

  3. Une formation-action comme outil de prévention des TMS dans le secteur viticole : Leviers et freins identifiés par le biais de la recherche évaluative

    OpenAIRE

    Barbet-Detray, Rachel; Landry, Aurelie; Tran Van, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Notre présentation vise à montrer comment la conception d'un module de formation-action et son transfert ont permis d'impulser une dynamique de prévention des TMS tout en permettant une adaptation locale garantissant les conditions d'une implantation réussie. Forte de son savoir-faire dans la mise en oeuvre de la démarche du " couteau qui coupe " dans la filière viande, la Mutualité sociale agricole (MSA) a décidé d'adapter ses connaissances au déploiement de l'action en viticulture. Elle s'e...

  4. TMS320LF2407型DSP和EPM7128型CPLD在移动机器人驱动与控制系统中的应用%Hardware design of driving and controlling system for greenhouse robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉莉; 阎勤劳; 张莉

    2005-01-01

    为实现移动机器人的实时响应性和鲁棒性、实现多电机协调驱动算法和高效智能控制算法以适应复杂的作业环境,采用了面向数字控制应用的TMS320LF2407型DSP作为电机控制的主控制器,由DSP发出电机PWM控制信号,将其他传感器及数控接口集成到EPM7128型CPLD上,由CPLD输送到DSP,完成驱动系统的闭环控制.整个控制系统性能优异,硬件结构简单、经济、可靠.

  5. 经颅磁刺激技术在神经康复领域的应用%The Applications of Transcranial Magnetic Stirnulation(TMS) in Neuro-rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方征宇; 尤春景

    2010-01-01

    经颅磁刺激技术(TMS)诞生于上世纪80年代,是一种非侵入性的生物刺激技术.TMS能影响神经系统功能.与传统的电刺激技术相比,TMS有许多优势.这使得TMS成为神经功能研究领域一个非常重要的工具.随着TMS技术的发展,其在临床医学中的应用越来越受到重视.本综述将介绍TMS技术在神经康复领域的应用.

  6. Summary of a Global Academia Congress of Light Metals -TMS 2007 Annual Meeting%全球的轻金属学术盛会-2007年TMS年会记要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业翔; 赖延清

    2007-01-01

    TMS 2007年会于2月25日至3月1日在美国佛罗里达州奥兰多市举行.作者在参加本次TMS年会并阅读会议有关出版物的基础上,介绍了氧化铝、铝电解、镁业技术以及钛技术创新方面的亮点,并将《Light Metals 2007》中氧化铝与铝土矿、铝电解技术和电极技术三部分的论文目录翻译后以附录给出.

  7. Relative suppression of magical thinking: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vaughan; Reddy, Venu; Halligan, Peter; Kirov, George; Ellis, Hadyn

    2007-05-01

    The tendency to perceive meaning in noise (apophenia) has been linked to "magical thinking" (MT), a distinctive form of thinking associated with a range of normal cognitive styles, anomalous perceptual experiences and frank psychosis. Important aspects of MT include the propensity to imbue meaning or causality to events that might otherwise be considered coincidental. Structures in the lateral temporal lobes have been hypothesised to be involved in both the clinical and nonclinical aspects of MT. Accordingly, in this study we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to stimulate either the left or right lateral temporal areas, or the vertex, of 12 healthy participants (balanced for similar levels of MT, delusional ideation and temporal lobe disturbance) while they were required to indicate if they had "detected" pictures, claimed to be present by the experimenters, in visual noise. Relative to the vertex, TMS inhibition of the left lateral temporal area produced significant reduced tendency to report meaningful information, suggesting that left lateral temporal activation may be more important in MT and therefore producing and supporting anomalous beliefs and experiences. The effect cannot simply be explained by TMS induced cognitive slowing as reaction times were not affected.

  8. The comparison of rTMS and sertraline ameliorate anxiety-and depression-like behaviors in a rat model of CUMS and the possible mechanism%重复性经颅磁刺激与舍曲林改善CUMS大鼠焦虑抑郁样行为的比较及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 陈怡环; 杨帆; 彭正午; 谭庆荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects and the underlying mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and sertratline administration in ameliorating anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) . Methods: 32 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into control, CUMS, CUMS + rTMS and CUMS + sertraline groups (n = 8 for each group). The behavior of rats were investigated by sucrose preference test, forced swimming test and open-field test, and the expression of cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptor (CB1R) in hippocampus was measured by Western blot. Results: The sucrose preference percentage, horizontal motion distance, the number of entering central region and the expression of CB1R in CUMS group was less than those in control, CUMS + rTMS and CUMS + sertraline groups, but there was no significant difference between CUMS + rTMS group and CUMS + sertraline group; the immobility time in CUMS group was longer than that in other three groups, but there was no significant difference between CUMS + rTMS group and CUMS + sertraline group. Conclusion: Both rTMS and sertraline can improve anxiety and depression behaviors of CUMS rats with no significant difference between the two, the effects of rTMS and sertralin may be mediated by up-regulation of the expression of CB1R.%目的:比较重复性经颅磁刺激(repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation,rTMS)和舍曲林处理对慢性不可预见温和应激(chronic unpredictable mild stress,CUMS)大鼠焦虑抑郁样行为的改善作用及其可能的作用机制.方法:32只SD大鼠随机分为对照组、CUMS组、CUMS+ rTMS组以及CUMS+舍曲林组,每组8只.采用糖水偏好实验、强迫游泳实验及旷场实验观察各组大鼠行为,并以蛋白质印迹法(Western blot)检测各组大鼠海马内源性大麻素Ⅰ型受体(cannabinoid type 1 receptor,CBlR)的表达.结果:CUMS组糖水偏好值、水平活动度

  9. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumas, Jean-Claude, E-mail: jumas@univ-montp2.fr; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Perea, Alexis; Aldon, Laurent; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette [Universite Montpellier 2, Institut Charles Gerhardt (UMR 5253 CNRS) (France)

    2013-04-15

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Moessbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.25}PO{sub 4} as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  10. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumas, Jean-Claude; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Perea, Alexis; Aldon, Laurent; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette

    2013-04-01

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe0.75Mn0.25PO4 as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  11. Combined operando studies of new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of Li-ion batteries depend on many factors amongst which the important ones are the electrode materials and their structural and electronic evolution upon cycling. For a better understanding of lithium reactivity mechanism of many materials the combination of X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy (TMS) providing both structural and electronic information during the electrochemical cycling has been carried out. Thanks to the design of a specific electrochemical cell, derived from a conventional Swagelock cell, such measurements have been realised in operando mode. Two examples illustrate the greatness of combining XRPD and TMS for the study of LiFe0.75Mn0.25PO4 as positive electrode and TiSnSb as negative electrode. Different kinds of insertion or conversion reactions have been identified leading to a better optimization and design of performing electrodes.

  12. Perceiving what is reachable depends on motor representations: evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Coello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visually determining what is reachable in peripersonal space requires information about the egocentric location of objects but also information about the possibilities of action with the body, which are context dependent. The aim of the present study was to test the role of motor representations in the visual perception of peripersonal space. METHODOLOGY: Seven healthy participants underwent a TMS study while performing a right-left decision (control task or perceptually judging whether a visual target was reachable or not with their right hand. An actual grasping movement task was also included. Single pulse TMS was delivered 80% of the trials on the left motor and premotor cortex and on a control site (the temporo-occipital area, at 90% of the resting motor threshold and at different SOA conditions (50ms, 100ms, 200ms or 300ms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results showed a facilitation effect of the TMS on reaction times in all tasks, whatever the site stimulated and until 200ms after stimulus presentation. However, the facilitation effect was on average 34ms lower when stimulating the motor cortex in the perceptual judgement task, especially for stimuli located at the boundary of peripersonal space. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that brain motor area participate in the visual determination of what is reachable. We discuss how motor representations may feed the perceptual system with information about possible interactions with nearby objects and thus may contribute to the perception of the boundary of peripersonal space.

  13. 危机应对临时团队的TMS及社会资本研究初探%Exploring TMS and Social Capital of Temporary Teams in Crisis Responding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚建勋; 张虎伟; 于越; 李昌根

    2010-01-01

    在分析了危机应对临时团队作用以及特征的基础上,引入了社会资本的研究范式,以交互记忆系统(TMS)的构建作为临时团队初始社会资本积累的方法与手段,提出了社会资本与TMS之间的相辅相成、相互促进的螺旋上升的三个基本观点.最终聚焦到危机应对临时团队TMS的初始构建上,并根据文献分析和基于汶川地震中"K388临时团队"的案例分析,提出了基于社会资本理论的临时团队TMS初始构建的初步探索.

  14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS):Physiology,Psychology,Brain Mapping and Clinical Applications%经颅磁刺激:生理、心理、脑成像及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昭燃; 张蔚婷; 韩济生

    2004-01-01

    非侵入性的经颅磁刺激(Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, TMS)可以无痛地产生感应性电流来激活皮层,从而改变大脑内的生理过程.通过改变TMS的参数可以观测到不同的生理和心理效应.TMS对大脑的不同的调节方式体现在对感觉的调节、对认知功能和行为表现的促进或抑制上.TMS还可以与神经病学、精神病学和药理学研究相结合.无框架的TMS立体定位技术可以提高用于解剖定位的TMS以及用于指引脑外科手术的准确性.最后,中医针灸的理论也可以用于理解TMS在脑内调节作用的频率效应.

  15. Effects of trans-3,5,4′-trimethoxystilbene on the expressions of NO,ICAM-1 and NF-κB in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide in vitro%白藜芦醇衍生物 TMS 对脂多糖诱导血管内皮细胞表达 NO、ICAM-1和 NF-κB 的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付海燕; 胡占升; 杜红阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of trans-3,5,4′-trimethoxystilbene (TMS)on the expressions of NO, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEs)induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)in vitro.Methods The cell viabilities influenced by the different concentrations of TMS were assessed by CCK-8 assay.The cells were divided into the control group (CON group), LPS group,low-concentration TMS plus LPS group,medium-concentration TMS plus LPS group,high-concentration TMS plus LPS group and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)plus LPS group.HUVEs were pretreated with the different concentrations of TMS and 10 μmol/L PDTC,and then were stimulated with 0.1 μg /mL LPS.After incubation,the level of NO was determined by Griess assay.The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and NF-κB p65 were detected by Real-time PCR,the protein expressions of ICAM-1,NF-κB p65 and IκBαby Western blotting assay,and the protein expressions of ICAM-1 and NF-κB p65 by immunocytochemetry assay.Results There was little effect of low-concentration TMS (5 or 10 μmol/L)on the cell viability,but the cell viability decreased significantly when trea-ted with high-concentration TMS (50 or 100 μmol/L)in time-or concentration-dependent manners.Griess results showed that the level of NO in the low-,medium-and high-concentration TMS plus LPS groups and PDTC plus LPS group decreased compared with that in LPS group (P <0.05 ).The results of Real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that compared with LPS group and CON group,there were significant difference of mRNA and protein expressions of ICAM-1 and NF-κB p65 in medium-concentration TMS plus LPS group and PDTC plus LPS group (P <0.05;P <0.01).Furthermore,there were nuclear expressions of NF-κB p65 protein in medium-concentration TMS plus LPS group,PDTC plus LPS group and LPS group except for CON group.The protein expression of IκBαdecreased significantly in LPS group compared

  16. 电针结合重复经颅磁刺激治疗焦虑抑郁共病随机对照研究%Randomized controlled trial on comorbid anxiety and depression treated with electroacupuncture combined with rTMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林丽; 郑重; 蔡定均; 邹可

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy differences between integrative therapy of electroacupuncture and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and simple rTMS only in the treatment of comorbid anxiety and depression (CAD).Methods Eighty-five cases of CAD were randomized into two groups.The observation group (40 cases) was treated with electroacupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (EX-HN 3), Shenting (GV 24), Shenmen (HT 7) and Neiguan (PC 6) mainly, combined with rTMS.The control group (45 cases) was treated with simple rTMS.Separately, before treatment, after 5 days and 10 days treatment, Hemilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Hemilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were used for the scoring of depression and anxiety.Additionally, the efficacies were compared between two groups.Results After 5 days,10 days treatment, the scores of HAMA、 HAMD were reduced remarkably as compared with those before treatment in two groups (all P<0.001),HAMA score in observation group was lower than that in control group after 10 days treatment (P<0.05).The remarkable effective rates of depression and anxiety in observation group those 10 days that treatment were 87.1%(27/31) and 90.3% (28/31) respectively, which were higher apparently than 61.8% (21/34) and 61.8%(21/34) in control group separately (both P<0.05).Conclusion The integrative therapy of electroacupuncture and rTMS is definitely effective on CAD.This method is better than simple rTMS.%目的:比较电针结合重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)与单纯rTMS治疗焦虑抑郁共病(CAD)的疗效差异.方法:将85例CAD患者随机分成两组,观察组(40例)予电针百会、印堂、神庭、神门、内关等穴,配合rTMS治疗;对照组(45例)予单纯rTMS治疗,采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)和焦虑量表(HAMA)于治疗前、治疗5天后、治疗10天后进行抑郁、焦虑评分,比较两组疗效.结果:治疗5天、10天后两组HAMA、HAMD评分均低于治疗前(均P<0.001),且治疗10天后观

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with early cortical dementia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gregor Issac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The diagnostic accuracy of the currently available tools carries poor sensitivity resulting in significant delay in specific diagnosis of cortical dementias. Considering the properties of default mode networking of the brain it is highly probable that specific changes may be seen in frontotemporal dementias (FTDs and Alzheimer′s disease sufficiently early. Aim: The aim of this study is to look for changes in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS in cortical dementia. Materials and Methods: Evaluated with a single pulse TMS with the figure of eight coil and recorded from right first dorsal interossei (FDI. Resting Motor Threshold (RMT was estimated on the opposite motor cortex (T1. Second site of stimulation was cervical spine at C7-T2. Central motor conduction time (CMCT is equal toT1-T2.Silent Period (SP identified by applying TMS pulse to contracting FDI. Conclusions: RMT was reduced in seven out of eight Alzheimer′s dementias. CMCT was in the upper limit of normal in both patients with FTD. The most consistent observation was that SP was reduced and there were escape discharges noticed during the SP suggesting increased cortical excitability and decreased cortical inhibition. This suggests probable early asymptomatic changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA nergic and cholinergic system is taking place. This if confirmed may give some insight into early diagnosis and therapeutic role of GABA agonists in these disorders.

  18. Cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of the conceptual knowledge for common objects and familiar people: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the issue of how knowledge of common objects is organized in the brain, whereas the cognitive and anatomical underpinnings of familiar people knowledge have been less explored. Here we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right temporal poles before asking healthy individuals to perform a speeded word-to-picture matching task using familiar people and common objects as stimuli. We manipulated two widely used semantic variables, namely the semantic distance and the familiarity of stimuli, to assess whether the semantic organization of familiar people knowledge is similar to that of common objects. For both objects and faces we reliably found semantic distance and familiarity effects, with less accurate and slower responses for stimulus pairs that were more closely related and less familiar. However, the effects of semantic variables differed across categories, with semantic distance effects larger for objects and familiarity effects larger for faces, suggesting that objects and faces might share a partially comparable organization of their semantic representations. The application of rTMS to the left temporal pole modulated, for both categories, semantic distance, but not familiarity effects, revealing that accessing object and face concepts might rely on overlapping processes within left anterior temporal regions. Crucially, rTMS of the left temporal pole affected only the recognition of pairs of stimuli that could be discriminated at specific levels of categorization (e.g., two kitchen tools or two famous persons), with no effect for discriminations at either superordinate or individual levels. Conversely, rTMS of the right temporal pole induced an overall slowing of reaction times that positively correlated with the visual similarity of the stimuli, suggesting a more perceptual rather than semantic role of the right anterior temporal regions. Results are discussed in the light of current

  19. Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined with Intensive Swallowing Rehabilitation for Chronic Stroke Dysphagia: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Momosaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify the safety and feasibility of a 6-day protocol of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS combined with intensive swallowing rehabilitation for chronic poststroke dysphagia. In-hospital treatment was provided to 4 poststroke patients (age at treatment: 56-80 years; interval between onset of stroke and treatment: 24-37 months with dysphagia. Over 6 consecutive days, each patient received 10 sessions of rTMS at 3 Hz applied to the pharyngeal motor cortex bilaterally, followed by 20 min of intensive swallowing rehabilitation exercise. The swallowing function was evaluated by the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS, Modified Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MMASA, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS, laryngeal elevation delay time (LEDT and Repetitive Saliva-Swallowing Test (RSST on admission and at discharge. All patients completed the 6-day treatment protocol and none showed any adverse reactions throughout the treatment. The combination treatment improved laryngeal elevation delay time in all patients. Our proposed protocol of rTMS plus swallowing rehabilitation exercise seems to be safe and feasible for chronic stroke dysphagia, although its efficacy needs to be confirmed in a large number of patients.

  20. Analyse et exploitation de la variabilité gestuelle dans la prévention des TMS Analysis and utilization of gestic variability in MSD prevention Análisis y explotación de la variabilidad gestual en la prevención de los TME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Brunet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude de la variabilité gestuelle d’opérateurs d’une ligne d’assemblage, inscrite dans une démarche de prévention des TMS et visant la construction individuelle et collective de la santé.A partir d’un positionnement mettant l’accent sur le caractère situé des gestes, ceux-ci sont décrits finement et étudiés du point de vue de leurs déterminants, ressentis et de leurs logiques opératoires. Les méthodes combinent des données d’observation participante, d’entretiens et observations aux postes de travail et devant des traces vidéo.Diverses formes de variabilités ont été identifiées (façons de contrôler son travail, d’utiliser les outils, de coordonner ses bras. Les analyses ont été utilisées pour la prévention des TMS, en favorisant notamment l’attention et la délibération des opérateurs sur leurs gestes. Une réflexion sur la notion de variabilité gestuelle et sa formalisation est proposée. Enfin, nous envisageons des conditions nécessaires à la systématisation des analyses et des moyens pour évaluer les effets de ce type d’étude.This article presents a study of the gestic variability of workers on an assembly line. It is part of an MSD prevention process and its aim is the collective and individual construction of health.The paper begins with a theory emphasizing the situated nature of movements, which are described in detail and studied from the standpoint of their determinants, sensations and operational logic. The methods combine participant observation and interview data as well as observations at the workstations and about videos. Different types of variability were identified (how to control one’s work, use tools, coordinate the movement of one’s arms. The analyses were used in MSD prevention by mainly promoting the operators’ attention and deliberation about their movements. Reflection on the concept of gestic variability and its formalization is

  1. The left visual-field advantage in rapid visual presentation is amplified rather than reduced by posterior-parietal rTMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Möller, Friderike; Kuniecki, Michal;

    2010-01-01

    In the present task, series of visual stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, containing two target stimuli, T1 and T2. In previous studies, T2 was better identified in the left than in the right visual field. This advantage of the left visual field might reflect dominance exerted by the ri...

  2. The Right Posterior Inferior Frontal Gyrus Contributes to Phonological Word Decisions in the Healthy Brain: Evidence from Dual-Site TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J.; Baumgaertner, Annette; Geiss, Gesine; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we used online transcranial magnetic stimulation…

  3. Musical training-induced functional reorganization of the adult brain: functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation study on amateur string players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Eog; Shin, Min-Jung; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Kon; Woo, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Ro; Song, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jun-Won; Park, Seong-Ho; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2004-12-01

    We used the combined technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to observe changes that occur in adult brains after the practice of stringed musical instruments. We carried out fMRI on eight volunteers (aged 20-22 years): five novices and three individuals who had discontinued practice for more than 5 years. The motor paradigm contained a repetitive lift-abduction/fall-adduction movement of the left/right little finger, carried out with maximum efforts without pacing. The sensory paradigm was to stimulate the same little finger using a string. In parallel to the fMRI acquisition, TMS motor maps for the little finger were obtained using a frameless stereotactic neuronavigation system. After the baseline study, each participant began to learn a stringed instrument. Newly developed fMRI activations for the left little finger were observed 6 months after practice at multiple brain regions including inferior parietal lobule, premotor area (PMA), left precuneus, right anterior superior temporal gyrus, and posterior middle temporal gyrus. In contrast, new activations were rarely observed for the right little finger. The TMS study revealed new motor representation sites for the left little finger in the PMA or supplementary motor area (SMA). Unexpectedly, TMS motor maps for the right little finger were reduced significantly. Among new fMRI activations for sensory stimuli of the left little finger, the cluster of highest activation was located in the SMA. Collectively, these data provide insight into orchestrated reorganization of the sensorimotor and temporal association cortices contributing to the skillful fingering and musical processing after the practice of playing stringed instruments. PMID:15449354

  4. La dimension de genre dans la reconnaissance des TMS comme maladies professionnelles The gender dimension in the recognition of MSDs as occupational diseases La dimensión de género en el reconocimiento de las lesiones músculo esqueléticas (LMS como enfermedades profesionales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Probst

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En Suisse, les troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS sont rarement reconnus comme maladies professionnelles et leur prévention est peu développée. L’analyse des statistiques d’indemnisation concernant les TMS montre que les troubles affectant les travailleuses sont encore moins souvent déclarés et reconnus que ceux des travailleurs. La reconnaissance des TMS comme maladies professionnelles est donc marquée par une dimension de genre. Cette situation peut s’expliquer par divers facteurs, comme l’état des connaissances scientifiques, mais aussi le cadre légal, la jurisprudence, les critères appliqués par les assurances et les pratiques de déclaration. Au niveau des décisions des assurances, deux processus semblent jouer un rôle dans la sous-estimation des TMS d’origine professionnelle chez les travailleuses : d’une part, l’incidence plus élevée de certains TMS chez les femmes est interprétée comme résultant de prédispositions liées au sexe féminin et d’autre part, le travail des femmes est considéré comme moins sollicitant que celui des hommes.In Switzerland, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are seldom recognized as occupational diseases, and their prevention has not been extensively developed. The analysis of MSD compensation statistics shows that disorders affecting female workers are still reported and recognized less often than those affecting male workers. The recognition of MSDs as occupational diseases therefore has a gendered dimension. This situation can be explained by various factors, such as the state of scientific knowledge, but also the legal framework, jurisprudence, criteria applied by insurance companies, and reporting practices. Regarding insurance decisions, two processes seem to play a role in underestimating work-related MSDs in female workers: on the one hand, the higher incidence of certain types of MSDs in women is interpreted as being the result of predispositions linked to the female

  5. Personality goes a long a way: an interhemispheric connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S. Hoppenbrouwers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the development of psychology the delineation of personality has played a central role. Together with the NEO-PI-R, a questionnaire derived from the Five Factor Model of Personality, and recent advances in research technology it is now possible to investigate the relationship between personality features and neurophysiological brain processes. The NEO-FFI, the short version of the NEO-PI-R, reliably measures five main personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. As behaviour and some psychiatric disorders have been related to interhemispheric connectivity, the present study used the combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and electroencephalography (EEG to measure frontal interhemispheric connectivity and its association with personality as indexed by the NEO-FFI. Results demonstrated that prefrontal interhemispheric connectivity between the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC correlates with Agreeableness in healthy subjects. This is the first study to relate personality features to interhemispheric connectivity through TMS-EEG and suggests that Agreeableness relates to the effectiveness of prefrontal communication between hemispheres.

  6. 重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗慢性主观性耳鸣的短期疗效分析%The Short-term Effect Analysis of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Chronic Tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海弟; 郑亿庆; 区永康; 黄夏茵

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the therapeutic effect of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tinnitus. Methods 46 chronic tinnitus patients were treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for two weeks and the therapeutic effects were assessed afterward. Results rTMS treatment could improve tinnitus obviously. The overall effec⁃tive rate is 63.1%in subjective tinnitus, The effective rate is higher in decompensated tinnitus(THI≥40) than compensatory tinnitus (THI<40) (77%vs 45%;P<0.001), The THI score of tinnitus patients before and after treatment were r 51.8 ± 23.5 and 37 ± 18.8;espectively (t=5.94, p<0.001), VAS were 6.3 ± 2.4 and 4.9 ± 1.8;(t=5.27, p<0.01.) The difference of the changes of THI between decompensated tinnitus and compensated tinnitus group after rTMS treatment was 19.4 ± 8.5 (df=42, T=4.95, P<0.001). Conclusions rTMS could improve tinnitus, especially for decompensated tinnitus patients.%目的:采取1Hz低频重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗慢性主观性耳鸣并评价其治疗效果。方法对慢性主观性耳鸣患者46例行1Hz低频rTMS连续治疗2周,治疗前后分别行耳鸣残疾量表评分(THI)评分及主观疗效评估。结果 rTMS对耳鸣治疗有明显效果,对主观耳鸣症状总体有效率为63.1%,其中失代偿性耳鸣(THI≥40)的有效率明显高于代偿性耳鸣(THI<40)(77%vs 45%;P<0.001),耳鸣患者治疗前后THI为(51.8±23.5 vs 37.0±18.8;t=5.94,p<0.001), VAS为(6.3±2.4 vs 4.9±1.8;t=5.27,p<0.01),治疗前后有统计学差异。失代偿组与代偿组耳鸣rTMS治疗后THI变化存在显著差异,两组差值为19.4±8.5(df=42,T=4.95,P<0.001)。结论 rTMS治疗耳鸣有效,可明显降低THI得分,改善耳鸣症状,特别在失代偿性耳鸣效果更明显。

  7. How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Kassuba, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    from the site of stimulation could potentially disrupt processing at the distant site, interfering with behaviour without having any involvement in the task. A final important feature of the response to TMS is "context dependency", which indicates that the response depends on how excitable the cortex...... is at the time the stimulus is applied: if many neurones are close to firing threshold then the more of them are recruited by the pulse than at rest. Many studies have noted this context-dependent modulation. However, it is often assumed that the excitability of an area has a simple relationship to activity...

  8. Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation; a neural effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christianne; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has established the functional relevance of early visual cortex (EVC) for visual awareness with great temporal specificity non-invasively in conscious human volunteers. Many studies have found a suppressive effect when TMS was applied over EVC 80-100 ms after the onset of the visual stimulus (post-stimulus TMS time window). Yet, few studies found task performance to also suffer when TMS was applied even before visual stimulus presentation (pre-stimulus TMS time window). This pre-stimulus TMS effect, however, remains controversially debated and its origin had mainly been ascribed to TMS-induced eye-blinking artifacts. Here, we applied chronometric TMS over EVC during the execution of a visual discrimination task, covering an exhaustive range of visual stimulus-locked TMS time windows ranging from -80 pre-stimulus to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. Electrooculographical (EoG) recordings, sham TMS stimulation, and vertex TMS stimulation controlled for different types of non-neural TMS effects. Our findings clearly reveal TMS-induced masking effects for both pre- and post-stimulus time windows, and for both objective visual discrimination performance and subjective visibility. Importantly, all effects proved to be still present after post hoc removal of eye blink trials, suggesting a neural origin for the pre-stimulus TMS suppression effect on visual awareness. We speculate based on our data that TMS exerts its pre-stimulus effect via generation of a neural state which interacts with subsequent visual input.

  9. Myopia Control: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walline, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has

  10. Influence of dual-task on postexercise facilitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Abagyan, Anaida; Cao, Yisheng; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Coira, Diego; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2016-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of a dual task (DT) comprised of a nonfatiguing leg and foot extension coupled with a calculation task on postexercise facilitation (PEF) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) tested by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve right-handed healthy subjects participated in the study. They were required to perform a motor task, a cognitive task and a DT. The motor task consisted of extending the right leg and foot for 30 sec at 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction. The cognitive task consisted of a 30-sec backward calculation. In the DT condition, motor and cognitive tasks were performed concurrently. Resting motor threshold and 10 MEPs were collected before and immediately after each task. TMS was delivered to the motor hot spot of the right vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Results showed that exercise induced a significant PEF in both VL and TA muscles while calculation was not associated with significant PEF. Furthermore, DT was associated with lack of significant PEF in both muscles (VL, 116.1%±9.6%; TA, 115.7%±9%). Our data indicates DT interference on corticospinal excitability after a nonfatiguing exercise. Our experimental paradigm may be used to address postexercise motor cortex plastic adaptations induced by motor and cognitive tasks of different complexity in sport, aging and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27419111

  11. On the existence of bifocal heteroclinic cycles in a class of four-dimensional piecewise affine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiantian; Yang, Xiao-Song

    2016-05-01

    Based on mathematical analysis, this paper provides a methodology to ensure the existence of heteroclinic cycles in a class of four-dimensional piecewise affine systems. In addition, examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Adaptive Motor Imagery: A Multimodal Study of Immobilization-Induced Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burianová, Hana; Sowman, Paul F; Marstaller, Lars; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Savage, Greg; Al-Janabi, Shahd; de Lissa, Peter; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-03-01

    The consequences of losing the ability to move a limb are traumatic. One approach that examines the impact of pathological limb nonuse on the brain involves temporary immobilization of a healthy limb. Here, we investigated immobilization-induced plasticity in the motor imagery (MI) circuitry during hand immobilization. We assessed these changes with a multimodal paradigm, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural activation, magnetoencephalography (MEG) to track neuronal oscillatory dynamics, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal excitability. fMRI results show a significant decrease in neural activation for MI of the constrained hand, localized to sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. MEG results show a significant decrease in beta desynchronization and faster resynchronization in sensorimotor areas contralateral to the immobilized hand. TMS results show a significant increase in resting motor threshold in motor cortex contralateral to the constrained hand, suggesting a decrease in corticospinal excitability in the projections to the constrained hand. These results demonstrate a direct and rapid effect of immobilization on MI processes of the constrained hand, suggesting that limb nonuse may not only affect motor execution, as evidenced by previous studies, but also MI. These findings have important implications for the effectiveness of therapeutic approaches that use MI as a rehabilitation tool to ameliorate the negative effects of limb nonuse. PMID:25477368

  13. Intrahemispheric dysfunction in primary motor cortex without corpus callosum: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassonde Maryse

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two human cerebral hemispheres are continuously interacting, through excitatory and inhibitory influences and one critical structure subserving this interhemispheric balance is the corpus callosum. Interhemispheric neurophysiological abnormalities and intrahemispheric behavioral impairments have been reported in individuals lacking the corpus callosum. The aim of this study was to examine intrahemispheric neurophysiological function in primary motor cortex devoid of callosal projections. Methods Intracortical excitatory and inhibitory systems were tested in three individuals with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and sixteen healthy individuals. These systems were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocols: motor threshold at rest, paired-pulse curve, and cortical silent period. Results TMS revealed no difference between the patient and control groups on the motor threshold measure, as well as intracortical facilitation and intracortical inhibition systems as tested by paired stimulation. However, intrahemispheric inhibitory function was found to be abnormal in participants without callosal projections, as the cortical silent period duration was significantly increased in the patient group. Conclusion These data suggest that in addition to previously reported impaired interhemispheric function, patients lacking the entire corpus callosum also display abnormal intrahemispheric excitability of the primary motor cortex.

  14. Task-dependent modulation of functional connectivity between hand motor cortices and neuronal networks underlying language and music: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparing, R; Meister, I G; Wienemann, M; Buelte, D; Staedtgen, M; Boroojerdi, B

    2007-01-01

    Although language functions are, in general, attributed to the left hemisphere, it is still a matter of debate to what extent the cognitive functions underlying the processing of music are lateralized in the human brain. To investigate hemispheric specialization we evaluated the effect of different overt musical and linguistic tasks on the excitability of both left and right hand motor cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Task-dependent changes of the size of the TMS-elicited motor evoked potentials were recorded in 12 right-handed, musically naive subjects during and after overt speech, singing and humming, i.e. the production of melody without word articulation. The articulation of meaningless syllables served as control condition. We found reciprocal lateralized effects of overt speech and musical tasks on motor cortex excitability. During overt speech, the corticospinal projection of the left (i.e. dominant) hemisphere to the right hand was facilitated. In contrast, excitability of the right motor cortex increased during both overt singing and humming, whereas no effect was observed on the left hemisphere. Although the traditional concept of hemispheric lateralization of music has been challenged by recent neuroimaging studies, our findings demonstrate that right-hemisphere preponderance of music is nevertheless present. We discuss our results in terms of the recent concepts on evolution of language and gesture, which hypothesize that cerebral networks mediating hand movement and those subserving language processing are functionally linked. TMS may constitute a useful tool to further investigate the relationship between cortical representations of motor functions, music and language using comparative approaches.

  15. Clinical outcomes of surgical management of anterior bilateral mandibular fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Boffano; C. Gallesio; F. Roccia; B. van den Bergh; T. Forouzanfar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of patients with anterior bifocal mandibular fractures and to discuss the management of this peculiar type of trauma. Methods: From the systematic computer-assisted database that has continuously recorded patients hospitalized with

  16. Corticospinal state variability and hemispheric asymmetries in motivational tendencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Hofman, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study examined interrelations between asymmetrical hemispheric differences in the degree of variability of corticospinal excitability levels and motivational tendencies. The relative standard deviation in motor evoked potentials (MEP) to single pulse TMS

  17. The effect of music on corticospinal excitability is related to the perceived emotion: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Fabio; Banfi, Chiara; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Fiori, Elisa; Innocenti, Iglis; Rossi, Simone; Zaccara, Gaetano; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Cincotta, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a functional link between the emotion-related brain areas and the motor system. It is not well understood, however, whether the motor cortex activity is modulated by specific emotions experienced during music listening. In 23 healthy volunteers, we recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEP) following TMS to investigate the corticospinal excitability while subjects listened to music pieces evoking different emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, and displeasure), an emotionally neutral piece, and a control stimulus (musical scale). Quality and intensity of emotions were previously rated in an additional group of 30 healthy subjects. Fear-related music significantly increased the MEP size compared to the neutral piece and the control stimulus. This effect was not seen with music inducing other emotional experiences and was not related to changes in autonomic variables (respiration rate, heart rate). Current data indicate that also in a musical context, the excitability of the corticomotoneuronal system is related to the emotion expressed by the listened piece.

  18. 重复经颅磁刺激对阿尔茨海默病患者精神行为症状的疗效分析%Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia(BPSD) of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婵娟; 张若曦; 方雅秀; 王丹逢; 郭家伶; 韩海英; 刘文滔; 谭燕

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)对轻、中度阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者精神行为症状(BPSD)的疗效.方法 将38例有BPSD的AD患者随机分为rTMS治疗组(20例)和对照组(18例),分别接受20次5 Hz rTMS真刺激和伪刺激治疗,治疗期间维持原有的胆碱酯酶抑制剂治疗.治疗前及治疗后2周、6周采用神经精神科问卷(NPI)观察疗效,采用治疗不良反应量表(TESS)观察不良反应.结果 38例患者均完成治疗,治疗6周时治疗组NPI评分(16.69±6.62)分较治疗前(27.65±4.38)分明显降低,差异有统计学意义(t=6.16,P<0.05);且显著低于对照组(23.44±5.49)分,差异有统计学意义(t=3.33,P<0.05).两组TESS总评分比较差异无统计学意义(x2=2.06,P>0.05).结论 rTMS可能是控制轻、中度AD患者BPSD的一种有效而安全的治疗方法.

  19. Interhemispheric Inhibition Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Primary Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yasuyuki; Jono, Yasutomo; Mizusawa, Hiroki; Kinoshita, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI) is induced by the transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary sensory area (S1-TMS) without activation of the conditioning side of the primary motor area (M1) contributing to the contralateral motor evoked potential (MEP), whether the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1 modulated by the tactile input, and whether the pathways mediating the LIHI are different from those mediating the M1-TMS-induced LIHI. In order to give the TMS over the S1 without eliciting the MEP, the intensity of the S1-TMS was adjusted to be the sub-motor-threshold level and the trials with the MEP response elicited by the S1-TMS were discarded online. The LIHI was induced by the S1-TMS given 40 ms before the test TMS in the participants with the attenuation of the tactile perception of the digit stimulation (TPDS) induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the LIHI is induced by the S1-TMS without activation of the conditioning side of the M1 contributing to the contralateral MEP in the participants in which the pathways mediating the TPDS is sensitive to the S1-TMS. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was positively correlated with the attenuation of the TPDS induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the effect of the S1-TMS on the pathways mediating the TPDS at the S1. In another experiment, the effect of the digit stimulation given before the conditioning TMS on the S1- or M1-TMS-induced LIHI was examined. The digit stimulation produces tactile input to the S1 causing change in the status of the S1. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was enhanced when the S1-TMS was given in the period in which the tactile afferent volley produced by the digit stimulation just arrived at the S1, while the LIHI induced by above-motor-threshold TMS over the contralateral M1 was not enhanced by the tactile input. Thus, the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1

  20. Executive Semantic Processing Is Underpinned by a Large-scale Neural Network: Revealing the Contribution of Left Prefrontal, Posterior Temporal, and Parietal Cortex to Controlled Retrieval and Selection Using TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Carin; Kirk, Marie; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To understand the meanings of words and objects, we need to have knowledge about these items themselves plus executive mechanisms that compute and manipulate semantic information in a task-appropriate way. The neural basis for semantic control remains controversial. Neuroimaging studies have focused on the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus…