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Sample records for bifidogenic growth stimulator

  1. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  3. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  4. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  5. Starch-based carbohydrates display the bifidogenic and butyrogenic properties in pH-controlled faecal fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plongbunjong, Vijitra; Graidist, Potchanapond; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2017-01-01

    Starch-based carbohydrates, native rice starch (NRS), isomaltooligosaccharide produced from native rice starch (rIMO), commercial isomaltooligosaccharide (cIMO), resistant starch type 2 (RS2) and type 3 (RS3) were investigated the bifidogenic and butyrogenic properties. The result confirmed...

  6. Stimulation of growth in the little mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, W H; Eicher, E M

    1976-10-01

    The new mouse mutation little (lit) in the homozygous state causes a pituitary deficiency involving at least growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. The resultant growth failure of lit/lit mice was shown to be reversed by experimental conditions that enhanced levels of GH or GH and prolactin in the circulation. Two measures of growth, actual weight gain and bone dimension, were significantly improved by the physiological processes of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, by extra-sellar graft of a normal mouse pituitary, and by treatment with GH but not prolactin. These data confirmed pituitary dysfunction as the basic defect caused by the mutation lit and showed that the GH deficiency is responsible for growth failure. However, the biological site of gene action, the pituitary or hypothalamus, has not been established. Little mice exhibit a number of characteristics similar to those of human genetic ateleotic dwarfism Type 1, namely genetic inheritance, time of onset of growth retardation, proportionate skeletal size reduction, and pituitary GH deficiency.

  7. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  8. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  9. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  10. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Warrell, G. R.; Shvydka, Diana, E-mail: diana.shvydka@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We have investigated the impact of strong (∼10{sup 4} V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  11. Oral administration of kefiran exerts a bifidogenic effect on BALB/c mice intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamet, M F; Medrano, M; Pérez, P F; Abraham, A G

    2016-01-01

    The activity of kefiran, the exopolysaccharide present in kefir grains, was evaluated on intestinal bacterial populations in BALB/c mice. Animals were orally administered with kefiran and Eubacteria, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria populations were monitored in faeces of mice at days 0, 2, 7, 14 and 21. Profiles obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with primers for Eubacteria were compared by principal component analysis and clearly defined clusters, correlating with the time of kefiran consumption, were obtained. Furthermore, profile analysis of PCR products amplified with specific oligonucleotides for bifidobacteria showed an increment in the number of DGGE bands in the groups administered with kefiran. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) with specific probes for bifidobacteria showed an increment of this population in faeces, in accordance to DGGE results. The bifidobacteria population was also studied on distal colon content after 0, 2 and 7 days of kefiran administration. Analysis of PCR products by DGGE with Eubacteria primers showed an increment in the number and intensity of bands with high GC content of mice administered with kefiran. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed that bifidobacteria were one of the bacterial populations modified by kefiran administration. DGGE profiles of PCR amplicons obtained by using Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus specific primers confirmed that kefiran administration enhances bifidobacteria, however no changes were observed in Lactobacillus populations. The results of the analysis of bifidobacteria populations assessed on different sampling sites in a murine model support the use of this exopolysaccharide as a bifidogenic functional ingredient.

  12. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  13. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulated fibroblast growth factor 19 response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, C; Wildt, S; Rumessen, J J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea is underdiagnosed and better diagnostic tests are needed. Fasting serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) has insufficient diagnostic value, but this may be improved by stimulation. AIM: To explore if an impaired FGF19 response identifies primary bile acid...

  14. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  15. Changes in gene expression following growth stimulation of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathans, D.; Lau, L.F.; Lee, S.J.; Linzer, D.I.H.

    1986-01-01

    To identify genes that may be part of a genetic program for the growth of mammalian cells. The authors are characterizing cDNA clones derived from mRNAs that appear at various times after stimulation of resting BALB/c 3T3 cells with serum or growth factors. cDNA libraries were prepared from polyA/sup +/ RNA from cells stimulated with serum for various periods of time, and the libraries were differentially screened with /sup 32/P-cDNA probes made from stimulated or resting cell mRNA. One cDNA library was prepared from cells that were stimulated with serum for 3 hrs in the presence of cycloheximide. The authors purpose in inhibiting protein synthesis was to limit new mRNAs to those that do not require de novo protein synthesis for their accumulation and to amplify mRNAs that are superinduced by serum in the absence of protein synthesis. Of approximately 50,000 recombinant phage plaques screened, 357 clones hybridized to probes derived from stimulated-cell RNA but not to probes from resting-cell RNA. Cross hybridization analysis showed that 4 RNA sequence families accounted for over 95% of the clones; other sequences were found only once

  16. Radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the radiation induced mitotic delay and stimulation of growth are discussed in connection with the results of studies in Lemna minor and Lepidium sativum. The action of temperature seems to be of major importance. As many authors suggest that various chemical agents and slight intoxications also affect mitosis in a way similar to that induced by ionizing radiation, the radiation induced stimulation has lost its specific character and approaches might be found for further investigations of this phenomenon. (MG) [de

  17. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  18. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  19. Enzymatic depolymerization of gum Tragacanth: Bifidogenic potential of low molecular weight oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Michalak, Malwina; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant “goat’s horn” (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus...... and galactose content. The growth-stimulating potential of the three enzymatically produced gum tragacanth fractions was evaluated via growth assessment on seven different probiotic strains in single culture fermentations on: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (2 strains), B. longum subsp. infantis (3 strains...... that on galactan (control). HAG3 completely inhibited the growth of the Cl. perfringens strain. Tragacanth gum is thus a potential source of prebiotic carbohydrates that exert no viscosity effects and which may find use as natural functional food ingredients....

  20. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF, and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C. Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration.

  1. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Soyoung; Song, Sun U.; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration. PMID:29495622

  2. Stimulated growth of coherent VLF waves in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, G.S.; Helliwell, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude behavior of several hundred VLF whistler mode pulse signals and of their associated artificially stimulated emissions (ASE's) was analyzed with digital signal processing techniques. A survey of the results indicates that the pulse signals characteristically show exponential growth with time that is highly repeatable over short periods. However, the growth rate varies widely from time to time, covering a range of 25 to 250 dB/s. During the exponential growth phase of the pulse there is no observable change in frequency. Emissions may begin when growth stops or when the input pulse terminates, whichever occurs first. Low growth rates and falling emissions characterize the beginning and ending of extended periods of emission activity. Rising emissions are prominent at the height of activity. ASE's triggered by station NAA (14.7 kHz, 1 MW radiated) begin when the transmitted Morse dash terminates (dash length, 150 ms). Some ASE's triggered by pulses from Siple Station, Antarctica (1.6 to 7 kHz, < or = to 1 kW), and Omega, New York (10.2 kHz, 100 W), show similar behavior; others, however, begin prior to the termination of the triggering pulse when the pulse length exceeds 200 ms. Growth and frequency change of the ASE tend to be independent of one another. For transmitted pulses of sufficient duration the amplitude saturates prior to termination. Signal amplitudes may reach 30 dB or more above the initial level. During growth the measured bandwidth of the signal remains near the minimum possible (approximately 27 Hz) with the given analysis resolution (approximately 30 ms, approximately 50 Hz). By comparison with mathematical models it is shown that the observed signals have the maximum possible coherence for the measured values of growth rate and duration. These observations are in qualitative agreement with a model that attributes signal growth and ASE's to an interaction between coherent waves and counterstreaming gyroresonant electrons

  3. THE ROLE OF MONETARY POLICY IN STIMULATING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the conduct of monetary policy in Russia throughout last 10 years. The core method of analysis is ADL modeling. The author explains money supply influence on key macroeconomic variables: investment, consumption, import, inflation, REER. Specifically our results show to what extent GDP growth is determined by money supply growth throughout last 10 years. The author explains efficiency fall of Central Bank expansionary actions throughout last 5 years. The author suggests the set of decisions geared towards increasing the monetary policy efficiency. Ruble devaluation is a key of them. In particular, now the Central Bank of Russia and the Government of the following may be recommended: - gradual devaluation of the ruble by operations in the currency market you with the sterilization of excess money supply; - reduction in the rate of growth of tariffs for electricity, gas, of rail transport to the level of inflation; - reduction in the rate of growth of budget expenditures to the level of inflation. According to the author, these measures will allow monetary policy to revive Russia as an effective tool to stimulate economic growth.

  4. THE ROLE OF MONETARY POLICY IN STIMULATING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the conduct of monetary policy in Russia throughout last 10 years. The core method of analysis is ADL modeling. The author explains money supply influence on key macroeconomic variables: investment, consumption, import, inflation, REER. Specifically our results show to what extent GDP growth is determined by money supply growth throughout last 10 years. The author explains efficiency fall of Central Bank expansionary actions throughout last 5 years. The author suggests the set of decisions geared towards increasing the monetary policy efficiency. Ruble devaluation is a key of them.In particular, now the Central Bank of Russia and the Government of the following may be recommended:- gradual devaluation of the ruble by operations in the currency market you with the sterilization of excess money supply;- reduction in the rate of growth of tariffs for electricity, gas, of rail transport to the level of inflation;- reduction in the rate of growth of budget expenditures to the level of inflation.According to the author, these measures will allow monetary policy to revive Russia as an effective tool to stimulate economic growth.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-9

  5. Enzymatic depolymerization of gum tragacanth: bifidogenic potential of low molecular weight oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi; Michalak, Malwina; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, J Dalgaard

    2013-02-13

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant "goat's horn" (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus gossypinus was enzymatically depolymerized using Aspergillus niger pectinases (Pectinex BE Color). The enzymatically degraded products were divided into three molecular weight fractions via membrane separation: HAG1 10 kDa. Compositional and linkage analyses showed that these three fractions also varied with respect to composition and structural elements: HAG1 and HAG2 were enriched in arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid, but low in fucose and xylose, whereas HAG3 was high in (terminal) xylose, fucose, and 1,4-bonded galacturonic acid, but low in arabinose and galactose content. The growth-stimulating potential of the three enzymatically produced gum tragacanth fractions was evaluated via growth assessment on seven different probiotic strains in single-culture fermentations on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (two strains), B. longum subsp. infantis (three strains), Lactobacillus acidophilus , B. lactis, and on one pathogenic strain of Clostridium perfringens . The fractions HAG1 and HAG2 consistently promoted higher growth of the probiotic strains than HAG3, especially of the three B. longum subsp. infantis strains, and the growth promotion on HAG1 and HAG2 was better than that on galactan (control). HAG3 completely inhibited the growth of the C. perfringens strain. Tragacanth gum is thus a potential source of prebiotic carbohydrates that exert no viscosity effects and which may find use as natural functional food ingredients.

  6. Marked stimulation of growth and motility of human keratinocytes by hepatocyte growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Yoshikawa, K.; Nakamura, T.

    1991-01-01

    Effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on normal human epidermal keratinocytes cultured under conditions of low Ca2+ (0.1 mM, growth-promoting condition) and physiological Ca2+ (1.8 mM, differentiation-promoting condition) was investigated. In low Ca2+, HGF markedly enhanced the migration of keratinocytes while it suppressed cell growth and DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, HGF enhanced the migration, cell growth, and DNA synthesis of keratinocytes cultured under conditions of physiological Ca2+. The maximal stimulation of DNA synthesis (2.4-fold stimulation) in physiological Ca2+ was seen at 2.5-5 ng/ml HGF and the stimulatory effect of HGF was suppressed by transforming growth factor-beta 1. Analysis of the HGF receptor using 125I-HGF as a ligand showed that human keratinocytes expressed a single class of specific, saturable receptor for HGF in both low and physiological Ca2+ conditions, exhibiting a Kd = 17.3 pM and approximately 690 binding sites/cell under physiological Ca2+. Thus, HGF is a potent factor which enhances growth and migration of normal human keratinocytes under conditions of physiological Ca2+. HGF may play an important role in epidermal tissue repair as it enhances both the migration and growth of keratinocytes

  7. Zooplankton excretion metabolites stimulate Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, A.; Llabré s, M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Warming over Antarctica is leading to changes in the zooplankton communities inhabiting the Southern Ocean. It has been observed that zooplankton not only regulates phytoplankton through grazing, but also through the recycling of nutrients that are essential for phytoplankton growth. In this way, the effects of warming on zooplankton populations will change the amount or proportion at which recycled nutrients are restored. To estimate how the recycled nutrients released by zooplankton populations, dominated by krill (Euphausia superba), amphipods or copepods, affect the phytoplankton uptake and communities, we performed four incubation experiments: two close to the Antarctic Peninsula and two at the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our results showed a stimulating effect of the addition of metabolites on ammonia removal rates and on the net growth of phytoplankton communities, with different responses amongst the different phytoplankton groups. According to our results, phytoplankton net growth and community composition may be altered if this relevant source of nutrients is lost due to projected changes in the abundance or distribution of these zooplankton populations.

  8. Zooplankton excretion metabolites stimulate Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, A.

    2017-04-24

    Warming over Antarctica is leading to changes in the zooplankton communities inhabiting the Southern Ocean. It has been observed that zooplankton not only regulates phytoplankton through grazing, but also through the recycling of nutrients that are essential for phytoplankton growth. In this way, the effects of warming on zooplankton populations will change the amount or proportion at which recycled nutrients are restored. To estimate how the recycled nutrients released by zooplankton populations, dominated by krill (Euphausia superba), amphipods or copepods, affect the phytoplankton uptake and communities, we performed four incubation experiments: two close to the Antarctic Peninsula and two at the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our results showed a stimulating effect of the addition of metabolites on ammonia removal rates and on the net growth of phytoplankton communities, with different responses amongst the different phytoplankton groups. According to our results, phytoplankton net growth and community composition may be altered if this relevant source of nutrients is lost due to projected changes in the abundance or distribution of these zooplankton populations.

  9. APC functions at the centrosome to stimulate microtubule growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Christina; Ashton, Cahora; Sharma, Manisha; Brocardo, Mariana G; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is multi-functional. APC is known to localize at the centrosome, and in mitotic cells contributes to formation of the mitotic spindle. To test whether APC contributes to nascent microtubule (MT) growth at interphase centrosomes, we employed MT regrowth assays in U2OS cells to measure MT assembly before and after nocodazole treatment and release. We showed that siRNA knockdown of full-length APC delayed both initial MT aster formation and MT elongation/regrowth. In contrast, APC-mutant SW480 cancer cells displayed a defect in MT regrowth that was unaffected by APC knockdown, but which was rescued by reconstitution of full-length APC. Our findings identify APC as a positive regulator of centrosome MT initial assembly and suggest that this process is disrupted by cancer mutations. We confirmed that full-length APC associates with the MT-nucleation factor γ-tubulin, and found that the APC cancer-truncated form (1-1309) also bound to γ-tubulin through APC amino acids 1-453. While binding to γ-tubulin may help target APC to the site of MT nucleation complexes, additional C-terminal sequences of APC are required to stimulate and stabilize MT growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer drug troglitazone stimulates the growth and response of renal cells to hypoxia inducible factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taub, Mary, E-mail: biochtau@buffalo.edu

    2016-03-11

    Troglitazone has been used to suppress the growth of a number of tumors through apoptosis and autophagy. However, previous in vitro studies have employed very high concentrations of troglitazone (≥10{sup −5} M) in order to elicit growth inhibitory effects. In this report, when employing lower concentrations of troglitazone in defined medium, troglitazone was observed to stimulate the growth of primary renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. Rosiglitazone, like troglitazone, is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) that is known to activate Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Υ (PPARΥ). Notably, rosiglitazone also stimulates RPT cell growth, as does Υ-linolenic acids, another PPARΥ agonist. The PPARΥ antagonist GW9662 inhibited the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In addition, troglitazone stimulated transcription by a PPAR Response Element/Luciferase construct. These results are consistent with the involvement of PPARΥ as a mediator of the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In a number of tumor cells, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is increased, promoting the expression of HIF inducible genes, and vascularization. Troglitazone was observed to stimulate transcription by a HIF/luciferase construct. These observations indicate that troglitazone not only promotes growth, also the survival of RPT cells under conditions of hypoxia. - Highlights: • Troglitazone and rosiglitazone stimulate renal proximal tubule cell growth. • Troglitazone and linolenic acid stimulate growth via PPARϒ. • Linolenic acid stimulates growth in the presence of fatty acid free serum albumin. • Rosiglitazone stimulates transcription by a HRE luciferase construct.

  11. Cancer drug troglitazone stimulates the growth and response of renal cells to hypoxia inducible factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taub, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Troglitazone has been used to suppress the growth of a number of tumors through apoptosis and autophagy. However, previous in vitro studies have employed very high concentrations of troglitazone (≥10"−"5 M) in order to elicit growth inhibitory effects. In this report, when employing lower concentrations of troglitazone in defined medium, troglitazone was observed to stimulate the growth of primary renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. Rosiglitazone, like troglitazone, is a thiazolidinedione (TZD) that is known to activate Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Υ (PPARΥ). Notably, rosiglitazone also stimulates RPT cell growth, as does Υ-linolenic acids, another PPARΥ agonist. The PPARΥ antagonist GW9662 inhibited the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In addition, troglitazone stimulated transcription by a PPAR Response Element/Luciferase construct. These results are consistent with the involvement of PPARΥ as a mediator of the growth stimulatory effect of troglitazone. In a number of tumor cells, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is increased, promoting the expression of HIF inducible genes, and vascularization. Troglitazone was observed to stimulate transcription by a HIF/luciferase construct. These observations indicate that troglitazone not only promotes growth, also the survival of RPT cells under conditions of hypoxia. - Highlights: • Troglitazone and rosiglitazone stimulate renal proximal tubule cell growth. • Troglitazone and linolenic acid stimulate growth via PPARϒ. • Linolenic acid stimulates growth in the presence of fatty acid free serum albumin. • Rosiglitazone stimulates transcription by a HRE luciferase construct.

  12. Effect of Electrical Current Stimulation on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alneami, Auns Q.; Khalil, Eman G.; Mohsien, Rana A.; Albeldawi, Ali F.

    2018-05-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of electrical current with different frequencies stimulation to kill pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bacteria in vitro using human safe level of electricity controlled by function generator. A wide range of frequencies has been used from 0.5 Hz-1.2 MHz to stimulate the bacteria at a voltage of 20 p-p volt for different periods of time (5 to 30) minutes. The culture of bacteria used Nickel, Nichrome, or Titanium electrode using agarose in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and mixed with bacterial stock activated by trypticase soy broth (TSB). The results of frequencies between 0.5-1 KHz show the inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm in average at 30 minutes of stimulation. At frequencies between 3-60 KHz the inhibition zone diameter was only 10mm for 30 minutes of stimulation. While the average of inhibition zone diameter increased to more than 30mm for 30 minutes of stimulation at frequencies between 80-120 KHz. From this study we conclude that at specific frequency (resonance frequency) (frequencies between 0.5-1 KHz) there was relatively large inhibition zone because the inductive reactance effect is equal to the value of capacitive reactance effect (XC = XL). At frequencies over than 60 KHz, maximum inhibition zone noticed because the capacitance impedance becomes negligible (only the small resistivity of the bacterial internal organs).

  13. Stimulant use and its impact on growth in children receiving growth hormone therapy: an analysis of the KIGS International Growth Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley S; Aydin, Ferah; Lundgren, Frida; Lindberg, Anders; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2014-01-01

    Children receiving stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently present to pediatric endocrinology clinics for evaluation and treatment of growth disorders. The worldwide prevalence of stimulant use in children with ADHD also receiving recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and the impact on response to rhGH are unknown. Data on children enrolled in the KIGS® (Pfizer International Growth Study) registry were evaluated for the associated diagnosis of ADHD prior to initiation of Genotropin® rhGH. Concomitant stimulant medications and auxological information were captured. Response to rhGH was evaluated using established growth prediction models. The prevalence of ADHD in KIGS was 2.3% (1,748/75,251), with stimulants used in 1.8% (1,326/75,251). Children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) who received stimulants grew significantly less (1.1 cm) in the first year of rhGH therapy than expected for rhGH-treated non-ADHD IGHD children. After one year of rhGH, idiopathic short stature (ISS) children with ADHD were significantly shorter [0.74 cm (with stimulants) and 0.69 cm (without stimulants)] than non-ADHD ISS children. We demonstrated an impaired response to rhGH in IGHD and ISS children with ADHD. Our findings suggest that the ADHD phenotype, alone or in conjunction with stimulant therapy, may impair the short-term growth response to rhGH.

  14. Stimulation of growth and yield of cucumber plant through seeds treatments with x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, R.; Gonzalez Nunez, L.M.; Garcia Rodriguez, B.; Licea Castro, L.; Porras Leon, E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of seed irradiation with low doses of x rays on several growth and yield indicators of cucumbers plants was studied in laboratory and in organoponic conditions. The results showed that the stimulation doses for this crop were between 6-18 Gy, and the better dose for the stimulation of plant yield was 8.58 Gy

  15. Stimulation of collateral artery growth: travelling further down the road to clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, S.H.; van Nooijen, F.C.; Piek, J.J.; van Royen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Collateral artery growth is a potent natural defence mechanism to prevent death and myocardial infarction in occlusive artery disease. Given the high prevalence of arterial obstructive disease, a therapeutic compound stimulating collateral vessel growth could have a major impact on morbidity and mortality world wide. Although experimental studies on the stimulation of arteriogenesis have been promising, not a single drug has been proved to be applicable in clinical practice, either because of...

  16. Low doses of ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide stimulate plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korystov, Y.; Narimanov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The present study shows that low-dose oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation (10-20 cGy) and hydrogen peroxide (1-100 pmol per litre) stimulates germination of seeds and growth of sprouts and roots. The growth of seedlings can be stimulated by treatment of seeds as well as seedlings but in the latter case it needs lower doses. The stimulation effect is observed in a narrow dose interval which is the same for the plant species studied: barley, wheat, pea, maize and melon

  17. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test ≥7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  18. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  19. Stimulants and growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrao, Bianca Lee; Viljoen, Margaretha

    2011-07-01

    Initial suggestions that suppression of growth may be an intrinsic characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have now largely been disproven. Although controversy persists regarding the possible negative effect of adrenergic stimulants on growth in children with ADHD, the consensus that appears to be reached in the scientific literature is that stimulant usage may cause a manageable attenuation of growth in these children. Since it is known that stimulants increase the amount of dopamine and noradrenaline in the synapse, this writing suggests that these increases in dopamine and noradrenaline are responsible for the growth attenuation in these children. It appears that increased amounts of dopamine and noradrenaline have the ability to inhibit the secretion of growth hormone and growth-related hormones such as prolactin, thyroid hormones, sex hormones and insulin. Therefore, it would be reasonable to suggest that the increases in dopamine and noradrenaline caused by stimulant usage can disrupt the homeostasis of both growth hormone and growth-related hormones, generating the potential for the suppression of growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do anabolic nutritional supplements stimulate human growth hormone secretion in elderly women with heart failure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ellen T.H.C.; Schutzler, Scott E.; Wei, Jeanne Y.; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment has gained attention over the past decade as a treatment for heart failure. Human growth hormone (HGH) must be administered by injections (usually daily), so there is considerable advantage to stimulation of endogenous secretion by amino acid-based nutritional

  1. Stimulation of collateral artery growth: travelling further down the road to clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, S. H.; van Nooijen, F. C.; Piek, J. J.; van Royen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Collateral artery growth is a potent natural defence mechanism to prevent death and myocardial infarction in occlusive artery disease. Given the high prevalence of arterial obstructive disease, a therapeutic compound stimulating collateral vessel growth could have a major impact on morbidity and

  2. Androgen Stimulates Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles In Vitro: Interaction With Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and With Growth Factors of the TGFβ Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Mhairi; Thomson, Kacie; Fenwick, Mark; Mora, Jocelyn; Franks, Stephen; Hardy, Kate

    2017-04-01

    Androgens are essential for the normal function of mature antral follicles but also have a role in the early stages of follicle development. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by androgen excess and aberrant follicle development that includes accelerated early follicle growth. We have examined the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on development of isolated mouse preantral follicles in culture with the specific aim of investigating interaction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the steroidogenic pathway, and growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily that are known to have a role in early follicle development. Both testosterone and DHT stimulated follicle growth and augmented FSH-induced growth and increased the incidence of antrum formation among the granulosa cell layers of these preantral follicles after 72 hours in culture. Effects of both androgens were reversed by the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. FSH receptor expression was increased in response to both testosterone and DHT, as was that of Star, whereas Cyp11a1 was down-regulated. The key androgen-induced changes in the TGFβ signaling pathway were down-regulation of Amh, Bmp15, and their receptors. Inhibition of Alk6 (Bmpr1b), a putative partner for Amhr2 and Bmpr2, by dorsomorphin resulted in augmentation of androgen-stimulated growth and modification of androgen-induced gene expression. Our findings point to varied effects of androgen on preantral follicle growth and function, including interaction with FSH-activated growth and steroidogenesis, and, importantly, implicate the intrafollicular TGFβ system as a key mediator of androgen action. These findings provide insight into abnormal early follicle development in PCOS.

  3. To what extent does banks' credit stimulate economic growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the extent to which banks' credit affects economic growth in Nigeria. The data used was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin for a period of 24 years from 1990 to 2013. We used credit to the private sector, credit to the public sector and inflation to proxy commercial bank credit ...

  4. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  5. STIMULATION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ROMANIA BETWEEN REALITY AND DESIDERATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragility of economical environment subject to a dynamic process of globalization in recent decades has been demonstrated abundantly, year 2007 representing an important point in terms of triggering the accentuated macroeconomic imbalances. The propagation of the financial crisis in the economic environment is clearly reflected by the contraction of the global economy after a long period of growth, the emphasizing of budget deficits, reducing wages, increase of unemployment. Romania was significantly affected by the global economic crisis, amid a long line of inadequate policies. The orientation excessive economic development through consumption and the unfavorable ratio between income and productivity are issues that have contributed significantly to the decline of the Romanian economy. Inadequate measures taken have worsened the effects of crisis: reducing foreign investment, increasing of trade deficit, reduction of living standards, decreasing the number of SMEs, worsening the institutional weaknesses etc. In this paper, are addressed aspects which highlights the effects of economic policy measures promoted in Romania after the transition to market economy, on stages, specifying measures necessary to ensure the functionality of coordination mechanisms, in order to register determinant impulses of economic growth.

  6. LTB4 stimulates growth of human pancreatic cancer cells via MAPK and PI-3 kinase pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, W.-G.; Ding, X.-Z.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown the importance of LTB4 in human pancreatic cancer. LTB4 receptor antagonists block growth and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the effect of LTB4 on proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells and the mechanisms involved. LTB4 stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation of both PANC-1 and AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, as measured by thymidine incorporation and cell number. LTB4 stimulated rapid and transient activation of MEK and ERK1/2 kinases. The MEK inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, blocked LTB4-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation. LTB4 also stimulated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK; however, the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, failed to block LTB4-stimulated growth. The activity of JNK/SAPK was not affected by LTB4 treatment. Phosphorylation of Akt was also induced by LTB4 and this effect was blocked by the PI-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which also partially blocked LTB4-stimulated cell proliferation. In conclusion, LTB4 stimulates proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells through MEK/ERK and PI-3 kinase/Akt pathways, while p38 MPAK and JNK/SAPK are not involved

  7. The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to the application of growth stimulators and forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing sweet basil was carried out in the period 2008-2010 in Fajsławice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. The study evaluated the biometric traits of the plants, yield, the qualitative parameters of herbal raw material and weed infestation of the crop in dependence on growth simulators (Asahi SL, Bio-algeen, Titanit and the forecrop (winter wheat or spring barley + white mustard cover crop. Plots without foliar application of the growth stimulators were the control treatment. Tillage, mineral NPK fertilization as well as mechanical and chemical weed control were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for herbal plant protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of growth stimulators would have a positive effect on basil productivity, raw material quality and weed infestation of the basil crop. It was also assumed that the phytosanitary and fertilizing effects of the cover crop would result in higher and qualitatively better yield compared to the cereal forecrop alone (winter wheat. The best quantitative parameters of sweet basil raw material and the highest reduction in air-dry weight of weeds in the crop were observed after the application of the growth stimulators. The forecrop - spring barley + a white mustard cover crop that is ploughed in - also had a beneficial effect on yield and weed infestation of the plant in question. The traditional crop protection method used in the basil crop, without the application of the growth stimulators, resulted in a lower plant height and a smaller number of shoots per plant. This caused higher weed infestation of the crop and a decrease in yield. The positive side of the non-application of growth stimulators was a better chemical composition of basil raw material. Asahi SL and Tytanit yielded the best growth and productivity of the basil plants.

  8. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Cynthia T; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael; Booth, Gillian L

    2012-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient with an unusual plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with immunoreactivity for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. We report the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology findings of a patient symptomatic from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma and describe her outcome after surgical treatment. A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, palpitations, sweaty hands, and weight loss. Her medical history was notable for hyperthyroidism, treated intermittently with methimazole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.3 by 2.2 by 2.0 cm), and preoperative blood studies revealed elevated levels of TSH at 6.11 mIU/L, free thyroxine at 3.6 ng/dL, and free triiodothyronine at 6.0 pg/mL. She underwent an uncomplicated transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining of tumor tissue demonstrated positivity for not only TSH but also growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. The Ki-67 index of the tumor was estimated at 2% to 5%, and DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunostaining was mostly negative. Electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural phenotype of a glycoprotein-producing adenoma. Postoperatively, her symptoms and hyperthyroidism resolved. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that 31% to 36% of adenomas may show evidence of secretion of multiple pituitary hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of considering pituitary causes of thyrotoxicosis and summarizes the clinical and pathology findings in a patient with a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma.

  9. Do hormonal contraceptives stimulate growth of neurofibromas? A survey on 59 NF1 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammert, Marge; Mautner, Victor-Felix; Kluwe, Lan

    2005-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of the peripheral nerves and hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a tumor suppressor gene syndrome. Neurofibromas mostly start developing at puberty and can increase in size and number during pregnancy. Expression of progesterone receptors has been found in 75% of the tumors. Many female NF1 patients are thus concerned about the possibility that hormonal contraceptives may stimulate the growth of their neurofibromas. A survey was carried out on 59 female NF1 patients who are practicing or have practiced hormonal contraception to examine the effect of the various contraceptives on the growth of neurofibromas. Majority (53 out of 58) of patients who received oral estrogen-progestogen or pure progestogen preparations reported no associated tumor growth. In contrast, significant tumor growth was reported by two patients who received depot contraceptive containing high dose of synthetic progesterone. Oral contraceptives do not seem to stimulate the growth of neurofibromas in NF1 patients. High doses of progesterone might stimulate the growth of neurofibromas and deserve more caution

  10. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram; Park, Joonsoo

    2016-10-01

    Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted.

  11. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  12. Does Prolonged Therapy with a Long-Acting Stimulant Suppress Growth in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Lerner, Marc; Cooper, Kimberly M.; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: One hundred seventy-eight children ages 6 to 13 years received OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, CONCERTA) for at least 21 months. Height and weight were measured monthly during the…

  13. Radiation-induced growth and isothermal decay of infrared-stimulated luminescence from feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guralnik, Benny; Li, Bo; Jain, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    the growth and decay of laboratory-regenerated luminescence signals. Here we review a selection of common models describing the response of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) of feldspar to constant radiation and temperature as administered in the laboratory. We use this opportunity to introduce...

  14. Stimulation of phosphatidylcholine breakdown and diacylglycerol production by growth factors in Swiss-3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, B D; Morris, J D; Hall, A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a number of growth factors on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) turnover in Swiss-3T3 cells was studied. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), bombesin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vasopressin rapidly stimulated PtdCho hydrolysis, diacylglycerol (DAG) production, and PtdCho synthesis. Insulin and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) stimulated PtdCho synthesis, but not its breakdown, whereas epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bradykinin were without effect. Stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis by the above ligands resulted in increased production of phosphocholine and DAG (due to phospholipase C activity) and significant amounts of choline, suggesting activation of a phospholipase D as well. CDP-choline and glycerophosphocholine levels were unchanged. Down-regulation of protein kinase C with PMA (400 nM, 40 h) abolished the stimulation of PtdCho hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis by PMA, bombesin, PDGF and vasopressin, but not the stimulation of PtdCho synthesis by insulin and PGF2 alpha. PtdCho hydrolysis therefore occurs predominantly by activation of protein kinase C (either by PMA or PtdIns hydrolysis) leading to elevation of DAG levels derived from non-PtdIns(4,5)P2 sources. PtdCho synthesis occurs by both a protein kinase C-dependent pathway (stimulated by PMA, PDGF, bombesin and vasopressin) and a protein kinase C-independent pathway (stimulated by insulin and PGF2 alpha). DAG production from PtdCho hydrolysis is not the primary signal to activate protein kinase C, but may contribute to long-term activation of this kinase. PMID:2690829

  15. Repeated Microneedle Stimulation Induces Enhanced Hair Growth in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Seob; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kang, Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Microneedle is a method that creates transdermal microchannels across the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. No previous study showed a therapeutic effect of microneedle itself on hair growth by wounding. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of repeated microwound formed by microneedle on hair growth and hair growth-related genes in a murine model. A disk microneedle roller was applied to each group of mice five times a week for three weeks. First, to identify the optimal length and cycle, microneedles of lengths of 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm and cycles of 3, 6, 10, and 13 cycles were applied. Second, the effect of hair growth and hair-growth-related genes such as Wnt3a, β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Wnt10b was observed using optimized microneedle. Outcomes were observed using visual inspection, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. We found that the optimal length and cycle of microneedle treatment on hair growth was 0.25 mm/10 cycles and 0.5 mm/10 cycles. Repeated microneedle stimulation promoted hair growth, and it also induced the enhanced expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, and Wnt10b. Our study provides evidence that microneedle stimulation can induce hair growth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF. Combined with the drug delivery effect, we believe that microneedle stimulation could lead to new approaches for alopecia.

  16. Herbicidal and Plant-growth Stimulating Effects of Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The depsides atranorin (7 and diffractaic acid (1, the depsidones hypostictic (2 protocetraric (3, salazinic (4 acids, the xanthone secalonic acid (5, and usnic acid (6 were evaluated for their phytotoxic potentials against the target species Allium cepa cv. Baia periforme (onion, Monocotyledoneae. The bioassays, carried out under laboratory conditions, revealed that diffractaic (1 and hypostictic (2 acids stimulated plant growth; secalonic acid (5 stimulated seed germination and radicle growth, while reducing coleoptile length. Usnic acid (6 promoted seed germination and stronger inhibition of radicle and coleoptile growth. Protocetraric (3 and salazinic (4 acids and atranorin (7 exhibited a herbicidal effect, inhibiting seed germination and reducing radicle and coleoptile growth—features that suggest their utility as natural herbicides. These results invite further investigation to elucidate the mode of action of these compounds and to synthesize them for field experiments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.756 

  17. Is the growth stimulation by low doses of glyphosate sustained over time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedergreen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The herbicide, glyphosate, has been shown to stimulate growth in a range of species when applied at doses of 5-60 g a.e. ha -1 , corresponding to realistic spray drift events. This study investigates growth of shoot parameters over time to detect whether the glyphosate induced growth increase was sustained and had a final effect on reproduction. The results showed that an actual biomass growth rate increase took place within the first week after spraying with glyphosate doses -1 . This initial growth boost kept treated plants larger than untreated plants for up to six weeks, but at harvest there was no significant difference between control plants and treated plants. Possible effects of glyphosate hormesis on the competitive ability of spray drift affected plants are discussed. - Glyphosate induced hormesis in barley is not sustained over time

  18. Is the growth stimulation by low doses of glyphosate sustained over time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedergreen, Nina [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegard Alle 13, 2630 Tastrup (Denmark)], E-mail: ncf@life.ku.dk

    2008-12-15

    The herbicide, glyphosate, has been shown to stimulate growth in a range of species when applied at doses of 5-60 g a.e. ha{sup -1}, corresponding to realistic spray drift events. This study investigates growth of shoot parameters over time to detect whether the glyphosate induced growth increase was sustained and had a final effect on reproduction. The results showed that an actual biomass growth rate increase took place within the first week after spraying with glyphosate doses <60 g a.e. ha{sup -1}. This initial growth boost kept treated plants larger than untreated plants for up to six weeks, but at harvest there was no significant difference between control plants and treated plants. Possible effects of glyphosate hormesis on the competitive ability of spray drift affected plants are discussed. - Glyphosate induced hormesis in barley is not sustained over time.

  19. Promotion of ovarian follicle growth following mTOR activation: synergistic effects of AKT stimulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    Full Text Available Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase and mTOR signaling is important in regulating cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies using oocyte- and granulosa cell-specific deletion of mTOR inhibitor genes TSC1 or TSC2 demonstrated the important role of mTOR signaling in the promotion of ovarian follicle development. We now report that treatment of ovaries from juvenile mice with an mTOR activator MHY1485 stimulated mTOR, S6K1 and rpS6 phosphorylation. Culturing ovaries for 4 days with MHY1485 increased ovarian explant weights and follicle development. In vivo studies further demonstrated that pre-incubation of these ovaries with MHY1485 for 2 days, followed by allo-grafting into kidney capsules of adult ovariectomized hosts for 5 days, led to marked increases in graft weights and promotion of follicle development. Mature oocytes derived from MHY1485-activated ovarian grafts could be successfully fertilized, leading the delivery of healthy pups. We further treated ovaries with the mTOR activator together with AKT activators (PTEN inhibitor and phosphoinositol-3-kinase stimulator before grafting and found additive enhancement of follicle growth. Our studies demonstrate the ability of an mTOR activator in promoting follicle growth, leading to a potential strategy to stimulate preantral follicle growth in infertile patients.

  20. Curcumin suppresses growth of mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, in part, by stimulating apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rishi, Arun K; Wu, Wenjuan; Polin, Lisa; Sharma, Sunita; Levi, Edi; Albelda, Steven; Pass, Harvey I; Wali, Anil

    2011-11-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related malignancy of the thoracic pleura. Although, platinum-based agents are the first line of therapy, there is an urgent need for second-line therapies to treat the drug-resistant MPM. Cell cycle as well as apoptosis pathways are frequently altered in MPM and thus remain attractive targets for intervention strategies. Curcumin, the major component in the spice turmeric, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics has been under investigation for a number of cancers. In this study, we investigated the biological and molecular responses of MPM cells to curcumin treatments and the mechanisms involved. Flow-cytometric analyses coupled with western immunoblotting and gene-array analyses were conducted to determine mechanisms of curcumin-dependent growth suppression of human (H2373, H2452, H2461, and H226) and murine (AB12) MPM cells. Curcumin inhibited MPM cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner while pretreatment of MPM cells with curcumin enhanced cisplatin efficacy. Curcumin activated the stress-activated p38 kinase, caspases 9 and 3, caused elevated levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, stimulated PARP cleavage, and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin treatments stimulated expression of novel transducers of cell growth suppression such as CARP-1, XAF1, and SULF1 proteins. Oral administration of curcumin inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by stimulating apoptosis. Thus, curcumin targets cell cycle and promotes apoptosis to suppress MPM growth in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide a proof-of-principle rationale for further in-depth analysis of MPM growth suppression mechanisms and their future exploitation in effective management of resistant MPM.

  1. Electrochemical and Chemical Complications Resulting from Yeast Extract Addition to Stimulate Microbial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-22

    including strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on molasses-based media, debittered brewers yeasts (strains of Saccharo- myces cerevisiae or...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Technical Note: Electrochemical and Chemical Complications Resulting from Yeast Extract...Addition to Stimulate Microbial Growth Jason S. Lee‡,* and Brenda J. Little* ABSTRACT Addition of 1 g/L yeast extract (YE) to sterile, aerobic

  2. AGRO-ECONOMICAL ASPECTS OF GROWTH STIMULANTS AND MICROFERTILIZERS APPLICATION ON BUCKWHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlobaeva E. A.; Kozlobaev A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the food value of buckwheat. It is said that the achievement of its biological potential under prevailing conditions of cultivation is impossible without the introduction of modern scientific and technical progress. The authors describe variants of integrated application of growth stimulants and microfertilizers in buckwheat production technology. Recommended technologies have been tested in conditions of the Central Chernozem region. It is revealed that the best varian...

  3. Silent pituitary macroadenoma co-secreting growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Orhan; Ertorer, M Eda; Aydin, M Volkan; Erdogan, Bulent; Altinors, Nur; Zorludemir, Suzan; Guvener, Nilgun

    2005-04-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors showing heterogenous morphological features with no hormonal function observed clinically. To date no explanation has been provided as to why these tumors remain "silent". We report a case of a silent macroadenoma with both growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) staining and secretion but with no clinical manifestations, in particular, the absence of features of acromegaly or hyperthyroidism. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  4. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  5. Leptin stimulates aromatase in the growth plate: limiting catch-up growth efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2018-06-01

    Catch-up growth (CUG) in childhood is defined as periods of growth acceleration, after the resolution of growth attenuation causes, bringing the children back to their original growth trajectory. Sometimes, however, CUG is incomplete, leading to permanent growth deficit and short stature. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that limit nutritional-CUG. Specifically, we focused on the crosstalk between leptin, increased by re-feeding, and sex hormones, which increase with age. In vivo studies were performed in young male Sprague Dawley rats fed ad libitum or subjected to 10/36 days of 40% food restriction followed by 90-120 days of re-feeding. In vitro studies were performed on ATDC5 cells. Analyses of mRNA and protein levels were done using qPCR and Western blot, respectively. CUG was complete in body weight and humerus length in animals that were food-restricted for 10 days but not for those food-restricted for 36 days. In vitro studies showed that leptin significantly increased aromatase gene expression and protein level as well as the expression of estrogen and leptin receptors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect of leptin on aromatase was direct and was mediated through the MAPK/Erk, STAT3 and PI3K pathways. The crosstalk between leptin and aromatase in the growth plate suggests that re-feeding during puberty may lead to increased estrogen level and activity, and consequently, irreversible premature epiphyseal growth plate closure. These results may have important implications for the development of novel treatment strategies for short stature in children. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Circulating osteocrin stimulates bone growth by limiting C-type natriuretic peptide clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yugo; Yasoda, Akihiro; Mori, Keita P; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Yamashita, Yui; Hirota, Keisho; Ueda, Yohei; Yamauchi, Ichiro; Kondo, Eri; Yamanaka, Shigeki; Sakane, Yoriko; Nakao, Kazumasa; Fujii, Toshihito; Yokoi, Hideki; Minamino, Naoto; Mukoyama, Masashi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-11-01

    Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished in either CNP- or NPR-C-depleted backgrounds, confirming that CNP and NPR-C are indispensable for the bone growth-stimulating effect of OSTN. Interestingly, double-transgenic mice of CNP and OSTN had even higher levels of circulating CNP and additional increases in bone length, as compared with mice with elevated CNP alone. Together, these results support OSTN administration as an adjuvant agent for CNP therapy and provide a potential therapeutic approach for diseases with impaired skeletal growth.

  7. Stimulate The Growth of Rice Using Endophytic Bacteria from Lowland Rice Plant Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and selection of endophytic bacteria from healthy food crops grown in lowland ecosystem is important to be conducted in order to get growth-stimulating endophytic bacteria at soil with low fertility level so that capable to optimize initial growth of food crops and subsequently can increase productivity level of lowland soil.The research objective was to isolate and to test the IAA-producing endophytic bacteria isolate in stimulating the rice crop growth at lowland area. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from tissues of rice, corn and peanut crops which grown at shallow swamp land in Ogan Ilir and Ogan Komering Ilir Districts, South Sumatra, Indonesia. There was nine isolates of nitrogen-fixer endophytic bacteria that capable to contribute IAA phytohormone into their growth media. The P31 isolate from rice crop tisssue of 2 months old produce the best rice sprouts than other isolates. This isolate can contribute of about 10 mg kg-1 IAA to its growth medium and increase the crowns dry weight and the roots dry weight respectively with magnitudes of 133% and 225% compared to control treatment. Concentration and absorbtion of N for rice crops innoculated with P31 isolates had increased by 169% and 400%, recpectively. The P31 isolates had been identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

  8. The Korean herbal formulation Yukmijihwangtang stimulates longitudinal bone growth in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Min; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ji Hong; Chang, Gyu Tae; Kim, Hocheol; Lee, Jin Yong

    2017-05-02

    Yukmijihwangtang (YJT) is a traditional Korean medicine that has been used to treat kidney-yin deficiency symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus. In addition, because it is also thought to nourish kidney-yin, it has been used to treat short stature from congenital deficiency. This study evaluated the effects of YJT on longitudinal bone growth in rats. Female adolescent rats were randomly assigned to groups that received distilled water (per os [p.o.] twice a day; control), recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; 20 μg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.] once a day), or two different doses of YJT (100 or 300 mg/kg, p.o. twice a day). In each group, treatment was maintained for 4 days. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 2 - 4. Tetracycline hydrochloride (20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to form fluorescent bands on the growth plates on day 3 for measuring the longitudinal bone growth rate. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the growth plate was identified using immunohistochemistry. There was a significant increase in the rate of bone growth in the 300 mg/kg YJT group (523.8 ± 23.7 μm/day; P growth plate in the 300 mg/kg YJT and rhGH groups. YJT increased the longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation with increasing increments of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expression. Based on these findings, YJT may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of growth retardation during adolescence.

  9. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  10. Diarrhea, stimulation and growth predict neurodevelopment in young North Indian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kvestad

    Full Text Available Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors. In this study, we sought to identify stimulation and learning opportunities, growth, and burden of respiratory infections and diarrhea as predictors for neurodevelopment.We visited 422 North Indian children 6 to 30 months old weekly for six months. Childhood illnesses were assessed biweekly. At end study, we assessed neurodevelopment using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. (ASQ-3 and gathered information on stimulation and learning opportunities. We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models.We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors. When adjusting for child characteristics and annual family income, stimulation and learning opportunities explained most of the variation by 25.1%. Height for age (standardized beta: 0.12, p<.05 and weight for height z-scores (std. beta: 0.09, p<.05 were positively associated with the total ASQ-3 score, while number of days with diarrhea was negatively associated with these scores (std. beta: -0.13, p<0.01.Our results support the importance of early child stimulation and general nutrition for child development. Our study also suggests that diarrhea is an additional risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment in vulnerable children.

  11. Diarrhea, stimulation and growth predict neurodevelopment in young North Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Hysing, Mari; Kumar, Tivendra; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors. In this study, we sought to identify stimulation and learning opportunities, growth, and burden of respiratory infections and diarrhea as predictors for neurodevelopment. We visited 422 North Indian children 6 to 30 months old weekly for six months. Childhood illnesses were assessed biweekly. At end study, we assessed neurodevelopment using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. (ASQ-3) and gathered information on stimulation and learning opportunities. We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models. We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors. When adjusting for child characteristics and annual family income, stimulation and learning opportunities explained most of the variation by 25.1%. Height for age (standardized beta: 0.12, pimportance of early child stimulation and general nutrition for child development. Our study also suggests that diarrhea is an additional risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment in vulnerable children.

  12. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  13. Stimulating action of continuous γ-irradiation with low dose-rates on the growth and development of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Nikitina, A.N.; Yurov, S.S.; Primak, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous γ-irradiation (1.6 - 4.1 rad/hr) of Aspergillus niger cultured in a mineral medium has been shown to stimulate markedly the growth of the culture and the production of organic acids. Optimum conditions for the stimulating effect have been found

  14. Nerve growth factor stimulates axon outgrowth through negative regulation of growth cone actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Stephen G; Ahmed, Mostafa; Chandrasekar, Indra; Wysolmerski, Robert B; Goeckeler, Zoe M; Rioux, Robert M; Whitesides, George M; Bridgman, Paul C

    2016-02-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes growth, differentiation, and survival of sensory neurons in the mammalian nervous system. Little is known about how NGF elicits faster axon outgrowth or how growth cones integrate and transform signal input to motor output. Using cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that myosin II (MII) is required for NGF to stimulate faster axon outgrowth. From experiments inducing loss or gain of function of MII, specific MII isoforms, and vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, we determined that NGF causes decreased vinculin-dependent actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance. Inhibition of MII blocked NGF stimulation, indicating the central role of restraint in directed outgrowth. The restraint consists of myosin IIB- and IIA-dependent processes: retrograde actin network flow and transverse actin bundling, respectively. The processes differentially contribute on laminin-1 and fibronectin due to selective actin tethering to adhesions. On laminin-1, NGF induced greater vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, which slowed retrograde actin network flow (i.e., it regulated the molecular clutch). On fibronectin, NGF caused inactivation of myosin IIA, which negatively regulated actin bundling. On both substrates, the result was the same: NGF-induced weakening of MII-dependent restraint led to dynamic microtubules entering the actin-rich periphery more frequently, giving rise to faster elongation. © 2016 Turney et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  16. Stimulant medication use and response to growth hormone therapy: an NCGS database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frindik, J Paul; Morales, Alba; Fowlkes, John; Kemp, Stephen; Thrailkill, Kathryn; Lippe, Barbara; Dana, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Determine (1) frequency of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and (2) growth responses in growth hormone (GH)-treated children who are receiving ADHD medication versus GH alone. Prepubertal children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or GH deficiency (IGHD) enrolled in Genentech's National Cooperative Growth Study. ADHD treatment was determined by documentation of psycho-stimulant medication use at enrollment. ADHD medication use increased from 0.8% (7/850) in 1985 to 5.8% (752/12,113) in 2005. First-year GH treatment response for ADHD + IGHD versus IGHD: 8.5 +/- 2.0 vs. 9.4 +/- 2.6 cm/year, but when adjusted for age, sex, and enrollment body mass index, the difference is clinically insignificant (-0.4 cm/year). First-year growth was similar in all ISS: 8.1 +/- 1.9 versus 8.6 +/- 2.1 cm/year (ADHD + ISS vs. ISS, an adjusted -0.2-cm/year difference). Increasing numbers of GH-treated children are taking ADHD medications and their growth responses during the first year of GH therapy are similar to those not taking ADHD medications. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajani Olav

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF. DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Results Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC, whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. Conclusions While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116

  18. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Kristin M; Tveteraas, Ingun H; Aasrum, Monica; Ødegård, John; Dawood, Mona; Dajani, Olav; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Sandnes, Dagny L

    2011-01-01

    Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK

  19. Growth hormone responsiveness: peak stimulated growth hormone levels and other variables in idiopathic short stature (ISS): data from the National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne V; Dana, Ken; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), growth hormone (GH) response to a provocative test will be inversely related to the first year response to hGH and be a variable accounting for a degree of responsiveness. Because high levels of GH are a characteristic of GH insensitivity, such as in Laron syndrome, it is possible that a high stimulated GH is associated with a lower first year height velocity among children diagnosed as having ISS. We examined the relationship between the peak stimulated GH levels in 3 ISS groups; GH >10 -40 ng/mL and the first year growth response to rhGH therapy. We also looked at 8 other predictor variables (age, sex, height SDS, height age, body mass index (BMI), bone age, dose, and SDS deficit from target parental height. Multiple regression analysis with the first year height as the dependent variable and peak stimulated GH was the primary endpoint. The predictive value of adding each of the other variables was then assessed. Mean change in height velocity was similar among the three groups, with a maximum difference among the groups of 0.6 cm/yr. There was a small but statistically significant correlation (r=-0.12) between the stimulated GH and first year height velocity. The small correlation between first year growth response and peak GH is not clinically relevant in defining GH resistance. No cut off level by peak GH could be determined to enhance the usefulness of this measure to predict response. Baseline age was the only clinically significant predictor, R-squared, 6.4%. All other variables contributed less than an additional 2% to the R-squared.

  20. ADAM12-S stimulates bone growth in transgenic mice by modulating chondrocyte proliferation and maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    ADAM12-S transgenic mice exhibit a pronounced increase in the length of bones, such as femur, tibia, and vertebrae. The effect of ADAM12-S on longitudinal bone growth involves the modulation of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation, likely through proteolytic activities and altered cell......: Transgenic mice expressing the secreted form of human ADAM12, ADAM12-S, or a truncated metalloprotease-deficient form of ADAM12-S in the circulation were used to study the effects of ADAM12 on the skeleton. In addition, murine chondrocyte cultures were used to study the effect of ADAM12-S on cell...... studies showed that ADAM12-S inhibits chondrocyte adhesion to fibronectin and collagen type II. CONCLUSIONS: ADAM12-S stimulates bone growth in mice by modulating chondrocyte proliferation and maturation through mechanisms probably involving both metalloprotease and adhesion activities....

  1. The Endophytic Symbiont—Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stimulates the Antioxidant Activity and Growth of Achyranthes aspera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaidem A. Devi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A plant growth promoting bacterial endophyte designated as AL2-14B isolated from the leaves of Achyranthes aspera L. was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on its phenotypic and physiological features, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. AL2-14B had plant growth stimulating attributes including siderophore and indole acetic acid release, inorganic phosphate solubilization, along with nitrogenase, ammonification, and protease activities. It also exhibited antifungal property against Rhizoctonia solani. The plantlets grown in germ-free condition were inoculated with AL2-14B and studied for the colonization of endophyte. Significant increase in population of AL2-14B between 3rd and 5th days after inoculation was recorded. The treatment of plants with endophytic P. aeruginosa AL2-14B increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK contents in plant by 3.8, 12.59, and 19.15%, respectively. Significant enhancement of shoot and root length, dry leaf, dry shoot and dry root weight, and leaf surface area as compared to control (P < 0.05 was recorded in AL2-14B inoculated plants. The antioxidant activities increased in plants grown in germ-free conditions and inoculated with AL2-14B. The present study emphasizes on the role of diazotrophic endophyte P. aeruginosa AL2-14B in stimulating growth of A. aspera L. and improvement of its medicinal properties. Significant increase in growth and antioxidant content of P. aeruginosa AL2-14B treated plants suggests the possibility of an economical and eco-friendly mean of achieving antioxidants rich, healthier A. aspera plants.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glycogen synthase activity in 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.P.; Bowen-Pope, D.F.; Ross, R.; Krebs, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of glycogen synthase, an enzyme that can be phosphorylated on multiple sites, is often associated with changes in its phosphorylation state. Enzyme activation is conventionally monitored by determining the synthase activity ratio [(activity in the absence of glucose 6-P)/(activity in the presence of glucose 6-P)]. Insulin causes an activation of glycogen synthase with a concomitant decrease in its phosphate content. In a previous report, the authors showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases the glycogen synthase activity ratio in Swiss 3T3 cells. The time and dose-dependency of this response was similar to that of insulin. Their recent results indicate that PDGF also stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Enzyme activation was maximal after 30 min. of incubation with PDGF; the time course observed was very similar to that with insulin and EGF. At 1 ng/ml (0.03nM), PDGF caused a maximal stimulation of 4-fold in synthase activity ratio. Half-maximal stimulation was observed at 0.2 ng/ml (6 pM). The time course of changes in enzyme activity ratio closely followed that of 125 I-PDGF binding. The authors data suggest that PDGF, as well as EFG and insulin, may be important in regulating glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanisms

  4. Galanin does not affect the growth hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated growth hormone secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, A; Bussi, A R; Legati, F; Bossoni, S; Licini, M; Schettino, M; Zuccato, F; Wehrenberg, W B

    1992-12-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism have reduced spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of galanin, a novel neuropeptide which stimulates GH secretion in man, on the GH response to GHRH in patients with hyperthyroidism. Eight untreated hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease (6F, 2M, aged 25-50 years) and six healthy volunteers (3F, 3M, aged 27-76 years) underwent from -10 to 30 min in random order: (i) porcine galanin, iv, 500 micrograms in 100 ml saline; or (ii) saline, iv, 100 ml. A bolus of human GHRH(1-29)NH2, 100 micrograms, was injected iv at 0 min. Hyperthyroid patients showed blunted GH peaks after GHRH+saline (10.2 +/- 2.5 micrograms/l) compared to normal subjects (20.7 +/- 4.8 micrograms/l, p hyperthyroid subjects (12.5 +/- 3 micrograms/l) compared to normal subjects (43.8 +/- 6 micrograms/l, p hyperthyroidism suggests that hyperthyroxinemia may either increase the somatostatin release by the hypothalamus or directly affect the pituitary GH secretory capacity.

  5. Follicular fluid placental growth factor is increased in polycystic ovarian syndrome: correlation with ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Grazi, Richard V; Malter, Henry E

    2014-08-20

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by increased ovarian angiogenesis and vascularity. Accumulating evidence indicates that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased in PCOS and may play an important role in these vascular changes and the pathogenesis of this disease. Placental growth factor (PlGF), a VEGF family member, has not been previously characterized in PCOS women. We investigated levels and temporal expression patterns of PlGF and its soluble receptor sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase) in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of women with PCOS during controlled ovarian stimulation. This was a prospective cohort study of 14 PCOS women (Rotterdam criteria) and 14 matched controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. Serum was collected on day 3, day of hCG and day of oocyte retrieval. FF was collected on retrieval day. PlGF, sFlt-1 and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) protein concentrations were measured using ELISA. Since sFlt-1 binds free PlGF, preventing its signal transduction, we calculated PlGF bioavailability as PlGF/sFlt-1 ratio. Serum PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were constant throughout controlled ovarian stimulation, and no significant differences were observed in either factor in PCOS women compared with non-PCOS controls at all three measured time points. However, FF PlGF levels were increased 1.5-fold in PCOS women compared with controls (p ovarian reserve marker anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and negatively with age. In addition, FF sFlt-1 levels were decreased 1.4-fold in PCOS women compared to controls (p = 0.04). PlGF bioavailability in FF was significantly greater (2-fold) in PCOS women compared with non-PCOS controls (p ovarian stimulation and that its bioavailability is increased in women with PCOS undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. This suggests that PlGF may play a role in PCOS pathogenesis and its angiogenic dysregulation.

  6. Paramecium tetraurelia growth stimulation under low-level chronic irradiation: investigations on a possible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Dupouy, D.; Planel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effects of low-level chronic irradiation on Paramecium tetraurelia proliferation. Biological effects were strongly dependent on the bacterial density of culture medium and more exactly on the catalase content of the medium. Significant growth stimulation was found under 60 Co chronic irradiation at a dose rate of 2 rad/year when paramecia were grown in a medium containing a high bacterial concentration (2.5 x 10 2 cells/m) or supplemented with catalase (300 U/ml). In a medium with a low bacterial density (1 x 10 6 cell/ml) or supplemented with a catalase activity inhibitor, growth simulation was preceded by a transitory inhibiting effect which could be correlated with extracellularly radioproduced H 2 O 2 . H 2 O 2 addition appeared to be able to simulate the biological effects of chronic irradiation. A possible mechanism is discussed.We proposed that the stimulating effects were the result of intracellular enzymatic scavenging of radioproduced H 2 O 2

  7. Methodology for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growth and plant productivity stimulation, thought seeds irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro; Gonzalez Nunnez, Luis Manuel; Camejo Serrano, Yanelis; Licea Castro, Luis; Garcia Rodriguez, Blanca; Porras Leon, Elia; Perez Espinosa, Anabel

    2001-01-01

    Based in the obtained results by several authors and the experience accumulated by the group of Nuclear Techniques of the Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov about the irradiation techniques; the methodology for tomato growth and productivity stimulation through the seeds irradiation was established. This methodology includes the preparation, irradiation and material selection to irradiate; as well as the sows of the material under field conditions. With her application the seedlings of good quality is guaranteed, what facilitates its transplant from the nursery to field conditions with 7 days in advance comparing to the control treatment, that contributes to the saving of material and human resources. Their fundamental contribution is given in the increment of the agricultural yield that reaches maximum values about 30% for some of the applied treatments. It is also recommended, the application of response- surface analysis among the plant yield (dependent variable) and the irradiation doses (independent variable) for determine the better stimulation doses in each one of the four varieties, as well as the time repeatability parameter of the growth and productivity were calculated, that which endorses the practical application of the proposed methodology

  8. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  9. Exploration of Teaching Strategies That Stimulate the Growth of Academic Skills of Children with ASD in Special Education School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Eirini; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive growth of children with developmental disorders, like autism, can be seriously impaired due to the disorder. If so, in the Netherlands, these children can attend special schools where they are treated to ameliorate disorder symptoms and to stimulate cognitive growth. The aim of this paper was to identify teaching strategies that…

  10. Stimulation of the growth of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus Acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium Lactis BL-04, by selected prebiotic canditates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zanten, Gabriella Christina; Knudsen, Anne; Bandsholm, O.

    2009-01-01

    Prebiotics have been shown to support the growth of probiotic bacteria thereby having a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to evaluate selected and structurally different carbohydrate prebiotic candidate by measuring their capability to stimulate the growth of the two...

  11. Feruloylated and Nonferuloylated Arabino-oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pectin Selectively Stimulate the Growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in Human Fecal in Vitro Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Lorentzen, Andrea; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The side chains of the rhamnogalacturonan I fraction in sugar beet pectin are particularly rich in arabinan moieties, which may be substituted with feruloyl groups. In this work the arabinan-rich fraction resulting from sugar beet pulp based pectin production was separated by Amberlite XAD...... feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp and an initial indication of the potentially larger bifidogenic effect of relatively long-chain arabino-oligosaccharides as opposed to short-chain arabino-oligosaccharides....

  12. Herbivorous snails can increase water clarity by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Taylor, William D; Rudstam, Lars G

    2017-11-01

    Eutrophication in shallow lakes is characterized by a switch from benthic to pelagic dominance of primary productivity that leads to turbid water, while benthification is characterized by a shift in primary production from the pelagic zone to the benthos associated with clear water. A 12-week mesocosm experiment tested the hypothesis that the herbivorous snail Bellamya aeruginosa stimulates the growth of pelagic algae through grazing on benthic algae and through accelerating nutrient release from sediment. A tube-microcosm experiment using 32 P-PO 4 as a tracer tested the effects of the snails on the release of sediment phosphorus (P). The mesocosm experiment recorded greater total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and a higher ratio of TN:TP in the overlying water, and a higher light intensity and biomass of benthic algae as measured by chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the snail treatment than in the control. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSSs), and inorganic suspended solids (ISSs) in the overlying water were lower in the snail treatment than in the control, though no significant difference in Chl a of pelagic algae between the snail treatment and control was observed. In the microcosm experiment, 32 P activity in the overlying water was higher in the snail treatment than in the control, indicating that snails accelerated P release from the sediment. Our interpretation of these results is that snails enhanced growth of benthic algae and thereby improved water clarity despite grazing on the benthic algae and enhancing P release from the sediment. The rehabilitation of native snail populations may therefore enhance the recovery of eutrophic shallow lakes to a clear water state by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

  13. Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Magnus K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D co-culture assay. Methods Breast luminal and myoepithelial cells and endothelial cells were isolated from reduction mammoplasties. Primary cells and established normal and malignant breast cell lines were embedded in reconstituted basement membrane in direct co-culture with endothelial cells and by separation of Transwell filters. Morphogenic and phenotypic profiles of co-cultures was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Results In co-culture, endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of both luminal- and myoepithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells induce a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells to form large acini/ducts with a large and clear lumen. Endothelial cells also stimulate growth and cloning efficiency of normal and malignant breast epithelial cell lines. Transwell and gradient co-culture studies show that endothelial derived effects are mediated - at least partially - by soluble factors. Conclusion Breast endothelial cells - beside their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen to tissues - are vital component of the epithelial microenvironment in the breast and provide proliferative signals to the normal and malignant breast epithelium. These growth promoting effects of endothelial cells should be taken into consideration in breast cancer biology.

  14. Increasing carbon availability stimulates growth and secondary metabolites via modulation of phytohormones in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Michael; Chowdhury, Somak; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Hartmann, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phytohormones play important roles in plant acclimation to changes in environmental conditions. However, their role in whole-plant regulation of growth and secondary metabolite production under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is uncertain but crucially important for understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses. We grew winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under three [CO2] (170, 390, and 680 ppm) over 10 weeks, and measured gas exchange, relative growth rate (RGR), soluble sugars, secondary metabolites, and phytohormones including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) at the whole-plant level. Our results show that, at the whole-plant level, RGR positively correlated with IAA but not ABA, and secondary metabolites positively correlated with JA and JA-Ile but not SA. Moreover, soluble sugars positively correlated with IAA and JA but not ABA and SA. We conclude that increasing carbon availability stimulates growth and production of secondary metabolites via up-regulation of auxin and jasmonate levels, probably in response to sugar-mediated signalling. Future low [CO2] studies should address the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaf ABA and SA biosynthesis, and at the transcriptional level should focus on biosynthetic and, in particular, on responsive genes involved in [CO2]-induced hormonal signalling pathways. PMID:28159987

  15. Significant plant growth stimulation by composted as opposed to untreated Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Müller, Christoph; Steffens, Diedrich; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2013-04-01

    The application of production-fresh, untreated biochar does not always result in yield improvements, in particular in temperate or boreal soils. Therefore the use of biochar for soil C sequestration, although desirable from a global change mitigation point of view, may never be implemented without proven and economically feasible pathways for biochar effects in agriculture. To investigate earlier reports of the beneficial effects of composting biochar (e.g. Fischer & Glaser, 2012) we conducted a fully replicated (n=3, +/- biochar) large-scale composting study at the Delinat Institute in Arbaz, Switzerland. The materials were manures (bovine, horse and chicken), straw, stone meal and composting was performed with our without +20 vol.% of a woody biochar (German Charcoal GmbH). Interestingly, the rotting temperature was significantly higher in the biochar-compost while C and N were retained to a certain extent. To investigate the effect of composting ("ageing") on biochar effects, a completely randomized full-factorial pot study was carried out in the greenhouse using the pseudo-cereal Chenopodium quinoa. The three factors used in the study were (I) type of biochar addition ("aged", "fresh", or zero BC), (II) addition of compost and (III) low and high application rates of a full NPK-fertilizer (equivalent to 28 and 140 kg N ha-1, NPK + micronutrients) in several doses. The growth medium was a poor loamy sand. Biochars and compost were all added at a rate of 2% (w/w) to the soil. From the start there was a considerable difference between the growth of Quinoa with the fresh compared to the aged biochar. The fresh biochar produced the well-known reduction in plant growth compared to the unamended control. This reduction was alleviated to a certain extent by the addition of either compost and/or increased fertilization. In contrast the co-composted biochar always resulted in a highly significant stimulation of the Quinoa yield (roots, shoots, inflorescences). This

  16. Loudness growth observed under partially tripolar stimulation: model and data from cochlear implant listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Leonid M; Spahr, Anthony J; Emadi, Gulam

    2007-08-01

    Most cochlear implant strategies utilize monopolar stimulation, likely inducing relatively broad activation of the auditory neurons. The spread of activity may be narrowed with a tripolar stimulation scheme, wherein compensating current of opposite polarity is simultaneously delivered to two adjacent electrodes. In this study, a model and cochlear implant subjects were used to examine loudness growth for varying amounts of tripolar compensation, parameterized by a coefficient sigma, ranging from 0 (monopolar) to 1 (full tripolar). In both the model and the subjects, current required for threshold activation could be approximated by I(sigma)=Ithr(0)(1-sigmaK), with fitted constants Ithr(0) and K. Three of the subjects had a "positioner," intended to place their electrode arrays closer to their neural tissue. The values of K were smaller for the positioner users and for a "close" electrode-to-tissue distance in the model. Above threshold, equal-loudness contours for some subjects deviated significantly from a linear scale-up of the threshold approximations. The patterns of deviation were similar to those observed in the model for conditions in which most of the neurons near the center electrode were excited.

  17. Progressive transfusion and growth factor independence with adjuvant sertraline in low risk myelodysplastic syndrome treated with an erythropoiesis stimulating agent and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtan Nautiyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractoriness to growth factor therapy is commonly associated with inferior outcome in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (LR-MDS who require treatment for cytopenias. However, the mechanisms leading to refractoriness are unknown. Here we describe a clinically depressed 74-year-old male with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD and documented growth factor refractory anemia after erythropoeisis stimulating agent (ESA therapy, who attained transfusion and growth factor independence after the addition of sertraline to his medication regimen. Our case demonstrates hematological improvement-erythroid (HI-E in growth factor refractory, low risk MDS and highlights a potential mechanistic link between common inflammatory diseases and LR-MDS.

  18. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  19. Effect of dose rate and exposure time on the stimulation effect of tube growth of Pinus sylvestris pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelles, L.; Fendrik, I.; Technische Univ. Hannover

    1975-01-01

    The stimulating effect of ionizing radiation in respect to dose rate and exposure time was studied using the tube growth of Pinus silvestris pollen. Stimulation was registered with a small dose (50 rad) supplied at low dose rates (0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0 rad/sec) and with higher doses (300; 800 and 1,400 rad) supplied at higher dose rates (10; 40 and 50 rad/sec). This suggests that only the exposure time is of importance for radiation-induced stimulation provided that the exposure time does not exceed 100 sec. (orig.) [de

  20. Cell proliferation and death in the irradiated pituitary gland and its modification by growth stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yaping; Hendry, Jolyon H.; Morris, Ian D.; Davis, Julian R.E.; Beardwell, Colin G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to show whether the rate of expression of radiation injury in the rat pituitary gland could be accelerated by the use of growth stimulants. Methods and Materials: Rat pituitary glands were irradiated in situ with a range of single doses up to 20 Gy. The rats were then given subcutaneous slow-release implants containing 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) and sulpiride (S) to stimulate lactotroph proliferation. Two sequential cycles were used, each consisting of stimulation (3 weeks) and withdrawal (2 weeks). Measurements were made of gland weight; BrdU-labeled, giant, and apoptotic cells; lactotrophs; as well as pituitary prolactin content, in response to exogenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH). Results: The two cycles of stimulation/withdrawal resulted in marked changes in gland weight, BrdU-labeling index, and serum prolactin (PRL) levels in unirradiated rats. The proportion of immunopositive growth-hormone-producing (GH) cells increased after irradiation. Radiation inhibited the hypertrophic response to E 2 + S and also inhibited increases in BrdU-labeling index and serum PRL levels. Also, giant lactotrophs were observed in the irradiated pituitaries. However, they were not seen in the unirradiated rats or in the irradiated rats treated with E 2 + S. TRH promoted PRL secretion in the unirradiated rat. In contrast, TRH inhibited PRL secretion in the irradiated rat and in all treatment groups receiving E 2 + S. Apoptosis was induced by irradiation and was substantially increased in lactotrophs and in other cell types by withdrawal of the E 2 and S stimulus, although the highest observed incidence was only 7 per 10,000 cells. Conclusion: Both irradiation and E 2 + S treatment removed the hypothalamic control of PRL secretion, which reveals this important inhibitory action of TRH upon PRL secretion. This suggests that it is not suitable as a dynamic test of pituitary PRL reserves in such abnormal situations, where there may also be damage to

  1. Evaluation of Masticatory Stimulation Effect on the Maxillary Transversal Growth in Ectodermal Dysplasia Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Elia; Nahass, Mona G; Mourad, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Severe oligodontia is one of the most important symptoms in children with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The growth of the maxilla is a key consideration in restoring their mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transversal maxillary sutural growth, after passive masticatory stimulation, in HED children. We also thought to assess the efficiency and functional outcome of the proposed propriocep-tive passive expansion (PPE) prosthetic device. We studied 13 children (age 6-11 years) suffering from HED with severe oligodontia. Their maxilla was restored by a PPE device formed from two parts and joined by a passive slide system. Distance between the two parts was noted at the anterior and posterior regions at each control visit over an average of 23 months. We also conducted and filled a satisfaction questionnaire over the same period. We tested the hypothesis that the posterior expansion is greater than the anterior expansion (one-tailed Student's t-test with p-value Ectodermal Dysplasia Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):55-61.

  2. Thyroid stimulating hormone and leptin levels and severe growth retardation among beta- thalassaemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayer, D.; Salahcheh, M.; Jazayeri, S.M.H.; Kaydani, G.A.; Kadkhodaei Elyaderani, M.K.; Shaneh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It has been proposed that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) influences leptin secretion from adipocytes. We evaluated the association between TSH and leptin levels in thalassaemic patients with growth retardation. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 30 major thalassaemic patients and 24 normal subjects (range: 12 - 20 y). Both Leptin and TSH were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The anthropomorphic data were collected based on standard methods. Independent sample t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to analyze data. Results: Patients had severe growth retardation. Mean concentration of leptin in thalassaemic mean value of serum TSH concentration of lepton in thalassaemic patients was significantly lower than normal subjects (2.26 +- 2,61 vs 13.14 +- 15.95 ng/ml). The mean value os serum TSH concentration in beta- thalassaemic patients was higher than normal subjects. But the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.146). There was no marked relationship between TSH and leptin concentration in thalassaemic patients (r= -0.022, P =0.909) and in control group (r =0.289, P=0.214). Conclusion: In beta - thalassaemic patients and normal group leptin secretion is a not affected by TSH concentration. (author)

  3. Lime and phosphate application as mycorrhizae stimulation to enhance growth and yield of Marandu grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Eduardo Melo Santiago

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pastures are important food sources for Brazilian cattle herds. However, inadequate management of soil fertility has emerged as a major cause of low yield rates and of progressive degradation of these areas. The objective of the present study was to evaluate growth, by means of morphogenetic and structural characteristics, and yield of Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu as functions of the application of the mycorrhizae stimulant formononetin, associated with lime and phosphate application. The experimental design was completely randomised with four replications, and the treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of two liming treatments (with and without limestone, two formononetin treatments (with and without application and five P2O5 doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg dm-3. Three shoot cuttings were carried out after a first standardisation cutting to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics as well as the dry matter yield of different morphological fractions. Liming and phosphate application at the dose of 141 mg dm-3 P2O5 increased growth and yield of Marandu grass, and these practices are essential for the cultivation of this pasture grass in Yellow Latosol of the Cerrado region of Piauí, Brazil. The application of formononetin increased stem elongation rate, total number of tillers and green stem dry matter, and decreased dead dry matter of Marandu grass, which are effects that contribute to the improvement of pasture quality.

  4. Stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production by phorbol esters and epidermal growth factor in porcine thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Emoto, T.; Akimoto, K.; Takaoka, T.; Shimoda, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of phorbol esters and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on prostaglandin E 2 production by cultured porcine thyroid cells were examined. Both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and EGF stimulated prostaglandin E 2 production by the cells in dose related fashion. PMA stimulated prostaglandin E 2 production over fifty-fold with the dose of 10 -7 M compared with control. EGF (10 -7 M) also stimulated it about ten-fold. The ED 50 values of PMA and EGF were respectively around 1 x 10 -9 M and 5 x 10 -10 M. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), however, did not stimulate prostaglandin E 2 production from 1 to 24-h incubation. The release of radioactivity from [ 3 H]-arachidonic acid prelabeled cells was also stimulated by PMA and EGF, but not by TSH. These results indicate that both PMA and EGF are potent stimulators of prostaglandin E 2 production, associated with the activity to stimulate arachidonic acid release in porcine thyroid cells. 36 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  5. Growth Factor Stimulation Improves the Structure and Properties of Scaffold-Free Engineered Auricular Cartilage Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Renata G.; Joazeiro, Paulo P.; Bianco, Juares; Kunz, Manuela; Weber, Joanna F.; Waldman, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1) was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation. PMID:25126941

  6. Downstream divergence of the ethylene signaling pathway for harpin-stimulated Arabidopsis growth and insect defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Ping; Peng, Jianling; Bao, Zhilong; Meng, Xiangdong; Bonasera, Jean M; Chen, Guangyong; Beer, Steven V; Dong, Hansong

    2004-11-01

    Ethylene (ET) signal transduction may regulate plant growth and defense, depending on which components are recruited into the pathway in response to different stimuli. We report here that the ET pathway controls both insect resistance (IR) and plant growth enhancement (PGE) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants responding to harpin, a protein produced by a plant pathogenic bacterium. PGE may result from spraying plant tops with harpin or by soaking seeds in harpin solution; the latter especially enhances root growth. Plants treated similarly develop resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). The salicylic acid pathway, although activated by harpin, does not lead to PGE and IR. By contrast, PGE and IR are induced in both wild-type plants and genotypes that have defects in salicylic acid signaling. In response to harpin, levels of jasmonic acid (JA) decrease, and the COI1 gene, which is indispensable for JA signal transduction, is not expressed in wild-type plants. However, PGE and IR are stimulated in the JA-resistant mutant jar1-1. In the wild type, PGE and IR develop coincidently with increases in ET levels and the expression of several genes essential for ET signaling. The ET receptor gene ETR1 is required because both phenotypes are arrested in the etr1-1 mutant. Consistently, inhibition of ET perception nullifies the induction of both PGE and IR. The signal transducer EIN2 is required for IR, and EIN5 is required for PGE because IR and PGE are impaired correspondingly in the ein2-1 and ein5-1 mutants. Therefore, harpin activates ET signaling while conscribing EIN2 and EIN5 to confer IR and PGE, respectively.

  7. Growth factor stimulation improves the structure and properties of scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G Rosa

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1 was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error <400 µm. While scaffold-free, engineered auricular cartilage constructs can be created with both the appropriate tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation.

  8. No evidence for consistent long-term growth stimulation of 13 tropical tree species: results from tree-ring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Peter; van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Bongers, Frans; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-10-01

    The important role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle makes it imperative to assess changes in their carbon dynamics for accurate projections of future climate-vegetation feedbacks. Forest monitoring studies conducted over the past decades have found evidence for both increasing and decreasing growth rates of tropical forest trees. The limited duration of these studies restrained analyses to decadal scales, and it is still unclear whether growth changes occurred over longer time scales, as would be expected if CO2 -fertilization stimulated tree growth. Furthermore, studies have so far dealt with changes in biomass gain at forest-stand level, but insights into species-specific growth changes - that ultimately determine community-level responses - are lacking. Here, we analyse species-specific growth changes on a centennial scale, using growth data from tree-ring analysis for 13 tree species (~1300 trees), from three sites distributed across the tropics. We used an established (regional curve standardization) and a new (size-class isolation) growth-trend detection method and explicitly assessed the influence of biases on the trend detection. In addition, we assessed whether aggregated trends were present within and across study sites. We found evidence for decreasing growth rates over time for 8-10 species, whereas increases were noted for two species and one showed no trend. Additionally, we found evidence for weak aggregated growth decreases at the site in Thailand and when analysing all sites simultaneously. The observed growth reductions suggest deteriorating growth conditions, perhaps due to warming. However, other causes cannot be excluded, such as recovery from large-scale disturbances or changing forest dynamics. Our findings contrast growth patterns that would be expected if elevated CO2 would stimulate tree growth. These results suggest that commonly assumed growth increases of tropical forests may not occur, which could lead to erroneous

  9. Depolarization and electrical stimulation enhance in vitro and in vivo sensory axon growth after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goganau, Ioana; Sandner, Beatrice; Weidner, Norbert; Fouad, Karim; Blesch, Armin

    2018-02-01

    Activity dependent plasticity is a key mechanism for the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt to its environment. Whether neuronal activity also influences axonal regeneration in the injured CNS, and whether electrical stimulation (ES) can activate regenerative programs in the injured CNS remains incompletely understood. Using KCl-induced depolarization, in vivo ES followed by ex-vivo neurite growth assays and ES after spinal cord lesions and cell grafting, we aimed to identify parameters important for ES-enhanced neurite growth and axonal regeneration. Using cultures of sensory neurons, neurite growth was analyzed after KCl-induced depolarization for 1-72h. Increased neurite growth was detected after short-term stimulation and after longer stimulation if a sufficient delay between stimulation and growth measurements was provided. After in vivo ES (20Hz, 2× motor threshold, 0.2ms, 1h) of the intact sciatic nerve in adult Fischer344 rats, sensory neurons showed a 2-fold increase in in vitro neurite length one week later compared to sham animals, an effect not observed one day after ES. Longer ES (7h) and repeated ES (7days, 1h each) also increased growth by 56-67% one week later, but provided no additional benefit. In vivo growth of dorsal column sensory axons into a graft of bone marrow stromal cells 4weeks after a cervical spinal cord lesion was also enhanced with a single post-injury 1h ES of the intact sciatic nerve and was also observed after repeated ES without inducing pain-like behavior. While ES did not result in sensory functional recovery, our data indicate that ES has time-dependent influences on the regenerative capacity of sensory neurons and might further enhance axonal regeneration in combinatorial approaches after SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurotrophins differentially stimulate the growth of cochlear neurites on collagen surfaces and in gels☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Joanna; Pak, Kwang; Evans, Amaretta; Kamgar-Parsi, Andy; Fausti, Stephen; Mullen, Lina; Ryan, Allen Frederic

    2013-01-01

    The electrodes of a cochlear implant are located far from the surviving neurons of the spiral ganglion, which results in decreased precision of neural activation compared to the normal ear. If the neurons could be induced to extend neurites toward the implant, it might be possible to stimulate more discrete subpopulations of neurons, and to increase the resolution of the device. However, a major barrier to neurite growth toward a cochlear implant is the fluid filling the scala tympani, which separates the neurons from the electrodes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the growth of cochlear neurites in three-dimensional extracellular matrix molecule gels, and to increase biocompatibility by using fibroblasts stably transfected to produce neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Spiral ganglion explants from neonatal rats were evaluated in cultures. They were exposed to soluble neurotrophins, cells transfected to secrete neurotrophins, and/or collagen gels. We found that cochlear neurites grew readily on collagen surfaces and in three-dimensional collagen gels. Co-culture with cells producing neurotrophin-3 resulted in increased numbers of neurites, and neurites that were longer than when explants were cultured with control fibroblasts stably transfected with green fluorescent protein. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-producing cells resulted in a more dramatic increase in the number of neurites, but there was no significant effect on neurite length. It is suggested that extracellular matrix molecule gels and cells transfected to produce neurotrophins offer an opportunity to attract spiral ganglion neurites toward a cochlear implant. PMID:24459465

  11. Growth in coculture stimulates metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-07-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the beta-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of (14)C-labeled isoproturon to (14)CO(2) and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent.

  12. The role of natural growth stimulators in regulation of regeneration processes in small intestinal epithelium after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziekiewicz, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, basing on recently published data, the influence of growth factors on small intestine epithelium regeneration after irradiation is presented. Our knowledge of growth control in the small intestine mucosa may become an accepted mode of radio-, chemotherapy and the treatment of acute radiation sickness in the future. Results of recent studies suggest that there are different factors which can modulate the process of epithelium regeneration. Some of them such as gastrin, enteroglucagon, CCK, EGF, FGF, TGF and IL-11 are able to enhance this process. In addition, other factor-PGE-2 is responsible for not only stimulation of small intestine epithelium growth but radioprotection as well. (author)

  13. Electrical stimulation drives chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Lee, Gyu Seok; Chun, Honggu

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to guide the development and regeneration of many tissues. However, although preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated superior effects of ES on cartilage repair, the effects of ES on chondrogenesis remain elusive. Since mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) have high therapeutic potential for cartilage regeneration, we investigated the actions of ES during chondrogenesis of MSCs. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that ES enhances expression levels of chondrogenic markers, such as type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9, and decreases type I collagen levels, thereby inducing differentiation of MSCs into hyaline chondrogenic cells without the addition of exogenous growth factors. ES also induced MSC condensation and subsequent chondrogenesis by driving Ca2+/ATP oscillations, which are known to be essential for prechondrogenic condensation. In subsequent experiments, the effects of ES on ATP oscillations and chondrogenesis were dependent on extracellular ATP signaling via P2X4 receptors, and ES induced significant increases in TGF-β1 and BMP2 expression. However, the inhibition of TGF-β signaling blocked ES-driven condensation, whereas the inhibition of BMP signaling did not, indicating that TGF-β signaling but not BMP signaling mediates ES-driven condensation. These findings may contribute to the development of electrotherapeutic strategies for cartilage repair using MSCs. PMID:28004813

  14. The preliminary study of prebiotic potential of Polish wild mushroom polysaccharides: the stimulation effect on Lactobacillus strains growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Nowacka-Jechalke, Natalia; Juda, Marek; Malm, Anna

    2018-06-01

    According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions. Mushroom polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol from aqueous extracts. Determination of growth promoting activity of polysaccharides was performed in U-shaped 96-plates in an ELISA reader in relation to the reference strain of L. acidophilus and two clinical strains of L. rhamnosus. The digestibility of mushroom polysaccharides was investigated in vitro by exposing them to artificial human gastric juice. Obtained results revealed that fungal polysaccharides stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus strains stronger than commercially available prebiotics like inulin or fructooligosaccharides. Moreover, selected polysaccharides were subjected to artificial human gastric juice and remain undigested in more than 90%. Obtained results indicate that mushroom polysaccharides are able to pass through the stomach unchanged, reaching the colon and stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria. Majority of 53 polysaccharide fractions were analysed for the first time in our study. Overall, our findings suggest that polysaccharide fractions from edible mushrooms might be useful in producing functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  15. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Activity Is Required for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication. In this study, we identified the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP as a PKA substrate that is increasingly phosphorylated at S157 and S239 during C. burnetii infection. Avirulent and virulent C. burnetii triggered increased levels of phosphorylated VASP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells and primary human alveolar macrophages, and this event required the Cα subunit of PKA. VASP phosphorylation also required bacterial protein synthesis and secretion of effector proteins via a type IV secretion system, indicating the pathogen actively triggers prolonged VASP phosphorylation. Optimal PV formation and intracellular bacterial replication required VASP activity, as siRNA-mediated depletion of VASP reduced PV size and bacterial growth. Interestingly, ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic VASP (S239E mutant protein prevented optimal PV formation, whereas VASP (S157E mutant expression had no effect. VASP (S239E expression also prevented trafficking of bead-containing phagosomes to the PV, indicating proper VASP activity is critical for heterotypic fusion events that control PV expansion in macrophages. Finally, expression of dominant negative VASP (S157A in C. burnetii-infected cells impaired PV formation, confirming importance of the protein for proper infection. This study provides the first evidence of VASP manipulation by an intravacuolar bacterial pathogen via activation of PKA

  16. Ethanol stimulates tumor progression and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian-Wei; Bailey, Amelia Purser; Sartin, Amanda; Makey, Ian; Brady, Ann L

    2005-01-15

    The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption causes cancer have not been established due to a lack of experimental studies. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model that bore human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) was used to determine whether the administration of physiologically relevant doses of ethanol could stimulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tumors. HT1080 cells were inoculated onto the "upper CAM" on Day 8, saline or ethanol was administrated at a dose of 0.25 g/kg per day on the CAM, and the tumors were harvested on Day 17. VEGF mRNA and protein were determined by Northern blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intratumoral vascular volume density (IVVD) was determined by point counting on periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections. Intravasation of HT1080 cells was determined using human-Alu polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effects of ethanol on VEGF expression and cell proliferation were examined in cultured HT1080 cells. Ethanol treatment for 9 days caused a 2.2-fold increase in tumor volume (867 +/- 138 mm(3) vs. 402 +/- 28 mm(3)), a 2.1-fold increase in IVVD (0.021 +/- 0.004 mm(3)/mm(3) vs. 0.010 mm(3)/mm(3) +/- 0.002 mm(3)/mm(3)), and a significant increase in VEGF mRNA or protein expression in tumors compared with a group of control embryos (n = 6 embryos; P 8-fold in the intravasated HT1080 cells in the CAM group compared with the control group (n = 6 embryos; P < 0.01). Physiologically relevant levels of ethanol (10 mM and 20 mM) caused a dose-related increase in VEGF mRNA and protein expression in cultured HT1080 cells. The ethanol-HT1080-conditioned media increased the proliferation of endothelial cells, but not of HT1080 cells. The findings suggest that the induction of angiogenesis and VEGF expression by ethanol represents an important mechanism of cancer progression associated with alcoholic beverage consumption. (c) 2004 American Cancer Society.

  17. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  18. Light-stimulated cell expansion in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. I. Growth can occur without photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkenburgh, E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light (WL), at least in part as a result of light-induced acidification of the cell walls. It has been proposed that photosynthetic reactions are required for light-stimulated transport processes across plasma membranes of leaf cells, including proton excretion. The involvement of photosynthesis in growth and wall acidification of primary leaves of bean has been tested by inhibiting photosynthesis in two ways: by reducing chlorophyll content of intact plants with tentoxin (TX) and by treating leaf discs with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Exposure to bright WL stimulated growth of intact leaves of TX-treated plants. Discs excised from green as well as from TX-or DCMU-treated leaves also responded by growing faster in WL, as long as exogenous sucrose was supplied to the photosynthetically inhibited tissues. The WL caused acidification of the epidermal surface of intact TX-leaves, but acidification of the incubation medium by mesophyll cells only occurred when photosynthesis was not inhibited. It is concluded that light-stimulated cell enlargement of bean leaves, and the necessary acidification of epidermal cell walls, are mediated by a pigment other than chlorophyll. Light-induced proton excretion by mesophyll cells, on the other hand, may require both a photosynthetic product (or exogenous sugars) and a non-photosynthetic light effect.

  19. A Bilayer Construct Controls Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation into Endothelial Cells and Pericytes without Growth Factor Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A Bilayer Construct Controls Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Differentiation into Endothelial Cells and Pericytes Without Growth Factor Stimulation...Ph.D.3 This work describes the differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) in a composite hy- drogel for use as a vascularized...tissue from a single population of ASC. This work underscores the importance of the extracellular matrix in controlling stem cell phenotype. It is our

  20. Positive impact of bio-stimulators on growth and physiological activity of willow in climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzisława

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the physiological activity and growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plants cultivated under the conditions of adverse temperature and soil moisture content, and to assess the effect of the foliar application of Biojodis (1.0%) and Asahi SL (0.03%) bio-stimulators, or a mixture of Microcistis aeruginosa MKR 0105 and Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria under such changing growth conditions. The obtained results showed different reactions to the applied constant or periodically changed temperature and soil moisture content. The plants which grew at periodically changed adverse temperature (from -5 to 40oC) or in scantily (20% m.c.) or excessively (60% m.c.) watered soils, grew slowly, in comparison with those growing at 20oC and in optimally moistened soil (30% m.c.). Foliar application of Biojodis and Asahi SL cyanobacteria increased the growth of willow at optimal and adverse temperature or in scantily and excessively moistened soil. The changes in plant growth were associated with the changes in electrolyte leakage, activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases, RNase, index of chlorophyll content in leaves and gas exchange. The above indicates that the foliar application of the studied cyanobacteria and bio-stimulators partly alleviates the harmful impact of adverse temperature and water stress on growth and physiological activity of willow plants

  1. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ok-Nam [College of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung [College of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Young-Jin [College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ai-Young, E-mail: leeay@duih.org [Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang 410-773 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoo@alum.mit.edu [College of Pharmacy, Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human

  2. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines induced VEGF production in normal human

  3. Symbiosis revisited: phosphorus and acid buffering stimulate N2 fixation but not Sphagnum growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elzen, Eva; Kox, Martine A. R.; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; Hensgens, Geert; Fritz, Christian; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-03-01

    In pristine Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, (di)nitrogen (N2) fixing (diazotrophic) microbial communities associated with Sphagnum mosses contribute substantially to the total nitrogen input, increasing carbon sequestration. The rates of symbiotic nitrogen fixation reported for Sphagnum peatlands, are, however, highly variable, and experimental work on regulating factors that can mechanistically explain this variation is largely lacking. For two common fen species (Sphagnum palustre and S. squarrosum) from a high nitrogen deposition area (25 kg N ha-1 yr-1), we found that diazotrophic activity (as measured by 15 - 15N2 labeling) was still present at a rate of 40 nmol N gDW-1 h-1. This was surprising, given that nitrogen fixation is a costly process. We tested the effects of phosphorus availability and buffering capacity by bicarbonate-rich water, mimicking a field situation in fens with stronger groundwater or surface water influence, as potential regulators of nitrogen fixation rates and Sphagnum performance. We expected that the addition of phosphorus, being a limiting nutrient, would stimulate both diazotrophic activity and Sphagnum growth. We indeed found that nitrogen fixation rates were doubled. Plant performance, in contrast, did not increase. Raised bicarbonate levels also enhanced nitrogen fixation, but had a strong negative impact on Sphagnum performance. These results explain the higher nitrogen fixation rates reported for minerotrophic and more nutrient-rich peatlands. In addition, nitrogen fixation was found to strongly depend on light, with rates 10 times higher in light conditions suggesting high reliance on phototrophic organisms for carbon. The contrasting effects of phosphorus and bicarbonate on Sphagnum spp. and their diazotrophic communities reveal strong differences in the optimal niche for both partners with respect to conditions and resources. This suggests a trade-off for the symbiosis of nitrogen fixing microorganisms with their Sphagnum

  4. CONSEQUENCES OF PROTIST-STIMULATED BACTERIAL PRODUCTION FOR ESTIMATING PROTIST GROWTH EFFICIENCIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trophic link between bacteria and bacterivorous protists is a complex interaction that involves feedback of inorganic nutrients and growth substrates that are immediately available for prey growth. These interactions were examined in the laboratory and in incubations of conce...

  5. Cultured human foreskin fibroblasts produce a factor that stimulates their growth with properties similar to basic fibroblast growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if fibroblasts could be a source of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in tissue, cells were initiated in culture from newborn human foreskin. Fibroblast cell lysates promoted radiolabeled thymidine uptake by cultured quiescent fibroblasts. Seventy-nine percent of the growth-promoting activity of lysates was recovered from heparin-Sepharose. The heparin-binding growth factor reacted on immunoblots with antiserum to human placenta-derived basic FGF and competed with iodinated basic FGF for binding to antiserum to (1-24)bFGF synthetic peptide. To confirm that fibroblasts were the source of the growth factor, cell lysates were prepared from cells incubated with radiolabeled methionine. Heparin affinity purified material was immunoprecipitated with basic FGF antiserum and electrophoresed. Radiolabeled material was detected on gel autoradiographs in the same molecular weight region as authentic iodinated basic FGF. The findings are consistant with the notion that cultured fibroblasts express basic FGF. As these cells also respond to the mitogen, it is possible that the regulation of their growth is under autocrine control. Fibroblasts may be an important source of the growth factor in tissue

  6. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates synthesis of proteoglycan aggregates in calf articular cartilage organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, T.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work showed that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), added alone to bovine cartilage organ cultures, stimulated [35S]sulfate incorporation into macromolecular material but did not investigate the fidelity of the stimulated system to maintain synthesis of cartilage-type proteoglycans. This paper provides evidence that chondrocytes synthesize the appropriate proteoglycan matrix under TGF-beta 1 stimulation: (1) there is a coordinated increase in hyaluronic acid and proteoglycan monomer synthesis, (2) link-stable proteoglycan aggregates are assembled, (3) the hybrid chondroitin sulfate/keratan sulfate monomeric species is synthesized, and (4) there is an increase in protein core synthesis. Some variation in glycosylation patterns was observed when proteoglycans synthesized under TGF-beta 1 stimulation were compared to those synthesized under basal conditions. Thus comparing TGF-beta 1 to basal samples respectively, the monomers were larger (Kav on Sepharose CL-2B = 0.29 vs 0.41), the chondroitin sulfate chains were longer by approximately 3.5 kDa, the percentage of total glycosaminoglycan in keratan sulfate increased slightly from approximately 4% (basal) to approximately 6%, and the unsulfated disaccharide decreased from 28% (basal) to 12%. All of these variations are in the direction of a more anionic proteoglycan. Since the ability of proteoglycans to confer resiliency to the cartilage matrix is directly related to their anionic nature, these changes would presumably have a beneficial effect on tissue function

  7. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    . This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...... subjects. We conclude that the increase in 24-h spontaneous GH release and IGFBP-1 levels observed in normal subjects during the last 24 h of a 96-h VLCD is abolished in obese subjects. The lack of short term hypocaloric stimulation of spontaneous GH release may promote the retention of body fat...

  8. Increasing the effectiveness of hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and transforming growth factor-β superfamily inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, Anna; Platzbecker, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are mainly affected by chronic anemia and fatigue. Treatment strategies aim to improve anemia and quality of life, as well as iron overload due to red blood cell transfusion support. To promote proliferation and differentiation of erythropoiesis, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin (EPO) and mimetics are applied as first-line therapy in a large fraction of lower-risk MDS patients. In general, ESAs yield favorable responses in about half of the patients, although responses are often short-lived. In fact, many ESA-refractory patients harbor defects in late-stage erythropoiesis downstream of EPO action. Novel transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily inhibitors sotatercept and luspatercept represent a promising approach to alleviate anemia by stimulating erythroid differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Warming Stimulates Growth and Nitrogen Fixation in a Common Forest Floor Cyanobacterium under Axenic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Lindo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The predominant input of available nitrogen (N in boreal forest ecosystems originates from moss-associated cyanobacteria, which fix unavailable atmospheric N2, contribute to the soil N pool, and thereby support forest productivity. Alongside climate warming, increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected in Canada’s boreal region over the next century, yet little is known about the combined effects of these factors on N fixation by forest floor cyanobacteria. Here we assess changes in N fixation in a common forest floor, moss-associated cyanobacterium, Nostoc punctiforme Hariot, under elevated CO2 conditions over 30 days and warming combined with elevated CO2 over 90 days. We measured rates of growth and changes in the number of specialized N2 fixing heterocyst cells, as well as the overall N fixing activity of the cultures. Elevated CO2 stimulated growth and N fixation overall, but this result was influenced by the growth stage of the cyanobacteria, which in turn was influenced by our temperature treatments. Taken together, climate change factors of warming and elevated CO2 are expected to stimulate N2 fixation by moss-associated cyanobacteria in boreal forest systems.

  10. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Tofail, F; Rahman, A; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M

    2009-06-01

    Young children with severe malnutrition usually have poor mental development. Psychosocial stimulation may reduce their cognitive deficit, but it is not usually provided. The aim of the study was to incorporate stimulation into the routine treatment of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit and evaluate the impact on their growth and development. Time-lagged controlled study. Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) in ICDDR,B Dhaka Hospital. Severely malnourished children, aged 6-24 months, admitted to the NRU were enrolled. All received standard nutritional care. A control group of 43 children was studied initially, followed by an intervention group of 54 children. The intervened mothers and children participated in daily group meetings and individual play sessions for 2 weeks in hospital and were visited at home for 6 months. Children's growth was measured and development assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Twenty-seven children were lost to the study. In the remaining children, both groups had similar developmental scores and anthropometry initially. After 6 months, the intervention group had improved more than the controls did by a mean of 6.9 (Pchildren in hospital, followed by home visits for 6 months, was effective in improving children's growth and development and should be an integral part of their treatment.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  12. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Swanson, L W; Vale, W

    1986-01-01

    The mitogenic effect of the hypothalamic peptides growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on cultured growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs) was studied. Using autoradiographic detection of [3H]thymidine uptake and immunocytochemical identification of GH-producing cells...

  13. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates B-50/GAP43 phosphorylation in isolated nerve growth cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Hooff, C.O.M. van; Graan, P.N.E. de; Oestreicher, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    A characteristic feature of neurite formation is high expression of the phosphoprotein B-50/GAP43. Previous studies with growth cone membranes have indicated that this neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate may be involved in transmembrane signal transduction at the growth cone. We monitored the

  14. Cellulose Anionic Hydrogels Based on Cellulose Nanofibers As Natural Stimulants for Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Minmin; Luan, Qian; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Xiang, Xia; Yang, Chen; Bao, Yuping

    2017-05-17

    Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared by dissolving TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and being cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibited microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, which contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes, including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the seedlings, were investigated. The results showed that cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents as plant growth regulators could be beneficial for seed germination and growth. Moreover, they presented preferable antifungal activity during the breeding and growth of the sesame seed breeding. Thus, the cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents could be applied as soilless culture mediums for plant growth. This research provided a simple and effective method for the fabrication of cellulose anionic hydrogel and evaluated its application in agriculture.

  15. Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation–induced Stimulation of Distant Tumor Growth Is Suppressed by c-Met Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Moussa, Marwan; Wang, Yuanguo; Rozenblum, Nir; Galun, Eithan; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2016-01-01

    VEGF levels. Compared with RF ablation alone, RF ablation combined with adjuvant PHA-665752 or semaxanib reduced distant tumor growth, proliferation, and microvascular density. For c-Met–negative tumors, hepatic RF ablation did not increase distant tumor growth, proliferation, or microvascular density compared with sham treatment. Conclusion RF ablation of normal liver can stimulate distant subcutaneous tumor growth mediated by HGF/c-Met pathway and VEGF activation. This effect was not observed in c-Met–negative tumors and can be blocked with adjuvant c-Met and VEGF inhibitors. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26418615

  16. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  17. Stimulation of the growth of Jatropha curcas by the plant growth promoting bacterium Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Chaitanya Kumar; Patel, Baldev; Saraf, Meenu

    2012-03-01

    A novel Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 is a plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Jatropha cucas a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. Based on phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies, strain MSA2 could be classified as a member of E. cancerogenus. However, comparisons of characteristics with other known species of the genus Enterobacter suggested that strain MSA2 could be a novel PGPB strain. In vitro studies were carried for the plant growth promoting attribute of this culture. It tested positive for ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase production, phytase, phosphate solubilization, IAA (Indole acetic acid) production, siderophore, and ammonia production. The isolate was then used as a inoculant for the vegetative study of Jatropha curcas plant. Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2 supplemented with 1% carboxymethylcellulose showed overall plant growth promotion effect resulting in enhanced root length (124.14%), fresh root mass (81%), fresh shoot mass (120.02%), dry root mass (124%), dry shoot mass (105.54%), number of leaf (30.72%), chlorophyll content (50.41%), and biomass (87.20%) over control under the days of experimental observation. This study was designed for 120 days and was in triplicate and the data was collected at every 30 days.

  18. Electrical stimulation drives chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuck Joon Kwon; Gyu Seok Lee; Honggu Chun

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to guide the development and regeneration of many tissues. However, although preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated superior effects of ES on cartilage repair, the effects of ES on chondrogenesis remain elusive. Since mesenchyme stem cells (MSCs) have high therapeutic potential for cartilage regeneration, we investigated the actions of ES during chondrogenesis of MSCs. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that ES enhances expression levels...

  19. Ex Vivo Assay of Electrical Stimulation to Rat Sciatic Nerves: Cell Behaviors and Growth Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhiyong; Bondarenko, Olexandr; Wang, Dingkun; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Zhang, Ze

    2016-06-01

    Neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration are known to benefit from electrical stimulation. However, how neuritis and their surroundings react to electrical field is difficult to replicate by monolayer cell culture. In this work freshly harvested rat sciatic nerves were cultured and exposed to two types of electrical field, after which time the nerve tissues were immunohistologically stained and the expression of neurotrophic factors and cytokines were evaluated. ELISA assay was used to confirm the production of specific proteins. All cell populations survived the 48 h culture with little necrosis. Electrical stimulation was found to accelerate Wallerian degeneration and help Schwann cells to switch into migratory phenotype. Inductive electrical stimulation was shown to upregulate the secretion of multiple neurotrophic factors. Cellular distribution in nerve tissue was altered upon the application of an electrical field. This work thus presents an ex vivo model to study denervated axon in well controlled electrical field, bridging monolayer cell culture and animal experiment. It also demonstrated the critical role of electrical field distribution in regulating cellular activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Stimulate economic growth by improving transport infrastructure – a lesson from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Feder model to test impacts of transport infrastructure on economic growth. With China provincial data from 1990-2010 the empirical models, including Basic model, Time-Lag model and Spatial model, demonstrate that transport infrastructure does have a positive Spillover Effect on economic growth. However, Direct Effect on economic growth is negative possibly due to Crowding-Out Effect and productivity difference between sectors. The research also proves the Spillover Effects are becoming weaker as time passed. Finally, Spatial Spillover Effect or Network Effects are confirmed.

  1. Suppression of DHT-induced paracrine stimulation of endothelial cell growth by estrogens via prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Zhao, Yuan; Li, Jinghe; Weng, Chunyan; Cai, Jingjing; Yang, Kan; Yuan, Hong; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

    2013-07-01

    Androgen modulation of angiogenesis in prostate cancer may be not directly mediated by androgen receptor (AR) as AR is not detected in the prostatic endothelial cells. We examined the paracrine stimulation of cell proliferation by prostate tumor cells and its modulation by androgen and estrogens in a murine endothelial cell line (MEC) that does not express AR. Tumor cell conditioned media (TCM) collected from LAPC-4 or LNCaP prostatic tumor cells produced a time- and concentration-dependent induction of cell growth in MECs, which was parallel to the VEGF concentration in the TCM. This TCM-induced cell growth in MECs was enhanced by the treatment of prostatic tumor cells with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Both the TCM-stimulation and DHT-enhancement effects in MECs were completely blocked by SU5416, a specific VEGF receptor antagonist. Co-administration of 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol with DHT in prostatic tumor cells completely inhibited the DHT-enhancement effect while treatment with DHT, 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol did not produce any significant direct effect in MECs. Moreover, administration of 17α-estradiol or 17β-estradiol in xenograft animals with LAPC-4 or LNCaP prostate tumor significantly decreased the microvessel number in the tumor tissues. Our study indicated that prostate tumor cells regulate endothelial cell growth through a paracrine mechanism, which is mainly mediated by VEGF; and DHT is able to modulate endothelial cell growth via tumor cells, which is inhibited by 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol. Thus, both17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol are potential agents for anti-angiogenesis therapy in androgen-responsive prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition.

  3. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukanov, Alexandre, E-mail: loukanov@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Saitama University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Japan); Filipov, Chavdar [University of Forestry, Department of Infectious pathology, hygiene, technology and control of food stuffs of animal origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Bulgaria); Valcheva, Violeta [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of microbiology (Bulgaria); Lecheva, Marta [University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”, Laboratory of Engineering NanoBiotechnology, Department of Engineering Geoecology (Bulgaria); Emin, Saim [University of Nova Gorica, Materials Research Laboratory (Slovenia)

    2015-04-15

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600–1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol–gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  4. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Valcheva, Violeta; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600–1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol–gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications

  5. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukanov, Alexandre; Filipov, Chavdar; Valcheva, Violeta; Lecheva, Marta; Emin, Saim

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600-1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol-gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  6. Glucose Stimulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β Bioactivity in Mesangial Cells Is Mediated by Thrombospondin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczatek, Maria H.; Hugo, Christian; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is a key factor in the development of diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy. The development of diabetic glomerulosclerosis is dependent on the fibrogenic growth factor, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Previously we showed that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) activates latent TGF-β both in vitro and in vivo. Activation occurs as the result of specific interactions of latent TGF-β with TSP-1, which potentially alter the conformation of latent TGF-β. As glucose also up-regulates TSP-1 expression, we hypothesized that the increased TGF-β bioactivity observed in rat and human mesangial cells cultured with high glucose concentrations is the result of latent TGF-β activation by autocrine TSP-1. Glucose-induced bioactivity of TGF-β in mesangial cell cultures was reduced to basal levels by peptides from two different sequences that antagonize activation of latent TGF-β by TSP, but not by the plasmin inhibitor, aprotinin. Furthermore, glucose-dependent stimulation of matrix protein synthesis was inhibited by these antagonist peptides. These studies demonstrate that glucose stimulation of TGF-β activity and the resultant matrix protein synthesis are dependent on the action of autocrine TSP-1 to convert latent TGF-β to its biologically active form. These data suggest that antagonists of TSP-dependent TGF-β activation may be the basis of novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating diabetic renal fibrosis. PMID:11021838

  7. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Kuroyanagi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 on osteoprotegerin (OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK, and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation.

  8. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  9. Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Waheed Qurashi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1 and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4 in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98 growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity.

  10. Stimulation effect of early growth in crops by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Song, H.S.; Kim, J.K.; Lee, Y.K.; Lee, Y.B.

    1998-01-01

    Germination rate and early growth in crop such as rice,soybean,and perilla were observed after irradiation of γ-ray (Co-60) in order to determine the effects of low does radiation. The low dose radiation was able to improve the early growth in crops and their agricultural characters. Germination rate of 2Gy-irradiatied rice seeds was high and also were seeding height and fresh weight of the 0.5 Gy-irradiated. Germination rate and early growth of soybean were high in 4Gy-irradiated group. Perilla gew of so promisingly after after low dose irradiation, however there slightly increasing effects on germination rate, seeding height and fresh weight at 2Gt-, 1Gy-, and 1Gy irradiated group, respectively. (author)

  11. Dual growth factor delivery from biofunctionalized allografts: Sequential VEGF and BMP-2 release to stimulate allograft remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Farzana; McDermott, Casey; Lieberman, Jay; Sanjay, Archana; Khan, Yusuf

    2017-05-01

    Autografts have been shown to stimulate osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and angiogenesis, and subsequent rapid graft incorporation. Large structural allografts, however, suffer from limited new bone formation and remodeling, both of which are directly associated with clinical failure due to non-unions, late graft fractures, and infections, making it a priority to improve large structural allograft healing. We have previously shown the osteogenic ability of a polymer-coated allograft that delivers bone morphogenetic protein-2 both in vitro and in vivo through both burst release and sustained release kinetics. In this study, we have demonstrated largely sequential delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor from the same coated allograft. Release data showed that loading both growth factors onto a polymeric coating with two different techniques resulted in short-term (95% release within 2 weeks) and long-term (95% release within 5 weeks) delivery kinetics. We have also demonstrated how released VEGF, traditionally associated with angiogenesis, can also provide a stimulus for allograft remodeling via resorption. Bone marrow derived mononuclear cells were co-cultured with VEGF released from the coated allograft and showed a statistically significant (p exposed to VEGF released from the allografts over controls (p < 0.05). These results indicate that by using different loading protocols temporal control can be achieved when delivering multiple growth factors from a polymer-coated allograft. Further, released VEGF can also stimulate osteoclastogenesis that may enhance allograft incorporation, and thus mitigate long-term clinical complications. © 2017 Orthopedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1086-1095, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Potential role of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ1) in the regulation of ovarian angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Wei; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lee, Ming-Ting; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan

    2011-06-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during ovarian follicle development and luteinization. Pituitary secreted FSH was reported to stimulate the expression of endothelial mitogen VEGF in granulosa cells. And, intraovarian cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 is known to facilitate FSH-induced differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells. This intrigues us to investigate the potential role of FSH and TGFβ1 regulation of granulosa cell function in relation to ovarian angiogenesis. Granulosa cells were isolated from gonadotropin-primed immature rats and treated once with FSH and/or TGFβ1 for 48 h, and the angiogenic potential of conditioned media (granulosa cell culture conditioned media; GCCM) was determined using an in vitro assay with aortic ring embedded in collagen gel and immunoblotting. FSH and TGFβ1 increased the secreted angiogenic activity in granulosa cells (FSH + TGFβ1 > FSH ≈ TGFβ1 >control) that was partly attributed to the increased secretion of pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and PDGF-B. This is further supported by the evidence that pre-treatment with inhibitor of VEGF receptor-2 (Ki8751) or PDGF receptor (AG1296) throughout or only during the first 2-day aortic ring culture period suppressed microvessel growth in GCCM-treated groups, and also inhibited the FSH + TGFβ1-GCCM-stimulated release of matrix remodeling-associated gelatinase activities. Interestingly, pre-treatment of AG1296 at late stage suppressed GCCM-induced microvessel growth and stability with demise of endothelial and mural cells. Together, we provide original findings that both FSH and TGFβ1 increased the secretion of VEGF and PDGF-B, and that in turn up-regulated the angiogenic activity in rat ovarian granulosa cells. This implicates that FSH and TGFβ1 play important roles in regulation of ovarian angiogenesis during follicle development. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Jørgensen, J.O.L.; Olesen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into e...

  14. c-myb stimulates cell growth by regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein-3 in K562 leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sun-Young; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Pyoung-Han [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ho-Keun [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang-Yun [Department of Alternative Therapy, School of Alternative Medicine and Health Science, Jeonju University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae-Yeol, E-mail: leedy@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-17

    c-myb plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and is highly expressed in immature hematopoietic cells. The human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell K562, highly expresses IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-induced cellular proliferation is mediated by IGF-IR. To characterize the impact of c-myb on the IGF-IGFBP-3 axis in leukemia cells, we overexpressed c-myb using an adenovirus gene transfer system in K562 cells. The overexpression of c-myb induced cell proliferation, compared to control, and c-myb induced cell growth was inhibited by anti-IGF-IR antibodies. c-myb overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-IR, and a decrease in IGFBP-3 expression. By contrast, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb overexpression resulted in significant reduction of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and elevation of IGFBP-3 expression. In addition, exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells, and c-myb induced cell growth was blocked by IGFBP-3 overexpression in a dose-dependent manner. The growth-promoting effects of c-myb were mediated through two major intracellular signaling pathways, Akt and Erk. Activation of Akt and Erk by c-myb was completely blocked by IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 antibodies. These findings suggest that c-myb stimulates cell growth, in part, by regulating expression of the components of IGF-IGFBP axis in K562 cells. In addition, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb may provide a useful strategy for treatment of leukemia.

  15. c-myb stimulates cell growth by regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding protein-3 in K562 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sun-Young; Arunachalam, Sankarganesh; Hwang, Pyoung-Han; Yi, Ho-Keun; Nam, Sang-Yun; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2009-01-01

    c-myb plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and is highly expressed in immature hematopoietic cells. The human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell K562, highly expresses IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-induced cellular proliferation is mediated by IGF-IR. To characterize the impact of c-myb on the IGF-IGFBP-3 axis in leukemia cells, we overexpressed c-myb using an adenovirus gene transfer system in K562 cells. The overexpression of c-myb induced cell proliferation, compared to control, and c-myb induced cell growth was inhibited by anti-IGF-IR antibodies. c-myb overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-IR, and a decrease in IGFBP-3 expression. By contrast, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb overexpression resulted in significant reduction of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and elevation of IGFBP-3 expression. In addition, exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells, and c-myb induced cell growth was blocked by IGFBP-3 overexpression in a dose-dependent manner. The growth-promoting effects of c-myb were mediated through two major intracellular signaling pathways, Akt and Erk. Activation of Akt and Erk by c-myb was completely blocked by IGF-IR and IGFBP-3 antibodies. These findings suggest that c-myb stimulates cell growth, in part, by regulating expression of the components of IGF-IGFBP axis in K562 cells. In addition, disruption of c-myb function by DN-myb may provide a useful strategy for treatment of leukemia.

  16. Planning of road construction projects with a view to stimulating economic growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Pienaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of how the economic evaluation and selection of road construction projects can be complemented by social evaluation with a view to achieving a more equitable welfare distribution within a developing country. The article commences by elaborating on the general economic benefits that can arise from investment in economically justified road infrastructure. The different classes of non-road-user beneficiaries are idenified and discussed. The operational characteristics of road transport that are conducive to the stimulation of economic activity are identified and described. The present inequality of income distribution in South Africa is dealt with briefly, followed by a discussion and analysis on the use of equity weights in project evaluation to help bring about a more equitable welfare distribution.

  17. Neutralizing VEGF bioactivity with a soluble chimeric VEGF receptor protein flt (1-3) IGG inhibits testosterone stimulated prostate growth in castrated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarsten, P.; Lissbrant, E.; Lissbrant, I.-F.; Haeggstroem-Rudolfsson, S.; Bergh, A.; Ferrara, N.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies show that testosterone stimulated growth of the glandular tissue in the ventral prostate in adult castrated rats is preceded by increased epithelial VEGF synthesis, endothelial cell proliferation, vascular growth, and increased blood flow. These observations suggest that testosterone stimulated prostate growth could be angiogenesis dependent, and that VEGF could play a central role in this. To test this hypothesis adult male mice were castrated and after one week treated with testosterone and vehicle, or with testosterone and a soluble chimeric VEGF-receptor flt(1-3)IgG protein. Treatment with testosterone markedly increased endothelial cell proliferation, vascular volume and organ weight in the ventral prostate lobe in the vehicle groups, but these responses were inhibited but not fully prevented by anti-VEGF treatment. The testosterone stimulated increase in epithelial cell proliferation was unaffected by flt(1-3)IgG, but endothelial and epithelial cell apoptosis were increased in the anti-VEGF compared to the vehicle treated group. This study, together with our previous observations, suggest that testosterone stimulates vascular growth in the ventral prostate lobe indirectly by increasing epithelial VEGF synthesis and that this is a necessary component in testosterone stimulated prostate growth

  18. THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN STIMULATING ECONOMIC GROWTH. A VIEW FROM THE TOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANCIU VENERA CRISTINA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at illustrating the role of entrepreneurship in generating economic growth. The first part consists in a view from the top regarding the theoretical framework for the concept of “entrepreneurship”, “entrepreneur” and highlights, also, the main difficulties and opportunities faced by an entrepreneur when starting a business. The second part presents a brief overview of the key indicators regarding entrepreneurship, mentioning the main scores achieved by Romania in case of each of them. We also made a correlation between the new business ownership rate and the GDP of Romania, study which take into consideration a period of ten years and tries to highlight the impact of the above mentioned scores upon the economic growth of our country.

  19. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration

  20. Nonylphenol stimulates fecundity but not population growth rate (λ) of Folsomia candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widarto, T. H.; Krogh, P. H.; Forbes, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    of NP on these traits did not result in a statistically significant increase in population growth rate (λ). Decomposition analysis indicated that fecundity was the main contributor to the (non-significant) changes observed in λ However, since the elasticity of fecundity was very low, large changes...... at the population level and that λ is an appropriate endpoint for ecotoxicological studies. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) stimulates pancreatic cancer growth through overexpressing GABAA receptor pi subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Akio; Hosokawa, Masayo; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ohigashi, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2007-10-15

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system, and GABA/GABA receptors are also present in nonneural tissues, including cancer, but their precise function in nonneuronal or cancerous cells has thus far been poorly defined. Through the genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells as well as subsequent reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analyses, we identified the overexpression of GABA receptor pi subunit (GABRP) in PDAC cells. We also found the expression of this peripheral type GABAA receptor subunit in few adult human organs. Knockdown of endogenous GABRP expression in PDAC cells by small interfering RNA attenuated PDAC cell growth, suggesting its essential role in PDAC cell viability. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRP-expressing PDAC cells, but not GABRP-negative cells, and GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited this growth-promoting effect by GABA. The HEK293 cells constitutively expressing exogenous GABRP revealed the growth-promoting effect of GABA treatment. Furthermore, GABA treatment in GABRP-positive cells increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) cascade. Clinical PDAC tissues contained a higher level of GABA than normal pancreas tissues due to the up-regulation of glutamate decarboxylase 1 expression, suggesting their autocrine/paracrine growth-promoting effect in PDACs. These findings imply that GABA and GABRP could play important roles in PDAC development and progression, and that this pathway can be a promising molecular target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for PDAC.

  2. Nitrogen stimulates phenological traits, growth and growing degree days of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, H.M.; Ahmad, A.; Farhad, W.; Abbas, F.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) application timings and rates on phenology of autumn sown maize under semi-arid climatic conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Plant development, growth and yield components were optimized by the N application in three splits; 1/3rd N at V2, 1/3rd N at V16 and 1/3rd N at R1 stages at the rate of 250 kg ha-1. At this rate, the crop achieved more calendar days and thermal time in each growth stage. The treatments T2 (1/3rd N at V2 stage, 1/3rd N at V16 stage and 1/3rd N at R1 stage) and N4 (250 kg N ha-1) accumulated the maximum days to silking and maturity (51 and 102 days, respectively), which resulted in the maximum crop growth rate and grain yield (8.38 t ha/sup -1/). The highest net benefit and marginal rate of return ($1857 and 22%, respectively) were achieved by N/sub 4/ treatment. Therefore, 250 kg N ha-1 with three above mentioned splits of N application may produce optimum grain yield of maize under semi-arid environmental and agricultural conditions similar to those of the reported experiments. (author)

  3. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K.; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A.; Ma, Yinfa

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. - Highlights: • Novel dynamic flow cell culture modules were designed. • Bioactive glass fibers were evaluated for their effects on VEGF secretion. • Borate-based glass fibers stimulate VEGF secretion under dynamic condition. • CuO and ZnO doped borate-based glass fibers stimulate the greatest VEGF release.

  4. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sisi [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Yang, Qingbo [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Brow, Richard K. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Liu, Kun [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Brow, Katherine A. [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Ma, Yinfa [Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Biomedical Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Center for Single Nanoparticle, Single Cell, and Single Molecule Monitoring, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. - Highlights: • Novel dynamic flow cell culture modules were designed. • Bioactive glass fibers were evaluated for their effects on VEGF secretion. • Borate-based glass fibers stimulate VEGF secretion under dynamic condition. • CuO and ZnO doped borate-based glass fibers stimulate the greatest VEGF release.

  5. Stillage as a Source of Growth Promoting Biofactors and a Stimulator of Levan and Extracellular Levansucrase Synthesis for Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grube

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the fermentation of simultaneous production of ethanol and levan by Zymomonas mobilis grown on different growth media has been studied. Yeast extract, rye stillage or sugar beet molasses stillage were used as additives to the basic sucrose media and the chemical composition, including vitamins, of the cultivation liquids have been determined. It has been shown that 0.5 % of yeast extract dry weight additive could be substituted by 10.0 % of native stillage additive. It was established that molasses stillage stimulates the ethanol synthesis, but rye stillage additive is more preferable for levan production. The extracellular levansucrase obtained from the culture liquid resulted in similar fructooligosaccharide-producing activities using all the above-mentioned media additives.

  6. Stimulation of intestinal growth and function with DPP-IV inhibition in a mouse short bowel syndrome model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueyoshi, Ryo; Ignatoski, Kathleen M Woods; Okawada, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    , and 7 days followed by 23 days washout period. Adaptive response was assessed by morphology, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation (PCNA), epithelial barrier function (transepithelial resistance), RT-PCR for intestinal transport proteins, GLP-2R, and IGF-1R, and GLP-2 plasma levels. Glucose-stimulated...... sodium transport was assessed for intestinal absorptive function. Seven days of DPP4-I treatment facilitated an increase in GLP-2R levels, intestinal growth, and IEC proliferation. Treatment led to differential effects over time with greater absorptive function early, and enhanced proliferation at later...... time points. Interestingly, 7 day treatment followed by 23 days of non-treatment showed continued adaptation. DPP-IV-I enhanced IEC proliferative action up to 90-days post-resection, but this action seemed to peak by 30 days, as did GLP-2 plasma levels. Thus, use of DPP4-I treatment may prove...

  7. A gibberellin-stimulated transcript, OsGASR1, controls seedling growth and α-amylase expression in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Han, Soon-Ki; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-07-01

    From a T-DNA-tagging population in rice, we identified OsGASR1 (LOC_Os03g55290), a member of the GAST (gibberellin (GA)-Stimulated Transcript) family that is induced by salt stress and ABA treatment. This gene was highly expressed in the regions of cell proliferation and panicle development, as revealed by a GUS assay of the mutant line. In the osgasr1 mutants, the second leaf blades were much longer than those of the segregating wild type due to an increase in cell length. In addition, five α-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes. These results suggest that OsGASR1 plays important roles in seedling growth and α-amylase gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Transformation of Money Circulation and Change of the Paradigm of Stimulation of Economic Growth: Historical Aspect and Modern Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozhzhov Anatoliy P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts an objective scientific analysis and system comprehension of the law of circulation of money – the basis of the quantitative expression of the processes that are connected with functioning of money, which allows revelation of the established regularities in circulation of money, development of relevant solutions and influencing economic development. It considers changing of the regularities of money circulation and the transmission mechanism in modern economy, its influence upon balancing of the economic system. It reveals the essential aspects, contradictions and consequences of the evolution of methods of stimulation of economic development. It studies influence of the policy of quantitative easing (QE as a new method of regulating the economic growth and its impact on transformation of money circulation under modern conditions. It presents mathematic dependencies that describe main evolution stages of changing the laws of circulation of money.

  9. The Oligo Fucoidan Inhibits Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Stimulated Proliferation of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Huei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the pathogenesis of asthma, the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs is a key factor in airway remodeling and causes airway narrowing. In addition, ASMCs are also the effector cells of airway inflammation. Fucoidan extracted from marine brown algae polysaccharides has antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticlotting, and anticancer properties; however, its effectiveness for asthma has not been elucidated thus far. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-treated primary ASMCs were cultured with or without oligo-fucoidan (100, 500, or 1000 µg/mL to evaluate its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We found that PDGF (40 ng/mL increased the proliferation of ASMCs by 2.5-fold after 48 h (p < 0.05. Oligo-fucoidan reduced the proliferation of PDGF-stimulated ASMCs by 75%–99% after 48 h (p < 0.05 and induced G1/G0 cell cycle arrest, but did not induce apoptosis. Further, oligo-fucoidan supplementation reduced PDGF-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, Akt, and nuclear factor (NF-κB phosphorylation. Taken together, oligo-fucoidan supplementation might reduce proliferation of PDGF-treated ASMCs through the suppression of ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. The results provide basis for future animal experiments and human trials.

  10. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation and serum deprivation on gene activation patterns of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tratwal, Josefine; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Juhl, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stimulation of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used in multiple animal studies and clinical trials for regenerative purposes. VEGF stimulation is believed to promote angiogenesis and VEGF...... stimulation is usually performed under serum deprivation. Potential regenerative molecular mechanisms are numerous and the role of contributing factors is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of in vitro serum deprivation and VEGF stimulation on gene expression patterns...... of ASCs. METHODS: Gene expressions of ASCs cultured in complete medium, ASCs cultured in serum-deprived medium and ASCs stimulated with VEGF in serum-deprived medium were compared. ASC characteristics according to criteria set by the International Society of Cellular Therapy were confirmed by flow...

  11. The use of thermally stimulated depolarization currents to study grain growth in ceramic thorium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muccillo, R.; Campos, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    Depolarization Current Spectra resulting from the destruction of the thermoelectret state in polycrystalline ThO 2 samples have been detected in the temperature range 100K-350K. The induced polarization is found to be due to migration of charge carriers over microscopic distances in the bulk of the specimens with trapping at grain boundaries. Moreover the density of charge carriers released from trapping sites, upon heating the cooled previously dc biased specimen decreases for increasing sintering temperature, suggesting the use of the technique to the study of grain growth in the bulk of ceramic oxides. (Author) [pt

  12. Stimulating Neoblast-Like Cell Proliferation in Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Supports Growth and Progression towards the Adult Phenotype In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Paul; McVeigh, Paul; Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Toet, Hayley; McCammick, Erin; O'Connor, Anna; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela; Brennan, Gerard P; Halton, David W; Spithill, Terry W; Maule, Aaron G

    2016-09-01

    Fascioliasis (or fasciolosis) is a socioeconomically important parasitic disease caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. Flukicide resistance has exposed the need for new drugs and/or a vaccine for liver fluke control. A rapidly improving 'molecular toolbox' for liver fluke encompasses quality genomic/transcriptomic datasets and an RNA interference platform that facilitates functional genomics approaches to drug/vaccine target validation. The exploitation of these resources is undermined by the absence of effective culture/maintenance systems that would support in vitro studies on juvenile fluke development/biology. Here we report markedly improved in vitro maintenance methods for Fasciola hepatica that achieved 65% survival of juvenile fluke after 6 months in standard cell culture medium supplemented with 50% chicken serum. We discovered that this long-term maintenance was dependent upon fluke growth, which was supported by increased proliferation of cells resembling the "neoblast" stem cells described in other flatworms. Growth led to dramatic morphological changes in juveniles, including the development of the digestive tract, reproductive organs and the tegument, towards more adult-like forms. The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevented neoblast-like cell proliferation and inhibited growth/development. Supporting our assertion that we have triggered the development of juveniles towards adult-like fluke, mass spectrometric analyses showed that growing fluke have an excretory/secretory protein profile that is distinct from that of newly-excysted juveniles and more closely resembles that of ex vivo immature and adult fluke. Further, in vitro maintained fluke displayed a transition in their movement from the probing behaviour associated with migrating stage worms to a slower wave-like motility seen in adults. Our ability to stimulate neoblast-like cell proliferation and growth in F. hepatica underpins the first simple platform for their long-term in vitro study

  13. G9a stimulates CRC growth by inducing p53 Lys373 dimethylation-dependent activation of Plk1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yafang; Shen, Yanyan; He, Pengxing; Ding, Jian; Chen, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: G9a is genetically deregulated in various tumor types and is important for cell proliferation; however, the mechanism underlying G9a-induced carcinogenesis, especially in colorectal cancer (CRC), is unclear. Here, we investigated if G9a exerts oncogenic effects in CRC by increasing polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) expression. Thus, we further characterized the detailed molecular mechanisms. Methods: The role of Plk1 in G9a aberrant CRC was determined by performing different in vitro and in vivo assays, including assessment of cell growth by performing cell viability assay and assessment of signaling transduction profiles by performing immunoblotting, in the cases of pharmacological inhibition or short RNA interference-mediated suppression of G9a. Detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of G9a on Plk1 expression were determined by performing point mutation analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, and luciferase reporter assay. Correlation between G9a and Plk1 expression was determined by analyzing clinical samples of patients with CRC by performing immunohistochemistry. Results: Our study is the first to report a significant positive correlation between G9a and Plk1 levels in 89 clinical samples of patients with CRC. Moreover, G9a depletion decreased Plk1 expression and suppressed CRC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo , thus confirming the significant correlation between G9a and Plk1 levels. Further, we observed that G9a-induced Plk1 regulation depended on p53 inhibition. G9a dimethylated p53 at lysine 373, which in turn increased Plk1 expression and promoted CRC cell growth. Conclusions: These results indicate that G9a-induced and p53-dependent epigenetic programing stimulates the growth of colon cancer, which also suggests that G9a inhibitors that restore p53 activity are promising therapeutic agents for treating colon cancer, especially for CRC expressing wild-type p53.

  14. Stimulating Neoblast-Like Cell Proliferation in Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Supports Growth and Progression towards the Adult Phenotype In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinasamy, Vignesh; Toet, Hayley; McCammick, Erin; O’Connor, Anna; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Brennan, Gerard P.; Halton, David W.; Spithill, Terry W.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2016-01-01

    Fascioliasis (or fasciolosis) is a socioeconomically important parasitic disease caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. Flukicide resistance has exposed the need for new drugs and/or a vaccine for liver fluke control. A rapidly improving ‘molecular toolbox’ for liver fluke encompasses quality genomic/transcriptomic datasets and an RNA interference platform that facilitates functional genomics approaches to drug/vaccine target validation. The exploitation of these resources is undermined by the absence of effective culture/maintenance systems that would support in vitro studies on juvenile fluke development/biology. Here we report markedly improved in vitro maintenance methods for Fasciola hepatica that achieved 65% survival of juvenile fluke after 6 months in standard cell culture medium supplemented with 50% chicken serum. We discovered that this long-term maintenance was dependent upon fluke growth, which was supported by increased proliferation of cells resembling the “neoblast” stem cells described in other flatworms. Growth led to dramatic morphological changes in juveniles, including the development of the digestive tract, reproductive organs and the tegument, towards more adult-like forms. The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevented neoblast-like cell proliferation and inhibited growth/development. Supporting our assertion that we have triggered the development of juveniles towards adult-like fluke, mass spectrometric analyses showed that growing fluke have an excretory/secretory protein profile that is distinct from that of newly-excysted juveniles and more closely resembles that of ex vivo immature and adult fluke. Further, in vitro maintained fluke displayed a transition in their movement from the probing behaviour associated with migrating stage worms to a slower wave-like motility seen in adults. Our ability to stimulate neoblast-like cell proliferation and growth in F. hepatica underpins the first simple platform for their long-term in

  15. Stimulation of growth of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori by atmospheric level of oxygen under high carbon dioxide tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a human pathogen that is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, has been considered a microaerophile, but there is no general consensus about its specific O2 requirements. A clear understanding of Hp physiology is needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism(s of Hp infection. Results We cultured Hp under a range of O2 levels with or without 10% CO2 and evaluated growth profiles, morphology, intracellular pH, and energy metabolism. We found that, in the presence of 10% CO2, the normal atmospheric level of O2 inhibited Hp growth at low density but stimulated growth at a higher density. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of Hp cells cultured under 20% O2 tension revealed live spiral-shaped bacteria with outer membrane vesicles on a rugged cell surface, which became smooth during the stationary phase. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, and succinate were detected in cell culture media grown under microaerobic conditions, but not under the aerobic condition. CO2 deprivation for less than 24 h did not markedly change cytoplasmic or periplasmic pH, suggesting that cellular pH homeostasis alone cannot account for the capnophilic nature of Hp. Further, CO2 deprivation significantly increased intracellular levels of ppGpp and ATP but significantly decreased cellular mRNA levels, suggesting induction of the stringent response. Conclusions We conclude, unlike previous reports, that H. pylori may be a capnophilic aerobe whose growth is promoted by atmospheric oxygen levels in the presence of 10% CO2. Our data also suggest that buffering of intracellular pH alone cannot account for the CO2 requirement of H. pylori and that CO2 deprivation initiates the stringent response in H. pylori. Our findings may provide new insight into the physiology of this fastidious human pathogen.

  16. Stimulating Neoblast-Like Cell Proliferation in Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Supports Growth and Progression towards the Adult Phenotype In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McCusker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis (or fasciolosis is a socioeconomically important parasitic disease caused by liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. Flukicide resistance has exposed the need for new drugs and/or a vaccine for liver fluke control. A rapidly improving 'molecular toolbox' for liver fluke encompasses quality genomic/transcriptomic datasets and an RNA interference platform that facilitates functional genomics approaches to drug/vaccine target validation. The exploitation of these resources is undermined by the absence of effective culture/maintenance systems that would support in vitro studies on juvenile fluke development/biology. Here we report markedly improved in vitro maintenance methods for Fasciola hepatica that achieved 65% survival of juvenile fluke after 6 months in standard cell culture medium supplemented with 50% chicken serum. We discovered that this long-term maintenance was dependent upon fluke growth, which was supported by increased proliferation of cells resembling the "neoblast" stem cells described in other flatworms. Growth led to dramatic morphological changes in juveniles, including the development of the digestive tract, reproductive organs and the tegument, towards more adult-like forms. The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevented neoblast-like cell proliferation and inhibited growth/development. Supporting our assertion that we have triggered the development of juveniles towards adult-like fluke, mass spectrometric analyses showed that growing fluke have an excretory/secretory protein profile that is distinct from that of newly-excysted juveniles and more closely resembles that of ex vivo immature and adult fluke. Further, in vitro maintained fluke displayed a transition in their movement from the probing behaviour associated with migrating stage worms to a slower wave-like motility seen in adults. Our ability to stimulate neoblast-like cell proliferation and growth in F. hepatica underpins the first simple platform for their long

  17. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  18. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Accelerates Gastric Ulcer Healing by Stimulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Poonam; De Simone, Claudio; Chadee, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effect and mechanism of probiotics on diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI) including gastric ulcers are limited despite extensive work and promising results of this therapeutic option for other GI diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which the probiotic mixture VSL#3 (a mixture of eight probiotic bacteria including Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Streptococcus species) heals acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats. VSL#3 was administered orally at low (6×109 bacteria) or high (1.2×1010 bacteria) dosages from day 3 after ulcer induction for 14 consecutive days. VSL#3 treatments significantly enhanced gastric ulcer healing in a dose-dependent manner. To assess the mechanism(s) whereby VSL#3 exerted its protective effects, we quantified the gene expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, protein and expression of stomach mucin-Muc5ac, regulatory cytokine-IL-10, COX-2 and various growth factors. Of all the components examined, only expression and protein production of VEGF was increased 332-fold on day 7 in the ulcerated tissues of animals treated with VSL#3. Predictably, animals treated with VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly delayed gastric ulcer healing in VSL#3 treated animals. This is the first report to demonstrate high efficacy of the probiotic mixture VSL#3 in enhancing gastric ulcer healing. Probiotic efficacy was effective at higher concentrations of VSL#3 by specifically increasing the expression and production of angiogenesis promoting growth factors, primarily VEGF. PMID:23484048

  19. Naringenin inhibits the growth and stimulates the lignification of soybean root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene de Souza Bido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavanone naringenin, an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis, was tested for its effect on root growth, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and peroxidase (POD activities, as well as phenolic compounds and lignin contents in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seedlings. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0, with or without 0.1 to 0.4 mM naringenin in a growth chamber (25°C, 12-h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 µmol m-2 s-1 for 24 h. Inhibitory effects on root growth (length, weight, cell viability, PAL and soluble POD activities were detected after naringenin treatments. These effects were associated with stimulatory activity of the cell wall-bound POD followed by an increase in the lignin contents, suggesting that naringenin-induced inhibition in soybean roots could be due to the lignification process.Os efeitos de naringenina, um intermediário da biossíntese de flavonóides, foram avaliados sobre o crescimento das raízes, as atividades da fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL e peroxidases, bem como sobre os teores de compostos fenólicos e de lignina em plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, meia-força (pH 6,0, contendo ou não, naringenina 0,1 a 0,4 mM, em uma câmara de germinação (25°C, fotoperíodo de 12 h, 280 µmol m-2 s-1 durante 24 h. Efeitos inibitórios no crescimento das raízes (comprimento, massa e viabilidade celular e nas atividades da PAL e POD solúvel foram constatados após os tratamentos com naringenina. Estes efeitos foram associados com atividade estimulatória da POD ligada à parede celular, seguido por aumento nos teores de lignina, sugerindo que a inibição do crescimento das raízes pode ser devido ao processo de lignificação.

  20. Stimulate feed intake before weaning and control intake after weaning to optimise health and growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehya Read

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-weaning feed restriction is a common practice in rabbit farming to reduce mortality, but results in lower growth performance and slaughter weights. This study aimed to assess the influence of 2 diets both rich in fibre and low in starch, with high or low digestible energy (DE and digestible protein (DP contents for a constant DP/DE ratio offered from 18 to 70 d of age, on the growth performance and health parameters of rabbits. Eight hundred rabbit kits were divided in 2 experimental groups differing in the feed offered from 18 to 70 d: a high concentrate diet (HC group; 10.37 MJ DE/kg DM and 102 g DP/kg DM or low concentrate diet (LC group; 9.63 MJ DE/kg DM and 95 g DP/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum before weaning (35 d and from 63 to 70 d, while feed offered from 35 to 63 d was controlled to obtain similar DE intake in both groups. Feed intake, animal weights and health status were recorded weekly. Mortality was recorded daily. Feed intake was similar in both groups before weaning (P=0.204, and consequently the DE intake was higher in the HC group compared to the LC group before weaning (3.91 vs. 3.39 MJ, respectively; P=0.017. Feed intake from 63 to 70 d was lower in the HC than in the LC group (229 vs. 239 g/d/kit, respectively; P<0.001.Total DE ingested after weaning was similar in both groups (45.44 MJ; P=0.143. Kits were heavier in the HC group throughout the study (P<0.05. A higher average daily gain during the periods of 18-28, 35-42 and 56-63 d was seen in the HC group (+8.1%, +16.8% and +4.5%, respectively; P<0.05. Mortality and morbidity rates were similar between groups throughout the study (P=1.0 and P=0.104, respectively. Our results suggest that when the feed intake after weaning is controlled, i the feeding strategy before weaning determines the weight at weaning and at slaughter age; and ii rabbits fed a diet more highly concentrated but rich in fibre increase their growth performance without negative

  1. Stimulation growth effect of Eriocheir sinensis treated with low-dose neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Keyong; Liu Chunquan; Xu Lixin; Peng Zhangji

    2006-01-01

    This paper was dealt with the relationship between biochemical indexes and different growth stages of Eriocheir sinensis megalopa treated with Low-dose Neutron at 55.24 to 73.66 mGy. It showed that some biochemical component indexes were increased, such as-SH group in protain (between 23.40% to 69.59%), albumen (between 4.99% to 22.6%) and Hyp compared with CK. However, free radical level (between 7.67% to 32.68%) and AKP were decreased. The carapace color was turned into darker than that of CK; Antibacterial immunity of younger crab during the growing stage was increased, the body size of treated Eriocheir sinensis megalopa became uniform and early sexual maturity was inhibited in a certain degree with a low dose neutron treatment. (authors)

  2. Affinity to host population stimulates physical growth in adult offspring of Turkish migrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Aydan; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-01-18

    Because of political conflicts and climate change, migration will be increased worldwide and integration in host societies is a challenge also for migrants. We hypothesize that migrants, who take up the challenge in a new social environment are taller than migrants who do not pose this challenge. We analyze by a questionnaire possible social, nutritional and ethnic influencing factors to body height (BH) of adult offspring of Turkish migrants (n = 82, 39 males) aged from 18 to 34 years (mean age 24.6 years). The results of multiple regression (downward selection) show that the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the Turkish culture, the smaller he is (95% CI, -3.79, -0.323). Further, the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the German culture, the taller he is (95% CI, -0.152, 1.738). We discussed it comparable to primates taking up their challenge in dominance, where as a result their body size increase is associated with higher IGF-1 level. IGF-1 is associated with emotional belonging and has a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism and growth of the human body. With all pilot characteristics of our study results show that the successful challenge of integration in a new society is strongly associated with the emotional integration and identification in the sense of a personal sense of belonging to society. We discuss taller BH as a signal of social growth adjustment. In this sense, a secular trend of BH adaptation of migrants to hosts is a sign of integration.

  3. Energy 3.0 - Transforming the energetic world to stimulate growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author describes the possibilities created by the introduction of digital technologies in the energy sector. As well as there is a Web 2.0 model, an Energy 2.0 is emerging: buildings are not only an envelope to be insulated, but may produce energy, and energy can be shared between buildings as well as between centralised or decentralised infrastructures. This new approach is notably based on advances in distribution (smart grids, bidirectional and interconnected energy transport grid). The author considers that these evolutions are still insufficient and require the involvement and commitment of final consumers who will become energy producers (with positive energy buildings and renewable energies) and actors in energy management. He names this approach Energy 3.0. He discusses related issues: energetic equality and end of energy poverty, balance between energy saving and productivist trend to generate an increase of purchasing power without loss of comfort, health and comfort as major levers for a better life quality, economic growth to favour job creation, a more efficient approach to energy transition

  4. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient levels stimulates growth and development of horticultural plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S.E.H.; Shigeto, J. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences; Sakamoto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology

    2008-02-15

    Studies have demonstrated that ambient levels of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) can cause Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to double its biomass as well as its cell contents. This paper examined the influence of NO{sub 2} on lettuce, sunflower, cucumber, and pumpkin plants. Plants were grown in environments supplemented with stable isotope-labelled NO{sub 2} for approximately 6 weeks and irrigated with nitrates. Measured growth parameters included leaf number, internode number, stem length, number of flower buds, and root length. Results of the study demonstrated that the addition of NO{sub 2} doubled the aboveground and belowground biomass of sunflowers, while only the aboveground biomass of pumpkin, cucumbers, and lettuces was doubled. Levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also doubled in the lettuce samples. A mass spectrometry analysis showed that only a small percentage of total plant N was derived from NO{sub 2}. It was concluded that exogenous NO{sub 2} additions function as a signal rather than as a significant nutrient source in horticultural plants. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Chronic warming stimulates growth of marsh grasses more than mangroves in a coastal wetland ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldren, G A; Barreto, C R; Wykoff, D D; Morrissey, E M; Langley, J A; Feller, I C; Chapman, S K

    2016-11-01

    Increasing temperatures and a reduction in the frequency and severity of freezing events have been linked to species distribution shifts. Across the globe, mangrove ranges are expanding toward higher latitudes, likely due to diminishing frequency of freezing events associated with climate change. Continued warming will alter coastal wetland plant dynamics both above- and belowground, potentially altering plant capacity to keep up with sea level rise. We conducted an in situ warming experiment, in northeast Florida, to determine how increased temperature (+2°C) influences co-occurring mangrove and salt marsh plants. Warming was achieved using passive warming with three treatment levels (ambient, shade control, warmed). Avicennia germinans, the black mangrove, exhibited no differences in growth or height due to experimental warming, but displayed a warming-induced increase in leaf production (48%). Surprisingly, Distichlis spicata, the dominant salt marsh grass, increased in biomass (53% in 2013 and 70% in 2014), density (41%) and height (18%) with warming during summer months. Warming decreased plant root mass at depth and changed abundances of anaerobic bacterial taxa. Even while the poleward shift of mangroves is clearly controlled by the occurrences of severe freezes, chronic warming between these freeze events may slow the progression of mangrove dominance within ecotones. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  7. 8-Carbon oxylipins inhibit germination and growth, and stimulate aerial conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Garcia, Erika; Garzia, Aitor; Cordobés, Shandra; Espeso, Eduardo A; Ugalde, Unai

    2011-01-01

    Germination of Aspergillus nidulans conidia in liquid cultures was progressively inhibited at inoculum loads above 1×10(5)conidiamL(-1). High conidial densities also inhibited growth of neighbouring mycelia. The eight-carbon oxylipin 1-octen-3-ol was identified as the main inhibitor in a fraction also containing 3-octanone and 3-octanol. These three oxylipins also increased the conidiation rate of dark-grown surface cultures, but had no effect on liquid cultures. 3-octanone was the most conidiogenic compound. The action of 3-octanone required functional forms of developmental activators fluG, flbB-D and brlA, and was not additive to the conidiogenic effect of stress stimuli such as osmotic stress or carbon starvation. Oxylipins were produced shortly after hyphae made contact with the atmosphere and were most effective on aerial mycelia, indicating that they perform their signalling function in the gas phase. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. α-Trinositol inhibits FGF-stimulated growth of smooth muscle and breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siren, Matti J.; Vainiomaeki, Maija; Vaeaenaenen, Kalervo; Haerkoenen, Pirkko

    2004-01-01

    α-Trinositol (D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate), an isomer of the intracellular messenger IP 3 , has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and other effects in animal experiments and in human. The mechanisms of action remain unknown. Several human pathologies are associated with uncontrolled production of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). FGF-2 induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, which contributes to restenosis after coronary balloon angioplasty. The expression of several FGFs is also increased in tumors. We studied the effects of the water- and lipid-soluble derivatives of α-trinositol on the FGF-2- and/or FGF-8-induced proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) and S115 mouse breast cancer cells. α-Trinositol decreased the FGF-mediated proliferation of HPASMC and S115 cells. Membrane permeability did not seem obligatory since the lipid-soluble form of α-trinositol was less effective than the water-soluble derivative. These results suggest a new biological function for certain phosphoinositides in the modulation of FGF-regulated processes

  10. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide at ambient levels stimulates growth and development of horticultural plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.E.H.; Shigeto, J.; Sakamoto, A.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ambient levels of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) can cause Nicotiana plumbaginifolia to double its biomass as well as its cell contents. This paper examined the influence of NO 2 on lettuce, sunflower, cucumber, and pumpkin plants. Plants were grown in environments supplemented with stable isotope-labelled NO 2 for approximately 6 weeks and irrigated with nitrates. Measured growth parameters included leaf number, internode number, stem length, number of flower buds, and root length. Results of the study demonstrated that the addition of NO 2 doubled the aboveground and belowground biomass of sunflowers, while only the aboveground biomass of pumpkin, cucumbers, and lettuces was doubled. Levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also doubled in the lettuce samples. A mass spectrometry analysis showed that only a small percentage of total plant N was derived from NO 2 . It was concluded that exogenous NO 2 additions function as a signal rather than as a significant nutrient source in horticultural plants. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Efficacy of aniseed extract as immune stimulant and growth promoter in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, F R; Sultan, A; Ahmed, Sajjad; Chand, N; Khattak, F M; Durrani, Z

    2007-10-15

    Present research was undertaken to investigate the effect of different level of 6% concentrated (w/v) aniseed extract in broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar Pakistan. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, as A, B, C, receiving 20, 30 and 40 mL of 6% (w/v) concentrated aniseed infusion and D was kept as control group. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. Vaccination was done against ND and IBD. Data were recorded for growth performance, immunity and economics. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, using Completely Randomized Design and MSTATC programme. Mean feed and water intake was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Mean weight gain, FCR and dressing percentage was found better (p 0.05) in all groups. Mean antibody titer against IBD was higher (p 0.05), while the gross return was found better (p poultry production under different environmental conditions.

  12. Chemical allergens stimulate human epidermal keratinocytes to produce lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Seyeon; Jin, Sun Hee; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Eun-Sun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Chun, Young-Jin; Lee, Ai-Young; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a cell-mediated immune response that involves skin sensitization in response to contact with various allergens. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis both play roles in the allergic sensitization process. Epidermal keratinocytes can produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to UV irradiation and during wound healing. However, the effect of haptenic chemical allergens on the VEGF production of human keratinocytes, which is the primary contact site of toxic allergens, has not been thoroughly researched. We systematically investigated whether immune-regulatory cytokines and chemical allergens would lead to the production of VEGF in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) in culture. VEGF production significantly increased when NHKs were treated with IFNγ, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22 or TNFα. Among the human sensitizers listed in the OECD Test Guideline (TG) 429, we found that CMI/MI, DNCB, 4-phenylenediamine, cobalt chloride, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, citral, HCA, cinnamic alcohol, imidazolidinyl urea and nickel chloride all significantly upregulated VEGF production in NHKs. In addition, common human haptenic allergens such as avobenzone, formaldehyde and urushiol, also induced the keratinocyte-derived VEGF production. VEGF upregulation by pro-inflammatory stimuli, IFNγ, DNCB or formaldehyde is preceded by the production of IL-8, an acute inflammatory phase cytokine. Lymphangiogenic VEGF-C gene transcription was significantly increased when NHKs were treated with formaldehyde, DNCB or urushiol, while transcription of VEGF-A and VEGF-B did not change. Therefore, the chemical allergen-induced VEGF upregulation is mainly due to the increase in lymphangiogenic VEGF-C transcription in NHKs. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived VEGF may regulate the lymphangiogenic process during the skin sensitization process of ACD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of mechanical behavior of an epithelial monolayer in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ruiguo; Chen, Jennifer Y.; Xi, Ning; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Qu, Chengeng; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Penn, Lynn S.; Xi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Cell signaling often causes changes in cellular mechanical properties. Knowledge of such changes can ultimately lead to insight into the complex network of cell signaling. In the current study, we employed a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to characterize the mechanical behavior of A431 cells in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. From AFM, which probes the upper portion of an individual cell in a monolayer of cells, we observed increases in energy dissipation, Young's modulus, and hysteresivity. Increases in hysteresivity imply a shift toward a more fluid-like mechanical ordering state in the bodies of the cells. From QCM-D, which probes the basal area of the monolayer of cells collectively, we observed decreases in energy dissipation factor. This result suggests a shift toward a more solid-like state in the basal areas of the cells. The comparative analysis of these results indicates a regionally specific mechanical behavior of the cell in response to EGFR signaling and suggests a correlation between the time-dependent mechanical responses and the dynamic process of EGFR signaling. This study also demonstrates that a combination of AFM and QCM-D is able to provide a more complete and refined mechanical profile of the cells during cell signaling. -- Highlights: ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is regionally specific. ► The EGF-induced cellular mechanical response is time and dose dependent. ► A combination of AFM and QCM-D provides a more complete mechanical profile of cells.

  14. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulates cell proliferation, proteoglycan synthesis and expression of growth factor-related genes in human nucleus pulposus cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kobayashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS stimulation has been shown to effect differentiation and activation of human chondrocytes. A study involving stimulation of rabbit disc cells with LIPUS revealed upregulation of cell proliferation and proteoglycan (PG synthesis. However, the effect of LIPUS on human nucleus pulposus cells has not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, we investigated whether LIPUS stimulation of a human nucleus pulposus cell line (HNPSV-1 exerted a positive effect on cellular activity. HNPSV-1 cells were encapsulated in 1.2% sodium alginate solution at 1x105 cells/ml and cultured at 10 beads/well in 6-well plates. The cells were stimulated for 20 min each day using a LIPUS generator, and the effects of LIPUS were evaluated by measuring DNA and PG synthesis. Furthermore, mRNA expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray using total RNA extracted from the cultured cells. Our study revealed no significant difference in cell proliferation between the control and the ultrasound treated groups. However, PG production was significantly upregulated in HNPSV cells stimulated at intensities of 15, 30, 60, and 120 mW/cm2 compared with the control. The results of cDNA array showed that LIPUS significantly stimulated the gene expression of growth factors and their receptors (BMP2, FGF7, TGFbetaR1 EGFRF1, VEGF. These findings suggest that LIPUS stimulation upregulates PG production in human nucleus pulposus cells by the enhancement of several matrix-related genes including growth factor-related genes. Safe and non-invasive stimulation using LIPUS may be a useful treatment for delaying the progression of disc degeneration.

  15. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro.

  16. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W.; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro. PMID:26375397

  17. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Wang

    Full Text Available It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro.

  18. UV dosimetry in pollen of Pinus silvestris and stimulation studies of pollen tube growth after irradiation with UV and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Pollen tube growth after exposure to UV- and ionizing radiation was investigated in Pinus silvestris as a function of different parameters. The preconditions for this are an exact UV dosimetry and the conversion of the UV dose of [erg] into [rad]. In spite of the fact that the calculation methods are theoretically already well known, the experimental determination of the absorbed energy dose, in particular the absorption factors, was complicated by the morphological structure of the pollen. The total-irradiation experiments showed that the stimulation and inhibition of pollen tube growth is highly dependent on the dose/dose rate region chosen. Stimulation is highly dependent on the dose rate after UV irradiation as well as after exposure to ionizing radiation. When the dose rates are very small, the values are practically the same as in non-irradiated controls; with increasing doses rate, stimulation increases, whereas at very high dose rates only growth inhibition is observed. After exposure to ionizing radiation, the quantum energy or wavelength of the radiation has no effect on tube growth; after UV irradiation, on the other hand, there is hardly any stimulation at short wavelengths. As these observations were not sufficient for drawing conclusions on the site of the stimulatory action, partial UV exposure with separate irradiation of the two nuclei and the cytoplasm was also carried out. Stimulation was found in each of the three irradiation sites; although nuclei and cytoplasma react differently and also differ in the initial reaction stages, there is always an anhancement of pollen tube growth. These findings are compared with some of the current hypotheses for an explanation of the stimulatory effect. (orig.) [de

  19. In vitro stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by borate-based glass fibers under dynamic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sisi; Yang, Qingbo; Brow, Richard K; Liu, Kun; Brow, Katherine A; Ma, Yinfa; Shi, Honglan

    2017-04-01

    Bioactive borate glass has been recognized to have both hard and soft tissue repair and regeneration capabilities through stimulating both osteogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the underlying biochemical and cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, dynamic flow culturing modules were designed to simulate the micro-environment near the vascular depletion and hyperplasia area in wound-healing regions, thus to better investigate the mechanisms underlying the biocompatibility and functionality of borate-based glass materials. Glass fibers were dosed either upstream or in contact with the pre-seeded cells in the dynamic flow module. Two types of borate glasses, doped with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO, were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5. Substantial fiber dissolution in cell culture medium was observed, leading to the release of ions (boron, sodium and potassium) and the deposition of a calcium phosphate phase. Different levels of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were observed from cells exposed to these three glass fibers, and the copper/zinc containing borate 1605 fibers exhibited the most positive influence. These results indicate that dynamic studies of in vitro bioactivity provide useful information to understand the in vivo response to bioactive borate glasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Terbinafine: effects on platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated smooth muscle cells in vitro and myointimal proliferation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, L.; Van Halen, R.G.; St Denny, I.H.; Glinka, K.G.; Handley, D.A.; Stuetz, A.; Nemecek, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Terbinafine (T; (E)-N-(6,6-dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethanamine), an antimycotic agent with antimitogenic activity in fibroblasts, was examined for its effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated aortic smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis in vitro and myointimal proliferation in vivo. Exposure of smooth muscle cells to 1-25 μM T resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of PDGF-induced mitogenesis as determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation or cell number. The IC 50 for T was approximately 5 μM. The inhibitory effect of terbinafine persisted in the presence of 0.4-8.0 μg/ml cholesterol or 130 μg/ml mevalonate. Administration of T to rats for 2 d before and 14 d after balloon catheter carotid injury resulted in a 40% decrease in lesion area. These observations indicate that T is both a potent in vitro antagonist of the smooth muscle cell mitogenic response to PDGF and an effective, well-tolerated, orally active inhibitor of myointimal proliferation in vivo

  1. Terbinafine: effects on platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated smooth muscle cells in vitro and myointimal proliferation in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, L.; Van Halen, R.G.; St. Denny, I.H.; Glinka, K.G.; Handley, D.A.; Stuetz, A.; Nemecek, G.M.

    1987-05-01

    Terbinafine (T; (E)-N-(6,6-dimethyl-2-hepten-4-ynyl)-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethanamine), an antimycotic agent with antimitogenic activity in fibroblasts, was examined for its effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated aortic smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis in vitro and myointimal proliferation in vivo. Exposure of smooth muscle cells to 1-25 ..mu..M T resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of PDGF-induced mitogenesis as determined by (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation or cell number. The IC/sub 50/ for T was approximately 5 ..mu..M. The inhibitory effect of terbinafine persisted in the presence of 0.4-8.0 ..mu..g/ml cholesterol or 130 ..mu..g/ml mevalonate. Administration of T to rats for 2 d before and 14 d after balloon catheter carotid injury resulted in a 40% decrease in lesion area. These observations indicate that T is both a potent in vitro antagonist of the smooth muscle cell mitogenic response to PDGF and an effective, well-tolerated, orally active inhibitor of myointimal proliferation in vivo.

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by ovarian cancer cells stimulates peritoneal implantation via the mesothelial-mesenchymal transition of the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michihiko; Ono, Yoshihiro J; Kanemura, Masanori; Tanaka, Tomohito; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    A current working model for the metastatic process of ovarian carcinoma suggests that cancer cells are shed from the ovarian tumor into the peritoneal cavity and attach to the layer of mesothelial cells that line the inner surface of the peritoneum, and several studies suggest that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays an important role in the dissemination of ovarian cancer. Our objectives were to evaluate the HGF expression of ovarian cancer using clinical data and assess the effect of HGF secreted from human ovarian cancer cells to human mesothelial cells. HGF expression was immunohistochemically evaluated in 165 epithelial ovarian cancer patients arranged as tissue microarrays. HGF expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated by using semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of ovarian cancer cell derived HGF to the human mesothelial cells was assessed by using morphologic analysis, Western blotting and cell invasion assay. The effect of HGF on ovarian cancer metastasis was assessed by using in vivo experimental model. The clinical data showed a significantly high correlation between the HGF expression and the cancer stage. The in vivo and in vitro experimental models revealed that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells induces the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stimulates the invasion of mesothelial cells. Furthermore, manipulating the HGF activity affected the degree of dissemination and ascite formation. We demonstrated that HGF secreted by ovarian cancer cells plays an important role in cancer peritoneal implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preirradiation of medium induces a subsequent stimulation or inhibition of growth according to the physiological state in Synechococcus lividus in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conter, A.

    1987-01-01

    The proliferation of Synechococcus lividus cells grown in preirradiated medium was compared with the proliferation of cells grown in a shielded or freshly prepared medium. Aging of medium in a shielded chamber resulted in a slight inhibiting effect on growth in every phase of the cell cycle which was used. Preirradiation of medium resulted in a stimulation of growth observed on Day 7 in cultures inoculated with cells selected in the deceleration phase and an inhibition of growth in cultures inoculated with exponentially growing cells. Addition of catalase (100 U X ml-1) counteracted the stimulating effect but did not modify the inhibiting effect induced by preirradiated medium. Results demonstrated the indirect effect of low doses of irradiation, implying the presence of hydrogen peroxide in radiostimulation and other radioproducts in the inhibitory effect

  4. Effects of a community-based approach of food and psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in Bangladesh: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hossain, M I; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Persson, L A

    2012-06-01

    Psychosocial stimulation (PS) and food supplementation (FS) improve development of malnourished children. This study evaluates the effects of a community-based approach of PS and FS on growth and development of severely malnourished children. Severely underweight hospitalised children aged 6-24 months (n = 507) were randomly allocated on discharge to five groups: (i) PS, (ii) FS, (iii) PS+FS, (iv) clinic-control and (v) hospital-control. PS included play sessions and parental counselling on child development. This was done at each fortnightly follow-up visit, that is, every second week, for 6 months at community clinics. FS included distribution of cereal-based food packets (150-300 kcal/day) for 3 months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplementation, health-education and growth monitoring. Children's development was assessed using revised version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Anthropometry was measured using standard procedure. Comparing groups with any stimulation with those with no stimulation there was a significant effect of stimulation on children's mental development index (group*session interaction P = 0.037, effect size = 0.37 s.d.) and weight-for-age Z-score (group*session interaction P = 0.02, effect size=0.26 s.d.). Poor levels of development and nutritional status were sustained, however, due to their initial very severe malnutrition. There was no effect on motor development and linear growth. Children receiving any stimulation showed a significant benefit to mental development and growth in weight. More intensive intervention with longer duration is needed to correct their poor developmental levels and nutritional status.

  5. Creep-feeding to stimulate metabolic imprinting in nursing beef heifers: impacts on heifer growth, reproductive and physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Rodrigues, M C; Bradley, J S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H; Johnson, S E; Bohnert, D W

    2015-09-01

    This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus × Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140 ± 3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (Pimprinting effect, but did not hasten their puberty attainment.

  6. A patient with thyrotropinoma cosecreting growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone with low alpha-glycoprotein: a new subentity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadd, Tarik A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Teoh, Wei Leng; Trevethick, Katy Ann; Hanzely, Zoltan; Dunn, Laurence T; Malik, Iqbal A; Collier, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Thyrotropinomas are rare pituitary tumors. In 25 percent of cases there is autonomous secretion of a second pituitary hormone, adding to the clinical complexity. We report a patient with thyrotropin (TSH)-dependant hyperthyroidism along with growth hormone (GH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) hypersecretion but low alpha-glycoprotein (alpha-subunit) concentrations, a hitherto unique constellation of findings. A 67-year-old Scottish lady presented with longstanding ankle edema, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, uncontrolled hypertension, fine tremors, warm peripheries, and agitation. Initial findings were a small goiter, elevated serum TSH of 7.37 mU/L (normal range, 0.30-6.0 mU/L), a free-thyroxine concentration of 34.9 pmol/L (normal range, 9.0-24.0 pmol/L), a flat TSH response to TSH-releasing hormone, and serum alpha-subunit of 3.1 IU/L (normal, hormone beta receptor by genotyping. Serum FSH was 56.8 U/L, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) was 23.6 U/L (postmenopausal FSH and LH reference ranges both >30 U/L) Basal insulin-like growth factor I was elevated to 487 microg/L with the concomitant serum GH being 14.1 mU/L, and subsequent serum GH values 30 minutes after 75 g oral glucose being 19.1 mU/L and 150 minutes later being 13.7 mU/L. An magnetic resonance imaging pituitary revealed a macroadenoma. Pituitary adenomectomy was performed with the histology confirming a pituitary adenoma, and the immunohistochemistry staining showed positive reactivity for FSH with scattered cells staining for GH and TSH. Staining for other anterior pituitary hormones was negative. After pituitary surgery she became clinically and biochemically euthyroid, the serum IFG-1 became normal, but the pattern of serum FSH and LH did not change. This case of plurihormonal thyrotropinoma is unique in having hypersecretion of TSH, GH, and FSH with low alpha-subunit. Such a combination may represent a new subentity of TSHomas.

  7. Glucose, other secretagogues, and nerve growth factor stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line, INS-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Sekine, N; Roche, E

    1995-01-01

    The signaling pathways whereby glucose and hormonal secretagogues regulate insulin-secretory function, gene transcription, and proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells are not well defined. We show that in the glucose-responsive beta-cell line INS-1, major secretagogue-stimulated signaling pathways...... converge to activate 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Thus, glucose-induced insulin secretion was found to be associated with a small stimulatory effect on 44-kDa MAP kinase, which was synergistically enhanced by increased levels of intracellular cAMP and by the hormonal secretagogues......-1. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase by both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent pathways. Nerve growth factor, independently of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, efficiently stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase without causing insulin release, indicating that activation...

  8. Gene expression analysis of pig cumulus-oocyte complexes stimulated in vitro with follicle stimulating hormone or epidermal growth factor-like peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaha, Milan; Němcová, Lucie; Vodičková Kepková, Kateřina; Vodička, P.; Procházka, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 113 (2015) ISSN 1477-7827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/0593; GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : FSH * growth factors * cumulus cell Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2015

  9. A community-based study of early childhood sensory stimulation in home environment associated with growth and psychomotor development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Raza, Syed Ahsan; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2014-10-01

    Sensory stimulation (SS) is a non-nutritional modifiable risk factor for early childhood development. We assessed SS in home environment and examined its influence on physical growth and psychomotor development (PD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 26 communities in Pakistan among children aged development. There is a need to corroborate these results by additional research for integration in health policy initiatives.

  10. Heparin-Binding EGF-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) stimulates the proliferation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells in avian and murine retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Levi; Volkov, Leo I.; Zelinka, Chris; Squires, Natalie; Fischer, Andy J.

    2015-01-01

    Müller glia can be stimulated to de-differentiate, proliferate and form Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) that regenerate retinal neurons. In the zebrafish retina, Heparin-Binding EGF-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) may be one of the key factors that stimulate the formation of proliferating MGPCs. Currently nothing is known about the influence of HB-EGF on the proliferative potential of Müller glia in retinas of birds and rodents. In the chick retina, we found that levels of both hb-egf and egf-receptor are rapidly and transiently up-regulated following NMDA-induced damage. Although intraocular injections of HB-EGF failed to stimulate cell-signaling or proliferation of Müller glia in normal retinas, HB-EGF stimulated proliferation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. By comparison, inhibition of the EGF-receptor (EGFR) decreased the proliferation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. HB-EGF failed to act synergistically with FGF2 to stimulate the formation of MGPCs in the undamaged retina and inhibition of EGF-receptor did not suppress FGF2-mediated formation of MGPCs. In the mouse retina, HB-EGF stimulated the proliferation of Müller glia following NMDA-induced damage. Furthermore, HB-EGF stimulated not only MAPK-signaling in Müller glia/MGPCs, but also activated mTor- and Jak/Stat-signaling. We propose that levels of expression of EGFR are rate-limiting to the responses of Müller glia to HB-EGF and the expression of EGFR can be induced by retinal damage, but not by FGF2-treatment. We conclude that HB-EGF is mitogenic to Müller glia in both chick and mouse retinas, and HB-EGF is an important player in the formation of MGPCs in damaged retinas. PMID:26500021

  11. Lactoferrin release and interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor production by human polymorphonuclear cells stimulated by various lipopolysaccharides: relationship to growth inhibition of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, C; Cassone, A; Serbousek, D; Pearson, C A; Djeu, J Y

    1992-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Salmonella typhimurium, at doses from 1 to 100 ng/ml, strongly enhanced growth inhibition of Candida albicans by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that LPS markedly augmented phagocytosis of Candida cells by increasing the number of yeasts ingested per neutrophil as well as the number of neutrophils capable of ingesting fungal cells. LPS activation caused augmented release of lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein which itself could inhibit the growth of C. albicans in vitro. Antibodies against lactoferrin effectively and specifically reduced the anti-C. albicans activity of both LPS-stimulated and unstimulated PMN. Northern (RNA blot) analysis showed enhanced production of mRNAs for interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 and in neutrophils within 1 h of stimulation with LPS. The cytokines were also detected in the supernatant of the activated PMN, and their synthesis was prevented by pretreatment of LPS-stimulated PMN with protein synthesis inhibitors, such as emetine and cycloheximide. These inhibitors, however, did not block either lactoferrin release or the anti-Candida activity of LPS-stimulated PMN. These results demonstrate the ability of various bacterial LPSs to augment neutrophil function against C. albicans and suggest that the release of a candidastatic, iron-binding protein, lactoferrin, may contribute to the antifungal effect of PMN. Moreover, the ability to produce cytokines upon stimulation by ubiquitous microbial products such as the endotoxins points to an extraphagocytic, immunomodulatory role of PMN during infection.

  12. Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 6 on the growth of leukemic blasts in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C J; Cheng, T Y; Chang, S L; Su, W J; Tseng, J Y

    1992-05-01

    We examined the stimulatory effects of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 6 (IL)-6 on the in vitro proliferation of leukemic blast cells from patients with acute leukemia. Bone marrow or peripheral blood leukemic blast cells were obtained from 21 patients, including 14 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), four cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), two cases of acute undifferentiated leukemia, and one case of acute mixed-lineage leukemia. The proliferation of leukemic blast cells was evaluated by measuring the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into cells incubated with various concentrations of cytokines for 3 days. GM-CSF stimulated the DNA synthesis (with greater than 2.0 stimulation index) of blast cells in 9 of 14 (64%) AML cases, two cases of acute undifferentiated leukemia and one case of acute mixed-lineage leukemia. Only two cases of AML blasts responded to IL-6 to grow in the short-term suspension cultures. GM-CSF and IL-6 did not display a synergistic effect on the growth of leukemic cells. Moreover, GM-CSF and IL-6 did not stimulate the proliferation of ALL blast cells. Binding study also revealed the specific binding of GM-CSF on the blast cells of acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute mixed-lineage leukemia. Our results indicated that leukemic blast cells of acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute mixed-lineage leukemia possessed functional GM-CSF receptors.

  13. GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin stimulates proliferation and confers letrozole resistance to aromatase overexpressing breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabnis Gauri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatase inhibitors (AI that inhibit breast cancer cell growth by blocking estrogen synthesis have become the treatment of choice for post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer. However, some patients display de novo or acquired resistance to AI. Interactions between estrogen and growth factor signaling pathways have been identified in estrogen-responsive cells as one possible reason for acquisition of resistance. Our laboratory has characterized an autocrine growth factor overexpressed in invasive ductal carcinoma named PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor (GP88, also known as progranulin. In the present study, we investigated the role GP88 on the acquisition of resistance to letrozole in ER+ breast cancer cells Methods We used two aromatase overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7-CA cells and AC1 cells and their letrozole resistant counterparts as study models. Effect of stimulating or inhibiting GP88 expression on proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, survival and letrozole responsiveness was examined. Results GP88 induced cell proliferation and conferred letrozole resistance in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Conversely, naturally letrozole resistant breast cancer cells displayed a 10-fold increase in GP88 expression when compared to letrozole sensitive cells. GP88 overexpression, or exogenous addition blocked the inhibitory effect of letrozole on proliferation, and stimulated survival and soft agar colony formation. In letrozole resistant cells, silencing GP88 by siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and restored their sensitivity to letrozole. Conclusion Our findings provide information on the role of an alternate growth and survival factor on the acquisition of aromatase inhibitor resistance in ER+ breast cancer.

  14. A Comparison Study of Growth Factor Expression following Treatment with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Saline Solution, Povidone-Iodine, and Lavender Oil in Wounds Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalet Koca Kutlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, saline solution (SS, povidone-iodine (PI, and lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia through expression of growth factors in a rat model of wound healing. Six experimental groups were established, each containing 8 rats: a healthy group with no incision wounds, an incision-control group, an incision and TENS group, an incision and SS group, an incision and PI group, and an incision and lavender oil group. Experiments continued for 5 days, after which the skin in the excision area was removed. Tissue concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Tissue expressions of EGF, PDGF-A, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 were determined using immunohistochemistry. Wound closure progressed more rapidly in the TENS and lavender oil groups than in the control and other study groups. In particular, PDGF-A expressions in the dermis and EGF expression in the epidermis were significantly intense in the TENS group (P<0.05. In addition, ELISA levels of growth factors such as PDGF-A and EGF were significantly higher in TENS group compared to the control group (P<0.05. These immunohistochemical and ELISA results suggest that TENS may improve wound healing through increasing growth factors in the dermis and epidermis more than other topical applications.

  15. Synthesis of Copper-Chelates Derived from Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Copper Source and Growth Stimulator for Lactuca sativa in Nutrient Solution Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchangwat, Narongpol; Dueansawang, Sattawat; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Suttisintong, Khomson

    2017-11-15

    Five tetradentate ligands were synthesized from l-amino acids and utilized for the synthesis of Cu(II)-chelates 1-5. The efficacy of Cu(II)-chelates as copper (Cu) source and growth stimulator in hydroponic cultivation was evaluated with Lactuca sativa. Their stability test was performed at pH 4-10. The results suggested that Cu(II)-chelate 3 is the most pH tolerant complex. Levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe accumulated in plants supplied with Cu(II)-chelates were compared with those supplied with CuSO 4 at the same Cu concentration of 8.0 μM. The results showed that Cu(II)-chelate 3 significantly enhanced Cu, Zn, and Fe content in shoot by 35, 15, and 48%, respectively. Application of Cu(II)-chelate 3 also improved plant dry matter yield by 54%. According to the results, Cu(II)-chelate 3 demonstrated the highest stimulating effect on plant growth and plant mineral accumulation so that it can be used as an alternative to CuSO 4 for supplying Cu in nutrient solutions and enhancing the plant growth.

  16. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates tendon and synovial fibroblasts migration and improves the biological properties of hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Sanchez, M; De la Fuente, M; Zalduendo, M M; Orive, G

    2012-09-01

    Cell migration plays an essential role in development, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) technology offers a potential source of growth factors involved in tissue regeneration. Here, we evaluate the potential of PRGF-Endoret over tendon cells and synovial fibroblasts migration and study whether the combination of this autologous technology with hyaluronic acid (HA) improves the effect and potential of the biomaterials over the motility of both types of fibroblasts. Migration of primary tendon cells and synovial fibroblasts after culturing with either PRGF or PPGF (plasma poor in growth factors) at different doses was evaluated. Furthermore, the migratory capacity induced by the combination of PPGF and PRGF with HA was tested. PPGF stimulated migration of both types of cells but this effect was significantly higher when PRGF was used. Tendon cells showed an increase of 212% in migratory ability when HA was combined with PPGF and of 335% in the case of HA + PRGF treatment compared with HA alone. PRGF-Endoret stimulates migration of tendon cells and synovial fibroblasts and improves the biological properties of HA.

  17. Biogeochemical anomaly above oil-containing structures in an arid zone. [Growth stimulation of plants by sodium naphthenate used for prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    Visual biological anomalies above the oil-containing structures are characterized by bright green coloring of the vegetation cover, gigantism of the plants, extended vegetation period of the plants, deformity of the plants, etc. Biological anomalies are associated with geological features and are observed only above the zone of fault disorders of the earth's crust, above deep faults. A conclusion is drawn about the presence above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone of a biogeochemical anomaly whose origin is explained by the biological activity of oil and its derivatives. The petroleum growth matter is the sodium salt of naphthene acid, a growth stimulator of plants and animals. The oils of the USSR contain 0.8-4.8% naphthene acids, which effuse through the faults into the root area levels of the soil. As a result of stimulation of growth and development by the petroleum growth matter, the vegetation period of the plants is prolonged. Under the influence of natural petroleum growth substances, the height and productivity of the anomalous plants increases 2-3-fold. Formation and manifestation of signs of biogeochemical anomalies above the oil-bearing structures in the arid zone predetermine the following conditions: presence of fault disorders of the earth's crust; salinity of the root area of the soil layer necessary for neutralization of the naphthene acids with subsequent formation of the biologically active naphthenates; aridity of the desert landscape; plain relief excluding color diversity in vegetation cover because of nonuniform wetting, etc. The established biogeochemical anomaly can be used in prospecting and exploration of oil, gas and bitumen, and also in determining the fault disorders of the earth's crust.

  18. Method of propagation, stimulation of rhizomes growth in vitro culture and adaptation in the open ground for the genus Miscanthus representatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. М. Гонтаренко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a method of propagation, stimulation of rhizomes growth in vitro culture for the genus Miscanthus representatives and their adaptation in the open field without the use of greenhouse complexes for acclimatization and completion of growing. Methods. Biotechnological procedures, mathematical and statistical analyses. Results. Prescription of nutrient medium was developed for explants inoculation, sprouts propagation, rhizomes growth stimulation in vitro. Such sterile explants as seeds, buds to be removed from rhizomes, parts of  stems with bud were placed on modified media with mineral portion by Murashige and Skoog (MS that contained 0,5–1 dose of macroelements and one dose of microelements,  vitamins (10 mg/l of thia­minum, 1,0 mg/l of pyridoxine, 1,0 mg/l of nicotinic acid and 1,0 mg/l of ascorbic acid supplemented with amino acids (250 mg/l of glutamic acid, 3 mg/l of tyrosine, 3 mg/l of arginine, 2 mg/l of hydroxyproline, plant growth regulators [0,5–1,0 mg/l of GA (gibberelline acid, 0,2 mg/l of 6-BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine, 0,1 mg/l of NAA (α-naphtylacetic acid] in different variations. After seed germination, buds emerging and sprouts formation 1–2 cm in height, for propagation purpose they were passivated on the medium of other composition that differed from previous one by the content and ratio of growth regulators, especially by a high concentration of cytokinins [6-BAP (0,4–0,5 mg/l, kinetin (0,5 mg/l, adenine (0,5 mg/k] in different variations in presence of GA (0,2 mg/l. In order to stimulate rhizomes growth, microclones were transferred on media with other composition and ratio growth regulators (6-BAP (0,2–0,3 mg/l + GA (0,5–1,0 mg/l or 6-BAP (0,2–0,3 mg/l + GA (0,5–1,0 mg/l + NAA (0,1 mg/l,  in other words,  with a high content of gibberellins. After the formation of rhizomes 10–15 cm in length, miscanthus plants were planted out in the open ground. Stimulation of

  19. Degradation of structurally different non-digestible oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria: glycosylhydrolases of Bifidobacterium adolescentis = Afbraak van in structuur verschillende niet-verteerbare oligosacchariden door darmbacteriën : glycosylhydrolasen van Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laere, Van K.

    2000-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are oligosaccharides, which resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and which are fermented in the colon by intestinal bacteria. Some NDOs are considered bifidogenic, meaning that they selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in

  20. Releasing growth factors from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation: a possible bio-material for platelet-rich plasma preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Chou, Tz-Chong; Gau, Ching-Hwa; Tu, Hsiao-Pei; Chen, Yen-Teen; Fu, Earl

    2006-10-01

    Thrombin is commonly used for activating the platelets and releasing the growth factors on the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). We have previously reported that chitosan can enhance rabbit platelet aggregation. In this study, the effects of chitosan on the subsequent growth factors release after human platelets activation were examined to evaluate the possibility of chitosan being used as a substitute for thrombin during PRP preparation. Human platelet activation was determined by aggregation, adhesion and alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein expression. Platelet aggregation was measured by the turbidimetric method, the adhesion was directly examined on chitosan-coated glass plates under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein was detected by fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD61 antibody through flow cytometry. The subsequent epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets were assayed by ELISA after mixing with chitosan. The enhancing effects on the platelet adhesion and the aggregation from chitosan were observed. Under both microscopes, the adhesive platelets on the chitosan-coated plates were not only greater in number but also earlier in activation than those on the control plates. With flow cytometry, increased glycoprotein IIIa expression in platelets was detected after chitosan treatment. Greater concentrations of growth factors were measured from PRP after chitosan treatment than after the solvent treatment. Because of the observations of growth factors releasing from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation, we suggest that chitosan may be an appropriate substitute for thrombin in PRP preparation.

  1. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates proliferation and migration of primary keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblasts and inhibits and reverts TGF-beta1-Induced myodifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Sanchez, Mikel; Merayo-Lloves, Jesus; De la Fuente, Maria; Muruzabal, Francisco; Orive, Gorka

    2011-08-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) technology is an autologous platelet-enriched plasma obtained from patient's own blood, which after activation with calcium chloride allows the release of a pool of biologically active proteins that influence and promote a range of biological processes including cell recruitment, and growth and differentiation. Because ocular surface wound healing is mediated by different growth factors, we decided to explore the potential of PRGF-Endoret technology in stimulating the biological processes related with fibroblast-induced tissue repair. Furthermore, the anti-fibrotic properties of this technology were also studied. Blood from healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and, whole plasma column (WP) and the plasma fraction with the highest platelet concentration (F3) were drawn off, avoiding the buffy coat. Primary human cells including keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblasts were used to perform the "in vitro" investigations. The potential of PRGF-Endoret in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of a proliferation and migration assays. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after the treatment with 2.5 ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of WP and F3 to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results show that this autologous approach significantly enhances proliferation and migration of both keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblasts. In addition, plasma rich in growth factors prevents and inhibits TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. No differences were found between WP and F3 plasma fractions. These results suggest that PRGF-Endoret could reduce scarring while stimulating wound healing in ocular surface. F3 or whole plasma column show similar biological effects in keratocytes and conjunctival fibroblast cells.

  2. Influence of a ras oncogene on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in murine fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parries, G.; Racker, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have examined the effects of transfection of rat-1 fibroblasts with the ras oncogene on the metabolism of phosphatidylinositol (PI). Incubation of [ 3 H]inositol-labeled rat-1 cells with PDGF resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in [ 3 H]IP3 levels within 90 s. In the presence of 25 mM Li+, [ 3 H]IP1 levels were increased 8-fold after 30 min. In contrast, incubation of ras-transfected fibroblasts (EJ-2 line) with PDGF had little or no effect on the level of either [ 3 H]IP3 or [ 3 H]IP1. Similar stimulations by PDGF were observed in NIH 3T3 cells, but not in Kirsten virus-transformed or Harvey ras-transfected cell lines. On the other hand, NIH 3T3 cells transfected with v-src responded to PDGF by stimulation of PI turnover similar to the parent cell line. In NIH 3T3 cells transfected with an expression vector containing the v-Ha-ras gene under transcriptional control of the glucocorticoid-inducible mouse mammary tumor virus promoter, the PDGF stimulation of [ 3 H]inositol incorporation into PI was reduced from 10-fold in the absence of dexamethasone to 1.8-fold when the cells were pretreated for 26 h with 2 μM dexamethasone. In the parental 3T3 cells PDGF stimulation was reduced by about 40% in the presence of dexamethasone. In the absence of PDGF the rate of PI turnover (i.e., the kinetics of [ 3 H]IP1 accumulation in the presence of Li+) in EJ-2 cells was similar to that in rat-1 cells. Thus, in the presence of PDGF, the rate of PI turnover in rat-1 cells was several fold higher than in the transfected cells. These results suggest that the ras gene product (p21) may exert an inhibitory effect on PDGF-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism

  3. Combined Stimulation with the Tumor Necrosis Factor α and the Epidermal Growth Factor Promotes the Proliferation of Hepatocytes in Rat Liver Cultured Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Finot

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture liver slices are mainly used to investigate drug metabolism and xenobiotic-mediated liver injuries while apoptosis and proliferation remain unexplored in this culture model. Here, we show a transient increase in LDH release and caspase activities indicating an ischemic injury during the slicing procedure. Then, caspase activities decrease and remain low in cultured slices demonstrating a low level of apoptosis. The slicing procedure is also associated with the G0/G1 transition of hepatocytes demonstrated by the activation of stress and proliferation signalling pathways including the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 MAPKinases and the transient upregulation of c-fos. The cells further progress up to mid-G1 phase as indicated by the sequential induction of c-myc and p53 mRNA levels after the slicing procedure and at 24 h of culture, respectively. The stimulation by epidermal growth factor induces the ERK1/2 phosphorylation but fails to activate expression of late G1 and S phase markers such as cyclin D1 and Cdk1 indicating that hepatocytes are arrested in mid-G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, we found that combined stimulation by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and the epidermal growth factor promotes the commitment to DNA replication as observed in vivo during the liver regeneration.

  4. Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiHong Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days, the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40 was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.

  5. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverde, Joseph R; Pfister, Bryan J

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  6. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Loverde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  7. Genetic Variation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Action Is Associated With Age at Testicular Growth in Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Main, Katharina M

    2017-01-01

    Context: Although genetic factors play a pivotal role in male pubertal timing, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few loci. Genetic variation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action affects adult reproductive parameters and female pubertal timing. Objective: To investigate...... effective FSH action. Effects explained 1.7% (Denmark) and 1.5% (Chile) of the variance. In addition, BMI z score was negatively associated with pubertal timing (β = -0.35 years in both cohorts), explaining 17.2% (Denmark) and 7.2% (Chile) of the variance. Conclusion: In two ethnically distinct populations...

  8. Analytical evaluation of different carbon sources and growth stimulators on the biomass and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris – Implications for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephine, A.; Niveditha, C.; Radhika, A.; Shali, A. Brindha; Kumar, T.S.; Dharani, G.; Kirubagaran, R.

    2015-01-01

    The key challenges in lipid production from marine microalgae include the selection of appropriate strain, optimization of the culture conditions and enhancement of biolipid yield. This study is aimed at evaluating the optimal harvest time and effect of chlorella growth factor (CGF) extract, carbon sources and phytohormones on the biomass and lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris. CGF, extracted using hot water from Chlorella has been reported to possess various medicinal properties. However, in the present study, for the first time in C. vulgaris, CGF was found as a best growth stimulator by enhancing the biomass level (1.208 kg m −3 ) significantly on day 5. Gibberellin and citrate augmented the biomass by 0.935 kg m −3 and 1.025 kg m −3 . Combination of CGF and phytohormones were more effective than CGF and carbon sources. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters indicated that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is higher in cytokinin, abscisic acid and CGF, and are also rich in short chain carbon atoms, ideal criteria for biodiesel. Nitrogen starvation favoured synthesis of more unsaturated fatty acids than saturated. This study shows that CGF enhances the biomass and lipid significantly and thus can be used for large scale biomass production. - Highlights: • Optimization studies revealed 7th day to be the ideal period for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris. • Chlorella growth factor extract acted as a chief growth promoting factor of C. vulgaris. • Chlorella growth factor with carbon sources or phytohormones was not effective than chlorella growth factor extract alone. • Cytokinin treatment increased saturated fatty acids level, although the biomass production was not significant

  9. Transforming growth factor beta stimulation of biglycan gene expression is potentially mediated by sp1 binding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Anne-Marie; Xie, Zhongjian; Young, Marian Frances

    2004-01-01

    . In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which TGF-beta(1), TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3) stimulate biglycan mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. The cells were transfected with a series of deletional human biglycan promoter constructs and a region in the biglycan 5' DNA was found...... to respond to TGF-beta(1) with increased transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. Also TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3), two structurally highly related TGF-beta isoforms stimulated biglycan transcription. A TGF-beta responsive region was identified within the first 218 bp of the human biglycan...... was abrogated by mithramycin, an inhibitor of Sp1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences. A mutation in the Sp1 site at -216 to -208 within the -218 biglycan promoter construct substantially diminished the transcriptional up-regulation by TGF-beta(1). Taken together this data shows for the first time that TGF-beta(1...

  10. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  11. Requirement of tyrosine residues 333 and 338 of the growth hormone (GH) receptor for selected GH-stimulated function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobie, P E; Allevato, G; Norstedt, G

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the involvement of tyrosine residues 333 and 338 of the growth hormone (GH) receptor in the cellular response to GH. Stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clones expressing a receptor with tyrosine residues at position 333 and 338 of the receptor substituted for phenylalanine (...

  12. Local administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Boesen, Anders; Holm, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is the predominant structural protein in tendons and ligaments, and can be controlled by hormonal changes. In animals, injections of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase collagen synthesis in tendons and ligaments and to improve structural tissue healing, but t...

  13. Biofabricated zinc oxide nanoparticles coated with phycomolecules as novel micronutrient catalysts for stimulating plant growth of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, N.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the bioengineering of phycomolecule-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) as a novel type of plant-growth-enhancing micronutrient catalyst aimed at increasing crop productivity. The impact of natural engineered phycomolecule-loaded ZnO NPs on plant growth characteristics and biochemical changes in Gossypium hirsutum L. plants was investigated after 21 days of exposure to a wide range of concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg l-l). ZnO NP exposure significantly enhanced growth and biomass by 125.4% and 132.8%, respectively, in the treated plants compared to the untreated control. Interestingly, photosynthetic pigments, namely, chlorophyll a (134.7%), chlorophyll b (132.6%), carotenoids (160.1%), and total soluble protein contents (165.4%) increased significantly, but the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (73.8%) decreased in the ZnO-NP-exposed plants compared to the control. The results showed that there were significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD, 267.8%) and peroxidase (POX, 174.5%) enzyme activity, whereas decreased catalase (CAT, 83.2%) activity was recorded in the NP-treated plants compared to the control. ZnO NP treatment did not show distinct alterations (the presence or absence of DNA) in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding pattern. These results suggest that bioengineered ZnO NPs coated with natural phycochemicals display different biochemical effects associated with enhanced growth and biomass in G. hirsutum. Our results imply that ZnO NPs have tremendous potential in their use as an effective plant-growth-promoting micronutrient catalyst in agriculture.

  14. Stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro by gene transfer with plasmids coding for epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Mehlhorn, A T; Zwingmann, J

    2005-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) influence critical characteristics of chondrocytes. The effects on metabolism and differentiation were evaluated following transfection using specific plasmids coding for both cytokines. Chondrocytes were isolated from...... of recombinant hEGF and bFGF resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation and glucosaminoglycan production. Chondrocytes were transfected with vectors coding for either hEGF or bFGF and the production of these proteins was measured in supernatants by ELISA. Expression kinetics showed different...... patterns: hEGF was detectable 2.5 days following transfection and peaked at day 5.5, whereas bFGF-production reached its maximum 1.5 days after transfection, declining thereafter. Chondrocytes endogenously produced significant amounts of bFGF within 5 days following isolation. Proliferation of h...

  15. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja M; Holm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P ...RNA expression and muscle collagen protein synthesis increased by 2.3-fold and 5.8-fold, respectively (P protein synthesis was unaffected by elevation of GH and IGF-I. Moderate exercise did not enhance the effects of GH manipulation. Thus, increased GH availability stimulates...... matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue....

  16. Overexpression of the PP2A regulatory subunit Tap46 leads to enhanced plant growth through stimulation of the TOR signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Ahn, Hee-Kyung; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Tap46, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), plays an essential role in plant growth and development through a functional link with the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway. Here, we have characterized the molecular mechanisms behind a gain-of-function phenotype of Tap46 and its relationship with TOR to gain further insights into Tap46 function in plants. Constitutive overexpression of Tap46 in Arabidopsis resulted in overall growth stimulation with enlarged organs, such as leaves and siliques. Kinematic analysis of leaf growth revealed that increased cell size was mainly responsible for the leaf enlargement. Tap46 overexpression also enhanced seed size and viability under accelerated ageing conditions. Enhanced plant growth was also observed in dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible Tap46 overexpression Arabidopsis lines, accompanied by increased cellular activities of nitrate-assimilating enzymes. DEX-induced Tap46 overexpression and Tap46 RNAi resulted in increased and decreased phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K), respectively, which is a sensitive indicator of endogenous TOR activity, and Tap46 interacted with S6K in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, inactivation of TOR by estradiol-inducible RNAi or rapamycin treatment decreased Tap46 protein levels, but increased PP2A catalytic subunit levels. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that Tap46 overexpression induced transcriptional modulation of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, and lignin biosynthesis. These findings suggest that Tap46 modulates plant growth as a positive effector of the TOR signalling pathway and Tap46/PP2Ac protein abundance is regulated by TOR activity. PMID:25399018

  17. Overexpression of the PP2A regulatory subunit Tap46 leads to enhanced plant growth through stimulation of the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Ahn, Hee-Kyung; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-02-01

    Tap46, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), plays an essential role in plant growth and development through a functional link with the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway. Here, we have characterized the molecular mechanisms behind a gain-of-function phenotype of Tap46 and its relationship with TOR to gain further insights into Tap46 function in plants. Constitutive overexpression of Tap46 in Arabidopsis resulted in overall growth stimulation with enlarged organs, such as leaves and siliques. Kinematic analysis of leaf growth revealed that increased cell size was mainly responsible for the leaf enlargement. Tap46 overexpression also enhanced seed size and viability under accelerated ageing conditions. Enhanced plant growth was also observed in dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible Tap46 overexpression Arabidopsis lines, accompanied by increased cellular activities of nitrate-assimilating enzymes. DEX-induced Tap46 overexpression and Tap46 RNAi resulted in increased and decreased phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K), respectively, which is a sensitive indicator of endogenous TOR activity, and Tap46 interacted with S6K in planta based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, inactivation of TOR by estradiol-inducible RNAi or rapamycin treatment decreased Tap46 protein levels, but increased PP2A catalytic subunit levels. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that Tap46 overexpression induced transcriptional modulation of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, and lignin biosynthesis. These findings suggest that Tap46 modulates plant growth as a positive effector of the TOR signalling pathway and Tap46/PP2Ac protein abundance is regulated by TOR activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced granulocyte growth on peritoneal cell-coated membranes following irradiation: a dual effect of humoral stimulation and repair of x ray-induced damage to the microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.R.; Pfrimmer, W.J.; Boggs, D.R.; Carpe, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental model of the hematopoietic microenvironment was created by allowing a peritoneal cell coating to form on a disk of cellulose acetate placed in the peritoneal cavity of mice. An effective microenvironment capable of supporting colony growth, primarily granulocytic, was established if the cellulose acetate disk was in the peritoneum for 3 to 5 days. Its effectiveness was hampered by transferring it to another mouse or by exposure to toxic agents such as a propylene glycol-ethanol mixture or irradiation. An exponential dose-related decrease in colony formation was seen with increasing doses or irradiation of the microenvironment before colonization. After a low dose of irradiation, recovery of colony support capacity occurred over a 6-day period. Enhancement of colony growth was seen when cell injection was delayed for 2 to 3 days after irradiation. The effects of irradiation on the cellular stroma were separated from the systemic changes in the host by transferring an established hematopoietic microenvironment to a secondary host. It was shown that there are two distinct effects of irradiation on granulocytic colony growth; one was a short-lived period, 2 to 3 days of stimulation, presumably humoral, and the other was dose-dependent reversible microenvironment damage

  20. Nonmalignant T cells stimulate growth of T-cell lymphoma cells in the presence of bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Lovato, Paola; Eriksen, Karsten W

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). Here, we investigate SE-mediated interactions between nonmalignant T cells and malignant T-cell lines established from skin and blood of CTCL patients....... The malignant CTCL cells express MHC class II molecules that are high-affinity receptors for SE. Although treatment with SE has no direct effect on the growth of the malignant CTCL cells, the SE-treated CTCL cells induce vigorous proliferation of the SE-responsive nonmalignant T cells. In turn, the nonmalignant...... T cells enhance proliferation of the malignant cells in an SE- and MHC class II-dependent manner. Furthermore, SE and, in addition, alloantigen presentation by malignant CTCL cells to irradiated nonmalignant CD4(+) T-cell lines also enhance proliferation of the malignant cells. The growth...

  1. Human platelet lysate as a promising growth-stimulating additive for culturing of stem cells and other cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanskii, Ya D; Sergeeva, N S; Sviridova, I K; Kirakozov, M S; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Antokhin, A I; Chissov, V I

    2013-11-01

    We compared the composition and biological activity of fetal calf serum and platelet lysate from donor platelet concentrate. In platelet lysate, the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and mineral metabolism parameters were lower, while parameters of lipid and protein metabolism were higher than in fetal calf serum. The concentrations of growth factors (platelet-derived (AA, AB, BB), vascular endothelial, insulin-like, and transforming growth factor β) in platelet lysate 1.7-148.7-fold surpassed the corresponding parameters in fetal calf serum. After replacement of fetal calf serum with platelet lysate in the culture medium (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%), the count of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on day 7 (in comparison with day 1) increased by 154.8, 206.6, 228.2, 367.7, and 396.5%, respectively. Thus, platelet lysate can be an adequate non-xenogenic alternative for fetal calf serum.

  2. A Native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, Acaulospora scrobiculata Stimulated Growth of Mongolian Crested Wheatgrass ( Agropyron cristatum (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burenjargal Otgonsuren

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Agr opyron cristatum (L. Gaertn. (crested wheatgrass is an endemic plant species, which dominates most area of the Mongolian steppe and forest steppe. In the present study, spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere soil of crested wheatgrass were isolated with wet- sieving/decanting methods, and the major species was identifi ed as Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe. For arbuscular-mycorrhizal resynthesis, the spores of A. scrobiculata were propagated with corn pot-culture technique and inoculated onto the roots of crested wheatgrass seedlings. The inoculated crested wheatgrass seedlings exhibited vigor in growth, and examination of the root structure revealed the occurrence of arbuscules and vesicles in the cortical cells. These results demonstrated that A. scrobiculata could effectively form arbuscular mycorrhizas with crested wheatgrass and promote its growth, which can be used to restore Mongolian grassland.

  3. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhizhou; Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Ren, Yi; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Jinfeng; Wolfram, Joy; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shinan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson's trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury.

  4. Epidermal growth factor stimulating reparation of γ-ray-induced single-strand breaks predominantly in untranscribed DNA of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igusheva, O.A.; Bil'din, V.N.; Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggest that genomic DNA undergoes reparation unevenly because of different transcription activities of its particular sequence. It is highly probably that transcriptional factors are necessary for postion stages of excision reparation and for reparation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by ionizing radiation. There is evidence suggesting that DNA lesions inflicted by γ-radiation is preferentially initiated in transcribed rather than in untranscribed DNA species. This paper looks at the relationship between stimulatory effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on reparation of single-strand DNA breaks and reparation of the damage done to active and inert fragments of chromatin. The results show that EGF stimulates reparation of single-strand DNA breaks induced by γ-radiation more effectively in untranscribed than in transcribed DNA. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Depletion of intracellular calcium stores facilitates the influx of extracellular calcium in platelet derived growth factor stimulated A172 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereb, G; Szöllösi, J; Mátyus, L; Balázs, M; Hyun, W C; Feuerstein, B G

    1996-05-01

    Calcium signaling in non-excitable cells is the consequence of calcium release from intracellular stores, at times followed by entry of extracellular calcium through the plasma membrane. To study whether entry of calcium depends upon the level of saturation of intracellular stores, we measured calcium channel opening in the plasma membrane of single confluent A172 glioblastoma cells stimulated with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and/or bradykinin (BK). We monitored the entry of extracellular calcium by measuring manganese quenching of Indo-1 fluorescence. PDGF raised intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) after a dose-dependent delay (tdel) and then opened calcium channels after a dose-independent delay (tch). At higher doses (> 3 nM), BK increased [Ca2+]i after a tdel approximately 0 s, and tch decreased inversely with both dose and peak [Ca2+]i. Experiments with thapsigargin (TG), BK, and PDGF indicated that BK and PDGF share intracellular Ca2+ pools that are sensitive to TG. When these stores were depleted by treatment with BK and intracellular BAPTA, tdel did not change, but tch fell to almost 0 s in PDGF stimulated cells, indicating that depletion of calcium stores affects calcium channel opening in the plasma membrane. Our data support the capacitative model for calcium channel opening and the steady-state model describing quantal Ca2+ release from intracellular stores.

  6. Aloe vera oral administration accelerates acute radiation-delayed wound healing by stimulating transforming growth factor-β and fibroblast growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiba, Ayman; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Goryo, Masanobu; Shimada, Yoshiya; Ueno, Hiroshi; Uzuka, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    Delayed wound healing is a significant clinical problem in patients who have had previous irradiation. This study investigated the effectiveness of Aloe vera (Av) on acute radiation-delayed wound healing. The effect of Av was studied in radiation-exposed rats compared with radiation-only and control rats. Skin wounds were excised on the back of rats after 3 days of local radiation. Wound size was measured on days 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after wounding. Wound tissues were examined histologically and the expressions of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Wound contraction was accelerated significantly by Av on days 6 and 12 after wounding. Furthermore, the inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, angiogenesis, and the expression levels of TGF-β-1 and bFGF were significantly higher in the radiation plus Av group compared with the radiation-only group. These data showed the potential application of Av to improve the acute radiation-delayed wound healing by increasing TGF-β-1 and bFGF production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stimulation of human gingival fibroblasts viability and growth by roots treated with high intensity lasers, photodynamic therapy and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Paula Stephania Brandão Hage; Ferreira, Rafael; Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; de Rezende, Maria Lúcia Rubo; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Zangrando, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti; Damante, Carla Andreotti

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of root biomodification by lasers, citric acid and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on viability and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (FGH). Groups were divided in control (CC - only cells), and root fragments treated by: scaling and root planing (positice control - SC), Er:YAG (ER-60mJ,10pps,10Hz,10s,2940nm), Nd:YAG (ND-0.5W,15Hz,10s,1640nm), antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT-InGaAIP,30mW,45J/cm 2 ,30s,660nm,toluidine blue O), citric acid plus tetracycline (CA). Fibroblasts (6th passage, 2×10 3 ) were cultivated in a 24-h conditioned medium by the treated root fragments. Cell viability was measured by MTT test at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. In a second experiment, FGH cells (10 4 ) were cultivated on root fragments which received the same treatments. After 24, 48, 72h the number of cells was counted in SEM pictures. In addition, chemical elements were analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data was analyzed by two-way ANOVA (first experiment), repeated measures ANOVA (second experiment) and ANOVA (EDS experiment) tests complemented by Tukey's test (pplaning stimulated fibroblast viability while Er:YAG and Nd:YAG treated root surfaces presented higher number of cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Heterologous Expression of Secreted Bacterial BPP and HAP Phytases in Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis thaliana Growth on Phytate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia R. Valeeva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate, which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases and 168phyA (BPP family under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2. The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate

  9. Heterologous Expression of Secreted Bacterial BPP and HAP Phytases in Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis thaliana Growth on Phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Lia R; Nyamsuren, Chuluuntsetseg; Sharipova, Margarita R; Shakirov, Eugene V

    2018-01-01

    Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases) and 168phyA (BPP family) under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2 . The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate that future

  10. Heterologous Expression of Secreted Bacterial BPP and HAP Phytases in Plants Stimulates Arabidopsis thaliana Growth on Phytate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Lia R.; Nyamsuren, Chuluuntsetseg; Sharipova, Margarita R.; Shakirov, Eugene V.

    2018-01-01

    Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake. We have developed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing bacterial phytases PaPhyC (HAP family of phytases) and 168phyA (BPP family) under the control of root-specific inducible promoter Pht1;2. The effects of each phytase expression on growth, morphology and inorganic phosphorus accumulation in plants grown on phytate hydroponically or in perlite as the only source of phosphorus were investigated. The most enzymatic activity for both phytases was detected in cell wall-bound fractions of roots, indicating that these enzymes were efficiently secreted. Expression of both bacterial phytases in roots improved plant growth on phytate and resulted in larger rosette leaf area and diameter, higher phosphorus content and increased shoot dry weight, implying that these plants were indeed capable of utilizing phytate as the source of phosphorus for growth and development. When grown on phytate the HAP-type phytase outperformed its BPP-type counterpart for plant biomass production, though this effect was only observed in hydroponic conditions and not in perlite. Furthermore, we found no evidence of adverse side effects of microbial phytase expression in A. thaliana on plant physiology and seed germination. Our data highlight important functional differences between these members of bacterial phytase families and indicate that future crop

  11. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of lactic acid fermentation of radish: effect of addition of salt, additives and growth stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V K; Chauhan, Arjun; Devi, Sarita; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of radish was conducted using various additive and growth stimulators such as salt (2 %-3 %), lactose, MgSO4 + MnSO4 and Mustard (1 %, 1.5 % and 2 %) to optimize the process. Response surface methodology (Design expert, Trial version 8.0.5.2) was applied to the experimental data for the optimization of process variables in lactic acid fermentation of radish. Out of various treatments studied, only the treatments having ground mustard had an appreciable effect on lactic acid fermentation. Both linear and quadratic terms of the variables studied had a significant effect on the responses studied. The interactions between the variables were found to contribute to the response at a significant level. The best results were obtained in the treatment with 2.5 % salt, 1.5 % lactose, 1.5 % (MgSO4 + MnSO4) and 1.5 % mustard. These optimized concentrations increased titrable acidity and LAB count, but lowered pH. The second-order polynomial regression model determined that the highest titrable acidity (1.69), lowest pH (2.49) and maximum LAB count (10 × 10(8) cfu/ml) would be obtained at these concentrations of additives. Among 30 runs conducted, run 2 has got the optimum concentration of salt- 2.5 %, lactose- 1.5 %, MgSO4 + MnSO4- 1.5 % and mustard- 1.5 % for lactic acid fermentation of radish. The values for different additives and growth stimulators optimized in this study could successfully be employed for the lactic acid fermentation of radish as a postharvest reduction tool and for product development.

  12. Recycling of wastes from fish beneficiation by composting: chemical characteristics of the compost and efficiency of their humic acids in stimulating the growth of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Jader Galba; de Carvalho, Caroline Moreira; Zandonadi, Daniel Basilio; Sodré, Fernando Fabriz; Mol, Alan Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Aline Lima; Navarro, Rodrigo Diana

    2017-11-23

    Waste from the beneficiation of fish was composted with crushed grass aiming to characterize their chemical composition and investigate the possibility of the use of the final compost as source of humic acids (HA) able to stimulate the growth of lettuce. Compost presented pH value, C/N ratio, and electrical conductivity that allow its use as an organic fertilizer. The element content was present in the following order of abundance in the compost: P > Ca > N > Mg > K > Fe > Zn > Mn > Mo > Cu, and the humus composition was similar to that observed in others kind of organic residues composted. The high content of oxygen pointed out a high level of oxidation of HA, in line with the predominance of phenolic acidity in the functional groups. The 13 C-NMR spectra showed marked resonances due to the presence of lipids and other materials resistant to degradation as methoxy substituent and N-alkyl groups. A concentration of 20 mg L -1 HA increased significantly both dry and wet root matter in lettuce but the CO 2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and number of lateral roots of the plants were not affected. However, increases of 64% in the water-use efficiency was observed due to the HA addition, probably related to the root morphology alteration which resulted in 1.6-fold increase of lateral root average length and due to the higher H + extrusion activity. Reuse of residues from the fish beneficiation activity by composting may represent a safe tool to increase the value of recycled organic residues and generate HA with potential use as plant growth stimulants.

  13. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. → Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. → The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. → The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  14. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.T. [Keele University at the RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Seabright, R.; Logan, A. [Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M. [Biosciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  15. Hepatitis Bx Antigen Stimulates Expression of a Novel Cellular Gene, URG4, that Promotes Hepatocellular Growth and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lale Satiroglu Tufan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus encoded X antigen (HBxAg may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC by up-or downregulating the expression of cellular genes that promote cell growth and survival. To test this hypothesis, HBxAg-positive and-negative HepG2 cells were constructed, and the patterns of cellular gene expression compared by polymerase chain reaction select cDNA subtraction. The full-length clone of one of these upregulated genes (URG, URG4, encoded a protein of about 104 kDa. URG4 was strongly expressed in hepatitis 13-infected liver and in HCC cells, where it costained with HBxAg, and was weakly expressed in uninfected liver, suggesting URG4 was an effector of HBxAg in vivo. Overexpression of URG4 in HepG2 cells promoted hepatocellular growth and survival in tissue culture and in soft agar, and accelerated tumor development in nude mice. Hence, URG4 may be a natural effector of HBxAg that contributes importantly to multistep hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Pomegranate ellagitannins stimulate growth of gut bacteria in vitro: Implications for prebiotic and metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoping; Summanen, Paula H; Komoriya, Tomoe; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Carlson, Eliisa; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of pomegranate extract (POMx) and pomegranate juice (POM juice) on the growth of major groups of intestinal bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides fragilis group, clostridia, bifidobacteria, and lactobacilli, and the utilization of pomegranate polyphenols by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The total phenolic content of the pomegranate extract and juice was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method and reported as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The polyphenol composition was determined by HPLC. Stool specimens were incubated with 400, 100, and 25 μg/ml GAE POMx and POM juice and subjected to selective culture. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains were incubated with 400 μg/ml GAE POMx and POM juice and metabolites were analyzed. POMx and POM juice increased the mean counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and significantly inhibited the growth of B. fragilis group, clostridia, and Enterobacteriaceae in a dose-response manner. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus utilized ellagic acid and glycosyl ellagic acid but little or no punicalin was utilized. Neither POMx nor POM juice was converted to urolithins by the test bacteria or the in vitro stool cultures. The effect of pomegranate on the gut bacteria considered to be beneficial (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) suggests that pomegranate may potentially work as a prebiotic. The concept that polyphenols such as those in pomegranate impact gut microbiota populations may establish a new role for polyphenols in human health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Effect of deep electroacupuncture stimulation of "Huantiao" (GB 30) on changes of function and nerve growth factor expression of the injured sciatic nerve in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Li; Li, Ye; Ren, Lu; Dai, Li-Li; Bai, Zeng-Hua; Bai, Ru; Ma, Tie-Ming

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE; To observe the effect of deep electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Huantiao"(GB 30) on the functional and pathological changes and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression of the damaged sciatic nerve in rats, so as to study its mechanisms underlying reliving sciatica. Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, deep EA and shallow EA groups (n = 12 in each group). The sciatic nerve injury model was established by mechanical clamp of the sciatic nerve stem. For deep and shallow EA, the acupuncture needles were inserted into GB 30 about 16 mm and 7 mm, respectively. The EA treatment was given 20 min, once daily for 14 days. The evoked potentials of the injured sciatic nerve stem responding to electrical stimulation were recorded by using a biophysiological experimental system for calculating the motor conduction velocity. Pathological changes of the sciatic nerve were displayed by H. E. stain. The expression of NGF and Fos proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the normal group, the conduction velocity and the amplitude of the evoked potentials of the sciatic nerve were significantly decreased in the model group (P 0.05), and no significant changes of latencies of the evoked potentials inthe four groups (P > 0.05). In the model group, the disorganized nerve fibers axons, myelin and Schwann cells of the damaged sciatic nerve were found, which became milder in the EA groups particularly in the deep EA group. In regard to the NGF and Fos immunoactivity of the injured sciatic nerve, the expression levels of both NGF and Fos proteins were obviously higher in the model group than in the normal group (P stimulation, NGF expression was further significantly up-regulated in both deep and shallow EA groups (P stimulation of GB 30 can improve the pathological changes and function of the injured sciatic nerve in the rat, which is closely associated with its effects in up-regulating NGF expression and down-regulating Fos

  18. Endogenous growth factor stimulation of hemocyte proliferation induces resistance to Schistosoma mansoni challenge in the snail host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Emmanuel A; Gordy, Michelle A; Phillips, Valerie K; Kabore, Alethe L; Rudko, Sydney P; Hanington, Patrick C

    2016-05-10

    Digenean trematodes are a large, complex group of parasitic flatworms that infect an incredible diversity of organisms, including humans. Larval development of most digeneans takes place within a snail (Gastropoda). Compatibility between snails and digeneans is often very specific, such that suitable snail hosts define the geographical ranges of diseases caused by these worms. The immune cells (hemocytes) of a snail are sentinels that act as a crucial barrier to infection by larval digeneans. Hemocytes coordinate a robust and specific immunological response, participating directly in parasite killing by encapsulating and clearing the infection. Hemocyte proliferation and differentiation are influenced by unknown digenean-specific exogenous factors. However, we know nothing about the endogenous control of hemocyte development in any gastropod model. Here, we identify and functionally characterize a progranulin [Biomphalaria glabrata granulin (BgGRN)] from the snail B. glabrata, a natural host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni Granulins are growth factors that drive proliferation of immune cells in organisms, spanning the animal kingdom. We demonstrate that BgGRN induces proliferation of B. glabrata hemocytes, and specifically drives the production of an adherent hemocyte subset that participates centrally in the anti-digenean defense response. Additionally, we demonstrate that susceptible B. glabrata snails can be made resistant to infection with S. mansoni by first inducing hemocyte proliferation with BgGRN. This marks the functional characterization of an endogenous growth factor of a gastropod mollusc, and provides direct evidence of gain of resistance in a snail-digenean infection model using a defined factor to induce snail resistance to infection.

  19. Long-term CO2 rise has increased photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency but did not stimulate diameter growth of tropical trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sleen, P. V. D.; Vlam, M.; Ehlers, I.; Schleucher, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests are a crucial component of the global carbon cycle, and their responses to atmospheric changes may shift carbon cycling and climate systems. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are the major tools to simulate tropical forest responses to climate change. One of the main determinants of these simulated responses is the effect of CO2 on tropical tree physiology and growth, the 'CO2 fertilization effect'. The paucity of CO2 enrichment experiments in the tropics importantly limits insights into the CO2 fertilization effect as well as the validation of DGVMs. However, use can be made of the 40% rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The effects of the historical CO2 rise on tree physiology and growth can be obtained from stable isotopes, isotopomers and tree diameter increments obtained in tree-ring studies. We studied the physiological and growth responses of 12 tree species in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand to 150 years of CO2 enrichment. Analyses of 13C of wood cellulose revealed strong, long-term increases in leaf intercellular CO2 concentrations for all study species and a marked improvement of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). For a subset of one species per site, we studied the Deuterium isotopomers (isomers with isotopic atoms) of glucose in wood to obtain a direct estimate of the photorespiration-to-photosynthesis ratio. We found that this ratio consistently and strongly decreased over the past century, thus increasing the effeciency and rate of photosynthesis. In spite of these strong physiological responses to increased CO2levels, we did not find evidence for increased tree diameter growth for any of the sites, or for sites combined. Possible reasons for the lack of a growth stimulation include increased (leaf) temperature, insufficient availability of nutrients or a shift in biomass investment in trees. Our results suggest that the strong CO2 fertilization of tropical tree growth often

  20. Stimulation and inhibition of bacterial growth by caffeine dependent on chloramphenicol and a phenolic uncoupler--a ternary toxicity study using microfluid segment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jialan; Kürsten, Dana; Schneider, Steffen; Köhler, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    A droplet-based microfluidic technique for the fast generation of three dimensional concentration spaces within nanoliter segments was introduced. The technique was applied for the evaluation of the effect of two selected antibiotic substances on the toxicity and activation of bacterial growth by caffeine. Therefore a three-dimensional concentration space was completely addressed by generating large sequences with about 1150 well separated microdroplets containing 216 different combinations of concentrations. To evaluate the toxicity of the ternary mixtures a time-resolved miniaturized optical double endpoint detection unit using a microflow-through fluorimeter and a two channel microflow-through photometer was used for the simultaneous analysis of changes on the endogenous cellular fluorescence signal and on the cell density of E. coli cultivated inside 500 nL microfluid segments. Both endpoints supplied similar results for the dose related cellular response. Strong non-linear combination effects, concentration dependent stimulation and the formation of activity summits on bolographic maps were determined. The results reflect a complex response of growing bacterial cultures in dependence on the combined effectors. A strong caffeine induced enhancement of bacterial growth was found at sublethal chloramphenicol and sublethal 2,4-dinitrophenol concentrations. The reliability of the method was proved by a high redundancy of fluidic experiments. The results indicate the importance of multi-parameter investigations for toxicological studies and prove the potential of the microsegmented flow technique for such requirements.

  1. Diagnostic Power of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Breast Cancer Patients Based on ROC Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zajkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common malignancy in women. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been described as an important regulator of angiogenesis which plays a vital role in the progression of tumor. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF is a cytokine whose functions include regulation of hematopoietic lineages cells growth, proliferation, and differentiation. We investigated the diagnostic significance of these parameters in comparison to CA15-3 in BC patients and in relation to the control group (benign breast tumor and healthy women. Plasma levels of the tested parameters were determined by ELISA and CA15-3 was determined by CMIA. VEGF was shown to be comparable to CA15-3 values of sensitivity in BC group and, what is more important, higher values in early stages of BC. VEGF was also the only parameter which has statistically significant AUC in all stages of cancer. M-CSF has been shown to be comparable to CA15-3 and VEGF, specificity, and AUC values only in stages III and IV of BC. These results indicate the usefulness and high diagnostic power of VEGF in the detection of BC. Also, it occurred to be the best candidate for cancer diagnostics in stages I and II of BC and in the differentiation between BC and benign cases.

  2. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates wound healing and modulates extracellular matrix gene expression in pig skin. I. Excisional wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, D; Nanney, L B; Kennedy, R; Davidson, J M

    1990-09-01

    The effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on matrix gene expression has been investigated during the process of wound repair, where the formation of new connective tissue represents a critical step in restoring tissue integrity. Split-thickness excisional wounds in the pig were studied by in situ hybridization in order to obtain subjective findings on the activity and location of cells involved in matrix gene expression after the administration of recombinant TGF-beta 1. Data focus on the stimulatory role of this growth factor in granulation tissue formation, on the enhanced mRNA content of collagen types I and III, fibronectin, TGF-beta 1 itself, and on the reduction in stromelysin mRNA, suggesting that increased matrix formation measured after treatment with TGF-beta 1 is due to fibroplasia regulated by the abundance of mRNAs for several different structural, matrix proteins as well as inhibition of proteolytic phenomena elicited by metalloproteinases. These studies reveal elastin mRNA early in the repair process, and elastin mRNA expression is enhanced by administration of TGF-beta 1. Moreover, we show that TGF-beta 1 was auto-stimulating in wounds, accounting, at least in part, for the persistent effects of single doses of this multipotential cytokine.

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiopoietin-1 Stimulate Postnatal Hematopoiesis by Recruitment of Vasculogenic and Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Koichi; Dias, Sergio; Heissig, Beate; Hackett, Neil R.; Lyden, David; Tateno, Masatoshi; Hicklin, Daniel J.; Zhu, Zhenping; Witte, Larry; Crystal, Ronald G.; Moore, Malcolm A.S.; Rafii, Shahin

    2001-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase receptors for angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) are expressed not only by endothelial cells but also by subsets of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To further define their role in the regulation of postnatal hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, VEGF and Ang-1 plasma levels were elevated by injecting recombinant protein or adenoviral vectors expressing soluble VEGF165, matrix-bound VEGF189, or Ang-1 into mice. VEGF165, but not VEGF189, induced a rapid mobilization of HSCs and VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2+ circulating endothelial precursor cells (CEPs). In contrast, Ang-1 induced delayed mobilization of CEPs and HSCs. Combined sustained elevation of Ang-1 and VEGF165 was associated with an induction of hematopoiesis and increased marrow cellularity followed by proliferation of capillaries and expansion of sinusoidal space. Concomitant to this vascular remodeling, there was a transient depletion of hematopoietic activity in the marrow, which was compensated by an increase in mobilization and recruitment of HSCs and CEPs to the spleen resulting in splenomegaly. Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to VEGFR2 completely inhibited VEGF165, but not Ang-1–induced mobilization and splenomegaly. These data suggest that temporal and regional activation of VEGF/VEGFR2 and Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling pathways are critical for mobilization and recruitment of HSCs and CEPs and may play a role in the physiology of postnatal angiogenesis and hematopoiesis. PMID:11342585

  4. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates corneal wound healing and reduces haze formation after PRK surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; Alcalde, I; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) on the corneal wound healing process after Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). To address this, blood from three healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and, the whole plasma column (WP) and the plasma fraction with the highest platelet concentration (F3) were collected. The effects of F3 and WP on the proliferation and migration of human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) were analyzed. PRK was performed on C57BL/6 mice. Animals were divided in three treatment groups: Control, F3, and WP. Corneal wound healing and haze formation were evaluated macroscopically. Eyes were collected at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and were processed for histological studies. Immunofluorescence was used to assess cellular proliferation, apoptosis and myofibroblast transformation in the mouse cornea. Results showed a significant increased on proliferation and wound healing after F3 and WP treatment when compared with control group. In vivo studies showed significant reduction on haze formation in mice treated with both PRGF-Endoret formulations (F3 and WP). Histological studies showed an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in corneas of control group, promoting an epithelial hyperplasia. The number of SMA-positive cells (corresponding to myofibroblast differentiation) was significantly lower in the PRGF-Endoret group than in the control group, correlating with the higher transparence results observed macroscopically in both PRGF-Endoret groups. According to this, it can be concluded that PRGF-Endoret accelerates corneal tissue regeneration after PRK, reducing haze formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human platelet lysate stimulates high-passage and senescent human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell growth and rejuvenation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Baraniak, Priya R; Copland, Ian B; Nerem, Robert M; McDevitt, Todd C

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are clinically useful because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, but MSC therapies are limited by the loss of self-renewal and cell plasticity associated with ex vivo expansion culture and, on transplantation, increased immunogenicity from xenogen exposure during culture. Recently, pooled human platelet lysate (hPL) has been used as a culture supplement to promote MSC growth; however, the effects of hPL on MSCs after fetal bovine serum (FBS) exposure remain unknown. MSCs were cultured in medium containing FBS or hPL for up to 16 passages, and cell size, doubling time and immunophenotype were determined. MSC senescence was assessed by means of a fluorometric assay for endogenous β-galactosidase expression. MSCs cultured with FBS for different numbers of passages were switched to hPL conditions to evaluate the ability of hPL to "rescue" the proliferative capacity of MSCs. hPL culture resulted in more rapid cell proliferation at earlier passages (passage 5 or earlier) than remove FBS; by day 4, hPL (5%) yielded an MSC doubling time of 1.28 days compared with 1.52 days in 16% FBS. MSCs cultured first in FBS and switched to hPL proliferated more and demonstrated less β-galactosidase production and smaller cell sizes than remove MSCs continuously propagated in FBS. hPL enables rapid expansion of MSCs without adversely affecting immunophenotype. hPL culture of aged and senescent MSCs demonstrated cellular rejuvenation, reflected by decreased doubling time and smaller cell size. These results suggest that expansion of MSCs in hPL after FBS exposure can enhance cell phenotype and proliferative capacity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor stimulation increases radiosensitivity of a pancreatic cancer cell line through endoplasmic reticulum stress under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Hiroko; Mukai, Mutsuko; Inoue, Masahiro; Inoue, Takehiro

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is an obstacle to radiotherapy. Radiosensitivity under hypoxic conditions is determined by molecular oxygen levels, as well as by various biological cellular responses. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is a widely recognized survival signal that confers radioresistance. However, under hypoxic conditions the role of IGF signaling in radiosensitivity is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that IGF-II stimulation decreases clonogenic survival under hypoxic conditions in the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1 and Panc-1, and in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. IGF treatment under hypoxic conditions suppressed increased radiation sensitivity in these cell lines by pharmacologically inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a major IGF signal-transduction pathway. Meanwhile, IGF-II induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress response under hypoxia, including increased protein levels of CHOP and ATF4, mRNA levels of CHOP, GADD34, and BiP as well as splicing levels of XBP-1. The response was suppressed by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin activity. Overexpression of CHOP in AsPC-1 cells increased radiation sensitivity by IGF-II simulation under hypoxic conditions, whereas suppression of CHOP expression levels with small hairpin RNA or a dominant negative form of a proline-rich extensin-like receptor protein kinase in hypoxia decreased IGF-induced radiosensitivity. IGF-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributed to radiosensitization independent of cell cycle status. Taken together, IGF stimulation increased radiosensitivity through the endoplasmic reticulum stress response under hypoxic conditions. (author)

  7. Effects of gender, body weight, and blood glucose dynamics on the growth hormone response to the glucagon stimulation test in patients with pituitary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica R; Utz, Andrea L; Devin, Jessica K

    2016-02-01

    Body weight blunts the growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli. The appropriate GH cut-off to confirm GH deficiency in obese and overweight patients undergoing the glucagon stimulation test (GST) has recently been questioned. We hypothesized that the peak GH would be inversely related to the nadir blood glucose (BG) after glucagon and that this may be a mechanism influencing peak GH in overweight patients. This retrospective study examined effects of gender, body weight, and BG dynamics on GH response to GST in patients evaluated in our Pituitary Center. Adult patients who underwent GST from September 2009-2014 were included. Continuous variable comparisons were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and categorical data by Fisher's Exact Test. Spearman correlation was used to determine associations between continuous variables. 42 patients (N=28, 66.7% female) had sufficient data for analysis. Obese patients (N=26) had a reduced GH response, summarized as GH area under the curve (AUC) (p=0.03 vs. non-obese patients) and higher BG during GST, summarized as AUC (pAUC (rs=-0.45; p=0.01), peak GH response (rs=-0.42; p=0.02) and nadir BG (rs=0.48; pAUC (rs=-0.38; p=0.03) and peak GH (rs=-0.37; p=0.04) such that patients (N=32) with higher nadir BG had lower peak GH in response to glucagon. Obese patients, particularly women, do not respond as robustly to glucagon stimulation. These data suggest that there exists an altered BG profile during GST in obese individuals, and that a less robust hypoglycemic stimulus may contribute to an impaired GH response. We suggest measuring BG levels during glucagon stimulation testing to assist with clinical interpretation of GH dynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of the GST in patients with known disorders in glucose metabolism and those taking anti-diabetic medications deserves further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  9. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates normal bronchial epithelial cell growth through induction of c-Jun and PDK1, a kinase implicated in oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Wang, Ye; Wang, Ke

    2015-12-18

    Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive eicosanoid, has been implicated in many biological processes including reproduction, inflammation and tumor growth. We previously showed that PGE2 stimulated lung cancer cell growth and progression through PGE2 receptor EP2/EP4-mediated kinase signaling pathways. However, the role of PGE2 in controlling lung airway epithelial cell phenotype remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of c-Jun and 3-phosphoinositede dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in mediating epithelial cell hyperplasia induced by PGE2. The bronchial epithelial cell lines BEAS-2B and HBEc14-KT were cultured and then treated with PGE2. PDK1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and a PDK1 inhibitor, an antagonist of the PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 and EP4 siRNA, c-Jun siRNA, and overexpressions of c-Jun and PDK1 have been used to evaluate the effects on cell proliferation. We demonstrated that PGE2 increased normal bronchial epithelial cell proliferation through induction of PDK1, an ankyrin repeat-containing Ser/Thr kinase implicated in the induction of apoptosis and the suppression of tumor growth. PDK1 siRNA and a PDK1 inhibitor blocked the effects of PGE2 on normal cell growth. The PGE2-induced PDK1 expression was blocked by an antagonist of the PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 and by EP4 siRNA. In addition, we showed that induction of PDK1 by PGE2 was associated with induction of the transcription factor, c-Jun protein. Silencing of c-Jun using siRNA and point mutations of c-Jun sites in the PDK1 gene promoter resulted in blockade of PDK1 expression and promoter activity induced by PGE2. In contrast, overexpression of c-Jun induced PDK1 gene promoter activity and expression followed increased cell proliferation. PGE2 increases normal bronchial epithelial cell proliferation through increased PDK1 gene expression that is dependent on EP4 and induction of c-Jun. Therewith, our data suggest a new role of c-Jun and PDK1 in mediating epithelial cell

  10. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little of it may be very short. Treatment with growth hormone can stimulate growth. People can also have too much growth hormone. Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, where their bones and their body ...

  11. Localization of the aromatase enzyme expression in the human pituitary gland and its effect on growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Asli Sezgin; Kapucu, Aysegul; Dar, Kadriye Akgun; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Caglar, Erkan; Ince, Haluk; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate aromatase expression in prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. Nontumoral human pituitary specimens were obtained from autopsy samples. Aromatase co-expression was determined by double immunohistochemical staining and assessed using H scores. H scores for GH-aromatase co-expression (GH-aromatase), TSH-aromatase co-expression (TSH-aromatase), and PRL-aromatase co-expression (PRL-aromatase) were 83.1 ± 13.1, 95.6 ± 16.1, and 83.7 ± 14.5, respectively. TSH producing cells exhibited the highest H score for co-expression of aromatase (p 0.05 for all). There was a negative correlation between the H scores for aromatase and PRL-aromatase, GH-aromatase and TSH-aromatase, respectively (r = -0.592, p 0.05 for all). Age was negatively correlated with PRL-aromatase H score (r = -0.373, p = 0.008). Our study demonstrated significant aromatase co-expression in PRL, GH, and TSH secreting cells of the human anterior pituitary gland. The mutual paracrinal regulation between aromatase and three adenohypophyseal hormones indicates that aromatase may have a regulatory role on the synthesis and secretion of these hormones.

  12. Tendon protein synthesis rate in classic Ehlers-Danlos patients can be stimulated with insulin-like growth factor-I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Holm, Lars; Jensen, Jacob Kildevang

    2014-01-01

    tissue protein turnover is unknown. We investigated whether cEDS affected the protein synthesis rate in skin and tendon, and whether this could be stimulated in tendon tissue with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Five patients with cEDS and 10 healthy, matched controls (CTRL) were included. One...... patellar tendon of each participant was injected with 0.1 ml IGF-I (Increlex, Ipsen, 10 mg/ml) and the contralateral tendon with 0.1 ml isotonic saline as control. The injections were performed at both 24 and 6 h prior to tissue sampling. The fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of proteins in skin and tendon.......002 (cEDS) and 0.007 ± 0.002 (CTRL); tendon: 0.008 ± 0.001 (cEDS) and 0.009 ± 0.002 (CTRL) %/h, mean ± SE]. IGF-I injections significantly increased FSR values in cEDS patients but not in controls (delta values: cEDS 0.007 ± 0.002, CTRL 0.001 ± 0.001%/h). In conclusion, baseline protein synthesis rates...

  13. Passion fruit by-product and fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth and folate production by starter and probiotic cultures in fermented soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Marcela Albuquerque Cavalcanti; Bedani, Raquel; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2017-11-16

    Two starter cultures (Streptococcus (St.) thermophilus ST-M6 and TA-40) and five probiotic strains (St. thermophilus TH-4, Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Lb. fermentum PCC, and Lb. reuteri RC-14) were used to ferment different soymilk formulations supplemented with passion fruit by-product and/or fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) with the aim of increasing folate concentrations. Growth and folate production of individual strains were evaluated and the results used to select co-cultures. Both St. thermophilus ST-M6 and TH-4 were the best folate producers and were able to increase the folate content of all soymilk formulations when used alone or in co-culture with lactobacilli strains, especially in the presence of both passion fruit by-product and FOS. Thus, passion fruit by-product and FOS could be used as dietary ingredients to stimulate the folate production by selected bacterial strains during the fermentation of soymilk. It was also shown that vitamin production by microorganisms is strain-dependent and may also be influenced by nutritional and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. USO DE REGULADOR DE CRESCIMENTO EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO DE INVERNO PLANT GROWTH STIMULANT APPLICATION ON WINTER COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A aplicação de reguladores vegetais, com a finalidade de aumentar a produtividade das culturas, tem merecido, nos últimos anos, grande atenção de pesquisadores. No entanto, alguns resultados têm se mostrado contraditórios. Em face disto, este estudo teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos da aplicação de regulador vegetal sobre os componentes da produção e a produtividade de grãos de duas cultivares de feijão de inverno, em condições de Cerrado. O experimento foi realizado no outono-inverno de 2007, na Fazenda Experimental da Unesp, Campus de Ilha Solteira, localizada no município de Selvíria (MS. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, no esquema em faixas, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da combinação de cinco doses do regulador vegetal (0 L ha-1; 0,5 L ha-1; 1,0 L ha-1; 1,5 L ha-1; e 2,0 L ha-1, que é composto por três hormônios vegetais (cinetina, ácido giberélico e ácido indolbutírico, em duas épocas de aplicação: no estádio vegetativo (V4 e reprodutivo (R5. Características vegetativas como altura das plantas de feijão, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de grãos por vagem e massa de 100 grãos não foram afetadas pela aplicação do produto. No entanto, sua aplicação no estádio reprodutivo (R5 aumentou o número de grãos por planta e a produtividade de grãos das cultivares de feijoeiro Carioca Precoce e IAC Apuã. Para este aumento, a melhor dose foi 2 L ha-1 do regulador vegetal. 

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Phaseolus vulgaris; componentes da produção; época de aplicação.

    The use of plant growth stimulants for increasing crop yield has recently called the attention of researchers, but some results have proved

  15. Expressions of the low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase genes are stimulated by recombinant platelet-derived growth factor isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.; Emmons, L.R.; Perruchoud, A.; Block, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The plausible role that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has in the localized pathophysiological changes that occur in the arterial wall during development of atherosclerotic lesions led the authors to investigate the influence of recombinant (r)PDGF isomers -AA, -AB, and -BB on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG0CoA) reductase [(S)-mevalonate:NAD + oxidoreductase (CoA-acylating), EC 1.1.1.88] genes. In addition, they clarified the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in expression of the two genes in human skin fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells. The various rPDGF isoforms are distinct in their ability to activate transcription of both genes: (i) both rPDGF-AA and -BB stimulate transcription of the LDL-R gene; in contrast, rPDGF-BB but not -AA, activates transcription of the HMG-CoA reductase gene; (ii) all recombinant isoforms of PDGF activate transcription of the c-fos gene; (iii) while rPDGF-dependent transcription of the lDL-R gene occurs independently of PKC, transcription of the HMG-CoA reductase gene appears to involve the action of that enzyme

  16. Stimulation of casein kinase II by epidermal growth factor: Relationship between the physiological activity of the kinase and the phosphorylation state of its beta subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, P.; Osheroff, N.; Glover, C.V.C.

    1990-01-01

    To determine relationships between the hormonal activation of casein kinase II and its phosphorylation state, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated and EGF-naive human A-431 carcinoma cells were cultured in the presence of [ 32 P]orthophosphate. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that casein kinase II in the cytosol of EGF-treated cells contained approximately 3-fold more incorporated [ 32 P]phosphate than did its counterpart in untreated cells. Levels of kinase phosphorylation paralleled levels of kinase activity over a wide range of EGF concentrations as well as over a time course of hormone action. Approximately 97% of the incorporated [ 32 P]phosphate was found in the β subunit of casein kinase II. Both activated and hormone-naive kinase contained radioactive phosphoserine and phosphothreonine but no phosphotyronsine. On the basis of proteolytic mapping experiments, EGF treatment of A-431 cells led to an increase in the average [ 32 P]phosphate content (i.e., hyperphosphorylation) of casein kinase II β subunit peptides which were modified prior to hormone treatment. Finally, the effect of alkaline phosphatase on the reaction kinetics of activated casein kinase II indicated that hormonal stimulation of the kinase resulted from the increase in its phosphorylation state

  17. Distinctive in vitro effects of T-cell growth cytokines on cytomegalovirus-stimulated T-cell responses of HIV-infected HAART recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Julie; Jesser, Renee; Weinberg, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Functional immune reconstitution is limited after HAART, maintaining the interest in adjunctive immune-modulators. We compared in vitro the effects of the γ-chain T-cell growth cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15 on cytomegalovirus-stimulated cell-mediated immunity. IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-specific lymphocyte proliferation in HAART recipients, whereas IL-4 and IL-7 did not. The boosting effect of IL-2 and IL-15 on proliferation correlated with their ability to prevent late apoptosis. However, IL-2 increased the frequency of cells in early apoptosis, whereas IL-15 increased the frequency of fully viable cells. Both IL-2 and IL-15 increased cytomegalovirus-induced CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell proliferation and the synthesis of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, only IL-2 increased the frequency of regulatory T cells and Th2 cytokine production, both of which have the potential to attenuate antiviral immune responses. Overall, compared to other γ-chain cytokines, IL-15 had the most favorable profile for boosting antiviral cell-mediated immunity

  18. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kolumam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in human bone marrow stromal osteoblast progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Eriksen, E F

    2001-01-01

    While transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) regulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast precursor cells, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Several hormones and locally acting growth factors regulate osteoblast functions through changes in the insulin......-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Thus, we studied the effects of TGF-beta1 on IGFs and IGFBPs in human marrow stromal (hMS) osteoblast precursor cells. TGF-beta1 increased the steady-state mRNA level of IGF-I up to 8.5+/-0.6-fold (P...

  20. Transforming growth factor-β1 and its receptor soluble endoglin are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome during controlled ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Shohat-Tal, Aya; Grazi, Richard V; Malter, Henry E

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and its receptor, soluble endoglin (sENG), in the serum and follicular fluid of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) compared with that of non-PCOS normal ovulating women during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Prospective case-control study. Academic-affiliated assisted reproductive technology unit. Fourteen PCOS and 14 matched non-PCOS control women undergoing COS. Serum was collected on day 3 (baseline), day of hCG, and day of retrieval. Follicular fluid (FF) was collected on day of oocyte retrieval. ELISA was performed to determine TGF-β1 and sENG protein levels. Serum and FF levels of TGF-β1 and sENG. Serum TGF-β1 did not change significantly during COS but was increased in PCOS compared with non-PCOS women on day 3 and days of hCG administration and oocyte retrieval. Serum sENG increased after hCG administration only in the non-PCOS control group. In addition, serum sENG was decreased in PCOS compared with non-PCOS control women on the days of hCG and retrieval. Accordingly, the bioavailability of TGF-β1 (TGF-β1/sENG ratio) was increased in women with PCOS compared with non-PCOS controls at all three time points. No differences in either factor were noted in FF between groups. The increased TGF-β1 bioavailability in PCOS is not only due to increased TGF-β1 levels but also to decreased levels of its receptor, sENG. These data suggest that increased TGF-β1 bioavailability may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS and its increased risk for ovarian hyperstimulation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypoxic stress simultaneously stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1 in human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Tomoko; Okada, Hidetaka; Cho, Hisayuu; Tsuji, Shoko; Nishigaki, Akemi; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Kanzaki, Hideharu

    2012-02-01

    Hypoxia of the human endometrium is a physiologic event occurring during the perimenstrual period and the local stimulus for angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic stress on the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), and the potential role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the endometrium. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs, n= 22 samples) were studied in vitro. ESCs were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions and treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl₂; a hypoxia-mimicking agent) and/or echinomycin, a small-molecule inhibitor of HIF-1α activity. The mRNA levels and production of VEGF and SDF-1 were assessed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The HIF-1α protein levels were measured using western blot analysis. Hypoxia simultaneously induced the expression of mRNA and production of VEGF and attenuated the expression and production of SDF-1 from ESCs in a time-dependent manner. Similar changes were observed in the ESCs after stimulation with CoCl₂ in a dose-dependent manner. CoCl₂ significantly induced the expression of HIF-1α protein, and its highest expression was observed at 6 h. Echinomycin inhibited hypoxia-induced VEGF production without affecting the HIF-1α protein level and cell toxicity and had no effect on SDF-1 secretion (P hypoxic conditions that could influence angiogenesis in the human endometrium.

  2. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Wang, Chaoyuan [College of Life Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China); Su, Hanwen, E-mail: suhanwen-1@163.com [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xiang, Meixian, E-mail: xiangmeixian99@163.com [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells.

  3. Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response and represses transplanted H22 hepatic ascitic tumor cell growth: Involvement of NF-κB signaling activation in CD4 + T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Tianming; Wang, Chaoyuan; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2013-01-01

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a famous restorative food in East Asia. It can be used as an auxiliary reagent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. Previous studies unveiled that G. elata exhibited immunomodulatory activities. To explore the active ingredients contributing to its immunomodulatory activities, gastrodin, vanillin, and parishin B were purified from G. elata and their anti-HCC effects were assessed in vivo. Among these compounds, only gastrodin was capable of repressing transplanted H22 ascitic hepatic tumor cell growth in vivo with low toxicity. Further investigations were designed to explore the effects of gastrodin on the immune system of tumor-bearing mice and potential molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Our data showed that gastrodin ameliorated tumor cell transplantation-induced activation of endogenous pro-apoptotic pathway in CD4 + T cells and abnormalities in serum cytokine profiles in host animals. These events enhanced cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8 + T cells against H22 hepatic cancer cells. Gastrodin administration specifically upregulated mRNA levels of several nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) responsive genes in CD4 + T cells but not in CD8 + T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that gastrodin increased the association of NF-κB p65 subunit to the promoter regions of IL-2 and Bcl-2 encoding genes in CD4 + T cells. Our investigations demonstrated that gastrodin is the main active ingredient contributing to the anticancer immunomodulatory properties of G. elata. Promoting NF-κB-mediated gene transcription in CD4 + T cells is implicated in its immunomodulatory activity. - Highlights: • Gastrodin stimulates anticancer immune response. • Gastrodin represses tumor transplantation-induced CD4 + T cell apoptosis. • Gastrodin activates NF-κB activity in CD4 + T cells

  4. Nutrition, hygiene, and stimulation education to improve growth, cognitive, language, and motor development among infants in Uganda: A cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhoozi, Grace K M; Atukunda, Prudence; Diep, Lien M; Mwadime, Robert; Kaaya, Archileo N; Skaare, Anne B; Willumsen, Tiril; Westerberg, Ane C; Iversen, Per O

    2018-04-01

    Stunting is associated with impaired cognitive and motor function. The effect of an education intervention including nutrition, stimulation, sanitation, and hygiene on child growth and cognitive/language/motor development, delivered to impoverished mothers in Uganda, was assessed. In a community-based, open cluster-randomized trial, 511 mother/children dyads aged 6-8 months were enrolled to an intervention (n = 263) or control (n = 248) group. The primary outcome was change in length-for-age z-score at age 20-24 months. Secondary outcomes included anthropometry and scores on the 2 developmental scales: Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. There was no evidence of a difference in mean length-for-age z-score at 20-24 months between the 2 study groups: 0.10, 95% CI [-0.17, 0.36], p = .49. The intervention group had higher mean composite development scores than the controls on Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, the mean difference being 15.6, 95% CI [10.9, 20.2], p = .0001; 9.9, 95% CI [6.4, 13.2], p = .0001; and 14.6, 95% CI [10.9, 18.2], p = .0001, for cognitive, language, and motor composite scores, respectively. The mean difference in scores from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire were 7.0, 95% CI [2.9, 11.3], p = .001; 5.9, 95% CI [1.2, 10.3], p = .01; 4.2, 95% CI [1.7, 6.7], p = .001; 8.9, 95% CI [5.3, 12.3], p = .0001; and 4.4, 95% CI [0.0, 8.8], p = .05, for communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social development, respectively. The intervention education delivered to mothers promoted early development domains in cognitive, language, and motor development but not linear growth of small children in impoverished rural communities in Uganda. Our study showed that child development may be improved with a relatively low cost intervention strategy. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02098031. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile and acylation-stimulating protein levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome and effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. de Lind van Wijngaarden (Roderick); K. Cianflone (Katherine); Y. Gao; R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractContext: Reports on the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and the effects of GH treatment are scarce. Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) stimulates glucose uptake and triglyceride storage in adipose tissue. Objectives: The aim was to

  6. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  7. A mutein of human basic fibroblast growth factor TGP-580 accelerates colonic ulcer healing by stimulating angiogenesis in the ulcer bed in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Szabo, S

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we reported that TGP-580, a mutein of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), accelerated the healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. In the present study, we examined the effect of TGP-580 on the healing of colonic ulcers. In male Sprague Dawley rats, ulcers were induced in the colon 6 cm from the anus by enema of 50 μl of 3% N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylator. The lesions were examined under a dissecting microscope (x10). The concentration of bFGF in the ulcerated colon was measured by enzyme immunoassay, and both the distribution of bFGF and the density of microvessels in the ulcer bed were examined by immunohistochemical staining. The content of bFGF in the ulcerated colon was markedly increased associated with ulcer healing, and ulcer healing was significantly delayed by intravenous administration of a monoclonal antibody for bFGF (MAb 3H3) once daily for 10 days. In the ulcer bed, many cells such as fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells and macrophages were positively stained with bFGF antiserum. TGP-580, human bFGF or dexamethasone was given intracolonally twice daily for 10 days, starting the day after ulcer induction. TGP-580 (0.2 - 20 μg/ml, 200 μl/rat) dose-dependently accelerated ulcer healing, and its effect was more than 10 times stronger than that of human bFGF. Density (μm/0.01 mm(2)) of microvessels in the ulcer bed was significantly increased by treatment with TGP-580, and there was a good correlation between the density of microvessels and the decrease of ulcerated area (R(2) = 0.633). On the other hand dexamethasone (20 μg/ml) inhibited angiogenesis in the ulcer bed and delayed ulcer healing. These results suggest that angiogenesis in the ulcer bed plays an important role in ulcer healing, and that bFGF mutein TGP-580 accelerated colonic ulcer healing, at least in part, by stimulating angiogenesis, whereas glucocorticoids may delay the healing by inhibiting angiogenesis.

  8. Efficient generation of smooth muscle cells from adipose-derived stromal cells by 3D mechanical stimulation can substitute the use of growth factors in vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Mojtaba; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A M; Poot, André A; Harmsen, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    Occluding artery disease causes a high demand for bioartificial replacement vessels. We investigated the combined use of biodegradable and creep-free poly (1,3-trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) with smooth muscle cells (SMC) derived by biochemical or mechanical stimulation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) to engineer bioartificial arteries. Biochemical induction of cultured ASC to SMC was done with TGF-β1 for 7d. Phenotype and function were assessed by qRT-PCR, immunodetection and collagen contraction assays. The influence of mechanical stimulation on non-differentiated and pre-differentiated ASC, loaded in porous tubular PTMC scaffolds, was assessed after culturing under pulsatile flow for 14d. Assays included qRT-PCR, production of extracellular matrix and scanning electron microscopy. ASC adhesion and TGF-β1-driven differentiation to contractile SMC on PTMC did not differ from tissue culture polystyrene controls. Mesenchymal and SMC markers were increased compared to controls. Interestingly, pre-differentiated ASC had only marginal higher contractility than controls. Moreover, in 3D PTMC scaffolds, mechanical stimulation yielded well-aligned ASC-derived SMC which deposited ECM. Under the same conditions, pre-differentiated ASC-derived SMC maintained their SMC phenotype. Our results show that mechanical stimulation can replace TGF-β1 pre-stimulation to generate SMC from ASC and that pre-differentiated ASC keep their SMC phenotype with increased expression of SMC markers. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Extracellular S100A4(mts1) stimulates invasive growth of mouse endothelial cells and modulates MMP-13 matrix metalloproteinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Birgitte; Ornås, Dorte; Grigorian, Mariam

    2004-01-01

    with the transcriptional modulation of genes involved in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Treatment of SVEC 4-10 with the S100A4 protein leads to the transcriptional activation of collagenase 3 (MMP-13) mRNA followed by subsequent release of the protein from the cells. Beta-casein zymography...... demonstrates enhancement of proteolytic activity associated with MMP-13. This observation indicates that extracellular S100A4 stimulates the production of ECM degrading enzymes from endothelial cells, thereby stimulating the remodeling of ECM. This could explain the angiogenic and metastasis...

  10. Low nitrogen stress stimulating the indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis of Serratia sp. ZM is vital for the survival of the bacterium and its plant growth-promoting characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liming; Pei, Haiyan; Xu, Zhaohui

    2017-04-01

    Serratia sp. ZM is a plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Populus euphratica in northwestern China. In this study, low nitrogen supply significantly stimulated the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Serratia sp.ZM. The inoculation of the bacterium to wheat seedlings improved plant growth compared with the uninoculated group, and the stimulating effect was more prominent under low nitrogen stress. Inactivation of the predicted key gene in the IAA biosynthesis pathway impaired IAA production and significantly hampered mutant growth in poor medium. Furthermore, the IAA-deficient mutant lost the PGP effect under either normal or low nitrogen conditions in plant experiments. This study revealed the significant impact of environmental nitrogen levels on IAA production in the PGP strain and the vital effect of IAA on resistance physiology of both the bacterium and host plant. The characteristics of Serratia sp. ZM also indicated its application potential as a biofertilizer for plants, especially those suffering from poor nitrogen soil.

  11. Calmodulin protects cells from death under normal growth conditions and mitogenic starvation but plays a mediating role in cell death upon B-cell receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmalzigaug, R; Ye, Q; Berchtold, M W

    2001-01-01

    stimulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR), the resting Ca2+ levels remain elevated after the initial transient in CaMII-/- cells. Despite higher Ca2+ resting levels, the CaMII-/- cells are partially protected from BCR induced apoptosis indicating that CaM plays a dual role in apoptotic processes....

  12. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins-2, -3 and -4 in human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Eriksen, E F

    2001-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) inhibits proliferation and stimulates differentiation of multiple cell types, including osteoblasts. Human (h) bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are a homogenous non-hematopoietic population of cells present in the bone marrow and exhibit a less differentiated...

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Activity Bound to Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) Receptor, which Is Continuously Sustained by IGF-I Stimulation, Is Required for IGF-I-induced Cell Proliferation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Yusaku; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Shibano, Takashi; Chida, Kazuhiro; Minami, Shiro; Asano, Tomoichiro; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Continuous stimulation of cells with insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in G1 phase is a well established requirement for IGF-induced cell proliferation; however, the molecular components of this prolonged signaling pathway that is essential for cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase are unclear. IGF-I activates IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase, followed by phosphorylation of substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) leading to binding of signaling molecules containing SH2 domains, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to IRS and activation of the downstream signaling pathways. In this study, we found prolonged (>9 h) association of PI3K with IGF-IR induced by IGF-I stimulation. PI3K activity was present in this complex in thyrocytes and fibroblasts, although tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS was not yet evident after 9 h of IGF-I stimulation. IGF-I withdrawal in mid-G1 phase impaired the association of PI3K with IGF-IR and suppressed DNA synthesis the same as when PI3K inhibitor was added. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Tyr1316-X-X-Met of IGF-IR functioned as a PI3K binding sequence when this tyrosine is phosphorylated. We then analyzed IGF signaling and proliferation of IGF-IR−/− fibroblasts expressing exogenous mutant IGF-IR in which Tyr1316 was substituted with Phe (Y1316F). In these cells, IGF-I stimulation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IGF-IR and IRS-1/2, but mutated IGF-IR failed to bind PI3K and to induce maximal phosphorylation of GSK3β and cell proliferation in response to IGF-I. Based on these results, we concluded that PI3K activity bound to IGF-IR, which is continuously sustained by IGF-I stimulation, is required for IGF-I-induced cell proliferation. PMID:22767591

  14. Stromal Cells Positively and Negatively Modulate the Growth of Cancer Cells: Stimulation via the PGE2-TNFα-IL-6 Pathway and Inhibition via Secreted GAPDH-E-Cadherin Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Manabu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Yoshida, Junjiro; Masuda, Tohru; Yamasaki, Manabu; Usami, Ihomi; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Abe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takumi; Yamori, Takao; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast-like stromal cells modulate cancer cells through secreted factors and adhesion, but those factors are not fully understood. Here, we have identified critical stromal factors that modulate cancer growth positively and negatively. Using a cell co-culture system, we found that gastric stromal cells secreted IL-6 as a growth and survival factor for gastric cancer cells. Moreover, gastric cancer cells secreted PGE2 and TNFα that stimulated IL-6 secretion by the stromal cells. Furthermore, we found that stromal cells secreted glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Extracellular GAPDH, or its N-terminal domain, inhibited gastric cancer cell growth, a finding confirmed in other cell systems. GAPDH bound to E-cadherin and downregulated the mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. These results demonstrate that stromal cells could regulate cancer cell growth through the balance of these secreted factors. We propose that negative regulation of cancer growth using GAPDH could be a new anti-cancer strategy. PMID:25785838

  15. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  16. Effect of integrated responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions in the Lady Health Worker programme in Pakistan on child development, growth, and health outcomes: a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Armstrong, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-10-04

    Stimulation and nutrition delivered through health programmes at a large scale could potentially benefit more than 200 million young children worldwide who are not meeting their developmental potential. We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of the integration of interventions to enhance child development and growth outcomes in the Lady Health Worker (LHW) programme in Sindh, Pakistan. We implemented a community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial through the LHW programme in rural Sindh, Pakistan, with a 2 × 2 factorial design. We randomly allocated 80 clusters (LHW catchments) of children to receive routine health and nutrition services (controls; n=368), nutrition education and multiple micronutrient powders (enhanced nutrition; n=364), responsive stimulation (responsive stimulation; n=383), or a combination of both enriched interventions (n=374). The allocation ratio was 1:20 (ie, 20 clusters per intervention group). The data collection team were masked to the allocated intervention. All children born in the study area between April, 2009, and March, 2010, were eligible for enrolment if they were up to 2·5 months old without signs of severe impairments. Interventions were delivered by LHWs to families with children up to 24 months of age in routine monthly group sessions and home visits. The primary endpoints were child development at 12 and 24 months of age (assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition) and growth at 24 months of age. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT007159636. 1489 mother-infant dyads were enrolled into the study, of whom 1411 (93%) were followed up until the children were 24 months old. Children who received responsive stimulation had significantly higher development scores on the cognitive, language, and motor scales at 12 and 24 months of age, and on the social-emotional scale at 12 months of age, than did those who

  17. Effects of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on children's development and growth at age 4 years in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan: a longitudinal follow-up of a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Obradović, Jelena; Rasheed, Muneera A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Portilla, Ximena A; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole; Siyal, Saima; Memon, Uzma

    2016-08-01

    A previous study in Pakistan assessed the effectiveness of delivering responsive stimulation and enhanced nutrition interventions to young children. Responsive stimulation significantly improved children's cognitive, language, and motor development at 2 years of age. Both interventions significantly improved parenting skills, with responsive stimulation showing larger effects. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether interventions had benefits on children's healthy development and care at 4 years of age. We implemented a follow-up study of the initial, community-based cluster-randomised effectiveness trial, which was conducted through the Lady Health Worker programme in Sindh, Pakistan. We re-enrolled 1302 mother-child dyads (87% of the 1489 dyads in the original enrolment) for assessment when the child was 4 years of age. The children were originally randomised in the following groups: nutrition education and multiple micronutrient powders (enhanced nutrition; n=311), responsive stimulation (n=345), combined responsive stimulation and enhanced nutrition (n=315), and routine health and nutrition services (control; n=331). The data collection team were masked to the allocated intervention. The original enrolment period included children born in the study area between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010, if they were up to 2·5 months old without signs of severe impairments. The primary endpoints for children were development and growth at 4 years of age. Interventions were given in monthly group sessions and in home visits. The primary endpoint for mothers was wellbeing and caregiving knowledge, practices, and skills when the child was 4 years of age. Analysis was by intention to treat. The original trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00715936. 1302 mother-child dyads were re-enrolled between Jan 1, 2013, and March 31, 2013, all of whom were followed up at 4 years of age. Children who received responsive stimulation (with or without enhanced

  18. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  19. Stimulating effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria, Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 and Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6, on flax culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarron, Elodie; Clément, Nathalie; Pawlicki-Jullian, Nathalie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2018-04-01

    Two bacteria, Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 and Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6, isolated from root nodules of Medicago lupulina from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, were identified in a previous study and shown not to disturb plant growth. The main goal of this work is to elucidate the relationships between these bacteria and flax, in particular whether they display activities such as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) properties or modulation hairy root development. In order to better understand their role in plants, some known PGPB properties were determined in comparison with several control bacteria. The influence of these bacteria on Linum usitatissimum growth under hydroponic conditions was also investigated. Our study shows that both bacteria belong to PGPB since they were able to increase considerably the root surface area of flax, especially Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6. Significant IAA production and phosphate solubilization of Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 were highlighted, which enabled these biochemical PGPB properties to be correlated with their effects on flax growth. However, Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6 did not express high biochemical activities, suggesting that other PGPB abilities should be studied in order to establish the link with flax growth improvement.

  20. Effect of γ-irradiation on the thermomechanical and morphological properties of chitosan obtained from prawn shell: Evaluation of potential for irradiated chitosan as plant growth stimulator for Malabar spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Kabir, Shahriar; Rashid, Taslim Ur; Nesa, Bodrun; Nasrin, Romana; Haque, Papia; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have synthesized chitosan from waste prawn shell via γ-irradiation of chitin and subsequent alkaline treatment. The detailed experimental studies demonstrated that nonirradiated chitin deacetylated by 40% NaOH solution showed 72% degree of deacetylation (DD), however 50 kGy irradiated chitin, deacetylated by 20% NaOH demonstrated 81.5% DD. Chitosan in solid state as obtained from γ-irradiation of chitin was further irradiated by different doses (2–100 kGy) of gamma irradiation and the effects of irradiation on the molecular weight, thermo-mechanical by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and antimicrobial properties were evaluated with respect to nonirradiated chitosan sample. Gamma irradiation of chitosan with a dose of 100 kGy caused a decrease in average molecular weight from 1.9×10 5 to 6.5×10 4 Da and thus increased its solubility in water. Nonirradiated and γ-irradiated chitosan at concentration 1% (w/w) in water were prepared and used to evaluate of its potentiality for growth stimulation of Malabar spinach. The chitosan solution was sprayed on the specimen plants and neighboring soil where germinations were taken place and various plant growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf areas, dry and wet weight of the plants and roots were investigated. The details study revealed that application of 30 kGy irradiated chitosan yielded 60% higher growth of the Malabar spinach than that obtained from nonirradiated chitosan. The data are consistent with preliminary results from field experiments and unambiguously confirms that a minor amount of chitosan has a profound effect on the growth and development of Malabar spinach. - Highlight: ► A new approach for chitosan synthesis by γ-irradiation of chitin was described. ► Effect of irradiation on the various properties of chitosan was investigated. ► Irradiation causes scission of glycosidic linkage thus decrease of mw of

  1. Specific protein supplementation using soya, casein or whey differentially affects regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity in rats; implications for the treatment of gut injury and stimulating repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchbank, Tania; Mandir, Nikki; Calnan, Denis; Goodlad, Robert A; Podas, Theo; Playford, Raymond J

    2018-01-24

    Modulation of regional growth within specific segments of the bowel may have clinical value for several gastrointestinal conditions. We therefore examined the effects of different dietary protein sources on regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity as potential therapies. Rats were fed for 14 days on isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising elemental diet (ED) alone (which is known to cause gut atrophy), ED supplemented with casein or whey or a soya protein-rich feed. Effects on regional gut growth and intraluminal growth factor activity were then determined. Despite calorie intake being similar in all groups, soya rich feed caused 20% extra total body weight gain. Stomach weight was highest on soya and casein diets. Soya enhanced diet caused greatest increase in small intestinal weight and preserved luminal growth factor activity at levels sufficient to increase proliferation in vitro. Regional small intestinal proliferation was highest in proximal segment in ED fed animals whereas distal small intestine proliferation was greater in soya fed animals. Colonic weight and proliferation throughout the colon was higher in animals receiving soya or whey supplemented feeds. We conclude that specific protein supplementation with either soya, casein or whey may be beneficial to rest or increase growth in different regions of the bowel through mechanisms that include differentially affecting luminal growth factor bioactivity. These results have implications for targeting specific regions of the bowel for conditions such as Crohn's disease and chemotherapy.

  2. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Stimulates Fibronectin Gene Expression in Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-21

    Complications of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus exhibits symptoms of polyuria , glycosuria, and acidosis. Although the discovery of insulin in 1921 by...Professor Department of Physiology Elevated fibronectin levels have been observed in the matrix of diabetic blood vessels and renal "glomeruli. Growth...1 A. Specific Goal ........... ..................... .. 1 B. Background and Significance ..................... 2 1. Complications of Diabetes

  3. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  4. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fichtner

    Full Text Available The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading and belowground competition (crowding among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  5. Facilitative-Competitive Interactions in an Old-Growth Forest: The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees as Benefactors and Stimulators for Forest Community Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I.; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services. PMID:25803035

  6. Lactoferrin release and interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor production by human polymorphonuclear cells stimulated by various lipopolysaccharides: relationship to growth inhibition of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, C; Cassone, A; Serbousek, D; Pearson, C A; Djeu, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Salmonella typhimurium, at doses from 1 to 100 ng/ml, strongly enhanced growth inhibition of Candida albicans by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that LPS markedly augmented phagocytosis of Candida cells by increasing the number of yeasts ingested per neutrophil as well as the number of neutrophils capable of ingesting fungal cells. LPS activation caused augmented ...

  7. RACK1 forms a complex with FGFR1 and PKM2, and stimulates the growth and migration of squamous lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Tao; Xie, Zhanhong; Qin, Yinyin; Ou, Yangming; Zhang, Jiexia; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rongchang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2017-11-01

    Phosphorylation of Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) on Tyr105 by fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has been shown to promote its nuclear localization as well as cell growth in lung cancer. Better understanding the regulation of this process would benefit the clinical treatment for lung cancer. Here, it has been found that the adaptor protein receptor for activated PKC kinase (RACK1) formed a complex with FGFR1 and PKM2, and activated the FGFR1/PKM2 signaling. Knocking down the expression of RACK1 impaired the phosphorylation on Tyr105 of PKM2 and inhibited the growth and migration of lung cancer cells, while over-expression of RACK1 in lung cancer cells led to the resistance to Erdafitinib. Moreover, knocking down the expression of RACK1 impaired the tumorigenesis of lung cancer driven by LKB loss and mutated Ras (KrasG12D). Taken together, our study demonstrated the pivotal roles of RACK1 in FGFR1/PKM2 signaling, suggesting FGFR1/RACK1/PKM2 might be a therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (Ploss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (Ploss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  9. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops stimulates scarless regeneration compared to autologous serum in the ocular surface stromal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; de la Fuente, M; Muruzabal, F; Riestra, A; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2015-06-01

    Autologous serum (AS) eye drops was the first blood-derived product used for the treatment of corneal pathologies but nowadays PRGF arises as a novel interesting alternative to this type of diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological outcomes of autologous serum eye drops or Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops on corneal stromal keratocytes (HK) and conjunctival fibroblasts (HConF). To address this, blood from healthy donors was collected and processed to obtain autologous serum (AS) eye drops and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) eye drops. Blood-derivates were aliquoted and stored at -80°C until use. PDGF-AB, VEGF, EGF, FGFb and TGF-β1 were quantified. The potential of PRGF and AS in promoting wound healing was evaluated by means of proliferation and migration assays in HK and HConF. Fibroblast cells were induced to myofibroblast differentiation after treatment with 2.5ng/mL of TGF-β1. The capability of PRGF and AS to prevent and inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation was evaluated. Results showed significant higher levels of all growth factors analyzed in PRGF eye drops compared to AS. Moreover, PRGF eye drops enhanced significantly the biological outcomes of both HK and HConF, and reduced TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in contrast to autologous serum eye drops (AS). In summary, these results suggest that PRGF exerts enhanced biological outcomes than AS. PRGF may improve the treatment of ocular surface wound healing minimizing the scar formation compared to AS. Results obtained herein suggest that PRGF protects and reverses the myofibroblast phenotype while promotes cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Whey proteins have beneficial effects on intestinal enteroendocrine cells stimulating cell growth and increasing the production and secretion of incretin hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Calderwood, Danielle; Hobson, Laura; Green, Brian D

    2015-12-15

    Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin). ALA is a highly potent GLP-1 secretagogue which also increases the intracellular levels of GLP-1. Conversely, whey proteins and hydrolysates had little impact on GIP secretion. This appears to be the first investigation of the effects of the three major proteins of YW and CW on EE cells. The anti-diabetic potential of whey proteins should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced root growth in phosphate-starved Arabidopsis by stimulating de novo phospholipid biosynthesis through the overexpression of LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACID ACYLTRANSFERASE 2 (LPAT2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkawijaya, Artik Elisa; Nguyen, Van Cam; Nakamura, Yuki

    2017-09-01

    Upon phosphate starvation, plants retard shoot growth but promote root development presumably to enhance phosphate assimilation from the ground. Membrane lipid remodelling is a metabolic adaptation that replaces membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorous galactolipids, thereby allowing plants to obtain scarce phosphate yet maintain the membrane structure. However, stoichiometry of this phospholipid-to-galactolipid conversion may not account for the massive demand of membrane lipids that enables active growth of roots under phosphate starvation, thereby suggesting the involvement of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis, which is not represented in the current model. We overexpressed an endoplasmic reticulum-localized lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAT2, a key enzyme that catalyses the last step of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Two independent LPAT2 overexpression lines showed no visible phenotype under normal conditions but showed increased root length under phosphate starvation, with no effect on phosphate starvation response including marker gene expression, root hair development and anthocyanin accumulation. Accompanying membrane glycerolipid profiling of LPAT2-overexpressing plants revealed an increased content of major phospholipid classes and distinct responses to phosphate starvation between shoot and root. The findings propose a revised model of membrane lipid remodelling, in which de novo phospholipid biosynthesis mediated by LPAT2 contributes significantly to root development under phosphate starvation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 3',5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) inhibits basal and growth factor-stimulated human colon cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaolis, David K.R.; Cheng, Kunrong; Lipsky, Michael; Elnabawi, Ahmed; Catalano, Jennifer; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The novel cyclic dinucleotide, 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid, cGpGp (c-di-GMP), is a naturally occurring small molecule that regulates important signaling mechanisms in prokaryotes. Recently, we showed that c-di-GMP has 'drug-like' properties and that c-di-GMP treatment might be a useful antimicrobial approach to attenuate the virulence and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus and prevent or treat infection. In the present communication, we report that c-di-GMP (≤50 μM) has striking properties regarding inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro. c-di-GMP inhibits both basal and growth factor (acetylcholine and epidermal growth factor)-induced cell proliferation of human colon cancer (H508) cells. Toxicity studies revealed that exposure of normal rat kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells to c-di-GMP at biologically relevant doses showed no lethal cytotoxicity. Cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP, represent an attractive and novel 'drug-platform technology' that can be used not only to develop new antimicrobial agents, but also to develop novel therapeutic agents to prevent or treat cancer

  13. Mass production of 'Swan's Golden', Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    Some species of 'Swan's Golden' have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of 'Swan's Golden' is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  14. The radioprotector O-phospho-tyrosine stimulates DNA-repair via epidermal growth factor receptor- and DNA-dependent kinase phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Klaus; Mayer, Claus; Wanner, Gabriele; Kehlbach, Rainer; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Purpose of the study was to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of the radioprotector O-phospho-tyrosine (P-Tyr). Methods: Molecular effects of P-Tyr at the level of EGFR responses were investigated in vitro with bronchial carcinoma cell line A549. Nuclear EGFR transport and DNA-PK activation were quantified after Western blotting. Residual DNA-damages were quantified by help of γH 2 AX focus assay. Results: As determined by dose-response curves, treatment of cells with P-Tyr for 16 h before irradiation results in radioprotection. Simultaneous treatment with EGFR blocking antibody Cetuximab abolished P-Tyr associated radioprotection. At the molecular level P-Tyr mediated a general phosphorylation of EGFR and a pronounced phosphorylation of nuclear EGFR at residue Thr No. 654, also observed after treatment with ionizing radiation. This phosphorylation was associated with nuclear EGFR accumulation. Moreover, P-Tyr-triggered EGFR nuclear accumulation was associated with phosphorylation of DNA-PK at Thr 2609. This activated form of DNA-PK was not DNA associated, but after radiation, DNA binding increased, particularly after P-Tyr pre-treatment. These molecular effects of P-Tyr resulted in a reduction of residual DNA-damage after irradiation. Conclusions: Radioprotection by P-Tyr is mediated through its stimulation of nuclear EGFR transport and concurrent, but DNA-damage independent, activation of DNA-PK. Thus, subsequent irradiation results in increased binding of DNA-PK to DNA, improved DNA-repair and increased cell survival

  15. Accelerating the development of an information ecosystem in health care, by stimulating the growth of safe intermediate processing of health information (IPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshana Liyanage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Health care, in common with many other industries, is generating large amounts of routine data, data that are challenging to process, analyse or curate, so-called ‘big data’. A challenge for health informatics is to make sense of these data. Part of the answer will come from the development of ontologies that support the use of heterogeneous data sources and the development of intermediate processors of health information (IPHI. IPHI will sit between the generators of health data and information, often the providers of health care, and the managers, commissioners, policy makers, researchers, and the pharmaceutical and other healthcare industries. They will create a health ecosystem by processing data in a way that stimulates improved data quality and potentially health care delivery by providers of health care, and by providing greater insights to legitimate users of data. Exemplars are provided of how a health ecosystem might be encouraged and developed to promote patient safety and more efficient health care. These are in the areas of how to integrate data around the unsafe use of alcohol and to explore vaccine safety. A challenge for IPHI is how to ensure that their processing of data is valid, safe and maintains privacy. Development of the healthcare ecosystem and IPHI should be actively encouraged internationally. Governments, regulators and providers of health care should facilitate access to health data and the use of national and international comparisons to monitor standards. However, most importantly, they should pilot new methods of improving quality and safety through the intermediate processing of health data.

  16. Recovery of whisking function promoted by manual stimulation of the vibrissal muscles after facial nerve injury requires insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryakova, S; Söhnchen, J; Grosheva, M; Schuetz, U; Marinova, Ts; Dzhupanova, R; Sinis, N; Hübbers, C U; Skouras, E; Ankerne, J; Fries, J W U; Irintchev, A; Dunlop, S A; Angelov, D N

    2010-04-01

    Recently, we showed that manual stimulation (MS) of denervated vibrissal muscles enhanced functional recovery following facial nerve cut and suture (FFA) by reducing poly-innervation at the neuro-muscular junctions (NMJ). Although the cellular correlates of poly-innervation are established, with terminal Schwann cells (TSC) processes attracting axon sprouts to "bridge" adjacent NMJ, molecular correlates are poorly understood. Since quantitative RT-PCR revealed a rapid increase of IGF-1 mRNA in denervated muscles, we examined the effect of daily MS for 2 months after FFA in IGF-1(+/-) heterozygous mice; controls were wild-type (WT) littermates including intact animals. We quantified vibrissal motor performance and the percentage of NMJ bridged by S100-positive TSC. There were no differences between intact WT and IGF-1(+/-) mice for vibrissal whisking amplitude (48 degrees and 49 degrees ) or the percentage of bridged NMJ (0%). After FFA and handling alone (i.e. no MS) in WT animals, vibrissal whisking amplitude was reduced (60% lower than intact) and the percentage of bridged NMJ increased (42% more than intact). MS improved both the amplitude of vibrissal whisking (not significantly different from intact) and the percentage of bridged NMJ (12% more than intact). After FFA and handling in IGF-1(+/-) mice, the pattern was similar (whisking amplitude 57% lower than intact; proportion of bridged NMJ 42% more than intact). However, MS did not improve outcome (whisking amplitude 47% lower than intact; proportion of bridged NMJ 40% more than intact). We conclude that IGF-I is required to mediate the effects of MS on target muscle reinnervation and recovery of whisking function. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth potential in the renewable energy sector. How Sweden can stimulate for renewable energy; Tillvaextpotential inom sektorn foernybar energi. Saa kan Sverige oeka tillvaexten inom foernybar energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The renewable energy sector has a huge potential worldwide. There will be opportunities for companies operating in the sector. The big question from a growth perspective is actually: How can the Swedish industry and Swedish companies take as large a market share of this sector as possible? The Swedish market is small relative to many other markets - which can be a barrier for companies to grow organically in a domestic market. Sweden still has, compared to the rest of Europe, relatively low electricity prices resulting in reduced profitability for wind farms or solar installations. Sweden has large power production facilities in the form of hydro and nuclear power plants. The electricity network is constructed or adapted for this type of large-scale production and it will require investment in the electricity grid to facilitate connection of other power generation units such as wind power and solar cells. Some countries have chosen to create fictitious markets using a system which provides a demand for non-commercial technologies and thus driving technology development. One example is Germany, where producers of renewable electricity are guaranteed a technology-specific sales price. This could be implemented in Sweden, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the Swedish companies should be given opportunities to exploit the markets that are already created, as if they were their home markets. All sectors surveyed in this study have shown that there are some large companies, a few medium-sized enterprises and many small businesses. This structure is often described as 'hourglass structure' and has existed for many years in Sweden. Industrial activities are operated in increasingly global way, and national aspects of decision-making get an increasingly secondary role, in relation to aspects of profitability and growth . Emerging businesses need to be greater than previously in order to act internationally concerning both technology and market. The government

  18. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) inhibits the growth of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor followed by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta activation and cyclin D1 suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noriko; Yamada, Shizuo; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Kagota, Satomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Kunitomo, Masaru; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2008-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a parasitic fungus on the larvae of Lepidoptera, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We previously reported that the growth of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma (B16-BL6) cells was inhibited by cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), an active ingredient of C. sinensis, and its effect was antagonized by MRS1191, a selective adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. In this study, the radioligand binding assay using [125I]-AB-MECA (a selective adenosine A3 receptor agonist) has shown that B16-BL6 cells express adenosine A3 receptors and that cordycepin binds to these receptors. We also confirmed the involvement of adenosine A3 receptors in the action of cordycepin using MRS1523 and MRS1220, specific adenosine A3 receptor antagonists. Next, indirubin, a glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibitor, antagonized the growth suppression induced by cordycepin. Furthermore, the level of cyclin D1 protein in B16-BL6 cells was decreased by cordycepin using Western blot analysis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that cordycepin inhibits the proliferation of B16-BL6 cells by stimulating adenosine A3 receptors followed by the Wnt signaling pathway, including GSK-3beta activation and cyclin D1 inhibition.

  19. PHA665752, a small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, inhibits hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration and proliferation of c-Met-positive neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosswell, Hal E; Dasgupta, Anindya; Alvarado, Carlos S; Watt, Tanya; Christensen, James G; De, Pradip; Durden, Donald L; Findley, Harry W

    2009-01-01

    c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and both c-Met and its ligand are expressed in a variety of tissues. C-Met/HGF/SF signaling is essential for normal embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Abnormal c-Met/HGF/SF signaling has been demonstrated in different tumors and linked to aggressive and metastatic tumor phenotypes. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated inhibition of c-Met/HGF/SF signaling by the small-molecule inhibitor PHA665752. This study investigated c-Met and HGF expression in two neuroblastoma (NBL) cell lines and tumor tissue from patients with NBL, as well as the effects of PHA665752 on growth and motility of NBL cell lines. The effect of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN on migration and proliferation of tumor cells treated with PHA665752 was also evaluated. Expression of c-Met and HGF in NBL cell lines SH-EP and SH-SY5Y and primary tumor tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of PHA665752 on c-Met/HGF signaling involved in NBL cell proliferation and migration was evaluated in c-Met-positive cells and c-Met-transfected cells. The transwell chemotaxis assay and the MTT assay were used to measure migration and proliferation/cell-survival of tumor cells, respectively. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone was used to assess the effect of PTEN on PHA665752-induced inhibition of NBL cell proliferation/cell-survival and migration High c-Met expression was detected in SH-EP cells and primary tumors from patients with advanced-stage disease. C-Met/HGF signaling induced both migration and proliferation of SH-EP cells. Migration and proliferation/cell-survival were inhibited by PHA665752 in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that induced overexpression of PTEN following treatment with rosiglitazone significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of PHA665752 on NBL-cell migration and proliferation. c-Met is highly expressed in most tumors from

  20. Truncated form of VACM-1/cul-5 with an extended 3' untranslated region stimulates cell growth via a MAPK-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Ashleigh; Kossoris, J.B.; Wilcox, R.; Shearer, R.; Zeneberg, A.E.; Zhao, P.; Lazdins, I.; Burnatowska-Hledin, Maria A.

    2006-01-01

    We have sequenced a 4.9 kb clone (KLB22) which shares 99% sequence homology with the rabbit vasopressin-activated calcium mobilizing (VACM-1) protein. The 5' terminus sequence of KLB22 cDNA (nucleotides 1-1961) is continuous and overlapping with nucleotides 1226-3186 of the VACM-1 cDNA sequence. The 3'UTR of KLB22 cDNA extends beyond the 3'UTR of VACM-1 by 2999 nt. KLB22 cDNA encodes a 497 amino acid protein, which putatively begins at Met 284 of the 780 amino acid VACM-1 protein. The in vitro translation of KLB22 cDNA yields a 59 kDa protein. When expressed in cos-1 cells, the truncated VACM-1 protein localizes to the nucleus. KLB22 cDNA transfected cells show increased growth rates and increased levels of phosphorylated MAPK when compared to the vector or to VACM-1 cDNA transfected cells. Finally, in vivo, KLB22 protein expression is tissue specific and can be detected in kidney and in heart atrium. These results suggest that truncated VACM-1 cDNA (KLB22) increases cell proliferation through a MAPK pathway

  1. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio; Schettini, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1α treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1α induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer

  2. Application of Copper-Chitosan Nanoparticles Stimulate Growth and Induce Resistance in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) Plants against Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Manikandan, Appu

    2018-02-28

    Copper-chitosan nanoparticle (CuChNp) was synthesized and used to study its effect on finger millet plant as a model plant system. Our objective was to explore the efficacy of CuChNp application to control blast disease of finger millet. CuChNp was applied to finger millet either as a foliar spray or as a combined application (involving seed coat and foliar spray). Both the application methods enhanced growth profile of finger millet plants and increased yield. The increased yield was nearly 89% in combined application method. Treated finger millet plants challenged with Pyricularia grisea showed suppression of blast disease development when compared to control. Nearly 75% protection was observed in the combined application of CuChNp to finger millet plants. In CuChNp treated finger millet plants, a significant increase in defense enzymes was observed, which was detected both qualitatively and quantitatively. The suppression of blast disease correlates well with increased defense enzymes in CuChNp treated finger millet plants.

  3. Toll-like receptor 6 and connective tissue growth factor are significantly upregulated in mitomycin-C-treated urothelial carcinoma cells under hydrostatic pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Kuan; Chung, Chih-Ang; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Chen, Wen-Yih; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Li, Chuan; Tsao, Chia-Wen; Hu, Wei-Wen; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common histologic subtype of bladder cancer. The administration of mitomycin C (MMC) into the bladder after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) is a common treatment strategy for preventing recurrence after surgery. We previously applied hydrostatic pressure combined with MMC in UC cells and found that hydrostatic pressure synergistically enhanced MMC-induced UC cell apoptosis through the Fas/FasL pathways. To understand the alteration of gene expressions in UC cells caused by hydrostatic pressure and MMC, oligonucleotide microarray was used to explore all the differentially expressed genes. After bioinformatics analysis and gene annotation, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) showed significant upregulation among altered genes, and their gene and protein expressions with each treatment of UC cells were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Under treatment with MMC and hydrostatic pressure, UC cells showed increasing apoptosis using extrinsic pathways through upregulation of TLR6 and CTGF.

  4. Growth hormone/IGF-1 axis longitudinal evaluation in clinically isolated syndrome patients on interferon β-1b therapy: stimulation tests and correlations with clinical and radiological conversion to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, R; Di Somma, C; Quarantelli, M; Carotenuto, A; Pivonello, C; Moccia, M; Cianflone, A; Marsili, A; Puorro, G; Saccà, F; Russo, C V; De Luca Picione, C; Ausiello, F; Colao, A; Brescia Morra, V

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest their role in its pathogenesis. Interferon β (IFN-β) efficacy could be mediated also by an increase of IGF-1 levels. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed to estimate the prevalence of GH and/or IGF-1 deficiency in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients and their correlation with conversion to MS in IFN treated patients. Clinical and demographic features of CIS patients were collected before the start of IFN-β-1b. IGF-1 levels and GH response after arginine and GH releasing hormone + arginine stimulation tests were assessed. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging evaluations were performed at baseline, 1 year and 2 years. Thirty CIS patients (24 female) were enrolled. At baseline, four patients (13%) showed a hypothalamic GH deficiency (GHD), whilst no one had a pituitary GHD. Baseline demographic, clinical and radiological data were not related to GHD, whilst IGF-1 levels were inversely related to age (P IGF-1 serum mean levels were not significantly modified after 1 and 2 years of treatment in the whole group, although 3/4 GHD patients experienced a normalization of GH levels, whilst one dropped out. After 2 years of treatment 13/28 (46%) patients converted to MS. The presence of GHD and GH and IGF-1 levels were not predictive of relapses, new T2 lesions or conversion occurrence. Growth hormone/IGF-1 axis function was found to be frequently altered in CIS patients, but this was not related to MS conversion. Patients experienced an improvement of GHD during IFN therapy. Longer follow-up is necessary to assess its impact on disease progression. © 2016 EAN.

  5. Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1 Causes Overproduction of IL-8, an Angiogenic Cytokine and Stimulates Neovascularization in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Haleagrahara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis factors are produced in response to hypoxic or ischemic insult at the site of pathology, which will cause neovascularization. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 exerts potent proliferative, angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects in target tissues. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of IGF-1 on circulating level of angiogenic cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, in experimentally-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, IGF-1 treated (2 µg/kg/day subcutaneously, for 5 and 10 days, isoproterenol (ISO treated (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously for two days and ISO with IGF-1 treated (for 5 and 10 days. Heart weight, serum IGF-1, IL-8 and cardiac marker enzymes (CK-MB and LDH were recorded after 5 and 10 days of treatment. Histopathological analyses of the myocardium were also done. There was a significant increase in serum cardiac markers with ISO treatment indicating myocardial infarction in rats. IGF-1 level increased significantly in ISO treated groups and the level of IGF-1 was significantly higher after 10 days of treatment. IL-8 level increased significantly after ISO treatment after 5 and 10 days and IGF-1 concurrent treatment to ISO rats had significantly increased IL-8 levels. Histopathologically, myocyte necrosis and nuclear pyknosis were reduced significantly in IGF-1 treated group and there were numerous areas of capillary sprouting suggestive of neovascularization in the myocardium. Thus, IGF-1 protects the ischemic myocardium with increased production of circulating angiogenic cytokine, IL-8 and increased angiogenesis.

  6. Up-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling by 17β-estradiol through activation of estrogen receptor-α, but not estrogen receptor-β, and stimulates cell growth in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Rae; Park, Jinny; Yu, Hong-Nu; Kim, Jong-Suk; Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2005-01-01

    Estrogen stimulates cell proliferation in breast cancer. The biological effects of estrogen are mediated through two intracellular receptors, estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). However, the role of ERs in the proliferative action of estrogen is not well established. Recently, it has been known that ER activates phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K) through binding with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K. Therefore, possible mechanisms may include ER-mediated phosphoinositide metabolism with subsequent formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP 3 ), which is generated from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate via PI3K activation. The present study demonstrates that 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulates PI3K in an ERα-dependent manner, but not ERβ, and stimulates cell growth in breast cancer cells. In order to study this phenomenon, we have treated ERα-positive MCF-7 cells and ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with 10 nM E2. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with E2 resulted in a marked increase in PI3K (p85) expression, which paralleled an increase in phospho-Akt (Ser-473) and PIP 3 level. These observations also correlated with an increased activity to E2-induced cell proliferation. However, these effects of E2 on breast cancer cells were not observed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, indicating that the E2-mediated up-regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway is ERα-dependent. These results suggest that estrogen activates PI3K/Akt signaling through ERα-dependent mechanism in MCF-7 cells

  7. Hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulate human endothelial cell-pericyte tube co-assembly in 3D fibrin matrices under serum-free defined conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie O Smith

    Full Text Available We describe a novel 3D fibrin matrix model using recombinant hematopoietic stem cell cytokines under serum-free defined conditions which promotes the assembly of human endothelial cell (EC tubes with co-associated pericytes. Individual ECs and pericytes are randomly mixed together and EC tubes form that is accompanied by pericyte recruitment to the EC tube abluminal surface over a 3-5 day period. These morphogenic processes are stimulated by a combination of the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, stem cell factor, interleukin-3, stromal derived factor-1α, and Flt-3 ligand which are added in conjunction with fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 into the fibrin matrix. In contrast, this tube morphogenic response does not occur under serum-free defined conditions when VEGF and FGF-2 are added together in the fibrin matrices. We recently demonstrated that VEGF and FGF-2 are able to prime EC tube morphogenic responses (i.e. added overnight prior to the morphogenic assay to hematopoietic stem cell cytokines in collagen matrices and, interestingly, they also prime EC tube morphogenesis in 3D fibrin matrices. EC-pericyte interactions in 3D fibrin matrices leads to marked vascular basement membrane assembly as demonstrated using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we show that hematopoietic stem cell cytokines and pericytes stimulate EC sprouting in fibrin matrices in a manner dependent on the α5β1 integrin. This novel co-culture system, under serum-free defined conditions, allows for a molecular analysis of EC tube assembly, pericyte recruitment and maturation events in a critical ECM environment (i.e. fibrin matrices that regulates angiogenic events in postnatal life.

  8. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P<0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P<0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  9. Effects of Stimulants on Height and Weight: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Morley, Christopher P.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The article reviews existing literature on the effects of stimulant medications on the growth of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It concludes that treatment with stimulants in childhood results in moderate growth deficit in height and weight.

  10. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates 125I-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular 125 I-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody

  11. Benzophenone-1 stimulated the growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells by cell cycle regulation via an estrogen receptor alpha-mediated signaling pathway in cellular and xenograft mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min-Ah; Hwang, Kyung-A; Lee, Hye-Rim; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► BP-1 induced cell growth was reversed by an ER antagonist in BG-1 cells. ► BP-1 up-regulated the mRNA expression of cyclin D1. ► Up-regulation of cyclin D1 by BP-1 was reversed by an ER antagonist. ► BP-1 is a potential endocrine disruptor that exerts estrogenic effects. - Abstract: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (benzophenone-1; BP-1) is an UV stabilizer primarily used to prevent polymer degradation and deterioration in quality due to UV irradiation. Recently, BP-1 has been reported to bioaccumulate in human bodies by absorption through the skin and has the potential to induce health problems including endocrine disruption. In the present study, we examined the xenoestrogenic effect of BP-1 on BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs) and relevant xenografted animal models in comparison with 17-β estradiol (E2). In in vitro cell viability assay, BP-1 (10 −8 –10 −5 M) significantly increased BG-1 cell growth the way E2 did. The mechanism underlying the BG-1 cell proliferation was proved to be related with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, a cell cycle progressor, by E2 or BP-1. Both BP-1 and E2 induced cell growth and up-regulation of cyclin D1 were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, suggesting that BP-1 may mediate the cancer cell proliferation via an ER-dependent pathway like E2. On the other hand, the expression of p21, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G 1 phase, was not altered by BP-1 though it was down-regulated by E2. In xenograft mouse models transplanted with BG-1 cells, BP-1 or E2 treatment significantly increased the tumor mass formation compared to a vehicle (corn oil) within 8 weeks. In histopathological analysis, the tumor sections of E2 or BP-1 group displayed extensive cell formations with high density and disordered arrangement, which were supported by the increased number of BrdUrd positive nuclei and the over-expression of cyclin D1 protein. Taken together, these

  12. Repositioning an Academic Department to Stimulate Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Cassandra C.; Daughton, William J.; Murray, Susan L.; Fisher, Caroline M.; Flachsbart, Barry B.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the market in higher education, and the lack of literature regarding marketing, particularly branding, at the academic department level, presented an opportunity to establish a systematic process for evaluating an academic department's brand meaning. A process for evaluating a brand's meaning for an academic department is…

  13. Nerve growth factor (NGF) immunoreactive neurons in the juvenile rat hippocampus: response to acute and long-term high-light open-field (HL-OF) or forced swim (FS) stress stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowska-Szalewska, E; Spodnik, E; Ludkiewicz, B; Klejbor, I; Moryś, J

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed at examining and comparing the influence of two different stress stimuli on the density (number of cells/mm²) of nerve growth factor (NGF) containing neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers and the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell layer in juvenile rats (P28; P-postnatal day). The high-light open-field (HL-OF) test and forced swim (FS) test were employed to investigate the effects of a single, 15-min acute exposure and repeated (15 min daily for 21 days) long-term exposure to stress. In order to detect NGF-ir neurons, immunohistochemical (-ir) techniques were used. In comparison with nonstressed animals, acute and long-term HL-OF or FS stimulation resulted in a marked increase (P<0.001) in the density of NGF-ir containing cells in all the hippocampal structures. The frequency of stress application (acute vs. long-term), however, did not have a substantial impact on the studied parameter, with the exception of the CA3 sector, where a decreased density (P<0.001) of NGF-ir neurons was observed after long-term exposure to FS. It may be concluded that a rise in the density of NGF-ir neurons in the juvenile rat hippocampus after exposure to HL-OF or FS stressors could have affected the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress axis. Prolonged HL-OF or FS stress was probably aggravating enough not to trigger the habituation process. The type of stressor applied (HL-OF vs. FS) was not essentially a factor determining the density of NGF-ir cells in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ICT, Innovation and Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik; Jacobsen, Joannes; Sørensen, Anders

    This CEBR report presents new evidence which suggests that investments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) further productivity growth in Danish firms by stimulating innovation activities.......This CEBR report presents new evidence which suggests that investments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) further productivity growth in Danish firms by stimulating innovation activities....

  15. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  16. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  17. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  18. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  19. Do IGF-I concentrations better reflect growth hormone (GH action in children with short stature than the results of GH stimulating tests? Evidence from the simultaneous assessment of thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyńska Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies between the results of GHST and IGF-I secretion are observed. It seems purposeful to determine the significance of GHST and IGF-I assessment in diagnosing GHD. The relationship between GH secretion and thyroid function, as well as GH influence on the peripheral thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 deiodination, mediated by IGF-I, were identified. Thus, clear differences in thyroid function between GH-deficient and non-GH-deficient subjects should exist. Methods Analysis comprised 800 children (541 boys, age 11.6 ± 3.1 years (mean ± SD, with short stature, in whom two (2 standard GHST (with clonidine and with glucagon were performed and IGF-I, free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3 and TSH serum concentrations were assessed. The patients were qualified to the following groups: GHD - decreased GH peak in GHST and IGF-I SDS (n = 81, ISS - normal GH peak and IGF-I SDS (n = 347, low GH - normal IGF-I SDS, and decreased GH peak (n = 212, low IGF - decreased IGF-I SDS, and normal GH peak (n = 160. The relationships among the results of particular tests were evaluated. Results In the groups with decreased IGF-I concentrations (GHD Group and low IGF Group, the more severe deficit of height was observed, together with higher TSH and FT4 but lower FT3 levels than in groups with normal IGF-I concentrations (ISS Group and low GH Group, independently of the results of GHST. TSH, FT4 and FT3 concentrations were - respectively - similar in two groups with decreased IGF-I secretion, as well as in two groups with normal IGF-I levels. Significant correlations were found between patients' height SDS and IGF-I SDS, between FT3 and IGF-I SDS (positive, and between FT4 and IGF-I SDS (negative, with no correlation between GH peak and any of the parameters

  20. Growth Control by Ethylene: Adjusting Phenotypes to the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, R.; Sasidharan, R.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants phenotypically adjust to environmental challenges, and the gaseous plant hormone ethylene modulates many of these growth adjustments. Ethylene can be involved in environmentally induced growth inhibition as well as growth stimulation. Still, ethylene has long been considered a growth

  1. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  2. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  3. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  4. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  5. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases collagen content, and stimulates procollagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production of dental pulp cells: Role of MEK/ERK and activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shuen Lin

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that TGF-β1 may be involved in the healing/regeneration processes of dental pulp in response to injury by stimulation of collagen and TIMP-1 production. These events are associated with activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad2/3 and MEK/ERK signaling.

  6. Temporal evolution of stimulated Brillouin backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A qualitative understanding of the time dependence of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) provides estimates of the amount of temporal growth that occurs in current inertial confinement fusion and short laser pulse interaction experiments when the growth is limited by the length of the experiment or by motion of the ''hot spots'' of the laser intensity pattern induced by beam smoothing. In the weak coupling limit, the instantaneous growth rate depends upon the plasma initial conditions early in time, is proportional to t -1/2 later in time, and asymptotically approaches the absolute growth rate (in the absence of damping). When the instability is strongly coupled, the growth rate depends upon the plasma initial conditions early in time but is proportional to t -1/3 later in time. When the growth rate drops to a value comparable to that of the ion acoustic frequency, the instability becomes effectively weakly coupled. The effects of damping are also discussed

  7. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Growth hormone administration stimulates energy expenditure and extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in a dose-dependent manner and suppresses circadian thyrotrophin levels: studies in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Møller, Jens

    1994-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: GH administration stimulated peripheral T4 to T3 conversion in a dose-dependent manner. Serum T3 levels were subnormal despite T4 substitution when the patients were off GH but normalized with GH therapy. Energy expenditure increased with GH and correlated with free T3 levels. GH caused......Abstract OBJECTIVE: The impact of exogenous GH on thyroid function remains controversial although most data add support to a stimulation of peripheral T4 to T3 conversion. For further elucidation we evaluated iodothyronine and circadian TSH levels in GH-deficient patients as part of a GH dose...... without GH, whereas GH therapy significantly suppressed the TSH levels and blunted the circadian rhythm (mean TSH levels (mU/l) 0.546 +/- 0.246 (no GH) vs 0.066 +/- 0.031 (2 IU GH) (P

  9. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  10. IMPORTANCIA DE LA ESTIMULACIÓN DE LAS APTITUDES BÁSICAS DEL APRENDIZAJE DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DEL DESARROLLO INFANTIL - IMPORTANCE OF STIMULATION OF LEARNING BASIC SKILLS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CHILDHOOD GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA MARCELA SÁNCHEZ LOZANO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it has been demonstrated that the stimulation of the child during these stages constitutes a crucial process in his evolution, in the biological, psychological and social aspects. As the child grows so do his abilities, and therefore a clear need to keep them in constant interaction and potential for their further development lead in an adequate adaptation to situations he must face. For that reason it is a need that is not the mere whim of a society that is constantly evolving, it is a reality that has been working ever since and its results have been t both quantitatively and qualitatively. Numerous studies show that non stimulated children have lower academic performance in relation to those who have received an adequate stimulation. However, alarming data has been found showing lack of stimulation in children of these ages, this fact can cause a delay in any development areas. For the development of certain cognitive elements and maturity in children, it is necessary to provide them opportunities to potentiate their abilities and skills so that they can achieve a healthy development and the formation of higher cognitive processes, as well as the reach of goals.ResumenHoy día es evidente que la estimulación del niño constituye un proceso crucial para su evolución en las dimensiones biológica, psicológica y social. A medida que avanza el crecimiento del niño lo hacen también sus capacidades, y por lo tanto resulta imprescindible mantenerlasen constante interacción y estimular su potencialidad para que su desarrollo conlleve en lo posterior una adecuada adaptación a situaciones que deberá enfrentar. Se trata así de una necesidadque trasciende el simple capricho de una sociedad en constante evolución. Numerosas investigaciones han demostrado que los niños no estimulados tienen menores rendimientos escolares en relación con aquellos que han recibido una adecuada estimulación. No obstanteello, se han encontrado datos

  11. Modulation of nuclear T3 binding by T3 in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver) - T3 stimulation of cell growth but not of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatdehydrogenase or 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The T3 modulation of nuclear T3 binding (NBT3), the T3 effect on cell growth, and the T3 and insulin effects on malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) were studied in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver). T3 was bound to a high ...

  12. Measurement of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karr, T.J.; Rushford, M.C.; Murray, J.R.; Morris, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Growth of perturbations due to stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering was observed on a laser beam propagating in a 1 meter cell of CC14. Initial sinusoidal irradiance perturbations were seeded onto the laser leam, and their amplification in the cell was recorded by a near field camera. The perturbation growth rate is in agreement with analytical predictions of linearized propagation theory

  13. In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabino-oligosaccharides by fecal microbiota obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis to selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.

    in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory bowel disease, and compositional changes have been observed in the colonic microbiota by us as well as by other research groups 1-3. Since bifidobacteria and lactobacilli may excert anti-inflammatory effects, a reduced level of these commensal bacteria...... may compromise the colon health and favor intestinal inflammation. In this study, selective stimulation of fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from healthy subjects and UC patients in remission or with active disease were investigated using arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS; DP2-10) derived from sugar...... beet pulp. The fermentative-induced changes were compared to those for fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are known to have a prebiotic effect. The fermentation studies were carried out using a validated small-scale static batch system, and changes in the fecal microbial communities and metabolites...

  14. Stimulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Endothelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition and Tissue Fibrosis by Endothelin-1 (ET-1): A Novel Profibrotic Effect of ET-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermuth, Peter J; Li, Zhaodong; Mendoza, Fabian A; Jimenez, Sergio A

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a newly recognized source of profibrotic activated myofibroblasts and has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of various fibrotic processes. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the development of tissue fibrosis but its participation in TGF-β-induced EndoMT has not been studied. Here we evaluated the role of ET-1 on TGF-β1-induced EndoMT in immunopurified CD31+/CD102+ murine lung microvascular endothelial cells. The expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), of relevant profibrotic genes, and of various transcription factors involved in the EndoMT process were assessed employing quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence histology and Western blot analysis. TGF-β1 caused potent induction of EndoMT whereas ET-1 alone had a minimal effect. However, ET-1 potentiated TGF-β1-induced EndoMT and TGF-β1-stimulated expression of mesenchymal cell specific and profibrotic genes and proteins. ET-1 also induced expression of the TGF-β receptor 1 and 2 genes, suggesting a plausible autocrine mechanism to potentiate TGF-β-mediated EndoMT and fibrosis. Stimulation of TGF-β1-induced skin and lung fibrosis by ET-1 was confirmed in vivo in an animal model of TGF-β1-induced tissue fibrosis. These results suggest a novel role for ET-1 in the establishment and progression of tissue fibrosis.

  15. A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thyrotropin‑secreting macroadenoma with positive growth hormone and prolactin immunostaining: A case report and literature review. ... thyroid hormone receptor resistance syndrome. Key words: Inappropriate thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin‑secreting pituitary adenoma, thyroid stimulating hormone adenoma ...

  16. Quantification of growth benefit of carnivorous plants from prey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7 ISSN 0190-9215 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mineral cost and benefit * stimulation of roots * growth stimulation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  17. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  18. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. (paper)

  19. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  20. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...

  1. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Novel In Vitro System for Comparative Analyses of Bone Cells and Bacteria under Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Josef Dauben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is a promising approach to enhance bone regeneration while having potential to inhibit bacterial growth. To investigate effects of alternating electric field stimulation on both human osteoblasts and bacteria, a novel in vitro system was designed. Electric field distribution was simulated numerically and proved by experimental validation. Cells were stimulated on Ti6Al4V electrodes and in short distance to electrodes. Bacterial growth was enumerated in supernatant and on the electrode surface and biofilm formation was quantified. Electrical stimulation modulated gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers in a voltage-dependent manner, resulting in significantly enhanced osteocalcin mRNA synthesis rate on electrodes after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. While collagen type I synthesis increased when stimulated with 0.2VRMS, it decreased after stimulation with 1.4VRMS. Only slight and infrequent influence on bacterial growth was observed following stimulations with 0.2VRMS and 1.4VRMS after 48 and 72 h, respectively. In summary this novel test system is applicable for extended in vitro studies concerning definition of appropriate stimulation parameters for bone cell growth and differentiation, bacterial growth suppression, and investigation of general effects of electrical stimulation.

  3. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  4. Mass production of `Swan`s Golden`, Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Some species of `Swan`s Golden` have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of `Swan`s Golden` is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  5. Characteristics and outcomes of Italian patients from the observational, multicentre, hypopituitary control and complications study (HypoCCS) according to tertiles of growth hormone peak concentration following stimulation testing at study entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Marco; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Di Somma, Carolina; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Ferone, Diego; Giampietro, Antonella; Corsello, Salvatore M; Poggi, Maurizio; Scaroni, Carla; Jia, Nan; Mossetto, Gilberto; Cannavò, Salvatore; Rochira, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether characteristics and outcomes of Italian patients in the observational global Hypopituitary Control and Complication Study (HypoCCS) differed according to the degree of GH deficiency (GHD). Patients were grouped by tertiles of stimulated GH peak concentration at baseline (Group A lowest tertile, n = 342; Group B middle tertile, n = 345; Group C highest tertile, n = 338). Baseline demographics, lipid levels, body mass index categories and mean Framingham cardiovascular risk indexes were similar in the three groups and remained substantially unchanged over time, with no subsequent significant between-group differences (except mean levels of triglycerides increased in the highest tertile group). GHD was adult-onset for >75% of patients in all groups. The percentage of patients with multiple pituitary deficiencies was higher in Group A than in the other groups; isolated GHD was reported with highest frequency in Group C. Patients in Group A received the lowest mean starting dose of GH. Hyperlipidaemia at baseline was reported in 35·1%, 31·1% and 24·7% of patients in groups A, B and C, respectively (P = 0·029). Mean duration of GH treatment was 7·21, 5·45 and 4·96 years, respectively. The proportion of patients with adverse events did not differ significantly between groups, with a low prevalence over time of diabetes and cancer. In Italian patients from HypoCCS, the level of GH deficit did not influence changes over time in metabolic parameters or adverse event profile, despite differences in GHD severity at baseline and in the starting GH dose. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  7. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  8. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B

    2005-01-01

    on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells......To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w....... Keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed no increase in proliferation after stimulation with increased concentrations of ST. The results suggest that HGF and KGF may play an important role as a paracrine growth factor in epithelial hyperplasia in ST lesions....

  9. Comparison of early gestational development between natural and stimulated pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, M. O.; Yoon, T. K.; Cha, G. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the difference in growth and development between the stimulated and natural pregnancies, we compared the sonographic measurement of early embryos from the fifth to seventh gestational week, in terms of mean size of gestational sac, crown rump length, fetal heart rate and yolk sac size between 26 ovulation stimulated pregnancies and 38 natural pre gnancies. The two groups were compared by multiple regression analysis, The data suggest that there is attend that embryos smaller in stimulated pregnancies though significant statistical differences was not proved

  10. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  11. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  12. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  13. Silencing of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs stimulates hyperplastic phenotypes through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Mie Lee

    Full Text Available Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK, a tumor suppressor is down-regulated by the oncogenic signals and hypoxia, but the biological function of RECK in early tumorigenic hyperplastic phenotypes is largely unknown. Knockdown of RECK by small interfering RNA (siRECK or hypoxia significantly promoted cell proliferation in various normal epithelial cells. Hypoxia as well as knockdown of RECK by siRNA increased the cell cycle progression, the levels of cyclin D1 and c-Myc, and the phosphorylation of Rb protein (p-pRb, but decreased the expression of p21(cip1, p27(kip1, and p16(ink4A. HIF-2α was upregulated by knockdown of RECK, indicating HIF-2α is a downstream target of RECK. As knockdown of RECK induced the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and treatment of an EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, suppressed HIF-2α expression induced by the silencing of RECK, we can suggest that the RECK silenicng-EGFR-HIF-2α axis might be a key molecular mechanism to induce hyperplastic phenotype of epithelial cells. It was also found that shRNA of RECK induced larger and more numerous colonies than control cells in an anchorage-independent colony formation assay. Using a xenograft assay, epithelial cells with stably transfected with shRNA of RECK formed a solid mass earlier and larger than those with control cells in nude mice. In conclusion, the suppression of RECK may promote the development of early tumorigenic hyperplastic characteristics in hypoxic stress.

  14. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  15. The Mechanism of Financial Stimulation of Investment Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Valeryevich Tarakanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of the Russian economy and creation of conditions for its economic growth demand activization of investment activity that is possible by means of its financial stimulation. Financial stimulation of investment activity defines the need of changes of the contents, the directions and ways of implementation of the financial relations between subjects of investment activity. Financial stimulation of investment activity is carried out via the mechanism in the context of which these financial relations are settled. For defining the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity the authors consider the very concept of financial mechanism. The conclusion is drawn that all elements of the financial mechanism are the integrated unity, they are interdependent and interconnected, and the combination of types, forms, methods of the organization of the financial relations forms “a design of the financial mechanism”. The article specifies the maintenance of the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity, and reveals its essence. The structure of the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity is presented by the following elements: subjects of financial stimulation of investment activity, the purpose of attraction of investments by them, set of financial methods and tools, sources of means of achievement of goals, standard - legal and information support of financial stimulation of investment activity. It is proved that in the mechanism of financial stimulation of investment activity the leading role is played by the state by means of forms of direct and indirect participation in attraction of investments, each of which is realized by means of specific methods and the corresponding tools. The widespread instrument of financial stimulation of investment activity is the investments which are carried out by the state institutes of development participating in the organization of the process of financial

  16. 1 2 POPULATION GROWTH AND THE DILEMMA OF RURAL LIFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    The high as well as the unrestrained population growth rate of the country has, to a ... that it stimulates business and general economic growth cycles and therefore .... The privilege and opportunity of acquiring functional education, for instance ...

  17. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Key words: Growth-promoting factors, mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), proliferation. INTRODUCTION ... insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can stimulate mitotic ...... A Model for Analysis of Spermatogenesis. Zool. Sci.

  18. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  19. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  20. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  1. What Is a Growth Disorder? (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any fun being teased. Helping your child build self-esteem and emphasizing strengths — regardless of how tall he or she may grow ... Teens Blount Disease Growth Charts Blood Test: Follicle Stimulating ...

  2. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  3. Computationally Developed Sham Stimulation Protocol for Multichannel Desynchronizing Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld Zeitler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic pattern of abnormal brain activity is abnormally strong neuronal synchronization, as found in several brain disorders, such as tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. As observed in several diseases, different therapeutic interventions may induce a placebo effect that may be strong and hinder reliable clinical evaluations. Hence, to distinguish between specific, neuromodulation-induced effects and unspecific, placebo effects, it is important to mimic the therapeutic procedure as precisely as possibly, thereby providing controls that actually lack specific effects. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation has been developed to specifically counteract abnormally strong synchronization by desynchronization. CR is a spatio-temporally patterned multichannel stimulation which reduces the extent of coincident neuronal activity and aims at an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of both synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. Apart from acute desynchronizing effects, CR may cause sustained, long-lasting desynchronizing effects, as already demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In this computational study, we set out to computationally develop a sham stimulation protocol for multichannel desynchronizing stimulation. To this end, we compare acute effects and long-lasting effects of six different spatio-temporally patterned stimulation protocols, including three variants of CR, using a no-stimulation condition as additional control. This is to provide an inventory of different stimulation algorithms with similar fundamental stimulation parameters (e.g., mean stimulation rates but qualitatively different acute and/or long-lasting effects. Stimulation protocols sharing basic parameters, but inducing nevertheless completely different or even no acute effects and/or after-effects, might serve as controls to validate the specific effects of particular desynchronizing protocols such as CR. In particular, based on

  4. Growth factor involvement in tension-induced skeletal muscle growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term manned space travel will require a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy which results from microgravity. Astronaut strength and dexterity must be maintained for normal mission operations and for emergency situations. Although exercise in space slows the rate of muscle loss, it does not prevent it. A biochemical understanding of how gravity/tension/exercise help to maintain muscle size by altering protein synthesis and/or degradation rate should ultimately allow pharmacological intervention to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity. The overall objective is to examine some of the basic biochemical processes involved in tension-induced muscle growth. With an experimental in vitro system, the role of exogenous and endogenous muscle growth factors in mechanically stimulated muscle growth are examined. Differentiated avian skeletal myofibers can be 'exercised' in tissue culture using a newly developed dynamic mechanical cell stimulator device which simulates different muscle activity patterns. Patterns of mechanical activity which significantly affect muscle growth and metabolic characteristics were found. Both exogenous and endogenous growth factors are essential for tension-induced muscle growth. Exogenous growth factors found in serum, such as insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and steroids, are important regulators of muscle protein turnover rates and mechanically-induced muscle growth. Endogenous growth factors are synthesized and released into the culture medium when muscle cells are mechanically stimulated. At least one family of mechanically induced endogenous factors, the prostaglandins, help to regulate the rates of protein turnover in muscle cells. Endogenously synthesized IGF-1 is another. The interaction of muscle mechanical activity and these growth factors in the regulation of muscle protein turnover rates with our in vitro model system is studied.

  5. IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue...

  6. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. Two monochromatic electromagnetic waves of like polarization travelling in opposite directions are allowed to interact for a time tau with the electrons in a collisionless plasma. The electromagnetic waves have frequencies well above the plasma frequency, and their difference frequency is allowed to range upward from the plasma frequency. With the difference frequency well above the plasma frequency, the rate at which energy is transferred from one wave to the other is calculated quantum mechanically, classically from a fluid theory, and classically from an independent electron theory. The rate is calculated in both the homogeneously broadened limit, and in the inhomogeneously broadened limit

  7. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  8. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  9. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-19

    Jul 19, 2015 ... sity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes as a result of rapid aging and a ... crobial activity, immunity, and blood lipid metabolism and increase ..... Higgins DA 1975 Physical and chemical properties of fowl immu- noglobulins.

  10. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus increased by 115.74% and 144.28%, whereas Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Streptococcus decreased by 17.37%, 17.46%, 21.25%, and 19.16%, respectively, in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (<0.05). Total organic acids, acetic acid, and propionic acid ...

  11. New Prebiotic Blend of Polydextrose and Galacto-oligosaccharides Has a Bifidogenic Effect in Young Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalabrin, Deolinda M. F.; Mitmesser, Susan H.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harris, Cheryl L.; Marunycz, John D.; Walker, D. Carey; Bos, Nico A.; Tolkko, Satu; Salminen, Seppo; Vanderhoof, Jon A.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of infant formula with polydextrose (PDX) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on fecal microbiota and secretory IgA (sIgA). Materials and Methods: In the present double-blind, randomized study, term infants received control (Enfamil Lipil) or

  12. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  13. Compact biomedical pulsed signal generator for bone tissue stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for stimulating bone tissue for stimulating bone growth or treating osteoporosis by applying directly to the skin of the patient an alternating current electrical signal comprising wave forms known to simulate the piezoelectric constituents in bone. The apparatus may, by moving a switch, stimulate bone growth or treat osteoporosis, as desired. Based on low-power CMOS technology and enclosed in a moisture-resistant case shaped to fit comfortably, two astable multivibrators produce the desired waveforms. The amplitude, pulse width and pulse frequency, and the subpulse width and subpulse frequency of the waveforms are adjustable. The apparatus, preferably powered by a standard 9-volt battery, includes signal amplitude sensors and warning signals indicate an output is being produced and the battery needs to be replaced.

  14. Solar ultraviolet photodegradation of DOC may stimulate freshwater food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Morris, D.P.; Williamson, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The UV component in solar radiation increased the availability of DOC for bacterial growth, and led to an increase in bacterial and bacterivore abundance in laboratory plankton cultures. UV radiation may thus stimulate ecosystem productivity by increasing dissolved organic carbon lability and

  15. Ultrasound stimulation on bone healing. The optimization of stimulation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosim, R.C.; Paulin, J.B.P.; Goncalves, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Previous works in ultrasonic simulation of bone healing dealt with parameters optimization. Albertin (1983) studied the stimulation time and found forty minutes as ideal. However, this stimulation time was the largest one employed and remained some doubt about the most appropriated value. 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of stimulation time were selected, while others parameters were held constant with: pulse width in 200 μs, repetition rate in 1000 pulses per second and amplitude in 30 V. Partial incomplete transverse osteotomies were done in the middle third of radio in the right forearm of rabbits. Twenty four animals divided in four subgroups, with 6 animals each were stimulated. The daily stimulation time for each subgroup was 30, 40, 50 and minutes respectively, during 15 consecutive days. The stimulation procedure started 24 hours after surgery. After the stimulation period, radiological, histological and morphometric evaluations were done and greater bone healing was found for the 50 minutes stimulation subgroup, in them new bone was also prominent. (author)

  16. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  17. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    -related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive...

  18. Effects of rhizobia and plant growth promoting bacteria inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth by producing phytohormone which enhances the growth and physiological activities of the host plant. Recently, legume bacteria (Rhizobium spp.) have been considered as a PGPR for legume as well as non-legumes and have the potential for growth ...

  19. Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trank, Douglas M.

    Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

  20. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  1. Ghrelin stimulates synaptic formation in cultured cortical networks in a dose-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzig, K.H.; Stoyanova, Irina; le Feber, Jakob; Rutten, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin was initially related to appetite stimulation and growth hormone secretion. These findings suggest that ghrelin may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of disorders related to synaptic impairment.

  2. EFFECTIVE STIMULATION WORKERS – BASIS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Drobyshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. At the present stage of development of domestic agricultural production is a key strategic direction of the innovative development of the industry. Tasked by the government to effectively modernize the economy reflect the latest scientific and technological progress, innovation, positive perception of new ideas and breakthrough technologies. In this regard, the decisive role played by the information network , computer systems, high production technology and intellectual resources of society, innovative organization of various spheres of human activity , as well as a new level of relations to knowledge. The main driving force of innovation development of agro-industrial production in Russia at the present stage is the human potential to carry out the restructuring of the agricultural sector with the latest achievements of scientific and technical progress. Famous slogan - "cadres decide everything" under the innovation paradigm of reforming the economy is of particular relevance. One of the important reasons for the low level of innovative development of agricultural production is the lack of motivation of creative work in the agricultural workers business organizations. For the development of advanced technologies for improving the quality and reducing the material cost per unit of cash - produ Dima products they do not receive adequate material compensation. This is largely inhibits the activity of employees in the development of advanced low-cost and resource-saving technologies in agricultural production. We propose an original model for innovative employee incentiveing activity and a real contribution to improving the efficiency of the enterprise. To take into account the personal contribution of the employee in additional economic benefit through innovative component and determining bonuses, proposed to use the "coefficient of innovation activity employee" (CIAE. The value of this coefficient is defined as the ratio of profits derived by an enterprise as a result of innovation in a given period to the standard profit on the business plan or the actual profit for the previous period.

  3. Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Sandra; De Muynck, Willem; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio; Steppe, Kathy; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2014-05-15

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious construction materials constituting the wall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. This work aims at assessing the suitability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) materials to allow a rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, the w/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binders were modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material. MPC mortar with moderate porosity and roughness appears to be the most feasible material to be used for the development of green concrete walls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Policy as a Stimulant to Curricular Growth in Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    If boards of education in rural areas are going to strengthen education, they need to achieve empowering leadership through written policies that create a clarity of vision, empower subordinates, and emphasize renewal. Empowering leadership allows linkages among stakeholders of education and encourages creative efforts toward improving the…

  5. Angiogenic factors stimulate growth of adult neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research tools.Here we show that NSCs can be efficiently grown in adherent cell cultures when angiogenic signals are included in the medium. These signals include both anti-angiogenic factors (the soluble form of the Notch receptor ligand, Dll4 and pro-angiogenic factors (the Tie-2 receptor ligand, Angiopoietin 2. These treatments support the self renewal state of cultured NSCs and expression of the transcription factor Hes3, which also identifies the cancer stem cell population in human tumors. In an organotypic slice model, angiogenic factors maintain vascular structure and increase the density of dopamine neuron processes.We demonstrate new properties of adult NSCs and a method to generate efficient adult NSC cultures from various central nervous system areas. These findings will help establish cellular models relevant to cancer and regeneration.

  6. New CNB measures to stimulate credit growth: problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vidakovic, Neven; Zbašnik, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the new measure implemented by Croatian national bank (CNB). The measure is a decrease in the reserve requirement, but the actual release of funds is contingent on increase in lending to firms. This new measure is significant because for the first time in Croatia there is a measure whose purpose is to affect specifically credit policy of the banks. Although this new measure has good intentions it does not solve the problem of why highly liquid banking system in Croatia is n...

  7. Small Business Financing – an Economic Growth Stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ivas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small business is an important lever for solving a whole complex of political, economic and social problems, taking into consideration its effectiveness in society. It attracts population to promote economic reforms, it fulfils the market with goods and services, it creats new job places, it grows entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial culture, developes a careful attitude towards property, forms a progressive structure of the national economy. We can deduce after the research in this article that as an independent and irreplaceable structure, the small and medium enterprise sector in Moldova constitutes one of the most efficient levers that contribute at solutioning the economic and social problems. It also is a factor which structurally transforms the economy, consolidates its economic base and its zones, fulfils in an accelerate mode the market with goods and services, attenuates the monopolism and favours competition development, implementation of scientific and technical achievements, the country's increasing export opportunities, providing new jobs to a large number of people .

  8. Stimulating lifelong professional growth by guiding job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; Brinkman, Johan Geert

    2001-01-01

    This article reports some findings from a broader study concerning the development of professional expertise. The aim of the part that is described in this article was to find out whether certain job-related factors situated in the domain of socio-technical systems design (STSD), that is, control

  9. Uso de fatores de crescimento epidérmico e estimulador de colônias de granulócitos na prevenção e tratamento da enterocolite necrosante no recém-nascido Use of epidermic and granulocyte-colony stimulating growth factors in the prevention and treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáfne Cardoso B. da Silva

    2008-06-01

    pathophysiology of this disease improves, new therapies, such as the administration of epidermal growth factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, are being discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of growth factors for treatment and prevention of NEC seems promising. However, further clinics assays are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of these growth factors. At this moment, the best clinical practice is the prevention of the disease.

  10. Economic Growth and Government Spending Nexus: Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results highlight the need for policy makers to shift public outlays towards investment in physical infrastructure which will stimulate growth and consequently improve fiscal sustainability as opposed to recurrent expenditure. Keywords: Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Cointegration, Causality, Wagner' Law ...

  11. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John A; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  12. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  13. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  14. Abscisic Acid Stimulates Elongation of Excised Pea Root Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Douglas H.; Lutz, Donald H.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1975-01-01

    Excised Pisum sativum L. root tips were incubated in a pH 5.2 sucrose medium containing abscisic acid. Elongation growth was inhibited by 100 μm abscisic acid. However, decreasing the abscisic acid concentration caused stimulation of elongation, the maximum response (25% to 30%) occurring at 1 μm abscisic acid. Prior to two hours, stimulation of elongation by 1 μm abscisic acid was not detectable. Increased elongation did not occur in abscisic acid-treated root tips of Lens culinaris L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Zea mays L. PMID:16659198

  15. Reduction of stimulated Brillouin backscattering with plasma beam smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, V.; Loisel, G.; Baccou, C.; Labaune, C. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Teychenné, D. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Borisenko, N. G.; Orekhov, A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rienecker, T.; Rosmej, O. [GSI Helmhotzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Plasma induced incoherence (PII) can strongly modify the growth rates of stimulated scattering instabilities. A special double-target design was used to quantify the effect of PII on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Successive shots using all or part of these targets led to the characterization of temporal and spatial incoherence of a laser pulse after propagation through a foam plasma and to the quantification of the reduction of SBS from the second target. Numerical simulations were used to identify the main physical mechanisms in play.

  16. Local probing and stimulation of neuronal cells by optical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Dan

    2014-09-01

    During development and in the adult brain, neurons continuously explore the environment searching for guidance cues, leading to the appropriate connections. Elucidating these mechanisms represents a gold goal in neurobiology. Here, I discuss our recent achievements developing new approaches to locally probe the growth cones and stimulate neuronal cell compartments with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical tweezers force spectroscopy applied in conjunction with metabolic inhibitors reveals new properties of the cytoskeleton dynamics. On the other hand, using optically manipulated microvectors as functionalized beads or filled liposomes, we demonstrate focal stimulation of neurons by small number of signaling molecules.

  17. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis for responsiveness to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermans, Paul C A; Bakker, Peter A H M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r stimulates lateral root formation and increases shoot growth in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These plant growth-stimulating effects are partly caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the bacterium.

  18. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis for responsiveness to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermans, P.C.A.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r stimulates lateral root formation and increases shoot growth in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These plant growth-stimulating effects are partly caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the bacterium.

  19. Strigolactones Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Activating Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Kiefer, Patrick; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Jauneau, Alain; Roy, Sébastien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Roux, Christophe; Bécard, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF) that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10 −13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants. PMID:16787107

  20. Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Besserer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10(-13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants.

  1. Towards Sustainable Growth Business Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp-Roelands, N.; Balkenende, J.P.; Van Ommen, P.

    2012-03-15

    The Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition (DSGC) has the following objectives: The DSGC aims to pro-actively drive sustainable growth business models along three lines: (1) Shape. DSGC member companies aim to connect economic profitability with environmental and social progress on the basis of integrated sustainable growth business models; (2) Share. DSGC member companies aim for joint advocacy of sustainable growth business models both internationally and nationally; and (3) Stimulate. DSGC member companies aim to stimulate and influence the policy debate on enabling sustainable growth - with a view to finding solutions to the environmental and social challenges we are facing. This is their first report. The vision, actions and mission of DSGC are documented in the Manifesto in Chapter 2 of this publication. Chapter 3 contains an overview of key features of an integrated sustainable growth business model and the roadmap towards such a model. In Chapter 4, project examples of DSGC members are presented, providing insight into the hands-on reality of implementing the good practices. Chapter 5 offers an overview of how the Netherlands provides an enabling environment for sustainable growth business models. Chapter 6 offers the key conclusions.

  2. Multielectrode intrafascicular and extraneural stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; van Alste, Jan A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between nerve stimulation, pulse amplitude and isometric muscle force was measured to investigate recruitment of motor units. Force addition experiments were performed to obtain insight in the intersection of motor unit groups recruited by different electrodes. Intrafascicular and

  3. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  4. Augmenting nerve regeneration with electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T; Brushart, T M; Chan, K M

    2008-12-01

    Poor functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is generally attributed to irreversible target atrophy. In rats, we addressed the functional outcomes of prolonged neuronal separation from targets (chronic axotomy for up to 1 year) and atrophy of Schwann cells (SCs) in distal nerve stumps, and whether electrical stimulation (ES) accelerates axon regeneration. In carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with severe axon degeneration and release surgery, we asked whether ES accelerates muscle reinnervation. Reinnervated motor unit (MUs) and regenerating neuron numbers were counted electrophysiologically and with dye-labeling after chronic axotomy, chronic SC denervation and after immediate nerve repair with and without trains of 20 Hz ES for 1 hour to 2 weeks in rats and in CTS patients. Chronic axotomy reduced regenerative capacity to 67% and was alleviated by exogenous growth factors. Reduced regeneration to approximately 10% by SC denervation atrophy was ameliorated by forskolin and transforming growth factor-beta SC reactivation. ES (1 h) accelerated axon outgrowth across the suture site in association with elevated neuronal neurotrophic factor and receptors and in patients, promoted the full reinnervation of thenar muscles in contrast to a non-significant increase in MU numbers in the control group. The rate limiting process of axon outgrowth, progressive deterioration of both neuronal growth capacity and SC support, but not irreversible target atrophy, account for observed poor functional recovery after nerve injury. Brief ES accelerates axon outgrowth and target muscle reinnervation in animals and humans, opening the way to future clinical application to promote functional recovery.

  5. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G W [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Coffer, H F; Luetkehans, G R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  6. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  7. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  8. Paternal Stimulation and Early Child Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joshua; McCoy, Dana Charles; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Salhi, Carmel; Fink, Günther

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between paternal stimulation and children's growth and development, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of paternal stimulation and to assess whether paternal stimulation was associated with early child growth and development. Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys rounds 4 and 5 were combined across 38 LMICs. The sample comprised 87 286 children aged 3 and 4 years. Paternal stimulation was measured by the number of play and learning activities (up to 6) a father engaged in with his child over the past 3 days. Linear regression models were used to estimate standardized mean differences in height-for-age z-scores and Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) z-scores across 3 levels of paternal stimulation, after controlling for other caregivers' stimulation and demographic covariates. A total of 47.8% of fathers did not engage in any stimulation activities, whereas 6.4% of fathers engaged in 5 or 6 stimulation activities. Children whose fathers were moderately engaged in stimulation (1-4 activities) showed ECDI scores that were 0.09 SD (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.12 to -0.06) lower than children whose fathers were highly engaged; children whose fathers were unengaged showed ECDI scores that were 0.14 SD lower (95% CI: -0.17 to -0.12). Neither moderate paternal stimulation nor lack of paternal stimulation was associated with height-for-age z-scores, relative to high stimulation. Increasing paternal engagement in stimulation is likely to improve early child development in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  10. Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125 I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes

  11. Stimulated emission from ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, R.; Lange, H.; Priller, H.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU-Braunschweig, H.-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Fan, H.J.; Zacharias, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    By means of time resolved spectroscopy we compare two samples of ZnO nanorods with respect to their suitability as stimulated emitters. In the case of narrow nanorods their wave guiding quality causes a suppression of exciton-exciton scattering whereas no laser emission is detectable. Unlike their narrow counterparts, wide nanorods not only benefit from a larger overlap of the guided mode with the gain medium but a variation in VLS growth results in gold nanoparticles being present at the bottom of nanorods. Consequently, laser emission from single wide rods is evidenced up to 150 K. In addition to experimental studies we carry out 3D numerical simulations of the electric field distribution to evaluate the influence of gold nanoparticles at the nanorod/substrate interface. This finite element analysis confirms that gold leads to an enhancement of confinement within the resonator. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  13. From Limits to Growth to Limitless Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the Club of Rome’s landmark report ‘The Limits to Growth’ in 1972 shook the intellectual foundations of social theory and challenged the very premises on which modern economy and prosperity are based. Once set in motion, it led to a revolutionary re-evaluation of human aspirations and economic activities. Among its many consequences, it has stimulated creative minds to look freshly at the underlying processes governing the wealth and welfare of nations. The article then traces their creative impact on the mind of one of the most original economic theorists of our age – Orio Giarini.[*] As ‘The Limits to Growth’ alarmed the world by the unsustainability and dire consequences of unbridled economic growth, Giarini offers a correspondingly affirmative vision of economics with unlimited potential for wealth and welfare.

  14. [Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

    2001-01-01

    Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

  15. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  16. Direct Intracochlear Acoustic Stimulation Using a PZT Microactuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Omelchenko, Irina; Manson, Robert; Robbins, Carol; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Cao, Guo Zhong; Shen, I Y; Hume, Clifford R

    2015-12-01

    Combined electric and acoustic stimulation has proven to be an effective strategy to improve hearing in some cochlear implant users. We describe an acoustic microactuator to directly deliver stimuli to the perilymph in the scala tympani. The 800 µm by 800 µm actuator has a silicon diaphragm driven by a piezoelectric thin film (e.g., lead-zirconium-titanium oxide or PZT). This device could also be used as a component of a bimodal acoustic-electric electrode array. In the current study, we established a guinea pig model to test the actuator for its ability to deliver auditory signals to the cochlea in vivo. The actuator was placed through the round window of the cochlea. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds, peak latencies, and amplitude growth were calculated for an ear canal speaker versus the intracochlear actuator for tone burst stimuli at 4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz. An ABR was obtained after removal of the probe to assess loss of hearing related to the procedure. In some animals, the temporal bone was harvested for histologic analysis of cochlear damage. We show that the device is capable of stimulating ABRs in vivo with latencies and growth functions comparable to stimulation in the ear canal. Further experiments will be necessary to evaluate the efficiency and safety of this modality in long-term auditory stimulation and its ability to be integrated with conventional cochlear implant arrays. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Direct Intracochlear Acoustic Stimulation Using a PZT Microactuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined electric and acoustic stimulation has proven to be an effective strategy to improve hearing in some cochlear implant users. We describe an acoustic microactuator to directly deliver stimuli to the perilymph in the scala tympani. The 800 µm by 800 µm actuator has a silicon diaphragm driven by a piezoelectric thin film (e.g., lead-zirconium-titanium oxide or PZT. This device could also be used as a component of a bimodal acoustic-electric electrode array. In the current study, we established a guinea pig model to test the actuator for its ability to deliver auditory signals to the cochlea in vivo. The actuator was placed through the round window of the cochlea. Auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds, peak latencies, and amplitude growth were calculated for an ear canal speaker versus the intracochlear actuator for tone burst stimuli at 4, 8, 16, and 24 kHz. An ABR was obtained after removal of the probe to assess loss of hearing related to the procedure. In some animals, the temporal bone was harvested for histologic analysis of cochlear damage. We show that the device is capable of stimulating ABRs in vivo with latencies and growth functions comparable to stimulation in the ear canal. Further experiments will be necessary to evaluate the efficiency and safety of this modality in long-term auditory stimulation and its ability to be integrated with conventional cochlear implant arrays.

  18. Investigation of in vitro bone cell adhesion and proliferation on Ti using direct current stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhak, Subhadip; Bose, Susmita; Kinsel, William C.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to establish an in vitro cell culture protocol to improve bone cell attachment and proliferation on Ti substrate using direct current stimulation. For this purpose, a custom made electrical stimulator was developed and a varying range of direct currents, from 5 to 25 μA, was used to study the current stimulation effect on bone cells cultured on conducting Ti samples in vitro. Cell–material interaction was studied for a maximum of 5 days by culturing with human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). The direct current was applied in every 8 h time interval and the duration of electrical stimulation was kept constant at 15 min for all cases. In vitro results showed that direct current stimulation significantly favored bone cell attachment and proliferation in comparison to nonstimulated Ti surface. Immunochemistry and confocal microscopy results confirmed that the cell adhesion was most pronounced on 25 μA direct current stimulated Ti surfaces as hFOB cells expressed higher vinculin protein with increasing amount of direct current. Furthermore, MTT assay results established that cells grew 30% higher in number under 25 μA electrical stimulation as compared to nonstimulated Ti surface after 5 days of culture period. In this work we have successfully established a simple and cost effective in vitro protocol offering easy and rapid analysis of bone cell–material interaction which can be used in promotion of bone cell attachment and growth on Ti substrate using direct current electrical stimulation in an in vitro model. - Highlights: ► D.C. stimulation was used to enhance in vitro bone cell adhesion and proliferation. ► Cells cultured on Ti were stimulated by using a custom made electrical stimulator. ► Optimization was performed by using a varying range of direct currents ∼ 5 to 25 μA. ► 25 μA stimulation was found most beneficial for promotion of cell adhesion/growth.

  19. Somatomedin-C stimulates glycogen synthesis in fetal rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemark, M.; D'Ercole, A.J.; Handwerger, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I (Sm-C) on glycogen metabolism in cultured hepatocytes from 20-day-old rat fetuses have been examined and compared with the effects of insulin. Sm-C (25-375 ng/ml; 3.25-50 nM) stimulated dose-dependent increases in [ 14 C]glucose incorporation into glycogen (14.4-72.9% and total cell glycogen content (10.6-34.3%. Maximal stimulation of glycogen synthesis by Sm-C occurred at 2-4 h of incubation. Insulin (10 nM to 10 microM) also stimulated [ 14 C]glucose incorporation but its potency was only 1/20th that of Sm-C. The time course of stimulation of glucose incorporation by insulin was identical to that of Sm-C, the dose-response curves of the two hormones were parallel, and the maximal effects of insulin were not enhanced by simultaneous exposure of cells to Sm-C. These findings suggest that Sm-C and insulin stimulate glycogenesis in fetal liver through similar or identical mechanisms. Since the potency of Sm-C was 20 times greater than that of insulin, the glycogenic action of insulin in fetal liver may be mediated through binding to a hepatic receptor which also binds Sm-C. In addition to having mitogenic effects on fetal tissues, Sm-C may have direct anabolic effects on fetal carbohydrate metabolism

  20. The moral stimulation as motivation process the cooperative sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Díaz Torres

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The moral stimulation contributes benefits to the cooperative sector, contributing the one sustained increase of the productivity, quality and development of the creative thought. Under the current conditions it is comprehensible the necessity that in the relationship with the peasants is present the Moral Stimulation, in such a sense the reservations of intangible efficiencies are minimized, without investing more resources, also the absence of recognitions, in its consequence, shows frustration, monotony and in some cases I jade siquico, being the stimulation moral reguladora of different emotional states that you/they brake the growth of the results in its absence. As consequence of the previously exposed thing, and result of a study exploratory preliminary carried out starting from a group of investigative methods as studies of documents, interviews, surveys and the author's observation, he/she was proven the empiric formation of those that direct, they control and they regulate the work in the cooperative sector. They appeared weaknesses related with the insufficient use of the moral stimulation, in the results of the work, the values, increment of the productivity, the labor fluctuation and the quality, in such a sense this problem becomes a priority that should be assisted. This study, forces to investigate with depth in the Administration of the Moral Stimulation, it implies a process of continuous preparation of the cooperative sector, so that potencien its acting according to its responsibilities also becomes a scientific problem and the central topic of this investigation.

  1. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, Thomas J; Ackermann, D Michael; Kilgore, Kevin L; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  2. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Foutz

    Full Text Available The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  3. Cochlear Implant Spatial Selectivity with Monopolar, Bipolar and Tripolar Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyan; Tang, Qing; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Guan, Tian; Ye, Datian

    2011-01-01

    Sharp spatial selectivity is critical to auditory performance, particularly in pitch related tasks. Most contemporary cochlear implants have employed monopolar stimulation that produces broad electric fields, which presumably contribute to poor pitch and pitch-related performance by implant users. Bipolar or tripolar stimulation can generate focused electric fields but requires higher current to reach threshold and, more interestingly, has not produced any apparent improvement in cochlear implant performance. The present study addressed this dilemma by measuring psychophysical and physiological spatial selectivity with both broad and focused stimulations in the same cohort of subjects. Different current levels were adjusted by systematically measuring loudness growth for each stimulus, each stimulation mode, and in each subject. Both psychophysical and physiological measures showed that, although focused stimulation produced significantly sharper spatial tuning than monopolar stimulation, it could shift the tuning position or even split the tuning tips. The altered tuning with focused stimulation is interpreted as a result of poor electrode-to-neuron interface in the cochlea, and is suggested to be mainly responsible for the lack of consistent improvement in implant performance. A linear model could satisfactorily quantify the psychophysical and physiological data and derive the tuning width. Significant correlation was found between the individual physiological and psychophysical tuning widths, and the correlation was improved by log-linearly transforming the physiological data to predict the psychophysical data. Because the physiological measure took only one-tenth of the time of the psychophysical measure, the present model is of high clinical significance in terms of predicting and improving cochlear implant performance. PMID:22138630

  4. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10–15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements. PMID:24848463

  5. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  6. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  8. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Thind, Dilraj; Kocmur, Marga

    2008-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive and painless way of stimulating the neural tissue (cerebral cortex, spinal roots, and cranial and peripheral nerves). The first attempts at stimulating the neural tissue date back to 1896 by d'Arsonval; however, it was successfully carried out by Barker and colleagues in Sheffield, UK, in 1985. It soon became a useful tool in neuroscience for neurophysiologists and neurologists and psychiatrists. The original single-pulse TMS, largely used as an investigative tool, was further refined and developed in the early 1990s into what is known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), having a frequency range of 1-60 Hz. The stimulation by both TMS and rTMS of various cortical regions displayed alteration of movement, mood, and behavior, leading researchers to investigate a number of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to explore its therapeutic potential. There is now a large amount of literature on the use of TMS/rTMS in depression; however, its use in schizophrenia, both as an investigative and certainly as a therapeutic tool is relatively recent with a limited but increasing number of publications. In this article, we will outline the principles of TMS/rTMS and critically review their use in schizophrenia both as investigative and potential therapeutic tools.

  10. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  11. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  12. Acoustic and Electrical Property Changes Due to Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves, and complex conductivity during stimulated microbial growth. Over the 29 day duration of the experiment, compressional wave amplitudes and arrival times f...

  13. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W.; Bryan, Kelley E.; Healy, Zachary R.; Talalay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. → This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. → Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-μm diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2 -/- mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  14. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  15. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Independent Effects of Growth Hormone on Growth Plate Chondrogenesis and Longitudinal Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shufang; Yang, Wei; De Luca, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    GH stimulates growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate. However, it is not clear yet whether these effects are entirely mediated by the local expression and action of IGF-1 and IGF-2. To determine whether GH has any IGF-independent growth-promoting effects, we generated (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) mice. The systemic injection of tamoxifen in these mice postnatally resulted in the excision of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) gene exclusively in the growth plate. (TamCart)Igf1r(flox/flox) tamoxifen-treated mice [knockout (KO) mice] and their Igf1r(flox/flox) control littermates (C mice) were injected for 4 weeks with GH. At the end of the 4-week period, the tibial growth and growth plate height of GH-treated KO mice were greater than those of untreated C or untreated KO mice. The systemic injection of GH increased the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B in the tibial growth plate of the C and KO mice. In addition, GH increased the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and the mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in both C and KO mice. In cultured chondrocytes transfected with Igf1r small interfering RNA, the addition of GH in the culture medium significantly induced thymidine incorporation and collagen X mRNA expression. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that GH can promote growth plate chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth directly at the growth plate, even when the local effects of IGF-1 and IGF-2 are prevented. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the intracellular molecular mechanisms mediating the IGF-independent, growth-promoting GH effects.

  16. Growth Factors and Tension-Induced Skeletal Muscle Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The project investigated biochemical mechanisms to enhance skeletal muscle growth, and developed a computer based mechanical cell stimulator system. The biochemicals investigated in this study were insulin/(Insulin like Growth Factor) IGF-1 and Steroids. In order to analyze which growth factors are essential for stretch-induced muscle growth in vitro, we developed a defined, serum-free medium in which the differentiated, cultured avian muscle fibers could be maintained for extended periods of time. The defined medium (muscle maintenance medium, MM medium) maintains the nitrogen balance of the myofibers for 3 to 7 days, based on myofiber diameter measurements and myosin heavy chain content. Insulin and IGF-1, but not IGF-2, induced pronounced myofiber hypertrophy when added to this medium. In 5 to 7 days, muscle fiber diameters increase by 71 % to 98% compared to untreated controls. Mechanical stimulation of the avian muscle fibers in MM medium increased the sensitivity of the cells to insulin and IGF-1, based on a leftward shift of the insulin dose/response curve for protein synthesis rates. (54). We developed a ligand binding assay for IGF-1 binding proteins and found that the avian skeletal muscle cultures produced three major species of 31, 36 and 43 kD molecular weight (54) Stretch of the myofibers was found to have no significant effect on the efflux of IGF-1 binding proteins, but addition of exogenous collagen stimulated IGF-1 binding protein production 1.5 to 5 fold. Steroid hormones have a profound effect on muscle protein turnover rates in vivo, with the stress-related glucocorticoids inducing rapid skeletal muscle atrophy while androgenic steroids induce skeletal muscle growth. Exercise in humans and animals reduces the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids and may enhance the anabolic effects of androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle. In our continuing work on the involvement of exogenrus growth factors in stretch-induced avian skeletal muscle growth, we

  17. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  18. Redefining prosperity : resource productivity, economic growth and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2003-01-01

    This report seeks to stimulate debate on how we define prosperity and addresses the inadequacies of standard definitions of Gross Domestic Product and economic growth as yardsticks for well-being. Publisher PDF

  19. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  20. Growth of maize coleoptiles in the presence of natural and synthetic growth regulators. Growth correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Raczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of natural (IAA, FC, ABA and synthetic (2,4-D growth substances on the increase of the fresh weight of maize coleoptile segments and change of the pH of the incubation medium, accepted here as criteria of maize coleoptile growth, was studied. The growth of maize coleoptiles depended on the concentration of the growth substances, as well as, on the composition of the incubation medium. The highest stimulation of coleoptile growth was seen with FC at a concentration of 10-4M, whereas ABA at 10-3 M gave the highest inhibition of maize coleoptile fresh weight increase and caused alkalization of the medium. The presence of K+ ions in the incubation medium enhanced the stimulatory effect of IAA and FC on the increase of the coleoptile fresh weight, whereas the presence of these ions and phosphate buffer abolished the growth-promoting effect of IAA and FC. The best correlation of the "fresh weight" and "pH" effects was found in the case of the growth of maize coleoptiles in the presence of FC (rxy = 0.67. The inhibition of maize coleoptile growth in the presence of high concentrations of IAA can be explained by the destructive effect of natural auxin at these concentrations on the integrity of mitochondrial membranes, and therefore on the normal functioning of mitochondria.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Zappasodi, Filippo; Cam, Etrugul; Bassetti, Claudio L; Uncini, Antonino

    2014-07-15

    Experimental focal brain ischemia generates in the penumbra recurrent depolarizations which spread across the injured cortex inducing infarct growth. Transcranial direct current stimulation can induce a lasting, polarity-specific, modulation of cortical excitability. To verify whether cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation could reduce the infarct size and the number of depolarizations, focal ischemia was induced in the rat by the 3 vessels occlusion technique. In the first experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal stimulation (alternating 15 min on and 15 min off) starting 45 min after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 4 h. In the second experiment 12 ischemic rats received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation with the same protocol but starting soon after middle cerebral artery occlusion and lasting 6 h. In both experiments controls were 12 ischemic rats not receiving stimulation. Cathodal stimulation reduced the infarct volume in the first experiment by 20% (p=0.002) and in the second by 30% (p=0.003). The area of cerebral infarction was smaller in animals receiving cathodal stimulation in both experiments (p=0.005). Cathodal stimulation reduced the number of depolarizations (p=0.023) and infarct volume correlated with the number of depolarizations (p=0.048). Our findings indicate that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation exert a neuroprotective effect in the acute phase of stroke possibly decreasing the number of spreading depolarizations. These findings may have translational relevance and open a new avenue in neuroprotection of stroke in humans. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor stimulates growth of the urinary tract in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Jørgensen, P E

    1996-01-01

    differentiation pattern as observed by the expression of carbohydrate epitopes, characterized with lectinohistochemistry. Blood examination revealed a decrease in blood haemoglobin concentration and a slight increase in serum creatinine concentration in the high-dose group. There were no effects of EGF...

  3. Somato stimulation and acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Jun; Rong, Pei-Jing; Shi, Li; Ben, Hui; Zhu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Acupuncture is an oldest somato stimulus medical technique. As the most representative peripheral nerve stimulation therapy, it has a complete system of theory and application and is applicable to a large population. This paper expounds the bionic origins of acupuncture and analyzes the physiological mechanism by which acupuncture works. For living creatures, functionally sound viscera and effective endurance of pain are essential for survival. This paper discusses the way in which acupuncture increases the pain threshold of living creatures and the underlying mechanism from the perspective of bionics. Acupuncture can also help to adjust visceral functions and works most effectively in facilitating the process of digestion and restraining visceral pain. This paper makes an in-depth overview of peripheral nerve stimulation therapy represented by acupuncture. We look forward to the revival of acupuncture, a long-standing somato stimulus medicine, in the modern medical systems.

  4. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  5. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003. Patient records, including clinical, imaging, and pathological and surgical characteristics were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (6 women and 15 men; mean age 46 years, range 26-73 years) were identified. Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Ten patients had elevated TSH preoperatively. Seven patients presented with headache, and 8 presented with visual field defects. All patients underwent imaging, of which 19 were available for imaging review. Sixteen patients had macroadenomas. Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the authors' institution, 2 patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery at another facility, and 1 was treated medically. Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism. Patients with TSH-immunostaining tumors were considered in remission if they had no residual tumor. Of these 18 patients, 9 (50%) were in remission following surgery. Seven patients had residual tumor; 2 of these patients underwent further transsphenoidal resection, 1 underwent a craniotomy, and 4 underwent postoperative radiation therapy (2 conventional radiation therapy, 1 Gamma Knife surgery, and 1 had both types of radiation treatment). Two patients had persistently elevated TSH levels despite the lack of evidence of residual tumor. On pathological analysis and immunostaining of the surgical specimen, 17 patients had samples that stained positively for TSH, 8 for alpha-subunit, 10 for growth hormone, 7 for prolactin, 2 for adrenocorticotrophic hormone

  7. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  8. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J

    1988-03-15

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.

  9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Marjorie A.; Mall, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding ef...

  10. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution

  11. Medical Tourism and Its Implication on Malaysia's Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chor Foon

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers in the developed and developing countries already heading toward medical tourism to stimulate economic growth. Nonetheless, the actual impact of medical tourism on economic growth remains ambiguous. Although medical tourism may spur economic growth via its impact on foreign currency earnings, investments, tax revenue, and employment opportunities, it may also leave numerous negative externalities that either direct or indirectly harmful the process of economic growth. Undeniably,...

  12. Electricity consumption and economic growth: evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and long-run causality issues between electricity consumption and economic growth in Korea by using the co-integration and error-correction models. It employs annual data covering the period 1970-2002. The overall results show that there exists bi-directional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption

  13. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  14. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Number of substances and strategies are available to increase performance in sport (Catlin and Murray, 1996. Since 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA posts an updated list of substances and methods prohibited to athletes. Drugs (e.g., steroids, stimulants are a major part of this list; however, technologies and methods (e.g., gene doping are increasingly being identified and added (WADA, 2017. Among technologies and methods that might exert a potential effect on athletic performance, brain stimulation has recently been subjected to extensive discussion. Neuro-enhancement for doping purposes has been termed “neurodoping” in the literature (Davis, 2013; however, this concept needs further documentation before the term “neurodoping” can be used properly. Two major non-invasive techniques of brain stimulations are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS (Hallett, 2007; Rossi et al., 2009, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS (Stagg and Nitsche, 2011. In TMS, an electric coil held over the head applies magnetic pulses to create currents in the brain. In tDCS, a low, continuous electrical current is delivered to the brain by using surface electrodes attached on the scalp. TMS and tDCS have been used in both research and clinic (Shin and Pelled, 2017 for example to examine alterations in cognitive function or motor skills or to assist in recovering motor function after a stroke (Gomez Palacio Schjetnan et al., 2013 or reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (Saiote et al., 2014. In an opinion paper, it was proposed that use of emerging brain stimulation techniques might also enhance physical and mental performance in sports (Davis, 2013. The assumption was based on several reports. For example some studies have shown that TMS could shorten reaction times to visual, auditory and touch stimuli, reduce tremor, and enhance the acquisition of complex motor skills. Based on the current evidence, a recent review (Colzato

  15. Cortical stimulation and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cagnoni Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p1 This paper is a review of physiological and behavioral data on motor cortex stimulation (MCS and its role in persistent neuropathic pain. MCS has been widely used in clinical medicine as a tool for the management of pain that does not respond satisfactorily to any kind of conventional analgesia. Some important mechanisms involved in nociceptive modulation still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain and introduce the effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the motor cortex used in the treatment of this disease. The ascending pain pathways are activated by peripheral receptors, in which there is the transduction of a chemical, physical or mechanical stimulus as a nerve impulse, where this impulse is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which connects with second-order neurons and ascends to different locations in the central nervous system where the stimulus is perceived as pain. Because MCS has been proved to modulate this pathway in the motor cortex, it has been studied to mimic its effects in clinical practice and improve the treatments used for chronic pain. MCS has gained much attention in recent years due to its action in reversing chronic neuropathic pain, this being more effective than electrical stimulation at different locations and related pain nuclei.

  16. Cortical stimulation and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cagnoni Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of physiological and behavioral data on motor cortex stimulation (MCS and its role in persistent neuropathic pain. MCS has been widely used in clinical medicine as a tool for the management of pain that does not respond satisfactorily to any kind of conventional analgesia. Some important mechanisms involved in nociceptive modulation still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain and introduce the effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the motor cortex used in the treatment of this disease. The ascending pain pathways are activated by peripheral receptors, in which there is the transduction of a chemical, physical or mechanical stimulus as a nerve impulse, where this impulse is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which connects with second-order neurons and ascends to different locations in the central nervous system where the stimulus is perceived as pain. Because MCS has been proved to modulate this pathway in the motor cortex, it has been studied to mimic its effects in clinical practice and improve the treatments used for chronic pain. MCS has gained much attention in recent years due to its action in reversing chronic neuropathic pain, this being more effective than electrical stimulation at different locations and related pain nuclei.

  17. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  19. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  20. Is renewable energy effective in promoting growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies panel data techniques to analyze the role of the various energy sources in economic growth, for a set of 24 European countries (1990–2007), controlling for energy consumption and energy dependency. The results suggest that the negative effect of the use of renewables supplants the positive effect of creating income by exploiting a natural resource locally, and thus growth does not appear to improve with the change towards renewables. The high costs of promoting renewables are probably being placed excessively upon the economy, namely by increasing the costs of electricity tariffs, thus inducing a deceleration in economic activity. Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth while natural gas does not appear to be relevant in explaining growth. Coal hampers the capacity for growth, whereas the use of oil stimulates that growth. This is in line with productive structures that are deeply grounded in fossil fuels, particularly oil. - Highlights: ► We empirically test the distinct effects of decomposing energy by source on growth. ► We focus on 24 European Countries (1990–1907) by applying a panel data approach. ► Fossil fuels lead to dissimilar effects on growth. Coal hampers and oil stimulates it. ► Economic growth does not appear to improve with the paradigm change to renewable. ► High costs of promotion of renewables are being placed excessively upon the economy.

  1. Growth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test measuring thyroid ... not affect intelligence or brain function. The cause of growth hormone ...

  2. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the changes your body goes through during puberty. Puberty is the stage of your life when sexual development happens, like breast development and menstrual periods in girls and growth of the penis and testicles in boys. One of the body ...

  3. Sulfonated polyaniline-based organic electrodes for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yong; Yang, Yanyin; Poojari, Yadagiri; Liu, Yidong; Wu, Jen-Chieh; Hansford, Derek J; Epstein, Arthur J

    2013-06-10

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) were found to stimulate various cell types such as neurons, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the utility of CPs in stimulation of cancer or tumor cells in the literature. Here we report a facile fabrication method of self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)-based interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) for controlled electrical stimulation of human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Increased degree of sulfonation was found to increase the SPAN conductivity, which in turn improved the cell attachment and cell growth without electrical stimulation. However, an enhanced cell growth was observed under controlled electrical (AC) stimulation at low applied voltage and frequency (≤800 mV and ≤1 kHz). The cell growth reached a maximum threshold at an applied voltage or frequency and beyond which pronounced cell death was observed. We believe that these organic electrodes may find utility in electrical stimulation of cancer or tumor cells for therapy and research and may also provide an alternative to the conventional metal-based electrodes.

  4. Growth factors and new periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors are biological mediators that have a key roll in proliferation, chemotaxy and"ndifferentiation by acting on specific receptors on the surface of cells and regulating events in wound"nhealing.They can be considered hormones that are not released in to the blood stream but have one a"nlocal action. Some of these factors can regulate premature change in GO to Gl phase in cell devesion"ncycle and even may stimulate synthesis of DNA in suitable cells, Growth substances, primarily secreted"nby fibroblasts, endothelia! cells, macrophages and platelet, include platelet derived growth factor"n(PDGF, insulin like growth factor (IGF transforming growth factor (TGFa and (3 and bone"nmorphogenetic proteins BMPs that approximately are the most important of them. (BMPs could be"nused to control events during periodontal, craniofacial and implant wound healing through favoring bone"nformation"nAccording toLynch, combination of PGDF and IGF1 would be effective in promoting growth of all the"ncomponents of the periodontium."nThe aim of this study was to characterize growth factor and review the literature to determine the"nmechanism of their function, classification and application in implant and periodontal treatment.

  5. Intensity coding in electric hearing: effects of electrode configurations and stimulation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Tiffany Elise H; Bachman, Mark; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Current cochlear implants typically stimulate the auditory nerve with biphasic pulses and monopolar electrode configurations. Tripolar stimulation can increase spatial selectivity and potentially improve place pitch related perception but requires higher current levels to elicit the same loudness as monopolar stimulation. The present study combined delayed pseudomonophonasic pulses, which produce lower thresholds, with tripolar stimulation in an attempt to solve the power-performance tradeoff problem. The present study systematically measured thresholds, dynamic range, loudness growth, and intensity discrimination using either biphasic or delayed pseudomonophonasic pulses under both monopolar and tripolar stimulation. Participants were five Clarion cochlear implant users. For each subject, data from apical, middle, and basal electrode positions were collected when possible. Compared with biphasic pulses, delayed pseudomonophonasic pulses increased the dynamic range by lowering thresholds while maintaining comparable maximum allowable levels under both electrode configurations. However, delayed pseudomonophonasic pulses did not change the shape of loudness growth function and actually increased intensity discrimination limens, especially at lower current levels. The present results indicate that delayed pseudomonophonasic pulses coupled with tripolar stimulation cannot provide significant power savings nor can it increase the functional dynamic range. Whether this combined stimulation could improve functional spectral resolution remains to be seen.

  6. Modern acupuncture-like stimulation methods: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture therapy has been proved to be effective for diverse diseases, symptoms, and conditions in numerous clinical trials. The growing popularity of acupuncture therapy has triggered the development of modern acupuncture-like stimulation devices (ASDs, which are equivalent or superior to manual acupuncture with respect to safety, decreased risk of infection, and facilitation of clinical trials. Here, we aim to summarize the research on modern ASDs, with a focus on featured devices undergoing active research and their effectiveness and target symptoms, along with annual publication rates. We searched the popular electronic databases Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, and analyzed English-language studies on humans. Thereby, a total of 728 studies were identified, of which 195 studies met our inclusion criteria. Electrical stimulators were found to be the earliest and most widely studied devices (133 articles, followed by laser (44 articles, magnetic (16 articles, and ultrasound (2 articles stimulators. A total of 114 studies used randomized controlled trials, and 109 studies reported therapeutic benefits. The majority of the studies (32% focused on analgesia and pain-relief effects, followed by effects on brain activity (16%. All types of the reviewed ASDs were associated with increasing annual publication trends; specifically, the annual growth in publications regarding noninvasive stimulation methods was more rapid than that regarding invasive methods. Based on this observation, we anticipate that the noninvasive or minimally invasive ASDs will become more popular in acupuncture therapy.

  7. The inability of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation to stimulate GLUT4 translocation indicates additional signaling pathways are required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakoff, S J; Taha, C; Rose, E; Marcusohn, J; Klip, A; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-10-24

    Recent experimental evidence has focused attention to the role of two molecules, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), in linking the insulin receptor to glucose uptake; IRS-1 knockout mice are insulin resistant, and pharmacological inhibitors of PI3-kinase block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To investigate the role of PI3-kinase and IRS-1 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake we examined whether stimulation of insulin-sensitive cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or with interleukin 4 (IL-4) stimulates glucose uptake; the activated PDGF receptor (PDGFR) directly binds and activates PI3-kinase, whereas the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) activates PI3-kinase via IRS-1 or the IRS-1-related molecule 4PS. We found that stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with PDGF resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGFR and activation of PI3-kinase in these cells. To examine whether IL-4 stimulates glucose uptake, L6 myoblasts were engineered to overexpress GLUT4 as well as both chains of the IL-4R (L6/IL-4R/GLUT4); when these L6/IL-4R/GLUT4 myoblasts were stimulated with IL-4, IRS-1 became tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with PI3-kinase. Although PDGF and IL-4 can activate PI3-kinase in the respective cell lines, they do not possess insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that activation of PI3-kinase is not sufficient to stimulate GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. We postulate that activation of a second signaling pathway by insulin, distinct from PI3-kinase, is necessary for the stimulation of glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells.

  8. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  9. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation (FES). The purpose of FES is to restore muscular control in disabled patients. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and digital data...

  10. Frequency shifts in stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinth, W.; Kaiser, W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonresonant contributions to the nonlinear susceptibility chisup(()3) produce a frequency chirp during stimulated Raman scattering. In the case of transient stimulated Raman scattering, the spectrum of the generated Stokes pulse is found at higher frequencies than expected from spontaneous Raman data. The frequency difference can be calculated from the theory of stimulated Raman scattering. (orig.)

  11. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  12. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    We have developed