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Sample records for bifidobacterium adolescentis g1

  1. Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Desiree; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Mirza, Osman

    2004-01-01

    phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) refined at 1.77 A resolution. It represents the first 3D structure of a sucrose phosphorylase and is the first structure of a phosphate-dependent enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The structure of BiSP is composed of the four domains A, B, B...... binding and reduces the size of the substrate access channel compared to other family 13 members, underlining the role of this domain in modulating the function of these enzymes. It is remarkable that the fold of the C domain is not observed in any other known hydrolases of family 13. BiSP was found...

  2. Cloning and characterization of arabinoxylan arabinofuranofydrolases-D3 (AXHd3) from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM20083

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Lloyd, R.M.; Beldman, G.; Verdoes, J.C.; McCleary, B.V.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase-D3 (AXHd3) from Bifidobacterium adolescentis releases only C3-linked arabinose residues from double-substituted xylose residues. A genomic library of B. adolescentis DSM20083 was screened for the presence of the axhD3 gene. Two plasmids were identified containing

  3. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are crucial in Bifidobacterium adolescentis-mediated inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

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    Alexandra Wittmann

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries bacterial intestinal infections are commonly caused by enteropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. The interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system determines the adequacy of an appropriate response against pathogens. In this study we addressed whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis is protective during intestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed with B. adolescentis, infected with Yersinia enterocolitica, or B. adolescentis fed and subsequently infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. B. adolescentis fed and Yersinia infected mice were protected from Yersinia infection as indicated by a significantly reduced weight loss and splenic Yersinia load when compared to Yersinia infected mice. Moreover, protection from infection was associated with increased intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell function was investigated using depletion experiments by injecting B. adolescentis fed, Yersinia infected C57BL/6 mice with anti-mouse PDCA-1 antibody, to deplete plasmacytoid dendritic cells, or respective isotype control. The B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia dissemination to the spleen was abrogated after plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion indicating a crucial function for pDC in control of intestinal Yersinia infection. We suggest that feeding of B. adolescentis modulates the intestinal immune system in terms of increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies, which might account for the B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

  4. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are crucial in Bifidobacterium adolescentis-mediated inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Alexandra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries bacterial intestinal infections are commonly caused by enteropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. The interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system determines the adequacy of an appropriate response against pathogens. In this study we addressed whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis is protective during intestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed with B. adolescentis, infected with Yersinia enterocolitica, or B. adolescentis fed and subsequently infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. B. adolescentis fed and Yersinia infected mice were protected from Yersinia infection as indicated by a significantly reduced weight loss and splenic Yersinia load when compared to Yersinia infected mice. Moreover, protection from infection was associated with increased intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell function was investigated using depletion experiments by injecting B. adolescentis fed, Yersinia infected C57BL/6 mice with anti-mouse PDCA-1 antibody, to deplete plasmacytoid dendritic cells, or respective isotype control. The B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia dissemination to the spleen was abrogated after plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion indicating a crucial function for pDC in control of intestinal Yersinia infection. We suggest that feeding of B. adolescentis modulates the intestinal immune system in terms of increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies, which might account for the B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia enterocolitica infection.

  5. Structural rearrangements of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis during sucrose conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Sprogøe, Desiree

    2006-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography. An inactive mutant of BiSP (E232Q) was co-crystallized with sucrose. The structure revealed a substrate-binding mode comparable with that se...

  6. Characterization of a novel ß-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM 20083 active towards transgalactooligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laere, van K.M.J.; Abee, T.; Schols, H.A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of both reducing and nonreducing transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) comprising 2 to 8 residues on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM 20083 and on the production of a novel -galactosidase (-Gal II). In cells grown on TOS, in addition to the

  7. Anti-proliferative effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212 extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as anti-tumor activity. The aim of the present work was to study the growth inhibition of tumor cells by butanol extract of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from healthy young Koreans. The anti-proliferative activity of B. adolescentis isolates was assessed by XTT assays on three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480). The effects of B. adolescentis SPM0212 butanol extract on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480 cells by 70%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL. Additionally, the butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 induced macrophage activation and significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO, which regulate immune modulation and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 increased activity of the host immune system and may improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer as a biological response modifier

  8. Bifidobacterium adolescentis Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on Constipation Induced by Loperamide in BALB/c Mice

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    Linlin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669 once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment.

  9. Allergic Patients with Long-Term Asthma Display Low Levels of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

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    Arancha Hevia

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence suggests a relationship between specific allergic processes, such as atopic eczema in children, and an aberrant fecal microbiota. However, little is known about the complete microbiota profile of adult individuals suffering from asthma. We determined the fecal microbiota in 21 adult patients suffering allergic asthma (age 39.43 ± 10.98 years old and compare it with the fecal microbiota of 22 healthy controls (age 39.29 ± 9.21 years old using culture independent techniques. An Ion-Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based amplification and sequencing protocol was used to determine the fecal microbiota profile of the individuals. Sequence microbiota analysis showed that the microbial alpha-diversity was not significantly different between healthy and allergic individuals and no clear clustering of the samples was obtained using an unsupervised principal component analysis. However, the analysis of specific bacterial groups allowed us to detect significantly lower levels of bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma. Also, in allergic individuals the Bifidobacterium adolescentis species prevailed within the bifidobacterial population. The reduction in the levels on bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma suggests a new target in allergy research and opens possibilities for the therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota in this group of patients.

  10. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays To Identify and Quantify Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifid...

  11. Immunostimulatory effect of faecal Bifidobacterium species of breast-fed and formula-fed infants in a PBMC/CaCO-2 coculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Rubio, Tamara; Mujico, Jorge R.; Marcos, Ascensión; Puertollano, E; Nadal, Inmaculada; Sanz, Yolanda; Nova, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Bifidobacterium spp. typical of the human intestinal microbiota are believed to influence the balance of immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. Aim: To investigate the effect of different bifidobacterial species and mixtures of them in in vitro experiments with PBMCs and CaCo-2 cells. Methods: Bifidobacterium adolescentis; Bifidobacterium angulatum; Bifidobacterium breve; Bifidobacterium catenulatum; Bifidobacterium infantis; Bifidobacterium longum; and two combinations of these bif...

  12. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only. PMID:28691028

  13. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. ( Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548) were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture ( Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044) for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at -18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  14. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abdelazez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550, and Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 11548 were evaluated based on the feasibility criteria of probiotics, comprising acid production, bile tolerance, and adhesion to epithelial cells. Formerly, we combined the optimum strains with yogurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus EMCC 11102 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus EMCC 11044 for producing frozen yogurt. Finally, physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation of the frozen yogurt were investigated during storage of 60 days at −18°C. Results directed that Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 11550 and Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551 could be utilized with yogurt culture for producing frozen yogurt. Moreover, the frozen yogurt fermented by two bifidobacterial strains and yogurt culture gained the high evaluation in the physiochemical properties and sensory evaluation. In summary, our results revealed that there was no significant difference between frozen yogurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. and yogurt culture and that fermented by yogurt culture only.

  15. Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, T; Che, Q M; Kobashi, K; Yang, L; Hattori, M; Namba, T

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a nove...

  16. Role of some selected Bifidobacterium strains in modulating immunosenescence of aged albino rats

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    Hanan A. El-Bakry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic administration has been associated with enhanced immune function in elderly subjects. However, approaches for selection of an “ideal” strain of bifidobacteria are still difficult. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible modulatory effects of three strains of Bifidobacterium species (Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15704, Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700 and Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707 on haematological and immunological parameters of aged albino rats corresponding to normal adult ones. The animals were divided into six groups; three groups of aged rats were fed yoghurt inoculated with one of the Bifidobacterium strains; one group of aged rats was fed yoghurt alone (control aged; two groups of adult and aged rats were provided with normal diet and assigned as normal groups. The total leucocyte count was significantly increased in the three bifidobacteria-treated aged groups as compared with both normal and control aged rats. Serum IgA level was considerably increased in all treated rats. On the contrary, serum IgE level was significantly decreased in rats supplemented with yoghurt inoculated with B. adolescentis or B. breve. Both B. adolescentis and B. breve groups showed significant enhanced production of TNF-α. Furthermore, the production of cytokine IL-8 was significantly increased in the B. adolescentis group. Interestingly, it was apparent that only B. adolescentis had the most pronounced effect on aged rats to regain nearly normal values as measured in normal adult rats. Conclusively, the present work indicates that dietary consumption of selected bifidobacteria strains may have a particular application in the elderly especially in terms of immunomodulation.

  17. Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, T; Che, Q M; Kobashi, K; Yang, L; Hattori, M; Namba, T

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a novel type of beta-glucosidase capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins. PMID:8161172

  18. Bifidobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bifidobactéries, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis; Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum; Bifidobacterium breve; Bifidobacterium infantis; Bifidobacterium lactis; Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidum, Bifidus, ...

  19. Glycosyl hydrolases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM20083 : Their role in the metabolism and synthesis of oligosaccharides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing interest for food, which is health beneficial for humans. Prebiotics e.g. is used to stimulate the growth of bacteria in the gut that have a positive effect on human health. It is claimed that bifidobacteria in the colon improve health and well being of humans. The

  20. Alterations in Fecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Species in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Southern China Population

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    Kim-Anne eLê

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection between gut microbiota and metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, members of commensal bacteria found in human gut, in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D patients from Southern China. Methods: Fifty patients with T2D and thirty control individuals of similar BMI were recruited from Southern China. T2D and control subjects were confirmed with both oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and HbA1c measurements. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in feces were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 statistical software.Results: In comparison to control subjects T2D patients had significantly more total Lactobacillus (+18%, L. bugaricus (+13%, L. rhamnosum (+37% and L. acidophilus (+48% (P <0.05. In contrast, T2D patients had less amounts of total Bifidobacteria (-7% and B. adolescentis (-12% (P <0.05. Cluster analysis showed that gut microbiota pattern of T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophillus, together with lesser numbers of B. adolescentis (P <0.05. Conclusion: The gut microflora in T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of Lactobacillus and lesser numbers of Bifidobacterium species.

  1. Genetic analysis and morphological identification of pilus-like structures in members of the genus Bifidobacterium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Cell surface pili in Gram positive bacteria have been reported to orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity and the development of biofilms. So far, little if any information is available on the presence of pilus-like structures in human gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Results and discussion In this report, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of various bifidobacterial strains belonging to Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis revealed the existence of appendages resembling pilus-like structures. Interestingly, these microorganisms harbour two to six predicted pilus gene clusters in their genome, with each organized in an operon encompassing the major pilin subunit-encoding gene (designated fimA or fimP) together with one or two minor pilin subunit-encoding genes (designated as fimB and\\/or fimQ), and a gene encoding a sortase enzyme (strA). Quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR analysis and RT-PCR experiments revealed a polycistronic mRNA, encompassing the fimA\\/P and fimB\\/Q genes, which are differentially expressed upon cultivation of bifidobacteria on various glycans.

  2. Creation of the Probiotic Consortium on the Base of Strains of Bifidobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhakhmetov, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a widespread circulation of disbiotic conditions among the population of all ages in Kazakhstan requires an active development in industry for both preparations and products with probiotic properties. The gained bacterial isolates, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 180, B. breve 204, B. breve 584 and B. breve 587 were used in our researches and screening showed they possess high probiotic properties. The consortium possesses strong antimicrobial activity to pathogenic and potentially-pathogenic microflora, insulated during disbacteriosis, as well as from vagina and urea. They are able to produce vitamin B12 and also have antimutagenic activity. As a result, the consortium on the base of strains of Bifidobacterium spp. was received, possessing the following advantages: contains live mass of microbial, antagonistically active strains B. breve and B. adolescentis; contains more than 10^9 alive Bifidobacteria; does not contain plasmids, which means that it could not be a carrier of antibiotic stability for Gram-positive receptive pathogenic and potentially-pathogenic microflora.

  3. Quantification of Human Fecal Bifidobacterium Species by Use of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis Targeting the groEL Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junick, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays targeting the groEL gene for the specific enumeration of 12 human fecal Bifidobacterium species were developed. The housekeeping gene groEL (HSP60 in eukaryotes) was used as a discriminative marker for the differentiation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. catenulatum, B. dentium, B. gallicum, B. longum, B. pseudocatenulatum, B. pseudolongum, and B. thermophilum. The bifidobacterial chromosome contains a single copy of the groEL gene, allowing the determination of the cell number by quantification of the groEL copy number. Real-time PCR assays were validated by comparing fecal samples spiked with known numbers of a given Bifidobacterium species. Independent of the Bifidobacterium species tested, the proportion of groEL copies recovered from fecal samples spiked with 5 to 9 log10 cells/g feces was approximately 50%. The quantification limit was 5 to 6 log10 groEL copies/g feces. The interassay variability was less than 10%, and variability between different DNA extractions was less than 23%. The method developed was applied to fecal samples from healthy adults and full-term breast-fed infants. Bifidobacterial diversity in both adults and infants was low, with mostly ≤3 Bifidobacterium species and B. longum frequently detected. The predominant species in infant and adult fecal samples were B. breve and B. adolescentis, respectively. It was possible to distinguish B. catenulatum and B. pseudocatenulatum. We conclude that the groEL gene is a suitable molecular marker for the specific and accurate quantification of human fecal Bifidobacterium species by real-time PCR. PMID:22307308

  4. Degradation of structurally different non-digestible oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria: glycosylhydrolases of Bifidobacterium adolescentis = Afbraak van in structuur verschillende niet-verteerbare oligosacchariden door darmbacteriën : glycosylhydrolasen van Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laere, Van K.

    2000-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) are oligosaccharides, which resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and which are fermented in the colon by intestinal bacteria. Some NDOs are considered bifidogenic, meaning that they selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in

  5. GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, R A; Poluektova, E U; Dyachkova, M S; Klimina, K M; Kovtun, A S; Averina, O V; Orlova, V S; Danilenko, V N

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bifidobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains - psychobiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cloning and characterization of ginsenoside Ra1-hydrolyzing beta-D-xylosidase from Bifidobacterium breve K-110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-04-01

    beta-D-Xylosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.37) from Bifidobacterium breve K-110, which hydrolyzes ginsenoside Ra1 to ginsenoside Rb2, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The (His6)-tagged recombinant enzyme, designated as XlyBK- 110, was efficiently purified using Ni²⁺-affinity chromatography (109.9-fold, 84% yield). The molecular mass of XylBK- 100 was found to be 55.7 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Its sequence revealed a 1,347 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein containing 448 amino acids, which showed 82% identity (DNA) to the previously reported glycosyl hydrolase family 30 of Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703. The Km and Vmax values toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX) were 1.45mM and 10.75 micromol/min/mg, respectively. This enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 6.0 and 45 degrees C, respectively. XylBK-110 acted to the greatest extent on xyloglucosyl kakkalide, followed by pNPX and ginsenoside Ra1, but did not act on p-nitrophenyl-alpha-Larabinofuranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, or p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside. In conclusion, this is the first report on the cloning and expression of beta-Dxylosidase- hydrolyzing ginsenoside Ra1 and kakkalide from human intestinal microflora.

  7. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adoles...

  8. Atleti adolescenti e comunità sportiva: il senso psicologico di comunità applicato allo sport

    OpenAIRE

    Scotto Di Luzio, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Il Senso di Comunità costituisce un fattore importante per il benessere e lo sviluppo sociale positivo degli adolescenti (Pretty, 2002 ; Cicognani et al., 2006; 2012). Tuttavia, pochi studi hanno fornito informazioni significative sui meccanismi che possono condurre alla costruzione di una Comunità nello sport (Warner & Dixon, 2011). Finalità generale di questa tesi è di contribuire alla definizione di una Comunità Sportiva, esaminando i meccanismi alla base della formazione del Senso di Comu...

  9. Immune effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam J; Loveren H van; TOX

    2007-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve, a probiotic, has beneficial effects on both allergy and autoimmunity - an immune reaction against the body's own constituents -in experimental animals. Probiotics are called 'friendly bacteria' in advertisements, in which manufacturers claim their beneficial effects on gut

  10. Immune effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam J; van Loveren H; TOX

    2007-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve, een probiotische bacterie, heeft gunstige effecten op zowel allergieen als autoimmuniteit - een afweerreactie op lichaamseigen bestanddelen - bij proefdieren. Probiotica worden in reclameboodschappen ook wel 'goede bacterien' genoemd. Fabrikanten claimen een positief effect

  11. Evolution of gut Bifidobacterium population in healthy Japanese infants over the first three years of life: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kurakawa, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kawashima, Kazunari; Nagata, Satoru; Nomoto, Koji; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2017-08-30

    Bifidobacteria are important members of human gut microbiota; however, quantitative data on their early-life dynamics is limited. Here, using a sensitive reverse transcription-qPCR approach, we demonstrate the carriage of eight signature infant-associated Bifidobacterium species (B. longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. catenulatum group, B. infantis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum and B. dentium) in 76 healthy full-term vaginally-born infants from first day to three years of life. About 21% babies carry bifidobacteria at first day of life (6.2 ± 1.9 log 10  cells/g feces); and this carriage increases to 64% (8.0 ± 2.2), 79% (8.5 ± 2.1), 97% (9.3 ± 1.8), 99% (9.6 ± 1.6), and 100% (9.7 ± 0.9) at age 7 days, 1, 3 and 6 months, and 3 years, respectively. B. longum, B. breve, B. catenulatum group and B. bifidum are among the earliest and abundant bifidobacterial clades. Interestingly, infants starting formula-feed as early as first week of life have higher bifidobacterial carriage compared to exclusively breast-fed counterparts. Bifidobacteria demonstrate an antagonistic correlation with enterobacteria and enterococci. Further analyses also reveal a relatively lower/ delayed bifidobacterial carriage in cesarean-born babies. The study presents a quantitative perspective of the early-life gut Bifidobacterium colonization and shows how factors such as birth and feeding modes could influence this acquisition even in healthy infants.

  12. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  13. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Bifidobacterium--friend or foe? A case of urinary tract infection with Bifidobacterium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Poonam; Trilligan, Cheryl; Rapose, Alwyn

    2014-09-24

    Bifidobacterium-a commensal of the human intestine is considered non-pathogenic and has been advocated as a probiotic due to its potential beneficial effects. However, there have been case reports implicating bifidobacteria as pathogenic agents in a variety of different infectious conditions. We discuss here one such case of a complicated urinary tract infection associated with Bifidobacterium spp. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Romagnoli, Mark; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen C

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is a rare cause of human infections. Previously, bacteremia and meningitis caused by this organism linked to probiotic use have been reported in a neonate. We report the first case of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by B. breve in an adult without a history of probiotic use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immune effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve

    OpenAIRE

    Ezendam J; Loveren H van; TOX

    2007-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve, een probiotische bacterie, heeft gunstige effecten op zowel allergieen als autoimmuniteit - een afweerreactie op lichaamseigen bestanddelen - bij proefdieren. Probiotica worden in reclameboodschappen ook wel 'goede bacterien' genoemd. Fabrikanten claimen een positief effect van probiotica op darmflora, weerstand en preventie van allergieen. De meeste van deze effecten zijn echter niet wetenschappelijk onderbouwd. Het is bekend dat de effecten van probiotica afhangen van...

  17. Comparative genomics of the Bifidobacterium breve taxon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottacini, Francesca; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Kuczynski, Justin; O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Serafini, Fausta; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Zomer, Aldert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304642754; Zhurina, Daria; Riedel, Christian; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bifidobacteria are commonly found as part of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of a broad range of hosts, where their presence is positively correlated with the host's health status. In this study, we assessed the genomes of thirteen representatives of Bifidobacterium

  18. Cellodextrin utilization by bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokusaeva, K.; Motherway, M.O.; Zomer, A.L.; Macsharry, J.; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Sinderen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    Cellodextrins, the incomplete hydrolysis products from insoluble cellulose, are accessible as a carbon source to certain members of the human gut microbiota, such as Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. Transcription of the cldEFGC gene cluster of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to be induced upon growth on

  19. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, J.; Koechlin, J.C.; Portes, L.; Teste du Bailler, A.

    1957-01-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [fr

  20. Hikikomori. La solitudine degli adolescenti giapponesi / Hikikomori. La solitude des adolescents japonais Hikikomori / Japanese teenagers’ loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moretti S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Giappone oggi rappresenta la terza potenza economica mondiale in cui il costo della vita è alto, il tasso di natalità basso e le patologie psichiche derivate da stress sono in forte aumento. Allarmante è il fenomeno hikikomori, una volontaria e ostinata forma di “ritiro sociale” (social withdrawal, di auto reclusione che si sviluppa nell’adolescenza e che nei casi più gravi dura anche più di dieci anni. L’eziologia del fenomeno è piuttosto complessa ma, tra le ipotesi plausibili avanzate, si parla di un disagio psichico dovuto ad una serie di fattori tra cui l’interdipendenza fra genitori e figli, la presenza di una figura materna iperprotettiva a fronte di un’assenza del padre e soprattutto il contesto sociale omologante, coartativo e frustrante. Si tratta di elementi in grado di generare nell’adolescente un angoscioso senso di inadeguatezza, alimentato dalla paura in cui il confronto con l’altro diventa insostenibile ed il silenzio la sola forma di comunicazione. Un disagio relazionale che conta nel Paese del Sol Levante più di un milione di adolescenti, ma che va diffondendosi anche negli Stati Uniti e nel Nord Europa.Le Japon représente aujourd'hui la troisième puissance économique mondiale, où le coût de la vie est élevé, le taux de natalité bas et les pathologies psychiques causées par le stress en forte augmentation. Le phénomène de l’hikikomori, une forme volontaire et obstinée de "retrait social" (social withdrawal, devient de plus en plus alarmant. Il s’agit d’une auto-réclusion qui se développe dans l'adolescence et qui, dans les cas les plus graves, peut durer plus de dix ans. L’étiologie du phénomène est plutôt complexe mais, parmi les hypothèses plausibles avancées, l’on parle d’un trouble psychique du à une série de facteurs, parmi lesquels figurent l'interdépendance entre parents et enfants, la présence d'une figure maternelle hyper protectrice conjuguée à l

  1. Graphene oxide as an anaerobic membrane scaffold for the enhancement of B. adolescentis proliferation and antagonistic effects against pathogens E. coli and S. aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Han-qing; Gao, Di; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Ling-na; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Chai, Zhi-fang; Feng, Wei-yue; Zhao, Rui-fang; Guan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the gut microbiota on human health is widely perceived as the most exciting advancement in biomedicine. The gut microbiota has been known to play a crucial role in defining states of human health and diseases, and thus becomes a potential new territory for drug targeting. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) interaction with five common human gut bacteria, B. adolescentis, L. acidophilus, E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. aureus, was studied. It was shown that, in bacterial media, GO sheets were able to form effective, anaerobic membrane scaffolds that enhanced the antagonistic activity of B. adolescentis against the pathogens E. coli andS. aureus. Data obtained using bacterial growth measurements, colony counting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing consistently indicated that GO sheets promoted proliferation of gut bacteria, particularly for B. adolescentis. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy images, and membrane potential measurements showed that cell membranes maintained their integrity and that no observable variations in cell morphology were induced after interaction with GO sheets, indicating good biocompatibility of GO. These results suggest the possibility of using GO sheets as efficient drug carriers in therapeutic applications to treat diseases related to the gut microbiota. (paper)

  2. Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov., isolated from water kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Cnockaert, Margo; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A novel Bifidobacterium , strain LMG 28769 T , was isolated from a household water kefir fermentation process. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative and facultatively anaerobic short rods. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (97.4 and 97.1 % similarity towards the respective type strain sequences) as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Its assignment to the genus Bifidobacterium was confirmed by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence revealed very low similarity with nucleotide sequences in the NCBI nucleotide database. The genotypic and phenotypic analyses allowed the differentiation of strain LMG 28769 T from all recognized Bifidobacterium species. Strain LMG 28769 T ( = CCUG 67145 T  = R 54638 T ) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov. is proposed.

  3. Reactor G1: high power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G.

    1957-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  4. Bifidobacterium bombi sp. nov., a new bifidobacterium from the bumblebee digestive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Benada, Oldřich; Koppová, Ingrid; Havlík, J.; Straka, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 8 (2009), s. 2020-2024 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500200572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bifidobacterium bombi * anaerobic bacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2009

  5. Coculture of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium breve alters their protein expression profiles and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Sánchez, Borja; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo

    2009-07-31

    Some strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are probiotic bacteria commonly added to functional dairy products. The influence of coculturing Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB8809 and Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB8807 on their physiology was studied. 2DE separation of protein extracts, coupled to MS protein analysis allowed the identification of 16 proteins whose expression drastically changed when cells were grown in compartmentalized coculture, compared to monoculture. These included ribosomal proteins and proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, gene regulation, cell envelope biogenesis and transport processes. Significant changes in some glycoside-hydrolysing activities (beta-d-xylopyranosidase, alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase and beta-d-glucopyranosidase) were also detected. Furthermore, qRT-PCR experiments using as targets the B. breve genes clgR (transcriptional regulator) clpP1, clpP2 and clpC (chaperone- and protease-encoding genes positively regulated by clgR) supported the proteomic results, the four genes displaying a higher expression level in coculture. This study provides new insights to understand the communication among Bifidobacterium species.

  6. Attivitá fisica extra-scolastica negli adolescenti: il ruolo dello stato socio-economico delle famiglie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Capelli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: l’associazione fra stato socio-economico (SES ed attività fisica è poco indagata. Obiettivo del presente studio è quello di valutare la relazione tra attività fisica extra-scolastica di adolescenti scolarizzati e lo SES della famiglia di provenienza.

    Metodi: l’indagine ha previsto la somministrazione nel corso dell’anno scolastico 2002-2003 di un apposito questionario anonimo autocompilato, già validato in uno studio pilota, ad un campione di studenti delle scuole medie inferiori del Lazio (province di Roma, Frosinone e Latina.

    Risultati: hanno partecipato allo studio 1486 studenti di cui 756 maschi (50.9% e 730 femmine (49.1%. L’età dei partecipanti varia fra gli 11 ed i 15 anni (età mediana 12 anni. Il 72.7% degli studenti dichiara di svolgere attività fisica al di fuori della scuola. Il livello di istruzione dei genitori e la loro attività lavorativa sembrano avere un peso notevole sui determinanti dell’attività fisica negli studenti. Infatti, svolgono prevalentemente attività fisica extra-scolastica i figli di genitori manager/libero professionisti (OR = 3.29 e con un elevato livello educativo (OR = 10.38 per i figli di genitori laureati.

    Conclusioni: i risultati confermano quanto la situazione socio-economica delle famiglie sia in netta relazione con l’attività fisico-sportiva dei giovani. Tali risultati potranno essere utili per gli operatori scolastici e gli amministratori nell’ispirare e realizzare azioni volte a diminuire il divario esistente fra i giovani che hanno le possibilità economiche e svolgono attività sportiva extra-scolastica e quelli che, invece, appartenendo a famiglie svantaggiate, hanno minore accesso a tali attività.

  7. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1; Mesures de reactivite sur reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernot, J; Koechlin, J C; Portes, L; Teste du Bailler, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [French] Nous exposons et discutons diverses methodes utilisees, lors de l'etude physique du reacteur G1, pour determiner les variations du facteur de multiplication effectif consecutives a un changement donne dans la geometrie du milieu multiplicateur. La comparaison des resultats obtenus par diverses methodes nous a permis de tester leur validite et d'en preciser les conditions d'emploi. Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons les principes utilises et leurs domaines de validite. Dans une seconde partie nous donnons les resultats experimentaux obtenus avec quelques indications sur leur comparaison avec les estimations theoriques. (auteur)

  8. Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    found that the p53 levels in the cyclin G1-deficient mice are 2-fold higher that in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed that treatment of mice with the alkylating agent 1,4-bis[N,N'-di(ethylene)-phosphamide]piperazine (Dipin), followed by partial hepatectomy, decreased G1-S transition in cyclin G1-null...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided...

  10. The effect of fermented milk with Bifidobacterium infantis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... In recent years, Bifidobacteria have attracted considerable attention due to their overall ... EPEC, the colonies were violet in colour with a metallic lustre on. EMB medium). ...... A new selective medium for. Bifidobacterium spp.

  11. Cholic acid resistance and the adherence ability of Bifidobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... 1Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, .... The adherence of Bifidobacterium strains on HT-29 cell culture was .... Thomas LA, Veysey MJ, French G, Hylemon, PB, Murphy GM, Dowling.

  12. Adolescenti e contesto contemporaneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Berardi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Il seguente lavoro cerca di comprendere le ragioni e le implicazioni relazionali, sociali e culturali del rapporto che i giovani intrattengono con gli adulti, in particolar modo nella forma del domandare (aiuto o spiegazioni e del ricercare il senso delle cose attraverso il pensare le cose stesse. Il lavoro si sviluppa a partire da una riflessione sulle relazioni che si possono osservare, a livello fenomenologico, nell’ambito scolastico in relazione a possibili prospettive di cambiamento.Parole chiave: adolescenza, scuola, limite Teens and contemporary contextAbstract The following paper seeks to understand the relational, social and cultural reasons and implications of the relationship young people have with adults, especially in the form of asking (for help or explanations and looking for the meaning of things through thinking about things themselves. The work develops from a reflection on the relationships that can be observed at the phenomenological level, in schools in relation to possible perspectives of change. Key word: adolescence, school, limit.

  13. Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, M. M.; de Milliano, I.; Roseboom, M. G.; Benninga, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Studies in constipated adults with a Bifidus yoghurt (containing Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) showed a significant increase in defecation frequency. The aim of

  14. Cellodextrin utilization by bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaeva, Karina; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; Macsharry, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-03-01

    Cellodextrins, the incomplete hydrolysis products from insoluble cellulose, are accessible as a carbon source to certain members of the human gut microbiota, such as Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. Transcription of the cldEFGC gene cluster of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to be induced upon growth on cellodextrins, implicating this cluster in the metabolism of these sugars. Phenotypic analysis of a B. breve UCC2003::cldE insertion mutant confirmed that the cld gene cluster is exclusively required for cellodextrin utilization by this commensal. Moreover, our results suggest that transcription of the cld cluster is controlled by a LacI-type regulator encoded by cldR, located immediately upstream of cldE. Gel mobility shift assays using purified CldR(His) (produced by the incorporation of a His(12)-encoding sequence into the 3' end of the cldC gene) indicate that the cldEFGC promoter is subject to negative control by CldR(His), which binds to two inverted repeats. Analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) of medium samples obtained during growth of B. breve UCC2003 on a mixture of cellodextrins revealed its ability to utilize cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, and cellopentaose, with cellotriose apparently representing the preferred substrate. The cldC gene of the cld operon of B. breve UCC2003 is, to the best of our knowledge, the first described bifidobacterial β-glucosidase exhibiting hydrolytic activity toward various cellodextrins.

  15. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....514(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(g)-1... to cases such as the following: Example 1. A university pledges some of its investment securities...

  16. Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris, W P; Kelly, P M; Morelli, L; Collins, J K

    1998-05-01

    An in vitro methodology which mimics in vivo human upper gastrointestinal transit was developed. The transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37 degrees C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0), containing pepsin (0.3% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.5% w/v), and a simulated small intestinal juice (pH 8.0), containing pancreatin USP (1 g l-1) and sodium chloride (5 g l-1), and monitoring changes in total viable count periodically. The methodology was also employed to determine the effect of adding milk proteins (1 g l-1), hog gastric mucin (1 g l-1) and soyabean trypsinchymotrypsin inhibitor [SBTCI] (1 g l-1) on transit tolerance. The majority (14 of 15) of isolates lost > 90% viability during simulated gastric transit. Only one isolate, Lactobacillus fermentum KLD, was considered intrinsically resistant. The addition of milk proteins, singly and in combination, generally improved gastric transit tolerance. In this regard, two isolates, Lact. casei 212.3 and Bifidobacterium infantis 25962, exhibited 100% gastric transit tolerance in the presence of milk proteins. In general, the addition of hog gastric mucin did not influence simulated gastric transit tolerance of lactobacilli but tended to increase that of bifidobacteria. However, it increased that of Lact. casei 242 and Lact. salivarius 43338 but diminished that of B. bifidum 2715 and B. animalis Bo. Selected bile salts-resistant isolates were intrinsically tolerant to simulated small intestinal transit. Only Lact. casei F19 and B. adolescentis 15703T showed significant reduction in viability after 240 min. In general, the addition of milk proteins and SBTCI did not affect simulated small intestinal transit tolerance. However, they significantly improved the intrinsic resistance of Lact. casei F19 but diminished that of B. breve 15700T. It is concluded that, whereas the majority of bile salts-resistant lactobacilli and

  17. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  18. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation

  19. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  20. Comparative genomics of the Bifidobacterium breve taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, Francesca; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Kuczynski, Justin; O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Serafini, Fausta; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Zomer, Aldert; Zhurina, Daria; Riedel, Christian; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are commonly found as part of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of a broad range of hosts, where their presence is positively correlated with the host's health status. In this study, we assessed the genomes of thirteen representatives of Bifidobacterium breve, which is not only a frequently encountered component of the (adult and infant) human gut microbiota, but can also be isolated from human milk and vagina. In silico analysis of genome sequences from thirteen B. breve strains isolated from different environments (infant and adult faeces, human milk, human vagina) shows that the genetic variability of this species principally consists of hypothetical genes and mobile elements, but, interestingly, also genes correlated with the adaptation to host environment and gut colonization. These latter genes specify the biosynthetic machinery for sortase-dependent pili and exopolysaccharide production, as well as genes that provide protection against invasion of foreign DNA (i.e. CRISPR loci and restriction/modification systems), and genes that encode enzymes responsible for carbohydrate fermentation. Gene-trait matching analysis showed clear correlations between known metabolic capabilities and characterized genes, and it also allowed the identification of a gene cluster involved in the utilization of the alcohol-sugar sorbitol. Genome analysis of thirteen representatives of the B. breve species revealed that the deduced pan-genome exhibits an essentially close trend. For this reason our analyses suggest that this number of B. breve representatives is sufficient to fully describe the pan-genome of this species. Comparative genomics also facilitated the genetic explanation for differential carbon source utilization phenotypes previously observed in different strains of B. breve.

  1. Semigroup Method on a MX/G/1 Queueing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Mijit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Hille-Yosida theorem, Phillips theorem, and Fattorini theorem in functional analysis we prove that the MX/G/1 queueing model with vacation times has a unique nonnegative time-dependent solution.

  2. Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Rada, V.; Parafati, L.; Musilová, S.; Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Killer, Jiří; Mrázek, Jakub; Kmeť, V.; Svejštil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2014), s. 32-35 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : probiotics * Bifidobacterium bifidum * selective enumeration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2014

  3. Growth and lactic acid production by Bifidobacterium longum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fitness of a particular strains of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and Streptococci for commercial utilization depends on its rapid growth and acidification of milk as well as its acid and oxygen tolerence. From 20 samples of French commercial yoghurt, one species of bifidobacteria was identified as Bifidobacterium longum.

  4. Macrolide Resistance Mediated by a Bifidobacterium breve Membrane Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles, Abelardo; Moreno, José Antonio; van Sinderen, Douwe; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2005-01-01

    A gene coding for a hypothetical membrane protein from Bifidobacterium breve was expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this protein is located in the membrane. Phenotypical changes in sensitivity towards 21 antibiotics were determined. The membrane protein-expressing cells showed higher levels of resistance to several macrolides.

  5. Identification of Bifidobacterium strains from faeces of lambs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Killer, Jiří; Rada, V.; Ročková, Š.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 105, 1-3 (2012), 355-360 ISSN 0921-4488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : bifidobacterium * identification * lambs Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2012

  6. Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dylus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.

  7. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB ) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus . The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying. The inhibitory activity of LAB metabolites against aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was evaluated using HPLC method. B. bifidum and L. fermentum significantly reduced aflatoxin production and growth rate of A. parasiticus in comparison with the controls (p≤0.05). LAB reduced total aflatoxins and B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 fractions by more than 99%. Moreover, LAB metabolites reduced the level of standard AFB 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 from 88.8% to 99.8% (p≤0.05). Based on these findings, B. bifidum and L. fermentum are recommended as suitable biocontrol agents against the growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species.

  8. Safety Evaluations of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a variety of lactic acid bacteria have been commercially available to and steadily used by consumers. However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria produce toxic substances and display properties of virulence. To establish safety guidelines for lactic acid bacteria, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/World Health Organization (WHO has suggested that lactic acid bacteria be characterized and proven safe for consumers’ health via multiple experiments (e.g., antibiotic resistance, metabolic activity, toxin production, hemolytic activity, infectivity in immune-compromised animal species, human side effects, and adverse-outcome analyses. Among the lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species are probiotic strains that are most commonly commercially produced and actively studied. Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI have been used in global functional food markets (e.g., China, Germany, Jordan, Korea, Lithuania, New Zealand, Poland, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam as nutraceutical ingredients for decades, without any adverse events. However, given that the safety of some newly screened probiotic species has recently been debated, it is crucial that the consumer safety of each commercially utilized strain be confirmed. Accordingly, this paper details a safety assessment of B. bifidum BGN4 and B. longum BORI via the assessment of ammonia production, hemolysis of blood cells, biogenic amine production, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, antibiotic resistance gene transferability, PCR data on antibiotic resistance genes, mucin degradation, genome stability, and possession of virulence factors. These probiotic strains showed neither hemolytic activity nor mucin degradation activity, and they did not produce ammonia or biogenic amines (i.e., cadaverine, histamine or tyramine. B. bifidum BGN4 and B. longum BORI produced a small

  9. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  10. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  11. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11402, Nov. 26, 1960...

  13. Survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium animalis in yoghurts made from commercial starter cultures during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dudriková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, fermented dairy products have been consumed for nutrition and maintenance of good health for a very long time. This study evaluated the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 in yoghurts after the manufacturing during the shelf-life up to 21 days at 4 °C, which is mostly accepted by the consumers. The titratable acidity and pH showed the same patterns of increase or decline after manufacturing and storage of yoghurts. There was a significant difference (p <0.05 in acidity between yoghurts in glass bottle and plastic cup. The increase in numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and their survival during storage time were dependent on the species and strain of associative yoghurt bacteria (control-only yoghurt lactic acid bacteria and experimental containing except yoghurt culture also Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 and on the packaging material (glass bottle versus plastic cup. It was observed, that counts of bifidobacteria were lower than counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (190 to 434 x 107 at 1d and slowly increased (p <0.001 at maximum level on day 7 (294.3 - 754 x 107 and then slowly declined to 6.33 x 107 in glass bottle and 2.33 x 107 in plastic cups, respectively. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus multiplied better in glass bottles than in plastic cups, as observed during experimental period in-group with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. At the end of the storage period at 4 ºC, viable counts of lactobacilli were higher (p <0.001 in glass bottles. Al the yoghurts, contained the recommended levels of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (107 cfu.g-1 at the end of storage period (21 d. 

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1364 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ted as GTP-binding elongation factor TypA/BipA [Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703] ref|ZP_02029709.1| ...hypothetical protein BIFADO_02168 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] dbj|BAF39850.1| widely conserved prot...ein similar to those annotated as GTP-binding elongation factor TypA/BipA [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is ATCC 15703] gb|EDN82042.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_02168 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] YP_909932.1 5e-75 60% ...

  15. Metabolism of sialic acid by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-07-01

    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 has previously been shown to utilize several plant-derived carbohydrates that include cellodextrins, starch, and galactan. In the present study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize the mucin- and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)-derived carbohydrate sialic acid. Using a combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, we identified a gene cluster dedicated to the uptake and metabolism of sialic acid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that B. breve UCC2003 can cross feed on sialic acid derived from the metabolism of 3'-sialyllactose, an abundant HMO, by another infant gut bifidobacterial strain, Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Metabolism of Sialic Acid by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Ventura, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 has previously been shown to utilize several plant-derived carbohydrates that include cellodextrins, starch, and galactan. In the present study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize the mucin- and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)-derived carbohydrate sialic acid. Using a combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, we identified a gene cluster dedicated to the uptake and metabolism of sialic acid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that B. breve UCC2003 can cross feed on sialic acid derived from the metabolism of 3′-sialyllactose, an abundant HMO, by another infant gut bifidobacterial strain, Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. PMID:24814790

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurina, Daria; Zomer, Aldert; Gleinser, Marita; Brancaccio, Vincenco Francesco; Auchter, Marc; Waidmann, Mark S.; Westermann, Christina; van Sinderen, Douwe; Riedel, Christian U.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the first completely annotated genome sequence of a Bifidobacterium bifidum strain. B. bifidum S17, isolated from feces of a breast-fed infant, was shown to strongly adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and has potent anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and allow for the characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial properties. PMID:21037011

  18. Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

  19. Effect of production conditions on the stability of a human bifidobacterial species Bifidobacterium longum in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, F; Tomita, S; Yaeshima, T; Iwatsuki, K

    2009-12-01

    Human bifidobacteria are more sensitive to external environmental factors than animal bifidobacteria, and it is difficult to ensure their stable survival in yogurt. The purpose of this investigation was to observe the survival of human bifidobacteria in yogurts produced under various production conditions. Frozen or lyophilized bifidobacteria starters containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 originally isolated from an infant, and commercial lyophilized yogurt starters were used for yogurt preparation. After producing yogurts under various conditions, the survival of bifidobacteria in these yogurts over various storage periods was observed. Although there were some differences in bifidobacterial survival in yogurt between various production conditions, more than 1.0 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) of Bif. longum survived in yogurt after 35 days' storage at 5 degrees C. Lower fermentation temperature (37 degrees C) and inclusion of Lactococcus lactis in the starter significantly (P yogurt. In this investigation, the human bifidobacterial strain Bif. longum survived adequately in yogurt, although the fermentation temperature and starter composition affect bifidobacterial survival. This investigation indicates that stable probiotic yogurt using human bifidobacteria can be produced by choosing optimal production conditions.

  20. Measurement of the proton spin structure function g1p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pussieux, T.

    1994-10-01

    In order to check the Bjorken sum rule and confirm the EMC surprising conclusion on the spin structure of the proton, the measurement of the spin structure function of the proton has been performed by the Spin Muon Collaboration via the polarized muon nucleon deep inelastic scattering. The results of the 1993 run are presented within a kinematical range of 0.003 2 = 10 GeV 2 . The first moment of the polarized spin structure function g 1 p is found to be two standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming SU(3) for hyperons β decays, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin is extracted. Combining all available data on proton, neutron and deuton, The Bjorken sum rule is confirmed within 10%. (author). 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. A convenient and reproducible method to genetically transform bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argnani, A.; Leer, R.J.; Luijk, N. van; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    A protocol was developed for the introduction of foreign plasmid DNA into various Bifidobacterium strains. The method, which is applicable to all Bifidobacterium species tested so far, is based on electroporation of bacteria made competent by preincubation in electroporation buffer for several hours

  2. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1256 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1256 ref|ZP_02028945.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01393 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is L2-32] gb|EDN83101.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01393 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] ZP_02028945.1 6e-18 34% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1346 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1346 ref|ZP_02027852.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_00259 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is L2-32] gb|EDN83353.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_00259 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] ZP_02027852.1 1e-32 36% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0138 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0138 ref|ZP_02029487.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01945 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is L2-32] gb|EDN81820.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01945 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] ZP_02029487.1 3e-07 24% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0829 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0829 ref|ZP_02028047.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_00459 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is L2-32] gb|EDN83548.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_00459 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] ZP_02028047.1 6.2 30% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-06-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-06-0027 ref|YP_909496.1| hypothetical protein BAD_0633 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is ATCC 15703] dbj|BAF39414.1| hypothetical protein [Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703] YP_909496.1 0.007 34% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-03-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-03-0079 ref|ZP_02029004.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01454 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is L2-32] gb|EDN82771.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01454 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] ZP_02029004.1 1e-04 24% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-22-0126 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-22-0126 ref|ZP_02029174.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01627 [Bifidobacterium adolescent...is L2-32] gb|EDN82575.1| hypothetical protein BIFADO_01627 [Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32] ZP_02029174.1 7e-18 19% ...

  10. Reactor G1: high power experiments; Experiences a forte puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laage, F de; Teste du Baillet, A; Veyssiere, A; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Retel, H [Societe Rateau, D.E.A. (France)

    1957-07-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  11. Enhancement of growth performance and hematological changes in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss alevins fed with Bifidobacterium bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sahandi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of probiotic application as an important rearing strategy was started more than 30 years ago and most of these studies were carried out to increase growth and survival of larvae. Effect of Bifidobacterium animalis PTTC-1631 and B. lactis PTTC-1736 as probiotic supplement has been studied on growth performance and hematological changes on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss alevins with initial body weight of 0.583 ± 0.197 g. The commercial diet was supplemented with graded levels of probiotics (1×107, 2×107 and 3×107 CFU g-1 dry feed to obtain 3 sets of experimental diets (T1, T2, andT3 respectively and fed four times a day for 60 days. T1 alevin showed the best growth performance in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, metabolic growth rate, feed conversion ratio and survival rate. The highest red and white blood cell concentrations were noticed in fish fed T2 and T3 diets, respectively, no significant difference was observed in hemoglobin content. T1 showed the significant elevation of serum biochemical parameters and reduction of cortisol level. The results of present study might suggest likely positive effects of probiotic supplements with concentration of 1×107 CFU g-1 dry feed on growth and hematology on rainbow trout alevins.

  12. Glycosulfatase-Encoding Gene Cluster in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; Jiang, Hao; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Oscarson, Stefan; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2016-11-15

    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria typically found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve strains are numerically prevalent among the gut microbiota of many healthy breastfed infants. In the present study, we investigated glycosulfatase activity in a bacterial isolate from a nursling stool sample, B. breve UCC2003. Two putative sulfatases were identified on the genome of B. breve UCC2003. The sulfated monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate (GlcNAc-6-S) was shown to support the growth of B. breve UCC2003, while N-acetylglucosamine-3-sulfate, N-acetylgalactosamine-3-sulfate, and N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate did not support appreciable growth. By using a combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, a gene cluster designated ats2 was shown to be specifically required for GlcNAc-6-S metabolism. Transcription of the ats2 cluster is regulated by a repressor open reading frame kinase (ROK) family transcriptional repressor. This study represents the first description of glycosulfatase activity within the Bifidobacterium genus. Bifidobacteria are saccharolytic organisms naturally found in the digestive tract of mammals and insects. Bifidobacterium breve strains utilize a variety of plant- and host-derived carbohydrates that allow them to be present as prominent members of the infant gut microbiota as well as being present in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. In this study, we introduce a previously unexplored area of carbohydrate metabolism in bifidobacteria, namely, the metabolism of sulfated carbohydrates. B. breve UCC2003 was shown to metabolize N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate (GlcNAc-6-S) through one of two sulfatase-encoding gene clusters identified on its genome. GlcNAc-6-S can be found in terminal or branched positions of mucin oligosaccharides, the glycoprotein component of the mucous layer that covers the digestive tract. The results of this study provide

  13. Discovery of a conjugative megaplasmid in Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, Francesca; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Casey, Eoghan; McDonnell, Brian; Mahony, Jennifer; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is a common and sometimes very abundant inhabitant of the human gut. Genome sequencing of B. breve JCM 7017 revealed the presence of an extrachromosomal element, designated pMP7017 consisting of >190 kb, thus representing the first reported bifidobacterial megaplasmid. In silico characterization of this element revealed several genomic features supporting a stable establishment of the megaplasmid in its host, illustrated by predicted CRISPR-Cas functions that are known to protect the host against intrusion of foreign DNA. Interestingly, pMP7017 is also predicted to encode a conjugative DNA transfer apparatus and, consistent with this notion, we demonstrate here the conjugal transfer of pMP7017 to representative strains of B. breve and B. longum subsp. longum. We also demonstrate the presence of a megaplasmid with homology to pMP7017 in three B. longum subsp. longum strains. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Discovery of a Conjugative Megaplasmid in Bifidobacterium breve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, Francesca; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Casey, Eoghan; McDonnell, Brian; Mahony, Jennifer; Ventura, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is a common and sometimes very abundant inhabitant of the human gut. Genome sequencing of B. breve JCM 7017 revealed the presence of an extrachromosomal element, designated pMP7017 consisting of >190 kb, thus representing the first reported bifidobacterial megaplasmid. In silico characterization of this element revealed several genomic features supporting a stable establishment of the megaplasmid in its host, illustrated by predicted CRISPR-Cas functions that are known to protect the host against intrusion of foreign DNA. Interestingly, pMP7017 is also predicted to encode a conjugative DNA transfer apparatus and, consistent with this notion, we demonstrate here the conjugal transfer of pMP7017 to representative strains of B. breve and B. longum subsp. longum. We also demonstrate the presence of a megaplasmid with homology to pMP7017 in three B. longum subsp. longum strains. PMID:25326305

  15. Comparative genomics of bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and related probiotic genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David; Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    2012-01-01

    Six bacterial genera containing species commonly used as probiotics for human consumption or starter cultures for food fermentation were compared and contrasted, based on publicly available complete genome sequences. The analysis included 19 Bifidobacterium genomes, 21 Lactobacillus genomes, 4...... Lactococcus and 3 Leuconostoc genomes, as well as a selection of Enterococcus (11) and Streptococcus (23) genomes. The latter two genera included genomes from probiotic or commensal as well as pathogenic organisms to investigate if their non-pathogenic members shared more genes with the other probiotic......- and core genome of each genus were compared. In addition, it was investigated whether pathogenic genomes contain different COG classes compared to the probiotic or fermentative organisms, again comparing their pan- and core genomes. The obtained results were compared with published data from the literature...

  16. Lactobacillus ve Bifidobacterium Cinsi Bakterilerin Beta Galaktosidaz Enzim Aktivitelerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Kılıç

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, insan, gıda ve hayvan kaynaklı 39 Lactobacilllus cinsine ait ve yeni doğan gaitasından izole edilmiş 3 Bifidobacterium cinsine ait toplam 42 bakteri kullanılmıştır. O-nitrofenil-beta-D-galaktosit (o-NPG substrat olarak kullanılarak, kültürlerin β-galaktosidaz enzim ve spesifik aktiviteleri belirlenmiştir. Lactobacillus cinsine ait kültürlerden L. fermentum ZYN17 (2.468 U/mg, L. casei LB65 (1.116 U/mg, L. rhamnosus GD11 (1.034 U/mg ve L. acidophilus BAZ36 (0.947 U/mg suşlarının, Bifidobacterium cinsine ait kültürlerden de B. breve A26 (0.726 U/mg suşunun en yüksek spesifik aktivite yeteneğine sahip oldukları tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, bakterilerin 5-brom-4-klor-3-indolil-β-D-galaktopiranosit (X-gal substrat bileşiğiyle de nitel olarak enzim aktivitesinin varlığı değerlendirilmiştir. Yüksek spesifik β-galaktozidaz aktivitesi gösteren ZYN17 suşuna ait β-galaktozidaz enziminin optimizasyonu yapılmıştır. β-galaktozidaz enziminin optimum pH’sı 6.8, optimum sıcaklığı 37 ºC ve optimum tamponun potasyum fosfat tamponu olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  17. Factors affecting viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum during spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Zahra; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza; Ardjmand, Mehdi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Gilani, Kambiz

    2015-01-25

    There is substantial clinical data supporting the role of Bifidobacterium bifidum in human health particularly in benefiting the immune system and suppressing intestinal infections. Compared to the traditional lyophilization, spray-drying is an economical process for preparing large quantities of viable microorganisms. The technique offers high production rates and low operating costs but is not usually used for drying of substances prone to high temperature. The aim of this study was to establish the optimized environmental factors in spray drying of cultured bifidobacteria to obtain a viable and stable powder. The experiments were designed to test variables such as inlet air temperature, air pressure and also maltodextrin content. The combined effect of these variables on survival rateand moisture content of bacterial powder was studied using a central composite design (CCD). Sub-lethal heat-adaptation of a B. bifidum strain which was previously adapted to acid-bile-NaCl led to much more resistance to high outlet temperature during spray drying. The resistant B. bifidum was supplemented with cost friendly permeate, sucrose, yeast extract and different amount of maltodextrin before it was fed into a Buchi B-191 mini spray-dryer. Second-order polynomials were established to identify the relationship between the responses andthe three variables. Results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at 95% confidence interval. The optimal values of the variables for maximum survival and minimum moisture content of B. bifidum powder were as follows: inlet air temperature of 111.15°C, air pressure of 4.5 bar and maltodextrin concentration of 6%. Under optimum conditions, the maximum survival of 28.38% was achieved while moisture was maintained at 4.05%. Viable and cost effective spray drying of Bifidobacterium bifidum could be achieved by cultivating heat and acid adapted strain into the culture media containing

  18. Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium breve isolates from preterm and full term neonates: comparison of cell surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Teolis, Anne-Claire; Xin, Liu Xin; Butel, Marie Jose; Aires, Julio

    2014-08-01

    We compared autoaggregation, surface hydrophobicity and Caco-2 cells adhesion capabilities of independent Bifidobacterium breve (n = 22) and Bifidobacterium longum (n = 25) strains isolated from preterm (n = 20) and full term neonates (n = 27). Concerning strains properties, a correlation between autoaggregation and surface hydrophobicity was found for B. longum (r = 0.40, p = 0.048), B. breve (r = 0.57, p = 0.005), and all strains independently of the species consideration (r = 0.46, p = 0.001). The absence of difference in adhesion capabilities between preterm and full term neonate strains suggests a strain-dependent property. However, B. longum strains from preterm neonates (n = 10) showed higher autoaggregation ability (p = 0.044). Additionally, independently of species consideration, preterm neonates strains showed lower surface hydrophobicity (p = 0.027). As far as species are considered, preterm neonate B. breve strains (n = 10) showed significantly lower surface hydrophobicity percentages (p = 0.043). Our results suggest the existence of variations in bifidobacteria membrane structure and/or composition that may reflect adaptation of these bacteria to the intestinal environment of either preterm or full term neonates. Such information is of interest when considering the use of bifidobacteria probiotic strains for modulation of preterm neonates gut microbiota. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction of the same novel homoglycan mixture from two different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis and three strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhudhud, M; Sadiq, S; Ngo, H N; Hidalgo-Cantabrana, C; Ruas-Madiedo, P; van Sinderen, D; Humphreys, P N; Laws, A P

    2018-04-26

    Three strains of Bifidobacterium breve (JCM 7017, JCM 7019 and JCM 2258) and two strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (AD011 and A1dOxR) were grown in broth cultures or on plates, and a standard exopolysaccharide extraction method was used in an attempt to recover exocellular polysaccharides. When the extracted materials were analysed by NMR it was clear that mixtures of polysaccharides were being isolated including exopolysaccharides (EPS) cell wall polysaccharides and intracellular polysaccharides. Treatment of the cell biomass from the B. breve strains, or the B. animalis subsp. lactis AD011 strain, with aqueous sodium hydroxide provided a very similar mixture of polysaccharides but without the EPS. The different polysaccharides were partially fractionated by selective precipitation from an aqueous solution upon the addition of increasing percentages of ethanol. The polysaccharides extracted from B. breve JCM 7017 grown in HBM media supplemented with glucose (or isotopically labelled D-glucose-1- 13 C) were characterised using 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Addition of one volume of ethanol generated a medium molecular weight glycogen (Mw=1×10 5 Da, yield 200 mg/l). The addition of two volumes of ethanol precipitated an intimate mixture of a low molecular weight β-(1→6)-glucan and a low molecular weight β-(1→6)-galactofuranan which could not be separated (combined yield 46 mg/l). When labelled D-glucose-1- 13 C was used as a carbon supplement, the label was incorporated into >95% of the anomeric carbons of each polysaccharide confirming they were being synthesised in situ. Similar 1 H NMR profiles were obtained for polysaccharides recovered from the cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis AD011and A1dOxR (in combination with an EPS), B. breve JCM 7017, B. breve JCM 7019, B. breve JCM 2258 and from an EPS (-ve) mutant of B. breve 7017 (a non-EPS producer).

  20. Analysis of the G1 arrest position of senescent WI38 cells by quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence: evidence for a late G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.D.; Cristofalo, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    Senescence of the human diploid fibroblast-like cell line, W138, is characterized by a loss of proliferative activity and an arrest of cells with a 2C DNA content (G1 or G0). To examine the specific region within G1 in which senescent cells arrest, senescent cells were stained with quinacrine dihydrochloride (QDH) and their nuclear fluorescence was compared with that of young cultures arrested in early and late G1 by serum deprivation and hydroxyurea exposure, respectively. Release of these G1-arrested young cultures from their blocking conditions and timing the kinetics of their entry into the S phase by autoradiographic detection of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation revealed that serum-deprived cells entered the S phase within 15-18h, whereas hydroxyurea-exposed cells entered the S phase within 1.5h, thus confirming their relative G1-arrest positions. QDH-stained, serum-deprived and hydroxyurea-exposed young cells exhibited relative nuclear fluorescence intensities of 51.7 and 23.9, respectively. Senescent cells exhibited a relative nuclear fluorescence intensity of 17.4, closely resembling the fluorescence of young cultures arrested in late G1 by hydroxyurea exposure. These data support the concept that senescent cells are arrested from further progression in the cell cycle in late G1

  1. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrůtková, Dagmar; Španová, A.; Špano, M.; Dráb, V.; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozáková, Hana; Rittich, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2011), s. 10-16 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Bifidobacterium longum * ARDRA * pcr Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2011

  2. Diversity of the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunesova, Vera; Killer, Jiri; Javurkova, Barbora; Vlkova, Eva; Tejnecky, Vaclav; Musilova, Sarka; Rada, Vojtech

    2017-04-01

    Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. B. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. The aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between B. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including Cameroon sheep, Barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, German shepard and to compare to BB12, food isolates and the collection strain DSM 10140. Ten strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis from different sources were characterised by phenotyping, fingerprinting, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Regardless of origin, MLST and phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis with commercial and animal origin with the exception of isolates from ovine cheese, mouflon and German Shepard dog. Moreover, isolates from dog and mouflon showed significant differences in fermentation profiles and peptide mass fingerprints (MALDI-TOF). Results indicated phenotypic and genotypic diversity among strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellodextrin Utilization by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokusaeva, Karina; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; MacSharry, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Cellodextrins, the incomplete hydrolysis products from insoluble cellulose, are accessible as a carbon source to certain members of the human gut microbiota, such as Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. Transcription of the cldEFGC gene cluster of B. breve UCC2003 was shown to be induced upon growth on cellodextrins, implicating this cluster in the metabolism of these sugars. Phenotypic analysis of a B. breve UCC2003::cldE insertion mutant confirmed that the cld gene cluster is exclusively required for cellodextrin utilization by this commensal. Moreover, our results suggest that transcription of the cld cluster is controlled by a LacI-type regulator encoded by cldR, located immediately upstream of cldE. Gel mobility shift assays using purified CldRHis (produced by the incorporation of a His12-encoding sequence into the 3′ end of the cldC gene) indicate that the cldEFGC promoter is subject to negative control by CldRHis, which binds to two inverted repeats. Analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) of medium samples obtained during growth of B. breve UCC2003 on a mixture of cellodextrins revealed its ability to utilize cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, and cellopentaose, with cellotriose apparently representing the preferred substrate. The cldC gene of the cld operon of B. breve UCC2003 is, to the best of our knowledge, the first described bifidobacterial β-glucosidase exhibiting hydrolytic activity toward various cellodextrins. PMID:21216899

  4. The protein source in embryo culture media influences birthweight: a comparative study between G1 v5 and G1-PLUS v5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Li, Ming; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Does protein source or human serum albumin (HSA) in embryo culture media influence the subsequent birthweight? A significant difference was observed in gestational age- and gender-adjusted birthweight (Z scores) and the proportion of large-for-gestational age (LGA) babies between embryos cultured in G1 v5 and those cultured in G1-PLUS v5 media. It has been reported that the birthweights of singletons born from embryos cultured in Vitrolife are significantly higher than those cultured in the Cook group of media, and that G1-PLUS (Vitrolife, Gothenburg, Sweden) is associated with increased birth and placenta weights compared with Medicult ISMI. This study was a retrospective analysis of neonatal birthweights, and included 1097 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital between January 2011 and August 2012. The number of singletons born from G1 v5 culture media was 489, and the number of singletons born from G1-PLUS v5 media was 608. Patients media groups. The absolute birthweights for singletons resulting from G1-PLUS v5 were not different from singletons resulting from G1 v5 (3375.9 ± 479.6 g versus 3333.2 ± 491.6 g, respectively; P = 0.14). However the Z scores for singletons from embryos cultured in G1-PLUS v5 were significantly higher than for singletons cultured in G1 v5 (0.28 ± 1.12 versus 0.09 ± 1.15, respectively; P = 0.04), and more LGA babies were born from G1-PLUS v5 culture compared with G1 v5 (16.8 versus 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03) culture. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis suggested that female weight (P = 0.00), male height (P = 0.04), gestational age at birth (P = 0.00), infant gender (P = 0.00) and culture media (P = 0.04) all had significant effects on the birthweights of singleton newborns. This study was limited by its retrospective design. Our study suggests that protein source/HSA has a significant effect on birthweights of singleton newborns

  5. Fecal microbiota changes with the consumption of follow-up formulas containing Bifidobacterium spp. and/or galactooligosaccharides by rats and a follow-up infant formula containing Bifidobacterium spp. by human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Conesa, D.; Lopez, G.; Ros, G.H.; Abellan, P.; Hartemink, R.

    2006-01-01

    Seven groups of rats were fed during 1 mo using 1 infant formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum, 3 infant formulas containing 4-galactosyllactose at 1.2%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, and 3 infant formulas containing both ingredients. During 3 periods, corresponding to day 8 to

  6. Cytometry of chromatin bound Mcm6 and PCNA identifies two states in G1 that are separated functionally by the G1 restriction point1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing a defined high level of chromatin-bound Mcm6 in G1 are committed - i.e., past the G1 restriction point. We developed a cell-based assay for tightly-bound PCNA (PCNA* and Mcm6 (Mcm6*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker to clearly define G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. hTERT-BJ1, hTERT-RPE-1, and Molt4 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 followed by methanol fixation, stained with antibodies and DAPI, then measured by cytometry. Results Bivariate analysis of cytometric data demonstrated complex patterns with distinct clustering for all combinations of the 4 variables. In G1, cells clustered in two groups characterized by low and high Mcm6* expression. Serum starvation and release experiments showed that residence in the high group was in late G1, just prior to S phase. Kinetic experiments, employing serum withdrawal, and stathmokinetic analysis with aphidicolin, mimosine or nocodazole demonstrated that cells with high levels of Mcm6* cycled with the committed phases of the cell cycle (S, G2, and M. Conclusions A multivariate assay for Mcm6*, PCNA*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker provides analysis capable of estimating the fraction of pre and post-restriction point G1 cells and supports the idea that there are at least two states in G1 defined by levels of chromatin bound Mcm proteins.

  7. Observations on the electronic equipment employed for making measurements on the pile G1; Observations sur le materiel electronique utilise pour les mesures sur la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Belin, P; Meunier, A; Tarabella, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The electronic apparatus employed during the manipulations carried out on the pile G1 is briefly described, with the aim of putting on record the inconveniences encountered in the course of the operation of this equipment. (author) [French] On decrit succinctement l'appareillage electronique utilise durant les manipulations effectuees sur la pile G1, dans le but de noter les inconvenients rencontres au cours de l'exploitation de cet appareillage. (auteur)

  8. Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbers, M M; de Milliano, I; Roseboom, M G; Benninga, M A

    2011-02-23

    Probiotics are increasingly used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Studies in constipated adults with a Bifidus yoghurt (containing Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus) showed a significant increase in defecation frequency. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if Bifidobacterium breve is effective in the treatment of childhood constipation. Children, 3 to 16 years of age, with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were eligible for this study. During 4 weeks, children received one sachet of powder daily, containing 108- 1010 CFU Bifidobacterium breve. Furthermore, children were instructed to try to defecate on the toilet for 5-10 minutes after each meal and to complete a standardized bowel diary daily. The primary outcome measure was change in defecation frequency. Secondary outcome measures were stool consistency using the Bristol stool scale frequency of episodes of faecal incontinence, pain during defecation, frequency of abdominal pain, frequency of adverse effects (nausea, diarrhoea and bad taste), and frequency of intake of bisacodyl. Twenty children (75% male, mean age 7.4) were included in this pilot study. The defecation frequency per week significantly increased from 0.9 (0-2) at baseline to 4.9 (0-21) in week 4 (p Bifidobacterium breve is effective in increasing stool frequency in children with functional constipation. Furthermore it has a positive effect with respect to stool consistency, decreasing the number of faecal incontinence episodes and in diminishing abdominal pain. A randomized placebo controlled trial is required to confirm these data.

  9. Bifidobacterium mongoliense sp. nov., from airag, a traditional fermented mare's milk product from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Makino, Hiroshi; Sasamoto, Masae; Kudo, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junji; Demberel, Shirchin

    2009-06-01

    Two novel micro-organisms, designated strains YIT 10443(T) and YIT 10738, were isolated from airag, a traditional fermented mare's milk from Mongolia. The two strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, asporogenous, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods of various shapes. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA and ClpC ATPase (clpC) gene sequences and the presence of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Bifidobacterium. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Bifidobacterium minimum (96.6 %) and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours of the novel strains, and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were found to be lower than 15 %. The phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the two strains represent a single, novel Bifidobacterium species, for which the name Bifidobacterium mongoliense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIT 10443(T) (=JCM 15461(T) =DSM 21395(T)).

  10. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  11. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity.

  12. Application and expression of HSV gG1 protein from a recombinant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Huang, Tao; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-11-01

    According to the homologous sequence of glycoprotein G1 (gG1) genes from different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a pair of primers was designed to amplify the gG1 gene fragment by PCR. Both the PCR product and the pGEX-4T-1 vector were digested with EcoR I and Sal I. The gG1 gene fragment was subcloned into the digested pGEX-4T-1 vector to construct a recombinant plasmid (pGEX-4T-1-gG1). The resultant plasmid was identified by dual-enzyme digestion and sequence analysis, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 for expression under the induction of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG). The expressed GST-gG1 fragment was detected by SDS-PAGE and purified by affinity chromatography. The properties of GST-gG1 fragment were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the GST-gG1 fragment were used for determining IgG or IgM to HSV-1. The GST-gG1 fragment-specific ELISA was also compared with ELISA with whole-HSV-1 antigen and commercial ELISA kits. The gG1-specific IgG and IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells were induced in mice immunized with the GST-gG1 fragment. These results indicated that the GST-gG1 fragment could be used for replacing whole-virus antigen to detect IgM and IgG to HSV-1 in human sera, which provided a strategy for developing vaccines to protect HSV-1 infection using gG1 fragment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bifidobacterium Bacteremia: Clinical Characteristics and a Genomic Approach To Assess Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerde, Erik; Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Klingenberg, Claus

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bifidobacteria are commensals that colonize the orogastrointestinal tract and rarely cause invasive human infections. However, an increasing number of bifidobacterial blood culture isolates has lately been observed in Norway. In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the Bifidobacterium species responsible for bacteremia, we studied Bifidobacterium isolates from 15 patients for whom cultures of blood obtained from 2013 to 2015 were positive. We collected clinical data and analyzed phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates (11 Bifidobacterium longum, 2 B. breve, and 2 B. animalis isolates) were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. The 15 patients were predominantly in the extreme lower or upper age spectrum, many were severely immunocompromised, and 11 of 15 had gastrointestinal tract-related conditions. In two elderly patients, the Bifidobacterium bacteremia caused a sepsis-like picture, interpreted as the cause of death. Most bifidobacterial isolates had low MICs (≤0.5 mg/liter) to beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, and clindamycin and relatively high MICs to ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. We performed a pangenomic comparison of invasive and noninvasive B. longum isolates based on 65 sequences available from GenBank and the sequences of 11 blood culture isolates from this study. Functional annotation identified unique genes among both invasive and noninvasive isolates of Bifidobacterium. Phylogenetic clusters of invasive isolates were identified for a subset of the B. longum subsp. longum isolates. However, there was no difference in the number of putative virulence genes between invasive and noninvasive isolates. In conclusion, Bifidobacterium has an invasive potential in the immunocompromised host and may cause a sepsis-like picture. Using comparative genomics, we could not delineate specific pathogenicity traits characterizing invasive isolates. PMID:28490487

  14. Characterization and Exploitation of CRISPR Loci in Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse CRISPR-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity in many bacteria and most archaea, via a DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated, nucleic-acid targeting mechanism. Over time, CRISPR loci expand via iterative uptake of invasive DNA sequences into the CRISPR array during the adaptation process. These genetic vaccination cards thus provide insights into the exposure of strains to phages and plasmids in space and time, revealing the historical predatory exposure of a strain. These genetic loci thus constitute a unique basis for genotyping of strains, with potential of resolution at the strain-level. Here, we investigate the occurrence and diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems in the genomes of various Bifidobacterium longum strains across three sub-species. Specifically, we analyzed the genomic content of 66 genomes belonging to B. longum subsp. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. suis, and identified 25 strains that carry 29 total CRISPR-Cas systems. We identify various Type I and Type II CRISPR-Cas systems that are widespread in this species, notably I-C, I-E, and II-C. Noteworthy, Type I-C systems showed extended CRISPR arrays, with extensive spacer diversity. We show how these hypervariable loci can be used to gain insights into strain origin, evolution and phylogeny, and can provide discriminatory sequences to distinguish even clonal isolates. By investigating CRISPR spacer sequences, we reveal their origin and implicate phages and prophages as drivers of CRISPR immunity expansion in this species, with redundant targeting of select prophages. Analysis of CRISPR spacer origin also revealed novel PAM sequences. Our results suggest that CRISPR-Cas immune systems are instrumental in mounting diversified viral resistance in B. longum, and show that these sequences are useful for typing across three subspecies.

  15. Safety of Bifidobacterium breve (BBG-01) in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Shinya

    2017-03-01

    Since 1982, viable cells of Bifidobacterium breve (BBG-01) have been used in pediatric patients for clinical conditions such as intractable infantile diarrhea, preterm status, and pediatric surgery. Although the efficacy of BBG-01 has been widely reported, adverse events related to the use of BBG-01 have been reported in very few cases. In order to trace adverse events seen by 109 doctors in 88 medical institutions where BBG-01 was used, a questionnaire survey of the number of occurrences and details of each case was conducted. Eighty-six clinicians (70 institutions) responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 78.9%). Number of respondents according to department of diagnosis (no. BBG-01-treated infants) was as follows: pediatrics, 29 respondents (10 938 patients); premature and newborn medicine, 26 (10 677 patients); obstetrics and gynecology, 1 (1212 patients) and pediatric surgery, 22 (169 patients). More than 90% of the total BBG-01-treated patients (23 092 patients) were in the departments of premature and newborn medicine and pediatrics, and BBG-01 had been used mainly in preterm infants and children with intractable diarrhea. Adverse events occurred in two extremely premature infants with functional ileus due to starch aggregates as vehicle, and in two surgical neonates with bacteremia caused by B. breve genetically identical to BBG-01, and no serious adverse events with poor outcome were reported. Adverse events related to the use of BBG-01 have an extremely low incidence and are mild in severity, thus ensuring the superior safety of this preparation. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protects against pathogen-induced NF-kappaB activation in vivo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, David

    2010-12-22

    Abstract Background Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the early and important colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract and are generally considered to be part of a normal, healthy microbiota. It is believed that specific strains within the microbiota can influence host immune-reactivity and may play a role in protection from infection and aberrant inflammatory activity. One such strain, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7, has been previously shown to protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice and helps resolve acute idiopathic diarrhea in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning the Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protective effect. Results Following 4 hours of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, NF-κB activation was significantly elevated in vivo in placebo and Enterococcus faecium-fed animals while Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption significantly attenuated the NF-κB response. In vitro anti-CD3\\/CD28 stimulated Peyer\\'s patch cells secreted significantly less TNF-α and IFN-γ following Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption. Stimulated cells released more IL-12p70 but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No alteration in mucosal IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1 levels were observed. No statistically significant change in the cytokine profile of mesenteric lymph node cells was noted. In vitro, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 was bound by dendritic cells and induced secretion of both IL-10 and IL-12p70. In addition, co-culture of CD4+ T cells with Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7-stimulated dendritic cells resulted in a significant increase in CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers. Conclusion Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via the attenuation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activation in response to an infectious insult associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production within the mucosa. The cellular mechanism

  17. Benefits of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Supplementation in Preterm Neonates - A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patole, Sanjay K; Rao, Shripada C; Keil, Anthony D; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen N

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials report that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) to preterm neonates would reduce the incidence of NEC. The incidence of NEC ≥ Stage II and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period of 24 months 'before' (Epoch 1) and 'after' (Epoch 2) RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in neonates Bifidobacterium breve M-16V was associated with decreased NEC≥ Stage II and 'NEC≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality' in neonates <34 weeks. Large sample size is required to assess the potential benefits of RPS in neonates <28 weeks.

  18. Intestinal Microbiota in Pediatric Surgical Cases Administered Bifidobacterium Breve: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Tadaharu; Asahara, Takashi; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Ogasawara, Yuki; Lane, Geoffrey J; Nomoto, Koji; Nagata, Satoru; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2016-07-01

    The efficacy of perioperative probiotic administration has been reported in adults. We examined the effects of orally administered Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BBG-01) on outcomes in pediatric surgical cases by assessing intestinal and blood microbiota. BBG-01 was well tolerated without adverse effects, and postoperative infectious complications were significantly decreased. Fecal analysis showed increased Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, and Pseudomonas. Concentrations of fecal acetic acid were significantly increased, maintaining fecal pH at <7.0. The incidence of detecting bacteria in blood was significantly reduced. BBG-01 improved the intestinal environment, and may be implicated in suppressing bacterial translocation.

  19. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program du...

  20. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  1. Experience gained in two years operation of G1; Experience acquise au cours de deux ans de fonctionnement du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de, Rouville; Pascal, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Scalliet, [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    Technical specifications in respect of the first plutonium generating graphite reactor, the G1 at Marcoule, were stated in a paper read at the first Geneva Conference in 1955. We shall not therefore deal further with the technical characteristics of G1 in the present note, but rather propose to define - in the characteristic fields we think will be of major interest to foreign specialists - the results obtained in two and a half years operation since G1 first became critical on january 7, 1956. (author)Fren. [French] Les caracteristiques techniques du premier reacteur plutonigene, au graphite, de Marcoule, G1, ont ete donnees dans une communication presentee a la premiere conference de Geneve, en 1955. Nous n'y reviendrons donc pas dans la presente note qui a pour objet de faire le point, dans quelques domaines caracteristiques, qui nous ont paru les plus susceptibles d'interesser les specialistes etrangers, des resultats obtenus et des experiences faites au cours des deux annees et demi de fonctionnement du reacteur qui ont suivi sa divergence, le 7 janvier 1956. (auteur)

  2. Natural uranium-graphite system. Critial experiments on the G1 reactor; Systeme uranium naturel-graphite. Experiences critiques sur le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of experiments have been performed during the start up period of the G1 (1956) and G2 (1958) reactors in Marcoule, both on their lattices and on different lattices (hollow rods, clusters, under moderated lattices). The first chapter gives a thorough description of the two reactors. The second chapter deals with buckling measurements, both absolute (flux plots) and relative by the method of progressive substitution. The experimental results are summarised in Table VI. The third chapter contains a number of other measurements performed on G1. (author)Fren. [French] Le demarrage des reacteurs G1 (1956) et G2 (1958) de Marcoule nous a permis d'effectuer une serie d'experiences tant sur les reseaux de ces piles que sur des reseaux differents (elements tubulaires ou divises, reseaux sous-moderes, etc...). Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons une description detaillee des deux reacteurs. Dans la deuxieme partie, relative aux mesures de laplaciens, nous decrivons d'abord les mesures absolues de laplaciens (cartes de flux), puis les mesures relatives effectuees par la methode originale de remplacement progressif. Les resultats experimentaux sont rassembles dans le tableau VI. Dans la troisieme partie, nous rappelons un certain nombre d'autres mesures effectuees sur G1. (auteur)

  3. A note on negative customers, GI/G/1 workload, and risk processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Boucherie; O.J. Boxma (Onno); K. Sigman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractRecently the workload distribution in the M/G/1 queue with work removal has been analysed, and has been shown to exhibit a generalized Pollaczek-Khintchine form. The latter result is explained in this note by transforming the model into a standard GI/G/1 queue. Some extensions are also

  4. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis–G1 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C.-S.; Bartman, Caroline R.; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S.; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C.; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer–promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis–G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. PMID:27340175

  5. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. © 2016 Hsiung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houdt, B.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In applying matrix-analytic methods to M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains, it is crucial to determine the solution to a (set of) nonlinear matrix equation(s). This is usually done via iterative methods. We consider the highly structured subclass of triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD

  7. Global and local asymptotics for the busy period of an M/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.E.; Shneer, V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 queue with subexponential service times. We give a simple derivation of the global and local asymptotics for the busy period. Our analysis relies on the explicit formula for the joint distribution for the number of customers and the length of the busy period of an M/G/1 queue.

  8. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  10. Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; van der Giessen, Joke; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; Irshadullah, Malik; Jabbar, Abdul; Jenkins, David J; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Mirhendi, Hossein; M'rad, Selim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rehbein, Steffen; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Simsek, Sami; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Sprong, Hein; Šnábel, Viliam; Umhang, Gérald; Varcasia, Antonio; Saarma, Urmas

    2018-05-19

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions

  12. Insights into physiological traits of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 through membrane proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Hjernø, Karin; Østerlund, Eva Christina

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a widely used probiotic strain associated with a variety of health-promoting traits. There is, however, only limited knowledge available regarding the membrane proteome and the proteins involved in oligosaccharide transport in BB-12. We applied two...

  13. Susceptibility of human and probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. to selected antibiotics as determined by the Etest method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matto, J.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Domig, K.J.; Saarela, M.; Flórez, A.B.; Brockmann, E.; Amtmann, E.; Mayo, B.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Danielsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the antibiotic susceptibility of 203 strains representing human or probiotic associated Bifidobacterium species as determined by the Etest method. Strains showing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for tetracycline >= 16 mu g mL(-1) were detected in all studied

  14. Bifidobacterium breve - HT-29 cell line interaction: modulation of TNF-a induced gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, R.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Knol, J.

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight in the molecular basis for intestinal host-microbe interactions, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to cells of Bifidobacterium breve. To select an appropriate test system reflecting inflammatory

  15. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, a strain isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Villar-Tajadura, M Antonia; Marín, María; Fontecha, Javier; Requena, Teresa; Arroyo, Rebeca; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-07-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an actinobacterium frequently isolated from colonic microbiota of breastfeeding babies. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of a B. breve strain isolated from human milk, B. breve CECT 7263. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and will allow the characterization of genes related to beneficial properties.

  16. Global transcriptional landscape and promoter mapping of the gut commensal Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottacini, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Milani, Christian; Ferrario, Chiara; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Egan, Muireann; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium breve represents a common member of the infant gut microbiota and its presence in the gut has been associated with host well being. For this reason it is relevant to investigate and understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment, persistence and

  17. Discovering novel bile protection systems in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 through functional genomics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, L.; Zomer, A.L.; O'Connell-Motherway, M.; Sinderen, D. van; Margolles, A.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance of gut commensals to bile salt exposure is an important feature for their survival in and colonization of the intestinal environment. A transcriptomic approach was employed to study the response of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 to bile, allowing the identification of a number of

  18. Bifidobacterium breve-HT-29 cell line interaction: Modulation of TNF-a induced gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, R.J.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Willemsen, L.E.M.; Vriesema, A.; Knol, J.; Vos, W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    To provide insight in the molecular basis for intestinal host-microbe interactions, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to cells of Bifidobacterium breve. To select an appropriate test system reflecting inflammatory

  19. Bifidobacterium—friend or foe? A case of urinary tract infection with Bifidobacterium species

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Poonam; Trilligan, Cheryl; Rapose, Alwyn

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium—a commensal of the human intestine is considered non-pathogenic and has been advocated as a probiotic due to its potential beneficial effects. However, there have been case reports implicating bifidobacteria as pathogenic agents in a variety of different infectious conditions. We discuss here one such case of a complicated urinary tract infection associated with Bifidobacterium spp.

  20. Genomic and fluxomic analysis of carbohydrate metabolism in Bifidobacterium spp: human symbiotic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Bifidobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase...

  1. Antagonistic activities of some Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from resident infant gastrointestinal microbiota on Gram-negative enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Cristea, Violeta Corina; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the consolidation of the anti-infectious barrier against enteric pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Bifidobacterium sp. strains, recently isolated from infant gastrointestinal microbiota on the in vitro growth and virulence features expression of enteropathogenic bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from human feces was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative pathogenic strains isolated from 30 infant patients (3 days to 5 years old) with diarrhea. Both potential probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium ruminantium) and enteropathogenic strains (EPEC, EIEC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were identified by MALDI-TOF and confirmed serologically when needed. The bactericidal activity, growth curve, adherence to the cellular HEp-2 substratum and production of soluble virulence factors have been assessed in the presence of different Bifidobacterium sp. cultures and fractions (whole culture and free-cell supernatants). Among the twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains, the largest spectrum of antimicrobial activity against 9 of the 18 enteropathogenic strains was revealed for a B. breve strain recently isolated from infant intestinal feces. The whole culture and free-cell supernatant of B. breve culture decreased the multiplication rate, shortened the log phase and the total duration of the growth curve, with an earlier entrance in the decline phase and inhibited the adherence capacity to a cellular substratum and the swimming/swarming motility too. These results indicate the significant probiotic potential of the B. breve strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Bifidobacterium breve effective in the treatment of childhood constipation? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseboom MG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are increasingly used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Studies in constipated adults with a Bifidus yoghurt (containing Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus showed a significant increase in defecation frequency. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if Bifidobacterium breve is effective in the treatment of childhood constipation. Methods Children, 3 to 16 years of age, with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria were eligible for this study. During 4 weeks, children received one sachet of powder daily, containing 108- 1010 CFU Bifidobacterium breve. Furthermore, children were instructed to try to defecate on the toilet for 5-10 minutes after each meal and to complete a standardized bowel diary daily. The primary outcome measure was change in defecation frequency. Secondary outcome measures were stool consistency using the Bristol stool scale frequency of episodes of faecal incontinence, pain during defecation, frequency of abdominal pain, frequency of adverse effects (nausea, diarrhoea and bad taste, and frequency of intake of bisacodyl. Results Twenty children (75% male, mean age 7.4 were included in this pilot study. The defecation frequency per week significantly increased from 0.9 (0-2 at baseline to 4.9 (0-21 in week 4 (p Conclusion Bifidobacterium breve is effective in increasing stool frequency in children with functional constipation. Furthermore it has a positive effect with respect to stool consistency, decreasing the number of faecal incontinence episodes and in diminishing abdominal pain. A randomized placebo controlled trial is required to confirm these data.

  3. Immune response to Bifidobacterium bifidum strains support Treg/Th17 plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the immune activation properties of different Bifidobacterium strains in order to establish their ability as inductors of specific effector (Th or regulatory (Treg responses. First, we determined the cytokine pattern induced by 21 Bifidobacterium strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Results showed that four Bifidobacterium bifidum strains showed the highest production of IL-17 as well as a poor secretion of IFNγ and TNFα, suggesting a Th17 profile whereas other Bifidobacterium strains exhibited a Th1-suggestive profile. Given the key role of Th17 subsets in mucosal defence, strains suggestive of Th17 responses and the putative Th1 Bifidobacterium breve BM12/11 were selected to stimulate dendritic cells (DC to further determine their capability to induce the differentiation of naïve CD4(+ lymphocytes toward different Th or Treg cells. All selected strains were able to induce phenotypic DC maturation, but showed differences in cytokine stimulation, DC treated with the putative Th17 strains displaying high IL-1β/IL-12 and low IL-12/IL-10 index, whereas BM12/11-DC exhibited the highest IL-12/IL-10 ratio. Differentiation of naïve lymphocytes confirmed Th1 polarization by BM12/11. Unexpectedly, any B. bifidum strain showed significant capability for Th17 generation, and they were able to generate functional Treg, thus suggesting differences between in vivo and vitro responses. In fact, activation of memory lymphocytes present in PBMCS with these bacteria, point out the presence in vivo of specific Th17 cells, supporting the plasticity of Treg/Th17 populations and the key role of commensal bacteria in mucosal tolerance and T cell reprogramming when needed.

  4. Iogurte probiótico produzido com leite de cabra suplementado com Bifidobacterium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mazochi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se iogurtes de leite de cabra contendo ou não Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. pseudolongum ou B. bifidum, adicionados ou não de aroma de morango. Os dados obtidos nas análises higiênico-sanitárias e físico-químicas foram dentro dos valores exigidos pela legislação brasileira; apenas o valor encontrado para lactose esteve abaixo do recomendado. Quanto às bactérias do iogurte, não houve diferença na contagem de Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus durante a estocagem, e não foi detectado Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus nas diluições utilizadas. A enumeração de Bifidobacterium spp. manteve-se entre 10(6 e 10(8UFC/mL e não diferiu entre as espécies ao longo do tempo. Considerando-se a adição ou não de aroma, a análise das variáveis tempo e aroma não mostrou diferença estatística. A contagem entre os Bifidobacterium spp. demonstrou que nenhum microrganismo apresentou um comportamento superior a outro. Na análise sensorial, as amostras de iogurtes adicionados ou não de Bifidobacterium spp. e adicionados de aroma de morango não apresentaram diferenças entre si. O estudo mostrou ser possível a elaboração de iogurte de leite de cabra adicionado de Bifidobacterium spp. e de aroma de morango com qualidade assegurada, potencial para uso probiótico e boa aceitação pelo consumidor.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of supramolecule self-assembly polyami-doamine (PAMAM G1-G1 NH2, CO2H end group Megamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Louie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecule self-assembly polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer refers to the chemical sys-tems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. These strat-egies involve the covalent assembly of hierarchical components reactive monomers, branch cells or dendrons around atomic or molecular cores according to divergent/convergent dendritic branching principles, systematic filling of space around a core with shells (layers of branch cells. The polydispersity index (PDI for the supramolecule megamer are pretty closed to one, are in agreement with the Poisson probability distribution. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM den-drimer G1-G1 that it was PAMAM Megamer NH2, COOH end groupsynthesized and character-ized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMRspectra and GelPermeation Chromatography (GPC.

  6. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  7. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  8. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  9. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  10. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O' Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  11. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  12. Redox-mediated bypass of restriction point via skipping of G1pm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene James J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that cancer cells bypass the restriction point, R, and undergo uncontrolled cell proliferation. Hypothesis and evidence We suggest here that fibrosarcoma cells enter G1ps directly from M, skipping G1pm, hence bypassing R, in response to redox modulation. Evidence is presented from the published literature that demonstrate a shortening of the cycle period of transformed fibroblasts (SV-3T3 compared to the nontransformed 3T3 fibroblasts, corresponding to the duration of G1pm in the 3T3 fibroblasts. Evidence is also presented that demonstrate that redox modulation can induce the CUA-4 fibroblasts to bypass R, resulting in a cycle period closely corresponding to the cycle period of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080. Conclusion The evidence supports our hypothesis that a low internal redox potential can cause fibrosarcoma cells to skip the G1pm phase of the cell cycle.

  13. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  14. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the func- ... M/G/1/N queueing systems with server vacations under a limited service discipline ...... system contents in a discrete-time non-preemptive priority queue with general service.

  15. Measurement of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Function g1 in the Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Akagi, T.; Perry Anthony; Antonov, R.; Arnold, R.G.; Todd Averett; Band, H.R.; Bauer, J.M.; Borel, H.; Peter Bosted; Vincent Breton; Button-Shafer, J.; Jian-Ping Chen; T.E. Chupp; J. Clendenin; C. Comptour; K.P. Coulter; G. Court; Donald Crabb; M. Daoudi; Donal Day; F.S. Dietrich; James Dunne; H. Dutz; R. Erbacher; J. Fellbaum; Andrew Feltham; Helene Fonvieille; Emil Frlez; D. Garvey; R. Gearhart; Javier Gomez; P. Grenier; Keith Griffioen; S. Hoeibraten; Emlyn Hughes; Charles Hyde-Wright; J.R. Johnson; D. Kawall; Andreas Klein; Sebastian Kuhn; M. Kuriki; Richard Lindgren; T.J. Liu; R.M. Lombard-Nelsen; Jacques Marroncle; Tomoyuki Maruyama; X.K. Maruyama; James Mccarthy; Werner Meyer; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Ralph Minehart; Joseph Mitchell; J. Morgenstern; Gerassimos Petratos; R. Pitthan; Dinko Pocanic; C. Prescott; R. Prepost; P. Raines; Brian Raue; D. Reyna; A. Rijllart; Yves Roblin; L. Rochester; Stephen Rock; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Ingo Sick; Lee Smith; Tim Smith; M. Spengos; F. Staley; P. Steiner; S. St. Lorant; L.M. Stuart; F. Suekane; Z.M. Szalata; Huabin Tang; Y. Terrien; Tracy Usher; Dieter Walz; Frank Wesselmann; J.L. White; K. Witte; C. Young; Brad Youngman; Haruo Yuta; G. Zapalac; Benedikt Zihlmann; Zimmermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the proton and deuteron spin structure functions g 1 p and g 1 d in the region of the nucleon resonances for W 2 2 and Q 2 ≅ 0.5 and Q 2 ≅ 1.2 GeV 2 by inelastically scattering 9.7 GeV polarized electrons off polarized 15 NH 3 and 15 ND 3 targets. We observe significant structure in g 1 p in the resonance region. We have used the present results, together with the deep-inelastic data at higher W 2 , to extract Γ(Q 2 ) (triple b ond) ∫ 0 1 g 1 (x,Q 2 ) dx. This is the first information on the low-Q 2 evolution of Gamma toward the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn limit at Q 2 = 0

  16. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml.

  17. A synbiotic mixture of scGOS/lcFOS and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V increases faecal Bifidobacterium in healthy young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosuwon, P; Lao-Araya, M; Uthaisangsook, S; Lay, C; Bindels, J; Knol, J; Chatchatee, P

    2018-04-10

    Little is known about the impact of nutrition on toddler gut microbiota. The plasticity of the toddler gut microbiota indicates that nutritional modulation beyond infancy could potentially impact its maturation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of consuming Young Child Formula (YCF) supplemented with short chain galactooligosaccharides and long chain fructooligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS, ratio 9:1) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the development of the faecal microbiota in healthy toddlers. A cohort of 129 Thai children aged 1-3 years were included in a randomised controlled clinical study. The children were assigned to receive either YCF with 0.95 g/100 ml of scGOS/lcFOS and 1.8×10 7 cfu/g of B. breve M-16V (Active-YCF) or Control-YCF for 12 weeks. The composition and metabolic activity of the faecal microbiota, and the level of secretory immunoglobulin A were determined in the stool samples. The consumption of Active-YCF increased the proportion of Bifidobacterium (mean 27.3% at baseline to 33.3%, at week 12, P=0.012) with a difference in change from baseline at week 12 between the Active and Control of 7.48% (P=0.030). The consumption of Active-YCF was accompanied with a more acidic intestinal milieu compared to the Control-YCF. The pH value decreased statistically significantly in the Active-YCF group from a median of 7.05 at baseline to 6.79 at week 12 (Pbreve M-16V positively influences the development of the faecal microbiota in healthy toddlers by supporting higher levels of Bifidobacterium. The synbiotic supplementation is also accompanied with a more acidic intestinal milieu and softer stools.

  18. Cyclin G1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse endometrial stromal cell in decidualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine stromal cell decidualization is a dynamic physiological process in which cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are orchestrated and occur in a temporal and cell-specific manner. This process is important for successful embryo implantation. Many cell-cycle regulators are involved in decidualization. The protein cyclin G1 is a unique regulator of the cell cycle with dual functions in cell proliferation. It was reported that cyclin G1 is expressed in mouse uterine stromal cells during the period of peri-implantation. To prove the function of cyclin G1 in mouse uterine stromal cells during this period, immunohistochemistry was used to stain mouse uterine tissues on days 4-8 of pregnancy. The results showed obvious spatial and temporal expression of cyclin G1 in uterine stromal cells, and that it is expressed in the cells of the primary decidual zone (PDZ on day 5 and secondary decidual zone (SDZ on days 6 and 7, when the stromal cells experienced active proliferation and differentiation was initiated. Applying the decidualization model of cultured primary stromal cells in vitro, we further revealed that the expression of cyclin G1 is associated with decidualization of stromal cells induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estradiol-17β (E2. RNA interference was used for the knockdown of cyclin G1 in the induced decidual cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the proportion of cells in the S stage was increased, and decreased in the G2/M phase. Our study indicates that cyclin G1, as a negative regulator of the cell cycle, plays an important role in the process of decidualization in mouse uterine stromal cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression.

  19. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  20. Selection of G1 Phase Yeast Cells for Synchronous Meiosis and Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation is a procedure that allows the fractionation of cell populations based upon their size and shape. This allows cells in distinct cell cycle stages can be captured from an asynchronous population. The technique is particularly helpful when performing an experiment to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle or meiosis. Yeast sporulation like gametogenesis in other eukaryotes initiates from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Conveniently, S. cerevisiae arrest in G1 phase when starved for nutrients and so withdrawal of nitrogen and glucose allows cells to abandon vegetative growth in G1 phase before initiating the sporulation program. This simple starvation protocol yields a partial synchronization that has been used extensively in studies of progression through meiosis and sporulation. By using centrifugal elutriation it is possible to isolate a homogeneous population of G1 phase cells and induce them to sporulate synchronously, which is beneficial for investigating progression through meiosis and sporulation. An additionally benefit of this protocol is that cell populations can be isolated based upon size and both large and small cell populations can be tested for progression through meiosis and sporulation. Here we present a protocol for purification of G1 phase diploid cells for examining synchronous progression through meiosis and sporulation.

  1. Metabolism of four α-glycosidic linkage-containing oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kerry Joan; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; O'Callaghan, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Ventura, Marco; Stanton, Catherine; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-10-01

    Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals, where they ferment many diet-derived carbohydrates that cannot be digested by their hosts. To extend our understanding of bifidobacterial carbohydrate utilization, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which 11 strains of Bifidobacterium breve metabolize four distinct α-glucose- and/or α-galactose-containing oligosaccharides, namely, raffinose, stachyose, melibiose, and melezitose. Here we demonstrate that all B. breve strains examined possess the ability to utilize raffinose, stachyose, and melibiose. However, the ability to metabolize melezitose was not common to all B. breve strains tested. Transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches identified a gene cluster dedicated to the metabolism of α-galactose-containing carbohydrates, while an adjacent gene cluster, dedicated to the metabolism of α-glucose-containing melezitose, was identified in strains that are able to use this carbohydrate.

  2. Microencapsulation and Fermentation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of poor survival of probiotic bacteria, microencapsulation evolved from the immobilized cell culture technology used in the biotechnological industry. Two probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium (BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5 were immobilized in calcium alginate by extrusion method. Encapsulation parameters and efficacy of this method were evaluated. Growth factors of these two bacteria were also measured by culturing in 10-L fermenter. Growth curves were obtained with respect to optical density and dry biomass weight. Encapsulation yield was over than 60% in each experiment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of Entrapment of cells in alginate matrix and cross-sections of dried bead were obtained and illustrated. Bifidobacterium have been shown better biotechnological properties.

  3. Is there a hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g1?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Qiu, Jianwei

    1990-01-01

    We show that the size of the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of the proton's spin-dependent structure function g 1 is entirely a matter of the convention used in defining the quark distributions. If the UV regulator for the spin-dependent quark distributions respects the gauge invariance of Green's functions (allows shifts of loop momenta) and respects the analyticity structure of the unregulated distributions, then the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 vanishes. This is the case, for example, in dimensional regularization. By relaxing the requirement that the regulator allow shifts of loop moments, we are able to obtain a nonvanishing hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 . However, the first moments of the resulting quark distributions correspond to matrix elements that are either gauge variant or involve nonlocal operators and, hence, have no analogue in the standard operator-product expansion. 11 refs., 2 figs

  4. Cdk phosphorylation of the Ste11 transcription factor constrains differentiation-specific transcription to G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... Cdk activity is low. In the remaining part of the cell cycle, Ste11 becomes Cdk-phosphorylated at Thr 82 (T82), which inhibits its DNA-binding activity. Since the ste11 gene is autoregulated and the Ste11 protein is highly unstable, this Cdk switch rapidly extinguishes Ste11 activity when cells enter...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...

  5. The Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1 genome sequence reflects its genetic adaptation to the human oral cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ventura

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria. However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from

  6. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate m...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, a strain isolated from human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Esther; Villar-Tajadura, M. Antonia; Marín, María; Fontecha, F. Javier; Requena, Teresa; Arroyo, Rebeca; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an actinobacterium frequently isolated from colonic microbiota of breastfeeding babies. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of a B. breve strain isolated from human milk, B. breve CECT 7263. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and will allow the characterization of genes related to beneficial properties. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Modulation of Rat Cecal Microbiota by Administration of Raffinose and Encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoto, Achmad; Suksomcheep, Akarat; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Kimura, Hanae; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192T cells on the rat cecal microbiota, in a preclinical synbiotic study groups of male WKAH/Hkm Slc rats were fed for 3 weeks with four different test diets: basal diet (group BD), basal diet supplemented with raffinose (group RAF), basal diet supplemented with encapsulated B. breve (group CB), and basal diet supplemented with both raffinose and encapsulated B. breve (group RCB). The bacteri...

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_004307 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_004307 gi|23465117 >1g5aA 80 628 2 589 5e-59 ... gb|AAL05573.1| alpha-glucosidase [Bifidobacterium adolesce...ntis] ... Length = 588 ... Query: 1 ... MTANNLNDDWWKQAVVYQIYPRSFKDVNGDGLGDIAGVTEK

  10. Hydroxyurea does not prevent synchronized G1 Chinese hamster cells from entering the DNA synthetic period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.A.; Tobey, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Using very high concentrations of radioactively labeled thymidine, we show that synchronized G 1 cells treated with hydroxyurea entered the DNA synthetic period at a time and rate indistinguishable from that of untreated cells, although the rate of DNA synthesis was greatly reduced in the drug-treated cultures. The DNA synthesized in the presence of hydroxyurea was less than or equal to 1 x 10 7 daltons, all of which could be chased into bulk DNA of approximately 3.5 x 10 8 daltons within 3 hr after removal of hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea synchronized cells are apparently not blocked at the G 1 /S boundary but in the S phase itself

  11. Oral delivery of Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to combat ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Ding, Qing; Li, Xiuying; Sun, Hanxiao; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui

    2016-02-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide derived from pro-opiomelanocortin that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. This peptide has been well established in several inflammatory models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its extremely short duration in vivo limits its clinical application. To address this limitation, Bifidobacterium was used here as a carrier to deliver α-MSH. We utilized α-MSH-engineered Bifidobacterium against IBD, which is closely linked to immune and intestinal microbiota dysfunction. First, we constructed a Bifidobacterium longum secreting α-MSH (B. longum-α-MSH). We then tested the recombinant α-MSH expression and determined its bioactivity in HT-29 cells. To assess its effectiveness, B. longum-α-MSH was used against an ulcerative colitis (UC) model in rats induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The data showed that α-MSH expression in B. longum-α-MSH was effective, and its biological activity was similar to the synthesized one. This UC model experiment indicated that B. longum-α-MSH successfully colonized the intestinal gut, expressed bioactive α-MSH and had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The results demonstrate the feasibility of preventing IBD by using B. longum-α-MSH.

  12. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from dairy and pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aimmo, Maria Rosaria; Modesto, Monica; Biavati, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    The outlines of antibiotic resistance of some probiotic microorganisms were studied. This study was conducted with the double purpose of verifying their ability to survive if they are taken simultaneously with an antibiotic therapy and to increase the selective properties of suitable media for the isolation of samples containing mixed bacterial populations. We isolated from commercial dairy and pharmaceutical products, 34 strains declared as probiotics, belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and 21 strains of starter culture bacteria. All the microorganisms have been compared by electrophoresis of the soluble proteins for the purpose of identifying them. A Multiplex-PCR with genus- and species-specific primers was used to detect for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis presence. All bifidobacteria were B. animalis subsp. lactis except one Bifidobacterium longum. Sometimes the identification showed that the used strain was not the one indicated on the label. The lactobacilli were Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The streptococci were all Streptococcus thermophilus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 24 common antibiotic substances has been valued by the broth microdilution method. All tested strains were susceptible to ampicillin, bacitracin, clindamycin, dicloxacillin, erytromycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, rifampicin (MIC(90) ranging from 0.01 to 4 microg/ml); resistant to aztreonam, cycloserin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B and spectinomycin (MIC(90) ranging from 64 to >1000 microg/ml). The susceptibility to cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, lincomycin, metronidazole, neomycin, paromomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and vancomycin was variable and depending on the species.

  13. Viability of probiotic (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei) and nonprobiotic microflora in Argentinian Fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, C G; Prosello, W; Ghiberto, T D; Reinheimer, J A

    2000-09-01

    We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bifidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combinations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts, and molds) organisms were counted at 0, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage. Furthermore, the acid resistance of probiotic and starter bacteria was determined from hydrochloric solutions (pH 2 and 3) of Fresco cheese. The results showed that nine different combinations of bifidobacteria and L. acidophilus had a satisfactory viability (count decreases in 60 d casei cultures assayed also showed a satisfactory survival (counts decreased casei). On the other hand, the three combinations of bifidobacteria, L. acidophilus, and L. casei tested adapted well to the Fresco cheese environment. When a cheese homogenate at pH 3 was used to partially simulate the acidic conditions in the stomach, the probiotic cultures had an excellent ability to remain viable up to 3 h. At pH 2, the cell viability was more affected; B. bifidum was the most resistant organism. This study showed that the Argentinian Fresco cheese could be used as an adequate carrier of probiotic bacteria.

  14. Compositional development of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus microbiota is linked with crying and fussing in early infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärtty

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to establish whether there is an interconnection between the compositional development of the gut microbiota and the amount of fussing and crying in early infancy. METHODS: Behavioral patterns of 89 infants during the 7(th and 12(th week of life were recorded in parental diaries. Total distress was defined as the sum of daily amounts of crying and fussing. Infants' gut microbiota profiles were investigated by several molecular assays during the first six months of life. RESULTS: The median (range duration of total distress among the infants was 106 (0-478 minutes a day during the 7(th and 58 (0-448 minutes a day during the 12(th week. The proportion of Bifidobacterium counts to total bacterial counts was inversely associated with the amount of crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life (p = 0.03, although the number of Bifidobacterium breve was positively associated with total distress (p = 0.02. The frequency of Lactobacillus spp. at the age of 3 weeks was inversely associated with total infant distress during the 7(th week of life (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus appear to protect against crying and fussing. Identification of specific strains with optimal protective properties would benefit at-risk infants.

  15. Global transcriptional landscape and promoter mapping of the gut commensal Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Milani, Christian; Ferrario, Chiara; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Egan, Muireann; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-12-28

    Bifidobacterium breve represents a common member of the infant gut microbiota and its presence in the gut has been associated with host well being. For this reason it is relevant to investigate and understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment, persistence and activities of this gut commensal in the host environment. The assessment of vegetative promoters in the bifidobacterial prototype Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 was performed employing a combination of RNA tiling array analysis and cDNA sequencing. Canonical -10 (TATAAT) and -35 (TTGACA) sequences were identified upstream of transcribed genes or operons, where deviations from this consensus correspond to transcription level variations. A Random Forest analysis assigned the -10 region of B. breve promoters as the element most impacting on the level of transcription, followed by the spacer length and the 5'-UTR length of transcripts. Furthermore, our transcriptome study also identified rho-independent termination as the most common and effective termination signal of highly and moderately transcribed operons in B. breve. The present study allowed us to identify genes and operons that are actively transcribed in this organism during logarithmic growth, and link promoter elements with levels of transcription of essential genes in this organism. As homologs of many of our identified genes are present across the whole genus Bifidobacterium, our dataset constitutes a transcriptomic reference to be used for future investigations of gene expression in members of this genus.

  16. Immune Modulating Capability of Two Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium Strains in a Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.

  17. Influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of minerals from bread with differing bran content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Beata; Siemianowska, Ewa; Skibniewska, Krystyna Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bread is considered an important source of minerals; however, the presence of fiber and phytic acid reduces bioavailability of minerals from cereal products. It is well established that activity of microorganisms in human gut increases the amount of nutrients released during digestion. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of some minerals from bread using an in vitro process of enzymatic digestion. White bread and with addition of 15, 30, or 45% of bran was baked in a bakery by traditional methods, with addition of yeasts and rye leaven, from flour made of wheat, Tonacja variety. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Bread was enzymatically digested in vitro without and with the addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 (inoculum 10(6) CFU/cm(3)) and percentages of minerals released were determined. The concentration of minerals released during enzymatic digestion varied depending upon the element, quantity of bran, and presence of bacteria. Increase in bran content decreased release of elements. Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 enhanced amounts of magnesium and zinc released from all types of bread, while manganese and copper rose only from white bread with 15% bran addition. Bacteria decreased amounts of calcium and iron released from bread. Data indicate that diets rich in beneficial bacteria (probiotics) but not balanced with minerals might increase mineral deficiency.

  18. Cross-feeding by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 during co-cultivation with Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 in a mucin-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Kane, Marian; Joshi, Lokesh; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-11-25

    Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that commonly inhabit the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 was previously shown to utilize a variety of plant/diet/host-derived carbohydrates, including cellodextrin, starch and galactan, as well as the mucin and HMO-derived monosaccharide, sialic acid. In the current study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize parts of a host-derived source of carbohydrate, namely the mucin glycoprotein, when grown in co-culture with the mucin-degrading Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. B. breve UCC2003 was shown to exhibit growth properties in a mucin-based medium, but only when grown in the presence of B. bifidum PRL2010, which is known to metabolize mucin. A combination of HPAEC-PAD and transcriptome analyses identified some of the possible monosaccharides and oligosaccharides which support this enhanced co-cultivation growth/viability phenotype. This study describes the potential existence of a gut commensal relationship between two bifidobacterial species. We demonstrate the in vitro ability of B. breve UCC2003 to cross-feed on sugars released by the mucin-degrading activity of B. bifidum PRL2010, thus advancing our knowledge on the metabolic adaptability which allows the former strain to colonize the (infant) gut by its extensive metabolic abilities to (co-)utilize available carbohydrate sources.

  19. Measurement of the temperature of the neutrons in reactor G1; Mesure de la temperature des neutrons dans la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A precise experimental method has been adapted to the analysis of the spectrum of neutrons in the thermal region. This method uses the technique of modulation applied to a beam of neutrons issuing from a characteristic point in the pile. The analysis of the spectrum is made by adjusting, by the method of least squares, an analytical form to the experimental results. In this report are given the results obtained with a beam from the centre of the moderator of G1. The spectrum of this beam essentially represents the spectrum of the neutrons in the moderator. The most probable velocity was determined by means of Maxwell's functions. The measurements were made of different moderator temperatures between 304 deg. K and 435 deg. K. (author) [French] Une methode experimentale precise a ete mise au point pour l'analyse du spectre des neutrons dans le domaine thermique. Cette methode utilise la technique de la modulation appliquee a un faisceau de neutrons issu d'un point caracteristique de la pile. L'analyse du spectre est faite en ajustant par la methode des moindres carres une forme analytique aux resultats experimentaux. Dans ce rapport, on donne les resultats obtenus sur un faisceau du centre du moderateur de G1. Le spectre de ce faisceau represente convenablement le spectre des neutrons dans le moderateur. On s'est limite ici a une fonction de Maxwell dont on a recherche la vitesse la plus probable. Les mesures ont ete faites avec une temperature du moderateur variant entre 304 deg. K et 435 deg. K. (auteur)

  20. The DNA replication checkpoint directly regulates MBF-dependent G1/S transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G(1)/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G(1)/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G(1)/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G(1)/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes.

  1. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); M. Nuyens

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for light-tailed

  2. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  3. The spin dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron and the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klostermann, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on the spin structure of the nucleon, via deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of polarised nuons on polarised proton and deuterium targets. The work was done in the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) at CERN in Geneva. From the asymmetry in the scattering cross section for nucleon and lepton spins parallel and anti-parallel, one con determine the spin dependent structure function g 1 , which contains information on the quark and gluon spin distribution functions. The interpretation in the frame work of the quark parton model (QPM) of earlier results on g 1 p by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC), gave an indication that only a small fraction of the proton spin, compatible with zero, is carried by the spins of the constituent quarks. The SMC was set up to check this unexpected result with improved accuracy, and to combine measurements of g 1 p and g 1 d to test a fundamental sum rule in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the Bjorken sum rule. (orig./WL)

  4. Analysis of an M/G/1 queue with customer impatience and an adaptive arrival process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Prabhu, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study an M/G/1 queue with impatience and an adaptive arrival process. The rate of the arrival process changes according to whether an incoming customer is accepted or rejected. We analyse two different models for impatience : (i) based on workload, and (ii) based on queue length. For the

  5. Solid-phase synthesis and biological activity of a thioether analogue of conotoxin G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Jon; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    of two isomers, which were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The two isomers were found to have IC(50) values (inhibitory activities) of 144 microM and 48 microM, compared to 0.18 microM for native conotoxin G1....

  6. The M/G/1 queue with quasi-restricted accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.; Zacks, S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider single-server queues of the M/G/1 kind with a special kind of partial customer rejection called quasi-restricted accessibility (QRA). Under QRA, the actual service time assigned to an arriving customer depends on his service requirement, say x, the current workload, say w, and a

  7. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the adjusted fair market value of plan assets, assets that are added to a plan as a result of a plan... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date and.... Paragraph (c) of this section describes rules regarding the determination of the asset value for purposes of...

  8. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph.

    1960-01-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [fr

  9. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in

  10. The Hot Stellar Content and HB morphology of the massive globular cluster G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    2010-09-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 imagery of the Local Group's most luminous globular cluster, G1. Our primary aim is to define the hot stellar content and the extent of what appears to be a multimodal horizontal branch, analogous to those known in Omega Cen and NGC 2808. G1 is 40 kpc distant in the M31, and it would have been highly unlikely that collision with a giant molecular clould would be responsible for the complex populations which must therefore be the result of self-enrichment. We will obtain data very similar to those obtained for the known Galactic multimodal globular clusters NGC 6388 and 6441, and compare the stellar distribution on the horizontal branch with models. We can constrain the fraction of helium-enriched stars, if present, and search for supra-horizontal branch and other anomalous hot, evolved, stars. Parallel ACS observations will be the deepest ever obtained in the adjacnt field to G1, and will help to constrain whether G1 was the nucleus of a now disrupted galaxy.

  11. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nuijens, M.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for lighttailed service

  12. 26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.45G-1 Railroad track... extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year the RTMC is claimed. Paragraph (b) of this section..., accounting and bookkeeping, marketing, legal services; janitorial services; office building rental; banking...

  13. Heavy-traffic analysis for the GI/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a $GI/G/1$ queue in which the service time distribution and/or the interarrival time distribution has a heavy tail, i.e., a tail behaviour like $t^{-nu$ with $1

  14. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  15. Cdk2 Inhibition Prolongs G1 Phase Progression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koledová, Z.; Rašková-Kafková, L.; Calábková, L.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Doležel, P.; Divoký, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2010), s. 181-193 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * cell cycle * G1 phase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.791, year: 2010

  16. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G1/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:18662996

  17. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  18. Energy transport, polar amplification, and ITCZ shifts in the GeoMIP G1 ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Russotto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar amplification of warming and the ability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ to shift to the north or south are two very important problems in climate science. Examining these behaviors in global climate models (GCMs running solar geoengineering experiments is helpful not only for predicting the effects of solar geoengineering but also for understanding how these processes work under increased carbon dioxide (CO2. Both polar amplification and ITCZ shifts are closely related to the meridional transport of moist static energy (MSE by the atmosphere. This study examines changes in MSE transport in 10 fully coupled GCMs in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP, in which the solar constant is reduced to compensate for the radiative forcing from abruptly quadrupled CO2 concentrations. In G1, poleward MSE transport decreases relative to preindustrial conditions in all models, in contrast to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 abrupt4xCO2 experiment, in which poleward MSE transport increases. We show that since poleward energy transport decreases rather than increases, and local feedbacks cannot change the sign of an initial temperature change, the residual polar amplification in the G1 experiment must be due to the net positive forcing in the polar regions and net negative forcing in the tropics, which arise from the different spatial patterns of the simultaneously imposed solar and CO2 forcings. However, the reduction in poleward energy transport likely plays a role in limiting the polar warming in G1. An attribution study with a moist energy balance model shows that cloud feedbacks are the largest source of uncertainty regarding changes in poleward energy transport in midlatitudes in G1, as well as for changes in cross-equatorial energy transport, which are anticorrelated with ITCZ shifts.

  19. Abnormal G1 arrest in the cell lines from LEC strain rats after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Uehara, K.; Kirisawa, R.; Endoh, D.; Arai, S.; Okui, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation of cell lines from LEC and WKAH strain rats on a progression o cell cycle was investigated. When WKAH rat ells were exposed to 5 Gy of X-rays and their cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometer, the proportion of S-phase cells decrease and that of G2/M-phase cells in creased at 8 hr post-irradiation. At 18 and 24 hr post-irradiation, approximately 80% of the cells appeared in the G1 phase. On the contrary, the proportion of S-phase cells increased and that of G1-phase cells decreased in LEC rats during 8-24 hr post-irradiation, compared with that at 0 hr post-irradiation. Thus, radiation-induced delay in the progression from the G1 phase to S phase (G1 arrest) was observed inWKAH rat cells but not in LEC rat cells. In the case of WKAH rat cells, the intensities of the bands of p53 protein increased at 1 and 2 hr after X-irradiation at 5 Gy, compared with those of un-irradiated cells and at 0 hr post-irradiation. In contrast, the intensities of the bands were faint and did not significantly increase in LEC rat ells during 0-6 hr incubation after X-irradiation. Present results suggested that the radioresistant DNA synthesis in LEC rat cells is thought to be due to the abnormal G1 arrest following X-irradiation

  20. Variations in the post-weaning human gut metagenome profile as result of Bifidobacterium acquisition in the Western microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Soverini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem. In order to advance the hypothesis about the possible adaptive nature of this exchange, here we explore specific functional attributes that correspond to the mutually exclusive presence of Treponema and Bifidobacterium using publically available gut metagenomic data from Hadza hunter-gatherers and urban industrial Italians. According to our findings, Bifidobacterium provides the enteric ecosystem with a diverse panel of saccharolytic functions, well suited to the array of gluco- and galacto-based saccharides that abound in the Western diet. On the other hand, the metagenomic functions assigned to Treponema are more predictive of a capacity to incorporate complex polysaccharides, such as those found in unrefined plant foods, which are consistently incorporated in the Hadza diet. Finally, unlike Treponema, the Bifidobacterium metagenome functions include genes that permit the establishment of microbe-host immunological cross-talk, suggesting recent co-evolutionary events between the human immune system and Bifidobacterium that are adaptive in the context of agricultural subsistence and sedentary societies.

  1. Enhancement of ginsenoside Rg(1) in Panax ginseng hairy root by overexpressing the α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Li, Gu-Cai; Xie, Tao; Hu, Teng; Luo, Zhi-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To improve the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in Panax ginseng. The α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve (BbRha) was overexpressed into hairy root culture system using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Ginsenoside Rg1 in hairy roots was obtained following transformation via overexpressed gene representing 2.2-fold higher than those of control lines. Several overexpression transgenic hairy root lines were obtained exhibiting markedly increased levels of the corresponding α-L-rhamnosidase enzymatic activity relative to control. Ginsenoside Rg1 levels in the transgenic lines were higher (2.2-fold) than those of control after following 30 days culturing, while ginsenoside Re contents in tested transgenic lines were found to be lower. The transgenic hairy roots harboring α-L-rhamnosidase gene improved the accumulation of ginsenoside Rg1 up to 3.6 mg g(-1) dry weight. BbRha gene selectively enhances the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in P. ginseng hairy roots.

  2. The spin-dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, S.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the spin-dependent structure function g 1 d of the deuteron measured by the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN are presented. They are based on deep-inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons off a polarized deuteron target in the kinematic range of 0.003 ≤ x Bj ≤ 0.7 and 1 GeV 2 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 60 GeV 2 . The structure function is found to be negative for small values of x Bj , while the proton structure function g 1 p measured earlier by the SMC is positive over the whole x Bj -range. The Bjorken sum rule is in good agreement with the first moments of the structure functions, while the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated by more than three standard deviations for the deuteron measurement. (author)

  3. The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.

  4. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  5. Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.

    1983-01-01

    The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.

  6. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  7. Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    -induced breaks are recognized by Rfa1 only after the cell enters S phase. This difference is dependent on the DNA end-binding Yku70/Yku80 complex. Cell-cycle regulation is also observed in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Specifically, the 9-1-1 complex is required in G1 cells to recruit the Ddc2 checkpoint...... protein to damaged DNA, while, upon entry into S phase, the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 and the 9-1-1 complex both serve to recruit Ddc2 to foci. Together, these results demonstrate that the DNA repair machinery distinguishes between different types of damage in G1, which translates into different modes...

  8. Beta1 integrins regulate chondrocyte rotation, G1 progression, and cytokinesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aszodi, Attila; Hunziker, Ernst B; Brakebusch, Cord

    2003-01-01

    Beta1 integrins are highly expressed on chondrocytes, where they mediate adhesion to cartilage matrix proteins. To assess the functions of beta1 integrin during skeletogenesis, we inactivated the beta1 integrin gene in chondrocytes. We show here that these mutant mice develop a chondrodysplasia...... of various severity. beta1-deficient chondrocytes had an abnormal shape and failed to arrange into columns in the growth plate. This is caused by a lack of motility, which is in turn caused by a loss of adhesion to collagen type II, reduced binding to and impaired spreading on fibronectin, and an abnormal F......-actin organization. In addition, mutant chondrocytes show decreased proliferation caused by a defect in G1/S transition and cytokinesis. The G1/S defect is, at least partially, caused by overexpression of Fgfr3, nuclear translocation of Stat1/Stat5a, and up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21...

  9. Measurement of the Polarized Structure Function $g_1^p$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Ridolfi, G.; Ball, Richard D.; Deshpande, Abhay; Forte, Stefano; Hughes, Vernon W.; Lichtenstadt, Jechiel; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of possible data on spin-dependent asymmetries in inclusive scattering of high energy polarized electrons by high energy polarized protons at HERA, including statistical errors, and discuss systematic uncertainties. We show that these data would shed light on the small x behaviour of the polarized structure function g_1, and would reduce substantially the uncertainty on the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.

  10. Temperature duality on Riemann surface and cosmological solutions for genus g = 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Wang Shunjin

    1999-01-01

    A bosonic string model at finite temperature on the gravitation g μν and the dilaton φ background field is examined. Moreover, the duality relation of energy momentum tensor on high genus Riemann surface is derived. At the same time, the temperature duality invariance for the action of string gas matter is proved in 4-D Robertson-Walker metric, the string cosmological solutions and temperature duality of the equations of motion for genus g = 1 and 2 are also investigated

  11. The MX/G/1 queue with queue length dependent service times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the MX/G/1 queue where service times depend on the queue length at the service initiation. By using Markov renewal theory, we derive the queue length distribution at departure epochs. We also obtain the transient queue length distribution at time t and its limiting distribution and the virtual waiting time distribution. The numerical results for transient mean queue length and queue length distributions are given.

  12. NONUNIFORM EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84% ± 0.06% yr –1 to 0.52% ± 0.03% yr –1 . This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% ± 0.4% yr –1 . We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered an order-of-magnitude density discontinuity within the ejecta, such as may be found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia models. We demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. Similar effects may also be produced by dense shells possibly associated with high-velocity features in Type Ia spectra. Accounting for the asymmetry of G1.9+0.3 will require more realistic three-dimensional Type Ia models

  13. A next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the spin structure function $g_1$

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1998-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the presently available data on the spin structure function $g_1$ including the final data from the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC). We present resu lts for the first moments of the proton, deuteron and neutron structure functions, and determine singlet and non-singlet parton distributions in two factorization schemes. We also test the Bjor ken sum rule and find agreement with the theoretical prediction at the level of 10\\%.

  14. Analysis of infant isolates of Bifidobacterium breve by comparative genome hybridization indicates the existence of new subspecies with marked infant specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, R.; Schuren, F.; Wind, R.D.; Knol, J.; Vos, W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 Bifidobacterium strains were isolated from fecal samples of 4 breast- and bottle-fed infants and all were characterized as Bifidobacterium breve based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and metabolic analysis. These isolates were further characterized and compared to the type strains of B.

  15. Irradiated graphite studies prior to decommissioning of G1, G2 and G3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonal, J.P.; Vistoli, J.Ph.; Combes, C.

    2005-01-01

    G1 (46 MW th ), G2 (250 MW th ) and G3 (250 MW th ) are the first French plutonium production reactors owned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). They started to be operated in 1956 (G1), 1959 (G2) and 1960 (G3); their final shutdown occurred in 1968, 1980 and 1984 respectively. Each reactor used about 1200 tons of graphite as moderator, moreover in G2 and G3, a 95 tons graphite wall is used to shield the rear side concrete from neutron irradiation. G1 is an air cooled reactor operated at a graphite temperature ranging from 30 C to 230 C; G2 and G3 are CO 2 cooled reactors and during operation the graphite temperature is higher (140 C to 400 C). These reactors are now partly decommissioned, but the graphite stacks are still inside the reactors. The graphite core radioactivity has decreased enough so that a full decommissioning stage may be considered. Conceming this decommissioning, the studies reported here are: (i) stored energy in graphite, (ii) graphite radioactivity measurements, (iii) leaching of radionuclide ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 63 Ni, 60 Co, 3 H) from graphite, (iv) chlorine diffusion through graphite. (authors)

  16. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway

  17. Control of G1 in the developing Drosophila eye: rca1 regulates Cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zavitz, K H; Thomas, B J; Lin, M; Campbell, S; Zipursky, S L

    1997-01-01

    In the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster, cells become synchronized in the G1 phase of the cell cycle just prior to the onset of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. In roughex (rux) mutants, cells enter S phase precociously because of ectopic activation of a Cyclin A/Cdk complex in early G1. This leads to defects in cell fate and pattern formation, and results in abnormalities in the morphology of the adult eye. A screen for dominant suppressors of the rux eye phenotype led to the identification of mutations in cyclin A, string (cdc25), and new cell cycle genes. One of these genes, regulator of cyclin A (rca1), encodes a novel protein required for both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression. rca1 mutants arrest in G2 of embryonic cell cycle 16 with a phenotype very similar to cyclin A loss of function mutants. Expression of rca1 transgenes in G1 or in postmitotic neurons promotes Cyclin A protein accumulation and drives cells into S phase in a Cyclin A-dependent fashion.

  18. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21

  19. Preferential radiosensitization of G1 checkpoint--deficient cells by methylxanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Kenneth J.; Wiens, Linda W.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.; Le, Tiep; Rice, Glenn C.; Bianco, James A.; Singer, Jack W.; Groudine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a checkpoint-based strategy for preferential radiosensitization of human tumors with deficient and/or mutant p53. Methods and Materials: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines differing in their expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were produced by transduction with the E6 oncogene from human papilloma virus type 16. The cells expressing E6 (E6+) lack a G1 arrest in response to ionizing radiation, are deficient in p53 and p21 expression, and exhibit a fivefold greater clonogenic survival following 10 Gy radiation. Results: Postirradiation incubation with millimolar concentrations of the methylxanthine pentoxifylline (PTX) results in preferential radiosensitization of the E6+ cells compared to the LXSN+ vector transduced controls. There is a threefold sensitization of the LXSN+ cells and a 15-fold sensitization of the E6+ cells, which results in equal clonogenic survival of the two lines. Flow cytometry reveals PTX abrogation of the radiation induced G2 arrest for both cell lines. PTX also prolongs G1 transit for both cell lines. Preliminary results are presented using a novel methylxanthine, lisofylline (LSF), which has similar cell cycle effects on G1 and G2 and achieves differential radiosensitization at micromolar concentrations that are sustainable in humans. Conclusions: This checkpoint-based strategy is a promising approach for achieving preferential radiosensitization of p53- tumors relative to p53+ normal tissues

  20. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Major Oyster Allergen Cra g 1 (Tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Li, Guoming; Gu, Ruizeng; Cai, Muyi; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein. Interestingly, the obviously changes in the intensity of CD signal and ANS-binding fluorescence were observed especially in the case of roasted form, which was associated with an increase in antibody reactivity. The degree of IgE binding of this treatment was demonstrated in the order roasted>boiled > raw. Furthermore, sequence alignment and amino acid composition revealed that Cra g 1 shared relatively high homology to tropomyosins from other shellfish and was abundant in lysine that was apt to be modified by reducing sugars during heating. Heated Cra g 1 produces higher IgE reactivity than raw one, owing to denaturation and formation of polymers. These findings will benefit more diagnosis and management of potential allergenicity due to shellfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Two pathways of DNA double-strand break repair in G1 cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The G1 cells of the diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevislae are known to be capable of a slow repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium. In the present paper, it has been shown that S. cerevislae cells γ-irradiated in the G1 phase of cell cycle are capable of fast repair of DNA DSB; this process is completed within 30-40 min of holding the cells in water at 28 deg C. For this reason, the kinetics of DNA DSB repair during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium are biphasic, i.e., the first, ''fast'' phase is completed within 30-40 min; wheras the second, ''slow'' one, within 48 h. Mutations rad51, rad52, rad54 and rad55 inhibit the fast repair of DNA DSB, whereas mutations rad50, rad53 and rad57 do not practically influence this process. It has been shown that the observed fast and slow repair of DNA DSB in the G1 diploid cells of S, cerevislae are separate pathways of DNA DSB repair in yeast

  2. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-04-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Measurement of the form factor ratio g1/f1 in LAMBDA beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.R.

    1974-01-01

    The beta decay of 306 polarized lambdas was observed. The lambdas, which had a mean polarization of 70 percent, were produced by a 1.06 GeV/c π minus beam incident on a CH 2 target. The lambda decay particle trajectories were measured with a solenoidal magnetic spectrometer utilizing spark chambers with magnetostrictive readout. The beta decays were differentiated from other decay modes with an isobutane threshold Cherenkov counter. Using only information which depended upon the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.44- 0 . 13 +0 . 20 . Using only information independent of the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.62- 0 . 13 +0 . 17 . Combining all information yielded a value for g 1 /f 1 of 0.56- 0 . 11 +0 . 13 . Although these results taken by themselves are consistent with the Cabbibo theory prediction of 0.69, when combined with previous experiments there is a possibly significant discrepancy in the polarization dependent results. (U.S.)

  4. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Lemin [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Boda [The Department of Cardiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Wei; Lv, He [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Yuan, Yun, E-mail: yuanyun2002@sohu.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  5. 17 CFR 270.17g-1 - Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employees of registered management investment companies. 270.17g-1 Section 270.17g-1 Commodity and... ACT OF 1940 § 270.17g-1 Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies. (a) Each registered management investment company shall provide and maintain a bond which shall...

  6. Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000

  7. Capability of the two microorganisms Bifidobacterium breve B632 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 to colonize the intestinal microbiota of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario; Mogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The total number of bacteria present in the gut microbiota of a newborn is consistently lower than the average found in adults, with the extent of this difference being directly related to body weight and age. It could be assumed that a lower number of viable probiotic cells is necessary to achieve significant gut colonization in infants and children. This study assessed the capability of Bifidobacterium breve B632 (DSM 24706) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604), 2 strains able to significantly inhibit some gram-negative bacteria in vitro, to integrate into the intestinal microbiota of children. Ten healthy children aged an average of 5.7±2.6 were given an oily suspension containing B. breve B632 and B. breve BR03 for 21 consecutive days. The daily dose was 100 million live cells of each strain. Fecal specimens were collected and analyzed at the beginning (d0) and at the end of the study (d21). Total fecal bifidobacteria and coliforms have been quantified by microbiological plate counts. A significant increase in total fecal bifidobacteria (from 8.99 to 9.47 log10 CFU/g, P=0.042) and a parallel decrease in total coliforms (from 8.60 to 7.93 log10 CFU/g, P=0.048) was recorded after 21 days of supplementation. An oily suspension has proved an effective way of providing probiotics to children. A lower viable cells concentration was sufficient to mediate this effect in the light of the fact that the intestinal microbiota of children harbors a considerably smaller amount of total bacteria compared with adults. In addition to gut colonization in healthy children, B. breve B632 and B. breve BR03 were able to decrease total fecal coliforms, therefore supporting their potential specific use in colicky infants.

  8. Protective effect of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 on ovalbumin-induced airway asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal food allergy mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation. PMID:28405142

  9. Identification of herpesvirus proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Patrick; Marcon, Edyta; Greenblatt, Jack; Frappier, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Lytic infection by herpesviruses induces cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This appears to be a function of multiple herpesvirus proteins, but only a minority of herpesvirus proteins have been examined for cell cycle effects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the viral proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest, we screened a library of over 200 proteins from herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for effects on the G1/S interface, using HeLa fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) cells in which G1/S can be detected colorimetrically. Proteins from each virus were identified that induce accumulation of G1/S cells, predominantly tegument, early, and capsid proteins. The identification of several capsid proteins in this screen suggests that incoming viral capsids may function to modulate cellular processes. The cell cycle effects of selected EBV proteins were further verified and examined for effects on p53 and p21 as regulators of the G1/S transition. Two EBV replication proteins (BORF2 and BMRF1) were found to induce p53 but not p21, while a previously uncharacterized tegument protein (BGLF2) was found to induce p21 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. Proteomic analyses of BGLF2-interacting proteins identified interactions with the NIMA-related protein kinase (NEK9) and GEM-interacting protein (GMIP). Silencing of either NEK9 or GMIP induced p21 without affecting p53 and abrogated the ability of BGLF2 to further induce p21. Collectively, these results suggest multiple viral proteins contribute to G1/S arrest, including BGLF2, which induces p21 levels likely by interfering with the functions of NEK9 and GMIP. Most people are infected with multiple herpesviruses, whose proteins alter the infected cells in several ways. During lytic infection, the viral proteins block cell proliferation just before the cellular DNA replicates. We used a novel screening method to identify proteins

  10. Efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve Fermented Milk in Maintaining Remission of Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Uemura, Yukari; Kanai, Takanori; Kunisaki, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasuo; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Yoshimura, Naoki; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2018-02-15

    Fermented milk products containing Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BFM) may improve clinical status in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. To assess efficacy of BFM in maintaining remission in Japanese patients with quiescent UC. This double-blind study (B-FLORA) enrolled 195 patients with quiescent UC, randomized to receive one pack of BFM fermented milk per day [Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (10 billion bacteria) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1 billion bacteria)] (n = 98) or matching placebo (n = 97) for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was relapse-free survival (relapse: rectal bleeding score ≥ 2 on Sutherland disease activity index scale for 3 consecutive days and/or initiation of remission induction therapy for worsening of UC). An interim analysis was conducted after inclusion and follow-up of one-third of patients for the first phase of the study (n = 195). Relapse-free survival was not significantly different between the BFM and placebo groups (P = 0.643; hazard ratio 1.16; 95% CI 0.63-2.14, log-rank test), nor was the incidence of relapse. Therefore, the study was discontinued for lack of efficacy. An exploratory analysis of fecal samples from a subgroup of patients revealed no effects of either study beverage on intestinal microbiota, but there was a significant decrease in Bifidobacterium species before relapse, regardless of treatment group. Three mild adverse events occurred for which a causal relationship with the study beverage could not be ruled out (placebo: abdominal bloating and stress in one patient; BFM: body odor in one patient). BFM had no effect on time to relapse in UC patients compared with placebo. UMIN000007593.

  11. Variation in consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Totten, Sarah M; Garrido, Daniel A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2013-10-01

    Human milk contains a high concentration of complex oligosaccharides that influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants. Previous studies have indicated that select species such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum can utilize human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) in vitro as the sole carbon source, while the relatively few B. longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium breve isolates tested appear less adapted to these substrates. Considering the high frequency at which B. breve is isolated from breast-fed infant feces, we postulated that some B. breve strains can more vigorously consume HMO and thus are enriched in the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract. To examine this, a number of B. breve isolates from breast-fed infant feces were characterized for the presence of different glycosyl hydrolases that participate in HMO utilization, as well as by their ability to grow on HMO or specific HMO species such as lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and fucosyllactose. All B. breve strains showed high levels of growth on LNT and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and, in general, growth on total HMO was moderate for most of the strains, with several strain differences. Growth and consumption of fucosylated HMO were strain dependent, mostly in isolates possessing a glycosyl hydrolase family 29 α-fucosidase. Glycoprofiling of the spent supernatant after HMO fermentation by select strains revealed that all B. breve strains can utilize sialylated HMO to a certain extent, especially sialyl-lacto-N-tetraose. Interestingly, this specific oligosaccharide was depleted before neutral LNT by strain SC95. In aggregate, this work indicates that the HMO consumption phenotype in B. breve is variable; however, some strains display specific adaptations to these substrates, enabling more vigorous consumption of fucosylated and sialylated HMO. These results provide a rationale for the predominance of this species in breast-fed infant feces and

  12. Effect of Bifidobacterium upon Clostridium difficile growth and toxicity when co-cultured in different prebiotic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Valdés Varela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, often after disturbance of the gut microbiota by antibiotic treatment, leads to C. difficile infection (CDI which manifestation ranges from mild diarrhoea to life-threatening conditions. The increasing CDI incidence, not only in compromised subjects but also in traditionally considered low-risk populations, together with the frequent relapses of the disease, has attracted the interest for prevention/therapeutic options. Among these, probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics constitute a promising approach. In this study we determined the potential of selected Bifidobacterium strains for the inhibition of C. difficile growth and toxicity in different carbon sources. We conducted co-cultures of the toxigenic strain C. difficile LMG21717 with four Bifidobacterium strains (Bifidobacterium longum IPLA20022, Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20006, Bifidobacterium bifidum IPLA20015, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 in the presence of various prebiotic substrates (Inulin, Synergy and Actilight or glucose, and compared the results with those obtained for the corresponding mono-cultures. C. difficile and bifidobacteria levels were quantified by qPCR; the pH and the production of short chain fatty acids was also determined. Moreover, supernatants of the cultures were collected to evaluate their toxicity using a recently developed model. Results showed that co-culture with B. longum IPLA20022 and B. breve IPLA20006 in the presence of short-chain fructooligosaccharides, but not of Inulin, as carbon source significantly reduced the growth of the pathogen. With the sole exception of B. animalis Bb12, whose growth was enhanced, the presence of C. difficile did not show major effects upon the growth of the bifidobacteria. In accordance with the growth data, B. longum and B. breve were the strains showing higher reduction in the toxicity of the co-culture supernatants.

  13. Probiotic Bifidobacterium species stimulate human SLC26A3 gene function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anoop; Hecht, Cameron; Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Alakkam, Anas; Borthakur, Alip; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Gill, Ravinder K.

    2014-01-01

    SLC26A3, or downregulated in adenoma (DRA), plays a major role in mediating Cl− absorption in the mammalian intestine. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in intestinal disorders such as congenital Cl− diarrhea and gut inflammation. We previously showed that an increase in DRA function and expression by Lactobacillus acidophilus and its culture supernatant (CS) might underlie antidiarrheal effects of this probiotic strain. However, the effects of Bifidobacterium species, important inhabitants of the human colon, on intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity are not known. Our current results demonstrate that CS derived from Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum increased anion exchange activity in Caco-2 cells (∼1.8- to 2.4-fold). Consistent with the increase in DRA function, CS also increased the protein, as well as the mRNA, level of DRA (but not putative anion transporter 1). CS of all three Bifidobacterium sp. increased DRA promoter activity (−1,183/+114 bp) in Caco-2 cells (1.5- to 1.8-fold). Furthermore, the increase in DRA mRNA expression by CS of B. breve and B. infantis was blocked in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (5 μM) and the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μM). Administration of live B. breve, B. infantis, and B. bifidum by oral gavage to mice for 24 h increased DRA mRNA and protein levels in the colon. These data demonstrate an upregulation of DRA via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway that may underlie potential antidiarrheal effects of Bifidobacterium sp. PMID:25143346

  14. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce

  15. Classification of a moderately oxygen-tolerant isolate from baby faeces as Bifidobacterium thermophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliss Ismaïl

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bifidobacteria are found at varying prevalence in human microbiota and seem to play an important role in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Bifidobacteria are highly adapted to the human GIT which is reflected in the genome sequence of a Bifidobacterim longum isolate. The competitiveness against other bacteria is not fully understood yet but may be related to the production of antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins. In a previous study, 34 Bifidobacterium isolates have been isolated from baby faeces among which six showed proteinaceous antilisterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. In this study, one of these isolates, RBL67, was further identified and characterized. Results Bifidobacterium isolate RBL67 was classified and characterized using a polyphasic approach. RBL67 was classified as Bifidobacterium thermophilum based on phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization characteristics, although 16S rDNA analyses and partial groEL sequences showed higher homology with B. thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum and B. thermacidophilum subsp. thermacidophilum, respectively. RBL67 was moderately oxygen-tolerant and was able to grow at pH 4 and at a temperature of 47°C. Conclusion In order to assign RBL67 to a species, a polyphasic approach was used. This resulted in the classification of RBL67 as a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report about B. thermophilum isolated from baby faeces since the B. thermophilum strains were related to ruminants and swine faeces before. B. thermophilum was previously only isolated from animal sources and was therefore suggested to be used as differential species between animal and human contamination. Our findings may disapprove this suggestion and further studies are now conducted to determine whether B. thermophilum is distributed broader in human faeces. Furthermore, the postulated differentiation between human and animal strains by growth above 45

  16. Bifidobacterium bifidum Actively Changes the Gene Expression Profile Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Gudrun Margarethe; Rasmussen, Simon; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal regulatory role in activation of both the innate as well as the adaptive immune system by responding to environmental microorganisms. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a strong production of the pro-inflammatory and Th1 polarizing...... cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium...

  17. Structural basis for arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharide capture by the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl‐04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Ejby; Fredslund, Folmer; Vujicic‐Zagar, Andreja

    2013-01-01

    Glycan utilization plays a key role in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota, but molecular insight into oligosaccharide uptake by this microbial community is lacking. Arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharides (AXOS) are abundant in the diet, and are selectively fermented by probiotic bifidobacteria...... in the colon. Here we show how selectivity for AXOS uptake is established by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl‐04. The binding protein BlAXBP, which is associated with an ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) transporter that mediates the uptake of AXOS, displays an exceptionally broad...

  18. Estudo da viabilidade de Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis em suco de Yacon

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Felipe Miguel Farion

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A maioria dos produtos probióticos são elaborados à base de leite, com desvantagens aos consumidores intolerantes à lactose, tornando assim produtos probióticos não lácteos vantajosos. O yacon é uma planta que acumula em suas raízes compostos prebióticos conhecidos como frutooligossacarídeos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir o suco de yacon e utilizá-lo como matriz não láctea para a bactéria probiótica Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis. O yacon apresentou rápido escurecimento...

  19. Partial combustion of a fuel cartridge in reactor G1; Combustion partielle d'une cartouche de combustible dans le reacteur G 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Rouville; Leduc,; Segot, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    On the 26 october 1956, after having stopped a few days, the G1 reactor was started up again. The burst slug system gave a first warning at 19 h 07 on loading side, a second one at 19 h 13 on unloading side, and so on others. Ath 15 the Control Engineer ordered a quick decrease of power and then, made it rise again from 2 to 5 MW, to find out, with accuracy, the failing channel. Soon after, in order to avoid any exterior contamination, scanning had to be stopped and a {gamma} ray detecting system outside the burst slug piping system, found out the damaged element in the channel 19-13. The health stations recording showed that the highest experienced measures were still notably lower than the maxima permissible levels. The methodical examination and the unloading of the damaged channel lasted three weeks. On the loading side, bare uranium billets could be seen on a magnesia powder bed. On the unloading side, the can was undamaged, but the element's end was hanging inside the gap of the inlet air. Pushed back, about 30 cm (12 in.), on the loading side, the element got blocked up. After several tests, while argon was still being injected, working staff being kept under strict protection conditions, a countersink tube was operating like the one used for drilling. The channel was cleaned up by sucking up, without, however, avoiding slight contamination in the building of the reactor. On the 7 december 1956, the reactor had a divergence at 2 MW, the first since the fault. A hundred or so channels were still giving a background, therefore making the burst slug system inefficient for those channels. Systematical brushing and sucking up were not able to reduce it beyond a certain level. It forced the reactor to operate during several months with 56 unloaded semi-channels. At last, in june 1957, two handling allowed the reactor to operate in a satisfactory way: removal of 1 mm-thickness of graphite, by re-reaming 54 semi-channels and setting on the burst slug detection

  20. Caffeine inhibits cell proliferation by G0/G1 phase arrest in JB6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; He, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei-Ya; Schmid, Patricia C; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Chung S; Dong, Zigang

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine is a major biologically active constituent in coffee and tea. Because caffeine has been reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in UVB-exposed mice, the cancer-preventing effect of caffeine has attracted considerable attention. In the present study, the effect of caffeine in quiescent (G0 phase) cells was investigated. Pretreatment with caffeine suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner 36 h after addition of fetal bovine serum as a cell growth stimulator. Analysis by flow cytometry showed that caffeine suppressed cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase, i.e., 18 h after addition of fetal bovine serum, the percentages of cells in G0/G1 phase in 1 mM caffeine-treated cells and in caffeine-untreated cells were 61.7 and 29.0, respectively. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase at 0 h was 75.5. Caffeine inhibited phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Ser780 and Ser807/Ser811, the sites where retinoblastoma protein has been reported to be phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4). Furthermore, caffeine inhibited the activation of the cyclin D1-cdk4 complex in a dose-dependent manner. However this compound did not directly inhibit the activity of this complex. In addition, caffeine did not affect p16INK4 or p27Kip1 protein levels, but inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Our results showed that caffeine suppressed the progression of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. The inhibitory mechanism may be due to the inhibition of cell growth signal-induced activation of cdk4, which may be involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis in vivo.

  1. THE ABSENCE OF RADIO EMISSION FROM THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Wrobel, J. M. [NRAO Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Miller, R. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Plotkin, R. M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Joseph, T. D.; Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-10

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution, strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of G1. While the X-ray emission (L{sub X} = 1.74{sup +0.53}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} (d/750 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-10 keV band) remained fully consistent with previous observations, we detected no radio emission from the cluster center down to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 4.7 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. Our favored explanation for the previous radio detection is flaring activity from a black hole low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We performed a new regression of the 'Fundamental Plane' of black hole activity, valid for determining black hole mass from radio and X-ray observations of sub-Eddington black holes, finding log M{sub BH} = (1.638 {+-} 0.070)log L{sub R} - (1.136 {+-} 0.077)log L{sub X} - (6.863 {+-} 0.790), with an empirically determined uncertainty of 0.44 dex. This constrains the mass of the X-ray source in G1, if a black hole, to be <9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence, suggesting that it is a persistent LMXB. This annuls what was previously the most convincing evidence from radiation for an IMBH in the Local Group, though the evidence for an IMBH in G1 from velocity dispersion measurements remains unaffected by these results.

  2. M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme under vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kasahara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme and multiple vacations. This model is particularly important in situations where it is essential to provide short waiting times to messages which are selected for service. We analyze the behavior of two types of messages: one that succeeds in transmission and the other that fails. We derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time distribution for the message which is eventually served. Finally, we show some numerical results including the comparisons between the push-out and the ordinary blocking models.

  3. Analysis of Rca1 function at the G1-S transition in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Querings, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Tight control of APC/C-Cdh1Fzr activity is essential for progression through mitosis and establishment of the G1 phase. Rca1 is a nuclear protein that inhibits the APC/C-Cdh1Fzr complex during G2 to allow cyclin accumulation and subsequent entry into mitosis. In this thesis, a localisation study of Rca1 was performed revealing that a nuclear localisation sequence (NLS) and other domains in the protein mediate efficient nuclear accumulation. Besides its function in G2, Rca1 expression can prom...

  4. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramanath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.

  5. The kernel G1(x,x') and the quantum equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.; Foussats, A.; Giacomini, H.; Zandron, O.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, it is re-examined the formulation of the quantum equivalence principle (QEP) and its compatibility with the conditions which must be fulfilled by the kernel G 1 (x,x') is discussed. It is also determined the base of solutions which give the particle model in a curved space-time in terms of Cauchy's data for such a kernel. Finally, it is analyzed the creation of particles in this model by studying the time evolution of creation and annihilation operators. This method is an alternative to one that uses Bogoliubov's transformation as a mechanism of creation. (author)

  6. Modeling and Optimization of M/G/1-Type Queueing Networks: An Efficient Sensitivity Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.

  7. Cellular shear stiffness reflects progression of arsenic-induced transformation during G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Eldridge, Will J; Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    2017-01-01

    epithelial cells were exposed to sodium arsenite to initiate early stages of transformation. Exposed cells were cultured in soft agar to further transformation and select for clonal populations exhibiting anchorage independent growth. Shear stiffness of various cell populations in G1 was assessed using...... reduced stiffness relative to control clonal lines, which were cultured in soft agar but did not receive arsenic treatment. The relative standard deviation of the stiffness of Arsenic clones was reduced compared to control clones, as well as to the arsenic exposed cell population. Cell stiffness...

  8. Strategies for a centralized single product multiclass M/G/1 make-to-stock queue

    OpenAIRE

    Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Barış; Balcioglu, Ahmet Baris; Baron, Opher

    2012-01-01

    Make-to-stock queues are typically investigated in the M/M/1 settings. For centralized single-item systems with backlogs, the multilevel rationing (MR) policy is established as optimal and the strict priority (SP) policy is a practical compromise, balancing cost and ease of implementation. However, the optimal policy is unknown when service time is general, i.e., for M/G/1 queues. Dynamic programming, the tool commonly used to investigate the MR policy in make-to-stock queues, is less practic...

  9. Analysis of Repairable Geo/G/1 Queues with Negative Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider discrete-time Geo/G/1 queues with negative customers and a repairable server. The server is subject to failure due to a negative customer arrival. As soon as a negative customer arrives at a system, the server fails and one positive (ordinary customer is forced to leave. At a failure instant, the server is turned off and the repair process immediately begins. We construct the mathematical model and present the probability generating functions of the system size distribution and the FCFS sojourn time distribution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the influence of negative customer arrival on the performance measures of the system.

  10. Imaging Potential Evaluation of Fab Derived from the Anti-EGFRvIII Monoclonal Antibody 4G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shen; He, Yujia; He, Yanqiong; Wang, Liang; Jia, Jianhua; Shan, Xiaomin; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Min; Peng, Zhiping; Liu, Xujie

    2018-05-31

    As one of the most crucial epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variants, EGFRvIII can be detected in various tumors but rarely in normal tissues, making it an ideal target for prognosis, diagnosis or immune therapy. The recently developed anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4G1, has been validated as a promising molecular probe to detect EGFRvIII expression in tumors by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging. To overcome shortcomings associated with the whole antibody, including long-term retention, circulation and enhanced permeability and retention effects, the Fab fragment of 4G1 (Fab-4G1) was generated, labeled with 131 I and evaluated in vitro and in vivo to test its potential application in molecular imaging. Whole mAb 4G1 was first digested by immobilized ficin and then purified through a protein A column to generate the Fab fragment, Fab-4G1. Next, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, indirect fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to verify molecular weight, specificity and affinity of Fab-4G1. Finally, biodistribution planar gamma imaging was performed by injection of 131 I-labeled Fab-4G1 into xenografted EGFRvIII-overexpressed tumors in nude mice. Parallel studies were also performed with intact 4G1. The molecular weight of Fab was determined to be 35-40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. In vitro tests confirmed both intact 4G1 and Fab-4G1 specifically bound EGFRvIII but not wild-type EGFR, and Fab-4G1 showed decreased affinity. Compared to 131 I-4G1, biodistribution studies showed lower tumor uptake of 131 I-Fab-4G1 at all time points, but much faster elimination in all normal organs. As for planar gamma imaging, 131 I-Fab-4G1 and 31 I-4G1 showed similar imaging effect at 2 h after injection of tracer, while 131 I-Fab-4G1 was eliminated more quickly with time, suggesting radiolabeled Fab-4G1 could be potentially used for imaging of EGFRvIII-positive tumors at early time points. Radiolabeled

  11. Solution structures of α-conotoxin G1 determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardi, A.; Galdes, A.; Florance, J.; Maniconte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional NMR data have been used to generate solution structures of α-conotoxin G1, a potent peptide antagonist of the acetylcholine receptor. Structural information was obtained in the form of proton-proton internuclear distance constraints, and initial structures were produced with a distance geometry algorithm. Energetically more favorable structures were generated by using the distance geometry structures as input for a constrained energy minimization program. The results of both of these calculations indicate that the overall backbone conformation of the molecule is well-defined by the NMR data whereas the side-chain conformations are generally less well-defined. The main structural features derived from the NMR data were the presence of tight turns centered on residues Pro 5 and Arg 9 . The solution structures are compared with previous proposed models of conotoxin G1, and the NMR data are interpreted in conjunction with chemical modification studies and structural properties of other antagonists of the acetylcholine receptor to gain insight into structure-activity relationships in these peptide toxins

  12. The importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumour cells to repair PLD was measured by introducing delays in their progression through the cell cycle either in the same phase as that where the irradiation was given or in a subsequent phase. Cells were incubated for this purpose either in balanced salt solution which nonspecifically delayed progression in all cell cycle phases or with 0.5 μg/ml aphidicolin which delayed cells in S-phase. Cells which had been delayed in their progression through the cell cycle were able to repair PLD irrespective of the phase at which they were held. In cases where the delay in the progression through the cell cycle was introduced in a phase subsequent to that of the exposure to irradiation, repair of PLD was observed only if the cells had not passed the G1/S-border or mitosis. Based on these results, the importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation of PLD is suggested. (orig.)

  13. Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górska, S.; Dylus, E.; Rudawska, A.; Brzozowska, E.; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, A.; Kozáková, Hana; Gamian, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, SEP 29 (2016), s. 1537 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16PL006 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * probiotics * moonlighting proteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  14. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P n = 5, following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  15. Bovine glycomacropeptide promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis and modulates its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, N; O'Callaghan, J; Buttò, L F; Kilcoyne, M; Joshi, L; Hickey, R M

    2018-05-23

    Bovine milk glycomacropeptide (GMP) is derived from κ-casein, with exclusively o-linked glycosylation. Glycomacropeptide promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis in a concentration-dependent manner, and this activity was lost following periodate treatment of the GMP (GMP-P), which disables biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides. Transcriptional analysis of B. longum ssp. infantis following exposure to GMP revealed a substantial response to GMP relative to bacteria treated with GMP-P, with a greater number of differentially expressed transcripts and larger fold changes versus the control. Therefore, stimulation of B. longum ssp. infantis growth by GMP is intrinsically linked to the peptide's O-linked glycosylation. The pool of differentially expressed transcripts included 2 glycoside hydrolase (family 25) genes, which were substantially upregulated following exposure to GMP, but not GMP-P. These GH25 genes were present in duplicated genomic islands that also contained genes encoding fibronectin type III binding domain proteins and numerous phage-related proteins, all of which were also upregulated. Homologs of this genomic arrangement were present in other Bifidobacterium species, which suggest it may be a conserved domain for the utilization of glycosylated peptides. This study provides insights into the molecular basis for the prebiotic effect of bovine milk GMP on B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell cycle arrest in plants: what distinguishes quiescence, dormancy and differentiated G1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velappan, Yazhini; Signorelli, Santiago; Considine, Michael J

    2017-10-17

    Quiescence is a fundamental feature of plant life, which enables plasticity, renewal and fidelity of the somatic cell line. Cellular quiescence is defined by arrest in a particular phase of the cell cycle, typically G1 or G2; however, the regulation of quiescence and proliferation can also be considered across wider scales in space and time. As such, quiescence is a defining feature of plant development and phenology, from meristematic stem cell progenitors to terminally differentiated cells, as well as dormant or suppressed seeds and buds. While the physiology of each of these states differs considerably, each is referred to as 'cell cycle arrest' or 'G1 arrest'. Here the physiology and molecular regulation of (1) meristematic quiescence, (2) dormancy and (3) terminal differentiation (cell cycle exit) are considered in order to determine whether and how the molecular decisions guiding these nuclear states are distinct. A brief overview of the canonical cell cycle regulators is provided, and the genetic and genomic, as well as physiological, evidence is considered regarding two primary questions: (1) Are the canonical cell cycle regulators superior or subordinate in the regulation of quiescence? (2) Are these three modes of quiescence governed by distinct molecular controls? Meristematic quiescence, dormancy and terminal differentiation are each predominantly characterized by G1 arrest but regulated distinctly, at a level largely superior to the canonical cell cycle. Meristematic quiescence is intrinsically linked to non-cell-autonomous regulation of meristem cell identity, and particularly through the influence of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, in partnership with reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid and auxin. The regulation of terminal differentiation shares analogous features with meristematic quiescence, albeit with specific activators and a greater role for cytokinin signalling. Dormancy meanwhile appears to be regulated at the level of chromatin

  17. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  18. Predictive modeling of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 growth in cow’s, goat’s and soy milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Slačanac

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use a predictive model to analyse the growth of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 in cow’s, goat’s and soy milk. The Gompertz model was used, and the suitability of the model was estimated by the Schnute algorithm. Except for the analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 growth, the Gompertz model was also used for the analysis of pH changes during the fermentation process. Experimental results, as well as the values of kinetic parameters obtained in this study, showed that the highest growth rate of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 was obtained in goat’s milk, and the lowest in soy milk. Contrary to the growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, pH decreased faster in soy milk than in cow’s milk. The highest rate of pH decrease was also observed in goat’s milk, which is in correspondence with results of various previous studies. The Gompertz model proved to be highly suitable for analysing the course and the fermentation kinetics in these three kinds of milk, and might be used to analyse the growth kinetics of other probiotic and starter cultures in milk.

  19. Molecularly assessed shifts of Bifidobacterium spp. and less diverse microbial communities are characteristic of 5-year-old allergic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stsepetova, J.; Sepp, E.; Julge, K.; Vaughan, E.E.; Mikelsaar, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The composition of intestinal microbiota and the Bifidobacterium group community in 20 allergic and 20 nonallergic 5-year-old children was visualized by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The number of dominant bands in the DGGE profiles was smaller in allergic children than in

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of 45 type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium: a snapshot of its genetic diversity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Sun

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are well known for their human health-promoting effects and are therefore widely applied in the food industry. Members of the Bifidobacterium genus were first identified from the human gastrointestinal tract and were then found to be widely distributed across various ecological niches. Although the genetic diversity of Bifidobacterium has been determined based on several marker genes or a few genomes, the global diversity and evolution scenario for the entire genus remain unresolved. The present study comparatively analyzed the genomes of 45 type strains. We built a robust genealogy for Bifidobacterium based on 402 core genes and defined its root according to the phylogeny of the tree of bacteria. Our results support that all human isolates are of younger lineages, and although species isolated from bees dominate the more ancient lineages, the bee was not necessarily the original host for bifidobacteria. Moreover, the species isolated from different hosts are enriched with specific gene sets, suggesting host-specific adaptation. Notably, bee-specific genes are strongly associated with respiratory metabolism and are potential in helping those bacteria adapt to the oxygen-rich gut environment in bees. This study provides a snapshot of the genetic diversity and evolution of Bifidobacterium, paving the way for future studies on the taxonomy and functional genomics of the genus.

  1. Bifidobacterium apri sp nov., a thermophilic actinobacterium isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Killer, Jiří; Salmonová, H.; Geigerová, M.; Švejstil, R.; Švec, P.; Sedláček, I.; Rada, V.; Benada, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2017), s. 2349-2356 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * wild pigs * thermophilic bifidobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  2. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium breve KCTC 12201BP isolated from a healthy infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Jung; Yoon, Jae-Kyung; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Chung, Myung-Jun; Seo, Jae-Gu; Kim, Jihyun F

    2015-11-20

    We present the completely sequenced genome of Bifidobacterium breve CBT BR3, which was isolated from the feces of a healthy infant. The 2.43-Mb genome contains several kinds of genetic factors associated with health promotion of the human host such as oligosaccharide-degrading genes and vitamin-biosynthetic genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ability of Bifidobacterium breve To Grow on Different Types of Milk: Exploring the Metabolism of Milk through Genome Analysis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Serafini, Fausta; Viappiani, Alice; Montanini, Barbara; Bottacini, Francesca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Bacchini, Pier Luigi; Rota, Claudio; Delledonne, Massimo; Ottonello, Simone; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the occurrence of bifidobacteria in human milk samples, and we provide evidence regarding the predominance of members of the Bifidobacterium breve species in this environment. Moreover, evaluation of the growth capabilities and transcriptomic analyses of one representative isolate of this species, i.e., B. breve 4L, on different milk types were performed. PMID:21856831

  4. Post-sensitization administration of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V reduces allergic symptoms in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Abbring, Suzanne; Diks, Mara A P; Dingjan, Gemma M; Harthoorn, Lucien F; Vos, A Paul; Garssen, Johan

    To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept

  5. A Conserved Two-Component Signal Transduction System Controls the Response to Phosphate Starvation in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez-Martin, P.; Fernandez, M.; O'Connell-Motherway, M.; O'Connell, K.J.; Sauvageot, N.; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Macsharry, J.; Zomer, A.L.; Sinderen, D. van

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of the two-component regulatory system (2CRS) PhoRP, which controls the response to inorganic phosphate (P(i)) starvation in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The response regulator PhoP was shown to bind to the promoter region of

  6. Ability of Bifidobacterium breve to grow on different types of milk: exploring the metabolism of milk through genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Serafini, Fausta; Viappiani, Alice; Montanini, Barbara; Bottacini, Francesca; Ferrarini, Alberto; Bacchini, Pier Luigi; Rota, Claudio; Delledonne, Massimo; Ottonello, Simone; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the occurrence of bifidobacteria in human milk samples, and we provide evidence regarding the predominance of members of the Bifidobacterium breve species in this environment. Moreover, evaluation of the growth capabilities and transcriptomic analyses of one representative isolate of this species, i.e., B. breve 4L, on different milk types were performed.

  7. Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putaala, H; Barrangou, R; Leyer, G J

    2010-01-01

    a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33...

  8. Fermented Milk Containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 in Childhood Constipation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Merit M.; Chmielewska, Ania; Roseboom, Maaike G.; Crastes, Nolwenn; Perrin, Catherine; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Norbruis, Obbe; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constipation is a frustrating symptom affecting 3% of children worldwide. A fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis strain DN-173 010 was effective in increasing stool frequency in constipated women. Our aim was to assess the effects of this product in constipated

  9. A Discrete-Time Geo/G/1 Retrial Queue with Two Different Types of Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a discrete-time Geo/G/1 retrial queue with two different types of vacations and general retrial times. Two different types of vacation policies are investigated in this model, one of which is nonexhaustive urgent vacation during serving and the other is normal exhaustive vacation. For this model, we give the steady-state analysis for the considered queueing system. Firstly, we obtain the generating functions of the number of customers in our model. Then, we obtain the closed-form expressions of some performance measures and also give a stochastic decomposition result for the system size. Moreover, the relationship between this discrete-time model and the corresponding continuous-time model is also investigated. Finally, some numerical results are provided to illustrate the effect of nonexhaustive urgent vacation on some performance characteristics of the system.

  10. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    with different C-termini: one membrane bound through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and the other soluble. The membrane-bound protein isoform would be affected by the breakpoint, whereas the soluble form would remain intact. Our results suggest that the central nervous system is sensitive to NTNG1...... hybridisations, utilizing probes derived from breakpoint spanning BACs, detected several aberrant fragments specific for the patient. Sequence analysis of the cloned junction fragment indicated that on chromosome 1 the predominantly brain-expressed Netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene is disrupted, whereas on chromosome 7...... there was no indication for a truncated gene. The chromosome 1 breakpoint lies within the 3' part of NTNG1 and affects alternatively spliced transcripts, suggesting that the phenotype in this patient is the result of disturbed NTNG1 expression. In silico translation of the NTNG1 splice variants predicted protein isoforms...

  11. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  12. Parafibromin inhibits cancer cell growth and causes G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun; Kong Dong; Tan, M.-H.; Pappas, Donald L.; Wang, P.-F.; Chen, Jindong; Farber, Leslie; Zhang Nian; Koo, H.-M.; Weinreich, Michael; Williams, Bart O.; Teh, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The HRPT2 (hereditary hyperparathyroidism type 2) tumor suppressor gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed 531 amino acid protein termed parafibromin. Inactivation of parafibromin predisposes one to the development of HPT-JT syndrome. To date, the role of parafibromin in tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here, we report that parafibromin is a nuclear protein that possesses anti-proliferative properties. We show that overexpression of parafibromin inhibits colony formation and cellular proliferation, and induces cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, HPT-JT syndrome-derived mutations in HRPT2 behave in a dominant-negative manner by abolishing the ability of parafibromin to suppress cell proliferation. These findings suggest that parafibromin has a critical role in cell growth, and mutations in HRPT2 can directly inhibit this role

  13. Flavor singlet contribution to the structure function g1 at small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The singlet contribution to the g 1 (x, Q 2 ) structure function are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD in the region x s ln 2 (1/x)) k which are not included in the GLAP evolution equations are shown to give a power-like rise at small-x which is much stronger than the extrapolation of the GLAP expressions. The dominant contribution is due to the gluons which, in contrast to the unpolarized case, mix with the fermions also in the region x<<1. The two main reasons why the small-x behavior of the double logarithmic approximation is so much stronger than the usual GLAP evolution are: the larger kinematical region of integration (in particular, no ordering in transverse momentum) and the contributions from non-ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  14. Phytotoxic eremophilane sesquiterpenes from the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Paulina; Figueroa, Mario; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-27

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract from the grain-based culture of the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14 led to the isolation of a new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, 3R,6R-dihydroxy-9,7(11)-dien-8-oxoeremophilane (1), along with three known analogues, namely, isopetasol (2), sporogen AO-1 (3), and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Assignment of absolute configuration at the stereogenic centers of 1 was achieved using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Sporogen AO-1 (3) and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4) caused significant inhibition of radicle growth against Amaranthus hypochondriacus (IC50 = 0.17 mM for both compounds) and Echinochloa crus-galli (IC50 = 0.17 and 0.30 mM, respectively).

  15. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2002-01-01

    antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent......Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... properties to CHO cell-produced anti-RhD antibody, indicating its potential usefulness in diagnostic and therapeutic programs....

  16. Investigations on the discrete Gi(G)1 queue with and without loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, T.; Toeroek, T.L.

    1975-12-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the method for investigating queuing systems characterized by random variables of integer values is given. Specially the discrete GI(G)1 queuing systems are considered. The first part of the paper takes a short summary on the theory of discrete stochastic processes. In the second part the properties of the fundamental characteristics of the queuing system as the busy period, the waiting time and the output processes are discussed. In the last section some remarks are added to show the direction of further investigations. To demonstrated the simplicity of the relations verified in the paper some computed examples are presented in the appendix. The computations were performed with a mini-computer of 8K words memory. (Sz.Z.)

  17. Cell-free spent media obtained from Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis grown in media supplemented with 3’-sialyllactose exert virulence modulation on intestinal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondue Pauline

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates. This study focused on the ability of B. bifidum and B. crudilactis to grow in a culture medium supplemented in 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL as sole source of carbon, a main BMO encountered in cow milk. Next, the effects of cell-free spent media (CFSM were tested against virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both strains were able to grow in presence of 3’SL, but B. crudilactis showed the best growth (7.92 ± 0.3 log cfu/ml compared to B. bifidum (6.84 ± 0.9 log cfu/ml. Then, CFSM were tested for their effects on virulence gene expression by ler and hilA promoter activity of luminescent mutants of E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively, and on wild type strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium using RT-qPCR. All CFSM resulted in significant under expression of the ler and hilA genes for the luminescent mutants and ler (ratios of -15.4 and -8.1 respectively and qseA (ratios of -2.1 and -3.1 for the wild type strain of E. coli O157:H7. The 3’SL, a major BMO, combined with some bifidobacteria strains of bovine or human origin could therefore be an interesting synbiotic to maintain or restore the intestinal health of young children. These effects observed in vitro will be further investigated regarding the exact nature of the active molecules.

  18. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  19. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in dogs in central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab Ali; Daugschies, Arwid; Gawlowska, Sandra; Elnahas, Ayman; Kern, Peter; Bashir, Sofia; Ali, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim; Osman, Amin; Romig, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000. Dipylidiun caninum was found in 53.6% of the dogs. At coproscopy, taeniid eggs were found in 37 of the 43 dogs which were positive for Echinococcus at necropsy, but none in the 41 necropsy-negative dogs. In addition, 58% of the rectal samples contained eggs of Toxocara spp., 34.5% eggs of Trichuris spp. (34.5%), and 26% eggs of Ancylostoma caninum. Copro-PCR gave positive results for E. canadensis with 97.5% (39/40) of nonhibiting samples from the necropsy positive dogs; the one remaining dog tested positive for E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), whose partial cox1 and nad1 sequences showed a 100% identity with various reference sequences of the G1 genotype. 100% of 38 non-inhibited samples taken from the necropsy-negative dogs were also negative in copro-PCR. This is the first study which combines prevalence and genetic identification of Echinococcus spp. in dogs of Sudan. Together with a recent report from cattle, it confirms the autochthonous presence, at low level, of E. granulosus sensu stricto in Central Sudan.

  20. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  1. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  2. Contrasting effects of Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 on the composition of murine brain fatty acids and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Rebecca; Marques, Tatiana M; O'Sullivan, Orla; Ross, R Paul; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M; Dinan, Timothy G; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D; Fouhy, Fiona; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    We previously showed that microbial metabolism in the gut influences the composition of bioactive fatty acids in host adipose tissue. This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation for 8 wk with human-derived Bifidobacterium breve strains on fat distribution and composition and the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 per group) received B. breve DPC 6330 or B. breve NCIMB 702258 (10(9) microorganisms) daily for 8 wk or no supplement (controls). Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography while 16S rRNA pyrosequencing was used to investigate microbiota composition. Visceral fat mass and brain stearic acid, arachidonic acid, and DHA were higher in mice supplemented with B. breve NCIMB 702258 than in mice in the other 2 groups (P breve DPC 6330 and B. breve NCIMB 702258 supplementation resulted in higher propionate concentrations in the cecum than did no supplementation (P breve DPC 6330 than in mice supplemented with B. breve NCIMB 702258 and unsupplemented controls, respectively. The response of fatty acid metabolism to administration of bifidobacteria is strain-dependent, and strain-strain differences are important factors that influence modulation of the gut microbial community by ingested microorganisms.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... self-employment. (a) General rule. If an amount is erroneously paid as self-employment tax, for any... self-employment income on a return filed on or before the due date prescribed for filing such return...

  4. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Trivigno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1 are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico, which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  5. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivigno, Catherine; Haerry, Theodor E

    2011-02-25

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1) are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico), which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  6. Altered G1 checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G 0 /G 1 ) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G 1 (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells

  7. Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, Morgane; Halazonetis, Thanos D

    2018-03-01

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes. These ectopic origins were normally suppressed by transcription during G1, but precocious entry into S phase, before all genic regions had been transcribed, allowed firing of origins within genes in cells with activated oncogenes. Forks from oncogene-induced origins were prone to collapse, as a result of conflicts between replication and transcription, and were associated with DNA double-stranded break formation and chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints both in our experimental system and in a large cohort of human cancers. Thus, firing of intragenic origins caused by premature S phase entry represents a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress that is relevant for genomic instability in human cancer.

  8. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-01-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration

  10. Screening of recombinant glycosyltransferases reveals the broad acceptor specificity of stevia UGT-76G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Griet; Walmagh, Maarten; Diricks, Margo; Lepak, Alexander; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Desmet, Tom

    2016-09-10

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are a promising class of biocatalysts that offer a sustainable alternative for chemical glycosylation of natural products. In this study, we aimed to characterize plant-derived UGTs from the GT-1 family with an emphasis on their acceptor promiscuity and their potential application in glycosylation processes. Recombinant expression in E. coli provided sufficient amounts of enzyme for the in-depth characterization of the salicylic acid UGT from Capsella rubella (UGT-SACr) and the stevia UGT from Stevia rebaudiana (UGT-76G1Sr). The latter was found to have a remarkably broad specificity with activities on a wide diversity of structures, from aliphatic and branched alcohols, over small phenolics to larger flavonoids, terpenoids and even higher glycoside compounds. As an example for its industrial potential, the glycosylation of curcumin was thoroughly evaluated. Under optimized conditions, 96% of curcumin was converted within 24h into the corresponding curcumin β-glycosides. In addition, the reaction was performed in a coupled system with sucrose synthase from Glycine max, to enable the cost-efficient (re)generation of UDP-Glc from sucrose as abundant and renewable resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. TGFβ lengthens the G1 phase of stem cells in aged mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynac, Mathieu; Pineda, Jose R; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Gauthier, Laurent R; Morizur, Lise; Boussin, François D; Mouthon, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Neurogenesis decreases during aging causing a progressive cognitive decline but it is still controversial whether proliferation defects in neurogenic niches result from a loss of neural stem cells or from an impairment of their progression through the cell cycle. Using an accurate fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique, we show that the pool of neural stem cells is maintained in the subventricular zone of middle-aged mice while they have a reduced proliferative potential eventually leading to the subsequent decrease of their progeny. In addition, we demonstrate that the G1 phase is lengthened during aging specifically in activated stem cells, but not in transit-amplifying cells, and directly impacts on neurogenesis. Finally, we report that inhibition of TGFβ signaling restores cell cycle progression defects in stem cells. Our data highlight the significance of cell cycle dysregulation in stem cells in the aged brain and provide an attractive foundation for the development of anti-TGFβ regenerative therapies based on stimulating endogenous neural stem cells. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Data fitting by G1 rational cubic Bézier curves using harmony search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search (HS is implemented for data fitting by rational cubic Bézier curves. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. HS is suitable for multivariate non-linear optimization problem. It is mainly achieved by data fitting using rational cubic Bézier curves with G1 continuity for every joint of segments of the whole data sets. This approach has significant contributions in making the technique automated. HS is used to optimize positions of middle points and values of the shape parameters. Test outline images and comparative experimental analysis are presented to show effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Statistical testing between HS and two other different metaheuristic algorithms is used in the analysis on several outline images. All of the algorithms improvised a near optimal solution but the result that is obtained by the HS is better than the results of the other two algorithms.

  13. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C (G1 in Russia: cost and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype 1 HCV treatment in Russia assume as bitherapy (pegylated interferon – PG plus ribavirin – RBV as three therapy based on HCV protease inhibitor such as telaprevir (TLV, boceprevir (BCV or simeprevir (SMV plus PG/RBV. Medical technologies characterize neither clinical effectiveness, safety profile nor cost-effectiveness so it’s crucial to assess different costs related antiviral regimens. Three therapy costs for naïve patients including TLV, BCV, SMV are higher bitherapy 2,6; 2,5; 3,1 times accordingly. Similar TLV and BCV effectiveness for naïve patients defines TLV or BCV as the preferable 1-st line regimen, depending on regional features of pricing. SMV and TLV efficacy is similar among naïve patients and ralapsers but SMV is affordable for partially responders and non-responders after previous bitherapy. SMV cost is 1,4 times higher vs TLV but SMV has improved tolerability, less drug-drug interactions and shorter course. Insufficient bitherapy effectiveness for G1 HCV (SVR 24 – 39%-55% is required repeated course of three therapy for half of patient population. The first line regimen based on innovation will improve clinical outcomes for more patients and provide cost saving vs previous bitherapy based on PG/RBV. 

  14. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  15. Barium ionization mechanisms in the CRRES G-1 and G-11b releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunton, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The G-11b chemical release experiment form the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was conducted in darkness below the solar UV terminator to test the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) hypothesis. The Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer (QIMS) aboard CRRES measured fluxes of barium ions from this darkness release that were only a factor of ten smaller than the G-1 release measurements in full sunlight. Possible mechanisms for this significant barium ionization in darkness include CIV, charge exchange with O + , collisional ionization and associative ionization. The authors have evaluated the relative contributions of the collisional mechanisms by constructing a simple model of barium ions from the darkness release seem to be consistent with recent measurements of the charge transfer cross section. A collective plasma ionization mechanism such as CIV does not seem to necessary in order to explain the large barium ion fluxes observed. However, QIMS could only detect barium ions formed several seconds after the initial detonation of the release canister. A CIV process could still have occurred very early in the expansion of the barium neutral cloud and the mass spectrometer would not have detected these ions

  16. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsunaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2 ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK, did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  17. Promotion of intestinal peristalsis by Bifidobacterium spp. capable of hydrolysing sennosides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Ishige, Atsushi; Yazawa, Yuka; Kondo, Manami; Muramatsu, Koji; Watanabe, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    While there are a variety of identifiable causes of constipation, even idiopathic constipation has different possible mechanisms. Sennosides, the main laxative constituents of Daio, an ancient Kampo medicine, are prodrugs that are converted to an active principle, rheinanthrone, by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we aimed to determine the sennoside hydrolysis ability of lactic acid bacterial strains and bifidobacteria in the intestine and to investigate their effect on intestinal peristalsis in mice. A total of 88 lactic acid bacterial strains and 47 bifidobacterial strains were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyze sennosides. Our results revealed that 4 strains, all belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium, had strong sennoside hydrolysis ability, exhibiting a decrease of >70% of sennoside content. By thin-layer chromatography analysis, rheinanthrone was detected in the medium cultured with B. pseudocatenulatum LKM10070 and B. animalis subsp. lactis LKM512. The fecal sennoside contents significantly (Psennoside by strain LKM512 and LKM10070.

  18. Epithelial cell proliferation arrest induced by lactate and acetate from Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Matsuki

    Full Text Available In an attempt to identify and characterize how symbiotic bacteria of the gut microbiota affect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epithelial homeostasis, intestinal epithelial cells were co-cultured with either Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium as bona fide symbionts to examine potential gene modulations. In addition to genes involved in the innate immune response, genes encoding check-point molecules controlling the cell cycle were among the most modulated in the course of these interactions. In the m-ICcl2 murine cell line, genes encoding cyclin E1 and cyclin D1 were strongly down regulated by L. casei and B. breve respectively. Cell proliferation arrest was accordingly confirmed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA were the effectors of this modulation, alone or in conjunction with the acidic pH they generated. These results demonstrate that the production of SCFAs, a characteristic of these symbiotic microorganisms, is potentially an essential regulatory effector of epithelial proliferation in the gut.

  19. Discovering Novel Bile Protection Systems in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 through Functional Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Zomer, Aldert; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance of gut commensals to bile salt exposure is an important feature for their survival in and colonization of the intestinal environment. A transcriptomic approach was employed to study the response of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 to bile, allowing the identification of a number of bile-induced genes with a range of predicted functions. The potential roles of a selection of these bile-inducible genes in bile protection were analyzed following heterologous expression in Lactococcus lactis. Genes encoding three transport systems belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), Bbr_0838, Bbr_0832, and Bbr_1756, and three ABC-type transporters, Bbr_0406-0407, Bbr_1804-1805, and Bbr_1826-1827, were thus investigated and shown to provide enhanced resistance and survival to bile exposure. This work significantly improves our understanding as to how bifidobacteria respond to and survive bile exposure. PMID:22156415

  20. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  1. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atchara N. Phoem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

  2. Crecimiento, sobrevivencia y adaptación de Bifidobacterium infantis a condiciones ácidas

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga-Reyes, L.; Bustamante-Camilo, P.; Gutiérrez-Nava, A.; Barranco-Florido, E.; Azaola-Espinosa, A.

    2009-01-01

    La acidez es una condición ambiental comúnmente encontrada por las bacterias presentes en productos lácteos fermentados y el tracto gastrointestinal. En este estudio, las células de Bifidobacterium infantis de 24 h de fermentación se inocularon en medios de cultivo con pH iniciales de 7.0, 4.0, 3.0 y 2.0 durante 24 h. Conforme el pH inicial disminuye, la población celular activa disminuyó hasta tres órdenes de magnitud. A pH 4.0 las células se mostraron estables durante las primeras 5 h de fe...

  3. Antigen-presenting cells exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Bifidobacterium bifidum BI-98, and BI-504 reduce regulatory T cell activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Esben Gjerløff Wedebye; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Jensen, Simon Skjøde

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The effect in vitro of six different probiotic strains including Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei YS8866441, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115, Bifidobacterium bifidum BI-504 and BI-98 was studied on splenic...

  4. Functional genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 reveals type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pili as an essential and conserved host-colonization factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motherway, M.O.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of the

  5. Functional genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 reveals type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pili as an essential and conserved host-colonization factor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motherway, M.O.; Zomer, A.L.; Leahy, S.C.; Reunanen, J.; Bottacini, F.; Claesson, M.J.; O'Brien, F.; Flynn, K.; Casey, P.G.; Munoz, J.A.; Kearney, B.; Houston, A.M.; O'Mahony, C.; Higgins, D.G.; Shanahan, F.; Palva, A.; Vos, W.M. de; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Ventura, M.; O'Toole, P.W.; Sinderen, D. van

    2011-01-01

    Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of the

  6. The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Park, A J; Sinclair, D; Khoshdel, A; Lu, J; Huang, X; Deng, Y; Blennerhassett, P A; Fahnestock, M; Moine, D; Berger, B; Huizinga, J D; Kunze, W; McLean, P G; Bergonzelli, G E; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2011-12-01

    The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 normalizes anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious colitis. Using a model of chemical colitis we test whether the anxiolytic effect of B. longum involves vagal integrity, and changes in neural cell function. Methods  Mice received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%) in drinking water during three 1-week cycles. Bifidobacterium longum or placebo were gavaged daily during the last cycle. Some mice underwent subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Behavior was assessed by step-down test, inflammation by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histology. BDNF mRNA was measured in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after incubation with sera from B. longum- or placebo-treated mice. The effect of B. longum on myenteric neuron excitability was measured using intracellular microelectrodes. Chronic colitis was associated with anxiety-like behavior, which was absent in previously vagotomized mice. B. longum normalized behavior but had no effect on MPO activity or histological scores. Its anxiolytic effect was absent in mice with established anxiety that were vagotomized before the third DSS cycle. B. longum metabolites did not affect BDNF mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells but decreased excitability of enteric neurons. In this colitis model, anxiety-like behavior is vagally mediated. The anxiolytic effect of B. longum requires vagal integrity but does not involve gut immuno-modulation or production of BDNF by neuronal cells. As B. longum decreases excitability of enteric neurons, it may signal to the central nervous system by activating vagal pathways at the level of the enteric nervous system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Escherichia coli in Versus Prebiotic Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Mansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In this study, in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans on the survivability and activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Escherichia coli were investigated and compared with HP-Inulin (a high molecular-weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Objectives The prebiotic potential of poly-fructans extracted from native Jerusalem artichoke tubers on the survivability of B. bifidum and E. coli was evaluated in this study. Methods In this experimental study, 24 treatments divided to 2 groups (Extracted poly-fructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin randomly. The turbidity and pH variations during 48 hours incubation were determined using final concentrations of each group (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v. The data were analyzed by MINITAB 14 and MSTATC statistical software, one way ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Results This study suggests that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides (JA-Fr had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of B. bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of HP-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 hours incubation time. Specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for E. coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth were influenced by the concentration and DP (degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high-yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.

  8. Effects of Bifidobacterium breve on inflammatory gene expression in neonatal and weaning rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Ikegami, Takako; Izumi, Hirohisa; Namura, Mariko; Ikeda, Tomomi; Ikuse, Tamaki; Baba, Yosuke; Kudo, Takahiro; Suzuki, Ryuyo; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    To examine the immune-modulatory effects of probiotics during early infancy, Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was administered to rat pups during the newborn or weaning period, and the expression of inflammatory genes was investigated using a cDNA microarray and real-time PCR. After B. breve administration, significant increases in the numbers of Bifidobacterium in both the cecum and colon were confirmed during the newborn period. The numbers of upregulated and downregulated genes were greater during the weaning period than in the newborn period and were greatest in the colon, with fewer genes altered in the small intestine and the fewest in the spleen. The expression of inflammation-related genes, including lipoprotein lipase (Lpl), glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2), and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (Lbp), was significantly reduced in the colon during the newborn period. In weaning rat pups, the expression of CD3d, a cell surface receptor-linked signaling molecule, was significantly enhanced in the colon; however, the expression of co-stimulatory molecules was not enhanced. Our findings support a possible role for B. breve in mediating anti-inflammatory and antiallergic reactions by modulating the expression of inflammatory molecules during the newborn period and by regulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecules during the weaning period. Gene expression in the intestine was investigated after feeding 5 × 10(8) cfu of B. breve every day to the F344/Du rat from days 1 to 14 (newborn group) and from days 21 to 34 (weaning group). mRNA was extracted from intestine, and the expression of inflammatory gene was analyzed by microarray and real-time PCR.

  9. Benefits of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V Supplementation in Preterm Neonates - A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Sanjay K Patole

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials report that probiotics reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC in preterm neonates.To determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS to preterm neonates would reduce the incidence of NEC.The incidence of NEC ≥ Stage II and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period of 24 months 'before' (Epoch 1 and 'after' (Epoch 2 RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in neonates <34 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for relevant confounders.A total of 1755 neonates (Epoch I vs. II: 835 vs. 920 with comparable gestation and birth weights were admitted. There was a significant reduction in NEC ≥ Stage II: 3% vs. 1%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.43 (95%CI: 0.21-0.87; 'NEC ≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality': 9% vs. 5%, aOR = 0.53 (95%CI: 0.32-0.88; but not all-cause mortality alone: 7% vs. 4%, aOR = 0.58 (95% CI: 0.31-1.06 in Epoch II. The benefits in neonates <28 weeks did not reach statistical significance: NEC ≥ Stage II: 6% vs. 3%, aOR 0.51 (95%CI: 0.20-1.27, 'NEC ≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality', 21% vs. 14%, aOR = 0.59 (95%CI: 0.29-1.18; all-cause mortality: 17% vs. 11%, aOR = 0.63 (95%CI: 0.28-1.41. There was no probiotic sepsis.RPS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V was associated with decreased NEC≥ Stage II and 'NEC≥ Stage II or all-cause mortality' in neonates <34 weeks. Large sample size is required to assess the potential benefits of RPS in neonates <28 weeks.

  10. Evaluation of the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains and their in vitro effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, I; D'Orazio, G; Labra, M; La Ferla, B; Mezzasalma, V; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Tursi, F; Vassallo, M; Di Gennaro, P

    2015-07-01

    Probiotic ingestion is recommended as a preventive approach to maintain the balance of the intestinal microbiota and to enhance the human well-being. During the whole life of each individual, the gut microbiota composition could be altered by lifestyle, diet, antibiotic therapies and other stress conditions, which may lead to acute and chronic disorders. Hence, probiotics can be administered for the prevention or treatment of some disorders, including lactose malabsorption, acute diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and mild forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The probiotic-mediated effect is an important issue that needs to be addressed in relation to strain-specific probiotic properties. In this work, the probiotic properties of new Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains were screened, and their effects in vitro were evaluated. They were screened for probiotic properties by determining their tolerance to low pH and to bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, antimicrobial activity and vitamin B8, B9 and B12 production, and by considering their ability to increase the antioxidant potential and to modulate the inflammatory status of systemic-miming cell lines in vitro. Three out of the examined strains presenting the most performant probiotic properties, as Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBSO75, were evaluated for their effects also on human intestinal HT-29 cell line. The obtained results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the oral administration of these probiotical strains to patients with acute and chronic gut disorders, by in vivo experiments.

  11. Improved adhesive properties of recombinant bifidobacteria expressing the Bifidobacterium bifidum-specific lipoprotein BopA

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    Gleinser Marita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bifidobacteria belong to one of the predominant bacterial groups in the intestinal microbiota of infants and adults. Several beneficial effects on the health status of their human hosts have been demonstrated making bifidobacteria interesting candidates for probiotic applications. Adhesion of probiotics to the intestinal epithelium is discussed as a prerequisite for colonisation of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Results In the present study, 15 different strains of bifidobacteria were tested for adhesion. B. bifidum was identified as the species showing highest adhesion to all tested intestinal epithelial cell (IEC lines. Adhesion of B. bifidum S17 to IECs was strongly reduced after treatment of bacteria with pronase. These results strongly indicate that a proteinaceous cell surface component mediates adhesion of B. bifidum S17 to IECs. In silico analysis of the currently accessible Bifidobacterium genomes identified bopA encoding a lipoprotein as a B. bifidum-specific gene previously shown to function as an adhesin of B. bifidum MIMBb75. The in silico results were confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. Furthermore, Northern Blot analysis demonstrated that bopA is expressed in all B. bifidum strains tested under conditions used to cultivate bacteria for adhesion assays. The BopA gene was successfully expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography as a C-terminal His6-fusion. Purified BopA had an inhibitory effect on adhesion of B. bifidum S17 to IECs. Moreover, bopA was successfully expressed in B. bifidum S17 and B. longum/infantis E18. Strains overexpressing bopA showed enhanced adhesion to IECs, clearly demonstrating a role of BopA in adhesion of B. bifidum strains. Conclusions BopA was identified as a B. bifidum-specific protein involved in adhesion to IECs. Bifidobacterium strains expressing bopA show enhanced adhesion. Our results represent the first report on recombinant

  12. Catabolism of citrus flavanones by the probiotics Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Fernández-Quirós, Begoña; Ludwig, Iziar A; Pradas, Inmaculada; Crozier, Alan; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Orange juice (OJ) flavanones undergo limited absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the colon where they are transformed by the microbiota prior to absorption. This study investigated the ability of two probiotic bacteria, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus subsp. Rhamnosus NCTC 10302 to catabolise OJ flavanones. The bacteria were incubated with hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin and naringenin, and the culture medium and intracellular cell extracts were collected at intervals over a 48 h of incubation period. The flavanones and their phenolic acid catabolites were identified and quantified by HPLC-HR-MS. Both probiotics were able to subject hesperetin to ring fission yielding 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid which was subsequently demethylated producing 3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and then via successive dehydroxylations converted to 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 3-(phenyl)propionic acid. Incubation of both bacteria with naringenin resulted in its conversion to 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid which underwent dehydroxylation yielding 3-(phenyl)propionic acid. In addition, only L. rhamnosus exhibited rhamnosidase and glucosidase activity and unlike B. longum, which was able to convert hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside and naringenin-7-O-rutinoside to their respective aglycones. The aglycones were then subjected to ring fission and further catabolised in a similar manner to that described above. The flavanones and their catabolites were found in the culture medium but not accumulated in the bacterial cells. These findings demonstrate the enzymatic potential of single strains of bifidobacterium and lactobacillus which may be involved in the colonic catabolism of OJ flavanones in vivo.

  13. In-vitro GIT Tolerance of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 35914 Using Polysaccharide-Protein Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Rabia; Zahoor, Tahir; Huma, Nuzhat; Jamil, Amer; Ünlü, Gülhan

    2018-03-12

    Longevity of probiotic is the main concern for getting maximum benefits when added in food product. Bifidobacterium, a probiotic, tends to lose its viability during gastrointestinal track (GIT) transit and storage of food. Their viability can be enhanced through microencapsulation technology. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) ATCC 35914 was encapsulated by using two experimental plans. In the first plan, chitosan (CH) at 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and sodium alginate (SA) at 4, 5, and 6% were used. Based on encapsulation efficiency, 6% sodium alginate and 0.8% chitosan were selected for single coating of the bacteria, and the resulting micro beads were double coated with different concentrations (5, 7.5, and 10%) of whey protein concentrate (WPC) in the second plan. Encapsulation efficiency and GIT tolerance were determined by incubating the micro beads in simulated gastrointestinal juices (SIJ) at variable pH and exposure times, and their release (liberation of bacterial cells) profile was also observed in SIJ. The microencapsulated bacterial cells showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher viability as compared to the unencapsulated (free) cells during GIT assay. The double-coated micro beads SA 6%-WPC 5% and CH 0.8%-WPC 5% were proven to have the higher survival at pH 3.0 after 90 min of incubation time and at pH 7.0 after 3-h exposure in comparison to free cells in simulated conditions of the stomach and intestine, respectively. Moreover, double coating with whey protein concentrate played a significant role in the targeted (10 6-9  CFU/mL) delivery under simulated intestinal conditions.

  14. Protective Effects of Bifidobacterium on Intestinal Barrier Function in LPS-Induced Enterocyte Barrier Injury of Caco-2 Monolayers and in a Rat NEC Model.

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    Xiang Ling

    Full Text Available Zonulin protein is a newly discovered modulator which modulates the permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier by disassembling intercellular tight junctions (TJ. Disruption of TJ is associated with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. It has been shown bifidobacterium could protect the intestinal barrier function and prophylactical administration of bifidobacterium has beneficial effects in NEC patients and animals. However, it is still unknown whether the zonulin is involved in the gut barrier dysfunction of NEC, and the protective mechanisms of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function are also not well understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function, zonulin regulation, and TJ integrity both in LPS-induced enterocyte barrier injury of Caco-2 monolayers and in a rat NEC model. Our results showed bifidobacterium markedly attenuated the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in paracellular permeability in the Caco-2 monolayers treated with LPS (P < 0.01. Compared with the LPS group, bifidobacterium significantly decreased the production of IL-6 and TNF-α (P < 0.01 and suppressed zonulin release (P < 0.05. In addition, bifidobacterium pretreatment up-regulated occludin, claudin-3 and ZO-1 expression (P < 0.01 and also preserved these proteins localization at TJ compared with the LPS group. In the in vivo study, bifidobacterium decreased the incidence of NEC from 88 to 47% (P < 0.05 and reduced the severity in the NEC model. Increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the ileum of NEC rats were normalized in bifidobacterium treated rats (P < 0.05. Moreover, administration of bifidobacterium attenuated the increase in intestinal permeability (P < 0.01, decreased the levels of serum zonulin (P < 0.05, normalized the expression and localization of TJ proteins in the ileum compared with animals with NEC. We concluded that bifidobacterium may

  15. SUN1 silencing inhibits cell growth through G0/G1 phase arrest in lung adenocarcinoma

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    Huang W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weiyi Huang,* Haihua Huang,* Lei Wang, Jiong Hu, Weifeng Song Department of Oncology, The First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cytoskeleton is critical for carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Sad-1 and UNC-84 domain containing 1 (SUN1 is one of the core linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. However, the functions of SUN1 in lung adenocarcinoma are largely unknown.Methods: In this study, we first transduced the lentivirus delivering the short hairpin RNA (shRNA against SUN1 to lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 and 95D cells with high efficiency. After lentivirus infection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of SUN1 mRNA and protein. The cell proliferation and colony formation were detected by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. The cell distribution in the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry.Results: Both mRNA and protein levels of SUN1 were significantly decreased in A549 and 95D cells after lentivirus infection, as indicated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Next, we found that cell proliferation and colony formation were markedly reduced in SUN1 silenced cells. Moreover, suppression of SUN1 led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, Cyclin D1, CDK6, and CDK2 expressions were obviously reduced in A549 cells after SUN1 silencing.Conclusion: These results suggest that SUN1 plays an essential role in proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and may be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. Keywords: SUN1, lung cancer, proliferation

  16. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  17. An Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Highly Specific to the Wall of Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, C.; Vesey, G.; Slade, M.; Ferrari, B.; Veal, D. A.; Williams, K.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water is critically dependent on the quality of immunofluorescent reagents. Experiments were performed to develop a method for producing highly specific antibodies to Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be used for water testing. BALB/c mice were immunized with six different antigen preparations and monitored for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to the surface of Cryptosporidium oocysts. One group of mice received purified oocyst walls, a second group received a soluble protein preparation extracted from the outside of the oocyst wall, and the third group received whole inactivated oocysts. Three additional groups were immunized with sequentially prepared oocyst extracts to provide for a comparison of the immune response. Mice injected with the soluble protein extract demonstrated an IgG response to oocysts surface that was not seen in the whole-oocyst group. Mice injected with whole oocysts showed an IgM response only, while mice injected with purified oocyst walls showed little increase in IgM or IgG levels. Of the additional reported preparations only one, BME (2-mercaptoethanol treated), produced a weak IgM response to the oocyst wall. A mouse from the soluble oocyst extract group yielding a high IgG response was utilized to produce a highly specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (Cry104) specific to the oocyst surface. Comparative flow cytometric analysis indicated that Cry104 has a higher avidity and specificity to oocysts in water concentrates than other commercially available antibodies. PMID:10973448

  18. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  19. The g0/g1 switch gene 2 is an important regulator of hepatic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinfang; Zhang, Yahui; Qian, Hang; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Zhifeng; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Yang, Handong; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2) potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/Very-Low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  20. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donya, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, β-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures.El objetivo de la presente investigación fue encontrar extractos de alimentos vegetales y probióticos que puedan tener bioactividad hacía la inflamación crónica. Mezclas de tres extractos de alimentos vegetales conocidos por su riqueza en compuestos fenólicos, carotenoides y tocoferoles han sido preparadas. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de las diferentes mezclas y de bacterias probióticas (Bifidobacterium bifidum fue evaluada en artritis adyuvante en ratas. El efecto anti-inflamatorio, mecanismo de acción y salubridad de las tres mezclas y de Bifidobacterium bifidum ha sido estudiado mediante la medida del tamaño de la inflamación y la determinación de biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo, del perfil de bacterias del colón y de parámetros citogen

  1. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity in mice of recombinant BCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine for Echinococcus granulosus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiumin; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Peng, Shanshan; Ma, Haimei; Cao, Chunbao; Xin, Yan; Yimiti, Delixiati; Wen, Hao; Ding, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus which is distributed worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat with surgery removal is the only cure treatment. In the high endemic areas, vaccination of humans is believed a way to protect communities from the disease. In this study we vaccinated BALB/c mice with rBCG-EgG1Y162, and then detected the level of IgG and IgE specifically against the recombinant protein by ELISA, rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced strong and specific cellular and humoral immune responses. In vitro study showed that rBCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine not only promote splenocytes proliferation but also active T cell. In addition, the rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced a protection in the mice against secondary infection of Echinococcus granulosus.

  3. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shanshan [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Pediatrics, Baodi District People’s Hospital of Tianjin City, Tianjin, 301800 (China); Wang, Jiaxing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Pang, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Ai, Ding [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Zhu, Yi [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); He, Jinlong, E-mail: hejinlong@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr{sup −/−}) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. - Highlights: • EC-ABCG1-Tg mice in a Ldlr{sup −/−} background showed decreased atherosclerosis. • Overexpression of ABCG1 in ECs decreased OSS-induced EC activation. • NLRP3 and NF-κB might be an underlying mechanism of ABCG1 protective role.

  4. On the electronic structure of 5g1 complexes of element 125: a quasi - relativistic MS-Xα study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhyoun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF Xα calculations are reported for the hypothetical complexes E0 2 2+ , EF 6 (E = element 125) and the 5f 1 ion Np0 2 2 + . The calculations indicate that the E complexes have a 5g 1 outer electronic configuration with good agreement with previous predictions. The ligand field energy diagram for G 1 system in 0 h symmetry in discussed in relation to the obtained X α results

  5. Final COMPASS results on the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g1d and the Bjorken sum rule

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    C. Adolph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Final results are presented from the inclusive measurement of deep-inelastic polarised-muon scattering on longitudinally polarised deuterons using a 6LiD target. The data were taken at 160 GeV beam energy and the results are shown for the kinematic range 1(GeV/c24GeV/c2 in the mass of the hadronic final state. The deuteron double-spin asymmetry A1d and the deuteron longitudinal-spin structure function g1d are presented in bins of x and Q2. Towards lowest accessible values of x, g1d decreases and becomes consistent with zero within uncertainties. The presented final g1d values together with the recently published final g1p values of COMPASS are used to again evaluate the Bjorken sum rule and perform the QCD fit to the g1 world data at next-to-leading order of the strong coupling constant. In both cases, changes in central values of the resulting numbers are well within statistical uncertainties. The flavour-singlet axial charge a0, which is identified in the MS‾ renormalisation scheme with the total contribution of quark helicities to the nucleon spin, is extracted at next-to-leading order accuracy from only the COMPASS deuteron data: a0(Q2=3(GeV/c2=0.32±0.02stat±0.04syst±0.05evol. Together with the recent results on the proton spin structure function g1p, the results on g1d constitute the COMPASS legacy on the measurements of g1 through inclusive spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering.

  6. On the measurability of the structure function g1(x,Q2) in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1995-08-01

    The possibility is investigated to measure the polarized structure function g 1 (x, Q 2 ) in the collider mode of HERA operating with a polarized lepton and proton beam. The x dependence of g 1 can be measured at a statistical precision of ∝15% to 70% in the range 0.0005 2 > 2 at beam polarizations λ p ∝λ e =0.8 and L int =60 pb -1 . (orig.)

  7. Estimating the small-x exponent of the structure function g1NS from the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, Anke; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    We present a new estimate of the exponent governing the small-x behavior of the nonsinglet structure function g 1 p-n derived under the assumption that the Bjorken sum rule is valid. We use the world wide average of α s and the NNNLO QCD corrections to the Bjorken sum rule. The structure function g 1 NS is found to be clearly divergent for small x

  8. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Morillo-Huesca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The FACT complex participates in chromatin assembly and disassembly during transcription elongation. The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S transition. Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3 in START by specifically triggering the repression of its promoter. The G1 delay undergone by spt16 mutants is not mediated by the DNA-damage checkpoint, although the mutation of RAD53, which is otherwise involved in histone degradation, enhances the cell-cycle defects of spt16-197. We reveal how FACT dysfunction triggers an accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin. This accumulation is enhanced in a rad53 background and leads to a delay in G1. Consistently, we show that the overexpression of histones in wild-type cells down-regulates CLN3 in START and causes a delay in G1. Our work shows that chromatin reassembly factors are essential players in controlling the free histones potentially released from transcribed chromatin and describes a new cell cycle phenomenon that allows cells to respond to excess histones before starting DNA replication.

  9. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K R; Harnisch, L C; Alcon-Giner, C; Mitra, S; Wright, C J; Ketskemety, J; van Sinderen, D; Watson, A J M; Hall, L J

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, M; Maraninchi, M; Henry, M; Armougom, F; Richet, H; Carrieri, P; Valero, R; Raccah, D; Vialettes, B; Raoult, D

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is associated with increased health risk and has been associated with alterations in bacterial gut microbiota, with mainly a reduction in Bacteroidetes, but few data exist at the genus and species level. It has been reported that the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genus representatives may have a critical role in weight regulation as an anti-obesity effect in experimental models and humans, or as a growth-promoter effect in agriculture depending on the strains. To confirm reported gut alterations and test whether Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium species found in the human gut are associated with obesity or lean status, we analyzed the stools of 68 obese and 47 controls targeting Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Lactococcus lactis, Bifidobacterium animalis and seven species of Lactobacillus by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture on a Lactobacillus-selective medium. In qPCR, B. animalis (odds ratio (OR)=0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-1.01; P=0.056) and M. smithii (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.59-0.97; P=0.03) were associated with normal weight whereas Lactobacillus reuteri (OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.03-3.10; P=0.04) was associated with obesity. The gut microbiota associated with human obesity is depleted in M. smithii. Some Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus species were associated with normal weight (B. animalis) while others (L. reuteri) were associated with obesity. Therefore, gut microbiota composition at the species level is related to body weight and obesity, which might be of relevance for further studies and the management of obesity. These results must be considered cautiously because it is the first study to date that links specific species of Lactobacillus with obesity in humans.

  11. Identification of Bifidobacterium Strains Isolated from Kashk-e Zard: A Traditional Iranian Fermented Cereal-Dairy Based Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The genus Bifidobactrium enjoys considerable significance among the probiotic bacteria for having appropriately adapted to the human gastrointestinal tract. As the properties of Bifidobacteria are strain-oriented and niche-dependent, there is growing interest in studying the different sources of these probiotics. Kashk-e Zard, a traditional fermented food produced from wheat and yogurt through a two-week, two-step fermentation process, is rich in probiotics and is worthy of study in this regard. The present study aimed to identify Bifidobacterium spp. in Kashk-e Zard. Methods Twenty-three samples of Kashk-e Zard were collected and subjected to Bifidobacterium identification experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing methods were applied for bacterial identification. Results Twelve of the isolates obtained were G +, rod-shaped, and catalase-, whereas only three of them identified positive for fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK a Bifidobacterium specific test and mupirocin resistance. These three isolates were then considered for further identification using the 16SrDNA sequencing technique. Conclusions Although carbohydrate fermentation patterns specified these three isolates as B. infantis, B. bifidum, and B. longum, the molecular results did not confirm B. longum, which is still also controversial in the literature. Overall, our results demonstrated that Kashk-e Zard is a rich potential source of probiotic bacteria and further investigations should be undertaken.

  12. The extracellular proteome of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB‐12 reveals proteins with putative roles in probiotic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Svensson, Birte; Viborg, Alexander Holm

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert health‐promoting effects on the human host, as demonstrated for numerous strains of the genus Bifidobacterium. To unravel the proteins involved in the interactions between the host and the extensively used and well‐studied probiotic strain Bifidobacte......Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert health‐promoting effects on the human host, as demonstrated for numerous strains of the genus Bifidobacterium. To unravel the proteins involved in the interactions between the host and the extensively used and well‐studied probiotic strain...... Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB‐12, proteins secreted by the bacterium, i.e. belonging to the extracellular proteome present in the culture medium, were identified by 2‐DE coupled with MALDI‐TOF MS. Among the 74 distinct proteins identified, 31 are predicted to carry out their physiological role either...... functions include binding of plasminogen, formation of fimbriae, adhesion to collagen, attachment to mucin and intestinal cells as well as induction of immunomodulative response. These findings suggest a role of the proteins in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, adhesion to host tissues...

  13. Does the scientific evidence support the advertising claims made for products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Illanes, Lorena; González-Díaz, Cristina; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the scientific evidence that exists for the advertising claims made for two products containing Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis and to conduct a comparison between the published literature and what is presented in the corporate website. Systematic review, using Medline through Pubmed and Embase. We included human clinical trials that exclusively measured the effect of Lactobacillus casei or Bifidobacterium lactis on a healthy population, and where the objective was related to the health claims made for certain products in advertising. We assessed the levels of evidence and the strength of the recommendation according to the classification criteria established by the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM). We also assessed the outcomes of the studies published on the website that did not appear in the search. Of the 440 articles identified, 16 met the inclusion criteria. Only four (25%) of these presented a level of evidence of 1b and a recommendation grade of A, all corresponding to studies on product containing Bifidobacterium lactis, and only 12 of the 16 studies were published on the corporate website (47). There is insufficient scientific evidence to support the health claims made for these products, especially in the case of product containing Lactobacillus casei. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparative investigation of the various determinants that influence the codon and amino acid usage patterns in the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ayan; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasish; Sarkar, Indrani; Sen, Arnab

    2015-06-01

    Various strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are crucial members of the human, animal and insect gut, associated with beneficial probiotic activities. An extensive analysis on codon and amino acid usage of the GC rich genus Bifidobacterium has been executed in the present study. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed a coupled effect of GC compositional constraint and natural selection for translational efficiency to be operative in producing the observed codon usage variations. Gene expression level was inferred to be the most crucial factor governing the codon usage patterns. Amino acid usage was found to be influenced significantly by hydrophobic and aromatic character of the encoded proteins. Gene expressivity and protein energetic cost also had considerable impact on the differential mode of amino acid usage. The genus was found to strictly obey the cost-minimization hypothesis as was reflected from the amino acid usage patterns of the potential highly expressed gene products. Evolutionary analysis revealed that the highly expressed genes were candidates to extreme evolutionary selection pressure and indicated a high degree of conservation at the proteomic level. Interestingly, the complimentary strands of replication appeared to evolve under similar evolutionary constraints which might be addressed as a consequence of absence of replicational selection and lack of strand-specific asymmetry among the members of the genus. Thus, the present endeavor confers considerable know-how pertaining to the codon and amino acid usage intricacies in Bifidobacterium and might prove handy for further scientific investigations associated with the concerned domain.

  15. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Donya, S. M.; Abd El Khalek, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum) were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, {beta}-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory bio markers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures. (Author) 61 refs.

  16. Bifidobacterium breve C50 secretes lipoprotein with CHAP domain recognized in aggregated form by TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuotto, Angelo; Djorie, Serge; Colavizza, Michel; Romond, Pierre-Charles; Romond, Marie-Bénédicte

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular components secreted by Bifidobacterium breve C50 can induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of dendritic cells via a TLR2 pathway. In this study, the components were isolated from the supernatant by gel filtration chromatography. Antibodies raised against the major compounds with molecular weight above 600 kDa (Bb C50BC) also recognized compounds of lower molecular weight (200–600 kDa). TLR2 and TLR6 bound to the components already recognized by the antibodies. Trypsin digestion of Bb C50BC released three major peptides whose sequences displayed close similarities to a putative secreted protein with a CHAP amidase domain from B. breve. The 1300-bp genomic region corresponding to the hypothetical protein was amplified by PCR. The deduced polypeptide started with an N-terminal signal sequence of 45 amino acids, containing the lipobox motif (LAAC) with the cysteine in position 25, and 2 positively charged residues within the first 14 residues of the signal sequence. Lipid detection in Bb C50BC by GC/MS further supported the implication of a lipoprotein. Sugars were also detected in Bb C50BC. Close similarity with the glucan-binding protein B from Bifidobacterium animalis of two released peptides from Bb C50BC protein suggested that glucose moieties, possibly in glucan form, could be bound to the lipoprotein. Finally, heating at 100 °C for 5 min led to the breakdown of Bb C50BC in compounds of molecular weight below 67 kDa, which suggested that Bb C50BC was an aggregate. One might assume that a basic unit was formed by the lipoprotein bound putatively to glucan. Besides the other sugars and hexosamines recognized by galectin 1 were localized at the surface of the Bb C50BC aggregate. In conclusion, the extracellular components secreted by B. breve C50 were constituted of a lipoprotein putatively associated with glucose moieties and acting in an aggregating form as an agonist of TLR2/TLR6.

  17. Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gréen Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations. Results We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.

  18. The spin-dependent structure function $g_1(x)$ of the proton from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the virtual photon proton asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ from deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized protons in the kinematic range $0.0008 1$ GeV$^{2}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to determine $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ at a constant $Q^2$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$ we find, in the measured range, $\\int_{0.003}^{0.7} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x = 0.139 \\pm 0.006~({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.008~({\\rm syst)} \\pm 0.006~({\\rm evol})$. The value of the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x$ of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ depends on the approach used to describe the behaviour of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ at low $x$. We find that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated. With our published result for $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d}$ we confirm the Bjorken sum rule with an accuracy of $\\approx 15\\%$ at the one standard deviation level.

  19. The spin structure function g1p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New results for the double spin asymmetry A1p and the proton longitudinal spin structure function g1p are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH3 target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160 GeV, in particular at lower values of x. They improve the statistical precision of g1p(x by about a factor of two in the region x≲0.02. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the g1 world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔΣ, ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of g1p. The uncertainty of ΔΣ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function g1NS(x,Q2 yields as ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants |gA/gV|=1.22±0.05 (stat.±0.10 (syst., which validates the sum rule to an accuracy of about 9%.

  20. The Spin Structure Function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ of the Proton and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-02-10

    New results for the double spin asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ and the proton longitudinal spin structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH$_3$ target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160\\,GeV, in particular at lower values of $x$. They improve the statistical precision of $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ by about a factor of two in the region $x\\lesssim 0.02$. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the $g_1$ world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, $\\Delta \\Sigma$ ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of $g_1^{\\rm p}$. The uncertainty of $\\Delta \\Sigma$ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function $g_1^{\\rm...

  1. Radiosensitization of NSCLC cells by EGFR inhibition is the result of an enhanced p53-dependent G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegs, Malte; Gurtner, Kristin; Can, Yildiz; Brammer, Ingo; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Oertel, Reinhard; Wysocki, Marek; Dorniok, Franziska; Gal, Andreas; Grob, Tobias J.; Laban, Simon; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Petersen, Cordula; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: How EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibition induces cellular radiosensitization and with that increase in tumor control is still a matter of discussion. Since EGFR predominantly regulates cell cycle and proliferation, we studied whether a G1-arrest caused by EGFR inhibition may contribute to these effects. Materials and methods: We analyzed human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines either wild type (wt) or mutated in p53 (A549, H460, vs. H1299, H3122) and HCT116 cells (p21 wt and negative). EGFR was inhibited by BIBX1382BS, erlotinib or cetuximab; p21 was knocked down by siRNA. Functional endpoints analyzed were cell signaling, proliferation, G1-arrest, cell survival as well as tumor control using an A549 tumor model. Results: When combined with IR, EGFR inhibition enhances the radiation-induced permanent G1 arrest, though solely in cells with intact p53/p21 signaling. This increase in G1-arrest was always associated with enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. Strikingly, this effect was abrogated when cells were re-stimulated, suggesting the initiation of dormancy. In line with this, only a small non-significant increase in tumor control was observed for A549 tumors treated with fractionated RT and EGFR inhibition. Conclusion: For NSCLC cells increase in radiosensitivity by EGFR inhibition results from enhanced G1-arrest. However, this effect does not lead to improved tumor control because cells can be released from this arrest by re-stimulation

  2. Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.

  3. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and of the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, Y.; Bosted, P.; Kvaltine, N.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pierce, J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at laboratory angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual deep inelastic region kinematics, Q2>1 GeV2 and the final-state invariant mass W >2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  4. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Kvaltine, Nicholas; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moskov; Anderson, Mark; Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Biselli, Angela; Bono, Jason; Briscoe, William; Brock, Joseph; Brooks, William; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Carlin, Christopher; Carman, Daniel; Celentano, Andrea; Chandavar, Shloka; Colaneri, Luca; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Cortes, Olga; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; El Alaoui, Ahmed; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Fersch, Robert; Fleming, Jamie; Forest, Tony; Garcon, Michel; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Ghandilyan, Yeranuhi; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Girod-Gard, Francois-Xavier; Giovanetti, Kevin; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guegan, Baptiste; Guler, Nevzat; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hanretty, Charles; Harrison, Nathan; Hattawy, Mohammad; Hicks, Kenneth; Ho, Dao; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Keller, Daniel; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Koirala, Suman; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lenisa, Paolo; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; Mayer, Michael; McKinnon, Bryan; Meekins, David; Mineeva, Taisiya; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Montgomery, Rachel; MOUTARDE, Herve; Movsisyan, Aram; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Pappalardo, Luciano; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, K; Peng, Peng; Phillips, J J; Pierce, Joshua; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdniakov, Serguei; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Raue, Brian; Rimal, Dipak; Ripani, Marco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Roy, Priyashree; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Sharabian, Youri; Simonyan, Ani; Smith, Claude; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Sytnik, Valeriy; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vernarsky, Brian; Vlasov, Alexander; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Walford, Natalie; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Zonta, Irene

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at lab angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual DIS kinematics, Q^2>1 GeV^2 and the final-state invariant mass W>2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q^2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative QCD, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  5. Association of pKi-67 with satellite DNA of the human genome in early G1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, J M; Kill, I R; Lichter, P

    1998-01-01

    pKi-67 is a nucleolar antigen that provides a specific marker for proliferating cells. It has been shown previously that pKi-67's distribution varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner: it coats all chromosomes during mitosis, accumulates in nuclear foci during G1 phase (type I distribution) and localizes within nucleoli in late G1 S and G2 phase (type II distribution). Although no function has as yet been ascribed to pKi-67, it has been found associated with centromeres in G1. In the present study the distribution pattern of pKi-67 during G1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was analysed in more detail. Synchronization experiments show that in very early G1 cells pKi-67 coincides with virtually all satellite regions analysed, i.e. with centromeric (alpha-satellite), telomeric (minisatellite) and heterochromatic blocks (satellite III) on chromosomes 1 and Y (type Ia distribution). In contrast, later in the G1 phase, a smaller fraction of satellite DNA regions are found collocalized with pKi-67 foci (type Ib distribution). When all pKi-67 becomes localized within nucleoli, even fewer satellite regions remain associated with the pKi-67 staining. However, all centromeric and short arm regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, which are in very close proximity to or even contain the rRNA genes, are collocalized with anti-pKi-67 staining throughout the remaining interphase of the cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrate that during post-mitotic reformation and nucleogenesis there is a progressive decline in the fraction of specific satellite regions of DNA that remain associated with pKi-67. This may be relevant to nucleolar reformation following mitosis.

  6. Improvement of vascular function by acute and chronic treatment with the GPR30 agonist G1 in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-lin Li

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane domain receptor that mediates rapid estrogen responses in a wide variety of cell types. This receptor is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system, and exerts vasodilatory effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of GPR30 on vascular responsiveness in diabetic ovariectomized (OVX rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. The roles of GPR30 were evaluated in the thoracic aorta and cultured endothelial cells. The GPR30 agonist G1 induced a dose-dependent vasodilation in the thoracic aorta of the diabetic OVX rats, which was partially attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME and the GPR30-selective antagonist G15. Dose-dependent vasoconstrictive responses to phenylephrine were attenuated significantly in the rings of the thoracic aorta following the acute G1 administration in the diabetic OVX rats. This effect of G1 was abolished partially by L-NAME and G15. The acute administration of G1 increased significantly the eNOS activity and the concentration of NO in the endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. G1 treatment induced an enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (Ach in the diabetic OVX rats. Further examination revealed that G1 induced vasodilation in the diabetic OVX rats by increasing the phosphorylation of eNOS. These findings provide preliminary evidence that GPR30 activation leads to eNOS activation, as well as vasodilation, to a certain degree and has beneficial effects on vascular function in diabetic OVX rats.

  7. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  8. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core; Recuperation de l'energie degagee dans G 1 pile a graphite refroidie a l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambadal, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascal, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [French] Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)

  9. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Low x Double ln2(1/x) Resummation Effects at the Sum Rules for Nucleon Structure Function g1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have estimated the contributions to the moments of polarized nucleon structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) coming from the region of the very low x (10 -5 2 (1/x) resummation. The Q 2 evolution of g 1 was described by the unified evolution equations incorporating both the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderate x, and the double ln 2 (1/x) resummation at small x. The moments were obtained by integrating out the extrapolated nucleon structure function in the region 10 -5 < x<1. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Palm PCRTM G1-12 System: a portable battery-operated PCR thermal cycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the basis of recombinant and other molecular biological techniques. Availability of cheap and robust PCR platforms enables the tests to be performed easily, even in resource constrained settings. Herein we compared the efficacy of a portable thermal cycler ( Palm PCRTM G1-12 System for rapid DNA amplification against the standard Peltier-based thermal cycler using plasmid DNA and genomic DNA in single and multiplex PCR experiments. Our study revealed that the Palm PCRTM G1-12 System could be a portable DNA amplification system to conduct various molecular techniques, especially in places where resources are limited.

  12. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  13. Immunomodulatory and antitumor effects in vivo by the cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Gul; Kim, Eun Hee; Kang, Hae Eun; Yim, In Been; Kim, Ji Yeon; Joo, Hong-Gu; Woo, Hee Jong

    2004-03-01

    The immunomodulatory and antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) were investigated. Cytoplasmic fraction of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum were tested for the antiproliferative activity in vitro to SNUC2A, SNU1, NIH/3T3 and Jurkat cell lines by crystal violet assay. All cytoplasmic fraction suppressed proliferation of tumor cells, though L. casei and B. longum were more effective. From these results, cytoplasmic fraction of L. casei and B. longum with Y400 as a control were administered as dietary supplements to Balb/c mice for 2, and 4 consecutive wks. Administration for 4 wks enhanced the number of total T cells, NK cells and MHC class II+ cells, and CD4-CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry analysis. To determine of antitumor activity of LABs preparation in vivo, F9 teratocarcinoma cells were inoculated on mice at 14th day. Body weight was decreased with increased survival rate in all groups with the cytoplasm of LABs. Our results showed that cytoplasmic fraction of LABs had direct antiproliferative effects on tumor cell lines in vitro, effects on immune cells in vivo, and antitumor effects on tumor-bearing mice with prolonged survival periods.

  14. Comparative study of Bifidobacterium animalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Flaviano S; Silva, Aparecida A; Vieira, Angélica T; Barbosa, Flávio H F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Teixeira, Mauro M; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2009-08-01

    The present work investigates some probiotic properties of four different microorganisms (Bifidobacterium animalis var. lactis BB-12, Escherichia coli EMO, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces boulardii). In vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to compare cell wall hydrophobicity, production of antagonistic substances, survival capacity in the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice without pathological consequence, and immune modulation by stimulation of Küpffer cells, intestinal sIgA and IL-10 levels. In vitro antagonism against pathogenic bacteria and yeast was only observed for the probiotic bacteria B. animalis and L. casei. The hydrophobic property of the cell wall was higher for B. animalis and E. coli EMO, and this property could be responsible for a better ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of germ-free mice. Higher levels of sIgA were observed mainly for S. boulardii, followed by E. coli EMO and B. animalis, and only S. boulardii induced a significant higher level of IL-10. In conclusion, for a probiotic use, S. boulardii presented better characteristics in terms of immunomodulation, and B. animalis and L. casei for antagonistic substance production. The knowledge of the different probiotic properties could be used to choice the better microorganism depending on the therapeutic or prophylactic application.

  15. Fermentation of protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides (PD) with probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joanne Sh; Yeo, Chia-Rou; Popovich, David G

    2017-07-01

    Ginsenosides are believed to be the principal components behind the pharmacological actions of ginseng, and their bioactive properties are closely related to the type, position, and number of sugar moieties attached to the aglycone; thus, modification of the sugar chains may markedly change their biological activities. In this study, major protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides (PD) Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 were isolated from Panax ginseng and were transformed using two probiotic strains namely Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 to obtain specific deglycosylated ginsenosides. It was demonstrated that B. lactis transformed ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 to Rd within 1 h of fermentation and rare ginsenoside F2 by the conversion of Rd after 12-h fermentation. The maximum Rd concentration was 147.52 ± 1.45 μg/mL after 48-h fermentation as compared to 45.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL before fermentation. In contrast, L. rhamnosus transformed Rb1, Rc, and Rb2 into Rd as the final metabolite after 72-h fermentation. B. lactis displayed significantly (p fermentation. The present study suggests that the fermentation of major PD type ginsenosides with B. lactis Bi-07 may serve as an effective means to afford bioactive deglycosylated ginsenosides and to create novel ginsenoside extracts.

  16. Extracellular vesicle-derived protein from Bifidobacterium longum alleviates food allergy through mast cell suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Jang, Min Seong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Moon, Sook Jin; Yun, Chang Ho; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Seoh, Ju-Young; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Oh, Sung-Jong; Ham, Jun-Sang; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of food allergies has increased dramatically during the last decade. Recently, probiotics have been studied for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. We examined whether Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 and Enterococcus faecalis KACC 91532 have the capacity to suppress food allergies. B longum KACC 91563 and E faecalis KACC 91532 were administered to BALB/c wild-type mice, in which food allergy was induced by using ovalbumin and alum. Food allergy symptoms and various immune responses were assessed. B longum KACC 91563, but not E faecalis KACC 91532, alleviated food allergy symptoms. Extracellular vesicles of B longum KACC 91563 bound specifically to mast cells and induced apoptosis without affecting T-cell immune responses. Furthermore, injection of family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein, a main component of extracellular vesicles, into mice markedly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea in a mouse food allergy model. B longum KACC 91563 induces apoptosis of mast cells specifically and alleviates food allergy symptoms. Accordingly, B longum KACC 91563 and family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein exhibit potential as therapeutic approaches for food allergies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. Lactis (B. lactis) Strain BB-12-Supplemented Yogurt in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary E; D'Amico, Frank J; Roberts, Robert F; Smith, Keisha H; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Sixty children ages 1 to 5 years were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12-supplemented yogurt or nonsupplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 186 nonserious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12 groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. The present study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in different disease states.

  18. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Gyu Jeon

    Full Text Available Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+ regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+ dendritic cells (DCs mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+ DCs from Il10(-/-, Tlr2(-/-, and Myd88(-/- mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+ DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/- T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/- mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+ DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  19. Development of oral cancer vaccine using recombinant Bifidobacterium displaying Wilms' tumor 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Oda, Tsugumi; Saito, Hiroki; Araki, Ayame; Gonoi, Reina; Shigemura, Katsumi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Katayama, Takane; Fujisawa, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    Several types of vaccine-delivering tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed in basic and clinical research. Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1), identified as a gene responsible for pediatric renal neoplasm, is one of the most promising TAA for cancer immunotherapy. Peptide and dendritic cell-based WT1 cancer vaccines showed some therapeutic efficacy in clinical and pre-clinical studies but as yet no oral WT1 vaccine can be administrated in a simple and easy way. In the present study, we constructed a novel oral cancer vaccine using a recombinant Bifidobacterium longum displaying WT1 protein. B. longum 420 was orally administered into mice inoculated with WT1-expressing tumor cells for 4 weeks to examine anti-tumor effects. To analyze the WT1-specific cellular immune responses to oral B. longum 420, mice splenocytes were isolated and cytokine production and cytotoxic activities were determined. Oral administrations of B. longum 420 significantly inhibited WT1-expressing tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. Immunohistochemical study and immunological assays revealed that B. longum 420 substantially induced tumor infiltration of CD4 + T and CD8 + T cells, systemic WT1-specific cytokine production, and cytotoxic activity mediated by WT1-epitope specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, with no apparent adverse effects. Our novel oral cancer vaccine safely induced WT1-specific cellular immunity via activation of the gut mucosal immune system and achieved therapeutic efficacy with several practical advantages over existing non-oral vaccines.

  20. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836

  1. Characterization of ATPase activity of the AAA ARC from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Mabel; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Santos, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be probiotics that exist in the large intestine and are helpful to maintain human health. Oral administration of bifidobacteria may be effective in improving the intestinal flora and environment, stimulating the immune response and possibly preventing cancer. However, for consistent and positive results, further well-controlled studies are urgently needed to describe the basic mechanisms of this microorganism. Analysis of the proteasome-lacking Bifidobacterium longum genome reveals that it possesses a gene, IPR003593 AAA ATPase core, which codes a 56 kDa protein containing one AAA ATPase domain. Phylogenetic classification made by CLANS, positioned this sequence into the ARC divergent branch of the AAA ATPase family of proteins. N-terminal analysis of the sequence indicates this protein is closely related to other ATPases such as the Rhodococcus erythropolis ARC, Archaeoglobus fulgidus PAN, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mpa and the human proteasomal Rpt1 subunit. This gene was cloned, the full-length recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a high-molecular size complex and named Bl-ARC. Enzymatic characterization showed that Bl-ARC ATPase is active, Mg(+2)-dependent and sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Gene organization positions bl-arc in a region flanked by a cluster of genes that includes pup, dop and pafA genes. These findings point to a possible function as a chaperone in the degradation pathway via pupylation.

  2. Influence of microencapsulation and spray drying on the viability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition.

  3. Review on Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4: Functionality and Nutraceutical Applications as a Probiotic Microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seockmo Ku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 is a probiotic strain that has been used as a major ingredient to produce nutraceutical products and as a dairy starter since 2000. The various bio-functional effects and potential for industrial application of B. bifidum BGN4 has been characterized and proven by in vitro (i.e., phytochemical bio-catalysis, cell adhesion and anti-carcinogenic effects on cell lines, and immunomodulatory effects on immune cells, in vivo (i.e., suppressed allergic responses in mouse model and anti-inflammatory bowel disease, and clinical studies (eczema in infants and adults with irritable bowel syndrome. Recently, the investigation of the genome sequencing was finished and this data potentially clarifies the biochemical characteristics of B. bifidum BGN4 that possibly illustrate its nutraceutical functionality. However, further systematic research should be continued to gain insight for academic and industrial applications so that the use of B. bifidum BGN4 could be expanded to result in greater benefit. This review deals with multiple studies on B. bifidum BGN4 to offer a greater understanding as a probiotic microorganism available in functional food ingredients. In particular, this work considers the potential for commercial application, physiological characterization and exploitation of B. bifidum BGN4 as a whole.

  4. The probiotic Bifidobacterium breve B632 inhibited the growth of Enterobacteriaceae within colicky infant microbiota cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Marta; Gozzoli, Caterina; Quartieri, Andrea; Mazzola, Giuseppe; Di Gioia, Diana; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Rossi, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    Infant colic is a common gastrointestinal disorder of newborns, mostly related to imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota and particularly to the presence of gas-producing coliforms and to lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Probiotics could help to contain this disturbance, with formulations consisting of Lactobacillus strains being the most utilized. In this work, the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve B632 that was specifically selected for its ability to inhibit gas-producing coliforms, was challenged against the Enterobacteriaceae within continuous cultures of microbiota from a 2-month-old colicky infant. As confirmed by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, B. breve B632 persisted in probiotic-supplemented microbiota cultures, accounting for the 64% of Bifidobacteria at the steady state. The probiotic succeeded in inhibiting coliforms, since FISH and qPCR revealed that the amount of Enterobacteriaceae after 18 h of cultivation was 0.42 and 0.44 magnitude orders lower (P breve B632 to a cohort of colicky newborns, in order to observe the behavior of this strain in vivo and to validate its effect in colic treatment.

  5. Biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin using recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Xie, Tao; Li, Gu-Cai; Tuo, Yi; Xiang, Yu-Ting

    2015-06-01

    To biotransform rutin into isoquercitrin. A α-L-rhamnosidase from Bifidobacterium breve was produced by using Escherichia coli BL21 for biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin. The enzyme was purified by Ni(2+)-NTA chromatography to yield a soluble protein with a specific activity of 56 U protein mg(-1). The maximum enzyme activities were at pH 6.5, 55 °C, 20 mM rutin, and 1.2 U enzyme ml(-1). Under optimal conditions, the half-life of the enzyme was 96 h. The K m and V max values were 2.2 mM, 56.4 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 2.1 mM, 57.5 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) using pNP-Rha and rutin as substrates, respectively. The kinetic behavior indicated that the recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase has good catalytic performance for producing isoquercitrin. 20 mM rutin was biotransformed into 18.25 and 19.87 mM isoquercitrin after 60 and 240 min. The specific biotransformation of rutin to isoquercitrin using recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase from B. breve is a feasible method for use in industrial processes.

  6. Bacteremia induced by Bifidobacterium breve in a newborn with cloacal exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinichi; Uchida, Toshihiko; Kuwana, Shota; Sasaki, Kazuto; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Saito, Junko; Kawaji, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an effective probiotic agent used in the field of neonatology. Although B. breve has been considered safe, a case of B. breve bacteremia has been reported. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the bacteremia is unknown. Herein, we report a second case of B. breve bacteremia that developed in a neonate with multiple abdominal organ anomalies. Following surgical repair immediately after birth, B. breve treatment was started. After 1 week, the infant developed B. breve bacteremia following the onset of adhesive ileus. The bacteremia was thought to have been associated with an intestinal obstruction. A pediatric culture bottle is theoretically unsuitable for incubating B. breve because B. breve is an obligate anaerobic bacterium. It was, however, cultured from pediatric culture bottles in the present case, suggesting that pediatric culture bottles may be useful for procuring B. breve and for determining antimicrobial susceptibility for screening purposes in neonatal patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

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    Jian-jun Ren

    Full Text Available Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect.The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve were examined.Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD or cesarean delivery (CD for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T(Treg cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated.Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes.CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells.

  8. Metabolism of a plant derived galactose‐containing polysaccharide by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Summary In this study, we describe the functional characterization of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 gal locus, which is dedicated to the utilization of galactan, a plant‐derived polysaccharide. Using a combination of molecular approaches we conclude that the galA gene of B. breve UCC2003 encodes a β‐1,4‐endogalactanase producing galacto‐oligosaccharides, which are specifically internalized by an ABC transport system, encoded by galBCDE, and which are then hydrolysed to galactose moieties by a dedicated intracellular β‐galactosidase, specified by galG. The generated galactose molecules are presumed to be fed into the fructose‐6‐phosphate phosphoketolase pathway via the Leloir pathway, thereby allowing B. breve UCC2003 to use galactan as its sole carbon and energy source. In addition to these findings we demonstrate that GalR is a LacI‐type DNA‐binding protein, which not only appears to control transcription of the galCDEGR operon, but also that of the galA gene. PMID:21375716

  9. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Murata, M; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to have a preventative effect on skin photoaging induced by short term UV irradiation, however, the underlying mechanisms and the effect of probiotics on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 on skin photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation in hairless mice. Mice were irradiated with UVB three times weekly and orally administered B. breve B-3 (2×10(9) cfu/mouse /day) for 7 weeks. Nonirradiated mice and UVB-irradiated mice without probiotic treatment were used as controls. B. breve B-3 significantly suppressed the changes of transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, epidermal thickening and attenuated the damage to the tight junction structure and basement membrane induced by chronic UVB irradiation. Administration of B. breve B-3 tended to suppress the UV-induced interleukin-1β production in skin (P=0.09). These results suggest that B. breve B-3 could potentially be used to prevent photoaging induced by chronic UV irradiation.

  10. Administration of Bifidobacterium breve Decreases the Production of TNF-α in Children with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenak, Martina; Dolinšek, Jernej; Langerholc, Tomaž; Di Gioia, Diana; Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that not only genetics, but also environmental factors like gut microbiota dysbiosis play an important role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CD). The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B. breve B632 on serum production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in children with CD. The study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that included 49 children with CD on gluten-free diet (GFD) randomized into two groups and 18 healthy children in the control group. The first group (24 children with CD) daily received B. breve BR03 and B632 (2 × 10(9) colony-forming units) and the second group (25 children with CD) received placebo for 3 months. TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the first group after receiving B. breve for 3 months. On follow-up, 3 months after receiving probiotics, TNF-α levels increased again. Children with CD who were on GFD for less than 1 year showed similar baseline TNF-α levels as children who were on GFD for more than 1 year. IL-10 levels were in all groups of patients below detection level. Probiotic intervention with B. breve strains has shown a positive effect on decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in children with CD on GFD.

  11. A GntR-type transcriptional repressor controls sialic acid utilization in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Muireann; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-02-01

    Bifidobacterium breve strains are numerically prevalent among the gut microbiota of healthy, breast-fed infants. The metabolism of sialic acid, a ubiquitous monosaccharide in the infant and adult gut, by B. breve UCC2003 is dependent on a large gene cluster, designated the nan/nag cluster. This study describes the transcriptional regulation of the nan/nag cluster and thus sialic acid metabolism in B. breve UCC2003. Insertion mutagenesis and transcriptome analysis revealed that the nan/nag cluster is regulated by a GntR family transcriptional repressor, designated NanR. Crude cell extract of Escherichia coli EC101 in which the nanR gene had been cloned and overexpressed was shown to bind to two promoter regions within this cluster, each of which containing an imperfect inverted repeat that is believed to act as the NanR operator sequence. Formation of the DNA-NanR complex is prevented in the presence of sialic acid, which we had previously shown to induce transcription of this gene cluster. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria Del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  13. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  14. A two-component regulatory system controls autoregulated serpin expression in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-10-01

    This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of a two-component regulatory system (2CRS), encoded by serRK, which is believed to control the expression of the ser(2003) locus in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The ser(2003) locus consists of two genes, Bbr_1319 (sagA) and Bbr_1320 (serU), which are predicted to encode a hypothetical membrane-associated protein and a serpin-like protein, respectively. The response regulator SerR was shown to bind to the promoter region of ser(2003), and the probable recognition sequence of SerR was determined by a combinatorial approach of in vitro site-directed mutagenesis coupled to transcriptional fusion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). The importance of the serRK 2CRS in the response of B. breve to protease-mediated induction was confirmed by generating a B. breve serR insertion mutant, which was shown to exhibit altered ser(2003) transcriptional induction patterns compared to the parent strain, UCC2003. Interestingly, the analysis of a B. breve serU mutant revealed that the SerRK signaling pathway appears to include a SerU-dependent autoregulatory loop.

  15. Metabolism of a plant derived galactose-containing polysaccharide by Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we describe the functional characterization of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 gal locus, which is dedicated to the utilization of galactan, a plant-derived polysaccharide. Using a combination of molecular approaches we conclude that the galA gene of B. breve UCC2003 encodes a β-1,4-endogalactanase producing galacto-oligosaccharides, which are specifically internalized by an ABC transport system, encoded by galBCDE, and which are then hydrolysed to galactose moieties by a dedicated intracellular β-galactosidase, specified by galG. The generated galactose molecules are presumed to be fed into the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase pathway via the Leloir pathway, thereby allowing B. breve UCC2003 to use galactan as its sole carbon and energy source. In addition to these findings we demonstrate that GalR is a LacI-type DNA-binding protein, which not only appears to control transcription of the galCDEGR operon, but also that of the galA gene. © 2010 University College Cork. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Bifidobacterium breve alters immune function and ameliorates DSS-induced inflammation in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hirohisa; Minegishi, Mario; Sato, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi; Sekine, Kazunori; Takase, Mitsunori

    2015-10-01

    Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (M16V) is a probiotic bacterial strain with a long tradition of use in neonatal intensive care units in some countries. Previous study showed that the effects of M16V administration on gene expression were greater during the weaning period than in the neonatal period and were greater in the colon than in the small intestine and spleen, suggesting that M16V has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inflammation during the weaning period and the effects of M16V on normal and inflammatory conditions. From postnatal day (PD) 21 to 34, weanling rats were administered of 2.5 × 10(9) of M16V daily, and colitis was induced by administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium from PD28 to 35. Colitis severity, immune function, and microbiota were investigated. Colitis caused a reduction in body weight gain, colon shortening, poor nutritional status, anemia, changes in blood and spleen lymphocyte populations, spleen T-cell malfunctions, and alterations in colon microbiota. M16V administration improved some but not all of the changes induced by colitis. M16V could suppress inflammation and, therefore, can be considered a safe strain to use not only during the neonatal period but also the weaning period.

  17. Sensory characteristics and volatile composition of a cereal beverage fermented with Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702257.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, Ivan; Rozada, Raquel; Thomas, Keith; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Pandiella, Severino S

    2014-04-01

    Most of the commercialized lactic acid fermented products are dairy-based. Hence, the development of non-dairy fermented products with probiotic properties draws significant attention within the functional foods industry. The microorganisms used in such products have complex enzyme systems through which they generate diverse metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) that provide significant flavour attributes of importance for fermented foods. The correlation of the volatile flavour compounds of a malt beverage fermented with a Bifidobacterium breve strain with its unique sensory characteristics was performed. The volatile composition analysis exposed the presence of 12 components. Eight of these flavour volatiles were produced through the metabolic activity of the bifidobacteria strain. Notably acetic acid, of reported sour flavour characteristics, exhibited the greatest intensity. Four components of considerable organoleptic characteristics were identified as Maillard-derived products, namely maltol, pyranone, 2 (5H)-furanmethanol and 3-furanmethanol. The sensory evaluation exhibited that the fermented cereal beverage had a sour flavour with mild sweet and malty notes. These results indicate that the volatile compounds identified can be appointed as significant flavour markers of the novel fermented cereal beverage.

  18. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati

    2017-01-01

    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  19. Therapeutic potential of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 for preventing cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yodai; Sugahara, Hirosuke; Shimada, Kousuke; Mitsuyama, Eri; Kuhara, Tetsuya; Yasuoka, Akihito; Kondo, Takashi; Abe, Keiko; Xiao, Jin-Zhong

    2017-10-18

    It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice. We found that administration of B. breve A1 to AD mice reversed the impairment of alternation behavior in a Y maze test and the reduced latency time in a passive avoidance test, indicating that it prevented cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that non-viable components of the bacterium or its metabolite acetate partially ameliorated the cognitive decline observed in AD mice. Gene profiling analysis revealed that the consumption of B. breve A1 suppressed the hippocampal expressions of inflammation and immune-reactive genes that are induced by amyloid-β. Together, these findings suggest that B. breve A1 has therapeutic potential for preventing cognitive impairment in AD.

  20. The Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve B632 Inhibited the Growth of Enterobacteriaceae within Colicky Infant Microbiota Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Simone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant colic is a common gastrointestinal disorder of newborns, mostly related to imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota and particularly to the presence of gas-producing coliforms and to lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Probiotics could help to contain this disturbance, with formulations consisting of Lactobacillus strains being the most utilized. In this work, the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve B632 that was specifically selected for its ability to inhibit gas-producing coliforms, was challenged against the Enterobacteriaceae within continuous cultures of microbiota from a 2-month-old colicky infant. As confirmed by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, B. breve B632 persisted in probiotic-supplemented microbiota cultures, accounting for the 64% of Bifidobacteria at the steady state. The probiotic succeeded in inhibiting coliforms, since FISH and qPCR revealed that the amount of Enterobacteriaceae after 18 h of cultivation was 0.42 and 0.44 magnitude orders lower (P<0.05 in probiotic-supplemented microbiota cultures than in the control ones. These results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the administration of B. breve B632 to a cohort of colicky newborns, in order to observe the behavior of this strain in vivo and to validate its effect in colic treatment.

  1. Bifidobacterium breve prevents necrotising enterocolitis by suppressing inflammatory responses in a preterm rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T; Izumi, H; Iwabuchi, N; Odamaki, T; Namba, K; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z

    2016-02-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with inflammatory responses and barrier dysfunction in the gut. In this study, we investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on factors related to NEC development using an experimental rat model. Caesarean-sectioned rats were given formula milk with or without B. breve M-16V by oral gavage thrice daily, and experimental NEC was induced by exposing the rats to hypoxic conditions. Naturally delivered rats that were reared by their mother were used as healthy controls. The pathological score of NEC and the expression of molecules related to inflammatory responses and the barrier function were assessed in the ileum. B. breve M-16V reduced the pathological scores of NEC and resulted in some improvement in survivability. B. breve M-16V suppressed the increased expression of molecules related to inflammation and barrier function that resulted from NEC induction. B. breve M-16V normalised Toll-like receptor (TRL)4 expression and enhanced TLR2 expression. Our data suggest that B. breve M-16V prevents NEC development by modulating TLR expressions and suppressing inflammatory responses in a rat model.

  2. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E; Barrett, E; Grenham, S; Fitzgerald, P; Stanton, C; Ross, R P; Quigley, E M M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2011-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is of interest because of its putative role in stress and psychiatric disorders. Maternal separation is used as an animal model of early-life stress and of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals exposed to the paradigm show altered gut function together with heightened levels of arousal and corticosterone. Some probiotic organisms have been shown to be of benefit in IBS and influence the brain-gut axis. Our objective was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on BDNF under basal conditions and in response to the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve 6330. The study implemented the maternal separation model which we have previously described. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation were performed to measure the effect of maternal separation on both BDNF total variants and BDNF splice variant (exon) IV in the hippocampus. Maternally separated and non-separated rats were treated with B. breve 6330, to investigate the effect of this probiotic on BDNF total variant and BDNF exon IV expression. Maternal separation increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 did not alter BDNF levels in the maternally separated rats. Maternal separation caused a marked increase in BDNF in the hippocampus. While B. breve 6330 influenced BDNF in normal animals, it had no significant effect on BDNF in those which were maternally separated. We have demonstrated that an orally administered probiotic can influence hippocampal BDNF.

  3. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-jun; Yu, Zhao; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lv, Dan; Hung, Shi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Liu, Shi-Xi; Zhang, Nan; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect. The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve) were examined. Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA) to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T(Treg) cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated. Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes. CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells.

  4. The effects of Bifidobacterium breve on immune mediators and proteome of HT29 cells monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Borja; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Arboleya, Silvia; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium.

  5. Digestion of Human Milk Oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium breve in the Premature Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A; Davis, Jasmine C C; Kalanetra, Karen M; Gehlot, Sanjay; Patole, Sanjay; Tancredi, Daniel J; Mills, David A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Simmer, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure consumption and absorption of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a cohort of premature infants treated with probiotic Bifidobacterium breve. Twenty-nine premature infants (median gestational age 28 weeks, range 23-32 weeks) cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of the King Edward and Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Australia, were treated with B breve at a dose of 1.66 billion organisms per day. Samples of feces, urine, and milk were obtained at initiation of the probiotic and again 3 weeks later. 16S ribosomal RNA from the feces was analyzed by next-generation sequencing. Quantitation of HMO content of the milk, urine, and feces was performed using nano-high-performance liquid chromatography-chip/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. There was heterogeneity in colonization with bifidobacteria. "Responders" received milk with higher percentages of fucosylated HMOs and had higher percentages of bifidobacteria and lower percentages of Enterobacteriaceae in their feces than "nonresponders." Several individual HMOs in the milk were associated with changes in fecal bifidobacteria over time. Changes over time in milk, fecal, and urine HMOs suggested heterogeneity among HMO structures in consumption by microbes in the gut lumen and absorption from the intestine. Colonization of the premature infant intestinal tract with probiotic B breve is influenced by prebiotic HMOs. B breve is a selective consumer of HMOs in the premature infant.

  6. Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve induces IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Gyu; Kayama, Hisako; Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Takuya; Asahara, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Noriko M; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ma, Ji Su; Kusu, Takashi; Okumura, Ryu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103(+) DCs from Il10(-/-), Tlr2(-/-), and Myd88(-/-) mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103(+) DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra(-/-) T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2(-/-) mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103(+) DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4(+) T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells.

  7. The Effects of Bifidobacterium breve on Immune Mediators and Proteome of HT29 Cells Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium.

  8. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar Rigo-Adrover

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  9. ELABORACIÓN DE QUESITO ANTIOQUEÑO REDUCIDO EN SODIO Y ADICIONADO CON Bifidobacterium lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDINSON ELIÉCER BEJARANO TORO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quesito antioqueño (QA, fresh, soft, milled and salty cheese, without added bacteria. This cheese contains 2,1% of sodium chloride. Were supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis (bb12 and It was salty with NaCl (Q1 and some mixtures of NaCl/KCl (3:1 (Q2 and 1:1 (Q3, w/w, to reduce the sodium content and give probiotic characteristics. There were no significant differences between treatments (Q1, Q2 and Q3 (P>0,05 in some compositional (moisture, MG/MS, total protein, ash, acidity, chemical (pH and physical (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience characteristics. A significant difference was observed by storage time in moisture, pH, protein content and acidity (P<0,05. With respect to Na and K content, there was a significant differences between treatments (P<0,05 but was not in the Ca content. In Q2 the Na level was decreased 24,2% and K increased 143% in average; in Q3 the Na level was decreased 48,3% and K increased 311%. The processed QA with 50% of Na substitution maintains the traditional compositional a physicochemical characteristics, therefore, according to this investigation results, can be performed this substitution and it is an excellent matrix to include probiotics in the people diet.

  10. Genome Analysis and Characterisation of the Exopolysaccharide Produced by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Altmann

    Full Text Available The Bifibobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624™ strain (formerly named Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a well described probiotic with clinical efficacy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome clinical trials and induces immunoregulatory effects in mice and in humans. This paper presents (a the genome sequence of the organism allowing the assignment to its correct subspeciation longum; (b a comparative genome assessment with other B. longum strains and (c the molecular structure of the 35624 exopolysaccharide (EPS624. Comparative genome analysis of the 35624 strain with other B. longum strains determined that the sub-speciation of the strain is longum and revealed the presence of a 35624-specific gene cluster, predicted to encode the biosynthetic machinery for EPS624. Following isolation and acid treatment of the EPS, its chemical structure was determined using gas and liquid chromatography for sugar constituent and linkage analysis, electrospray and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for sequencing and NMR. The EPS consists of a branched hexasaccharide repeating unit containing two galactose and two glucose moieties, galacturonic acid and the unusual sugar 6-deoxy-L-talose. These data demonstrate that the B. longum 35624 strain has specific genetic features, one of which leads to the generation of a characteristic exopolysaccharide.

  11. Impact of whey protein coating incorporated with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus on sliced ham properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odila Pereira, Joana; Soares, José; J P Monteiro, Maria; Gomes, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2018-05-01

    Edible coatings/films with functional ingredients may be a solution to consumers' demands for high-quality food products and an extended shelf-life. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency of edible coatings incorporated with probiotics on sliced ham preservation. Coatings was developed based on whey protein isolates with incorporation of Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12® or Lactobacillus casei-01. The physicochemical analyses showed that coating decreased water and weight loss on the ham. Furthermore, color analysis showed that coated sliced ham, exhibited no color change, comparatively to uncoated slices. The edible coatings incorporating the probiotic strains inhibited detectable growth of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds, at least, for 45days of storage at 4°C. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that there was a preference for the sliced coated ham. Probiotic bacteria viable cell numbers were maintained at ca. 10 8 CFU/g throughout storage time, enabling the slice of ham to act as a suitable carrier for the beneficial bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic Microdiversity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Underlying Differential Strain-Level Responses to Dietary Carbohydrate Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95 of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely unaffected, while the other three were promoted to different extents by the changes in dietary carbohydrate resources. The differential responses of these strains were consistent with their functional clustering based on the COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, including those involved with the ABC-type sugar transport systems, suggesting that the strain-specific genomic variations may have contributed to the niche adaption. Particularly, B. pseudocatenulatum C15, which had the most diverse types and highest gene copy numbers of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant polysaccharides, had the highest abundance after the dietary intervention. These studies show the importance of understanding genomic diversity of specific members of the gut microbiota if precise nutrition approaches are to be realized.

  13. Preparation of Eleutherine americana-Alginate Complex Microcapsules and Application in Bifidobacterium longum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation using extrusion and emulsion techniques was prepared for Bifidobacterium longum protection against sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, refrigeration storage and heat treatment. Eleutherine americana was used as the co-encapsulating agent. Hydrolysis of E. americana by gastric and intestinal juices was also determined. E. americana and its oligosaccharide extract demonstrated their resistance to low pH and partial tolerance to human α-amylase. Microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana and oligosaccharide extract prepared by the extrusion technique survived better than that by the emulsion technique under adverse conditions. Survival of microencapsulated cells after exposure to the juices and refrigeration storage was higher than free cells at Weeks 2 and 4. In addition, the viability of microencapsulated cells was better than free cells at 65 °C for 15 min. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana offers the effective delivery of probiotics to colon and maintains their survival in food products. PMID:25629556

  14. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue-Xin; He, Mei; Hu, Gang; Wei, Jie; Pages, Philippe; Yang, Xian-Hua; Bourdu-Naturel, Sophie

    2008-10-28

    To investigate the effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 and yogurt strains (BIO(R)) on adult women with constipation in Beijing. A total of 135 adult females with constipation were randomly allocated to consume for 2 wk either 100 g of the test fermented milk or 100 g of an acidified milk containing non-living bacteria (control). Stool frequency, defecation condition scores, stool consistency and food intake were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 2 wk in an intention-to-treat population of 126 subjects. In parallel, safety evaluation parameters were performed. At baseline, no differences were found between groups. Following consumption of test product, stool frequency was significantly increased after 1 wk (3.5 +/- 1.5 vs 2.4 +/- 0.6, P food intake did not change between the two groups, and safety parameters of the subjects were within normal ranges. This study suggests a beneficial effect of a fermented milk containing B. lactis DN-173010 on stool frequency, defecation condition and stool consistency in adult women with constipation constipated women after 1 and 2 wk of consumption.

  15. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 in Rice Pudding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of two probiotic micro-organisms (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 in a rice pudding, the impact of these bacteria on hygienic quality, and to verify the perspectives of the product with regard to consumer sensorial acceptance. The products were monitored for the microbial population, pH, titratable acidity and consistency, during storage at 4±1 °C for up to 21 days. Sensory preference was also tested. Even though the viability of the probiotic bacteria was reduced over 21 days of storage, the viable cell concentrations were still sufficient to obtain the desired therapeutic impact. The counts of yeasts-moulds and Staphylococcus spp. decreased in samples with added probiotic bacteria. The sensorial properties of probiotic rice pudding demonstrated similar acceptability to the control up to 14 days and declined thereafter. Rice pudding was considered suitable food for the delivery of probiotic micro-organisms, with sufficient viability and acceptable sensory characteristics.

  16. Protective Effects of Bifidobacterium on Intestinal Barrier Function in LPS-Induced Enterocyte Barrier Injury of Caco-2 Monolayers and in a Rat NEC Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiang; Linglong, Peng; Weixia, Du; Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Zonulin protein is a newly discovered modulator which modulates the permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier by disassembling intercellular tight junctions (TJ). Disruption of TJ is associated with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It has been shown bifidobacterium could protect the intestinal barrier function and prophylactical administration of bifidobacterium has beneficial effects in NEC patients and animals. However, it is still unknown whether the zonulin is involved in the gut barrier dysfunction of NEC, and the protective mechanisms of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function are also not well understood. The present study aims to investigate the effects of bifidobacterium on intestinal barrier function, zonulin regulation, and TJ integrity both in LPS-induced enterocyte barrier injury of Caco-2 monolayers and in a rat NEC model. Our results showed bifidobacterium markedly attenuated the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in paracellular permeability in the Caco-2 monolayers treated with LPS (P zonulin release (P zonulin (P zonulin protein release and improvement of intestinal TJ integrity.

  17. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 → S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. → TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 → S transition. → Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 → S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 → S arrest is discussed.

  18. The spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}(x)$ of the deuteron from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Akdogan, T; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Gómez, F; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Kalinovskaya, L V; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Polec, J; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Steigler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$ of the deuteron from deep inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons on polarized deuterons. The results are combined with our previous measurements of $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to compute $g_{1}^{\\rm d}(x)$ at a constant $Q^{2}$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$, we obtain a first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm d}{\\rm d}x = 0.041 \\pm 0.008$, a flavour-singlet axial charge of the nucleon $a_{0} = 0.30 \\pm 0.08$, and an axial charge of the strange quark $a_{s} = -0.09 \\pm 0.03$. Using our earlier determination of $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p}$, we obtain $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.183 \\pm 0.035$ at $Q^2 = 10\\,\\mbox{GeV}^2$. This result is in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule which predicts $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.186 \\pm 0.002$ at the same $Q^2$.

  19. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  20. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  1. Overexpression of DOC-1R inhibits cell cycle G1/S transition by repressing CDK2 expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xing; Gao, Jinlan; Shi, Xiuyan; Hu, Xihua; Wang, Shusen; Luo, Yang

    2013-01-01

    DOC-1R (deleted in oral cancer-1 related) is a novel putative tumor suppressor. This study investigated DOC-1R antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry, BrdU incorporation and CDK2 kinase assays in DOC-1R overexpressing HeLa cells. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect underlying molecular changes in these cells. The interaction between DOC-1R and CDK2 proteins was assayed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. Molecularly, DOC-1R inhibited CDK2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and there were decreased levels of G1-phase cyclins (cyclin D1 and E) and elevated levels of p21, p27, and p53 proteins. Meanwhile, DOC-1R associated with CDK2 and inhibited CDK2 activation by obstructing its association with cyclin E and A. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation.

  2. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1

  3. A heavy-traffic theorem for the GI/G/1 queue with a Pareto-type service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFor the $GI/G/1$-queueing model with traffic load $a<1$, service time distribution $B(t)$ and interarrival time distribution $A(t)$ holds, whenever for $t rightarrow infty$: $$ quad 1-B(t) sim frac{c{(t/ beta)^nu + {rm O ( {rm e^{-delta t ), quad c>0, quad 1< nu < 2, quad delta >

  4. Diagonal K-matrices and transfer matrix eigenspectra associated with the G(1)2 R-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, C.M.; Batchelor, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    We find all the diagonal K-matrices for the R-matrix associated with the minimal representation of the exceptional affine algebra G (1) 2 . The corresponding transfer matrices are diagonalized with a variation of the analytic Bethe ansatz. We find many similarities with the case of the Izergin-Korepin R-matrix associated with the affine algebra A (2) 2 . ((orig.))

  5. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  6. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  7. Joint distribution of sojourn time and queue length in the M/G/1 queue with (in)finite capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the M/G/1 queue we study the joint distribution of the number of customers x present immediately before an arrival epoch and of the residual service time ¿ of the customer in service at this epoch. The correlation coefficient (x, ¿) is shown to be positive (negative) when the service time

  8. Piperine causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells through checkpoint kinase-1 activation.

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    Neel M Fofaria

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1. Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb. Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  9. Functional genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 reveals type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pili as an essential and conserved host-colonization factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; Leahy, Sinead C.; Reunanen, Justus; Bottacini, Francesca; Claesson, Marcus J.; O'Brien, Frances; Flynn, Kiera; Casey, Patrick G.; Moreno Munoz, Jose Antonio; Kearney, Breda; Houston, Aileen M.; O'Mahony, Caitlin; Higgins, Des G.; Shanahan, Fergus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ventura, Marco; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-01-01

    Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 2.42-Mb genome in a murine colonization model revealed differential expression of a type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pilus-encoding gene cluster designated “tad2003.” Mutational analysis demonstrated that the tad2003 gene cluster is essential for efficient in vivo murine gut colonization, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Tad pili at the poles of B. breve UCC2003 cells. Conservation of the Tad pilus-encoding locus among other B. breve strains and among sequenced Bifidobacterium genomes supports the notion of a ubiquitous pili-mediated host colonization and persistence mechanism for bifidobacteria. PMID:21690406

  10. Functional genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 reveals type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pili as an essential and conserved host-colonization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; Leahy, Sinead C; Reunanen, Justus; Bottacini, Francesca; Claesson, Marcus J; O'Brien, Frances; Flynn, Kiera; Casey, Patrick G; Munoz, Jose Antonio Moreno; Kearney, Breda; Houston, Aileen M; O'Mahony, Caitlin; Higgins, Des G; Shanahan, Fergus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ventura, Marco; O'Toole, Paul W; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2011-07-05

    Development of the human gut microbiota commences at birth, with bifidobacteria being among the first colonizers of the sterile newborn gastrointestinal tract. To date, the genetic basis of Bifidobacterium colonization and persistence remains poorly understood. Transcriptome analysis of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 2.42-Mb genome in a murine colonization model revealed differential expression of a type IVb tight adherence (Tad) pilus-encoding gene cluster designated "tad(2003)." Mutational analysis demonstrated that the tad(2003) gene cluster is essential for efficient in vivo murine gut colonization, and immunogold transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Tad pili at the poles of B. breve UCC2003 cells. Conservation of the Tad pilus-encoding locus among other B. breve strains and among sequenced Bifidobacterium genomes supports the notion of a ubiquitous pili-mediated host colonization and persistence mechanism for bifidobacteria.

  11. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  12. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  13. In Silico Assigned Resistance Genes Confer Bifidobacterium with Partial Resistance to Aminoglycosides but Not to Β-Lactams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouhy, Fiona; O’Connell Motherway, Mary; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cotter, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria have received significant attention due to their contribution to human gut health and the use of specific strains as probiotics. It is thus not surprising that there has also been significant interest with respect to their antibiotic resistance profile. Numerous culture-based studies have demonstrated that bifidobacteria are resistant to the majority of aminoglycosides, but are sensitive to β-lactams. However, limited research exists with respect to the genetic basis for the resistance of bifidobacteria to aminoglycosides. Here we performed an in-depth in silico analysis of putative Bifidobacterium-encoded aminoglycoside resistance proteins and β-lactamases and assess the contribution of these proteins to antibiotic resistance. The in silico-based screen detected putative aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance proteins across the Bifidobacterium genus. Laboratory-based investigations of a number of representative bifidobacteria strains confirmed that despite containing putative β-lactamases, these strains were sensitive to β-lactams. In contrast, all strains were resistant to the aminoglycosides tested. To assess the contribution of genes encoding putative aminoglycoside resistance proteins in Bifidobacterium sp. two genes, namely Bbr_0651 and Bbr_1586, were targeted for insertional inactivation in B. breve UCC2003. As compared to the wild-type, the UCC2003 insertion mutant strains exhibited decreased resistance to gentamycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. This study highlights the associated risks of relying on the in silico assignment of gene function. Although several putative β-lactam resistance proteins are located in bifidobacteria, their presence does not coincide with resistance to these antibiotics. In contrast however, this approach has resulted in the identification of two loci that contribute to the aminoglycoside resistance of B. breve UCC2003 and, potentially, many other bifidobacteria. PMID:24324818

  14. In silico assigned resistance genes confer Bifidobacterium with partial resistance to aminoglycosides but not to β-lactams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Fouhy

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria have received significant attention due to their contribution to human gut health and the use of specific strains as probiotics. It is thus not surprising that there has also been significant interest with respect to their antibiotic resistance profile. Numerous culture-based studies have demonstrated that bifidobacteria are resistant to the majority of aminoglycosides, but are sensitive to β-lactams. However, limited research exists with respect to the genetic basis for the resistance of bifidobacteria to aminoglycosides. Here we performed an in-depth in silico analysis of putative Bifidobacterium-encoded aminoglycoside resistance proteins and β-lactamases and assess the contribution of these proteins to antibiotic resistance. The in silico-based screen detected putative aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance proteins across the Bifidobacterium genus. Laboratory-based investigations of a number of representative bifidobacteria strains confirmed that despite containing putative β-lactamases, these strains were sensitive to β-lactams. In contrast, all strains were resistant to the aminoglycosides tested. To assess the contribution of genes encoding putative aminoglycoside resistance proteins in Bifidobacterium sp. two genes, namely Bbr_0651 and Bbr_1586, were targeted for insertional inactivation in B. breve UCC2003. As compared to the wild-type, the UCC2003 insertion mutant strains exhibited decreased resistance to gentamycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. This study highlights the associated risks of relying on the in silico assignment of gene function. Although several putative β-lactam resistance proteins are located in bifidobacteria, their presence does not coincide with resistance to these antibiotics. In contrast however, this approach has resulted in the identification of two loci that contribute to the aminoglycoside resistance of B. breve UCC2003 and, potentially, many other bifidobacteria.

  15. Physical and physicochemical stability evaluation of cosmetic formulations containing soybean extract fermented by Bifidobacterium animalis

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    Rafael Pinto Vieira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Peel off facial masks, based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, are formulations that, after application and drying, form an occlusive film over the face. After removing, they provide cleanness, tensor and moisturizing effects, removing dead cells, residues and other materials deposited on the stratum corneous. The soybean extract fermented by Bifidobacterium animalis has sugars, amino acids, peptides, proteins and free isoflavonoids in high concentrations, when compared to the unfermented extract, providing benefits to the cosmetic formulations like anti-aging effect, moisture, tensor action and emollience. The cosmetic bases of peel off facial masks, added with 5.0% w/w of fermented soybean extract, were submitted to Preliminary and Accelerated Stability Studies. Eight (8 preparations were evaluated in several conditions of temperature (-10.0, 5.0, 22.0 and 45.0 ºC and time (maximum of 15 days, comparing the results with the initial condition (48 h after preparation. The variables observed were: organoleptic characteristics, pH and appearing viscosity value and film drying time. The preparation containing 17.0% w/w of PVA and 0.5% w/w of guar gum was selected between the eight preparations initially prepared, because it presented the best performance in the stability test, being recommended storage at low temperatures (5.0 ºC.As máscaras faciais peel off a base de álcool polivinílico (PVA são formulações que, após a aplicação e secagem, formam um filme oclusivo sobre a face e, após sua remoção, conferem limpeza, ação tensora e hidratação à pele, retirando células mortas do estrato córneo, resíduos e outros materiais depositados. O extrato de soja fermentado por Bifidobacterium animalis possui açúcares, aminoácidos, peptídeos, e alto teor de isoflavonas na forma livre, quando comparado ao leite não fermentado, propiciando benefícios às formulações cosméticas, como ação antienvelhecimento, hidratação, efeito tensor e

  16. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V supplementation on fecal bifidobacteria in preterm neonates--a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.

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    Sanjay Patole

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplementation significantly reduces the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC and all cause mortality in preterm neonates. Independent quality assessment is important before introducing routine probiotic supplementation in this cohort. AIM: To assess product quality, and confirm that Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve M-16V supplementation will increase fecal B. breve counts without adverse effects. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: Strain identity (16S rRNA gene sequencing, viability over 2 year shelf-life were confirmed, and microbial contamination of the product was ruled out. In a controlled trial preterm neonates (Gestation <33 weeks ready to commence or on feeds for <12 hours were randomly allocated to either B. breve M-16V (3×109 cfu/day or placebo (dextrin supplementation until the corrected age 37 weeks. Stool samples were collected before (S1 and after 3 weeks of supplementation (S2 for studying fecal B. breve levels using quantitative PCR (Primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included total fecal bifidobacteria and NEC≥Stage II. Categorical and continuous outcomes were analysed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and McNemar and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for paired comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 159 neonates (Probiotic: 79, Placebo: 80 were enrolled. Maternal and neonatal demographic characteristics were comparable between the groups. The proportion of neonates with detectable B. breve increased significantly post intervention: Placebo: [S1:2/66 (3%, S2: 25/66 (38%, p<0.001] Probiotic: [S1: 29/74 (40%, S2: 67/74 (91%, p<0.001]. Median S1 B. breve counts in both groups were below detection (<4.7 log cells x g(-1, increasing significantly in S2 for the probiotic group (log 8.6 while remaining <4.7 log in the control group (p<0.001. There were no adverse effects including probiotic sepsis and no deaths. NEC≥Stage II occurred in only 1 neonate (placebo group. CONCLUSION: B. breve M-16V is a suitable probiotic

  17. Functional modulation of human intestinal epithelial cell responses by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ann M; O'Regan, Padraig; Fanning, Áine; O'Mahony, Caitlin; MacSharry, John; Lyons, Anne; Bienenstock, John; O'Mahony, Liam; Shanahan, Fergus

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in antigen sampling and the maintenance of gut homeostasis. However, the interaction of commensal bacteria with the intestinal surface remains incompletely understood. Here we investigated immune cell responses to commensal and pathogenic bacteria. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 or Salmonella typhimurium UK1 for varying times, or were pretreated with a probiotic for 2 hr prior to stimulation with S. typhimurium or flagellin. Gene arrays were used to examine inflammatory gene expression. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, interleukin (IL)-8 secretion, pathogen adherence to IECs, and mucin-3 (MUC3) and E-cadherin gene expression were assayed by TransAM assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence, and real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by bacteria-treated peripheral blood-derived DCs were measured using ELISA. S. typhimurium increased expression of 36 of the 847 immune-related genes assayed, including NF-κB and IL-8. The commensal bacteria did not alter expression levels of any of the 847 genes. However, B. infantis and L. salivarius attenuated both IL-8 secretion at baseline and S. typhimurium-induced pro-inflammatory responses. B. infantis also limited flagellin-induced IL-8 protein secretion. The commensal bacteria did not increase MUC3 or E-cadherin expression, or interfere with pathogen binding to HT-29 cells, but they did stimulate IL-10 and TNF-α secretion by DCs. The data demonstrate that, although the intestinal epithelium is immunologically quiescent when it encounters B. infantis or L. salivarius, these commensal bacteria exert immunomodulatory effects on intestinal immune cells that mediate host responses to flagellin and enteric pathogens. PMID:16771855

  18. Promotion of intestinal peristalsis by Bifidobacterium spp. capable of hydrolysing sennosides in mice.

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    Mitsuharu Matsumoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While there are a variety of identifiable causes of constipation, even idiopathic constipation has different possible mechanisms. Sennosides, the main laxative constituents of Daio, an ancient Kampo medicine, are prodrugs that are converted to an active principle, rheinanthrone, by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we aimed to determine the sennoside hydrolysis ability of lactic acid bacterial strains and bifidobacteria in the intestine and to investigate their effect on intestinal peristalsis in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 88 lactic acid bacterial strains and 47 bifidobacterial strains were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyze sennosides. Our results revealed that 4 strains, all belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium, had strong sennoside hydrolysis ability, exhibiting a decrease of >70% of sennoside content. By thin-layer chromatography analysis, rheinanthrone was detected in the medium cultured with B. pseudocatenulatum LKM10070 and B. animalis subsp. lactis LKM512. The fecal sennoside contents significantly (P<0.001 decreased upon oral administration of these strains as compared with the control. Intestinal peristalsis activity was measured by the moved distance of the charcoal powder administered orally. The distance travelled by the charcoal powder in LKM512-treated mice was significantly longer than that of control (P<0.05. Intestinal microbiota were analysed by real-time PCR and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The diversity of the intestinal microbiota was reduced by kanamycin treatment and the diversity was not recovered by LKM512 treatment. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that intestinal peristalsis was promoted by rheinanthrone produced by hydrolysis of sennoside by strain LKM512 and LKM10070.

  19. Consumption of Yogurt Containing Probiotic Bifidobacterium Lactis Reduces Streptococcus mutans in Orthodontic Patients

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    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic bacteria is commonly used as a food supplement intended to benefit the host by improving intestinal bacterial balance. Probiotics have also been investigated from the perspective of oral health. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of yogurt containing probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (B. lactis on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans counts in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from each subject (n = 7; mean age, 21 years using spitting method in centrifuge tubes at baseline and two weeks after daily probiotic yogurt consumption. B. lactis BB-12 and S. mutans ATCC 25175 were cultured in BHI-broth (37ºC, anaerobic conditions. After 48-h incubation, the number of colonies on each dilution plate was used to extrapolate a standard curve. The total number of target DNA molecules were identified using real-time PCR followed by SYBR Green reagents and 16S rRNA gene specific primers S. mutans and B. lactis BB-12. Data were analyzed statistically using paired-sample t-tests. Results: Statistical evaluation indicated that there was a significant reduction in the presence of S. mutans before probiotic yogurt consumption, (4.73 ± 1.43 log10 CFU/mL and after two weeks of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt, (4.03 ± 0.77 log10 CFU/mL, p=0.001. Moreover, no B. lactis was found in the saliva of any of the subjects before probiotic consumption, but after two weeks of consumption, B. lactis was found in the saliva of four subjects. Conclusions: Consuming probiotic yogurt containing B. lactis reduced the quantity of S. mutans in the saliva of subjects during fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the probiotic bacteria could be beneficial in improving oral health.

  20. Microbes of fermented kefir-like using combination of kefir grains and Bifidobacterium longum

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    Sri Usmiati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of research were to find out physico-chemical characters and to detect flavor volatile compound of kefir-like. Material used was skim milk TS 9.5% which was heated at 85oC for 30 minutes and cooled at 22oC before innoculation of the starter. Microorganisms used were (a Lactobacillus acidophilus P155110, (b Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus NCIMB 11778, (c Lactococcus lactis P155610, (d Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum NCIMB 3350, (e Acetobacter aceti P154810, (f Bifidobacterium longum BF1, and (g Saccharomyces cerevisiae P156252. The treatments consist of P1 = without (b; P2 = without (a; and P3= used (a until (g. The physico-chemical characters identified were lactic acid and lactose percentages, pH, viscosity, organoleptic test for intensity of kefir-like sensory attributes. Results indicated that B. longum was potential bacterium use for starter combination on kefir-like making. The use starter P1 combination has high acidity and viscosity, low pH and lactose percentage, and high intensity on attribute creamy-white color, soft and curdle consistency, and kefir specific aroma on kefir-like. Volatile compound acid group were dominate by high acidity character on kefir-like resulted from starter P1 combination. Compound of 3-hydroxi-2-butanone (acetoin was affecting butter-like of P3 character. This compound resulted from which is a character of fermented milk flavor was not detected on P1 kefir-like.

  1. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tasuku; Saikawa, Kyo [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kim, Seonah [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Fujita, Kiyotaka [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima (Japan); Ishiwata, Akihiro [Synthetic Cellular Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); Kaeothip, Sophon [ERATO Glycotrilogy Project, JST, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Arakawa, Takatoshi; Wakagi, Takayoshi [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: Gregg.Beckham@nrel.gov [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Ito, Yukishige [Synthetic Cellular Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN (Japan); ERATO Glycotrilogy Project, JST, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Fushinobu, Shinya, E-mail: asfushi@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-04-25

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HypBA1 β-L-arabinofuranosidase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 127. • Crystal structure of HypBA1 was determined. • HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel and two additional β-sandwich domains. • The active site contains a Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines. • A possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. - Abstract: Enzymes acting on β-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of β-L-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a β-L-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked β-L-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and β-L-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional β-sandwich domains, with one β-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn{sup 2+} coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the β-L-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed.

  2. INFLUENCE OF DRINKING A PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGE CONTAINING BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS ON THE SYMPTOMS OF CONSTIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Rodrigues MOREIRA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Constipation is a chronic problem in many patients all over the world. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effect of consumption of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Bifidobacterium animalis on the symptoms of constipation. METHODS - This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 49 female patients aged 20 to 50 years and diagnosed with constipation according to the ROME III criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The patients were randomized into two groups: the intervention group received the probiotic fermented milk beverage and the control group received non-probiotic milk. Participants were instructed to ingest 150 mL of the beverages during 60 days. At the end of this period, patients were assessed again by the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate pre and post-intervention results of the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The statistical significance level was considered as 5% ( P ≤0.05. RESULTS - The intervention group showed improvement in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.014, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. In the control group, improvements were observed in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.025, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. No statistically significant post-intervention differences were observed between the two groups for the Rome III criteria and Bristol scale. CONCLUSION - The results show that the consumption of milk resulted in the improvement of constipation symptoms, regardless of the probiotic culture.

  3. INFLUENCE OF DRINKING A PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGE CONTAINING BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS ON THE SYMPTOMS OF CONSTIPATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Thaís Rodrigues; Leonhardt, Daiane; Conde, Simara Rufatto

    2017-01-01

    Constipation is a chronic problem in many patients all over the world. - To evaluate the effect of consumption of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Bifidobacterium animalis on the symptoms of constipation. - This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 49 female patients aged 20 to 50 years and diagnosed with constipation according to the ROME III criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders) and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The patients were randomized into two groups: the intervention group received the probiotic fermented milk beverage and the control group received non-probiotic milk. Participants were instructed to ingest 150 mL of the beverages during 60 days. At the end of this period, patients were assessed again by the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate pre and post-intervention results of the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The statistical significance level was considered as 5% ( P ≤0.05). - The intervention group showed improvement in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001), feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001) and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.014), in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001). In the control group, improvements were observed in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001), feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001) and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.025), in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001). No statistically significant post-intervention differences were observed between the two groups for the Rome III criteria and Bristol scale. - The results show that the consumption of milk resulted in the improvement of constipation symptoms, regardless of the probiotic culture.

  4. Bifidobacterium breve attenuates murine dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases regulatory T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Overbeek, Saskia; van de Kant, Hendrik J G; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Vos, Paul; Morgan, Mary E; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-01-01

    While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th) 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition.

  5. Bifidobacterium breve - HT-29 cell line interaction: modulation of TNF-α induced gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesten, R J; Schuren, F H J; Willemsen, L E M; Vriesema, A; Knol, J; De Vos, W M

    2011-06-01

    To provide insight in the molecular basis for intestinal host-microbe interactions, we determined the genome-wide transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells following exposure to cells of Bifidobacterium breve. To select an appropriate test system reflecting inflammatory conditions, the responsiveness to TNF-α was compared in T84, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. The highest TNF-α response was observed in HT-29 cells and this cell line was selected for exposure to the B. breve strains M-16V, NR246 and UCC2003. After one hour of bacterial pre-incubation followed by two hours of additional TNF-α stimulation, B. breve M-16V (86%), but to a much lesser extent strains NR246 (50%) or UCC2003 (32%), showed a strain-specific reduction of the HT-29 transcriptional response to the inflammatory treatment. The most important functional groups of genes that were transcriptionally suppressed by the presence of B. breve M-16V, were found to be involved in immune regulation and apoptotic processes. About 54% of the TNF-α induced genes were solely suppressed by the presence of B. breve M-16V. These included apoptosis-related cysteine protease caspase 7 (CASP7), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), amyloid beta (A4) precursor proteinbinding family A member 1 (APBA1), NADPH oxidase (NOX5), and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). The extracellular IL-8 concentration was determined by an immunological assay but did not change significantly, indicating that B. breve M-16V only partially modulates the TNF-α pathway. In conclusion, this study shows that B. breve strains modulate gene expression in HT-29 cells under inflammatory conditions in a strain-specific way.

  6. Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 modulates immune responses in a gliadin-induced enteropathy animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moisés Laparra

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten proteins (gliadin that involves innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we hypothesise that the administration of Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347, previously selected for reducing gliadin immunotoxic effects in vitro, could exert protective effects in an animal model of gliadin-induced enteropathy. The effects of this bacterium were evaluated in newborn rats fed gliadin alone or sensitised with interferon (IFN-γ and fed gliadin. Jejunal tissue sections were collected for histological, NFκB mRNA expression and cytokine production analyses. Leukocyte populations and T-cell subsets were analysed in peripheral blood samples. The possible translocation of the bacterium to different organs was determined by plate counting and the composition of the colonic microbiota was quantified by real-time PCR. Feeding gliadin alone reduced enterocyte height and peripheral CD4+ cells, but increased CD4+/Foxp3+ T and CD8+ cells, while the simultaneous administration of B. longum CECT 7347 exerted opposite effects. Animals sensitised with IFN-γ and fed gliadin showed high cellular infiltration, reduced villi width and enterocyte height. Sensitised animals also exhibited increased NFκB mRNA expression and TNF-α production in tissue sections. B. longum CECT 7347 administration increased NFκB expression and IL-10, but reduced TNF-α, production in the enteropathy model. In sensitised gliadin-fed animals, CD4+, CD4+/Foxp3+ and CD8+ T cells increased, whereas the administration of B. longum CECT 7347 reduced CD4+ and CD4+/Foxp3+ cell populations and increased CD8+ T cell populations. The bifidobacterial strain administered represented between 75-95% of the total bifidobacteria isolated from all treated groups, and translocation to organs was not detected. These findings indicate that B. longum attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines and the CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response in

  7. Bifidobacterium breve attenuates murine dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and increases regulatory T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    Full Text Available While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition.

  8. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  9. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  10. Proteomic profiling of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 cultivated under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are frequently used in probiotic food and dairy products. Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 is a promising probiotic candidate strain that displays strong adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and elicits potent anti-inflammatory capacity both in vitro and in murine models of colitis. The recently sequenced genome of B. bifidum S17 has a size of about 2.2 Mb and encodes 1,782 predicted protein-coding genes. In the present study, a comprehensive proteomic profiling was carried out to identify and characterize proteins expressed by B. bifidum S17. A total of 1148 proteins entries were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, representing 64.4% of the predicted proteome. 719 proteins could be assigned to functional categories according to cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs. The COG distribution of the detected proteins highly correlates with that of the complete predicted proteome suggesting a good coverage and representation of the genomic content of B. bifidum S17 by the proteome. COGs that were highly present in the proteome of B. bifidum S17 were Translation, Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism, and Carbohydrate Transport and Metabolism. Complete sets of enzymes for both the bifidus shunt and the Embden-Meyerhof pathway were identified. Further bioinformatic analysis yielded 28 proteins with a predicted extracellular localization including 14 proteins with an LPxTG-motif for cell wall anchoring and two proteins (elongation factor Tu and enolase with a potential moonlighting function in adhesion. Amongst the predicted extracellular proteins were five of six pilin proteins encoded in the B. bifidum S17 genome as well as several other proteins with a potential role in interaction with host structures. The presented results are the first compilation of a proteomic reference profile for a B. bifidum strain and will facilitate analysis of the molecular mechanisms of physiology, host

  11. G1/S-regulated E2F-containing protein complexes bind to the mouse thymidine kinase gene promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Q P; Zhao, S; Levin, A H

    1994-01-01

    report that MT2 includes an E2F-like binding site (GTTCGCGGGCAAA), as shown by the following evidence. (i) MT2 bound specifically to an affinity-purified fusion human E2F protein. (ii) Both MT2 and an authentic E2F site (TTTCGCGCGCTTT) bound specifically to similar or identical nuclear protein complexes...... complexes were also investigated. Studies using specific antibodies revealed that p107, a retinoblastoma-like protein, was present in both E2F-G0/G1 and E2F.S, whereas cyclin E.cyclin A.cdk2 were only present in E2F.S complex(es). These data suggest that removal of the p107-containing E2F.G0/G1 complex...

  12. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin; Wang, Xianfeng; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hirose, Susumu; Gehring, Walter Jakob; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  13. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression

  14. A novel peptide sansalvamide analogue inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujiki, Michael B.; Milam, Ben; Ding Xianzhong; Roginsky, Alexandra B.; Salabat, M. Reza; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Gu Wenxin; Silverman, Richard B.; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer have little hope for cure because no effective therapies are available. Sansalvamide A is a cyclic depsipeptide produced by a marine fungus. We investigated the effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The sansalvamide analogue caused marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and S2-013). The analogue induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes suggesting induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V binding. This novel sansalvamide analogue inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through G0/G1 arrest and induces apoptosis. Sansalvamide analogues may be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  15. Molecular characterization of cystic echinococcosis: First record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra H; Abdel Aaty, Heba E; Ahmed, Mona A

    2015-12-01

    Few molecular studies have identified the current status of cystic echinococcosis in Egypt. The present study aimed to ascertain the genotype(s) of Echinococcus granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis in different Egyptian governorates (regions). Animal isolates were collected from 40 camels, 5 pigs and 44 sheep. 27 human isolates were included in the present study. Specific PCR was performed and followed by DNA sequencing for mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and BLAST analysis.The sheep cysts were not hydatid cysts. G6 genotype (camel starin) predominates in human, camel and pig isolates. G7 genotype (pig strain) was detected in two human isolates and one pig isolate. G1 genotype (sheep strain) was detected in one human isolate from Yemen and in no animal isolates. This is the first record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

  16. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  17. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise...... temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin...

  18. Crystal Structures of Glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 Reveal the Molecular Basis for Glycosylation and Deglycosylation of (Iso)flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Luzia V.; Li, Lenong; Pan, Haiyun; Blount, Jack W.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; (SRNF)

    2010-09-21

    The glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 from Medicago truncatula catalyzes the glycosylation of various (iso)flavonoids such as the flavonols kaempferol and myricetin, the isoflavone formononetin, and the anthocyanidins pelargonidin and cyanidin. It also catalyzes a reverse reaction to remove the sugar moiety from glycosides. The structures of UGT78G1 bound with uridine diphosphate or with both uridine diphosphate and myricetin were determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, revealing detailed interactions between the enzyme and substrates/products and suggesting a distinct binding mode for the acceptor/product. Comparative structural analysis and mutagenesis identify glutamate 192 as a key amino acid for the reverse reaction. This information provides a basis for enzyme engineering to manipulate substrate specificity and to design effective biocatalysts with glycosylation and/or deglycosylation activity.

  19. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation.

  20. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  1. Role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Saiki, Ryotaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Tome, Mayuko; Higashi, Kyohei; Nakamura, Mizuho; Terui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Kunio; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-06-01

    The role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was studied using synchronized HeLa cells treated with thymidine or with thymidine and aphidicolin. Synchronized cells were cultured in the absence or presence of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, plus ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. When polyamine content was reduced by treatment with DFMO and EGBG, the transition from G1 to S phase was delayed. In parallel, the level of p27(Kip1) was greatly increased, so its mechanism was studied in detail. Synthesis of p27(Kip1) was stimulated at the level of translation by a decrease in polyamine levels, because of the existence of long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) in p27(Kip1) mRNA. Similarly, the transition from the G2/M to the G1 phase was delayed by a reduction in polyamine levels. In parallel, the number of multinucleate cells increased by 3-fold. This was parallel with the inhibition of cytokinesis due to an unusual distribution of actin and α-tubulin at the M phase. Since an association of polyamines with chromosomes was not observed by immunofluorescence microscopy at the M phase, polyamines may have only a minor role in structural changes of chromosomes at the M phase. In general, the involvement of polyamines at the G2/M phase was smaller than that at the G1/S boundary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The hard X-ray view of the young supernova remnant G1.9+0.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglauer, Andreas; Reynolds, Stephen P.; An, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    NuSTAR observed G1.9+0.3, the youngest known supernova remnant in the Milky Way, for 350 ks and detected emission up to ~30 keV. The remnant's X-ray morphology does not change significantly across the energy range from 3 to 20 keV. A combined fit between NuSTAR and Chandra shows that the spectrum...

  4. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  5. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  6. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus through p53-dependent pathway causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Wu, Haoyang; Huang, Jiali; Xu, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Xingang

    2018-05-22

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry. p53 protein exists in a wide variety of animal cells, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and other biological functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEDV infection on the cell cycle of Vero cells and p53 activation. The results demonstrated that PEDV infection induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Vero cells, while UV-inactivated PEDV does not cause cell cycle arrest. PEDV infection up-regulates the levels of p21, cdc2, cdk2, cdk4, Cyclin A protein and down-regulates Cyclin E protein. Further research results showed that inhibition of p53 signaling pathway can reverse the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase induced by PEDV infection and cancel out the up-regulation of p21 and corresponding Cyclin/cdk mentioned above. In addition, PEDV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral subgenomic RNA and virus titer were higher in the cells released from G0/G1 phase synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G1/S phase and G2/M phase synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18 h p.i.. This is the first report to demonstrate that the p53-dependent pathway plays an important role in PEDV induced cell cycle arrest and beneficially contributes to viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MKP1 phosphatase mediates G1-specific dephosphorylation of H3Serine10P in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ajit K.; Khan, Shafqat A.; Sharda, Asmita; Reddy, Divya V; Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@actrec.gov.in

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Reversible reduction of H3S10 phosphorylation after DNA damage is G1 phase specific. • Dynamic balance between MAP kinases, MKP1 and MSK1 regulate H3S10P during DDR. • MKP1 associates with chromatin bearing γH2AX in response to DNA damage. • Inhibition of MKP1 activity with specific inhibitor promotes radiation-induced cell death. - Abstract: Histone mark, H3S10 phosphorylation plays a dual role in a cell by maintaining relaxed chromatin for active transcription in interphase and condensed chromatin state in mitosis. The level of H3S10P has also been shown to alter on DNA damage; however, its cell cycle specific behavior and regulation during DNA damage response is largely unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible loss of H3S10P in response to IR-induced DNA damage is mediated by opposing activities of phosphatase, MKP1 and kinase, MSK1 of the MAP kinase pathway. We also show that the MKP1 recruits to the chromatin in response to DNA damage and correlates with the decrease of H3S10P, whereas MKP1 is released from chromatin during recovery phase of DDR. Furthermore, blocking of H3S10 dephosphorylation by MKP1 inhibition impairs DNA repair process and results in poor survival of WRL68 cells. Collectively, our data proposes a pathway regulating G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible reduction of H3S10P on IR induced DNA damage and also raises the possibility of combinatorial modulation of H3S10P with specific inhibitors to target the cancer cells in G1-phase of cell cycle.

  8. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko; Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation

  9. The Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Proton $g_{1}^p$ and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Cotic, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schluter, T.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive double-spin asymmetry, $A_{1}^{p}$, has been measured at COMPASS in deepinelastic polarised muon scattering off a large polarised NH3 target. The data, collected in the year 2007, cover the range Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2, 0.004 < x < 0.7 and improve the statistical precision of g_{1}^{p}(x) by a factor of two in the region x < 0.02. The new proton asymmetries are combined with those previously published for the deuteron to extract the non-singlet spin-dependent structure function g_1^NS(x,Q2). The isovector quark density, Delta_q_3(x,Q2), is evaluated from a NLO QCD fit of g_1^NS. The first moment of Delta_q3 is in good agreement with the value predicted by the Bjorken sum rule and corresponds to a ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants g_A/g_V = 1.28+-0.07(stat)+-0.10(syst).

  10. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quagliariello

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03 to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD. Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group. Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.

  11. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  12. Viability of commercial probiotic cultures (L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium sp., L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus) in cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Tran, Lai

    2006-04-25

    Six batches of cheddar cheese were manufactured containing different combinations of commercially available probiotic cultures from three suppliers. Duplicate cheeses contained the organisms of each supplier, a Bifidobacterium spp. (each supplier), a Lactobacillus acidophilus (2 suppliers), and either Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Using selective media, the different strains were assessed for viability during cheddar cheese maturation over 32 weeks. The Bifidobacterium sp. remained at high numbers with the three strains being present in cheese at 4 x 10(7), 1.4 x 10(8), and 5 x 10(8) CFU/g after 32 weeks. Similarly the L. casei (2 x 10(7) CFU/g), L. paracasei (1.6 x 10(7) CFU/g), and L. rhamnosus (9 x 10(8) CFU/g) strains survived well; however, the L. acidophilus strains performed poorly with both decreasing in a similar manner to be present at 3.6 x 10(3) CFU/g and 4.9 x 10(3) CFU/g after 32 weeks. This study indicates that cheddar cheese is a good vehicle for a variety of commercial probiotics but survival of L. acidophilus strains will need to be improved.

  13. Autoinducer-2 plays a crucial role in gut colonization and probiotic functionality of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaen, Steven E A; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Lanigan, Noreen; Casey, Pat G; Huys, Geert; Nelis, Hans J; van Sinderen, Douwe; Coenye, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we show that luxS of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is involved in the production of the interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and that this gene is essential for gastrointestinal colonization of a murine host, while it is also involved in providing protection against Salmonella infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a B. breve luxS-insertion mutant is significantly more susceptible to iron chelators than the WT strain and that this sensitivity can be partially reverted in the presence of the AI-2 precursor DPD. Furthermore, we show that several genes of an iron starvation-induced gene cluster, which are downregulated in the luxS-insertion mutant and which encodes a presumed iron-uptake system, are transcriptionally upregulated under in vivo conditions. Mutation of two genes of this cluster in B. breve UCC2003 renders the derived mutant strains sensitive to iron chelators while deficient in their ability to confer gut pathogen protection to Salmonella-infected nematodes. Since a functional luxS gene is present in all tested members of the genus Bifidobacterium, we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition.

  14. A combination of scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V protects suckling rats from rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, M; Saldaña-Ruíz, S; van Limpt, K; Knipping, K; Garssen, J; Knol, J; Franch, A; Castell, M; Pérez-Cano, F J

    2017-06-01

    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and although more standardized studies are needed, there is evidence that probiotics can help to fight against RV and other infectious and intestinal pathologies. On the other hand, the effects of prebiotics have not been properly addressed in the context of an RV infection. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a protective role for a specific scGOS/lcFOS 9:1 prebiotic mixture (PRE) separately, the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (PRO) separately and the combination of the prebiotic mixture and the probiotic (synbiotic, SYN) in a suckling rat RV infection model. The animals received the intervention from the 3rd to the 21st day of life by oral gavage. On day 7, RV was orally administered. Clinical parameters and immune response were evaluated. The intervention with the PRO reduced the incidence, severity and duration of the diarrhoea (p Bifidobacterium breve M-16V or a combination of both is highly effective in modulating RV-induced diarrhoea in this preclinical model.

  15. Autoinducer-2 plays a crucial role in gut colonization and probiotic functionality of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E A Christiaen

    Full Text Available In the present study we show that luxS of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is involved in the production of the interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2, and that this gene is essential for gastrointestinal colonization of a murine host, while it is also involved in providing protection against Salmonella infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a B. breve luxS-insertion mutant is significantly more susceptible to iron chelators than the WT strain and that this sensitivity can be partially reverted in the presence of the AI-2 precursor DPD. Furthermore, we show that several genes of an iron starvation-induced gene cluster, which are downregulated in the luxS-insertion mutant and which encodes a presumed iron-uptake system, are transcriptionally upregulated under in vivo conditions. Mutation of two genes of this cluster in B. breve UCC2003 renders the derived mutant strains sensitive to iron chelators while deficient in their ability to confer gut pathogen protection to Salmonella-infected nematodes. Since a functional luxS gene is present in all tested members of the genus Bifidobacterium, we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition.

  16. Effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the Intestinal Microbiota of Coeliac Children on a Gluten Free Diet: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Andrea; Aloisio, Irene; Bozzi Cionci, Nicole; Luiselli, Donata; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Martinez-Priego, Llúcia; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Langerholc, Tomaž; Primec, Maša; Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka; Di Gioia, Diana

    2016-10-22

    Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD). Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group). Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota . Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum in prophylaxis of diarrhea during radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitapanarux, Imjai; Chitapanarux, Taned; Traisathit, Patrinee; Kudumpee, Sudkaneung; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced diarrhea is frequently observed during pelvic radiotherapy. This study was performed to determine the ability of a probiotic containing live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum to reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin were randomly assigned to a study drug or placebo, in a double-blind study. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) system. Stool consistency and white and red blood cell count in stool were also assessed. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a CTC grade 2 or more, and the need for anti-diarrheal medication. A total of 63 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 -3 diarrhea was observed in 45% of the placebo group (n = 31) and 9% of the study drug group (n = 32) (p = 0.002). Anti-diarrheal medication use was significantly reduced in the placebo group (p = 0.03). The patients in the study drug group had a significantly improved stool consistency (p < 0.001). Live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum reduced the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea and the need for anti-diarrheal medication and had a significant benefits on stool consistency

  18. Effects of the Food Manufacturing Chain on the Viability and Functionality of Bifidobacterium animalis through Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnchai, Pattra; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Prasitpuriprecha, Chutinun; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn; Jantama, Kaemwich

    2016-01-01

    The viability and functionality of probiotics may be influenced by industrial production processes resulting in a decrease in probiotic efficiency that benefit the health of humans. This study aimed to investigate the probiotic characteristics of Bifidobacterium strains isolated from fecal samples of healthy Thai infants. In the present work, three local strains (BF014, BF052, and BH053) belonging to Bifidobacterium animalis showed a great resistance against conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. Among these, B. animalis BF052 possessed considerable probiotic properties, including high acid and bile tolerance, strong adhesion capability to Caco-2 cells, and inhibitory activity against pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. This strain also exhibited a high survival rate compared to commercial strains during storage in a wide variety of products, including pasteurized milk, soy milk, drinking yogurt, and orange juice. The impact of food processing processes as well as the freeze-drying process, storage of freeze-dried powders, and incorporation of freeze-dried cells in food matrix on probiotic properties was also determined. The stability of the probiotic properties of the BF052 strain was not affected by food processing chain, especially its resistance in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its adherence ability to Caco-2 cells. It indicates that it satisfies the criteria as a potential probiotic and may be used as an effective probiotic starter in food applications.

  19. FORMULASI PRODUK SUSU FERMENTASI KERING DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BAKTERI PROBIOTIK Lactobacillus casei DAN Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Hani Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFermented milk is a healthy product that has many benefits especially for human digestive tract. Manufacturing of probiotic fermented milk products as a functional food with a viable long shelf life needs to be developed. The purpose of this study was to formulate a dried fermented milk product using probiotic bacterias. The experimental design study was a complete random design with 4 treatments using different lactic acid bacteria (LAB: A1 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.5%; A2 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25% and Lactobacillus casei: 0.25%; A3 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25%, Lactobacillus bulgaricus: 0.125%, Streptococcus thermophiles: 0.125%; and A4 (Streptococcus lactis: 0.25% and Bifidobacterium longum: 0.25%. The highest level of hardness was A2 product and the highest level of tenderness is A1 product. Results of proximate analysis showed that dried fermented milk products had high levels of the protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Microbiological test results showed that the amount of lactic acid bacteria (BAL in dried fermented milk products were eligible based on CODEX: 243 (2003. Statictical analysis using ANOVA in the hedonic quality test showed that the treatments were significantly different (p 0.05 on the attributes of color, aroma, hardness, and flavor except texture.Key words: dried fermented milk, functional food, probiotic, lactic acid bacteria (LABABSTRAKSusu fermentasi merupakan produk kesehatan yang mempunyai banyak manfaat terutama untuk saluran pencernaan manusia. Pembuatan produk susu fermentasi probiotik sebagai makanan fungsional yang mempunyai kelangsungan hidup dan daya simpan yang lama perlu dikembangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memformulasikan susu fermentasi kering menggunakan bakteri probiotik. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan menggunakan 4 bakteri asam laktat (BAL, (Streptococcus lactis, 0.5%, A2 (Streptococcus lactis; 0.25% dan Lactobacillus casei; 0.25%, A3

  20. Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 in very preterm infants: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeloe, Kate; Hardy, Pollyanna; Juszczak, Edmund; Wilks, Mark; Millar, Michael R

    2016-02-13

    Probiotics may reduce necrotising enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis after preterm birth. However, there has been concern about the rigour and generalisability of some trials and there is no agreement about whether or not they should be used routinely. We aimed to test the effectiveness of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve BBG-001 to reduce necrotising enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and death in preterm infants. In this multicentre, randomised controlled phase 3 study (the PiPS trial), we recruited infants born between 23 and 30 weeks' gestational age within 48 h of birth from 24 hospitals in southeast England. Infants were randomly assigned (1:1) to probiotic or placebo via a minimisation algorithm randomisation programme. The probiotic intervention was B breve BBG-001 suspended in dilute elemental infant formula given enterally in a daily dose of 8·2 to 9·2 log10 CFU; the placebo was dilute infant formula alone. Clinicians and families were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were necrotising enterocolitis (Bell stage 2 or 3), blood culture positive sepsis more than 72 h after birth; and death before discharge from hospital. All primary analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number 05511098 and EudraCT, number 2006-003445-17. Between July 1, 2010, and July 31, 2013, 1315 infants were recruited; of whom 654 were allocated to probiotic and 661 to placebo. Five infants had consent withdrawn after randomisation, thus 650 were analysed in the probiotic group and 660 in the placebo group. Rates of the primary outcomes did not differ significantly between the probiotic and placebo groups. 61 infants (9%) in the probiotic group had necrotising enterocolitis compared with 66 (10%) in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0·93 (95% CI 0·68-1·27); 73 (11%) infants in the probiotics group had sepsis compared with 77 (12%) in the placebo group (0·97 (0·73-1·29); and 54 (8%) deaths occurred before discharge home in the

  1. Supernatant from bifidobacterium differentially modulates transduction signaling pathways for biological functions of human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Hoarau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, the signaling pathways engaged by probiotics are poorly understood. We have previously reported that a fermentation product from Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50sn could induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of DCs via a TLR2 pathway. We therefore studied the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathways on biological functions of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with BbC50sn. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DCs were differentiated from human monocytes with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5 days and cultured with BbC50sn, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Zymosan, with or without specific inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580, ERK (PD98059, PI3K (LY294002 and GSK3 (SB216763. We found that 1 the PI3K pathway was positively involved in the prolonged DC survival induced by BbC50sn, LPS and Zymosan in contrast to p38MAPK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC survival; 2 p38MAPK and PI3K were positively involved in DC maturation, in contrast to ERK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC maturation; 3 ERK and PI3K were positively involved in DC-IL-10 production, in contrast to GSK3 that was positively involved in DC-IL-12 production whereas p38MAPK was positively involved in both; 4 BbC50sn induced a PI3K/Akt phosphorylation similar to Zymosan and a p38MAPK phosphorylation similar to LPS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report for the first time that a fermentation product of a bifidobacteria can differentially activate MAPK, GSK3 and PI3K in order to modulate DC biological functions. These results give new insights on the fine-tuned balance between the maintenance of normal mucosal homeostasis to commensal and probiotic bacteria and the specific inflammatory immune responses to pathogen bacteria.

  2. Improving the storage stability of Bifidobacterium breve in low pH fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2011-09-01

    Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700μJ/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. TEAD4-YAP interaction regulates tumoral growth by controlling cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Nakashima, Dai; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation. In the current study, we found that TEAD4 expression increased significantly in vitro and in vivo and correlated with tumoral size in OSCC patients. TEAD4 knockdown OSCC cells showed decreased cellular proliferation resulting from cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase by down-regulation of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and up-regulation of CDK inhibitors. We also found that the TEAD4-YAP complex in the nuclei may be related closely to transcriptions of G1 arrest-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that TEAD4 might play an important role in tumoral growth and have potential to be a therapeutic target in OSCCs. - Highlights: • TEAD4 contributes to tumor progression in OSCCs. • TEAD4 knockdown results in cell-cycle arrest at the G1phase in OSCC cells. • In TEAD4 knockdown cells, the amount of YAP in the nucleus decreases. • Activation of the TEAD4-YAP complex is an important factor in OSCC tumor growth. • TEAD4 might be a critical biomarker and a therapeutic target for OSCCs.

  4. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  5. ABT-263 induces G1/G0-phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Huan; Que, Fu-Chang; Gu, Chun-Ping; Zhong, De-Sheng; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Yi; Yu, Le; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are regulated by a conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a novel BH3 mimetic and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 family inhibitor with high affinity for Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w has entered clinical trials for cancer treatment. But the anticancer mechanisms of ABT-263 have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the effects of ABT-263 on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and to explore its anticancer mechanisms. Treatment with ABT-263 dose-dependently suppressed the viability of 3 human esophageal cancer cells with IC 50 values of 10.7±1.4, 7.1±1.5 and 8.2±1.6 μmol/L, in EC109, HKESC-2 and CaES-17 cells, respectively. ABT-263 (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest in the 3 cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis evidenced by increased the Annexin V-positive cell population and elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9 and PARP. We further demonstrated that ABT-263 treatment markedly increased the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) (Ser780) proteins that contributed to the G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Knockdown of p21 Waf1/Cip1 attenuated ABT-263-induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Moreover, ABT-263 treatment enhanced pro-survival autophagy, shown as the increased LC3-II levels and decreased p62 levels, which counteracted its anticancer activity. Our results suggest that ABT-263 exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and enhances pro-survival autophagy, which counteracts its anticancer activity.

  6. Interference of Bifidobacterium choerinum or Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 with Salmonella Typhimurium in gnotobiotic piglets correlates with cytokine patterns in blood and intestine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchalová, Alla; Trebichavský, Ilja; Rada, V.; Vlková, E.; Sonnenborn, U.; Šplíchal, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 2 (2011), s. 242-249 ISSN 0009-9104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * gnotobiotic pig * cytokine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.360, year: 2011

  7. Neonatal colonization of germ-free mice with Bifidobacterium longum prevents allergic sensitization to major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Akgün, J.; Wiedermann, U.; Kozáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 46 (2013), s. 5405-5412 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA MŠk 7AMB12AT020 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Allergy * Bifidobacterium * Germ-free mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2013

  8. Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20005 affects in vitro the expression of hly and luxS genes, related to the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes Lm23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Covian, David; Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Hernández-Barranco, A M; Cuesta, Isabel; Gueimonde, Miguel; de Los Reyes Gavilán, Clara G

    2018-03-01

    Mechanistic features that characterize the interaction and inhibition of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by members of the genus Bifidobacterium still remain unclear. In the present work, we tried to shed light on the influence that co-cultivation of L. monocytogenes with Bifidobacterium breve may exert on both microorganisms and on virulence of the pathogen. Production of acetate and lactate was measured by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively; bacterial counts were obtained by plate count; gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR; and haemolytic activity was analyzed against goat erythrocytes. We found slightly but significantly lower final counts of Listeria and Bifidobacterium (p monocytogenes cells from cocultures than in those from monocultures. In contrast, the hly and luxS genes, which code for the cytolysin listeriolysin O and participate in biofilm formation, respectively, were overexpressed when L. monocytogenes was grown in coculture. This indicates that the presence of Bifidobacterium is able to modify the gene expression and haemolytic activity of L. monocytogenes when both microorganisms grow together.

  9. On the Discrete-Time GeoX/G/1 Queues under N-Policy with Single and Multiple Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung J. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue under N-policy with single and multiple vacations. In this queueing system, the server takes multiple vacations and a single vacation whenever the system becomes empty and begins to serve customers only if the queue length is at least a predetermined threshold value N. Using the well-known property of stochastic decomposition, we derive the stationary queue-length distributions for both vacation models in a simple and unified manner. In addition, we derive their busy as well as idle-period distributions. Some classical vacation models are considered as special cases.

  10. Waiting time analysis for MX/G/1 priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norikazu Kawasaki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study MX/G/1 nonpreemptive and preemptive-resume priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service (ROS discipline within each class. By considering the conditional waiting times given the states of the system, which an arbitrary message observes upon arrival, we derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transforms of the waiting time distributions and explicitly obtain the first two moments. The relationship for the second moments under ROS and first-come first-served disciplines extends the one found previously by Takacs and Fuhrmann for non-priority single arrival queues.

  11. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  12. Molecular basis for vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress in a neuroendocrine CRI-G1 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chandiramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many age-associated disorders (including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to impaired cellular bioenergetics and increased oxidative stress. However, it is not known what genetic and molecular pathways underlie differential vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction observed among different cell types.Starting with an insulinoma cell line as a model for a neuronal/endocrine cell type, we isolated a novel subclonal line (named CRI-G1-RS that was more susceptible to cell death induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors than the parental CRI-G1 line (renamed CRI-G1-RR for clarity. Compared to parental RR cells, RS cells were also more vulnerable to direct oxidative stress, but equally vulnerable to mitochondrial uncoupling and less vulnerable to protein kinase inhibition-induced apoptosis. Thus, differential vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins between these two cell types likely reflects differences in their ability to handle metabolically generated reactive oxygen species rather than differences in ATP production/utilization or in downstream apoptotic machinery. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and follow-up biochemical studies revealed that, in this experimental system, increased vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress was associated with (1 inhibition of ARE/Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway; (2 decreased expression of antioxidant and phase I/II conjugation enzymes, most of which are Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (3 increased expression of molecular chaperones, many of which are also considered Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (4 increased expression of β cell-specific genes and transcription factors that specify/maintain β cell fate; and (5 reconstitution of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.The molecular profile presented here will enable identification of individual genes or gene clusters that shape vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction and

  13. Arrest of irradiated G1, S, or G2 cells at mitosis using nocodazole promotes repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, irradiated in G1, S, and G2 phases, to repair potentially lethal damage when arrested at mitosis by using 0.4 μg/ml nocodazole, a specific inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, has been studied. Cells irradiated in these phases were found to repair potentially lethal damage at mitosis. The extent of this repair was similar to that observed for cells irradiated at the same stages in the cell cycle but allowed to repair potentially lethal damage by incubating in balanced salt solution for 6 hr after X irradiation

  14. Thermal analyses for a nuclear-waste repository in tuff using USW-G1 borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal calculations using properties of tuffs obtained from the USW-G1 borehole, located near the SW margin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), have been completed for a nuclear waste repository sited in welded tuff below the water table. The analyses considered two wasteforms, high level waste and spent fuel, emplaced at two different, gross thermal loadings, 50 and 75 kW/Acre (20.24 and 30.36 kW/ha). Calculations were made assuming that no boiling of the groundwater occurs; i.e., that the hydrostatic head potential was reestablished soon after waste emplacement. 23 figures, 2 tables

  15. A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.

  16. Comparative Diagnosis of Serum IgG1 and Coproantigen ELISA for Fasciolosis Detection of Goats in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Pedro; Hernández-Guzmán, Karina; Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Zumaquero-Ríos, José

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of natural caprine fasciolosis in the Mixteca region of Mexico using coproantigen and serum IgG1 ELISA tests for comparative purposes. A total of 1070 serum and faecal samples were analyzed for IgG1 antibodies and coproantigens, using ELISA with E/S products as antigen and a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Prevalence of 73.46% was found using the serological ELISA and a percentage of 77.20 was found for coproantigen ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for serum ELISA were 86.7% and 96.4%, and for the coproantigen ELISA they were 93.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The seropositive samples were further categorized as low, medium, or high positivity. Results show a great proportion of low and medium positive goats when the serum ELISA test was used. Correlation coefficients between coproantigens and seropositivity were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for low seropositivity (r = 0.93) and medium seropositivity (r = 0.84). The accuracy of faecal antigen ELISA was higher compared to indirect ELISA serological test. Two ELISAs were shown to be useful for demonstrating the current status of F. hepatica infection in the endemic areas and can be employed in studies on epidemiology as well as anthelmintics treatment for preventing economic loss and the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:27563665

  17. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  18. The polarised photon g1γ sum rule at the linear collider and high luminosity B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The sum rule for the first moment of the polarised (virtual) photon structure function g 1 γ (x,Q 2 ;K 2 ) is revisited in the light of proposals for future e + e - colliders. The sum rule exhibits an array of phenomena characteristic of QCD: for real photons (K 2 =0) electromagnetic gauge invariance constrains the first moment to vanish; the limit for asymptotic photon virtuality (m ρ 2 -bar K 2 -bar Q 2 ) is governed by the electromagnetic U A (1) axial anomaly and the approach to asymptopia by the gluonic anomaly; for intermediate values of K 2 , it reflects the realisation of chiral symmetry and is determined by the off-shell radiative couplings of the pseudoscalar mesons; finally, like many polarisation phenomena in QCD, the first moment of g 1 γ involves the gluon topological susceptibility. In this paper, we review the original sum rule proposed by Narison, Shore and Veneziano and extend the relation with pseudoscalar mesons. The possibility of measuring the sum rule in future polarised e + e - colliders is then considered in detail, focusing on the International Linear Collider (ILC) and high luminosity B factories. We conclude that all the above features of the sum rule should be accessible at a polarised collider with the characteristics of SuperKEKB

  19. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors

  20. Iso-suillin isolated from Suillus luteus, induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Ying; Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Iso-suillin, a natural product isolated from Suillus luteus, has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate how iso-suillin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7721). We demonstrated the effects of iso-suillin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, with no apparent toxicity in normal human lymphocytes, using colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of G1 phase-regulated and apoptosis-associated protein levels in iso-suillin treated SMMC-7721 cells. The results indicated that iso-suillin significantly decreased viability, induced G1 phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of iso-suillin as a candidate for liver cancer treatment.

  1. Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth of Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro by Inducing G1 Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kumar Vadivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a widely available plant-derived triterpene which is reported to possess selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukemia. However, the potential of betulinic acid as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on vascular smooth muscle (VSMC is still unclear. This study was carried out to demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid on VSMCs using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry cell cycle assay, BrdU proliferation assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and comet assay. Result from MTT and BrdU assays indicated that betulinic acid was able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 3.8 μg/mL significantly (P<0.05. Nevertheless, betulinic acid exhibited G1 cell cycle arrest in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling and low level of DNA damage against VSMC in acridine orange/propidium iodide and comet assay after 24 h of treatment. In conclusion, betulinic acid induced G1 cell cycle arrest and dose-dependent DNA damage on VSMC.

  2. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  3. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Cassimere

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140, which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks.

  4. BDE-47 and BDE-209 inhibit proliferation of Neuro-2a cells via inducing G1-phase arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ningning; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Fang, Kuan; Wang, You

    2017-03-01

    Cell proliferation is closely related to cell cycle which is strictly regulated by genes and regulatory proteins. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed the toxic effects of BDE-47 and BDE-209 on cell proliferation of Neuro-2a cells, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The results indicated that BDE-47 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and the cell cycle were arrest at G1 phase, while BDE-209 had little effects on either cell proliferation or cell cycle. qRT-PCR and Western blot assay presented that BDE-47 up-regulated the gene expressions of p53 and p21, which down-regulated the expresseion of cyclinD1 and CDK2, and inhibited retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation. This process could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase, which finally caused the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. However, BDE-209 was only up-regulated the gene expressions of p53, also suggested to be involved in the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mitotic catastrophe occurs in the absence of apoptosis in p53-null cells with a defective G1 checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Fragkos

    Full Text Available Cell death occurring during mitosis, or mitotic catastrophe, often takes place in conjunction with apoptosis, but the conditions in which mitotic catastrophe may exhibit features of programmed cell death are still unclear. In the work presented here, we studied mitotic cell death by making use of a UV-inactivated parvovirus (adeno-associated virus; AAV that has been shown to induce a DNA damage response and subsequent death of p53-defective cells in mitosis, without affecting the integrity of the host genome. Osteosarcoma cells (U2OSp53DD that are deficient in p53 and lack the G1 cell cycle checkpoint respond to AAV infection through a transient G2 arrest. We found that the infected U2OSp53DD cells died through mitotic catastrophe with no signs of chromosome condensation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cell death was independent of caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, autophagy and necroptosis. These findings were confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of cellular morphology following AAV infection. The assays used readily revealed apoptosis in other cell types when it was indeed occurring. Taken together the results indicate that in the absence of the G1 checkpoint, mitotic catastrophe occurs in these p53-null cells predominantly as a result of mechanical disruption induced by centrosome overduplication, and not as a consequence of a suicide signal.

  6. Inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 suppressed tumor growth not via apoptosis but G0/G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shingo; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Mukai, Yumiko; Yamori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a potential target in cancer therapy. Inhibition of PI3K is believed to induce apoptosis. We recently developed a novel PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with antitumor efficacy. In this study, we have examined the underlying mode of action by which ZSTK474 exerts its antitumor efficacy. In vivo, ZSTK474 effectively inhibited the growth of human cancer xenografts. In parallel, ZSTK474 treatment suppressed the expression of phospho-Akt, suggesting effective PI3K inhibition, and also suppressed the expression of nuclear cyclin D1 and Ki67, both of which are hallmarks of proliferation. However, ZSTK474 treatment did not increase TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In vitro, ZSTK474 induced marked G 0 /G 1 arrest, but did not increase the subdiploid cells or activate caspase, both of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. These results clearly indicated that inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 did not induce apoptosis but rather induced strong G 0 /G 1 arrest, which might cause its efficacy in tumor cells.

  7. Mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    The mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 was previously determined using qualitative and semiquantitative techniques, and most of the available data were neither complete nor accurate. New quantitative x-ray diffraction data were obtained for rocks from all three of these drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These quantitative analyses employed both external and internal standard x-ray powder diffraction methods and permitted the precise determination of all phases commonly found in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, including glass and opal-CT. These new data supplant previous analyses and include numerous additional phases. New findings of particular importance include better constraints on the distribution of the more soluble silica polymorphs, cristobalite and opal-CT. Opal-CT was associated solely with clinoptilolite-bearing horizons, and cristobalite disappearance coincided with the appearance of analcime in USW G-1. Unlike previous analyses, we identified significant amounts of smectite in drill hole J-13. We found no evidence to support previous reports of the occurrence of erionite or phillipsite in these drill holes

  8. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  9. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia, E-mail: schakraborti@post.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors.

  10. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising IgG

  11. 部件串联的Geometric/G/1可修排队系统费用模型%Parts Series' Geometric/G/1 Repairable Queueing System Cost Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石天林

    2008-01-01

    研究一个部件串联的离散时间Geometric/G/1可修排队系统的费用优化策略.考虑服务台的服务率是可控制的,顾客的到达时间和服务时间均服从几何分布,给出系统的费用参数模型,并结合数值计算实例分析了系统的各参数对系统的最优平均服务时间和最优费用的影响.

  12. Variation of the material laplacian of G1 with the radius of the uranium bar; Variation du laplacien matiere de G1 avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    In this report are described and interpreted some experiments, carried out in the pile G1 during a period of shut-down, which have made it possible to measure the variation of the material Laplacian of the lattice with the radius of the uranium bar. The variation of the reactivity of the pile is measured when an increasing number of fuel elements are progressively replaced in the central region by fuel elements of greater diameter; it is shown that, starting from measurements based on less than ten per cent of the total number of elements, the variation of reactivity corresponding to the replacement of all the elements can be determined; it is then easy to deduce the variations of the Laplacian. Results: the variations of the Laplacian with the uranium rod diameter are 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (author) [French] Dans ce rapport sont decrites et interpretees des experiences realisees sur la pile G1 'froide', experiences qui ont permis de mesurer la variation du Laplacien matiere du reseau avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium. On mesure la variation de reactivite de la pile lorsqu'on remplace progressivement dans la region centrale un nombre croissant de cartouches par des cartouches de plus gros diametre; on montre qu'a partir de mesures portant sur moins de dix pour cent du nombre total de cartouches, on peut determiner la variation de reactivite qui correspondrait au remplacement de toutes les cartouches; il est facile d'en deduire les variations du Laplacien. Resultats: les variations du Laplacien en fonction du diametre du barreau d'uranium sont: 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (auteur)

  13. A Gene Homologous to rRNA Methylase Genes Confers Erythromycin and Clindamycin Resistance in Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Noelia; Luque, Roberto; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Bañuelos, Oscar; Margolles, Abelardo

    2018-05-15

    Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria, and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are nonpathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance determinants for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. In order to delimit the genomic region responsible for the observed resistance phenotype, a library of genomic DNA was constructed and a fragment of 5.8 kb containing a gene homologous to rRNA methylase genes was able to confer erythromycin resistance in Escherichia coli This genomic region seems to be very uncommon, and homologs of the gene have been detected in only one strain of Bifidobacterium longum and two other strains of B. breve In this context, analysis of shotgun metagenomics data sets revealed that the gene is also uncommon in the microbiomes of adults and infants. The structural gene and its upstream region were cloned into a B. breve -sensitive strain, which became resistant after acquiring the genetic material. In vitro conjugation experiments did not allow us to detect gene transfer to other recipients. Nevertheless, prediction of genes potentially acquired through horizontal gene transfer events revealed that the gene is located in a putative genomic island. IMPORTANCE Bifidobacterium breve is a very common human intestinal bacterium. Often described as a pioneer microorganism in the establishment of early-life intestinal microbiota, its presence has been associated with several beneficial effects for the host, including immune stimulation and protection against infections. Therefore, some strains of this species are considered probiotics. In relation to this

  14. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  15. CyclinG1 Amplification Enhances Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Polyploid Resistance and Inhibition of Bcl-2 Pathway Reverses the Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: CyclinG1 (CycG1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and overexpression of CycG1 promotes cell survival upon paclitaxel exposure by inducing polyploidy. Whether and how CycG1 regulates polyploidization caused by small molecular targeted inhibitors remains unclear. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were utilized to examine protein expression. Cell proliferation was measured by ATPlite assay, and cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and/or DNA fragmentation assays. Results: Overexpression of CycG1 in breast cancer cells caused apoptosis-resistant polyploidy upon treatment with Aurora kinase inhibitor, ZM447439 (ZM. Addition of ABT-263, a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, to ZM, produced a synergistic loss of cell viability with greater sustained tumor growth inhibition in breast cancer cell lines. Decrease of Mcl-1 and increase of NOXA caused by ZM treatment, were responsible for the synergy. Furthermore, CycG1 was highly expressed in Triple-Negative-Breast-Cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and was paralleled by decreased cell survival. Conclusion: CycG1 is a crucial factor in ZM-induced polyploidy resistance, and ABT-263/ZM combination hold therapeutic utility in the CycG1-amplified subset of breast cancer and CycG1, thus, is a promising target in breast cancer.

  16. On the Two-Moment Approximation of the Discrete-Time GI/G/1 Queue with a Single Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time GI/G/1 queue in which the server takes exactly one vacation each time the system becomes empty. The interarrival times of arriving customers, the service times, and the vacation times are all generic discrete random variables. Under our study, we derive an exact transform-free expression for the stationary system size distribution through the modified supplementary variable technique. Utilizing obtained results, we introduce a simple two-moment approximation for the system size distribution. From this, approximations for the mean system size along with the system size distribution could be obtained. Finally, some numerical examples are given to validate the proposed approximation method.

  17. A short G1 phase imposes constitutive replication stress and fork remodelling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, Akshay K.; Jodkowska, Karolina; Teloni, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a transient biological state, where pluripotency is coupled with fast proliferation. ESCs display a constitutively active DNA damage response (DDR), but its molecular determinants have remained elusive. Here we show in cultured ESCs and mouse embryos that H2AX...... these marks of replication stress do not impair the mitotic process and are rapidly lost at differentiation onset. Delaying the G1/S transition in ESCs allows formation of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and suppresses ssDNA accumulation, fork slowing and reversal in the following S-phase. Genetic inactivation of fork...... slowing and reversal leads to chromosomal breakage in unperturbed ESCs. We propose that rapid cell cycle progression makes ESCs dependent on effective replication-coupled mechanisms to protect genome integrity....

  18. Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding

  19. Analysis of an M|G|1|R queue with batch arrivals and two hysteretic overload control policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidamaka Yuliya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hysteretic control of arrivals is one of the most easy-to-implement and effective solutions of overload problems occurring in SIP-servers. A mathematical model of an SIP server based on the queueing system M[X]|G|1(L,H|(H,R with batch arrivals and two hysteretic loops is being analyzed. This paper proposes two analytical methods for studying performance characteristics related to the number of customers in the system. Two control policies defined by instants when it is decided to change the system’s mode are considered. The expression for an important performance characteristic of each policy (the mean time between changes in the system mode is presented. Numerical examples that allow comparison of the efficiency of both policies are given

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo