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Sample records for bifida affected child

  1. Mother and Child Depressive Symptoms in Youth with Spina Bifida: Additive, Moderator, and Mediator Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellinger, Kriston B.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Essner, Bonnie S.; Alvarez, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which parenting behaviors influence the relation between maternal and child depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida and a comparison sample. Previous research has found that maternal depression not only negatively impacts the mother-child relationship, but also places the child at risk…

  2. Spina Bifida. NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #12

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Spina bifida" is one of the most common birth defects in the United States, affecting some 1,500 babies each year. Spina bifida happens during the first month or so of pregnancy and means that the baby's spine did not close completely. Damage to the nerves and the spinal cord may result. Following a brief story about a child with a…

  3. The Infant and Young Child with Spina Bifida: Major Medical Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Catherine M.

    1997-01-01

    This review of medical concerns in dealing with spina bifida examines neurologic and neurosurgical issues, learning issues, urological dysfunction, orthopedic issues, bowel control, latex allergy, and prenatal diagnosis and prevention. (JDD)

  4. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  5. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms and haplotypes and the risk for having offspring affected with spina bifida in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrera, Lizbeth; Martín Cerda-Flores, Ricardo; Luna-Rivero, Marianne; Canto-Herrera, Jorge; Pinto-Escalante, Doris; Perez-Herrera, Norma; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2010-11-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a common congenital malformation in Southeast Mexico. Parents of children with SB reside in areas with frequent pesticide spraying or have agriculture activities, suggesting potential exposure to pesticides. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is the responsible enzyme for deactivation of organophosphates (OP) in the central nervous system. Polymorphisms of PON1 genes influence the catalytic activity and plasma protein level of the enzyme, therefore, genotypic characterization of PON1 gene represents a potential predictor for susceptibility to OP-related effects. The frequency of PON1 haplotypes and polymorphisms (-108CT, L55M, and Q192R) were determined in this study. A case-control study was performed to evaluate the risk for having offspring affected by SB in 152 cases and 160 control parents. Polymorphisms were determined by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism and Real Time-PCR. Odds ratios and confidence interval 95% were estimated. Genotype frequencies for the three PON1 polymorphisms were distributed according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations (p > 0.05) and were significantly different between cases and controls (p Mexico. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Discrepancies in mother and child perceptions of spina bifida medical responsibilities during the transition to adolescence: associations with family conflict and medical adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psihogios, Alexandra M; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated mother-child discrepancies over perceptions of who is responsible for spina bifida (SB) medical tasks in relation to family conflict and medical adherence. 140 youth with SB and their mothers completed questionnaires regarding who is responsible for specific SB medical tasks, family conflict, and medical adherence. An observational measure was also used to assess family conflict. Although children viewed themselves as more responsible for medical management than mothers did, mother-child discrepancies were not associated with family conflict or medical adherence. Interaction effects revealed that adherence was better when family conflict was low and when parents were responsible for medical tasks. Parental involvement in SB medical care is essential for optimal medical adherence during adolescence. The presence of family conflict also plays an influential role on SB medical adherence. Future research should evaluate the relations between discrepancies, family conflict, and medical adherence across time.

  7. Spina Bifida Cystica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    andrew

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... disability of the infant. The prevalence of Spina Bifida varies across time, region, race and ... Family history of Spina Bifida was present in 7.8%. Nearly all patients (98%) had myelomeningocele with a most ... Birth ranking was ascertained by history provided by the mother, miscarriages before 28 weeks.

  8. A reproductive history of mothers with spina bifida offspring-a new look at old issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Thomas L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spina bifida is a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system associated with failure of neural tube closure in the fetus. Reproductive history studies of mothers with spina bifida offspring have often been conducted shortly after the affected child's birth. In this study, a large group of community-based mothers were studied after most had completed their families. The aims were to present a more comprehensive reproductive history and to test several hypotheses regarding the nature of spina bifida. Methods Data from 271 mothers was collected by interview 18.3 mean years after the affected child's birth. Data analysis was by χ-square, Fisher exact test and t test with a p value less than 0.05 considered significant. Results Females made up 56.5% of affected offspring (probands and 53.1% of unaffected offspring. The spina bifida and anencephaly recurrence rate was 4.0%. The twinning rate was 8.6/1000 live births. 24.4% of mothers had a history of spontaneous abortion and the rate varied by pregnancy order from 87 to 185/1000 live births. Duration of pregnancies subsequent to probands was shorter for female than male probands. Mean birth weight of probands with high lesions exceeded those with low lesions. A spontaneous abortion preceded female probands more often than males as compared to live births. Affected males with high lesions conceived by white mothers were at greater risk to be spontaneously aborted. Previous inter-gestational interval for mothers with no history of spontaneous abortion was longer for probands than unaffected offspring but not for mothers with a history of spontaneous abortion. Conclusion Overall, and for every major subgroup of these mothers, more affected and unaffected female than male offspring were born. Differences by gender and lesion level among probands and between probands and unaffected offspring were consistent with an etiology of unknown genetic factors, hormonal and/or immune system

  9. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  10. Spina Bifida Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Spina bifida ... the spine. Read below for the latest national statistics on spina bifida in the United States. In ...

  11. Is continence status associated with quality of life in young children with spina bifida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kurt A; Smith, Kathryn; Adams, Elizabeth; Mizokawa, Stacey; Neville-Jan, Ann

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between child- and parent-reported quality of life (QOL) and bowel and bladder continence among young children with spina bifida (SB). 104 children ages 5-12 years and one of their parents/guardians completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - Generic Form (PedsQL; parent and child) and the Quality of Life in Spina Bifida Questionnaire (QOLSBQ, parent only). Data on continence, child age, and condition-specific variables were obtained by chart review. Parent and child QOL scores (on all measures of QOL) were positively correlated; parents rated child QOL lower than children's self report. QOL scores did not differ based on continence status. Total PedsQL scores were associated with age and mobility based on child report and with mobility based on parent report. QOL may not be affected by continence status among young children with SB, though demographic (i.e., age) and condition-specific (i.e., functional mobility status) variables appear relevant. Additional research is needed to further evaluate condition-specific variables, other protective variables, and possible measurement issues that influence QOL in young children with SB.

  12. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  14. Spina Bifida Clinic Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7th Avenue S. Birmingham, AL 35233 (205) 939-5281 https://www.childrensal.org/SpinaBifidaProgram UAB Spain Rehab Adult ... Ave S Birmingham, AL 35249 Phone: (205) 934-4131 http://www.uabmedicine.org/locations/spain-rehabilitation-center Children’s ...

  15. [Orthopedic management of spina bifida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, R

    2014-07-01

    Spina bifida is associated with congenital deformities, such as kyphosis, spinal malformations, teratological hip dislocations, clubfeet, vertical talus and also with acquired deformities due to muscle imbalance and impaired biomechanics. The degree of the acquired deformities and the mobility of the patient depend on the level of the spinal lesion. Neurological symptoms are mostly asymmetric and there is an inconsistent correlation between the anatomical level of the lesion and muscle function. Deficits of sensation are usually one to two levels lower than the motor level. An exact neurological diagnosis should not be made before the second or third year of life and an early prognosis about walking ability should be avoided. The level L3 and therefore function of the quadriceps is a functional milestone after which modified independent ambulation with the use of ankle foot orthoses (AFO) and crutches is possible. The basic principle is to support verticalization and gait even when loss of ambulation is later expected. It is also important to support and maintain sitting ability for high lesions, if necessary with correction of the spinal deformity. Findings in gait analysis have shifted the focus of treatment from radiological criteria to functional improvement, thus maintenance of the flexibility of the hip is the main goal of hip surgery. Reduction of the hip often leads to stiffness and has a high redislocation rate. Clubfoot deformities should be treated early and foot arthrodesis and stiffness have to be avoided. Another focus is the prevention of joint contracture by early prophylactic treatment. The purpose of management is to maximize the functional potential of the child. Subjective well-being, absence of pain, mobility and socialization are the main goals. This does not necessarily imply ambulation; nevertheless, verticalization and associated orthotic management is one major objective of the orthopedic management of spina bifida.

  16. Spina bifida and sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Michael Ernst; Biering-Sørensen, Ida; Liebach, Annette

    2014-01-01

    , neurological examination, personal interview, Functional Independence Measure (FIMTM), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) on quality of life, and questions on sexual function and related topics. Study cohort: Fifty-three participants (27 women, 26 men) with spina bifida (mean age 27.1, range 18......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sexual function amongst adult individuals with spina bifida and to register their subjective satisfaction with their sexual life and relationships. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cohort study. Medical record information......-35) years. Response rate 74%. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of subjects regarded their sexual life as a failure or dysfunctional. However, 45% reported being satisfied with their sexual life. Participants with partners were more satisfied with their sexual life than those without partners. Faecal...

  17. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  18. Spina bifida and parental occupation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were: (1) to identify parental occupations with an increased risk of spina bifida in offspring; (2) to study whether parental occupational exposure to chemicals or radiation during or shortly before pregnancy is a risk factor for the occurrence of spina bifida. In order to

  19. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  20. Hospitalization for urinary tract infections and the quality of preventive health care received by people with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Ouyang, Lijing; Thibadeau, Judy; Grosse, Scott D; Campbell, Vincent A; Joseph, David

    2009-07-01

    The preventive health care needs of people with disabilities often go unmet, resulting in medical complications that may require hospitalization. Such complications could be due, in part, to difficulty accessing care or the quality of ambulatory care services received. To use hospitalizations for urinary tract infections (UTIs) as a marker of the potential quality of ambulatory care services received by people affected by spina bifida. MarketScan inpatient and outpatient medical claims data for 2000 through 2003 were used to identify hospitalizations for UTI, which is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, for people affected by spina bifida and to calculate inpatient discharge rates, average lengths of stay, and average medical care expenditures for such hospitalizations. People affected by spina bifida averaged 0.5 hospitalizations per year, and there were 22.8 inpatient admissions with UTI per 1000 persons with spina bifida during the period 2000-2003, in comparison to an average of 0.44 admission with UTI per 1000 persons for those without spina bifida. If the number of UTI hospitalizations among people affected by spina bifida were reduced by 50%, expenditures could be reduced by $4.4 million per 1000 patients. Consensus on the evaluation and management of bacteriuria could enhance clinical care and reduce the disparity in UTI discharge rates among people affected by spina bifida compared to those without spina bifida. National evidence-based guidelines are needed.

  1. Trajectories of autonomy development across the adolescent transition in children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah; Holmbeck, Grayson N; DeLucia, Christian; Jandasek, Barbara; Zebracki, Kathy

    2009-02-01

    The current study investigated individual growth in autonomy development across the adolescent transition, comparing the trajectories of children with and without spina bifida. Individual growth curve modeling procedures were utilized to describe the developmental course of autonomy across four waves of data collection, from ages 9 to 15, and to test whether illness status [spina bifida vs. matched comparison group (N = 68 for both groups at Time 1)] would significantly predict individual variability in autonomy development. Potential moderators [child gender, SES, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) score] of the association between illness status and autonomy development were also examined. Children with spina bifida demonstrated distinct developmental trajectories, though the nature of the group differences varied by type of autonomy development (emotional vs. behavioral), context (i.e. school vs. family), and reporter. Significant interactions with PPVT score and child gender were found. Overall, children with spina bifida show considerable developmental resiliency, but may lag behind their peers in specific areas of autonomy. Boys with spina bifida, and children with spina bifida who have lower than average levels of verbal intelligence, appear to be at greater risk for exhibiting delays in autonomy development.

  2. Spina bifida: A multidisciplinary perspective on a many-faceted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (SBM) is the most common birth defect involving the central nervous system, second only in incidence to congenital cardiac disease. Although recognised since antiquity, with anthropological relics depicting affected individuals and suggestive descriptions in the writings of ...

  3. Physical fitness, ambulation en physical activity in ambulatory children with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.F. de

    2010-01-01

    Children with chronic disease or child-onset disability, like Spina Bifida (SB) are at increased risk of being inactive. Earlier studies in adolescents and young adults, have found correlations between an inactive lifestyle and lower levels of aerobic fitness. A second important issue being raised

  4. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on spina bifida is offered in both English and Spanish. It provides definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele). Incidence figures are given as are typical characteristics of children with spina bifida. Educational implications are briefly noted, including the need to…

  5. Functional aspects of spina bifida in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Maria Adriana Gerdina Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Due to advanced medical treatment, more children with spina bifida survive into adulthood. Most outcome studies in the field of spina bifida research focus on disease aspects (‘pathology’) and its relation to one of the domains in the ‘disablement process’ such as physical functioning, cognitive

  6. Is autonomy related to the quality of performance of everyday activities in children with spina bifida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peny-Dahlstrand, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the level of autonomy and the quality of performance of everyday activities in a population-based cohort of children with spina bifida and to study the agreement between the children's and the parents' ratings of autonomy. 50 dyads of children (aged 6-14) with spina bifida and their parents rated the children's level of autonomy with an adapted, Swedish version of the Autonomy Scale from the Arc's Self-Determination Scale. Each child's quality of performance of everyday activities was assessed with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The autonomy levels of the children with spina bifida were rated to be lowest in daily routines and highest in leisure activities. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that age, motor skills and process skills were all significantly related to the autonomy level, but that process skills appeared to predominate in this respect. Concerning the perception of the autonomy level, little agreement was found between each child and his/her parent. It is important to understand and support the development of process skills as expressed in task performance in children with spina bifida and to pay attention to both the parent's and the child's opinion when setting goals and plans for interventions.

  7. Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent–child coregulation and the development of child behavior problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUNKENHEIMER, ERIKA S.; OLSON, SHERYL L.; HOLLENSTEIN, TOM; SAMEROFF, ARNOLD J.; WINTER, CHARLOTTE

    2018-01-01

    Parent–child dyadic rigidity and negative affect contribute to children’s higher levels of externalizing problems. The present longitudinal study examined whether the opposite constructs of dyadic flexibility and positive affect predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior problems across the early childhood period. Mother–child (N = 163) and father–child (n = 94) dyads engaged in a challenging block design task at home when children were 3 years old. Dynamic systems methods were used to derive dyadic positive affect and three indicators of dyadic flexibility (range, dispersion, and transitions) from observational coding. We hypothesized that the interaction between dyadic flexibility and positive affect would predict lower levels of externalizing problems at age 5.5 years as rated by mothers and teachers, controlling for stability in externalizing problems, task time, child gender, and the child’s effortful control. The hypothesis was supported in predicting teacher ratings of child externalizing from both mother–child and father–child interactions. There were also differential main effects for mothers and fathers: mother–child flexibility was detrimental and father–child flexibility was beneficial for child outcomes. Results support the inclusion of adaptive and dynamic parent–child coregulation processes in the study of children’s early disruptive behavior. PMID:23786697

  8. The adverse influence of spina bifida occulta on the medical treatment outcome of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous reports have suggested that the incidence of spina bifida occulta (SBO in patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is higher than the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of spina bifida occulta on the medical treatment outcome of PMNE. Material and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, a total of 223 children (151 boys and 72 girls, aged 6-16 years; mean age: 10.1 ± 3.04 years with PMNE were reviewed retrospectively. All of the children underwent physical examination, urine analysis, urinary tract ultrasonography and kidney ureter bladder (KUB scout film. All patients were initially treated with a timed voiding program and were given desmopressin acetate when necessary. Results: Spina bifida occulta was detected in 75 children (33.6%. Spina bifida occulta affected L4 in 2 children, L5 in 6 children, L4-L5 in 3 children, S1 in 52 children, S2 in 7 children and S1-S2 in 2 children. Treatment was successful in 79% of the children without SBO, and in only 48% of the children with SBO. Medical treatment success rates differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of spina bifida occulta significantly affects the response to medical treatment in patients with PMNE. Thus, verifying spina bifida occulta status in PMNE can facilitate prognostic predictions about the response to medical treatment.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and internet sites that offer free and for purchase personal health records, go the The American Health ... team is a high-risk pregnancy specialist with experience managing a Spina Bifida pregnancy. Babies with myelomeningocele, ...

  10. Perineal Sensation Predictive of Spina Bifida Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic examination, including perineal sensation, was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 117 consecutive patients with open spina bifida at St George's, University of London, and Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

  11. Test Your Knowledge of Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specialize in spina bifida, to high health care costs from frequent surgeries and hospitalizations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) projects improve the quality of life and encourage full participation at every ...

  12. Individual differences in effects of child care quality : The role of child affective self-regulation and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands.

  13. Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Bakker, M.K.; Nijenhuis, C.M.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    Purpose Women with child wish are advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for spina bifida. However, there is less evidence for this protective effect in women using valproic acid (VPA). We investigated the effect of folic acid in women exposed to VPA in the first trimester of

  14. Presurgical assessment of spina bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, J.P.; Fitzgerald, P.; Redmond, O.; Ennis, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five children (mean age, 8 years) with spina bifida (occult in 10), who were under active consideration for surgical intervention became of clinical deterioration have been assessed with MR imaging. T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (500/17 [repetition time msec/echo time msec]) were obtained in at least two planes. T2-weighted SE sequences were reserved for further tissue characterization. Anomalies detected requiring surgical review included diastematomyelia (n = 6), tethered cord (n = 10), hydromyelia (n = 4), and cord cyst (n = 1). Eight were not considered for surgery (cord atrophy and small hydromyelias). Diastem spurs were best identified on CT. MR imaging provided accurate preoperative assessment (11 of 13 cases) and will replace invasive tests, which should now be reserved for those cases where MR imaging does not elucidate the clinical signs

  15. Medical adherence in young adolescents with spina bifida: longitudinal associations with family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepansky, Mona A; Roache, Caitlin R; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Schultz, Karen

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to explore the transfer of responsibility of medical tasks from parent to child during the transition to adolescence, and (2) to examine the associations between family functioning and medical adherence in youth with spina bifida. Seventy families of children with spina bifida participated in this study. Data were collected during family interaction sessions by using questionnaires completed by mothers, fathers, youth, teachers and health professionals. Findings suggest that responsibility for medical regimens transfers gradually from parent to child over time. Additionally, family conflict and cohesion were correlated with medical adherence. Finally, family conflict over medical issues was related to a decrease in medical adherence over time. Results suggest that as youth take more responsibility over their medical regimens, family conflict regarding medical issues becomes a contributor to their adherence behaviors. Interventions that target family conflict may facilitate adherence behaviors.

  16. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  17. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  18. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mood-Stabilizing Anticonvulsants, Spina Bifida, and Folate Supplementation: Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neil; Viguera, Adele C; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2018-02-01

    High risks of neural tube defects and other teratogenic effects are associated with exposure in early pregnancy to some anticonvulsants, including in women with bipolar disorder. Based on a semistructured review of recent literature, we summarized findings pertaining to this topic. Valproate and carbamazepine are commonly used empirically (off-label) for putative long-term mood-stabilizing effects. Both anticonvulsants have high risks of teratogenic effects during pregnancy. Risks of neural tube defects (especially spina bifida) and other major malformations are especially great with valproate and can arise even before pregnancy is diagnosed. Standard supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy can reduce risk of spontaneous spina bifida, but not that associated with valproate or carbamazepine. In contrast, lamotrigine has regulatory approval for long-term use in bipolar disorder and appears not to have teratogenic effects in humans. Lack of protective effects against anticonvulsant-associated neural tube defects by folic acid supplements in anticipation of and during pregnancy is not widely recognized. This limitation and high risks of neural tube and other major teratogenic effects, especially of valproate, indicate the need for great caution in the use of valproate and carbamazepine to treat bipolar disorder in women of child-bearing age.

  20. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  1. Obesity Prevention for Individuals with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele; Bandini, Linda G; Sawin, Kathleen J

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in individuals with spina bifida. Carrying excess weight exacerbates the inherent health challenges associated with spina bifida, impedes the individual's ability to self-manage their condition, and creates further challenges for family members and caregivers. This manuscript provides a narrative review of key issues for understanding and prevention of obesity in persons with spina bifida within the context of the social ecological model. Specific variables related to obesity and spina bifida include individual factors (i.e., body composition and measurement issues, energy needs, eating patterns, physical activity, and sedentary activity) family factors (i.e., parenting/family, peers), community factors (i.e., culture, built environment, healthcare and healthcare providers, and school), and societal factors (i.e., policy issues). Due to the complex etiology of obesity and its increased prevalence in individuals with spina bifida, it is critical to initiate prevention efforts early with a multifactorial approach for this at-risk population. Increased research is warranted to support these efforts.

  2. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  3. Mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers of children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm-Buatsi, Elizabeth; Aston, Christopher E; Ryan, Jamie; Tao, Yeun; Palmer, Blake W; Kropp, Bradley P; Klein, Jake; Wisniewski, Amy B; Frimberger, Dominic

    2015-04-01

    Within the chronic medical illness literature, associations exist between caring for an affected child and parent mental health. The few studies examining both mothers and fathers provide mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between caregiver anxiety, depression, and parenting variables in caregivers of youth with SB as these relate to marital status, age, education, household income, work status, and child's severity of SB. The aim of this study is to examine associations between anxiety, depression, and parenting variables in caregivers of youth with spina bifida and how they relate to demographic and disease variables. Exploratory analyses examined the relationship between participation in support activities and depressive and anxious symptomatology and parenting characteristics. Eighty-four primary caregivers (49 mothers) of 51 youth with spina bifida completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomology, parenting stress, parent overprotection, and perceived child vulnerability. There were differences between mothers and fathers on several parenting characteristics; however, these were related more to marital status and employment than to gender of the caretaker per se. In the 33 married/remarried couples for whom both spouses participated, stress for the mothers was correlated with stress for the fathers. This correlation was strongest in the 12 married couples in which the mother works. Higher perceived vulnerability scores were reported in parents of SB patients in the younger age group, especially preschoolers (0-4 years). Parents of children with shunts reported more anxiety, depression and perceived child vulnerability. Both male and female caregivers of younger children reported significantly higher protectiveness scores. Involvement in recreational activities with other families affected by SB was associated with more positive parenting characteristics for mothers. Stress and protectiveness were found to be positively

  4. Community violence as it affects child development: issues of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Durán, Lorena; Horn, John L

    2003-12-01

    The state of the art of definition of community violence as it relates to child development was examined in terms of the definitions used in 23 empirical studies. In all cases community violence was defined in terms of what were assumed to be measurements obtained as linear combinations of a priori numerical weighting of responses to questions--asked either of a child or of the parent of a child--about experiencing and/or witnessing and/or hearing about instances of violence. Thus, the definitions can be seen to represent the perspectives of 2 kinds of observers--the child or the child's parent--and 3 levels of closeness to violence--experiencing, witnessing, or hearing about violence. Combining these perspectives and levels, the following 8 different definitions could be seen to be used in the practice of 1 or more of the 23 empirical studies: Child Self-Report (perception) of either (1) experiencing, or (2) witnessing, or (3) experiencing and witnessing, and hearing about violence; or Parent Report (perception) of the Child (4) experiencing, or (5) witnessing, or (6) experiencing and witnessing and hearing about violence, or (7) = (1) + (4), or (8) = (3) + (6). In almost all the examples of research definitions it was assumed implicitly and without test of the assumption that different violent events were interchangeable, and usually it was assumed (again without test) that the magnitudes of different violence events were equal. Usually, an unstated theory of stress appeared to guide the measurement definition, but in one study definitions were developed and tested in terms of a clearly-stated theory of learning. It was concluded that definition of community violence is a measurement problem; that very likely it is multidimensional; that it could be more nearly solved if better attention were given to specifying it in terms of theory that can be put to test and by attending to basic assumptions and principles of measurement.

  5. Maternal response to child affect: Role of maternal depression and relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K; Ambrosia, Marigrace; Forbes, Erika E; Cyranowski, Jill M; Amole, Marlissa C; Silk, Jennifer S; Elliott, Rosalind D; Swartz, Holly A

    2015-11-15

    Maternal depression is associated with negative outcomes for offspring, including increased incidence of child psychopathology. Quality of mother-child relationships can be compromised among affectively ill dyads, such as those characterized by maternal depression and child psychopathology, and negatively impact outcomes bidirectionally. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that may modulate depressed mothers' responses to their psychiatrically ill children during middle childhood and adolescence, partially because of a need for ecologically valid personally relevant fMRI tasks that might most effectively elicit these neural mechanisms. The current project evaluated maternal response to child positive and negative affective video clips in 19 depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill offspring using a novel fMRI task. The task elicited activation in the ventral striatum when mothers viewed positive clips and insula when mothers viewed negative clips of their own (versus unfamiliar) children. Both types of clips elicited activation in regions associated with affect regulation and self-related and social processing. Greater lifetime number of depressive episodes, comorbid anxiety, and poor mother-child relationship quality all emerged as predictors of maternal response to child affect. Findings may be specific to dyads with psychiatrically ill children. Altered neural response to child affect may be an important characteristic of chronic maternal depression and may impact mother-child relationships negatively. Existing interventions for depression may be improved by helping mothers respond to their children's affect more adaptively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Affecting Placement of a Child with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  7. Trauma-related symptoms in neglected preschoolers and affective quality of mother-child communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A

    2010-11-01

    This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes.

  8. Child related background factors affecting compliance with induction of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2004-03-01

    Factors such as age, sex, behaviour problems, fears, earlier traumatic hospital events and reactions to vaccination were assessed together with behaviour observed before premedication in order to evaluate their importance in predicting response to the anaesthetic process. The anaesthetic process was divided into four endpoints; compliance when given premedication, sedation, compliance during needle insertion or when an anaesthetic mask was put in place and behaviour when put to sleep. A total of 102 children who were undergoing day-stay surgery and overnight stay surgery were video-filmed during premedication and anaesthetic induction. Before premedication the children and parents answered questionnaires about behaviour [Preschool Behaviour Check List (PBCL)] and fears [Fears Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R)]. The films were analysed to assess behaviour before and after premedication and during induction of anaesthesia. A semistructured interview was conducted with the parents during the time the children were asleep. There was a significantly higher odds ratio for noncompliant behaviour during premedication if the child placed itself in the parent's lap or near the parent or had previously experienced traumatic hospital events. The odds ratio for not being sedated by premedication was higher if compliance was low when premedication was given or the child had experienced a traumatic hospital event in the past. A high odds ratio for noncompliant behaviour during venous access or placement of an anaesthetic mask was seen if the child was not sedated or the child had had a negative reaction when vaccinated. The odds ratio for falling asleep in an anxious or upset state was higher if the child had shown noncompliant behaviour during premedication, had not been sedated or had shown noncompliant behaviour during venous access or facemask placement. The overall most important factor that predicts noncompliant behaviour and a distressed state in the child

  9. Joking or decision-making? Affective and instrumental behaviour in doctor-parent-child communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Tates, K.; Meeuwesen, L.; Bensing, J.; Elbers, E.

    2002-01-01

    Advocating active child participation in medical encounters is in line with demands for shared decision-making and informed consent. The sparse literature on doctor-child communication, however, conceptualizes children as passive participants and depicts the stereotype of a 'joking' relationship, which is limited mainly to affective behaviour. This descriptive study explores the nature of communication in the doctor-parent-child triad at the general practitioner's surgery. Video-taped observa...

  10. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & Strategies Peer Review Small Business Programs Training & Career ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share ...

  12. Has decentralisation affected child immunisation status in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-01-01

    Background The past two decades have seen many countries, including a number in Southeast Asia, decentralising their health system with the expectation that this reform will improve their citizens’ health. However, the consequences of this reform remain largely unknown. Objective This study analyses the effects of fiscal decentralisation on child immunisation status in Indonesia. Design We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate these effects, and multilevel multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2011 publication of Indonesia's national socio-economic survey (Susenas) is the source of household data, while the Podes village census survey from the same year provides village-level data. We supplement these with local government fiscal data from the Ministry of Finance. Results The findings show that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to local governments has a lack of association with child immunisation status and the results are robust. The results also suggest that increasing the number of village health centres (posyandu) per 1,000 population improves probability of children to receive full immunisation significantly, while increasing that of hospitals and health centres (puskesmas) has no significant effect. Conclusion These findings suggest that merely decentralising the health system does not guarantee improvement in a country's immunisation coverage. Any successful decentralisation demands good capacity and capability of local governments. PMID:25160515

  13. Has decentralisation affected child immunisation status in Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Maharani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The past two decades have seen many countries, including a number in Southeast Asia, decentralising their health system with the expectation that this reform will improve their citizens’ health. However, the consequences of this reform remain largely unknown. Objective: This study analyses the effects of fiscal decentralisation on child immunisation status in Indonesia. Design: We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate these effects, and multilevel multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2011 publication of Indonesia's national socio-economic survey (Susenas is the source of household data, while the Podes village census survey from the same year provides village-level data. We supplement these with local government fiscal data from the Ministry of Finance. Results: The findings show that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to local governments has a lack of association with child immunisation status and the results are robust. The results also suggest that increasing the number of village health centres (posyandu per 1,000 population improves probability of children to receive full immunisation significantly, while increasing that of hospitals and health centres (puskesmas has no significant effect. Conclusion: These findings suggest that merely decentralising the health system does not guarantee improvement in a country's immunisation coverage. Any successful decentralisation demands good capacity and capability of local governments.

  14. Has decentralisation affected child immunisation status in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen many countries, including a number in Southeast Asia, decentralising their health system with the expectation that this reform will improve their citizens' health. However, the consequences of this reform remain largely unknown. This study analyses the effects of fiscal decentralisation on child immunisation status in Indonesia. We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate these effects, and multilevel multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2011 publication of Indonesia's national socio-economic survey (Susenas) is the source of household data, while the Podes village census survey from the same year provides village-level data. We supplement these with local government fiscal data from the Ministry of Finance. The findings show that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to local governments has a lack of association with child immunisation status and the results are robust. The results also suggest that increasing the number of village health centres (posyandu) per 1,000 population improves probability of children to receive full immunisation significantly, while increasing that of hospitals and health centres (puskesmas) has no significant effect. These findings suggest that merely decentralising the health system does not guarantee improvement in a country's immunisation coverage. Any successful decentralisation demands good capacity and capability of local governments.

  15. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  16. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  17. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    OpenAIRE

    Marreiros, Humberto; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence andmorbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective: To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state...

  19. Parents' psychosocial adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaes, Ignatius Petrus Renatus

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, congenital, neurological disorder. Children with spina bifida live with a range of impairments depending on the severity and the location of the spinal defect. Medical treatment of the disorder is very complex and can involve decision-making processes around

  20. Spina Bifida: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 12 = La Espina Bifida: Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida, outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet emphasizes that school programs should be flexible to accommodate these students' special needs and frequent absences, that children with…

  1. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  2. Less money, more problems: How changes in disposable income affect child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Michael

    2017-05-01

    A number of research studies have documented an association between child maltreatment and family income. Yet, little is known about the specific types of economic shocks that affect child maltreatment rates. The paucity of information is troubling given that more than six million children are reported for maltreatment annually in the U.S. alone. This study examines whether an exogenous shock to families' disposable income, a change in the price of gasoline, predicts changes in child maltreatment. The findings of a fixed-effects regression show that increases in state-level gas prices are associated with increases in state-level child maltreatment referral rates, even after controlling for demographic and other economic variables. The results are robust to the manner of estimation; random-effects and mixed-effects regressions produce similar estimates. The findings suggest that fluctuations in the price of gas may have important consequences for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Child Internalizing Symptoms: Contributions of Child Temperament, Maternal Negative Affect, and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicole A.; Schrock, Matthew; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Research has traditionally focused on the role of genetic and environmental variables in the development and maintenance of childhood internalizing disorders. Temperament variables, such as negative affect and effortful control have gained considerable interest within the field of developmental psychopathology. Environmental factors such as…

  4. Spina Bifida: Pathogenesis, Mechanisms, and Genes in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti W. Mohd-Zin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida is among the phenotypes of the larger condition known as neural tube defects (NTDs. It is the most common central nervous system malformation compatible with life and the second leading cause of birth defects after congenital heart defects. In this review paper, we define spina bifida and discuss the phenotypes seen in humans as described by both surgeons and embryologists in order to compare and ultimately contrast it to the leading animal model, the mouse. Our understanding of spina bifida is currently limited to the observations we make in mouse models, which reflect complete or targeted knockouts of genes, which perturb the whole gene(s without taking into account the issue of haploinsufficiency, which is most prominent in the human spina bifida condition. We thus conclude that the need to study spina bifida in all its forms, both aperta and occulta, is more indicative of the spina bifida in surviving humans and that the measure of deterioration arising from caudal neural tube defects, more commonly known as spina bifida, must be determined by the level of the lesion both in mouse and in man.

  5. Correction: No Child Left Alone: Moral Judgments about Parents Affect Estimates of Risk to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article details a correction to article Thomas, A. J., Stanford, P. K., & Sarnecka, B. W. (2016. No Child Left Alone: Moral Judgments about Parents Affect Estimates of Risk to Children. 'Collabra', 2(1, 10. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.33

  6. Affective and Behavioral Features of Jealousy Protest: Associations with Child Temperament, Maternal Interaction Style, and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants' jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security.…

  7. “I Like to Play with My Friends”: Children with Spina Bifida and Belonging in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Bannink

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experiences of living and belonging from the perspectives of Ugandan children with spina bifida and their siblings and parents. We explored belonging at micro, meso and macro level taking into consideration African Childhood Disability Studies, central concepts of family, cultural conceptions of disability, poverty, and the notion of ‘ubuntu’, and using child-friendly culturally adjusted interview methods including play. Whilst children with spina bifida had a strong sense of belonging at household level, they experienced more difficulties engaging in larger social networks, including school. Poverty and stigma were important barriers to inclusion. We propose strengthening the network at family level, where the environment is more enabling for the children to find a place of belonging and support, and expanding investment and awareness at community and national level.

  8. 38 CFR 21.8030 - Requirement for evaluation of child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation of child. 21.8030 Section 21.8030 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Evaluation § 21.8030 Requirement for evaluation of child. (a) Children to be evaluated. The VR&E Division will evaluate each child...

  9. Psychopathic Personality and Negative Parent-to-Child Affect: A Longitudinal Cross-lag Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies that have explored the relationship between parenting style and children’s antisocial behavior have generally found significant bidirectional effects, whereby parenting behaviors influence their child’s antisocial outcomes, but a child’s behaviors also lead to changes in parenting style. Methods The present study investigated the genetic and environmental underpinnings of the longitudinal relationship between negative parent-to-child affect and psychopathic personality in a sample of 1,562 twins. Using a biometrical cross-lag analysis, bidirectional effects were investigated across two waves of assessment when the twins were ages 9–10 and 14–15, utilizing both caregiver and youth self-reports. Results Results demonstrated that negative parental affects observed at ages 9–10 influenced the child’s later psychopathic personality at ages 14–15, based on both caregiver and youth self-reports. For these ‘parent-driven effects’, both genetic and non-shared environmental factors were important in the development of later psychopathic personality during adolescence. There were additional ‘child-driven effects’ such that children’s psychopathic personality at ages 9–10 influenced negative parent-to-child affect at ages 14–15, but only within caregiver reports. Conclusions Thus, children’s genetically influenced psychopathic personality seemed to evoke parental negativity at ages 14–15, highlighting the importance of investigating bidirectional effects in parent-child relationships to understand the development of these traits. PMID:24223446

  10. No Child Left Alone: Moral Judgments about Parents Affect Estimates of Risk to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Americans have adopted a parenting norm in which every child is expected to be under constant direct adult supervision. Parents who violate this norm by allowing their children to be alone, even for short periods of time, often face harsh criticism and even legal action. This is true despite the fact that children are much more likely to be hurt, for example, in car accidents. Why then do bystanders call 911 when they see children playing in parks, but not when they see children riding in cars? Here, we present results from six studies indicating that moral judgments play a role: The less morally acceptable a parent’s reason for leaving a child alone, the more danger people think the child is in. This suggests that people’s estimates of danger to unsupervised children are affected by an intuition that parents who leave their children alone have done something morally wrong.

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, ... Institutes of Health and four research institutions. The fetal surgical procedure also increases the chances that a ...

  12. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  13. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Spina Bifida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... additional physical and psychological conditions, including digestive, vision, sexual, social, and emotional problems; obesity; and depression. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Spina bifida: Health issues and treatments. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www.cdc. ...

  14. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientific Director (OSD) Affinity Groups & Labs (AG&L) Scientists Emeriti National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR) ... of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an NIH study reported that a surgical ...

  15. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  16. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest follow us on YouTube ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Directory Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest ... on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails to close around the spinal cord. With myelomeningocele, ... gov/ . The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation's Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers ...

  19. Through the eyes of a child: preschoolers' identification of emotional expressions from the child affective facial expression (CAFE) set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Baker, Lewis; Thrasher, Cat

    2017-08-10

    Researchers have been interested in the perception of human emotional expressions for decades. Importantly, most empirical work in this domain has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing for various emotional expressions. Recently, the Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set was introduced to the scientific community, featuring a large validated set of photographs of preschool aged children posing for seven different emotional expressions. Although the CAFE set was extensively validated using adult participants, the set was designed for use with children. It is therefore necessary to verify that adult validation applies to child performance. In the current study, we examined 3- to 4-year-olds' identification of a subset of children's faces in the CAFE set, and compared it to adult ratings cited in previous research. Our results demonstrate an exceptionally strong relationship between adult ratings of the CAFE photos and children's ratings, suggesting that the adult validation of the set can be applied to preschool-aged participants. The results are discussed in terms of methodological implications for the use of the CAFE set with children, and theoretical implications for using the set to study the development of emotion perception in early childhood.

  20. Arnold-Chiari-II malformation and cognitive functioning in spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinck, A.; Maassen, B.A.M.; Mullaart, R.A.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spina bifida is a multifaceted neurological condition with complex neuropsychological sequelae. The cognitive outcome in spina bifida has frequently been attributed to the severity of the hydrocephalus. However, because of complex neuropathology, the influence of hydrocephalus alone does not

  1. Smile intensity and warm touch as thin slices of child and family affective style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveis, Christopher; Gruber, June; Keltner, Dacher; Stamper, Juliet L; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The authors investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, the authors assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children's smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across classroom and family contexts. Consistent with studies of parent-child personality associations, parents' warm smiles and negative facial displays resembled those of their children. Finally, consistent with observed relations between adult personality and positive display, children's smiling behavior in the classroom correlated with parent ratings of children's Extraversion/Surgency. These results highlight the utility of thin slices of smiling and touch as indicators of child and family affective style. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Smile Intensity and Warm Touch as Thin Slices of Child and Family Affective Style

    OpenAIRE

    Oveis, Christopher; Gruber, June; Keltner, Dacher; Stamper, Juliet L.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, we assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children’s smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across classroom and family contexts. Consistent with studies of parent-child personality asso...

  3. Differences between the events preceding spina bifida and anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W H

    1981-02-01

    It is usually held that there is a time continuum in the formation of monoxygotic (MZ) twins which is indexed by their placentation, running from dichorionic to monochorionic diamniotic to monochorionic monoamniotic and conjoined pairs. There is good evidence that this continuum is characterised by a continuum of predisposition to anencephaly, slightly raised in dichorionic pairs but very high in some sorts of conjoined pairs. Although MZ twins, especially monoamniotic and conjoined pairs, are peculiarly liable to anencephaly, they are not particularly susceptible to spina bifida. Among twin pairs concordant for anencephaly or spina bifida, there are strikingly few concordant in the sense of one twin having anencephaly and the other spina bifida, in contrast with the numbers of pairs concordant for the same malformation. The prevalence of anencephaly in double monsters varies with the type of monster, being high in diprosopus. These findings may be explained by the timing of embryonic events.

  4. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  5. Cebocephaly, alobar holoprosencephaly, spina bifida, and sirenomelia in a stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C P; Shih, S L; Liu, F F; Jan, S W

    1997-01-01

    Cebocephaly and sirenomelia are uncommon birth defects. Their association is extremely rare; however, the presence of spina bifida with both conditions is not unexpected. We report on a female still-birth with cebocephaly, alobar holoprosencephaly, cleft palate, lumbar spina bifida, sirenomelia, a single umbilical artery, and a 46,XX karyotype, but without maternal diabetes mellitus. Our case adds to the examples of overlapping cephalic and caudal defects, possibly related to vulnerability of the midline developmental field or axial mesodermal dysplasia spectrum. Images PMID:9132501

  6. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Humberto; Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB.

  7. Bridging Knowledge Gaps to Understand How Zika Virus Exposure and Infection Affect Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Bill G; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Hazra, Rohan; Spong, Catherine Y

    2017-05-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has profoundly affected the lives of children and families across the Americas. As the number of children born with ZIKV-related complications continues to grow, the long-term developmental trajectory for these children and the effect on their families remains largely unknown. In September 2016, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and partner National Institutes of Health institutes convened a workshop to develop a research agenda to improve the evaluation, monitoring, and management of neonates, infants, or children affected by ZIKV and its complications. The agenda also aims to optimally address the prospective effect of ZIKV exposure on the developing child. The full clinical spectrum of congenital ZIKV syndrome has yet to be elucidated. In addition to the well-described anatomic and neurologic manifestations, clinicians are now describing infants with exaggerated primitive reflexes, epilepsy, acquired hydrocephalus and microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, gastrointestinal motility problems, and respiratory complications, such as pneumonia. While we are still learning more about the myriad clinical presentations in these severely affected children, it is also paramount to address the larger proportion of ZIKV-exposed infants who are asymptomatic at birth but, we assume, may develop problems later in life. The available evidence for neurologic, neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral, auditory, and vision assessments and management for infants with congenital ZIKV syndrome was critically evaluated. Lessons from other congenital infections provide valuable clues about the complexities of management and the optimal approaches for evaluating, treating, and caring for the children, which include engaging and involving parents and caregivers in their treatment. Rigorous research is key to improving the identification of ZIKV-infected mothers and babies. Research also is critical to

  8. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  9. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  10. Does a child's language ability affect the correspondence between parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Maydew, Harriet; Sears, Claire; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-04-05

    Rating scales are often used to identify children with potential Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), yet there are frequently discrepancies between informants which may be moderated by child characteristics. The current study asked whether correspondence between parent and teacher ratings on the Strengths and Weakness of ADHD symptoms and Normal behaviour scale (SWAN) varied systematically with child language ability. Parent and teacher SWAN questionnaires were returned for 200 children (aged 61-81 months); 106 had low language ability (LL) and 94 had typically developing language (TL). After exploring informant correspondence (using Pearson correlation) and the discrepancy between raters, we report inter-class correlation coefficients, to assess inter-rater reliability, and Cohen's kappa, to assess agreement regarding possible ADHD caseness. Correlations between informant ratings on the SWAN were moderate. Children with LL were rated as having increased inattention and hyperactivity relative to children with TL; teachers, however, rated children with LL as having more inattention than parents. Inter-rater reliability of the SWAN was good and there were no systematic differences between the LL and TL groups. Case agreement between parent and teachers was fair; this varied by language group with poorer case agreement for children with LL. Children's language abilities affect the discrepancy between informant ratings of ADHD symptomatology and the agreement between parents and teachers regarding potential ADHD caseness. The assessment of children's core language ability would be a beneficial addition to the ADHD diagnostic process.

  11. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress.

  12. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE) set: validity and reliability from untrained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat

    2014-01-01

    Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  13. The Child Affective Facial Expression (CAFE Set: Validity and Reliability from Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eLoBue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE. The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for 6 emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.

  14. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an NIH study reported ... Owner Office of Communications Last Reviewed Date 3/9/2011 Contact Us Publications Sitemap Español facebook twitter ...

  15. Correlates of Self Esteem in Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. L.

    The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…

  16. Pregnancy outcome and complications in women with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, M; Grover, S; Dunne, K; Bryan, D

    2000-09-01

    To describe the antenatal complications, mode of delivery and outcome of pregnancy in women with spina bifida. Case series of women known to have attended the spina bifida clinic at the Royal Children's Hospital. Medical records, postal questionnaire and telephone interview were utilized to collect data on the effect of pregnancy on the health of women and the effect of spina bifida on pregnancy outcome. Of 207 women born between 1945 and 1975, 23 reported having a pregnancy, and 17 who had completed pregnancies agreed to participate. The 17 women had a total of 29 pregnancies, with 23 pregnancies progressing to births. Fourteen of 17 women had antenatal admissions, with wheelchair-dependent women requiring more-frequent and longer admissions. Recurrent urinary infections in pregnancy occurred in women with a prior history of urinary infections; stomal problems occurred but were not serious; mobility was reduced for two women during pregnancy, with full recovery afterwards; and preexisting pressure sores worsened during pregnancy. Vaginal deliveries occurred in one in five pregnancies of women who were wheelchair dependent and in ten of eighteen pregnancies in independently mobile women, including seven of eight pregnancies of independently mobile women without ileal conduits. Cesarean sections were accompanied by postoperative complications in 10 women. Women with spina bifida who become pregnant generally have a positive outcome, with relatively low complication rates.

  17. The spectrum of urological disease in patients with spina bifida.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: [corrected] Urological complications are the major cause of ill health during childhood and adult life of patients with spina bifida but the significance of urinary tract disease on the individual and the healthcare services is underemphasised. AIM: To assess the effects of spina bifida on the individual and the healthcare services. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed to assess the frequency and significance of urological conditions requiring hospital attendance in patients with spina bifida currently attending a specialised multidisciplinary clinic over a period of six months. RESULTS: Urinary sepsis accounted for the majority of admissions (62%), while 38 of 62 patients required 60 surgical procedures. Targeting the primary urological abnormality (the dysfunctional and usually poorly compliant bladder) allows implementation of effective treatments, including regular intermittent bladder catherisation (52%) in order to preserve upper renal tract function. Associated postural abnormalities complicated both conservative and interventional therapies. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the surgical commitment for units caring for patients with spina bifida, the important considerations for the future healthcare services, and the range and severity of urological diseases encountered by these patients.

  18. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of

  19. Neonatal loss of motor function in human spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Deborah A; van Weerden, Tiemen W; Vles, Johan S H; Timmer, Albertus; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Staal-Schreinemachers, A L; Hoving, Eelco W.; Sollie, Krystyne M; Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne J M; Sauer, Pieter J J; Brouwer, Oebele F

    OBJECTIVE: In neonates with spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements innervated by spinal segments located caudal to the meningomyelocele are transiently present. This study in neonates with SBA aimed to determine whether the presence of leg movements indicates functional integrity of neuronal

  20. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB

  1. An empirical analysis of mental state talk and affect regulation in two single-cases of psychodynamic child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Bekar, Ozlem; Gürleyen, Büşra

    2017-06-01

    Literature has shown the importance of mentalizing techniques in symptom remission and emotional understanding; however, no study to date has looked at the dynamic relations between mental state talk and affect regulation in the psychotherapy process. From a psychodynamic perspective, the emergence of the child's capacity to regulate affect through the therapist's reflection on the child's mental states is a core aspect of treatment. In an empirical investigation of 2 single cases with separation anxiety disorder, who were treated in long-term psychodynamic play therapy informed with mentalization principles, the effect of therapists' and children's use of mental state talk on children's subsequent capacity to regulate affect in play was assessed. One case was a positive outcome case, whereas the other did not show symptomatic improvement at the end of treatment. Children's and therapists' utterances in the sessions were coded using the Coding System for Mental State Talk in Narratives, and children's play was coded by Children's Play Therapy Instrument, which generated an index of children's "affect regulation." Time-series Granger Causality tests showed that even though both therapists' use of mental state talk significantly predicted children's subsequent affect regulation, the association between child's mental state talk and affect regulation was only supported for the child who showed clinically significant symptom reduction. This study provided preliminary support that mental state talk in psychodynamic psychotherapy facilitates emotion regulation in play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between child abuse and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Saito, Taku; Nakagawa, Shin; Masuya, Jiro; Tanabe, Hajime; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    In previous studies, various components such as environmental and genetic factors have been shown to contribute to the development of bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated how multiple factors, including child abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments, are interrelated and how they affect the diagnosis of BD. A total of 170 healthy controls and 75 BD patients completed the following self-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 evaluating the severity of depressive symptoms; the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) evaluating child abuse; the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) evaluating affective temperaments; and the Life Experiences Survey (LES) evaluating negative and positive adult life events. The data were subjected to univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. The structural equation modeling showed that the diagnosis of BD was indirectly predicted by the neglect and sexual abuse scores of the CATS through four affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) of the TEMPS-A and directly predicted by these four affective temperaments. This study suggested that affective temperament plays an important role as a mediator in the influence of child abuse on BD diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual socialization in adults with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wendy M; Dicianno, Brad E

    2011-03-01

    To use spina bifida (SB) as a model of chronic physical disability to study the associations of virtual socialization, friendships, and quality of life (QOL) in adults. Cross-sectional survey. Subjects were recruited from residential living facilities, outpatient clinics, and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) research registry. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 80 years and clinical diagnoses of SB cystica (myelomeningocele) and hydrocephalus. The exclusion criterion was the diagnosis of SB occulta. Sixty-three eligible adults were enrolled, and all completed the study. The survey via questionnaire was performed in person or over the telephone. Data collected included the World Health Organization's Medical Outcomes Study 26-item Short Form, Economic Self-Sufficiency from the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique Short Form, virtual socializing habits, and number of friends. Three linear regression models were performed, each with a unique dependent variable: number of friends, psychological QOL, or social QOL. The following independent variables were included in all models: age, gender, ethnicity, economic self-sufficiency, marital status, education level, lesion level, health status, user group, collection method, and time spent virtually socializing. In addition, each regression model included the dependent variables from the other 2 models in its independent variables. Increased degree of virtual socialization (VS) was associated with a greater number of friends (P = .003, r = .684). Mean (standard deviation) numbers of friends by VS groups were the following: users, n = 4.9 ± 2.7; semi-users, n = 3.8 ± 2.7; and nonusers, n = 2.1 ± 2.3, which represent a 2.3 times greater number of friends between the users and nonusers. The effect of virtual socialization on QOL was also positive, however, not statistically significant. People with chronic physical disabilities, such as SB, are at high risk for peer rejection and long

  4. Refractory obstructive jaundice in a child affected with thalassodrepanocytosis: a new endoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barresi Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver involvement, including elevated direct-reacting bilirubin levels, is common in patients with sickle cell disease. Fifty to seventy percent of sickle cell patients have pigmented gallstones due to precipitation of unconjugated bilirubin, and cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis are common complications. The highest prevalence of these complications occurs in patients with Gilbert's syndrome because of the combined effect of increased bilirubin production and reduced bilirubin-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme activity. Cholelithiasis is also a common complication in patients with thalassemia. Endoscopic removal of choledochal stones does not always resolve the clinical picture, as in cases of dysfunction of the Vater's papilla, increased bile density due to persistently impaired bile flow or distortion of the choledocus due to dilatation, or inflammation secondary to gallstone. Case presentation We report here a case of severe and persistent obstructive jaundice in a child affected with thalassodrepanocytosis and Gilbert's syndrome, previously, and unsuccessfully, treated with endoscopic removal of choledochal stones. Deep and thorough biliary washing, and stenting with a new removable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE-covered flared-type stent led to complete resolution of the obstructive jaundice. Conclusions This report shows that an aggressive endoscopic approach in this select category of patients can help resolve the severe complication of hemolytic anemia, thus avoiding surgery.

  5. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina S. Ralston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.

  6. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

  7. MR imaging of the spine in children with spina bifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.R.; Glasier, C.M.; Angtuaco, E.J.C.; McConnell, J.R.; Chadduck, W.M.; Binet, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty infants and children with spina bifida were examined as outpatients with spinal MR imaging. Studies were performed using a 0.6-T imager and a surface coil. These examinations were performed in patients previously operated on who had progressive neurologic symptoms and in newly diagnosed patients to exclude lipomyeloschisis, low-lying cord, diastematomyelia, or syringomyelia. Predominantly T1-weighted sequences were obtained in at least two orthogonal planes with a 5-mm section thickness. Eighteen patients had a low-lying spinal cord. Six patients had syringomyelia, usually lumbar. Five patients had intraspinal lipomas, and three had diastematomyelia. MR imaging was diagnostic in 17 instances. Patient motion or severe kyphoscoliosis comprised three examinations. MR imaging is the screening examination of choice in children with spina bifida

  8. Reproductive Health Care for Women with Spina Bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie B. Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with spina bifida have unique health care concerns and as the life expectancy of this population increases, they are transitioning from adolescence to womanhood and entering their reproductive years with little information about what to expect. Likewise, their health care providers do not have the benefit of evidence-based research that comprehensively addresses the issues these women may face related to reproduction or aging. Few studies have focused on the effects that spina bifida may have on these women's reproductive systems, nor has attention been paid to the effects that possible reproductive endocrine changes may have on their disability. Needless to say, concerns about sexuality, sexual function, and pregnancy are just as important to these women as they are to their able-bodied counterparts.

  9. Models of Self in Families of People with Spina Bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviam Rafaela Barbosa Pinheiro Freire

    Full Text Available Abstract: Models of self reveal cultural views regarding the competences that children should acquire, and these views tend to be shared by people within the same environment. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the models of self in families of people with spina bifida. Seventeen caregivers answered an online questionnaire containing socio-demographic questions and three scales of self: autonomous, related and autonomous-related. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and techniques of multivariate analysis. The main results indicate that the most valued model of self was the autonomous-related model, reflecting the desire that children develop autonomy as well as interpersonal relationships. Such a model, however, is distinct from that of family groups of people with typical development living in the same cultural environment, indicating the need for families of people with spina bifida to receive support to reach their developmental goals.

  10. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  11. Joking or decision-making? Affective and instrumental behaviour in doctor-parent-child communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tates, K.; Meeuwesen, L.; Bensing, J.; Elbers, E.

    2002-01-01

    Advocating active child participation in medical encounters is in line with demands for shared decision-making and informed consent. The sparse literature on doctor-child communication, however, conceptualizes children as passive participants and depicts the stereotype of a 'joking' relationship,

  12. Factors Affecting Parental Decision-Making Regarding Interventions for Their Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus

    2014-01-01

    Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism. In-depth…

  13. Does Type of Child Risk Affect Whether Mothers Seek Assistance for Intimate Partner Violence From Civil or Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Case Report: Evaluation strategies and cognitive intervention: the case of a monovular twin child affected by selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Micaela; Cerniglia, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The present work describes the assessment process, evaluation strategies, and cognitive intervention on a 9 years old child with selective mutism (SM), a monovular twin of a child also affected by mutism. Currently, the cognitive behavioral multimodal treatment seems the most effective therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with selective mutism (Capobianco & Cerniglia, 2018). The illustrated case confirms the role of biological factors involved in mutacic disorder but also highlights the importance of environmental influences in the maintenance of the disorder with respect to relational and contextual dynamics (e.g. complicity between sisters, family relationships). The article discusses furthermore the importance of an early diagnosis as a predictor of positive treatment outcomes.

  15. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  16. Milestone achievement in emerging adulthood in spina bifida: a longitudinal investigation of parental expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, Christina E; Zebracki, Kathy; Bechtel, Colleen F; Papadakis, Jaclyn Lennon; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess changes over time in parents' expectations of adult milestone achievement (college attendance, full-time job attainment, independent living, marriage, parenthood) for young people with spina bifida, to examine how expectancies relate to actual milestone achievement, and to compare milestone achievement in emerging adults with spina bifida with that of peers with typical development. Method Sixty-eight families of children with spina bifida (mean=8.34y, 37 male, 31 female) and 68 families of children with typical development (mean=8.49y, 37 male, 31 female) participated at Time 1. At all subsequent timepoints, parents of young people with spina bifida were asked to rate their expectations of emerging adulthood milestone achievement. At Time 7, when participants were 22 to 23 years old, milestone achievement was assessed. Results Parents of young people with spina bifida lowered their expectations over time for most milestones; parents of children with higher cognitive ability reported decreases of lower magnitude. Parent expectancies were optimistic and unrelated to actual milestone achievement. Emerging adults with spina bifida were less likely than individuals with typical development to achieve all milestones. Interpretation Optimistic parental expectations may be adaptive for children with spina bifida and their families, although it is important for families to set realistic goals. Healthcare providers serve a key role in helping families of young people with spina bifida prepare for emerging adulthood. PMID:27651215

  17. Urological care for children with spina bifida : Individual, tailored and without antibiotic prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, S.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In our SPIN UTI study, we have focused on the urological problems, urinary tract infections and Quality of Life in spina bifida children. For eighteen months, we have analyzed the diagnosing, treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections in 176 children with spina bifida from Utrecht and

  18. Marginal maternal vitamin B12 status increases the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Peer, P.G.M.; Gooskens, R.H.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate B vitamins and homocysteine as risk factor for offspring with spina bifida. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples from 45 mothers and their children with spina bifida and from 83 control mothers and their children were obtained to determine the levels of

  19. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  20. Spina Bifida Care In Kenya Through A Network Of Mobile Clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Children with spina bifida require ongoing multidisciplinary care in order to prevent complications and improve quality of life. Bethany Crippled Children's Centre of Kenya and BethanyKids at Kijabe Hospital have been providing such care for spina bifida patients through a network of mobile clinics throughout ...

  1. Interpersonal sensitivity mediates the effects of child abuse and affective temperaments on depressive symptoms in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ayano Otsuka,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Mitsuhiko Sato,1 Jiro Masuya,1 Masahiko Ichiki,1 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus, and single and multiple regression analyses. Results: The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Limitations: Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were

  2. Executive functions in adolescents with spina bifida: relations with autonomy development and parental intrusiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Olson, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The current study was part of a larger longitudinal investigation and examined the relation of parent-report and performance measures of executive functioning (EF) with measures of behavioral and emotional autonomy and parental intrusiveness in adolescents with and without spina bifida (SB; n=65 in a comparison sample and 61 in an SB sample; M age=14.55, SD=0.63). For both groups, higher levels of parent-reported EF problems predicted higher levels of observed child dependency and lower levels of teacher-reported intrinsic motivation. Higher scores on performance EF measures predicted lower levels of observed child dependency and observed maternal intrusiveness for both groups. In adolescents with SB only, higher performance EF scores predicted higher intrinsic motivation and emotional autonomy from both mother and father and predicted lower levels of observed paternal intrusiveness. While causal conclusions cannot be drawn, EFs appear to be closely related to autonomy development and parental intrusiveness, particularly for adolescents with SB. These results suggest that the inclusion of EF training in interventions targeting adolescents with SB may be beneficial for autonomy development.

  3. Does food insecurity affect parental characteristics and child behavior? Testing mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M Matta; Kim, Youngmi

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent's self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity's relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity's relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures.

  4. Could cash and good parenting affect child cognitive development? A cross-sectional study in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Lorraine; Macedo, Ana; Tomlinson, Mark; Skeen, Sarah; Cluver, Lucie Dale

    2017-05-12

    Social protection interventions, including cash grants and care provision have been shown to effectively reduce some negative impacts of the HIV epidemic on adolescents and families. Less is known about the role of social protection on younger HIV affected populations. This study explored the impact of cash grants on children's cognitive development. Additionally, we examined whether combined cash and care (operationalised as good parenting) was associated with improved cognitive outcomes. The sample included 854 children, aged 5 - 15, participating in community-based organisation (CBO) programmes for children affected by HIV in South Africa and Malawi. Data on child cognitive functioning were gathered by a combination of caregiver report and observer administered tests. Primary caregivers also reported on the economic situation of the family, cash receipt into the home, child and household HIV status. Parenting was measured on a 10 item scale with good parenting defined as a score of 8 or above. About half of families received cash (55%, n = 473), only 6% (n = 51) reported good parenting above the cut-off point but no cash, 18% (n = 151) received combined cash support and reported good parenting, and 21% (n = 179) had neither. Findings show that cash receipt was associated with enhanced child cognitive outcomes in a number of domains including verbal working memory, general cognitive functioning, and learning. Furthermore, cash plus good parenting provided an additive effect. Child HIV status had a moderating effect on the association between cash or/plus good parenting and cognitive outcomes. The association between cash and good parenting and child cognitive outcomes remained significant among both HIV positive and negative children, but overall the HIV negative group benefited more. This study shows the importance of cash transfers and good parenting on cognitive development of young children living in HIV affected environments. Our data clearly

  5. Does Food Insecurity Affect Parental Characteristics and Child Behavior? Testing Mediation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M. Matta; Kim, Youngmi

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent’s self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity’s relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity ...

  6. Does unemployment affect child abuse rates? Evidence from New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissian, Kerri M

    2015-10-01

    This article used child maltreatment reports from New York State from 2000 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between county level unemployment and county level child maltreatment rates. Models showed that a 1 percentage point increase in unemployment rates reduced the child report rate by approximately 4.25%. Report rates for young children (children under the age of 6) and older children (children ages 6 and over) responded similarly to changes in local unemployment, but the relationship between unemployment rates and child maltreatment reports did vary by a county's metropolitan designation. The negative relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports was largely contained to metropolitan counties. The relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports in non-metropolitan counties was often positive but not statistically significant. These findings were robust to a number of specifications. In alternate models, the county's mandated reporter employment rate was added as a control; the inclusion of this variable did not alter the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The affective structure of supportive parenting: depressive symptoms, immediate emotions, and child-oriented motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Theodore; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Meunier, Leah N; Miller, Pamela C

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the maternal concerns and emotions that may regulate one form of sensitive parenting, support for children's immediate desires or intentions. While reviewing a videotape of interactions with their 1-year-olds, mothers who varied on depressive symptoms reported concerns and emotions they had during the interaction. Emotions reflected outcomes either to children (child-oriented concerns) or to mothers themselves (parent-oriented concerns). Child-oriented concerns were associated with fewer negative emotions and more supportive behavior. Supportive parenting was high among mothers who experienced high joy and worry and low anger, sadness, and guilt. However, relations depended on whether emotions were child or parent oriented: Supportive behavior occurred more when emotions were child oriented. In addition, as depressive symptoms increased, mothers reported fewer child-oriented concerns, fewer child-oriented positive emotions, and more parent-oriented negative emotions. They also displayed less supportive behavior. Findings suggest that support for children's immediate intentions may be regulated by parents' concerns, immediate emotions, and depressive symptoms. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  8. A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtada, Rima; Schlecht, Jennifer; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that child marriage among Syrians may be increasing as a result of displacement and conflict. This study sought to gather qualitative data about the factors that promote child marriage practices among Syrian refugees in Al Marj area in the Bekaa valley, Lebanon, where the majority of Syrian refugees have settled in Lebanon. The second aim of this study was to generate recommendations on how to mitigate the drivers and consequences of child marriage practices based on the findings. Eight focus group discussions were conducted separately with married and unmarried young women and mothers and fathers of married and unmarried women. Furthermore, researchers conducted 11 key informant interviews with service providers and stakeholders to understand how conflict and displacement influenced marriage practices of Syrian refugees in Al Marj community. Although child marriage was a common practice in pre-conflict Syria, new factors seem to contribute to a higher risk of child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Respondents cited conflict- and displacement-related safety issues and feeling of insecurity, the worsening of economic conditions, and disrupted education for adolescent women as driving factors. Service providers, young women, and parents also reported changes in some marriage practices, including a shorter engagement period, lower bride price, change in cousin marriage practices, and a reduced age at marriage. Recommendations for interventions to mitigate the drivers of child marriage and its negative consequences should be built on a clear understanding of the local refugee context and the drivers of child marriage in refugee settings. Interventions should involve multiple stakeholders, they should be adjusted to target each specific context, age group and marital status. For these interventions to be effective, they should be addressed concurrently, and they should be delivered in a culturally sensitive and practical manner.

  9. Freshwater availability and water fetching distance affect child health in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer

    2012-02-21

    Currently, more than two-thirds of the population in Africa must leave their home to fetch water for drinking and domestic use. The time burden of water fetching has been suggested to influence the volume of water collected by households as well as time spent on income generating activities and child care. However, little is known about the potential health benefits of reducing water fetching distances. Data from almost 200, 000 Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 26 countries were used to assess the relationship between household walk time to water source and child health outcomes. To estimate the causal effect of decreased water fetching time on health, geographic variation in freshwater availability was employed as an instrumental variable for one-way walk time to water source in a two-stage regression model. Time spent walking to a household's main water source was found to be a significant determinant of under-five child health. A 15-min decrease in one-way walk time to water source is associated with a 41% average relative reduction in diarrhea prevalence, improved anthropometric indicators of child nutritional status, and a 11% relative reduction in under-five child mortality. These results suggest that reducing the time cost of fetching water should be a priority for water infrastructure investments in Africa.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling in a case of spina bifida in a family with Waardenburg syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujat, Annegret; Veith, Veit-Peter; Faber, Renaldo; Froster, Ursula G

    2007-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS I) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with an incidence of 1:45,000 in Europe. Mutations within the PAX3 gene are responsible for the clinical phenotype ranging from mild facial features to severe malformations detectable in prenatal diagnosis. Here, we report a four-generation family with several affected members showing various symptoms of WS I. We diagnosed the syndrome first in a pregnant young woman; she was referred because of a spina bifida in prenatal diagnosis. We performed clinical genetic investigations and molecular genetic analysis in all available family members. The phenotype displays a wide intra-familial clinical variability of pigmentary disturbances, facial anomalies and developmental defects. Molecular studies identified a novel splice site mutation within the PAX3 gene in intron 5 in all affected family members, but in none of the unaffected relatives. This case demonstrates the prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida in a fetus which leads to the initial diagnosis of WS I. Further studies could identify a private splice site mutation within the PAX3 gene responsible for the phenotype in this family.

  11. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  13. A new generation: How refugee trauma affects parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, E.

    2013-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been proposed as a risk factor for child development, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this dissertation refugee and asylum seeker parents with traumatic experiences were assessed with their young non traumatized children to investigate the effect of

  14. Diffusion tensor MRI and fiber tractography of the sacral plexus in children with spina bifida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Dik, Pieter; ten Haken, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    anatomical and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus of patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients 8 to 16 years old with spina bifida underwent diffusion tensor imaging on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...... diffusivity values at S1-S3 were significantly lower in patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study showed for the first time sacral plexus asymmetry and disorganization in 10 patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography...

  15. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    OpenAIRE

    Resul Yilmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Mustafa Ozcetin; Erhan Karaaslan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years). Vis...

  16. Marital quality of parents of children with spina bifida: a case-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, M; McGarth, P J; Daniels, T; Manion, I; Schillinger, J

    1994-10-01

    The impact of childhood chronic illness on parents' marital quality has received limited attention. Most studies have relied solely on mothers' reports and have not examined differences between mothers and fathers. Using a case-control design, this study compared the marital quality within and between dyads of 46 couples with children matched on the age and children matched on the age and sex of the child. During a home visit, parents completed both self-report measures and a communication observational task. Mothers' and fathers' reports of marital quality did not differ between the two groups. Also, no significant differences were found on other marital and psychosocial measures. The most interesting correlations were observed for fathers of children with spinal bifida whose marital quality was associated with parenting stress (r = -.51), depression (r = -.34), and role strain (r = -.34). Overall, the results of this study contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that parents of children with a chronic condition are at no greater risk for psychosocial dysfunction, including marital distress, than parents of healthy children. However, to generalize the results, additional research on marital quality with other chronic conditions is required.

  17. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  18. Aetiology and antenatal diagnosis of spina bifida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    includes both spontaneous and therapeutic pregnancy losses. Isolated NTDs are ... Documentation of folic acid deficiency in a group of mothers with children affected ... for folate supplementation and food fortification in a number of countries ...

  19. Factors Associated With Pressure Ulcers in Individuals With Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunkyung; Ward, Elisabeth; Dicianno, Brad E.; Clayton, Gerald H.; Sawin, Kathleen J.; Beierwaltes, Patricia; Thibadeau, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe factors associated with pressure ulcers in individuals with spina bifida (SB) enrolled in the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR). Design Unbalanced longitudinal multicenter cohort study. Setting Nineteen SB clinics. Participants Individuals with SB (N=3153) enrolled in 19 clinic sites that participate in the NSBPR. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Pressure ulcer status (yes/no) at the annual visit between 2009 and 2012. Results Of 3153 total participants, 19% (n=603) reported ulcers at their most recent annual clinic visit. Seven factors–level of lesion, wheelchair use, urinary incontinence, shunt presence, above the knee orthopedic surgery, recent surgery, and male sex–were significantly associated with the presence of pressure ulcers. Of these factors, level of lesion, urinary incontinence, recent surgery, and male sex were included in the final logistic regression model. The 3 adjusting variables–SB type, SB clinic, and age group–were significant in all analyses (all Ppressure ulcers. Identifying key factors associated with the onset of pressure ulcers can be incorporated into clinical practice in ways that prevent and enhance treatment of pressure ulcers in the population with SB. PMID:25796136

  20. Neuroependymal Denudation is in Progress in Full-term Human Foetal Spina Bifida Aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Deborah A.; Guerra, Montserrat; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Batiz, Luis F.; Alvial, Genaro; Castaneyra-Perdomo, Agustin; Rodriguez, Esteban M.

    In human spina bifida aperta (SBA), cerebral pathogenesis [hydrocephalus, Sylvius aqueduct (SA) stenosis and heterotopias] is poorly understood. In animal models, loss of ventricular lining (ependymal denudation) causes SA stenosis and hydrocephalus. We aimed to investigate whether ependymal

  1. How Does Household Income Affect Child Personality Traits and Behaviors?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akee, Randall; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Simeonova, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    We examine the effects of a quasi-experimental unconditional household income transfer on child emotional and behavioral health and personality traits. Using longitudinal data, we find that there are large beneficial effects on children’s emotional and behavioral health and personality traits during adolescence. We find evidence that these effects are most pronounced for children who start out with the lowest initial endowments. The income intervention also results in improvements in parental relationships which we interpret as a potential mechanism behind our findings. PMID:29568124

  2. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  4. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Oral Myiasis Affecting Gingiva in a Child Patient: An Uncommon Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareedi Mukram Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain dipteran flies larvae causing invasion of the tissues and organs of the humans or other vertebrates are called as myiasis, which feed on hosts dead or living tissues. It is well documented in the skin and hot climate regions; underdeveloped countries are affected more commonly. Oral cavity is affected rarely and it can be secondary to serious medical conditions. Poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, or suppurating lesions can be associated with the oral myiasis. Inflammatory and allergic reactions are the commonest clinical manifestations of the disease. In the present case, gingiva of maxillary anterior region was affected by larval infection in a 13-year-old mentally retarded patient.

  6. Secondary Myelitis in Dermal Sinus Causing Paraplegia in a Child with Previously Normal Neurological Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects result from failure of neural tube fusion during early embryogenesis, the fourth week after conception. The spectrum of severity is not uniform across the various forms of this congenital anomaly as certain presentations are not compatible with extrauterine life (anencephaly while, on the other hand, other defects may remain undiagnosed as they are entirely asymptomatic (occult spina bifida. We report a child with previously normal neurological development, a devastating clinical course following superinfection of a subtle spina bifida defect which resulted in a flaccid paralysis below the level of the lesion and permanent neurological deficits following resolution of the acute infection and a back closure surgery.

  7. The Prevalence and Distribution of Spina Bifida in a Single Major Referral Center in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibah Sahmat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study is to review the medical history of patients with spina bifida, encompassing both aperta and occulta types born between the years 2003 until 2016, spanning a 13-year time period. We assessed each patient and maternal parent information, details of the defects, and conditions associated with the primary defect. We also include information on patients’ ambulation and education level (where available.MethodsData from the Department of Patient Information University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, Malaysia was captured from spina bifida patients (ICD10: Q05 spina bifida. Data involved patients referred to UMMC between 2003 and 2016 and/or born in UMMC within that particular time frame. We filtered and extracted the information according to the data of clinical examination, medical review, and social history provided in the medical records.ResultsA total of 86 patient records with spina bifida were analyzed. Spina bifida prevalence rate in this study ranged from 1.87 to 8.9 per 1,000 live births depending on weightage. We note that ethnicity was a factor whereby the highest numbers of spina bifida were from Malays (n = 36, 41.86%, followed by equal numbers of Chinese and Indians (n = 24, 27.91%. The highest number of diagnoses reported was myelomeningocele type-spina bifida (n = 39, 45.35%. The most common site of the spina bifida lesion was located at the lumbar region irrespective of aperta or occulta types (n = 23, 26.74%. Data on other associated phenotypes of spina bifida such as hydrocephalus and encephalocele was also captured at 37.21% (n = 32 and 1.16% (n = 1, respectively. In terms of mobility, 32.84% (n = 22/67 of patients between the ages 4 and 16 years old were found to be mobile. As many as 36.07% of patients ranging from 5 to 16 years of age (n = 22/61 received formal education ranging from preschool to secondary school.ConclusionThe prevalence of spina bifida in

  8. The Prevalence and Distribution of Spina Bifida in a Single Major Referral Center in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmat, Adibah; Gunasekaran, Renuka; Mohd-Zin, Siti W; Balachandran, Lohis; Thong, Meow-Keong; Engkasan, Julia P; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Omar, Zaliha; Azizi, Abu Bakar; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the medical history of patients with spina bifida, encompassing both aperta and occulta types born between the years 2003 until 2016, spanning a 13-year time period. We assessed each patient and maternal parent information, details of the defects, and conditions associated with the primary defect. We also include information on patients' ambulation and education level (where available). Data from the Department of Patient Information University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia was captured from spina bifida patients (ICD10: Q05 spina bifida). Data involved patients referred to UMMC between 2003 and 2016 and/or born in UMMC within that particular time frame. We filtered and extracted the information according to the data of clinical examination, medical review, and social history provided in the medical records. A total of 86 patient records with spina bifida were analyzed. Spina bifida prevalence rate in this study ranged from 1.87 to 8.9 per 1,000 live births depending on weightage. We note that ethnicity was a factor whereby the highest numbers of spina bifida were from Malays ( n  = 36, 41.86%), followed by equal numbers of Chinese and Indians ( n  = 24, 27.91%). The highest number of diagnoses reported was myelomeningocele type-spina bifida ( n  = 39, 45.35%). The most common site of the spina bifida lesion was located at the lumbar region irrespective of aperta or occulta types ( n  = 23, 26.74%). Data on other associated phenotypes of spina bifida such as hydrocephalus and encephalocele was also captured at 37.21% ( n  = 32) and 1.16% ( n  = 1), respectively. In terms of mobility, 32.84% ( n  = 22/67) of patients between the ages 4 and 16 years old were found to be mobile. As many as 36.07% of patients ranging from 5 to 16 years of age ( n  = 22/61) received formal education ranging from preschool to secondary school. The prevalence of spina bifida in UMMC is as according to

  9. Development and Evaluation of the PROMIS® Pediatric Positive Affect Item Bank, Child-Report and Parent-Proxy Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Devine, Janine; Becker, Brandon D; Teneralli, Rachel; Moon, JeanHee; Carle, Adam; Tucker, Carole A; Bevans, Katherine B

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the psychometric evaluation and item response theory calibration of the PROMIS Pediatric Positive Affect item bank, child-report and parent-proxy editions. The initial item pool comprising 53 items, previously developed using qualitative methods, was administered to 1,874 children 8-17 years old and 909 parents of children 5-17 years old. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning, and construct validity. A total of 14 items were deleted, because of poor psychometric performance, and an 8-item short form constructed from the remaining 39 items was administered to a national sample of 1,004 children 8-17 years old, and 1,306 parents of children 5-17 years old. The combined sample was used in item response theory (IRT) calibration analyses. The final item bank appeared unidimensional, the items appeared locally independent, and the items were free from differential item functioning. The scales showed excellent reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Positive affect decreased with children's age and was lower for those with a special health care need. After IRT calibration, we found that 4 and 8 item short forms had a high degree of precision (reliability) across a wide range of the latent trait (>4 SD units). The PROMIS Pediatric Positive Affect item bank and its short forms provide an efficient, precise, and valid assessment of positive affect in children and youth.

  10. Historicizing affect, psychoanalyzing history: pedophilia and the discourse of child sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Within the last two decades in Australia, Britain, and the United States, we have seen a veritable explosion of cultural panic regarding the problem of pedophilia. Scarcely a day passes without some mention in the media of predatory pedophiles or organized pedophile networks. Many social constructionist historians and sociologists have described this incitement to discourse as indicative of a moral panic. The question that concerns me in this article is: If this incitement to discourse is indicative of a moral panic, to what does the panic refer? I begin by detailing, first, how social constructionism requires psychoanalytic categories in order to understand the notion of panic, and second, how a psychoanalytic reading of history might reveal important unconscious forces at work in the current pedophilia "crisis" that our culture refuses to confront. Here, I will suggest a repressed discourse of child sexuality is writ large. I will argue that the hegemonic discourse of pedophilia is contained largely within a neurotic structure and that many of our prevailing responses to pedophilia function as a way to avoid tackling crucial issues about the reality and trauma of childhood sexuality.

  11. Surrogate Pregnancy After Prenatal Diagnosis of Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lynnette J; Kisthardt, Mary Kay; Kim, Helen H; Rosas, Laura M; Lantos, John D

    2017-02-01

    Some pregnancies today involve infertile individuals or couples who contract with a fertile woman to carry a pregnancy for them. The woman who carries the pregnancy is referred to as a "gestational carrier." The use of such arrangements is increasing. Most of the time, these arrangements play out as planned; sometimes, however, problems arise. This article discusses a case in which a fetal diagnosis of spina bifida led the infertile couple to request that the gestational carrier terminate the pregnancy, and the gestational carrier did not wish to do so. Experts in the medical and legal issues surrounding surrogacy discuss the considerations that should go into resolving such a conflict. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Selective and sustained attention in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Ida Dyhr; Habekost, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    distinguish perceptual from response-related components of attention. We used a verbal-report paradigm based on the Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) and a new continuous performance test, the Dual Attention to Response Task (Dockree et al., 2006), for measuring parameters of selective and sustained......Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neural tube defect that has been related to deficits in several cognitive domains including attention. Attention function in children with SBM has often been studied using tasks that are confounded by complex motor demands or tasks that do not clearly...... attention in 6 children with SBM and 18 healthy control children. The two tasks had minimal motor demands, were functionally specific and were sensitive to minor deficits. As a group, the children with SBM were significantly less efficient at filtering out irrelevant stimuli. Moreover, they exhibited...

  13. The Role of Child Negative Affect in the Relations between Parenting Styles and Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between parenting styles and children's negative affect in the prediction of reticent, solitary-active, and rough-and-tumble play behaviours were examined. The present study involved 98 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers. Participants (53 boys and 45 girls) were a mean age of 3.83 years (standard deviation = 0.69).…

  14. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  15. Child and Adolescent Affective and Behavioral Distress and Elevated Adult Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Martinez, Charles R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates throughout the world have risen rapidly in recent decades, and are now a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Several studies indicate that behavioral and affective distress in childhood may be linked to elevated adult body mass index (BMI). The present study utilizes data from a 20-year longitudinal study to examine the…

  16. Quality of life among children with spina bifida in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Williams, Helen J; Sims-Williams, Hugh P; Mbabazi Kabachelor, Edith; Warf, Benjamin C

    2017-11-01

    Children surviving after spina bifida repair often have significant disability, the consequences of which may be more profound in low-income countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure quality of life (QOL) reported by children with spina bifida in Uganda, and to define factors associated with QOL. QOL was measured using both the Health Utilities Index (HUI3) Tool and a visual analogue scale (VAS) marked from 0 to 10. In keeping with the WHO definition of QOL, further analysis was conducted using subjective QOL scores (using the VAS). Multivariate regression was used to investigate the association between VAS scores and prespecified variables: age, sex, hydrocephalus, mobility, urinary continence, school attendance and family size. Sixty two of 68 surviving children aged 10-14 were able to complete all aspects of the assessment. There was poor correlation between the VAS and HUI3 Tool (Pearson correlation 0.488). On multivariate regression, the following variables were associated with a significant change in the 10-point VAS (change in score; 95% CI): male sex (-1.45; -2.436 to -0.465), urinary continence (1.681; 0.190 to 3.172), large family size (-1.775; -2.773 to -0.777) and hydrocephalus (-1.382; -2.374 to -0.465). Urinary continence and family size are potentially modifiable, the former by simple and inexpensive medical management. Enhanced investment in community-based rehabilitation and support is urgently needed. Delivery of family planning services is a national priority in Uganda, and should be discussed with families as part of holistic care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Small renal size in newborns with spina bifida: possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Paolo; Montaldo, Luisa; Iossa, Azzurra Concetta; Cennamo, Marina; Caredda, Elisabetta; Del Gado, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies reported that children with neural tube defects, but without any history of intrinsic renal diseases, have small kidneys when compared with age-matched standard renal growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible causes of small renal size in children with spina bifida by comparing growth hormone deficiency, physical limitations and hyperhomocysteinemia. The sample included 187 newborns with spina bifida. Renal sizes in the patients were assessed by using maximum measurement of renal length and the measurements were compared by using the Sutherland monogram. According to the results, the sample was divided into two groups--a group of 120 patients with small kidneys (under the third percentile) and a control group of 67 newborns with normal kidney size. Plasma total homocysteine was investigated in mothers and in their children. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were measured. Serum IGF-1 levels were normal in both groups. Children and mothers with homocysteine levels >10 μmol/l were more than twice as likely to have small kidneys and to give to birth children with small kidneys, respectively, compared with newborns and mothers with homocysteine levels <10 μmol/l. An inverse correlation was also found between the homocysteine levels of mothers and kidney sizes of children (r = - 0.6109 P ≤ 0.01). It is highly important for mothers with hyperhomocysteinemia to be educated about benefits of folate supplementation in order to reduce the risk of small renal size and lower renal function in children.

  18. Aggression Profiles in the Spanish Child Population: Differences in Perfectionism, School Refusal and Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the existence of combinations of aggression components (Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression that result in different profiles of aggressive behavior in children, as well as to test the differences between these profiles in scores of perfectionism, school refusal and affect. It is interesting to analyze these variables given: (a their clinical relevance due to their close relationship with the overall psychopathology; and (b the need for further evidence regarding how they are associated with aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 1202 Spanish primary education students between the ages of 8 and 12. Three aggressive behavior profiles for children were identified using Latent Class Analysis (LCA: High Aggression (Z scores between 0.69 and 0.7, Moderate Aggression (Z scores between −0.39 and −0.47 and Low Aggression (Z scores between −1.36 and −1.58. These profiles were found for 49.08%, 38.46% and 12.48% of the sample, respectively. High Aggression scored significantly higher than Moderate Aggression and Low Aggression on Socially Prescribed Perfectionism (SPP, Self-Oriented Perfectionism (SOP, the first three factors of school refusal (i.e., FI. Negative Affective, FII. Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, FIII. To Pursue Attention, and Negative Affect (NA. In addition, Moderate Aggression also reported significantly higher scores than Low Aggression for the three first factors of school refusal and NA. Conversely, Low Aggression had significantly higher mean scores than High Aggression and Moderate Aggression on Positive Affect (PA. Results demonstrate that High Aggression was the most maladaptive profile having a high risk of psychological vulnerability. Aggression prevention programs should be sure to include strategies to overcome psychological problems that characterize children manifesting high levels of aggressive behavior.

  19. Maternal myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status is associated with the risk of offspring with spina bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Peer, P.G.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Franke, B.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the maternal and children's myo-inositol, glucose, and zinc status in association with spina bifida risk. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-three mothers and 70 children with spina bifida and 102 control mothers and 85 control children were investigated. The

  20. Audit of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of isolated open spina bifida in three university hospitals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Scholtenhuis, M. A. G.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Offringa, M.; Barth, P. G.; Stoutenbeek, Ph; Gooskens, R. H.; Wladimiroff, J. W.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To audit the current Dutch policy of prenatal detection of isolated open spina bifida based on offering detailed ultrasound examination only on indication. Methods A retrospective analysis of prenatally diagnosed isolated spina bifida cases and of newborns diagnosed with this condition was

  1. Neuroimaging parameters in early open spina bifida detection. Further benefit in first trimester screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D; Comănescu, A; Antsaklis, P; Tudorache, Stefania; Ghiluşi, Mirela; Comănescu, Violeta; Paulescu, Daniela; Ceauşu, Iuliana; Antsaklis, A; Novac, Liliana; Cernea, N

    2011-01-01

    Morphological investigation of the central nervous system (CNS) in fetuses with positive markers for open spina bifida (OSB) detection, visualized by ultrasound during the first trimester of pregnancy. Data from fetuses that underwent routine first trimester ultrasound scan in our center during September 2007-March 2011 and presented abnormal aspects of the fourth ventricle, also referred as intracranial translucency (IT), provided the morphological support to evaluate CNS features. A neuro-histological study of posterior cerebral fossa illustrated anatomical features of the structures involved in the sonographic first trimester detection of neural tube defects. Abnormal IT aspects were found in OSB cases examined in the first trimester, but also in other severe cerebral abnormalities. Brain stem antero-posterior diameter (BS) and brain stem to occipital bone (BSOB) ratio may be more specific for OSB detection. Correlations between histological aspects of posterior brain fossa and ultrasound standard assessment have been made; highlighting the anatomical features involved by the new techniques developed for OSB early detection. Preliminary results show that modern sonographic protocols are capable to detect abnormalities in the morphometry of the posterior brain. First trimester fourth ventricle abnormalities should be followed by careful CNS evaluation because are likely to appear in OSB affected fetuses, but also in other CNS severe anomalies; in such cases, normal BS and BSOB ratio may serve as indirect argument for spine integrity, if specificity is confirmed in large series of fetuses.

  2. Examination on Validity of Mothers' Parenting Skills Scale: The Relationship among Scale for Mother's Cognitive and Affective Attitudes on Adolescent and Mother's parenting Attitude toward Adolescent Child

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 賢二; 平石, 賢二; WATANABE, Kenji; HIRAISHI, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of parenting skills scale, and the relationship among the parenting skills scale and scale for mother's cognitive and affective attitudes on adolescent and mother's parenting attitude toward adolescent child. 3 subscales of the parenting skills were positively related to "positive cognition and affection" and negatively related to "negative cognition and affection." They were negatively related to "sense of uncertainly" and positively rela...

  3. Why the Convention on the Rights of the Child must become a guiding framework for the realization of the rights of children affected by tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Roy, Robindra; Brandt, Nicola; Moodie, Nicolette; Motlagh, Mitra; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Seddon, James A; Detjen, Anne K; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-12-08

    Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be powerful; however, awareness and application of such strategies is not widespread. We summarize the current challenges faced by children affected by TB, including: consideration of their family context; the limitations of preventive, diagnostic and treatment options; paucity of paediatric-specific research; failure in implementation of interventions; and stigma. We examine the articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and relate them to childhood TB. Specifically, we focus on the five core principles of the CRC: children's inherent right to life and States' duties towards their survival and development; children's right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health; non-discrimination; best interests of the child; and respect for the views of the child. We highlight where children's rights are violated and how a human rights-based approach should be used as a tool to help children affected by TB, particularly in light of the Sustainable Development Goals and their focus on universality and leaving no one behind. The article aims to bridge the gap between those providing paediatric TB clinical care and conducting research, and those working in the fields of human rights policy and advocacy to promote a human rights-based approach for children affected by TB based upon the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  4. Compassion fade: affect and charity are greatest for a single child in need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Västfjäll

    Full Text Available Charitable giving in 2013 exceeded $300 billion, but why do we respond to some life-saving causes while ignoring others? In our first two studies, we demonstrated that valuation of lives is associated with affective feelings (self-reported and psychophysiological and that a decline in compassion may begin with the second endangered life. In Study 3, this fading of compassion was reversed by describing multiple lives in a more unitary fashion. Study 4 extended our findings to loss-frame scenarios. Our capacity to feel sympathy for people in need appears limited, and this form of compassion fatigue can lead to apathy and inaction, consistent with what is seen repeatedly in response to many large-scale human and environmental catastrophes.

  5. Dental Management of a Young Child Affected by Galactosialidosis and a Gigantic Abdominal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoselín Méndez-Salado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactosialidosis (GS is a rare form of lysosomal storage disease that involves a broad spectrum of skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities. We report here on a 4-year 7-month-old boy with mild mental retardation, exhibiting multiple caries cavities and associated infectious foci and macroglossia. A huge abdominal enlargement due to peritoneal ascites was evident. Behavioral management and patient positioning on the dental chair represented a true challenge. The patient was treated under general anesthesia. However, life-threatening postoperative complications occurred because of the impossibility of extubating the patient. A very careful preanesthetic assessment is crucial in children affected by general conditions associated with airway anomalies, such as GS.

  6. Genetic variation in biotransformation enzymes, air pollution exposures, and risk of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Schultz, Kathleen; Lurmann, Fred; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2018-05-01

    Spina bifida is a birth defect characterized by incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube. Genetic factors as well as environmental factors have been observed to influence risks for spina bifida. Few studies have investigated possible gene-environment interactions that could contribute to spina bifida risk. The aim of this study is to examine the interaction between gene variants in biotransformation enzyme pathways and ambient air pollution exposures and risk of spina bifida. We evaluated the role of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and gene variants of biotransformation enzymes from bloodspots and buccal cells in a California population-based case-control (86 cases of spina bifida and 208 non-malformed controls) study. We considered race/ethnicity and folic acid vitamin use as potential effect modifiers and adjusted for those factors and smoking. We observed gene-environment interactions between each of the five pollutants and several gene variants: NO (ABCC2), NO 2 (ABCC2, SLC01B1), PM 10 (ABCC2, CYP1A1, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, NAT2, SLC01B1, SLC01B3), PM 2.5 (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2). These analyses show positive interactions between air pollution exposure during early pregnancy and gene variants associated with metabolizing enzymes. These exploratory results suggest that some individuals based on their genetic background may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of pollution. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Child impact on family functioning: a multivariate analysis in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Katja; Jacob, Christian; Philipsen, Alexandra; Matthies, Swantje; Graf, Erika; Hennighausen, Klaus; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Weyers, Peter; Warnke, Andreas; Rösler, Michael; Retz, Wolfgang; von Gontard, Alexander; Hänig, Susan; Freitag, Christine; Sobanski, Esther; Schumacher-Stien, Martina; Poustka, Luise; Bliznak, Lucia; Becker, Katja; Holtmann, Martin; Colla, Michael; Gentschow, Laura; Kappel, Viola; Jaite, Charlotte; Jans, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    ADHD seriously impacts family functioning, even the more in families with simultaneous parental and child ADHD. The aim of the study was to examine associations between family impact of child ADHD and child, mother and family characteristics in multiplex families with children and mothers both affected by ADHD. One hundred and forty-four mother-child pairs were assessed (children: mean age 9.4 ± 1.7 years, 73.6 % male). Family impact of child ADHD was rated by mothers using the Family Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with child and maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics such as employment, partnership status and number of children as predictors and FIQ subscores as criteria. Rates of variance explained by family variables were 49 % for negative feelings towards the child, 37 % for impact on partnership, 31 % for impact on social life and 27 % for impact on finances (p ADHD and co-morbid symptoms of the mother. The strongest independent predictor was oppositional defiant child behaviour. In ADHD multiplex families, mothers' perception of the impact of an ADHD child on its family can be explained to a substantial degree by child psychopathology, maternal psychopathology and basic family characteristics. Although a cross-sectional design does not allow for causal interpretations, the findings of this study offer important targets for the treatment of ADHD in a family context pointing to the need for assessing and treating parental mental health and co-morbid symptoms besides ADHD core symptoms.

  8. Health care expenditures of children and adults with spina bifida in a privately insured U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lijing; Grosse, Scott D; Armour, Brian S; Waitzman, Norman J

    2007-07-01

    We provide new estimates of medical care utilization and expenditures over the lifespan for persons living with spina bifida in the United States. Updated estimates are essential for calculations of lifetime costs and for economic evaluations of prevention and management strategies for spina bifida. We analyzed data from the 2001-2003 MarketScan database on paid medical and prescription drug claims of persons covered by employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States. Medical care utilization and expenditures during 2003 were analyzed for persons with a diagnosis of spina bifida recorded during 2001-2003 who had 12 months of coverage in a fee-for-service health plan. To calculate expenditures during infancy, a separate analysis was performed for those born during 2002 with claims and expenditures data during the first 12 months of life. We compared medical expenditures for persons with and without spina bifida by age groups. Average incremental medical expenditures comparing patients with spina bifida and those without were $41,460 per year at age 0, $14,070 at ages 1-17, $13,339 at ages 18-44, and $10,134 at ages 45-64. Children ages 1-17 years with spina bifida had average medical expenditures 13 times greater than children without spina bifida. Adults with spina bifida had average medical expenditures three to six times greater than adults without spina bifida in this privately insured population. Although per capita medical care utilization and expenditures are highest among children, adults constitute an important and growing share of the population living with spina bifida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Subluxation and dislocation of the hip in children with spina bifida (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Baindurashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subluxation or dislocation of the hip joint develops in 30-50% children with spina bifida during the first 2-3 years of life. These problems results from force disbalance between muscle group and other structural changes of the hip and pelvis components of the joint. The goal of treatment subluxation and dislocation of the hip joint in children with spina bifida is to make comfortable daily functions, eliminate the pain, provide the mobility and social independent. Management of subluxation and dislocation in children with spina bifida had changed in the last years because of the analysis long-term results. Indications for surgical treatment were determined more clearly, what made the results of treatment better.

  10. Labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children with spina bifida: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, John M; Grosse, Scott D; Goodman, Allen C; Li, Kemeng

    2009-01-01

    Caregiver productivity costs are an important component of the overall cost of care for individuals with birth defects and developmental disabilities, yet few studies provide estimates for use in economic evaluations. This study estimates labor market productivity costs for caregivers of children and adolescents with spina bifida. Case families were recruited from a state birth defects registry in Arkansas. Primary caregivers of children with spina bifida (N = 98) reported their employment status in the past year and demographic characteristics. Controls were abstracted from the Current Population Survey covering the state of Arkansas for the same time period (N = 416). Estimates from regression analyses of labor market outcomes were used to calculate differences in hours worked per week and lifetime costs. Caregivers of children with spina bifida worked an annual average of 7.5 to 11.3 hours less per week depending on the disability severity. Differences in work hours by caregivers of children with spina bifida translated into lifetime costs of $133,755 in 2002 dollars using a 3% discount rate and an age- and sex-adjusted earnings profile. Including caregivers' labor market productivity costs in prevention effectiveness estimates raises the net cost savings per averted case of spina bifida by 48% over the medical care costs alone. Information on labor market productivity costs for caregivers can be used to better inform economic evaluations of prevention and treatment strategies for spina bifida. Cost-effectiveness calculations that omit caregiver productivity costs substantially overstate the net costs of the intervention and underestimate societal value.

  11. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  12. The longest faun tail forming dreadlocks with underlying spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Balvinder Kaur; Mahajan, Bharat Bhushan; Mittal, Jyotisterna

    2013-04-15

    Spina bifida is a developmental anomaly characterized by defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal cord through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude. We report a rare case of a very long faun tail, which was in the form of a 20 inch long tail originating from the lumbosacral area in a rhomboidal pattern, measuring 10 x 8 inches. The case is being reported for its rare presentation of a 20 inch long faun tail with underlying spina bifida occulta.

  13. Do Transnational Child-Raising Arrangements Affect Job Outcomes of Migrant Parents? Comparing Angolan Parents in Transnational and NonTransnational Families in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsman, Karlijn

    2018-01-01

    Transnational family literature has established that parent–child separations affect negatively on the emotional well-being of migrant parents. Less attention has been paid to other effects separation can have on these parents’ lives. Building on insights from transnational family studies and

  14. How the Social Construction of “Child Abuse” Affect Immigrant Parents: Policy Changes That Protect Children and Families

    OpenAIRE

    REISIG, Jennifer A.; MILLER, Monica K.

    2009-01-01

    Immigrants who move to the United States often face the challenge of interpreting new laws and social norms (e.g., parenting norms), which may vary greatly from their native culture. Acceptable parenting practices are socially constructed beliefs, rooted in cultural context. What is acceptable in one culture may be labeled as child abuse in another. Thus, immigrant parents are at risk for having their parenting practices defined as child abuse by mainstream culture. Defining child abuse in a ...

  15. Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

    2013-02-01

    Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.

  16. Daily time management in children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Marika; Janeslätt, Gunnel; Peny-Dahlstrand, Marie

    2017-12-11

    Spina bifida (SB) often results in a complex disability and can also cause cognitive dysfunction. No previous study has investigated the ability to adapt to time in children with SB. This ability is crucial for an individual's possibility to develop autonomy in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether children aged 10-17 with SB have lower time-processing abilities than typically-developing children, and to describe the profile of time-processing in children with SB. Participants comprised a consecutive sample of 21 children (drawn from a geographical cohort of 45) aged 10-17 years (mean: 14 years, SD: 2 years); 13 were boys. The instruments used were KaTid-Y, Time-S, and Time-P. The children with SB had lower time-processing abilities than typically-developing children (52.4% under -2SD), particularly difficulties to orient to and to estimate objective time, to understand time perspectives and with time planning. They also self-rated low use of strategies to adapt to time. The parents rated their children as having extensive difficulties in daily time management. The low time-processing ability found in children with SB is likely to be an important contributing factor to low autonomy and independence.

  17. Curling up with a good e-book: Mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Yuill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared changes in cognitive, affective and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 minutes in each of 4 conditions: mother or child as reader, paper or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analysed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviours that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading.

  18. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children's shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers' commentaries and quality of children's recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children's transition to independent reading.

  19. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading. PMID:28018283

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  2. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and fiber tractography of the sacral plexus in children with spina bifida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakma, Wieke; Dik, Pieter; ten Haken, Bennie

    2014-01-01

    anatomical and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus of patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients 8 to 16 years old with spina bifida underwent diffusion tensor imaging on a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system...... diffusivity values at S1-S3 were significantly lower in patients. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study showed for the first time sacral plexus asymmetry and disorganization in 10 patients with spina bifida using diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography...

  3. Spina bifida: implications for cognitive functioning, disability and health in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida is a developmental birth defect involving the neural tube. It can result in a variety of problems, amongst them incontinence, restrictions of mobility and restrictions of cognitive functioning, depending on the severity of the defect. Due to improvements in medical care, the life

  4. Work participation among young adults with spina bifida in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mechelen, M. C.; Verhoef, M.; van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) assess work participation among young adults with spina bifida, (2) identify problems perceived in finding employment, and (3) examine which determinants are related to work participation. This cross-sectional study was a follow-up study to the Adolescents with

  5. First-trimester visualization of the fourth ventricle in fetuses with and without spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido; Acuna, Joann G; Adeniji, Beni A; Mirocha, James; Kim, Matthew J; Rotmensch, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of nonvisualization of the fourth ventricle for first-trimester detection of spina bifida. A total of 250 digitally stored sonographic examinations at gestational ages of 11 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days (245 normal and 5 randomly interspersed spina bifida cases) were retrospectively analyzed by 4 blinded reviewers for the presence or absence of the fourth ventricle followed by an anteroposterior ventricular dimension measurement. The ventricle size was related to the crown-rump length and gestational age by linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation. The fourth ventricle was identified in 971 of 1000 image readings (97.1%). False-negative and false-positive readings occurred in 11 of 20 (55.0%) and 20 of 980 (2.0%) cases, respectively (sensitivity, 0.45; specificity, 0.98.). False-negative and false-positive readings were evenly distributed throughout the gestational age range. When the ventricular size was measurable, its mean dimensions increased linearly with gestational age and were below the fifth percentile in 10 of 245 (4.0%) normal and 0 of 4 spina bifida cases, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient estimates were calculated based on the 2-way analysis of variance model and found to be 0.30 for a single rater and 0.64 for the mean of 4 raters. Nonvisualization of the first-trimester fourth ventricle is a less robust screening parameter for spina bifida than previously published.

  6. Physical fitness and physical behavior in (wheelchair-using) youth with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Associations between low physical fitness, unfavorable physical behavior and higher cardiovascular and overall mortality are well known. Children with a physical disability like spina bifida (SB) are at high risk of decreased levels of physical fitness and unfavorable physical behavior. They seem to

  7. Home screening for bacteriuria in children with spina bifida and clean intermittent catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegers Bas SHJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant bacteriuria (SBU and urinary tract infections (UTIs are common in patients with spina bifida and neuropathic detrusor sphincter dysfunction. Laboratory agar plated culture is the gold standard to establish SBU. It has the disadvantage of diagnostic and subsequent therapeutic delay. Leukocyte esterase tests (LETs and dip slides proved to be useful in the general populations to exclude SBU and UTI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of LET and dip slide in children with spina bifida without symptoms of UTI. The reliability in children with asymptomatic SBU was not studied before. Methods In one hundred and twelve children with spina bifida on clean intermittent catheterization LETs and dip slides were compared with laboratory cultures. Both tests and agar plated cultures were performed on catheterized urine samples. The hypothesis was that the home tests are as accurate as laboratory cultures. Results A SBU was found in 45 (40% of the 112 laboratory cultures. A negative LET excluded SBU (negative predictive value 96%, while a positive LET had a positive predictive value of 72%. The false positive rate was 28%. Dip slide determination of bacterial growth had no added value, other than serving as transport medium. Conclusions In spina bifida children, leukocyte esterase testing can be used to exclude significant bacteriuria at home, while dip slide tests have no added value to diagnose or exclude significant bacteriuria.

  8. A Pregnant Woman with Spina Bifida: Need for a Multidisciplinary Labor Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Angela O’Neal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Women with spina bifida present both obstetrical and anesthesia challenges. They are more likely to require a caesarian delivery and traditionally neuraxial anesthesia has been avoided due to concerns of worsening neurologic disability. The case of a pregnant woman with a history of a surgically corrected lipomeningocele and tethered cord is presented to illustrate the need for a comprehensive labor plan.

  9. Treatment of pressure sores in spina bifida patients with calcium alginate and foam dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausili, E; Paolucci, V; Triarico, S; Maestrini, C; Murolo, D; Focarelli, B; Rendeli, C

    2013-06-01

    Prospective study on local treatment of pressure sores using calcium alginate and foam dressings in spina bifida patients. Investigate if this sequential approach is valid and safe for selected patients with neurological impairments. Using European Pressure Ulcer Grading System, after clinical evaluation of local sore, selected patients of Spina Bifida Center of Rome were treated with sequential calcium alginate and foam dressings for 12 weeks. Pressure ulcere surfaces were measured monthly by ulcer tracing. The endpoints were the mean absolute areas surface reduction during every month and number of patients achieving a 50% or more during study. 14 patients (7 males aged 12-24 years) with spina bifida and pressure sores were treated. Mean and standard deviation of mean surface area reduction were 12.5 ± 7.5 cm 2 at start of the study versus 3.7 ± 5.2 cm 2 after 12 weeks, p pressure sores in selected patients with spina bifida. In fact, they protect the wound and create an environment favorable to healing.

  10. Neurological bypass for sensory innervation of the penis in patients with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgoor, Max L. E.; Kon, Moshe; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Strijbos, Saskia A. M.; de Boer, Niels; de Jong, Tom P. V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Most male patients with spina bifida have normal sexual desires. During puberty they begin to realize that they can achieve erection and sexual intercourse but without any sensation in the penis. We hypothesized that restored sensation in the penis would greatly contribute to their quality of life

  11. The Language of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus: Meeting Task Demands and Mastering Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Linguistic performance of 7 children (mean age=68 months) with spina bifida, hydrocephalus, and average intelligence was evaluated. Subjects dealt with the semantic-pragmatic requirements of linguistically posed problems in an age-appropriate manner. Performance declined as task demands increased but no more than performance of nondisabled…

  12. The Management and Education of Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robert J.; Elkins, John

    The report describes the population of children in Australia with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus, notes their needs and characteristics, reviews their school placement and social circumstances, and considers future educational services for them. Initial chapters review the literature on medical, psychoeducational, and social-family aspects of…

  13. Spinal hemorrhages are associated with early neonatal motor function loss in human spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Deborah; Verbeek, R. J.; Brouwer, O. F.; Sollie, K. M.; Bos, A. F.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    Background: In spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements caudal to the meningomyelocele are present in utero, but they disappear shortly after birth. It is unclear whether leg movements disappear by impact of the neuro-developmental malformation or by superimposed traumatic damage. If superimposed

  14. The results of Grice Green subtalar arthrodesis of valgus foot in spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Küçükdurmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valgus foot is a common foot deformity in spina bifida. The most popular operation for the valgus deformity has been the Grice talocalcaneal blocking. It has not been studied primarily in children with spina bifida. We report a prospective series, we present the results of hind foot valgus deformity of children with spina bifida, using Grice talocalcaneal arthrodesis with a tricortical iliac bone graft. Materials and Methods: Between May 2000 and December 2003, 21 patients with bilateral (42 feet valgus deformity of feet underwent surgery. There were 7 males and 14 females. The mean age of patients was 67.7 months (range 50-108 months. Results: The total number of feet that had nonunion was 11, in 7 of them the grafts were completely reabsorbed and the outcome of all these feet was unsatisfactory. Four feet had partial union of which three had unsatisfactory and one had satisfactory outcome. Sixteen feet had residual valgus deformity at the last followup visit, 10 patients had nonunion, and 6 had inadequate correction. Mean preoperative talocalcaneal and calcaneal pitch angles were 48.5΀ and 31.9΀, respectively, which decreased to 38.5΀ and 29.1΀, respectively, postoperatively. The decrease in talocalcaneal angle and calcaneal pitch was significant between preoperative and postoperative measurements (P<0.05. Conclusion: Grice subtalar arthrodesis technique is still a valuable option for valgus foot in patients with spina bifida. In this study, we found more encouraging results in older patients.

  15. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  16. Maltreatment and Affective and Behavioral Problems in Emerging Adults With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Mediation by Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Stearns, Melanie; Szkody, Erica

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i.e., maternal and paternal effects as well as male and female differences) as well as participants reporting high and low ODD symptoms. In the low ODD group, indirect effects of emotional maltreatment occurred in all parent-child dyads except the mother-son dyad, whereas in the high ODD group, indirect effects occurred only in the father-son dyad. Indirect effects of physical maltreatment occurred only in the father-son dyad in the low ODD group, and only in the mother-daughter dyad on behavioral ODD symptoms in the high ODD group. The results suggest that specific parent-child gender dyads respond differently, warranting further investigation of gender effects. Moreover, emerging adults in the low ODD symptoms group demonstrated a positive association between parental maltreatment and ODD symptoms and a negative association between parent-child relationship quality and ODD symptoms, whereas those high in the high ODD symptoms group did not demonstrate these associations. That is, emerging adults reporting high ODD symptoms demonstrated no relationship between their ODD symptoms and harsh parenting, suggesting an ineffective coercive process.

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  20. Links between teacher assessment and child self-assessment of mental health and behavior among children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Weinstein, Traci L; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are considered to be one of the most important influences in the lives of students. Teachers' assessments of students may be a primary source of information on children's mental and behavioral health; however, this topic has received little attention in research. We examined this issue through linking teachers' ratings of students and mental and behavioral outcomes of children affected by HIV. The hypothesis is that teacher ratings will be predictive of specific child mental and behavioral health outcomes. A quantitative cross-sectional design with self-administered paper-and-pencil instruments was used. The sample included 1221 children (aged 6-18, grades 1-11) affected by HIV including 755 orphans who lost one or both parents to AIDS and 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents in a central province of China. The corresponding teacher sample included 185 participants. Each child completed an assessment inventory of demographic information and mental and behavioral health measures. Teachers completed a questionnaire about children's school performance. SEM analyses revealed a good model fit according to all fit indices: comparative fit index = 0.93, root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.04. Structural equation modeling revealed that problem ratings by teachers were positively associated with child loneliness and behavioral problems, social competence ratings by teachers were negatively related to child depression, and personal growth and social interaction ratings by teachers were negatively related to child loneliness, depression, and trauma. The current study represents a unique contribution to the field in that it recognizes that teachers can be a valuable source of information on children's psychological health. Results from this study have implications for health prevention and intervention for children and families suffering from HIV/AIDS.

  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  2. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  4. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  5. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  6. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? : The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, J.; Chhangur, R.R.; Jaffee, S.R.; van der Giessen, D.; Matthys, W.; Orobio De Castro, B.; Overbeek, G.

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent

  7. Throw-Away Dads? Promoting Healthy Father-Child Attachment in Families Affected by Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children witness intimate partner violence (IPV) in their homes each year, and large percentages of those children are infants and toddlers. Children often continue to live with or have frequent visits with their fathers following IPV. Social services agencies rarely provide services to target the father-child relationship beyond…

  8. Parent-Child Communication about Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: What Do Parents Say and Does It Affect Youth Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…

  9. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  10. Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary patterns of 3-year-old children: the MoBa Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Barker, Mary; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) identify dietary patterns in 3-year-old children; (2) investigate the extent to which negative affectivity, external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) relate to these dietary patterns; and (3) to examine to what extent external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices serve as mediators for these effects. This study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising 14,122 mothers completing assessments at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years post-partum. Factor analysis of the children's diet identified two weakly correlated dietary patterns, labeled 'unhealthy' and 'wholesome'. Mothers high in negative affectivity perceived they had little control over their child's behaviour, which in turn was associated with both pressuring their child to eat and restricting the child's food intake and a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet in the child. Pressuring the child to eat was independently associated with a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet. Restricting the child's diet was associated with a more wholesome and a less unhealthy diet. These findings held after controlling for maternal smoking, education, age, body mass index, marital status, homemaker status and child gender. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  13. Do parent–child acculturation gaps affect early adolescent Latino alcohol use? A study of the probability and extent of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The literature has been mixed regarding how parent–child relationships are affected by the acculturation process and how this process relates to alcohol use among Latino youth. The mixed results may be due to, at least, two factors: First, staggered migration in which one or both parents arrive to the new country and then send for the children may lead to faster acculturation in parents than in children for some families. Second, acculturation may have different effects depending on which aspects of alcohol use are being examined. This study addresses the first factor by testing for a curvilinear trend in the acculturation-alcohol use relationship and the second by modeling past year alcohol use as a zero inflated negative binomial distribution. Additionally, this study examined the unique and mediation effects of parent–child acculturation discrepancies (gap), mother involvement in children’s schooling, father involvement in children’s schooling, and effective parenting on youth alcohol use during the last 12 months, measured as the probability of using and the extent of use. Direct paths from parent–child acculturation discrepancy to alcohol use, and mediated paths through mother involvement, father involvement, and effective parenting were also tested. Only father involvement fully mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the probability of alcohol use. None of the variables examined mediated the path from parent–child acculturation discrepancies to the extent of alcohol use. Effective parenting was unrelated to acculturation discrepancies; however, it maintained a significant direct effect on the probability of youth alcohol use and the extent of use after controlling for mother and father involvement. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:23347822

  14. Case Report: Evaluation strategies and cognitive intervention: the case of a monovular twin child affected by selective mutism [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Capobianco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the assessment process, evaluation strategies, and cognitive intervention on a 9 years old child with selective mutism (SM, a monovular twin of a child also affected by mutism. Currently, the cognitive behavioral multimodal treatment seems the most effective therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with selective mutism (Capobianco & Cerniglia, 2018. The illustrated case confirms the role of biological factors involved in mutacic disorder but also highlights the importance of environmental influences in the maintenance of the disorder with respect to relational and contextual dynamics (e.g. complicity between sisters, family relationships. The article discusses furthermore the importance of an early diagnosis as a predictor of positive treatment outcomes.

  15. Primary care providers and medical homes for individuals with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William O

    2008-01-01

    The contributions of primary care providers to the successful care of children with spina bifida cannot be underestimated. Overcoming systemic barriers to their integration into a comprehensive care system is essential. By providing routine and disability specific care through the structure of a Medical Home, they are often the first line resource and support for individuals and their families. The Medical Home model encourages primary care providers to facilitate discussions on topics as varied as education and employment. Knowledge of specific medical issues unique to this population allows the primary care provider to complement the efforts of other specialty clinics and providers in often neglected areas such as sexual health, obesity and latex sensitization. As individuals with spina bifida live into adulthood, and access to traditional multidisciplinary care models evolves, these skills will take on increasing importance within the scope of providing comprehensive and coordinated care.

  16. Posterior brain in fetuses with open spina bifida at 11 to 13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Robert; Chaoui, Rabih; Moratalla, Jose; Picciarelli, Gemma; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To measure the changes in the posterior fossa in first-trimester fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). The brain stem diameter and brain stem to occipital bone (BSOB) diameter were measured in stored images of the mid-sagittal view of the fetal face at 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks from 30 fetuses with OSB and 1000 normal controls. In the control group, the brain stem and BSOB diameter increased significantly with crown-rump length (CRL) and the brain stem to BSOB ratio decreased. In the spina bifida group, the brain stem diameter was above the 95th percentile of the control group in 29 (96.7%) cases, the BSOB diameter was below the 5th percentile in 26 (86.7%) and the brain stem to BSOB ratio was above the 95th percentile in all cases. At 11 to 13 weeks the majority of fetuses with OSB have measurable abnormalities in the posterior brain.

  17. Language disorder with mild intellectual disability in a child affected by a novel mutation of SLC6A8 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, R; Chilosi, A M; Casarano, M; Moro, F; Comparini, A; Alessandrì, M G; Leuzzi, V; Tosetti, M; Cioni, G

    2011-02-01

    We describe the clinical and molecular features of a child harboring a novel mutation in SLC6A8 gene in association with a milder phenotype than other creatine transporter (CT1) deficient patients (OMIM 300352) [1-7]. The mutation c.757 G>C p.G253R in exon 4 of SLC6A8 was hemizygous in the child, aged 6 years and 6 months, who showed mild intellectual disability with severe speech and language delay. His carrier mother had borderline intellectual functioning. Although the neurochemical and biochemical parameters were fully consistent with those reported in the literature for subjects with CT1 deficit, in our patient within a general cognitive disability, a discrepancy between nonverbal and verbal skills was observed, confirming the peculiar vulnerability of language development under brain Cr depletion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurological bypass for sensory innervation of the penis in patients with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgoor, Max L E; Kon, Moshe; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Strijbos, Saskia A M; de Boer, Niels; de Jong, Tom P V M

    2006-09-01

    Most male patients with spina bifida have normal sexual desires. During puberty they begin to realize that they can achieve erection and sexual intercourse but without any sensation in the penis. We hypothesized that restored sensation in the penis would greatly contribute to their quality of life and sexual health. In this prospective study we investigated the outcome of a new operative neurological bypass procedure in patients with spina bifida. In 3 patients who were 17, 18 and 21 years old with a spinal lesion at L5, L4 and L3-L4, respectively, the sensory ilioinguinal nerve (L1) was cut distal in the groin and joined by microneurorrhaphy to the divided ipsilateral dorsal nerve of the penis (S2-4) at the base of the penis. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative neurological and psychological evaluations. By 15 months postoperatively all patients had achieved excellent sensation on the operated side of the glans penis. They were unequivocally positive about the results and the penis had become more integrated into the body image. In 2 patients masturbation became more meaningful and 1 became more sexually active with and without his partner. The newly designed neurological bypass procedure in patients with spina bifida resulted in excellent sensibility in the glans penis. The new sensation appeared to contribute to the quality of the patient sexuality and sexual functioning as well as to the feeling of being a more normal and complete individual who is more conscious of the penis. This new operation might become standard treatment in patients with spina bifida in the future.

  19. A study of the clinical profile and outcome of spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus Nikita Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are a group of congenital anomalies characterized by defects in dorsal midline structures, including neural tissue, dura, muscle, bone and/or skin. The clinical presentations and the follow-up of these patients requires attention to various end organs besides the nervous system. To evaluate the clinical profile and surgical outcome of children with spina bifida. Out of a total of 74 patients treated at our institute for spina bifida between June 2013 to august 2015, 74 cases of spina bifida were analyzed retrospectively and prospectively. The clinical profile, radiological findings and urodynamic studies were recorded. Craniospinal MRI was done in patients to screen for Arnold Chiari malformations and monitoring of hydrocephalus was done as a management protocol at our institute for these children. All these patients except two underwent surgery for correction and closure of the spinal defect. Associated anomalies were treated accordingly. They were clinically assessed over a mean follow up period of 1.3years, ranging from 2months to 2½ years. 73% of the patients presented in the neonatal age group. Of which, 72% presented with a visible sac over the back.72% of the cases were Myelomeningocoeles. 79% of the defects were in the lumbosacral region.30% presented with sensorimotor loss or bladder bowel incontinence. Sensorimotor improvement was seen in 12.5% after repairing the defect with the help of physiotherapy and braces. 30% of the patients were diagnosed to have hydrocephalus, of which 33% required a CSF diversion procedure. The postoperative course of spina bifida repair was found to be uneventful in 90% of the patients

  20. Association between CFL1 gene polymorphisms and spina bifida risk in a California population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammer Edward J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CFL1 encodes human non-muscle cofilin (n-cofilin, which is an actin-depolymerizing factor and is essential in cytokinesis, endocytosis, and in the development of all embryonic tissues. Cfl1 knockout mice exhibit failure of neural tube closure at E10.5 and die in utero. We hypothesized that genetic variation within the human CFL1 gene may alter the protein's function and result in defective actin depolymerizing and cellular activity during neural tube closure. Such alterations may be associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs. Methods Having re-sequenced the human CFL1 gene and identified five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in our target population, we investigated whether there existed a possible association between the genetic variations of the CFL1 gene and risk of spina bifida. Samples were obtained from a large population-based case-control study in California. Allele association, genotype association and haplotype association were evaluated in two different ethnicity groups, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic white. Results Homozygosity for the minor alleles of the SNPs studied (rs652021, rs665306, rs667555, rs4621 and rs11227332 appeared to produce an increased risk for spina bifida. Subjects with the haplotype composed of all minor alleles (CCGGT appeared to have increased spina bifida risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9~2.9, however, this finding is not statistically significant likely due to limited sample size. Conclusion The sequence variation of human CFL1 gene is a genetic modifier for spina bifida risk in this California population.

  1. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children’s story recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Follmer Greenhoot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers’ memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot & Semb, 2008. In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children’s story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to read or tell the story as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after one week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore,in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers’ story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children’s processing of the illustrations.

  2. Amenorrhea after Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy for a Failed Shunt in Spina Bifida: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Flavio; Spacca, Barbara; Danti, Alfredo; Taverna, Maria; Losi, Stefania; Stagi, Stefano; Genitori, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondary endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the management of shunt failure may be efficacious, though it may be followed by more frequent complications (including endocrinological impairment, e.g., amenorrhea) compared to primary ETV. These complications are usually underreported in the literature. We report a case of secondary amenorrhea after ETV for the management of shunt failure in a young woman with hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele. A 25-year-old woman affected by hydrocephalus and myelomeningocele was admitted for secondary ETV for the management of shunt failure. The endoscopic procedure was preferred over shunt revision based on good results of secondary ETV, especially in patients with hydrocephalus associated with Chiari II malformation and spina bifida. Despite the surgery being uneventful, the patient had early (postoperative seizure) and late (secondary amenorrhea) complications. In the early postoperative period, she received external ventricular drainage followed by VP shunt reimplantation 2 weeks later. There was no neurological morbidity, but 1 month after the ETV she reported secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. Laboratory investigations ruled out hyperprolactinemia, which had been treated with cabergoline administration with no efficacy since the patient was still without regular periods 1 year later. ETV may be followed by endocrinological complications like amenorrhea that are rarely reported. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The relationship between intellectual skills and the computerised axial tomograms of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonton, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Cranial CT-scans of 467 patients were graded in degrees of severity of hydrocephalus. The patients were aged from 2-22 years and had spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus or related disorders. Even large increases in the degree of hydrocephalus were found to have an insignificant effect upon verbal IQ, but there was a small but statistically significant effect upon performance scale IQ on the WISC. The abilities most affected were those involving the use of motor and perceptuo-motor skills. Assymmetrical or other abnormal scans were found to be associated with lower IQ. Children with valves were only found to be substantially inferior in skills to those without valves when their ventricles were either very large, or abnormally small. The highest proportion of children with valves was found in the group with the smallest ventricles, followed by the group with the largest ventricles. Very small ventricles are known to be associated with an increased rate of valve complications, and this paper shows that there are psychological disadvantages also. (orig.) [de

  4. Revision of Ascra with proposition of the bifida species group and description of two new species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bianca Tamires Silva Dos; Silva, Valeria Juliete Da; Fernandes, Jose Antonio Marin

    2015-10-30

    Edessa is comprised of six subgenera, Aceratodes, Ascra, Dorypleura, Edessa, Hypoxys and Pygoda. Ascra is here elevated to genus status based on characteristics of the male and female genitalia and the gibbous pronotum. This genus is comprised of eight species previously placed in Edessa-E. bifida, E. cordifera, E. petersii, E. abdita, E. championi, E. privata, E. conspersa and E. morbosa, as well as six new species. The genus Ascra was further divided into two groups of species bifida and privata separated by a different pattern of punctuation on body and pygophore. Here we present only the bifida species group formed by A. bifida, A. cordifera, A. petersii, A. abdita, and A. championi, as well as two new species-A. vluteum and A. flavoscutellata. Lectotypes of Aceratodes sigillatus, Edessa abdita, E. championi, E. cornuta, E. densata and E. petersii are designated. Aceratodes sigillatus, Edessa cornuta, E. densata, E. picata, and E. florida are considered junior synonyms of A. bifida. Interestingly, some species of this genus are considered edible in Mexico.

  5. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  6. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  13. A comparison between placental and amniotic mesenchymal stem cells for transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) in experimental spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Christina; D Graham, Christopher; Connors, John Patrick; Brazzo, Joseph; Zurakowski, David; Fauza, Dario O

    2016-06-01

    We compared placental-derived and amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs and afMSCs, respectively) in transamniotic stem cell therapy (TRASCET) for experimental spina bifida. Pregnant dams (n=29) exposed to retinoic acid for the induction of fetal spina bifida were divided into four groups. Three groups received volume-matched intraamniotic injections of either saline (n=38 fetuses) or a suspension of 2×10(6) cells/mL of syngeneic, labeled afMSCs (n=73) or pMSCs (n=115) on gestational day 17 (term=21-22days). Untreated fetuses served as controls. Animals were killed before term. Statistical comparisons were by Fisher's exact test (pcell source for TRASCET as a potential alternative in the prenatal management of spina bifida. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Child morbidity, level of parent’s education, and accessibility to health facilities as factors affecting Posyanduutilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummi Kalsum

    2013-07-01

    . Utilization of the Posyandu was the use of Posyanduby mothers in the last 3 months prior to the survey. Results: More subjects who utilized (62.9% than did not utilized (37.1% the Posyandu. Education of mother and father, occupation of father, and socioeconomic level of family child morbidity were dominant risk factors for to utilization Posyandu. Those who had compared with did not have child morbidity had 23% more chance to utilize Posyandu[adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.23; P = 0.000]. In term of education of father, those who had high than low education had 18% more chance to utilize Posyandu(RRa = 1.18; P = 0.000. In addition, those who had easy than difficult health facilities accessibility had 15% more chance to utilize Posyandu.Conclusions: Education of parents, father’s occupation, and family socioeconomic level, child morbidity were dominant risk factors for to Posyandu utilization. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:27-31Key words: posyanduutilization, under-five children, education of parents

  16. Factors affecting improvement of children and adolescents who were treated in the child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serim Demirgoren, Burcu; Ozbek, Aylin; Gencer, Ozlem

    2017-08-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the correlates and predictors of improvement in general functioning of children and adolescents who are treated in the child and adolescent psychiatry (CAMHS) inpatient unit. Methods Hospital records of 308 children and adolescents who were treated for at least 1 month in the CAMHS inpatient unit from 2005-2016 were included. Associations with individual, familial, and clinical variables and the difference in Children's Global Assessment Scale (ΔCGAS) scores at admission and discharge were evaluated. Results Positive predictors of ΔCGAS were older age and lower CGAS scores at admission, whereas high familial risk scores at admission and diagnosis of early-onset schizophrenia negatively predicted ΔCGAS (B = 0.698, p = 0002; B = -0.620, p < 0.001; B = -0.842, p = 0.002; B =-9.184, p = 0.000, respectively). Familial risk scores were significantly and negatively correlated with ΔCGAS (p = 0.004, Spearman's rho = -0.2). Conclusions This study indicates that improvement in general functioning during inpatient treatment in CAMHS is better at an older age and with lower general functioning at admission. However, high familial risks and diagnosis of early-onset schizophrenia weakens this improvement.

  17. The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent-Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Mun, Chung Jung; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Kim, Hanjoe; Shaw, Daniel S; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N; Peterson, Jenene

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit setting skills (or lack thereof). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the measurement model of macro ratings of limit setting and positive behavior support was not supported by the data, and thus, were excluded from further analyses. However, there was moderate stability in the families' micro social dynamics across early childhood and it showed significant improvements as a function of random assignment to the FCU. Moreover, parent-child dynamics were predictive of chronic behavior problems as rated by parents in middle childhood, but not emotional problems. We conclude with a discussion of the validity of the RACS and on methodological advantages of micro social coding over the statistical limitations of macro rating observations. Future directions are discussed for observation research in prevention science.

  18. Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I 2 ) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida.

  19. A unifying hypothesis for hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, anencephaly and spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Helen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work is a modified version of the Casey Holter Memorial prize essay presented to the Society for Research into Hydrocephalus and Spina Bifida, June 29th 2007, Heidelberg, Germany. It describes the origin and consequences of the Chiari malformation, and proposes that hydrocephalus is caused by inadequate central nervous system (CNS venous drainage. A new hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis, anencephaly and spina bifida is described. Any volume increase in the central nervous system can increase venous pressure. This occurs because veins are compressible and a CNS volume increase may result in reduced venous blood flow. This has the potential to cause progressive increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF volume. Venous insufficiency may be caused by any disease that reduces space for venous volume. The flow of CSF has a beneficial effect on venous drainage. In health it moderates central nervous system pressure by moving between the head and spine. Conversely, obstruction to CSF flow causes localised pressure increases, which have an adverse effect on venous drainage. The Chiari malformation is associated with hindbrain herniation, which may be caused by low spinal pressure relative to cranial pressure. In these instances, there are hindbrain-related symptoms caused by cerebellar and brainstem compression. When spinal injury occurs as a result of a Chiari malformation, the primary pathology is posterior fossa hypoplasia, resulting in raised spinal pressure. The small posterior fossa prevents the flow of CSF from the spine to the head as blood enters the central nervous system during movement. Consequently, intermittent increases in spinal pressure caused by movement, result in injury to the spinal cord. It is proposed that posterior fossa hypoplasia, which has origins in fetal life, causes syringomyelia after birth and leads to damage to the spinal cord in spina bifida. It is proposed that hydrocephalus may occur as a result of

  20. Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.

    1981-03-01

    Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient were believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy.

  1. Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient was believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy. (orig.)

  2. Marjolin's ulcers: theories, prognostic factors and their peculiarities in spina bifida patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to improved care, more and more children born with spina bifida in rural Kenya are surviving into adulthood. This improved survival has led to significant challenges in their lifestyles, especially the need to ensure pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. Malignant degeneration of pressure ulcers in spina bifida patients is very rare. The author describes the clinical presentation of two pressure ulcer carcinomas that are at variance from classical descriptions. Materials and methods An internet/Medline/PubMed search of English literature for theories on Marjolin's ulcer evolution and prognostic features of Marjolin's ulcers was performed. A chart review of two young adults with spina bifida who had presented to the author's hospital between 2004 and August 2010 with chronic pressure ulcers found to be Marjolin's ulcers on histo-pathological examination was performed, and the clinical features are reported. Results The two ulcers appeared clinically benign: one was a deep ulcer, while the other was shallow; both had normal, benign-appearing edges, and a foul smelling discharge. The two ulcers were surrounded by induration and multiple communicating sinuses, with no evidence of chronic osteomyelitis. The internet search revealed a total of nine theories on Marjolin's ulcer development, as well as seven clinical and four histological prognostic features. Discussion The multifactorial theory, a coalescence of a number of proposed theories, best explains the evolution of Marjolin's ulcers. Poor prognostic features include pressure ulcer carcinomas, lesions and location in the lower limbs/trunks, all present in the two patients making their prognosis dim: this is despite the surgical margins being clear of tumor. Benign appearance, induration and presence of multiple communicating sinuses are features that have not been previously described as presenting features of pressure ulcers carcinomas. Conclusion There is need for

  3. Validity and reliability of skill-related fitness tests for wheelchair-using youth with Spina Bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.; Vos, M.; Kruitwagen, C.L.; Groot, J.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST), and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test, and One Stroke Push Test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study. Setting:

  4. Central Somatosensory Networks Respond to a De Novo Innervated Penis : A Proof of Concept in Three Spina Bifida Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Nanetti, Luca; Overgoor, Max L. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Introduction. Spina bifida (SB) causes low spinal lesions, and patients often have absent genital sensation and a highly impaired sex life. TOMAX (TO MAX-imize sensation, sexuality and quality of life) is a surgical procedure whereby the penis is newly innervated using a sensory nerve originally

  5. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth With Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A.; Takken, Tim; Backx, Frank J.; Vos, Marleen; Kruitwagen, Cas L.; de Groot, Janke F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). DESIGN: Clinimetric study SETTING:

  6. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cas L.J.J. Kruitwagen; Frank J.G. Backx; Tim Takken; Janke de Groot; Marleen Vos; Manon A.T. Bloemen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study Setting:

  7. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; De Groot, Janke F.; Backx, FJG; Westerveld, Rosalyne A.; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Design: Validity and reliability study. Subjects: Young

  8. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.T.; Groot, J.F. de; Backx, F.J.G.; Westerveld, R.A.; Takken, T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. DESIGN: Validity and reliability study. SUBJECTS: Young

  9. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children’s affect through

  10. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students' Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother-Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children's cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children's affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4-6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children's affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers' work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children's positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children's negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children's affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children's negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children's affect through FMCC only for non

  11. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC and Maternal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC and the moderating role of maternal education.Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education.Results: (1 Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2 non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3 the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4 the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5 there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6 the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers.Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children

  12. Resilience, self-esteem and self-compassion in adults with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, M R; Dorstyn, D S

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To examine factors that may enhance and promote resilience in adults with spina bifida. Community-based disability organisations within Australia. Ninety-seven adults with a diagnosis of spina bifida (SB) completed a survey comprising of demographic questions in addition to standardised self-report measures of physical functioning (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, 10 item), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale) and psychological distress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, 21 item). The majority (66%) of respondents reported moderate to high resilience. Physical disability impacted on coping, with greater CD-RISC 10 scores reported by individuals who were functionally independent in addition to those who experienced less medical co-morbidities. Significant correlations between resilience and psychological traits (self-esteem r=0.36, Pself-esteem and self-compassion. It follows that cognitive behavioural strategies with a focus on self-management may, in part, contribute to the process of resilience in this group. Further large-scale and longitudinal research will help to confirm these findings.

  13. Bowel Management and Quality of Life in Children With Spina Bifida in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Im, Young Jae; Han, Sang Won

    Bowel management is a concern in patients with spina bifida. We evaluated the status of bowel management in children with spina bifida (SB) and the effects on quality of life (QoL) of children and their caregivers. Data were collected from 173 children with SB between January and June 2011, whose bowel management status and QoL were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 173 children, 38 (22.0%) reported normal defecation, 73 (42.2%) reported constipation only, and 62 (35.8%) reported fecal incontinence with/without constipation. For defecation, 59 children (34.1%) used digital stimulation or manual extraction, 28 (16.2%) used suppositories or enemas, 35 (20.3%) used laxatives, 4 (2.3%) used an antegrade continence enema, and 3 (1.7%) used transanal irrigation. There were significant differences in QoL, depending on defecation symptoms. Children with fecal incontinence and their caregivers had difficulties in travel and socialization (p children with SB and their caregivers. Therefore, more attention should be paid to bowel problems and help should be provided to children and their caregivers to improve QoL.

  14. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission.

  15. 118 SNPs of folate-related genes and risks of spina bifida and conotruncal heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Gary M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid taken in early pregnancy reduces risks for delivering offspring with several congenital anomalies. The mechanism by which folic acid reduces risk is unknown. Investigations into genetic variation that influences transport and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused on 118 SNPs involved in folate transport and metabolism. Methods Using data from a California population-based registry, we investigated whether risks of spina bifida or conotruncal heart defects were influenced by 118 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the complex folate pathway. This case-control study included 259 infants with spina bifida and a random sample of 359 nonmalformed control infants born during 1983–86 or 1994–95. It also included 214 infants with conotruncal heart defects born during 1983–86. Infant genotyping was performed blinded to case or control status using a designed SNPlex assay. We examined single SNP effects for each of the 118 SNPs, as well as haplotypes, for each of the two outcomes. Results Few odds ratios (ORs revealed sizable departures from 1.0. With respect to spina bifida, we observed ORs with 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1.0 for the following SNPs (heterozygous or homozygous relative to the reference genotype: BHMT (rs3733890 OR = 1.8 (1.1–3.1, CBS (rs2851391 OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1; CBS (rs234713 OR = 2.9 (1.3–6.7; MTHFD1 (rs2236224 OR = 1.7 (1.1–2.7; MTHFD1 (hcv11462908 OR = 0.2 (0–0.9; MTHFD2 (rs702465 OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9; MTHFD2 (rs7571842 OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9; MTHFR (rs1801133 OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1; MTRR (rs162036 OR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9; MTRR (rs10380 OR = 3.4 (1.6–7.1; MTRR (rs1801394 OR = 0.7 (0.5–0.9; MTRR (rs9332 OR = 2.7 (1.3–5.3; TYMS (rs2847149 OR = 2.2 (1.4–3.5; TYMS (rs1001761 OR = 2.4 (1.5–3.8; and TYMS (rs502396 OR = 2.1 (1.3–3.3. However, multiple SNPs observed for a given gene showed evidence of linkage disequilibrium indicating

  16. Lack of association of interferon regulatory factor 1 with severe malaria in affected child-parental trio studies across three African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina D Mangano

    Full Text Available Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1 is a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, which have key and diverse roles in the gene-regulatory networks of the immune system. IRF-1 has been described as a critical mediator of IFN-gamma signalling and as the major player in driving TH1 type responses. It is therefore likely to be crucial in both innate and adaptive responses against intracellular pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms at the human IRF1 locus have been previously found to be associated with the ability to control P. falciparum infection in populations naturally exposed to malaria. In order to test whether genetic variation at the IRF1 locus also affects the risk of developing severe malaria, we performed a family-based test of association for 18 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs across the gene in three African populations, using genotype data from 961 trios consisting of one affected child and his/her two parents (555 from The Gambia, 204 from Kenya and 202 from Malawi. No significant association with severe malaria or severe malaria subphenotypes (cerebral malaria and severe malaria anaemia was observed for any of the SNPs/haplotypes tested in any of the study populations. Our results offer no evidence that the molecular pathways regulated by the transcription factor IRF-1 are involved in the immune-based pathogenesis of severe malaria.

  17. Interactions among poverty, gender, and health systems affect women's participation in services to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child: A causal loop analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourkavitch, Jennifer; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Flax, Valerie L; Okello, Elialilia S; Kadzandira, John; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Munthali, Alister C; Thomas, James C

    2018-01-01

    Retention in care remains an important issue for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs according to WHO guidelines, formerly called the "Option B+" approach. The objective of this study was to examine how poverty, gender, and health system factors interact to influence women's participation in PMTCT services. We used qualitative research, literature, and hypothesized variable connections to diagram causes and effects in causal loop models. We found that many factors, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, service design and quality, stigma, disclosure, spouse/partner influence, decision-making autonomy, and knowledge about PMTCT, influence psychosocial health, which in turn affects women's participation in PMTCT services. Thus, interventions to improve psychosocial health need to address many factors to be successful. We also found that the design of PMTCT services, a modifiable factor, is important because it affects several other factors. We identified 66 feedback loops that may contribute to policy resistance-that is, a policy's failure to have its intended effect. Our findings point to the need for a multipronged intervention to encourage women's continued participation in PMTCT services and for longitudinal research to quantify and test our causal loop model.

  18. Longitudinal investigation of the relationship between family history of psychosis and affective disorders and Child Behavior Checklist ratings in clinical high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diana I; Lee, Frances J; Walker, Elaine F

    2015-08-01

    This is the first study to investigate whether positive family history (FH) of psychosis and affective disorders moderates the relationship between child diagnostic status and parent-reported social and behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in clinical high-risk adolescents. This longitudinal investigation assessed 122 participants (mean age=14.25±1.8years) from three groups (at-risk, other personality disorders, non-psychiatric controls) at baseline and one year follow-up. As predicted, there was a main effect of FH for a number of CBCL scales indicating higher scores for adolescents with positive FH. The findings also demonstrate a significant Diagnostic Status×Family History interaction for several behavioral scales providing support for FH as a concurrent and longitudinal moderator of the relationship between diagnostic status and CBCL scales. The moderating effect is present for areas of functioning associated with depression, anxiety, social adjustment, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior. The findings also indicate that both positive and negative symptoms are related to the genetic vulnerability for developing psychosis in clinical high-risk individuals, particularly those symptoms reflective of emotional, attentional, and interpersonal functioning. The present findings are novel and have significant clinical and research implications. This investigation provides a platform for future studies to clarify further the role of FH in clinical high-risk individuals and contributes to integration of this knowledge in the development of early intervention and prevention approaches in at-risk populations for the emergence of severe mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of parapagus diprosopus dibrachius dipus twins with spina bifida in the first trimester using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yin Yang; Ching-Hua Wu; Guang-Perng Yeh; Charles Tsung-Che Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Here, we report a case of parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. Case report: A 28-year-old Taiwanese woman, gravid 1, para 0, visited our hospital due to an abnormal fetal head shape discovered by 2D ultrasound at 11-weeks gestation. Parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida were diagnosed after ultrasound examination. The characteristics of parapagus diproso...

  20. Altered expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-na Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs. A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3ζ plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3ζ in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3ζ and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify the expression of 14-3-3ζ and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3ζ and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3ζ was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3ζ were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7, microRNA-375 (miR-375 and microRNA-451 (miR-451, which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3ζ in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3ζ and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3ζ expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3ζ plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida.

  1. Global Birth Prevalence of Spina Bifida by Folic Acid Fortification Status: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Callie A M; Fiest, Kirsten M; Frolkis, Alexandra D; Jette, Nathalie; Pringsheim, Tamara; St Germaine-Smith, Christine; Rajapakse, Thilinie; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Metcalfe, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a significant source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Strong scientific evidence shows that folic acid fortification of a region's food supply leads to a decrease in spina bifida (a birth defect of the spine). Still, many countries around the world have yet to approve mandatory fortification through government legislation. We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of period prevalence of spina bifida by folic acid fortification status, geographic region, and study population. An expert research librarian used terms related to neural tube defects and epidemiology from primary research from 1985 to 2010 to search in EMBASE and MEDLINE. We searched the reference lists of included articles and key review articles identified by experts. Inclusion criteria included studies in English or French reporting on prevalence published between January 1985 and December 2010 that (1) were primary research, (2) were population-based, and (3) reported a point or period prevalence estimate of spina bifida (i.e., prevalence estimate with confidence intervals or case numerator and population denominator). Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts for eligible articles, then 2 authors screened full texts in duplicate for final inclusion. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or a third party. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, or PRISMA, abstracting data related to case ascertainment, study population, folic acid fortification status, geographic region, and prevalence estimate independently and in duplicate. We extracted overall data and any subgroups reported by age, gender, time period, or type of spina bifida. We classified each period prevalence estimate as "mandatory" or "voluntary" folic acid fortification according to each country's folic acid fortification status at the time data were collected (as determined by a well-recognized fortification monitoring body, Food

  2. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-08-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "From resistance to challenge": child health service nurses experiences of how a course in group leadership affected their management of parental groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2017-01-01

    All parents in Sweden are invited to child health service (CHS) parental groups, however only 49% of the families participate. The way the parental groups are managed has been shown to be of importance for how parents experience the support and CHS nurses describe feeling insecure when running the groups. Lack of facilitation, structure and leadership might jeopardise the potential benefit of such support groups. This study describes CHS nurses' experiences of how a course in group leadership affected the way they ran their parental groups. A course in group leadership given to 56 CHS nurses was evaluated in focus group interviews 5-8 months after the course. The nurses felt strengthened in their group leader role and changed their leadership methods. The management of parental groups was after the course perceived as an important work task and the nurses included time for planning, preparation and evaluation, which they felt improved their parental groups. Parental participation in the activities in the group had become a key issue and they used their new exercises and tools to increase this. They expressed feeling more confident and relaxed in their role as group leaders and felt that they could adapt their leadership to the needs of the parents. Specific training might strengthen the CHS nurses in their group leader role and give them new motivation to fulfil their work with parental groups.  Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT02494128.

  4. [Association of intercalary cervical bone and occult lumbar and sacral spina bifida. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Osuna, César; Avila-Zamorano, Myrna Lizeth; Suárez-Ahedo, Carlos; Trueba-Davalillo, Cesáreo

    2009-01-01

    The defects of the spinal cord enclose diverse malformations that go from spina bifida to myelomeningocele but there is also a rare variant that is the intercalary bone. The incidence of this phenomenon may vary in 1 to 1,000 to 5,000. At our knowledge, there are no cases reported where it can be an association of intercalary bone and a bifid spine in different levels. In this article we report the case of one patient that coincide with an intercalary cervical bone, bifid spine in lumbar column and bifid spine in sacral column. The objective of this article is also to comment how the clinical symptoms are unspecific, the chronic pain is the frequent symptom, and how the physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory drugs can provide excellent results in a short and medium term.

  5. Adolescent predictors of emerging adulthood milestones in youth with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Jill M; Devine, Katie A; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2011-04-01

    To examine the predictive utility of demographic (illness status and SES), individual (neurocognitive functioning and intrinsic motivation), and family-based (parental intrusiveness) factors during adolescence on the achievement of emerging adulthood milestones in youth with and without spina bifida (SB). Questionnaire and observational data were collected from 14/15-year-old adolescents with SB, typically developing peers, mothers, and teachers. Emerging adulthood milestones (i.e., leaving home, attending college, employment, romantic relationship experience, and number of friendships) were assessed at ages 18/19 years in the full sample and subset of youth who graduated from high school. Typically, developing youth were more likely to achieve milestones compared to youth with SB in the full sample but not when only high school graduates were compared. Executive function, SES, intrinsic motivation, and parental intrusiveness emerged as significant predictors for particular milestones. Interventions targeting executive function, intrinsic motivation, and parenting behavior may facilitate achievement of emerging adulthood milestones.

  6. Sonographic detection of open spina bifida in the first trimester: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, César; Aiello, Horacio; Otaño, Lucas

    2017-07-01

    In the beginnings, sonographic diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB) relied on the meticulous scanning of the fetal vertebrae for abnormalities but many defects were missed. After the mid-1980s, however, with the description of the intracranial findings in the second trimester (the "lemon sign" and the "banana sign"), the prenatal diagnosis of OSB was enhanced. In the last 2 decades, there has been widespread uptake of routine ultrasound examination in the first trimester of pregnancy with the purpose of the measurement of fetal crown-rump length to determine gestational age, to screen for trisomy 21 and other aneuploidies, mainly with the nuchal translucency, and for diagnosis of many major abnormalities. Many papers were published focusing on early diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MMC), and the objective of this review is to summarize the different techniques described regarding prenatal diagnosis of OSB in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005–2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Methods Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. Results From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Conclusion Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya. PMID:26113894

  8. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005-2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya.

  9. Child slavery and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Hill, R.J.; Hania, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Child slavery and child labour deny children their God-given dignity and freedom, and their right to education. Catholic Social Teaching is unequivocal in resolute condemnation of child slavery and child labour, in all of their forms.

  10. Spina bifida and cleft lip among newborns of Norwegian women with epilepsy: changes related to the use of anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P B; Lie, R T; Irgens, L M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the connection between the use of anticonvulsants for epilepsy during or before pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida and cleft lip in newborns. METHODS: Among mothers registered from 1967 to 1992 by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 7588 who had epilepsy were identified and their newborns' prevalence of spina bifida and cleft lip examined. RESULTS: The odds ratio of spina bifida in children of mothers with epilepsy compared with other children increased from 1.5 in 1967 through 1980 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3, 4.5) to 4.4 in 1981 through 1992 (95% CI = 2.0, 8.5). The odds ratio of cleft lip, however, decreased from 3.0 before 1981 (95% CI = 1.6, 5.1) to 1.1 after 1981 (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3). CONCLUSIONS: This shift toward more serious birth defects is consistent with the different teratogenic effects of newer and older anticonvulsants. PMID:8876519

  11. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; de Groot, Janke F; Backx, Frank J G; Westerveld, Rosalyne A; Takken, Tim

    2015-05-01

    To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Validity and reliability study. Young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair. Physiological responses were measured during a Graded Arm Cranking Test and a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test using a heart rate monitor and calibrated mobile gas analysis system (Cortex Metamax). For validity, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were compared using paired t-tests. For reliability, the intra-class correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, and standard detectable change were calculated. VO2peak and HRpeak were higher during wheelchair propulsion compared with arm cranking (23.1 vs 19.5 ml/kg/min, p = 0.11; 165 vs 150 beats/min, p propulsion showed high intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for both VO2peak (ICC = 0.93) and HRpeak (ICC = 0.90). This pilot study shows higher HRpeak and a tendency to higher VO2peak in young people with spina bifida who are using a wheelchair when tested during wheelchair propulsion compared with arm cranking. Wheelchair propulsion showed good reliability. We recommend performing a wheelchair propulsion test for aerobic fitness testing in this population.

  12. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students' perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Jellesma, Francine C

    2015-12-01

    The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student measure Student Perception of Affective Relationship with Teacher Scale (SPARTS). Additional validity support was sought by examining gender differences and associations with (1) teacher relationship perceptions and (2) problem and prosocial behaviours in children. Factor structure was determined in a sample of 586 children (46.5% boys) from 26 regular elementary Dutch classrooms (grade 4-6). Associations with teacher relationship reports (n = 82) and child behaviours (n = 64) were analysed in random subsamples. Students' relationship perceptions were assessed with the SPARTS; teachers' relationship perceptions with the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; closeness, conflict, and dependency); and problem and prosocial behaviours in children with the teacher-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model of conflict, closeness, and a third factor, unexpectedly reflecting negative expectations of the student instead of dependency. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for all three scales. Additional validity evidence included the following: Substantial student-teacher agreement for conflict and closeness; meaningful associations with problem and prosocial behaviours in children; and expected gender differences showing that, compared to boys, girls share more favourable relationships (more closeness and less conflict) with teachers. The 3-dimensional SPARTS comes close to the attachment-derived teacher STRS, as far as conflict and closeness are concerned. The third dimension, negative expectations, represents a new and relevant attachment

  13. Brain stem/brain stem occipital bone ratio and the four-line view in nuchal translucency images of fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica; Piras, Alessandra; Arras, Maurizio; Monni, Giovanni

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: Brain stem depth/brain stem occipital bone distance (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view, in images obtained for nuchal translucency (NT) screening in fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). Methods: Single center, retrospective study based on the assessment of NT screening images of fetuses with OSB. A ratio between the BS depth and the BSOB distance was calculated (BS/BSOB ratio) and the four-line view observed, and the sensitivity for a BS/BSOB ratio superior/equal to 1, and for the lack of detection of the four-line view were calculated. Results: There were 17 cases of prenatal diagnosis OSB. In six cases, the suspicion on OSB was raised during NT screening, in six cases, the diagnosis was made before 20 weeks and in five cases during anomaly scan. The BS/BSOB ratio was superior/equal to 1 in all 17 cases, and three lines, were visualized in 15/17 images of the OSB cases, being the sensitivity 100% (95% CI, 81 to 100%) and 88% (95% CI, 65 to 96%). Conclusion: Assessment of BS/BSOB ratio and four-line view in NT images is feasible detecting affected by OSB with high sensitivity. The presence of associated anomalies or of an enlarged NT enhances the early detection.

  14. “Acting Out”: Teacher-Child Attachment Bonds And Their Affect on Adolescent Disobedience Moderated by Students with Low Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer,E'lexis

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes whether teacher-child attachment bonds have an effect on adolescent disobedience and whether adolescents with low self-esteem moderate the effect. In this study, the definition of disobedience is deviance and delinquency. The literature states that the teacher-child relationship demonstrates positive and negative outcomes in academic performance however it does not account for self-esteem or disobedience outside the school. I hypothesize attachment bonds to show a negative...

  15. Peculiarities in cases of spina bifida cystica managed recently in south-east Nigeria: could antimalarial drugs be a major but unrecognized etiologic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emejulu, Jude-Kennedy C; Okwaraoha, Blaise Ogedi

    2011-01-01

    Spina bifida is a long-known disease arising from the incomplete fusion of the caudal neuropore in the first month of intrauterine life. It is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, the most important of which is folic acid deficiency. In evaluating its etiology, the role of antifolate agents like antimalarial drugs is rarely given a strong mention. This is a 44-month prospective study of consecutive cases of spina bifida cystica presenting to the Neurosurgery Unit of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Data collection was with a structured proforma from presentation, and collation done with Microsoft Excel broadsheet and data analysis with SPSS and χ2 test. A total of 41 cases of spina bifida were attended to within the period, with 92.7% cases of spina bifida cystica. Most presented by >12-24 months, with a consistent history of maternal ingestion of antimalarial drugs during the first trimester of pregnancy. Spina bifida cystica was diagnosed mostly in children whose mothers ingested antimalarial drugs during the first trimester of gestation. There may be a need to critically evaluate the contribution of antimalarial drugs to the etiopathogenesis of this malformation and develop safer antimalarial treatment in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Communicating about obesity and weight-related topics with children with a physical disability and their families: spina bifida as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Swift, Judy A; Peters, Michelle; Lyons, Julia; Joy Knibbe, Tara; Church, Paige; Chen, Lorry; Farrell, Renée M; Willem Gorter, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of children with spina bifida (SB), their families and healthcare professionals (HCPs) when discussing weight-related topics. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with HCPs from Canadian outpatient SB clinics (n = 13), children aged 6-18 years with SB (n = 17) and their parents (n = 20). Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach within an interpretative paradigm. Many HCPs were not confident talking about weight, concerned that they would damage relationships with children and families. Parents wanted routine weight surveillance, but were worried about their children's self-esteem if their weight was discussed. They wanted HCPs to acknowledge the challenges of weight management in children with a physical disability and provide specialized solutions. Children wanted a positively framed and tailored approach to weight discussions, although this had generally not been their experience. Stakeholders describe therapeutic relationships that are currently disconnected around the issue of weight and obesity. However, children, parents and HCPs all believed that discussing this topic was critical. Positively framed, strengths-based and tailored approaches to weight-related discussions are warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Rates of overweight and obesity in children and youth with physical disabilities are substantially higher than their typically developing peers. Healthcare professionals, children with physical disabilities and families often find weight-related discussions challenging and disconnected. Weight-related discussions should be tailored to the child and family's circumstances and priorities. Positively framed and strengths-based approaches to weight-related discussions are warranted.

  17. Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with language and reading comprehension, and trouble learning math. Additional problems such as latex allergies, skin problems, ... and fetal ultrasound. The MSAFP screen measures the level of a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which ...

  18. Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how your baby’s brain, spine, spinal cord and meninges develop. Meninges are the tissues that cover and protect the ... defect . In this condition, the fat, bone or meninges around the spinal cord don’t form correctly. ...

  19. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  20. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows how implicit racial biases are adversely affecting African American students--especially boys... read more Emphasis Areas ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three ...

  1. Percutaneous fetoscopic closure of large open spina bifida using a bilaminar skin substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa Pedreira, Denise A; Acacio, Gregório L; Gonçalves, Rodrigo T; Sá, Renato Augusto M; Brandt, Reynaldo A; Chmait, Ramen; Kontopoulos, Eftichia; Quintero, Ruben A

    2018-01-04

    We have previously described our percutaneous fetoscopic technique for the treatment of open spina bifida (OSB). However, approximately 20-30% of OSB defects are too large to allow primary skin closure. We hereby describe a modification of our standard technique using a bilaminar skin substitute to allow closure of such large spinal defects. The aim of this study was to report our clinical experience with the use of a bilaminar skin substitute and a percutaneous fetoscopic technique for the prenatal closure of large spina bifida defects. Surgeries were performed between 24.0 and 28.9 gestational weeks under general anesthesia, using an entirely percutaneous fetoscopic approach with partial CO2 insufflation of the uterine cavity, as previously described. If there was enough skin to be sutured in the midline, only a biocellulose patch was placed over the placode. In cases where skin approximation was not possible, a bilaminar skin substitute (two layers: one silicone and one dermal matrix) was placed over the biocellulose. The surgical site was assessed at birth, and long-term follow-up was performed. Forty-seven consecutive fetuses underwent percutaneous fetoscopic OSB repair. Premature preterm rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurred in 38 (84%), and the mean gestational age at delivery was 32,8 + 2.5 weeks. A bilaminar skin substitute was required in 13 (29%), of which 5 was associated with myeloschisis. In all cases the skin substitute was found at the surgical site, at birth. In 3 (15%) of these cases, postnatal additional repair was needed. In the other 10 cases, the silicone layer detached spontaneously from the dermal matrix (average 25 days after birth), and the lesion healed by secondary-intention. Operating time was significantly longer in cases requiring the bilaminar skin substitute (additional 42 minutes). The subgroup with bilaminar skin substitute had similar PPROM rate and delivery gestational age compared to the one patch group. Complete reversal of

  2. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  3. Management of a child with severe hypodontia in the mixed dentition stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H J; Tahmassebi, J F

    2014-12-01

    Severe hypodontia is a condition characterized by developmental absence of six or more teeth and affects 0.14-0.3% of the overall population. Hypodontia can have a marked psychosocial effect and functional implications for a growing child. A 10-year-old girl with a medical history of hypothyroidism and repaired spinal bifida was referred to the Leeds Dental Institute as she was becoming increasingly concerned about her appearance. On clinical examination, the patient had severe wear of her over-retained maxillary primary central incisors, microdontia of mandibular anterior teeth (32, 34, 41, 42, 43), and loss of anterior vertical dimension. Radiographic examination revealed that the patient had 11 missing permanent teeth (14, 13, 12, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24, 31, 35, 44), an ectopic mandibular left canine and taurodontism of the permanent molars. Management of the patient included an intensive preventive programme with placement of fissure sealants; scaling of calculus deposition on microdont teeth; composite resin reconstruction of microdont teeth; fabrication of removable partial overdentures tailored aesthetically to match the patient's age; orthodontic consultation and monitoring for the eruption of ectopic canine and permanent dentition. The patient and her parents reported marked improvement in self-esteem following dental treatment. After 2 years of follow-up, a new pair of dentures were made and designed to allow ease of eruption of the existing permanent dentition. All permanent teeth have erupted. The patient is ready for further assessment and planning for future orthodontic and restorative/implant treatment. This case illustrates the essential role of the paediatric dentist in the management of hypodontia in the mixed dentition stage.

  4. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  5. Group Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy with Former Child Soldiers and Other War-Affected Boys in the DR Congo: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, John; O'Callaghan, Paul; Shannon, Ciaran; Black, Alastair; Eakin, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has been home to the world's deadliest conflict since World War II and is reported to have the largest number of child soldiers in the world. Despite evidence of the debilitating impact of war, no group-based mental health or psychosocial intervention has been evaluated in a randomised controlled…

  6. Sexual identity and orientation in adult men and women with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Hensel, Devon J; Wiener, John S; Whittam, Benjamin; Cain, Mark P; Misseri, Rosalia

    2017-12-11

    Sexuality has received little attention in spina bifida (SB) care. The aim of this study was to assess sexual identity and orientation in adults with SB. An international online survey to adults with SB was administered over 10-months (recruitment: SB clinics, SB organizations via social media). Collected data included demographics, sexual identity and orientation. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Median age of 77 men and 119 women was 35 years old (52.0% shunted, 48.5% community ambulators, 42.3% outside United States). Most commonly, men identified as male (96.1%), while 1.3% each described themselves as female, transgender and other. All women reporting sexual identity identified as female (99.2%), 0.8% not providing an answer. Most men reported heterosexual orientation (89.6%), followed by gay (7.8%) and bisexual (2.6%). Most women reported heterosexual orientation (84.9%), followed by bisexual (10.4%), gay/lesbian (2.5%), asexual (0.8%) and other (1.7%). As in the general population, sexual identity typically coincides with biological gender. Sexual orientation of adults with SB mirrors the general population. Due to self-selection, these findings likely do not reflect exact prevalence in the SB population.

  7. Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Ware

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73 with SBM and typically developing (TD controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus, with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density.

  8. Predominant bacteria and patterns of antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infection in children with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Tara K; Velazquez, Nermarie; Ding, Laura; Routh, Jonathan C; Wiener, John S; Seed, Patrick C; Ross, Sherry S

    2018-04-20

    Urinary tract infection is more common in children with spina bifida (SB) than neurologically intact children, and Escherichiacoli is the most common urinary pathogen in the general pediatric population. Less is known of the pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections (UTI) in the pediatric SB population or their evolving antimicrobial resistance patterns. The goal of this study is to determine the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of SB-associated urinary pathogens. Between January 1996 and August 2013, 231 patients aged 1 month to 18 years were identified with a diagnosis of SB-NB and at least one symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) event (Table). Two-hundred and thirty-one normally voiding children with a single symptomatic UTI were age-matched based on age at diagnosis of UTI at a 1:1 ratio. Chi-square tests and Generalized Estimating Equation analysis, controlling for clinicopathological factors, were performed to compare rates of pathogen-associations with UTI between groups and likelihood of UTI with multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. Children in the SB-NB group had a higher rate of non-E. coli UTI compared with controls (64% vs. 41%, p Children with SB-NB are more likely to have non-E. coli UTI, UTIs with MDR organisms, and urosepsis than the general pediatric population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Kulesz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM. Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus.

  10. Social Skills in Youth With Spina Bifida: A Longitudinal Multimethod Investigation Comparing Biopsychosocial Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, Christina E; Peugh, James L; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2017-11-01

    To examine the relative contributions of neuropsychological (attention and executive function), family (cohesion and conflict), and health (body mass index, lesion level, gross motor function) domains on social skills over time in youth with spina bifida (SB). In all, 140 youth with SB (T1 mean age = 11.43 years) and their families participated in the study at baseline with an additional visit 2 years later. Study variables were assessed with multiple methods (questionnaire, medical chart review, observation, neuropsychological tests) and reporters (parents, teachers). Multivariate hierarchical linear regressions determined the predictive power of the three domains for T2 social skills. Neuropsychological variables accounted for significant variance in mother- and father-reported T2 social skills. Neither family nor health variables contributed significantly to later social skills when other domains were included in the model. Neuropsychological factors are particularly important for social skill development in youth with SB. Findings can inform screening and intervention practices. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. [The diagnostic process in spina bifida: parents perception and viewpoint of clinical specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, G; Streeck, S

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the subjective experience of communicative understanding between parents of spina bifida children and medical personnel. Research methods include content analysis of data from semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire to explore the quality of life as well as conversation analytic reconstructions of the "real" communication processes during outpatient clinic which were tape-recorded. Results of the interviews with parents and personnel demonstrate the great relevance of the quality of the relationship in the providing of clinical care; equally important is that the relationship between parents and clinic staff is shaped in a reciprocal fashion. Discrepancies in the perceptions of parents and personnel indicate individual reality constructions. It is desirable that parents and personnel construct a shared reality during their interaction. With respect to this end, the emotional resources of personnel should be regarded as competences and drawn upon more systematically. The parents' role as "experts" should be validated and their active participation in the construction of the communicative situation - which is normally determined by the institution - should be encouraged.

  12. The nutrition transition and indicators of child malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kimenju, Simon C.; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how the nutrition transition affects child malnutrition in developing countries. It is often assumed that the nutrition transition affects child weight but not child growth, which could be one reason why child underweight decreases faster than child stunting. But these effects have hardly been analyzed empirically. Our cross-country panel regressions show that the nutrition transition reduces child underweight, while no consistent effect on child overweight is found. Against common...

  13. First Case of Autonomic Dysreflexia Following Elective Lower Thoracic Spinal Cord Transection in a Spina Bifida Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Juanita; Mathkour, Mansour; Scullen, Tyler; Kahn, Lora; Biro, Erin; Pham, Alex; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Smith, Roger; Bui, Cuong J

    2017-12-01

    Spinal cord transection is a radical but effective treatment for highly selective cases of symptomatic spinal retethering in paraplegic spina bifida patients. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome involving a dysregulated sympathetic discharge reflex commonly seen following cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury, leading to a disconnect between autonomic pathways above and below the lesion that can lead to severe complications including uncontrolled hypertension, bradycardia, stroke, and potentially death. Herein we present a case in which a paraplegic spina bifida patient presenting with symptomatic spinal retethering experienced autonomic dysreflexia following an elective spinal cord transection. A 51-year-old male with a history of complex spina bifida presented with an active cerebrospinal fluid leak. Physical examination revealed a thin covering of abnormal epidermis over the large placode. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large myelomeningocele defect with posterior element defects spanning from L2 to the sacrum with evidence of tethering. The patient underwent an intradural transection of the spinal cord with a "blind-pouch" closure of the dura at the level of T12/L1. Postoperatively, the patient developed intermittent episodes of hypertension, bradycardia, headaches, altered mental status, severe perspiration, and red flushing of the upper torso, face, and arms. The diagnosis of AD was made clinically and managed with a positive response to a combination of beta- and alpha-blockade along with patient education on avoidance of common AD triggers. At 5-year follow-up the patient has continued to do well on medication. This case highlights a potential major side effect from elective transection of the spinal cord. If unrecognized and untreated, AD can cause significant distress and morbidity. We hope this first case report serves to supplement existing data and aid in future surgical and medical decision

  14. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. “Acting Out”: Teacher-Child Attachment Bonds And Their Affect on Adolescent Disobedience Moderated by Students with Low Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E'lexis Brewer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes whether teacher-child attachment bonds have an effect on adolescent disobedience and whether adolescents with low self-esteem moderate the effect. In this study, the definition of disobedience is deviance and delinquency. The literature states that the teacher-child relationship demonstrates positive and negative outcomes in academic performance however it does not account for self-esteem or disobedience outside the school. I hypothesize attachment bonds to show a negative relationship with students who demonstrate low self-esteem and a positive trend in disobedience. To test my hypotheses, I use various coded questionnaires from Wave I and II of the ADD Health Survey that code for academics/education, delinquency, fighting and violence, drug use, and other deviant or disobedient behavior. In order to test, I would use cross tabulation to compare students’ attachment, self-esteem levels, and disobedience. All three variables require no specific order, as nominal variables, so they can compare against each other without regard for sequence. In summary, if implemented my study will add to the current research literature on the teacher-child relationship and potential evidence-based intervention programs for students.

  16. Linfoma T subcutâneo do tipo paniculite: relato de um caso acometendo paciente pediátrico Subcutaneous panniculitic T cell lymphoma: a case report affecting a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Noronha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de linfoma T subcutâneo do tipo paniculite em uma paciente feminina de 3 anos, apresentando havia um mês múltiplos nódulos subcutâneos, indolores, disseminados no abdome, região peitoral e cervical. Ao exame histopatológico, evidenciou-se um linfoma T infiltrando tecido adiposo subcutâneo. Os linfomas T subcutâneos representam uma entidade clinicopatológica distinta, sendo raro o acometimento pediátrico.We report a case of lypotrophic lymphoma affecting a 3-year-old child with 1-month history of nontender subcutaneous nodules disseminated throughout the abdomen, chest and cervical region. Histological examination showed a T-cell lymphoma affecting the subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma is an unusual cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that rarely affects pediatric patients.

  17. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  18. Ultrasound in Prenatal Diagnostics and Its Impact on the Epidemiology of Spina Bifida in a National Cohort from Denmark with a Comparison to Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Tabor, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, the prenatal detection rate by ultrasound, and the pregnancy outcome of spina bifida (SB) in Denmark (DK) in 2008-2015 and to compare results to national data from Sweden. Methods: Data were retrieved from the Danish Fetal Medicine Da...

  19. Increased Sexual Health After Restored Genital Sensation in Male Patients with Spina Bifida or a Spinal Cord Injury: the TOMAX Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overgoor, M. L. E.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Edens, M. A.; Kon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we prospectively investigated the contribution of restored penile sensation to sexual health in patients with low spinal lesions. Materials and Methods: In 30 patients (18 with spina bifida, 12 with spinal cord injury, age range 13 to 55 years) with no penile sensation but

  20. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  1. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  2. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  3. Variation in definitions of urinary tract infections in spina bifida patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro Jose; McNamara, Erin Rebekah; Lloyd, Jessica Catherine; Wiener, John Samuel; Routh, Jonathan Charles; Seed, Patrick Casey; Ross, Sherry Sedberry

    2013-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common source of morbidity among children with spina bifida (SB) and are a frequently reported outcome in studies of this patient population. However, the criteria for a diagnosis of UTI are often not stated. We evaluated the literature on SB patients for the criteria that authors use to define parameters in reporting UTI outcomes. Embase and Medline were queried with the medical subject heading terms “spinal dysraphism,” “myelomeningocele,” “infection,”and “urinary tract infection.” A second search with the exploded term“spina bifida” and “urinary tract infection” was performed. Original research studies reporting a UTI outcome in SB patients were included and evaluated by 2 independent reviewers for the presence of a UTI definition and diagnostic criteria. We identified 872 publications, of which 124 met inclusion criteria. Forty-five of 124 (36.3%) studies reporting UTI as an outcome provided a definition of UTI. Of 124 studies, 28 (22.6%) were published in pediatric journals and 69 (55.6%) in urology journals. A definition of UTI was provided in 11 (39.3%) and 26 (37.7%) studies, respectively. “Fever,culture, and symptoms” defined a UTI in 17 of 45 studies. Journal category and presence of UTI definitions did not correlate (P = .71). Explicit definitions for UTI are heterogeneous and infrequently applied in studies of SB patients, limiting study reliability and estimates of true UTI rates in this population. Future studies will benefit from the development and application of a standard definition for UTI in this population.

  4. Youth and young adults with spina bifida: their utilization of physician and hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nancy L; Anselmo, Lianne A; Burke, Tricia A; McCormick, Anna; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2014-03-01

    To describe current patterns of health care utilization of youth and young adults who have spina bifida (SB) and provide evidence to guide the development of health care for this growing population. We conducted a secondary analysis of health services utilization data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information to determine the rates and patterns of health care utilization, because comprehensive health care has been recognized as critical to positive health outcomes. Participants were identified from 6 publicly funded children's treatment centers. Health records from youth (n=164; age range, 13.0-17.9y) and adults (n=120; age range, 23.0-32.9y) with SB contributed to this study. Not applicable. The rates of outpatient physician visits and hospital admissions for the youth and adult groups were calculated. The proportion with a "medical home" was also calculated. The annual rates of outpatient physician visits per 1000 persons were 8031 for youth and 8524 for adults with SB. These rates were approximately 2.9 and 2.2 times higher, respectively, than for their age-matched peers. On average, 12% of youth and 24% of adults with SB had a medical home. The annual rates of hospital admissions per 1000 persons were 329 for youth and 285 for adults with SB. Rates of admissions were 19.4 and 12.4 times higher, respectively, for these groups than for the general population. It appears that persons with SB are accessing health services more often than their age-matched peers, and few have a medical home. We recommend that seamless medical care be provided to all adults with SB, coordinated by a primary care provider, to facilitate comprehensive care. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the efficacy of parent-child training depend on maternal symptom improvement? Results from a randomized controlled trial on children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häge, Alexander; Alm, Barbara; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Katja; Colla, Michael; Freitag, Christine; Geissler, Julia; von Gontard, Alexander; Graf, Erika; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Hänig, Susann; Hennighausen, Klaus; Hohmann, Sarah; Jacob, Christian; Jaite, Charlotte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Kappel, Viola; Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Poustka, Luise; Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael; Schneider-Momm, Katja; Sobanski, Esther; Vloet, Timo D; Warnke, Andreas; Jans, Thomas

    2018-01-23

    Multimodal treatment of children with ADHD often includes parent-child training (PCT). However, due to the high heritability, parents of children with ADHD are frequently also affected by the disorder, which is likely to constitute a significant barrier to successful treatment of the child. This secondary analysis of our randomized controlled multicentre AIMAC trial (ADHD in mothers and children) investigates whether children's outcomes following parent-child training in combination with maternal ADHD treatment depend on maternal symptom improvement. In a first step focusing on treatment of maternal ADHD, 144 mothers of mother-child dyads were randomized to multimodal ADHD treatment (group psychotherapy plus methylphenidate) or clinical management (mainly supportive counselling). After 12 weeks (T2), a 12-week PCT program (T2-T3) for all mother-child dyads was added to treat children's ADHD. Maternal symptomatology (CAARS-O:L; SCL-90-R) and children's externalizing symptoms (ADHD-ODD Scale, SDQ) were repeatedly assessed (T1 = baseline, T2, T3). Effects of changes in maternal symptomatology (T1-T2) on the change in children's symptom scores (T1-T3) were analysed using a general linear model, controlling for baseline scores, study centre, and maternal treatment group. 125 mother-child dyads were analysed. Mothers showed significant improvements in ADHD symptoms and overall psychopathology [CAARS-O:L ADHD index: mean - 3.54, SE 0.74 p < 0.0001; SCL-90-R Global Severity (GS): mean - 11.03, SE 3.90, p = 0.0056]. Although children's externalizing symptoms improved significantly (ADHD-ODD Scale: mean - 4.46, SE 0.58, p < 0.0001), maternal improvement had no effect on children's outcomes after Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing. The findings do not support our hypothesis that children's outcomes following PCT for ADHD depend on maternal symptom improvements.Trial register CCT-ISRCTN73911400.

  6. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  7. Systematic review and practice policy statements on urinary tract infection prevention in adults with spina bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tradewell, Michael; Pariser, Joseph J.; Nimeh, Tony

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a source of morbidity and healthcare costs in adults with spina bifida (ASB). UTI prevention strategies are often recommended, but the evidence of various approaches remains unclear. We performed a systematic review to inform a best practice policy statement for UTI prevention in ASB. On behalf of the Neurogenic Bladder Research Group (NBRG.org), we developed an a priori protocol and searched the published English literature for 30 outcomes questions addressing UTI prevention in ASB. The questions spanned the categories of antibiotics, oral supplements, bladder management factors and social support. Where there was little literature in ASB, we included literature from similar populations with neurogenic bladder (NB). Data was abstracted and then reviewed with recommendations made by consensus of all authors. Level of Evidence (LoE) and Grade of Recommendation (GoR) were according to the Oxford grading system. Of 6,433 articles identified by our search, we included 99 publications. There was sufficient evidence to support use of the following: saline bladder irrigation (LoE 1, GoR B), gentamicin bladder instillation (LoE 3, GoR C), single-use intermittent catheterization (IC) (LoE 2, GoR B), hydrophilic catheters for IC (LoE 2, GoR C), intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection (LoE 3, GoR C), hyaluronic acid (HA) instillation (LoE 1, GoR B), and care coordination (LoE 3, GoR C). There was sufficient evidence to recommend against use of the following: sterile IC (LoE 1, GoR B), oral antibiotic prophylaxis (LoE 2, GoR B), treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (LoE 2, GoR B), cranberry (LoE 2, GoR B), methenamine salts (LoE 1, GoR B), and ascorbic acid (LoE1, GoR B). There was insufficient evidence to make a recommendation for other outcomes. Overall, there are few studies in UTI prevention in the specific population of ASB. Research in populations similar to ASB helps to guide recommendations for UTI prevention in the challenging

  8. How Mental Health Interviews Conducted Alone, in the Presence of an Adult, a Child or Both Affects Adolescents' Reporting of Psychological Symptoms and Risky Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-02-01

    The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Attention lapses in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G; Martin, Alba; Cervantes, Elizabeth; Guil, Rocio; Mestre, Jose M

    2017-08-01

    Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B). The group with SBH differed from normal controls on cognitive measures of attention and executive functions. The ADHD group obtained lower scores than the SBH group and healthy children. ANOVA results showed that there was an effect of shunt revisions and shunt-related infections on neuropsychological performance. Lapses of attention together with reaction time may thus represent important factors for the understanding of cognitive deficits in SBH.

  11. Bluish Discolouration of Urine Drainage Tube and Bag in a Female Patient with Spina Bifida, Paraplegia, and Suprapubic Cystostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a female patient with spina bifida, paraplegia, suprapubic cystostomy, and chronic constipation, who became anxious when she noticed a bluish discolouration of her urine drainage system. Urine microbiology revealed growth of Providencia stuartii and Staphylococcus aureus. There were no systemic features of infection and, therefore, antibiotics were not prescribed for asymptomatic bacteriuria. This patient was advised to change the urine bag every day, and was prescribed senna to facilitate bowel evacuation. She was reassured that bluish discolouration of the urine drainage tube and bag was a transient, benign phenomenon and not indicative of any underlying pathology. Over the next 7 days, the bluish discolouration gradually faded away. Clinical characteristics of patients who are likely to develop this phenomenon and the underlying biochemical mechanism for bluish discolouration of the urine drainage system are discussed in brief.

  12. Infant and Child Final Version

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract: This study uses data from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey [2005. EDHS] conducted in 2005 to investigate the predictors of child [0-5 years] mortality in developing country like Ethiopia. The specific objectives of this study are to identify the factors which are affecting child mortality and to suggest viable.

  13. Features of Somatic and Reproductive Status of Women, who Gave Birth to a Child with Congenital Malformations, and Their Identifiсation Using «Case — Control» Method According to Data of Lviv Regional Clinical Perinatal Center in 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborovska N.V. Zborovska N.V.

    2012-04-01

    While comparing a range of reproductive anamnesis indices there was noticed a higher percentage of dead children, stillbirths, anemia in pregnancy, gestosis in the first half of pregnancy, gestosis in the second half of pregnancy, abnormal labors in mothers who gave birth to a child with congenital malformations than in women of control group. According to ultrasound diagnosis congenital abnormalities in pregnancy were detected in 31.6 % of cases. There were diagnosed 4 cases of Arnold — Chiari syndrome (spina bifida and internal hydrocephalus; and 3 cases of each: hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, small intestinal atresia, and 2 cases of each: congenital malformations, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Down’s syndrome, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, congenital rectal atresia, and 1 case of each: spina bifida, congenital absence of forearm and hand, left ventricular rabdomioma, encephalocele.

  14. Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoё D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hensel, Devon J; Heiman, Julia R

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men. We recruited 18- to 30-year-old heterosexual men (N = 377) from urban sexually transmitted infection clinics. Men completed measures of sexual HIV risk history (number of partners and condom use), sexual aggression history, CSA history, and trait negative affect (anger, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized direct and indirect relationships. In the final SEM model, sexual aggression history and sexual HIV risk behavior were correlated. CSA was associated with both types of problematic sexual behavior. Anxiety significantly mediated the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and sexual HIV risk behavior (χ 2 [1300] = 2121.79, p Sexual aggression appears to be part of a constellation of sexual risk behaviors; thus, it may be possible to develop prevention programs that target both sexual HIV risk and sexual aggression. CSA is a shared risk factor for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior through the pathway of anxiety. Thus, anxiety might be one promising target for intervention.

  15. Serial casting versus stretching technique to treat knee flexion contracture in children with spina bifida: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oraibi, S; Tariah, Hashem Abu; Alanazi, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Severe knee contractures that develop soon after muscle imbalance may not improve with stretching exercises and splinting. An alternative treatment is serial casting, which has been used to promote increased range of motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of using serial casting and passive stretching approaches to treat knee flexion contracture in children with spina bifida. In a pre/post randomized controlled study, ten participants were included in the serial casting group, while eight participants were included in the passive stretching intervention group. The degree of knee extension was measured at baseline, immediately after intervention, and at a one-year follow-up using a standard goniometer. Both groups showed significant improvements in the degree of flexion contracture at the post-treatment evaluation and the follow-up evaluation. The serial casting group showed significant improvements in knee flexion contracture at the post-treatment evaluation, t (9)=13.4, p casting group compared with passive stretching group in relation to the degree of flexion contracture were found at the immediate post-treatment evaluation, F(1, 15)=246, p=0.0001, and the one-year follow-up evaluation, F (1, 15)=51.5, p=0.0001. The outcomes of this study provide the first evidence that serial casting may be a useful intervention in treating knee flexion contracture in children with spina bifida. However, further investigations into serial casting, as well as investigations into the use of serial casting with other interventions, are warranted.

  16. Evaluation of sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele using the International Index of Erectile Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamé, Xavier; Moscovici, Jacques; Gamé, Laurence; Sarramon, Jean-Pierre; Rischmann, Pascal; Malavaud, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    To assess sexual function in young men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele. Between November 2003 and February 2004, a cross-sectional study was performed in 55 men older than 18 years of age who had been regularly followed up for myelomeningocele since childhood, between 1961 and 1985, in the Pediatric Internal Surgery Department. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was mailed to each man. The response rate was 72.7%. Of the 40 men who replied, 16 (40%) had had sexual intercourse at least once during the previous month. These were the older men (age 31.9 +/- 5.7 years versus 27.7 +/- 5.5 years, P = 0.027). The IIEF scores for the whole group were erectile function 11.61 +/- 9.44, orgasmic function 3.53 +/- 3.86, sexual desire 6.94 +/- 2.4, intercourse satisfaction 3.7 +/- 4.81, and overall satisfaction 4.7 +/- 3.34. According to the classification of Cappelleri, of the 16 men who had had sexual intercourse during the previous month, 4 had no erectile dysfunction, 3 had mild, 4 mild to moderate, and 5 severe dysfunction. Erectile function was statistically related to the ability to maintain erections (mean IIEF score 4 and 5 for men with no erectile dysfunction versus a mean IIEF score of 4 and 5 for men with erectile dysfunction: 4.75 +/- 0.5 versus 2.00 +/- 1.32, P = 0.011 for IIEF score of 4 and 4.50 +/- 1.5 versus 3 +/- 2, P = 0.040 for IIEF score of 5). Young adult men with spina bifida and myelomeningocele begin sexual activity late. Moreover, 75% have erectile dysfunction that is related to difficulty in maintaining erections.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of parapagus diprosopus dibrachius dipus twins with spina bifida in the first trimester using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Yin; Wu, Ching-Hua; Yeh, Guang-Perng; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che

    2015-12-01

    Here, we report a case of parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. A 28-year-old Taiwanese woman, gravid 1, para 0, visited our hospital due to an abnormal fetal head shape discovered by 2D ultrasound at 11-weeks gestation. Parapagus diprosopus twins with spina bifida were diagnosed after ultrasound examination. The characteristics of parapagus diprosopus twins are more illustrative in 3D ultrasound than in 2D ultrasound. After counseling, termination of pregnancy was chosen by the couple. Although necropsy was declined, the gross appearance and radiograph of the abortus confirmed our diagnosis. With the help of 3D ultrasound, we made an early and definitive diagnosis of conjoined twins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. 'Die verswygde storie': ’n gevallestudie oor die manifestasie van bates by ’n kleuter met spina bifida miëlomeningoseel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 'The unmentioned story': a case study of the manifestation of assets in a toddler with spina bifida miëlomeningoseel In South Africa a few major discourses with regard to disability can be distinguished. Although these discourses construct disability differently, three of them – the lay, charity and medical discourses – tend to view disability negatively. This article endeavours to challenge the stereotypical “picture” of a person with a disability. By conducting an intrinsic case study the unique intrapersonal assets of a boy (who has a physical disability, spina bifida is identified. An asset-based approach accompanied the research design as a theoretical framework in order to explore whether positive aspects of this boy’s life-world could be identified. This article identifies and embraces the positive side of living with a physical disability and illustrates ways in which positive constructions of an individual with disabilities can be pursued.

  19. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Williams

    2017-12-01

    ties and the wellbeing by highlighting the importance of marital status and changing marital status, net of child co-residence and proximity, in China.

  20. Factors affecting the physical and mental health of older adults in China: The importance of marital status, child proximity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindy; Zhang, Renling; Packard, Kevin C

    2017-12-01

    wellbeing by highlighting the importance of marital status and changing marital status, net of child co-residence and proximity, in China.

  1. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? Talking to Your Child's Doctor Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Complementary and Alternative Medicine View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  2. Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of child day centers on college campuses and what it takes to provide safe, successful, and fun places that support students, faculty, and staff needs. Areas addressed include safety and security, class and room size, inclusion of child-size toilets, and interior color schemes. (GR)

  3. A Novel Occulta-Type Spina Bifida Mediated by Murine Double Heterozygotes EphA2 and EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Linda Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase have previously been implicated in cranial neural tube development. Failure of neural tube closure leads to the devastating conditions known as anencephaly and spina bifida. EphA2 and EphA4 are expressed at the tips of the closing spinal neural folds prior and during neural tube closure. We investigated the possible role of murine EphA2 and EphA4 during the last step of primary neural tube closure, which is adhesion and fusion. The individual mouse knockouts of EphA2 and EphA4 per se do not exhibit neural tube defects (NTDs. The embryos generated by the crossing of double heterozygotes Epha2tm1Jrui/+Epha4rb-2J/+ displayed NTDs with a wide degree of severity including close exencephaly and close spina bifida (spina bifida occulta. Interestingly, mutants displaying NTDs had skin covering the underlying lesion. The tissue sections revealed the elevated neural folds had not adhered and fused. The phenotypes seen in Epha2tm1Jrui/+Epha4rb-2J/+ double heterozygous embryos suggest both genes play a compensatory role with each other in the adhesion and fusion of the neural tube. In this study, there exists a >50% penetrance of NTDs in the mouse mutants, which genetically have a single allele each of EphA2 and EphA4 absent.

  4. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  5. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  6. Child Care: Recent State Policy Changes Affecting the Availability of Assistance for Low-Income Families. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    At Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined states choices for providing child care assistance to families and states' proposed changes to child care assistance programs for fiscal year 2004. Information was obtained through a survey of child care administrators of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Findings revealed…

  7. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  8. O cuidado da criança com espinha bífida pela família no domicílio El cuidado del niño con espina bifida por la família en el domicílio The care of children with spina bifida in the family home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Munhoz Gaiva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a experiência das famílias que têm crianças portadoras de Espinha Bífida no cuidado cotidiano. Realizamos um estudo de abordagem qualitativa, empregando para a coleta de dados a entrevista semiestruturada com nove famílias. A análise dos dados foi desenvolvida com suporte no método da Análise Temática. Os resultados permitiram compreender o impacto da malformação da criança sobre a família e as dificuldades para prestar o cuidado cotidiano para a criança. O estudo também aponta a necessidade de os profissionais de saúde e enfermagem pensarem novos modelos de cuidar que sejam centrados nas necessidades da família e não apenas no processo patológico da criança.El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir la experiencia de las familias que tienen niños con espina bífida con el cuidado domiciliar. Realizamos una investigación con abordaje cualitativo que se sirvió de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 9 familias para la obtención de los datos. El método de análisis temático fundamentó el análisis de estos datos. Los resultados permitieron comprender el impacto que causa la malformación del niño a la familia y las dificultades a las que enfrentan para poder brindar el cuidado diario a estos niños. Además, este estudio destacó la importancia que tienen que los profesionales de la salud y la enfermería para que desarrollen nuevos modelos de cuidado que se centren en las necesidades familiares y no sólo en el proceso patológico del niño.This study aimed to describe the experience of families who have children with spina bifida in the daily care. We conducted a study of qualitative approach, employing to collect data on semi-structured interviews with 09 families. Data analysis was developed with support in the method of thematic analysis. The results showed, understand the impact of malformation of the child on the family and the difficulties to provide the daily care for

  9. Prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in a child affected by rituximab-resistant autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta Chiara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children younger than 2 years of age is usually characterized by a severe course, with a mortality rate of approximately 10%. The prolonged immunosuppression following specific treatment may be associated with a high risk of developing severe infections. Recently, the use of monoclonal antibodies (rituximab has allowed sustained remissions to be obtained in the majority of pediatric patients with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Case presentation We describe the case of an 8-month-old Caucasian girl affected by a severe form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, which required continuous steroid treatment for 16 months. Thereafter, she received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (375 mg/m2/dose associated with steroid therapy, which was then tapered over the subsequent 2 weeks. One month after the last dose of rrituximab, she presented with recurrence of severe hemolysis and received two more doses of rrituximab. The patient remained in clinical remission for 7 months, before presenting with a further relapse. An alternative heavy immunosuppressive therapy was administered combining cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days with methylprednisolone 40 mg/kg/day for 5 days, which was then tapered down over 3 weeks. While still on steroid therapy, the patient developed an interstitial pneumonia with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, which required immediate admission to the intensive care unit where extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was administered continuously for 37 days. At 16-month follow-up, the patient is alive and in good clinical condition, with no organ dysfunction, free from any immunosuppressive treatment and with a normal Hb level. Conclusions This case shows that aggressive combined immunosuppressive therapy may lead to a sustained complete remission in children with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. However, the severe life-threatening complication presented by our

  10. [Child labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  11. Large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of renal calculi in a spina bifida patient: lessons we learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Subramanian Vaidyanathan,1 Azi Samsudin,2 Gurpreet Singh,3 Peter L Hughes,4 Bakul M Soni,1 Fahed Selmi1 1Regional Spinal Injuries Center, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK; 2Department of Urology, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK; 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Radiology, Southport and Formby District General Hospital, Southport, UK Introduction: Paraplegic patients are at greater risk of developing complications following ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of urine infection associated with neuropathic bladder, difficulties in access due to altered anatomy of urinary bladder and urethra, spinal curvature, spasticity, and contractures. We report the occurrence of large subcapsular hematoma following ureteroscopy and discuss lessons we learn from this case.Case report: A 48-year-old male patient with spina bifida underwent ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy and ureteric stenting for left ureteric stone and staghorn calculus with hydronephrosis; laser lithotripsy was repeated after 3 months; both procedures were performed by a senior urologist and did not result in any complications. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy was performed 5 months later by a urological trainee; it was difficult to negotiate the scope as vision became poor because of bleeding (as a result of the procedure. Postoperatively, hematuria persisted; temperature was 39°C. Cefuroxime was given intravenously followed by gentamicin for 5 days; hematuria subsided gradually; he was discharged home. Ten days later, this patient developed temperature, the urine culture grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin was given orally. Computed tomography (CT of the urinary tract, performed 4 weeks after ureteroscopy, revealed a 9×7 cm subcapsular collection on the left kidney compressing underlying parenchyma. Percutaneous drainage was not feasible because of severe curvature of spine. Isotope renogram revealed deterioration in left renal function from 30

  12. Environmental needs in childhood disability analysed by the WHO ICF, Child and Youth Version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Bonderup, Mette; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2016-01-01

    influences through interviews in their own homes. RESULTS: Of the 367 invited parents, 332 (90.5%) participated, providing data on children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairments, hearing impairments, mental disability and disabilities following......INTRODUCTION: The WHO has launched a common classification for disabilities in children, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY). We wanted to determine whether cat-egories of the environmental (e) and the body functions (b......) components of the classification could address environmental needs in children with different disorders and various disability severities. METHODS: A set of 16 e categories and 47 b categories were selected and worded to best enable parents to describe children's everyday support needs and environmental...

  13. Stuttering and the Bilingual Child--New Ways to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    What should parents of a child who stutters do if their child speaks more than one language? Research shows that a child's language skills can affect his or her fluency, according to the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation of America. However, it has not been proven that speaking two languages in the home since birth causes stuttering. If the child is…

  14. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  15. Does Birth Spacing Affect Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.; Magnée, Cécile A. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the causal effect of birth spacing (i.e., the age difference between siblings) on personality traits. We use longitudinal data from a large British cohort which has been followed from birth until age 42. Following earlier studies, we employ miscarriages between the first and second child as an instrument for birth spacing. The results show that a larger age gap between siblings negatively affects personality traits of the youngest child in two-child households. This result ...

  16. Oral health status of a sample of Venezuelan patients with spina bifida. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Morales-Chávez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida (SB is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord associated with several vertebral abnormalities caused by incomplete neural tube closure. The aim of this study is to report on the oral health status of a sample of Venezuelan patients with SB. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed in 30 patients with SB to determine their oral health status and other variables of interest. Results: A 46.7% of the patients had a history of caries: 22% in the 1-4 year group, 71.4% in the 5-7 year group, and 100% in the 8-16 year group. The dmft and DMFT indices were 1.55 and 3.50, respectively. A 46.7% of the patients had gingivitis, 30% had dental calculus, with an OHI-S of 2. The 83% had Angle Class II and 17%, Angle Class I. A 40% had parafunctional habits such as digital suction, use of pacifiers and onicophagia. The 70% had deep palate. Conclusion: Patients with SB have specific oral characteristics and risk factors that must be taken into account in dental treatments to provide adequate care and improve their quality of life

  17. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells from Newborns with Spina Bifida Aperta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Yohei; Nonaka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Natsu; Shofuda, Tomoko; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Yuichiro; Pooh, Ritsuko K; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Mami

    2017-12-01

    We established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from three newborns with spina bifida aperta (SBa) using clinically practical methods. We aimed to develop stem cell lines derived from newborns with SBa for future therapeutic use. SBa is a common congenital spinal cord abnormality that causes defects in neurological and urological functions. Stem cell transplantation therapies are predicted to provide beneficial effects for patients with SBa. However, the availability of appropriate cell sources is inadequate for clinical use because of their limited accessibility and expandability, as well as ethical issues. Fibroblast cultures were established from small fragments of skin obtained from newborns with SBa during SBa repair surgery. The cultured cells were transfected with episomal plasmid vectors encoding reprogramming factors necessary for generating iPSCs. These cells were then differentiated into NSPCs by chemical compound treatment, and NSPCs were expanded using neurosphere technology. We successfully generated iPSC lines from the neonatal dermal fibroblasts of three newborns with SBa. We confirmed that these lines exhibited the characteristics of human pluripotent stem cells. We successfully generated NSPCs from all SBa newborn-derived iPSCs with a combination of neural induction and neurosphere technology. We successfully generated iPSCs and iPSC-NSPCs from surgical samples obtained from newborns with SBa with the goal of future clinical use in patients with SBa.

  18. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  19. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  20. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  1. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  2. Fatores genéticos e ambientais associados a espinha bífida Genetic and ambient factors and profile of the newborns with spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Jesus da Cunha

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a freqüência e os fatores associados à ocorrência da espinha bífida. MÉTODOS: os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevista de 47 casos e 47 controles, nascidos nas cinco maternidades da cidade de Pelotas, durante o período de 1 de Janeiro de 1990 a 31 de Dezembro de 2003. É estudo com delineamento de caso-controle, de base populacional que abrangeu todos os nascimentos hospitalares. O controle foi o neonato normal que nasceu após cada caso com malformação. Todos os dados foram obtidos mediante questionário-modelo. A análise do planejamento de análise de dados incluiu o uso do teste t de Student, chi² e odds ratio. RESULTADOS: ocorreram aproximadamente 77.000 nascimentos nesse período. Desses, 1.043 (1,3% apresentaram algum tipo de malformação congênita. Dentre essas, 47 de 162 anomalias do fechamento do tubo neural foram diagnosticadas como espinha bífida. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas quanto ao número de natimortos prévios, bem como proporção superior de casos de espinha bífida em recém-nascidos do sexo feminino. Neste estudo, muitos fatores como o uso de medicamentos; doenças agudas; afecções crônicas; número de gestações; idade, escolaridade e ocupação dos pais, entre outros, não mostraram associação com o nascimento de recém-nascido com espinha bífida. CONCLUSÕES: a espinha bífida deve ser considerada como importante fator de risco para a morbidade perinatal, e sua ocorrência está associada a um histórico gestacional de natimortos prévios.PURPOSES: to analyze the frequency, associated risk factors for the occurrence of spina bifida and differences between the newborns carrying this malformation and the newborns' morbidities. METHODS: data were obtained through interview of 47 cases and 47 controls, born in the five maternities of the city of Pelotas, during the period from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2003. This is a population-based case-control study

  3. Do consanguineous parents of a child affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related parents with healthy offspring? Design of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offspring of consanguineous relations have an increased risk of congenital/genetic disorders and early mortality. Consanguineous couples and their offspring account for approximately 10% of the global population. The increased risk for congenital/genetic disorders is most marked for autosomal recessive disorders and depends on the degree of relatedness of the parents. For children of first cousins the increased risk is 2-4%. For individual couples, however, the extra risk can vary from zero to 25% or higher, with only a minority of these couples having an increased risk of at least 25%. It is currently not possible to differentiate between high-and low-risk couples. The quantity of DNA identical-by-descent between couples with the same degree of relatedness shows a remarkable variation. Here we hypothesize that consanguineous partners with children affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related partners who have only healthy children. The aim of the study is thus to establish whether the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous parents of children with an autosomal recessive disease is indeed different from its proportion in consanguineous parents who have healthy children only. Methods/Design This project is designed as a case-control study. Cases are defined as consanguineous couples with one or more children with an autosomal recessive disorder and controls as consanguineous couples with at least three healthy children and no affected child. We aim to include 100 case couples and 100 control couples. Control couples are matched by restricting the search to the same family, clan or ethnic origin as the case couple. Genome-wide SNP arrays will be used to test our hypothesis. Discussion This study contains a new approach to risk assessment in consanguineous couples. There is no previous study on the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous

  4. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  5. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  6. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  7. A girl with spina bifida, an extra leg, and ectopic intestinal loops--a "foetus in foetu" or a whim of the neural crest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lende, G; Wendemu, W; Mørk, S; Wester, K

    2007-10-01

    This article describes a girl with an extra leg attached to her lower back, combined with a spina bifida and a myelomeningocele. Despite lacking sensory or motor functions, the leg grew proportionately with the rest of the body. The bony structures were almost normal. A cross section showed fat tissue with some centrally situated blood vessels, nerve bundles, and muscular fragments. Proximally, an isolated colon loop was found. The extra leg and intestine respected the dorsal fascia, without connection with the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The finding is discussed with reference to existing hypotheses for limb formation.

  8. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... about the Child Care Rule > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  9. Public Policy Report. The Nanny Trap: Child Care Work Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Lana

    1984-01-01

    Reports testimony given before the Illinois House Labor and Commerce Committee concerning employment, wages, benefits, and conditions that affect the quality of child care and the status of child care institutions as employers of women. (RH)

  10. When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Diseases Treatment begins with dietary changes and medicines. Your child may need to take several medicines, including vitamins, ... be set to remind kids to take their medicine. If your child must take so much medicine that it affects ...

  11. Measuring Child Work and Residence Adjustments to Parents'Long-Term Care Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Stern

    1996-01-01

    This article estimates the effects of various parent and child characteristics on the choice of care arrangements of the parent, taking inot account the potential endogeneity of some of the child chararcteristics. Three equations are estimated: a care choice equation, a child location equation, and a child work equation. Results suggest a hieracrchy of family decision making; child locations affect the care decision, which affect child work decisions. The results also question previous resear...

  12. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  13. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  14. Memory and selective learning in children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachha Behroze

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective learning is the ability to select items of relevance from among less important items. Limited evidence exists regarding the efficiency with which children with spina bifida-myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus (SB/SH are able to learn information. This report describes initial data related to components of learning and metacognitive skills in children with SB/SH. Methods Twenty six children with SB/SH and 26 controls (age: 7 – 16 y with average intelligence, and monolingual English-speaking backgrounds participated in the study. Exclusion criteria for the SB/SH group were: prior history of shunt infection, history of seizure or shunt malfunction within the previous three months, prior diagnoses of attention disorders and/or clinical depression. Children were presented lists of words with equal exemplars each of two distinct semantic categories (e.g. fruits, animals, and told to make as high a score as possible by learning the words. The value of the words was designated by category membership (e.g. animals = low value; fruits = high value. The total number of words learned across three learning trials was used to determine memory span. Selective learning efficiency (SLE was computed as the efficiency with which items of greater value were selectively learned across three trials. Results Children with SB/SH did worse than controls on memory span (P Conclusion Success in school is often dependent on the ability to recall important facts selectively and ignore less important information. Children with SB/SH in our study had a poor memory span and were unable to monitor and report an efficient and workable metacognitive strategy required to remember a list of words. Preliminary findings may begin to explain our previous clinical and research findings wherein children with SB/SH often focus on extraneous details, but demonstrate difficulty remembering the main gist of a story/event.

  15. Central Somatosensory Networks Respond to a De Novo Innervated Penis: A Proof of Concept in Three Spina Bifida Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Nanetti, Luca; Overgoor, Max L E; de Jong, Bauke M; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2015-09-01

    Spina bifida (SB) causes low spinal lesions, and patients often have absent genital sensation and a highly impaired sex life. TOMAX (TO MAX-imize sensation, sexuality and quality of life) is a surgical procedure whereby the penis is newly innervated using a sensory nerve originally targeting the inguinal area. Most TOMAX-treated SB patients initially experience penile stimulation as inguinal sensation, but eventually, the perception shifts to penis sensation with erotic feelings. The brain mechanisms mediating this perceptual shift, which are completely unknown, could hold relevance for understanding the brain's role in sexual development. The aim of this study was to study how a newly perceived penis would be mapped onto the brain after a lifelong disconnection. Three TOMAX-treated SB patients participated in a functional magnetic resonance imagery experiment while glans penis, inguinal area, and index finger were stimulated with a paint brush. Brush stimulation-induced activation of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and functional connectivity between SI and remote cerebral regions. Stimulation of the re-innervated side of the glans penis and the intact contralateral inguinal area activated a very similar location on SI. Yet, connectivity analysis identified distinct SI functional networks. In all three subjects, the middle cingulate cortex (MCC) and the parietal operculum-insular cortex (OIC) were functionally connected to SI activity during glans penis stimulation, but not to SI activity induced by inguinal stimulation. Investigating central somatosensory network activity to a de novo innervated penis in SB patients is feasible and informative. The consistent involvement of MCC and OIC above and beyond the brain network expected on the basis of inguinal stimulation suggests that these areas mediate the novel penis sensation in these patients. The potential role of MCC and OIC in this process is discussed, along with recommendations for further research.

  16. Spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta in pediatric patients: prevalence study using computed tomography as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Cuellar, Jorge; Zamora, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of spondylolysis reported from radiograph-based studies has been questioned in recent computed tomography (CT)-based studies in adults; however, no new data are available in pediatric patients. Spina bifida occulta (SBO), which has been associated to spondylolysis, may be increasing its prevalence, according to recent studies in adults in the last decades, but without new data in pediatric patients. We aimed to determine the prevalence of spondylolysis and SBO in pediatric patients using abdomen and pelvis CT as a screening tool. We studied 228 patients 4-15 years old (107 males), who were evaluated with abdomen and pelvis CT scans for reasons not related to the spine. The entire lumbo-sacral spine was evaluated to detect the presence of spondylolysis and SBO. We compared the prevalence of spondylolysis in patients with and without SBO. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of age and sex as independent predictors of spondylolysis and SBO. The prevalence of spondylolysis was 3.5 % (1.1-5.9 %); 2/8 patients presented with olisthesis, both with grade I slip. The prevalence of SBO was 41.2 % (34.8-59.2 %) (94 patients). Spondylolysis was not more frequent in patients with SBO than in patients without SBO. Male sex and decreasing age independently predicted the presence of SBO, but not of spondylolysis. We observed a 3.5 % prevalence of spondylolysis and a 41.2 % prevalence of SBO. SBO was significantly more frequent in males and younger patients.

  17. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  18. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  19. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  20. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social

  1. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p health outcome (r = -.33, p health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  2. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  3. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  4. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get your child treated for any bites, especially dog bites, right away. Let your child's doctor know ... Call your health care provider if: Your child's temperature is 101°F (38.3°C) or higher. ...

  5. Child abuse and neglect experts' determination of when a child being left home alone constitutes child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Evans, Erin; Oral, Resmiye; Denning, Gerene

    2018-04-10

    Only 14 states have laws or guidelines regarding the minimum age a child may be left home alone. These ages range from 6 to 14 years. Our objective was to identify factors that influence child neglect determination by experts with regards to parents leaving children home alone. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members (N = 523) were surveyed from July-August, 2015. Respondents were asked whether scenarios involving a child of varying age knowingly left home alone for 4 h were neglect in the presence or absence of injury to the child and the legality of the situation. Comparisons were performed using the chi-square test. One hundred ninety-three members responded (36.9%). In the scenario where there were no relevant laws and the child was uninjured, nearly 100% of the child experts determined this as being child neglect when the child was 6 years old. For 8, 10, 12, and 14 year olds, this was 88, 48, 4, and 1%, respectively. However, a significantly higher percentage of experts considered it child neglect for most ages when there was a law making the scenario illegal as compared when there was no law, and when the child was injured versus when they were not. The only demographic variable that showed a difference in child neglect determination was that females were more likely to consider higher aged children as having been neglected when there were no laws but the child was injured. The vast majority of experts (85%) stated that leaving a child home alone for 4 h should be illegal if the child is < 9 years old, and nearly one-half (44%) said it should be illegal for children < 11 years old. A number of factors affect how experts view children being left home alone as potential child neglect. Our data suggests that such cases may be evaluated differently due to variations in state laws, even though the risk to the child is the same. These results call for child safety law reform to provide greater uniformity in the

  6. Collective labor supply and child care expenditures: theory and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; Ghysels, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine the collective labor supply choices of dual-earner parents and take into account child care expenditures. We find that the individual labor supplies are hardly affected by changes in the prices of child care services. In addition, the child care price effects on the

  7. [Ultrasound measurement of fetal posterior fossa at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks for screening open spina bifida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng-Zhen; Li, Sheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Xuan; Ouyang, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Qiong; Bi, Jing-Ru

    2014-06-01

    To establish the normal reference ranges of transabdominal ultrasound measurements of the posterior fossa structure in fetuses at 11 to 13⁺⁶ gestational weeks and explore their clinical value in screening open spina bifida (OSB). Between January, 2013 and September, 541 randomly selected normal fetuses underwent nuchal translucency at the gestational age 11 to 13⁺⁶ weeks. The parameters of the posterior fossa were measured in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face and the axial view of the transverse cerebellum insonated through the anterior fontanel by transabdominal ultrasound to establish the normal reference ranges. The measurements were obtained from 3 fetuses with OSB for comparison with the reference ranges. In normal fetuses, the parameters of the posterior fossa measured in the two views showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Two high echogenic lines were observed in normal fetuses, as compared with one in fetuses with OSB representing the posterior border of the brain stem and the anterior border of the fourth ventricle. The line between the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna was not displayed in fetuses with OSB. The anteroposterior diameters of the brain stem, the fourth ventricle, and cisterna magna all increased in positive correlation with the crown-lump length in normal fetuses. In the 3 OSB fetuses, the anteroposterior diameter of the brain stem exceeded the 95th percentile and the anteroposterior diameter of fourth ventrical-cisterner magena was below the 5th percentile of the reference range for CRL; the brain stem to fourth ventrical-cisterner magena anteroposterior diameter ratio was increased to above 1. The established normal reference ranges of the parameters of fetal posterior fossa may provide assistance in early OSB detection. The absence of the posterior border of the fourth ventricle and the anterior border of the cisterna magna and a brainstem to fourth ventrical

  8. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...

  9. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  10. Effects of reading goals on reading comprehension, reading rate, and allocation of working memory in children and adolescents with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLISH, LIANNE; BARNES, MARCIA A.; FLETCHER, JACK M.; DENNIS, MAUREEN; RAGHUBAR, KIMBERLY P.

    2011-01-01

    Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intact word decoding and deficient text and discourse comprehension. This study investigated the ability to adjust reading in accordance with specified reading goals in 79 children and adolescents with SBM (9–19 years of age) and 39 controls (8–17 years of age). Both groups demonstrated slower reading times and enhanced comprehension when reading to study or to come up with a title than when reading for specific information or for entertainment. For both groups, verbal working memory contributed to comprehension performance in those reading conditions hypothesized to require more cognitive effort. Despite their sensitivity to the goals of reading, the group with SBM answered fewer comprehension questions correctly across all reading goal conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesized cognitive underpinnings of comprehension deficits in SBM and to current models of text comprehension. PMID:20338082

  11. Effects of reading goals on reading comprehension, reading rate, and allocation of working memory in children and adolescents with spina bifida meningomyelocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lianne; Barnes, Marcia A; Fletcher, Jack M; Dennis, Maureen; Raghubar, Kimberly P

    2010-05-01

    Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intact word decoding and deficient text and discourse comprehension. This study investigated the ability to adjust reading in accordance with specified reading goals in 79 children and adolescents with SBM (9-19 years of age) and 39 controls (8-17 years of age). Both groups demonstrated slower reading times and enhanced comprehension when reading to study or to come up with a title than when reading for specific information or for entertainment. For both groups, verbal working memory contributed to comprehension performance in those reading conditions hypothesized to require more cognitive effort. Despite their sensitivity to the goals of reading, the group with SBM answered fewer comprehension questions correctly across all reading goal conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the hypothesized cognitive underpinnings of comprehension deficits in SBM and to current models of text comprehension.

  12. Neuromuscular training based on whole body vibration in children with spina bifida: a retrospective analysis of a new physiotherapy treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C; Hoyer-Kuhn, H-K; Semler, O; Hoebing, L; Duran, I; Cremer, R; Schoenau, E

    2015-02-01

    Spina bifida is the most common congenital cause of spinal cord lesions resulting in paralysis and secondary conditions like osteoporosis due to immobilization. Physiotherapy is performed for optimizing muscle function and prevention of secondary conditions. Therefore, training of the musculoskeletal system is one of the major aims in the rehabilitation of children with spinal cord lesions. The neuromuscular physiotherapy treatment program Auf die Beine combines 6 months of home-based whole body vibration (WBV) with interval blocks at the rehabilitation center: 13 days of intensive therapy at the beginning and 6 days after 3 months. Measurements are taken at the beginning (M0), after 6 months of training (M6), and after a 6-month follow-up period (M12). Gait parameters are assessed by ground reaction force and motor function by the Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-66). Sixty children (mean age 8.71 ± 4.7 years) who participated in the program until February 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Walking velocity improved significantly by 0.11 m/s (p = 0.0026) and mobility (GMFM-66) by 2.54 points (p = 0.001) after the training. All changes at follow-up were not significant, but significant changes were observed after the training period. Decreased contractures were observed with increased muscle function. Significant improvements in motor function were observed after the active training period of the new neuromuscular training concept. This first analysis of the new neuromuscular rehabilitation concept Auf die Beine showed encouraging results for a safe and efficient physiotherapy treatment program which increases motor function in children with spina bifida.

  13. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors During Pregnancy, Delivery and Birth Affecting Global Quality of Life of the Adult Child at Long-term Follow-up. Results from the Prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prospective cohort study, where we explore associations between pregnancy, delivery and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. The data is from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 using two sets of questionnaires send to 7,222 persons: one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and delivery, while the follow-up questionnaire was completed by the adult children 31-33 years later. The main outcome measures were objective factors describing pregnancy and delivery along with global quality of life, including: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life's temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective measures. Results showed two main factors in pregnancy that seemed to be associated with a reduced quality of life for the child 31-33 years later: the mother's smoking habits and the mother's medication–especially painkillers and different psychopharmacological drugs with the association being most prevalent early in pregnancy. Considering what can and do go wrong during the various stages of labour and delivery and considering how few connections we found between the factors examined and the later global QOL, it seems that the child is remarkably resilient to external influences during pregnancy and delivery concerned with global QOL, as an adult.

  15. Hard To Find and Difficult To Manage: The Effects of Child Care on the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, Arthur C.; Koren, Paul E.

    This study, which focused on effects of child care on the workplace, addressed several questions: (1) What kinds of child care arrangements do employed parents make, and why do they make them? (2) Are these parents having difficulty finding child care? (3) Does their ability to manage child care affect their absenteeism and stress? (4) What roles…

  16. Telling Classmates about Your Child's Disability May Foster Acceptance. PHP-c101

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Parents often become experts on their child's disability. Through their own learning process, many see the value of teaching their child's classmates about the affect of the disability at school. Parents and professionals find that if classmates understand a child's disability, they may become allies in helping the child. The children may also be…

  17. Child Bride and Child Sex: Combating Child Marriages in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the basis of child marriages in Northern Nigeria. It is an Islamic practice rooted in the interpretation of the Quran. Significantly, the caveat that copulation should be delayed until such girls are mature is often ignored as these child brides are engaged in sex. This paper analyzes the report of a Senator in ...

  18. Predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eDe Falco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent-child interaction and a secure parent-child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent-child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother-child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed.

  19. A child with narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Macedo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disease characterized by sleep attacks, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep fragmentation. It can be associated cataplexy and other disturbance of REM sleep (sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic. Case report: A 10-year old boy was referred to Pedopsychiatry because of behavioural disturbance, irritability, sleepiness and distraction, being interpreted as an “ill-mannered child.” After clinical evaluation and comprehensive laboratory studies we concluded that he presented narcolepsy with cataplexy. Discussion/conclusion: Patients with narcolepsy face several problems due to the disease which, if left untreated or ineffectively treated, cause embarrassing or distressing symptoms, affecting their quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this problem since it is a rare condition and therefore seldom not recognized by the general public or even by health professionals.

  20. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masako; Shirasu, Mika; Fujita, Rei; Hirasawa, Yukei; Touhara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507). The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384). Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs) was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888). We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.

  2. Child Odors and Parenting: A Survey Examination of the Role of Odor in Child-Rearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Okamoto

    Full Text Available Parental caregiving is critical for the survival of our young and continuation of our species. In humans, visual and auditory signals from offspring have been shown to be potent facilitators of parenting. However, whether odors emitted by our young also influence human parenting remains unclear. To explore this, we conducted a series of questionnaire surveys targeting parents with children under 6 years old. First, we collected episodes on experiencing odors/sniffing various parts of a child's body (n = 507. The prevalence of experiencing events described in those episodes was examined in a separate survey (n = 384. Based on those results, the Child Odor in Parenting scale (COPs was developed, and subsequently used in the main survey (n = 888. We found COPs to have adequate content validity, concurrent validity, and reliability. Responses to the COPs demonstrated that parents, especially mothers with infants, are aware of odors from their offspring, and actively seek them in daily child-rearing. The factor structure and content of the COPs items indicated that child odors have both affective and instrumental roles. Affective experiences induce loving feeling and affectionate sniffing, while instrumental experiences pertain to specific hygienic needs. The head was the most frequent source of affective experiences, and the child's bottom of instrumental. Each was experienced by more than 90% of the mothers with a child below 1 year of age. Affective experiences significantly declined as the child grew older, possibly associated with the decline of physical proximity between parents and child. This age-related decline was not prominent for instrumental experiences, except for the bottom, which significantly declined after 3 years of age. The present findings suggest that child odors play roles in human parenting, and that their nature and significance change during the course of a child's development.

  3. How Going to School Affects the Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    in school starting age induced by date of birth, we find that the timing of these transitions affect parental outcomes. At child age seven, for example, being one year older at school start increases maternal employment with four percentage points. At child age 15, similarly, being one year older at school...

  4. Revisiting the child health-wealth nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakir, Adnan M S

    2016-12-01

    The causal link between a household's economic standing and child health is known to suffer from endogeneity. While past studies have exemplified the causal link to be small, albeit statistically significant, this paper aims to estimate the causal effect to investigate whether the effect of income after controlling for the endogeneity remains small in the long run. By correcting for the bias, and knowing the bias direction, one can also infer about the underlying backward effect. This paper uses an instrument variables two-stage-least-squares estimation on the Young Lives 2009 cross-sectional dataset from Andhra Pradesh, India, to understand the aforementioned relationship. The selected measure of household economic standing differentially affects the estimation. There is significant positive effect of both short-run household expenditure and long-run household wealth on child stunting, with the latter having a larger impact. The backward link running from child health to household income is likely an inverse association in our sample with lower child health inducing higher earnings. While higher average community education improved child health, increased community entertainment expenditure is found to have a negative effect. While policies catered towards improving household wealth will decrease child stunting in the long run, maternal education and the community play an equally reinforcing role in improving child health and are perhaps faster routes to achieving the goal of better child health in the short run.

  5. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  6. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  7. Hydrocephalus in spina bifida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deep concern. It is therefore .... Natural history of hydrocephalus in children with spinal open neural tube defect. Surg. Neurol Int ... fluid shunt infection: e Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network Quality Improvement Initiative. J Neurosurg ...

  8. Hypertension and Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Hypertension A disease that often goes undetected. What is hypertension? Hypertension, also called high blood pressure , is a condition in which the arteries of ...

  9. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  10. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  11. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002213.htm Dental care - child To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Proper care of your child's teeth and gums includes brushing and rinsing daily. It ...

  12. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  14. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  15. Child Labour and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Simone; Fioroni, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of child labour, fertility and human capital in an economy characterized by two type of individuals, low and high skilled workers. This heterogeneity allows for an endogenous analysis of inequality generated by child labour. More specifically, according to empirical evidence, we oer an explanation for the emergence of a vicious cycle between child labour and inequality. The basic intuition behind this result is the interdependence between child labour and f...

  16. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, S.L.M. van der; Huizink, A.C.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.M. van der Toorn; A.C. Huizink (Anja); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMaternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study

  18. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children : a report on the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Sonja L. M.; Huizink, Anja C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child's problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child's internalizing problems. The study sample

  20. Inadvertent positioning of suprapubic catheter in urethra: a serious complication during change of suprapubic cystostomy in a spina bifida patient - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Hughes, Peter L; Soni, Bakul M; Oo, Tun; Singh, Gurpreet

    2009-12-22

    Spinal cord injury patients are at risk for developing unusual complications such as autonomic dysreflexia while changing suprapubic cystostomy. We report a male patient with spina bifida in whom the Foley catheter was placed in the urethra during change of suprapubic cystostomy with serious consequences. A male patient, born in 1972 with spina bifida and paraplaegia, underwent suprapubic cystostomy in 2003 because of increasing problems with urethral catheter. The patient would come to spinal unit for change of suprapubic catheter every four to six weeks. Two days after a routine catheter change in November 2009, this patient woke up in the morning and noticed that the suprapubic catheter had come out. He went straight to Accident and Emergency. The suprapubic catheter was changed by a health professional and this patient was sent home. But the suprapubic catheter did not drain urine. This patient developed increasing degree of pain and swelling in suprapubic region. He did not pass any urine per urethra. He felt sick and came to spinal unit five hours later. About twenty ml of contrast was injected through suprapubic catheter and X-rays were taken. The suprapubic catheter was patent; the catheter was not blocked. The Foley catheter could be seen going around in a circular manner through the urinary bladder into the urethra. The contrast did not opacify urinary bladder; but proximal urethra was seen. The tip of Foley catheter was lying in proximal urethra. The balloon of Foley catheter had been inflated in urethra. When the balloon of Foley catheter was deflated, this patient developed massive bleeding per urethra. A sterile 22 French Foley catheter was inserted through suprapubic track. The catheter drained bloody urine. He was admitted to spinal unit and received intravenous fluids and meropenem. Haematuria subsided after 48 hours. The patient was discharged home a week later in a stable condition. This case shows that serious complications can occur during

  1. Child protection and the development of child abuse pediatrics in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusci, Vincent J

    2017-11-01

    The history of child abuse pediatrics reflects the development of medicine as a profession influenced by social movements reacting to poverty, economic exploitation, and child maltreatment. As physicians began to specialize in caring for children, egregious cases led them to recognize children were affected by special medical problems and diseases which were compounded by poor conditions and abuse and neglect. They developed the fields of pediatrics and child abuse pediatrics to advocate for their needs in courts and communities. Using a history of prominent physicians and cases, the objectives of this article are to: (1) rediscover the founding of pediatrics in NYC in the context of the environment which served as the setting for its development; (2) highlight our early understanding of the medical issues surrounding child maltreatment, with advocacy and forensic medicine becoming a growing part of medical care for children; and (3) explore the development of child abuse pediatrics in light of prominent physicians making major contributions to child protection. Timelines show the early interplay among social problems, publicized cases, private and governmental agencies, and the development of child abuse pediatrics. The article concludes with potential lessons to be learned and further questions about this interplay of child protection systems and the development of child abuse pediatrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  3. Urologic self-management through intermittent self-catheterization among individuals with spina bifida: A journey to self-efficacy and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jonathan; Ostermaier, Kathryn K; Fremion, Ellen; Collier, Talia; Zhu, Huirong; Huang, Gene O; Tu, Duong; Castillo, Heidi

    2017-12-11

    To describe the age of independence in intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) in a diverse patient population and identify factors associated with ISC in individuals with spina bifida. Two hundred patients with myelomeningocele or lipomyelomeningocele, who were ⩾ 3 years of age and utilized catheterization for bladder management were included. Data regarding diagnosis, functional level of lesion, race, ethnicity, presence of shunt, method of catheterization, self-management skills, fine motor skills, and cognitive abilities were collected. Fifty-five percent of individuals were able to perform ISC with a mean age of 9.45 years (SD = 2.97) and 22.7% used a surgically created channel. Higher level of lesion and female gender were associated with a lower rate of ISC. Intellectual disability was present in 15% of the individuals able to perform ISC and in 40% of those not able to perform ISC (p= 0.0005). Existent self-efficacy regarding activities of daily living (i.e. dressing, bathing, skin care) were associated with ISC (pleading to self-management are warranted.

  4. Increased sexual health after restored genital sensation in male patients with spina bifida or a spinal cord injury: the TOMAX procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgoor, M L E; de Jong, T P V M; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Edens, M A; Kon, M

    2013-02-01

    In this study we prospectively investigated the contribution of restored penile sensation to sexual health in patients with low spinal lesions. In 30 patients (18 with spina bifida, 12 with spinal cord injury, age range 13 to 55 years) with no penile sensation but good groin sensation the new TOMAX (TO MAX-imize sensation, sexuality and quality of life) procedure was performed. This involves microsurgical connection of the sensory ilioinguinal nerve to the dorsal nerve of the penis unilaterally. Extensive preoperative and postoperative neurological and psychological evaluations were made. A total of 24 patients (80%) gained unilateral glans penis sensation. This was initially felt as groin sensation but transformed into real glans sensation in 11 patients (33%). These patients had better overall sexual function (p = 0.022) and increased satisfaction (p = 0.004). Although 13 patients (43%) maintained groin sensation, their satisfaction with sexuality was only slightly less than that of those with glans sensation. Improved sensations helped them manage urinary incontinence, thereby improving personal hygiene and independence. Most patients felt more complete and less handicapped with their penis now part of their body image. They also reported having more open and meaningful sexual relationships with their partners. Tactile and erogenous sensitivity was restored in the glans penis in patients with a low spinal lesion. This new sensation enhanced the quality of sexual functioning and satisfaction. The TOMAX procedure should become standard treatment for such patients. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  6. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas hars...

  8. Child Readiness to Kindergarten in Parents and Pedagogues Sight

    OpenAIRE

    POKORNÁ, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the readiness of 3-4 year old children to enter kindergarten. The theoretical part describes the biological and psychosocial development of the child aged three to four years and highlights the various factors that may affect the child's entry into kindergarten. Describes the family and kindergarten, the issue of adaptation in pre-school and readiness of the child to them. The practical part contains research focused on the perception of the readiness of childre...

  9. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  10. Psychiatric Nursing's Role in Child Abuse: Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Erin

    2017-11-01

    Child abuse affects hundreds of thousands of children in the United States each year. The effects from maltreatment extend beyond the physical injuries-the lasting effects on the child's mental health can be lifelong. Psychiatric nurses have a vital role to play in the prevention, recognition, and treatment of child abuse. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(11), 16-20.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Developmental Pathways from Child Maltreatment to Adolescent Substance Use: The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Mother-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Yoon, Dalhee; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-01-01

    While many studies have identified a significant relation between child maltreatment and adolescent substance use, the developmental pathways linking this relation remain sparsely explored. The current study examines posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, mother-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing problems as potential longitudinal pathways through which child maltreatment influences adolescent substance use. Structural equation modeling was conducted on 883 adolescents drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The pathways of PTS symptoms linked physical and sexual abuse to substance use, and the pathways of mother-child relationships linked emotional abuse and neglect to substance use. None of the four types of maltreatment affected substance use via internalizing or externalizing problems. The findings suggest that intervention efforts aimed at addressing posttraumatic stress symptoms and improving mother-child relationship quality may be beneficial in reducing substance use among adolescents with child maltreatment histories. PMID:29503490

  12. From child pornography offending to child sexual abuse : A review of child pornography offender characteristics and risks for cross-over

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, J.A.B.M.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, concrete directions are provided for individual risk assessment, treatment planning, and future research on child pornography offending. First, based on reviewing offender characteristics, including demographics, socio-affective difficulties, cognitive distortions and psychosexual

  13. Preparation a Child for Surgery and Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization and medical experiences can be confusing and stressful for children, teens and their families. It is very common for young people and their families to have many questions when they are scheduled for surgery or hospitalization. When children are given opportunities to cope successfully with medical experiences, they may see themselves as more capable, more in control, and more reassured. This success often leads to a more positive sense of self, as well as a healthier regard for medical procedures in general. Also, previous medical experiences can affect how the child will react to hospitalization. It is important to maintain a normal routine and activities, such as playing and schooling. Family and friend’s child should be encouraged to visit the child patient. The best way to prepare the child for hospitalization is to prepare ourselves by understanding what will occur.

  14. Child, parent, and parent-child emotion narratives: implications for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David

    2006-01-01

    Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.

  15. Parents' Assessments of Disability in Their Children Using World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version Joined Body Functions and Activity Codes Related to Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2017-01-01

    : Parents of 162 children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairment, hearing impairment, mental disability, or disability following brain tumours performed scoring for 26 body functions qualifiers (b codes) and activities and participation qualifiers......AIM: To help parents assess disability in their own children using World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) code qualifier scoring and to assess the validity and reliability of the data sets obtained. METHOD...... of 1.01 and 1.00. The mean corresponding outfit MNSQ was 1.05 and 1.01. The ICF-CY code τ thresholds and category measures were continuous when assessed and reassessed by parents. Participating children had a mean of 56 codes scores (range: 26-130) before and a mean of 55.9 scores (range: 25-125) after...

  16. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  17. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  18. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  19. National Child Care Regulatory, Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard

    The relation between compliance with child care regulations and the quality of day care programs is discussed, and predictors of child care compliance are identified. Substantial compliance (90-97 percent, but not a full 100 percent compliance with state day care regulations) positively affects children. Low compliance (below 85 percent…

  20. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  1. the negative effect of child labour on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    affect or influence the academic performance of secondary school students. Information on the incidence will sensitize the family/guardians and relevant policy-makers to the magnitude of child labour as an aspect of child abuse and neglect in the area of study. Furthermore, the study would review the pattern of relationship ...

  2. Child Sexual Abuse in Minna, Niger State Nigeria | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a widespread form of child abuse that has remained the most under-reported. In our communities, much remains unknown of this act which often leaves victims traumatised with unsavoury memory that tends to affect their psychosocial development. The study evaluted the ...

  3. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  4. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  5. Child labor : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...

  6. Well-child visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoride in diet Infant formulas Obesity in children Growth and development schedules: Infant -- newborn development Toddler development Preschooler development School-age child development Adolescent ...

  7. Housing and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  9. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  10. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  11. The effects of orthoses, footwear, and walking aids on the walking ability of children and adolescents with spina bifida : A systematic review using International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) as a reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanyi, B; Schoenmakers, MA; Veen, N.; Maathuis, Karel; Nollet, Frans; Nederhand, Marc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no review has been published that analyzes the efficacy of assistive devices on the walking ability of ambulant children and adolescents with spina bifida and, differentiates between the effects of treatment on gait parameters, walking capacity, and walking performance.

  12. The effects of orthoses, footwear, and walking aids on the walking ability of children and adolescents with spina bifida: A systematic review using International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) as a reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanyi, Barbara; Schoenmakers, Marja; van Veen, Natasja; Maathuis, Karel; Nollet, Frans; Nederhand, Marc

    2015-01-01

    To date no review has been published that analyzes the efficacy of assistive devices on the walking ability of ambulant children and adolescents with spina bifida and, differentiates between the effects of treatment on gait parameters, walking capacity, and walking performance. To review the

  13. [Alienation of a child from one parent in divorce situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Alienation of a child from one parent refers to the behavior of the parent in a divorce situation in a manner essentially complicating or in some cases completely breaking the interrelationship between the child and the other parent. The process occurs in situations where the separation was preceded by a normal and positively affective relationship between the alienated parent and the child without any indication of the parent being prejudicial to the child. This behavior in usually motivated by hatred and animosity felt by the alienator against the other part.

  14. child labour activities in a changing world: evidences from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DGS-FUTO

    2018-06-01

    ILO, ... the prevailing poverty affecting the country in which child labour ... to long hours of work daily may deny them access to education, which is imperative to ... harsh treatment with life-threatening injuries (UNICEF, 1997).

  15. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  16. On Parsing CHILDES

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Aarre

    2005-01-01

    Research on child language acquisition would benefit from the availability of a large body of syntactically parsed utterances between parents and children. We consider the problem of generating such a ``treebank'' from the CHILDES corpus, which currently contains primarily orthographically transcribed speech tagged for lexical category.

  17. Every Child, Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  18. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  19. Prevention of Child Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the determinants of child abandonment in the city of Bra ov. The research is based on a new dataset collected on the field on mothers and pregnant women at risk of abandoning their child.

  20. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  1. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  2. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by

  3. Cognitive processes associated with child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-08-01

    To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.

  4. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests.

  5. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  6. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  7. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  8. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [de

  9. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  10. Competition for a better future? Effects of competition on child care quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how competition affects child care centers’ quality. This paper examines the impact of competition on the quality of Dutch child care centers. The results show that high density of child care centers in an area improves scores in quality assessment measures. The positive

  11. In Search of Dignity: One Family Caring for Their Child's Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This article shares a story of a family with a child who has a spastic quadriplegia cerebral palsy, a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that affects all four limbs and torso with debilitating muscle dysfunction. It describes how the family cares for their child's incontinence. It also shares the experience of the child's mother, Kathy, who attributes…

  12. Spina bifida in a dead stillbirth mongrel dog/ Spinha bífida em um cão natimorto sem raça definida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida is a congenital spinal deformity that is characterized by an incomplete closure of the dorsal portion of the vertebrate. This report describes the radiological and pathological findings of this abnormality in a dead still birth mongrel. The dog demonstrated a cleft at the dorsal region of the thoracic vertebrate column, which resulted in exposition and protrusion of the spinal cord and the meninges. Plain radiographs of the ventral-dorsal of the vertebrate column revealed a defect in the fusion of the dorsal spinous processes of the distal thoracic vertebrates (T6 – T13; while the right-lateral view revealed xyphosis of the entire lumbar region of the spine.A espinha bífida é uma deformidade congênita caracterizada pelo incompleto fechamento da porção dorsal de uma ou mais vértebras. O presente caso descreve as alterações radiológicas e patológicas de um cão natimorto sem raça definida. O animal apresentava uma fissura nas vértebras torácicas, resultando em exposição e protusão da medula espinhal e meninges. O exame radiográfico simples em posição ventro dorsal das vértebras revelou defeito na fusão do processo espinhoso das vértebras torácicas (T6-T13, enquanto na radiografia lateral foi observada cifose em toda região lombar.

  13. A prospective study on fetal posterior cranial fossa assessment for early detection of open spina bifida at 11-13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Semir; Altunyurt, Sabahattin; Keskinoglu, Pembe

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test three measurements: brain stem (BS), intracranial translucency (IT) and brain stem to occipital bone distance (BSOB), as well as one landmark: cisterna magna (CM) visibility, for early diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB) in a low risk population. A prospective observational study was undertaken in a university hospital. A sample of 1479 women consented to participate between 20 September 2013 and 30 June 2015. Measurements were performed from the mid-sagittal view, as is routinely used for nuchal thickness assessment. CM visibility was assessed qualitatively as the third anechoic band in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF). All pregnancies were screened with a combination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and second trimester anomaly scan and followed until delivery. Predictive values were calculated for each marker. We were able to diagnose two OSB cases and highly suspect one Dandy-Walker malformation case at the first trimester scan by the observation of PCF. PCF characteristics of OSB cases were increased BS diameter, increased BS-BSOB ratio and non-visualization of the CM. All the markers demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity but CM visibility reached the highest positive predictive value. Due to relatively high false positive rates, PCF measurements could not reach a satisfactory performance to validate their clinical use as a single marker. CM visibility has the advantage of being a qualitative marker and reduces the need for sophisticated and time-consuming measurements. Intracranial translucency and BS-BSOB ratio measurements should be used when the CM visibility is absent or in doubt. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Early neonatal loss of inhibitory synaptic input to the spinal motor neurons confers spina bifida-like leg dysfunction in a chicken model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sakirul Islam Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida aperta (SBA, one of the most common congenital malformations, causes lifelong neurological complications, particularly in terms of motor dysfunction. Fetuses with SBA exhibit voluntary leg movements in utero and during early neonatal life, but these disappear within the first few weeks after birth. However, the pathophysiological sequence underlying such motor dysfunction remains unclear. Additionally, because important insights have yet to be obtained from human cases, an appropriate animal model is essential. Here, we investigated the neuropathological mechanisms of progression of SBA-like motor dysfunctions in a neural tube surgery-induced chicken model of SBA at different pathogenesis points ranging from embryonic to posthatch ages. We found that chicks with SBA-like features lose voluntary leg movements and subsequently exhibit lower-limb paralysis within the first 2 weeks after hatching, coinciding with the synaptic change-induced disruption of spinal motor networks at the site of the SBA lesion in the lumbosacral region. Such synaptic changes reduced the ratio of inhibitory-to-excitatory inputs to motor neurons and were associated with a drastic loss of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic inputs and upregulation of the cholinergic activities of motor neurons. Furthermore, most of the neurons in ventral horns, which appeared to be suffering from excitotoxicity during the early postnatal days, underwent apoptosis. However, the triggers of cellular abnormalization and neurodegenerative signaling were evident in the middle- to late-gestational stages, probably attributable to the amniotic fluid-induced in ovo milieu. In conclusion, we found that early neonatal loss of neurons in the ventral horn of exposed spinal cord affords novel insights into the pathophysiology of SBA-like leg dysfunction.

  15. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  16. The Influence of Parenting Style and Child Temperament on Child-Parent-Dentist Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Deljavan, Alireza Sighari; Jamali, Zahra; Azar, Fatemeh Pournaghi; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between parenting style and child's temperament as modulators of anxiety and behavior in children during the dental procedure. Healthy four- to six-year-olds (n equals 288), with carious primary molars scheduled to receive amalgam fillings were selected. The Primary Caregivers Practices Report was used to assess the parenting style, and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form was used to evaluate child temperament. Children were managed using common behavior management strategies. Child behavior and anxiety during the procedure were assessed using the Frankl behavior rating scale and the verbal skill scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation among variables. Authoritative parenting style was positively related to positive child's behavior (Pauthoritative parenting style on the effortful control trait (Pparent style on the child negative affectivity (PParenting style appeared to mediate child temperament and anxiety, and was related to the child's behavior. Parenting style should be considered in the selection of behavior guidance techniques.

  17. Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.

  18. Determinants of child anthropometric indicators in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Davod; Amarnani, Ekta; Sen, Akankasha; Ebadi, Narges; Cortbaoui, Patrick; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo

    2018-05-15

    Malnutrition is one of the major contributors to child mortality in Ethiopia. Currently established, child nutrition status is assessed by four anthropometric indicators. However, there are other factors affecting children's anthropometric statuses. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to explore some of the determinants of child anthropometric indicators in Ethiopia. Data from GROW (the Growing Nutrition for Mothers and Children), a survey including 1261 mothers and 1261 children was carried out in Ethiopia in 2016. Based on the data gathered, the goal of GROW is to improve the nutritional status of women of reproductive age (15-49), as well as boys and girls under 5 years of age in Ethiopia. In order to investigate the association between different factors and child anthropometric indicators, this study employs various statistical methods, such as ANOVA, T-test, and linear regressions. Child's sex (confidence intervals for (wasting = - 0.782, - 0.151; stunting = - 0.936,-0.243) (underweight = - 0.530, - 0.008), child's age (confidence intervals for (wasting = - 0.020, 0.007; stunting = - 0.042,-0.011) (underweight = - 0.025, - 0.002), maternal MUAC (confidence intervals for (wasting = 0.189, 0.985; BMI-for-age = 0.077, 0.895), maternal education (stunting = 0.095, 0.897; underweight = 0.120, 0.729), and open defecation (stunting = 0.055, 0.332; underweight = 0.042, 0.257) were found to be significantly associated with anthropometric indicators. Contrary to some findings, maternal dietary diversity does not present significance in aforementioned child anthropometric indicators. Depending on the choice of children anthropometric indicator, different conclusions were drawn demonstrating the association between each factor to child nutritional status. Results showed child's sex, age, region, open defecation, and maternal MUAC significantly increases the risk of child anthropometric indicators

  19. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  20. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  1. [Why child neuropsychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllnitz, G

    1978-05-01

    The author gives a brief survey of the development of Child-Neuropsychiatry in the G.D.R. and subsequently gives reasons for the decision in favor of the unity of neurology and psychiatry as applied to children and juveniles, which is in contrast to developments in other countries. In addition to hygienic, economic, organizational, and medical considerations, this decision was also determined by the fact that a Child-Neuropsychiatrist must, in his practical work as a subspecialist, be able to head a multiprofessional team and, thus, help assure optimum development of a child's personality.

  2. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of

  3. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  4. When to use the emergency room - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency room - child; Emergency department - child; Urgent care - child; ER - when to use ... How quickly does your child need care? If your child could die or be permanently disabled, it is an emergency. Call 911 to have the ...

  5. Maternal education and child mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grépin, Karen A; Bharadwaj, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    In 1980, Zimbabwe rapidly expanded access to secondary schools, providing a natural experiment to estimate the impact of increased maternal secondary education on child mortality. Exploiting age specific exposure to these reforms, we find that children born to mothers most likely to have benefited from the policies were about 21% less likely to die than children born to slightly older mothers. We also find that increased education leads to delayed age at marriage, sexual debut, and first birth and that increased education leads to better economic opportunities for women. We find little evidence supporting other channels through which increased education might affect child mortality. Expanding access to secondary schools may greatly accelerate declines in child mortality in the developing world today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Long-Term Complications of Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Blood Test: Lipid Panel Figuring Out Food Labels Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Heart ...

  7. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Have Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships [PDF 255KB] Essentials for Childhood Connecting the Dots: An Overview of the Links Among Multiple Forms of Violence [PDF 2.51MB] Economic Cost of Child Abuse Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) ...

  8. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian…

  9. Child Care Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program the proposed regulation changes, including the potential costs to private persons of complying with Heating Assistance Medicaid Senior Benefits Temporary Assistance Get Help Food Health Care Cash Child Care

  10. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from getting worse. But, when they no longer work, the child's health care provider will recommend surgery. There are several reasons to treat scoliosis: Appearance is a major concern. Scoliosis often causes back pain. If the curve is severe enough, ...

  11. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's provider about: Playing contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Riding a bicycle, motorcycle, or ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  12. Your Child's Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult for a small boy to make the football team, focusing on alternatives, such as soccer or ... examine your child, ask questions about your family history and, if necessary, order tests to see if ...

  13. Your Child Has Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z Health Guide Your Child Has Hydronephrosis Print Email In recent years, better ultrasound machines ... or both kidneys, abnormal position of a kidney, hydronephrosis (swelling of a kidney), fluid-filled cysts and ...

  14. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child's Development: Newborn Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: recién nacido From the moment ... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice ...

  15. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  16. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  17. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ready! Learn more about the issues facing millennial parents as well as a nationwide examination of child care affordability. Learn More + Breaking News Statement: The Effects of Separation Policy are Devastating and Potentially Life-long Dr. ...

  18. Brushing Your Child's Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapeutic home oral hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry of the Child and Adolescent . ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  20. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)