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Sample records for bifenilos policlorados bpc

  1. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  2. Biodegradación de Bifenilos Policlorados (BPCs) por Microorganismos.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Uno de los problemas que enfrenta México en la actualidad es el tratamiento de los residuos peligrosos que generan los diversos procesos industriales. Dentro de estos residuos se encuentran los bifenilos policlorados (BPCs), que se han convertido en un grave problema ambiental. En este artículo se presentan algunos de sus efectos en el ambiente y en el ser humano, así como las alternativas de tratamiento empleando microorganismos que se están estudiando para disminuir su presencia del medio a...

  3. Bifenilos policlorados em arroz e feijão do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cocco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Os bifenilos policlorados (PCBs estão entre os poluentes mais tóxicos presentes no meio ambiente, apresentando os alimentos como principal fonte de exposição humana. Com base nisso, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os sete PCBs indicadores de contaminação ambiental em 22 amostras de arroz e 18 de feijão do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Além disso, objetivou-se calcular a ingestão diária estimada de resíduos, a partir da contaminação existente no arroz e feijão, assim como determinar o teor de gordura das amostras para correlacioná-lo com os níveis de PCBs. A extração e purificação dos compostos foram realizadas pelo método QuEChERS, seguido de identificação e quantificação por CG-EM. Os PCBs 153 e 101 apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias nas amostras de arroz e feijão, respectivamente. Considerando o somatório dos PCBs, este foi de 4,39ng g-1 para o arroz e de 4,17ng g-1 para o feijão. Quanto à ingestão diária estimada, esta foi de 7,82ng kg-1 e de 3,14ng kg-1 de peso corporal por dia, para o arroz e o feijão, respectivamente. Em relação ao percentual de gordura, o arroz e o feijão apresentaram teores de gordura de 0,32% e de 1,1%, respectivamente. No entanto, a correlação com os níveis de PCBs não foi significativa. Os resultados demonstram que o estado do RS apresenta fontes importantes de contaminação desses resíduos químicos persistentes

  4. BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS: RELACIÓN ENTRE ESTRUCTURA QUÍMICA, PARÁMETROS CONFORMACIONALES Y TOXICIDAD EFECTO-DIOXINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio A. Marzocchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la relación estructura-toxicidad de los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs con efecto dioxina con fines didácticos utilizando herramientas informáticas de fácil acceso. Analizando los datos de los 209 congéneres, mediante combinaciones de filtros se define el grupo de 12 PCBs con TEF, mostrando que el número y posición de las sustituciones con cloro cumplen las condiciones (orto ≤ 1, meta ≥ 2 y para = 2. El análisis mediante filtrado, tabla dinámica y diagramas, evidencia también que los PCBs con TEF tienen un ángulo diedro ≤ 56o y que a menor ángulo corresponde mayor TEF. Para visualización de los distintos casos se generaron imágenes tridimensionales de PCBs usando Gabedit, interfase gráfica libre, a partir de coordenadas de centros atómicos obtenidas mediante simulador diseñado en planilla de cálculo. Las metodologías aplicadas y los modelos obtenidos son simples, de fácil uso, muy útiles para educación y potencialmente aplicables a otras familias químicas.

  5. Plan de gestión ambiental para el manejo y el almacenamiento temporal de los transformadores y aceites contaminados con bifenilos policlorados – pcb’s

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano, Carmen; Torres, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Los Bifenilos Policlorados son químicos industriales que están clasificadas como parte de los Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes – COP’s prohibidos en el mundo desde hace mas de 30 años. En nuestro país aun se los sigue usando en los aceites dieléctricos de los transformadores de Potencia y de Distribución. Las Empresas Eléctricas del país conocen del problema pero no saben que hacer con estos tóxicos, debido a la desinformación que existe en todos los niveles. Por tal motivo se ha diseñad...

  6. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOS PERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZIV ARBELI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las espe- cies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se de- positan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgáni- cos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe- ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.

  7. Aspectos toxicológicos e ocorrência dos bifenilos policlorados em alimentos Toxicological aspects and occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls in food

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    Susana Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os PCBs são compostos orgânicos sintéticos que foram muito utilizados na indústria como fluídos dielétricos em transformadores e capacitores, tintas e óleos lubrificantes hidráulicos. Após serem detectados no meio ambiente no final dos anos 60, em seguida foram identificados como contaminantes de todo o ecossistema global, incluindo o ar, água, solo, plantas, animais, seres humanos e alimentos, o que levou à sua proibição em 1977, nos Estados Unidos, e, em 1981, no Brasil. Porém, sua utilização ainda é permitida no nosso país em equipamentos eletrônicos antigos, até que seja realizada a sua substituição por produto isento de PCBs. Esse fato tem resultado em diversos episódios de utilização, armazenamento e descarte inadequados, contaminando o meio ambiente, os animais, os seres humanos e toda a cadeia alimentar. Estudos demonstram que esses compostos são capazes de causar relevantes alterações, tais como neurotoxicidade, disrupção endócrina, imunossupressão, entre outros. Segundo a IARC, os PCBs estão classificados no Grupo 2A (provavelmente carcinogênicos para seres humanos, com exceção do PCB 126, que pertence ao Grupo 1 (carcinogênico para seres humanos. Como estes compostos são altamente lipofílicos, acumulam-se na cadeia alimentar e têm sido detectados nos mais diversos tipos de alimentos com bastante frequência, sendo esta a principal fonte de contaminação dos seres humanos. Esta revisão bibliográfica tem por objetivo apresentar os principais aspectos relacionados aos bifenilos policlorados em alimentos, incluindo suas características, aspectos toxicológicos e ocorrência.PCBs are synthetic organic compounds that were widely used in industry as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors, paints and lubricants hydraulic oils. After being detected in the environment on the end of 60, then they were identified as contaminants in the whole ecosystem, including the air, water, soil, plants

  8. Avaliação de adsorventes sólidos para determinação de pesticidas organoclorados e bifenilos policlorados na atmosfera marinha Evaluation of solid adsorbents for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyis analysis in the marine atmosphere

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    R.C. Montone

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Um sistema de amostragem foi desenvolvido para ser usado em áreas costeiras e a bordo de embarcações oceanográficas para a determinação de pesticidas organoclorados e bifenilos policlorados (PCBs na atmosfera. Este sistema baseia-se na pré-concentração em adsorventes sólidos. Foram usados Florosil, Resina XAD-2 e espuma de poliuretano (EPU. A eficiência de amostragens para estes adsorventes foi de 16-118% (florosil, 41-131% (XAD-2 e 66-112 (EPU, para os compostos organoclorados analisados.A sampling system was developed to be used in coastal areas and on board of océanographie vessels for the determination of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB in the atmosphere. The basis of the system is the pre-concentration step on solid adsorbents. Florisil, XAD-2 resin and polyurethane foam (PUF were tested. The sampling efficiency presented variations between 16-118% (florisil, 41131% (XAD-2 and 66-122% (PUF depending on the organochlorine compound.

  9. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls among inhabitants of Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Níveis séricos de pesticidas organoclorados e bifenilos policlorados em habitantes da Área Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Fernandes Delgado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in the blood serum of people living and working in the urban area of greater Rio de Janeiro city. Blood samples from 33 volunteers (16 males, 17 females, 19-63 years old were taken in January 1999. OCP residues (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, pp'DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor-epoxide, alpha-, beta- and gamma-Hexachlorocyclo-hexane, Hexachlorobenzene and PCBs (congeners: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Except for pp'DDE (detection limit = 1.4µg/L no other OCP residue was found in the samples. No PCB congener (detection limit = 2.0µg/L was detected either. pp'DDE was found in 17 out of 33 samples in concentrations that ranged from 1.4 to 8.4 µg/L of serum or, on a fat basis, from 0.200 to 3.452 µg/g of serum lipids. Percentage of positive samples (% and levels of pp'DDE (range of positive samples increased from the youngest to the oldest group ( or = 40 yrs: 77%, 0.257-3.452µg/g.Os níveis de pesticidas organoclorados persistentes (POPs e de bifenilos policlorados (PCBs foram determinados no soro sangüíneo de pessoas que vivem e trabalham na área urbana do grande Rio de Janeiro. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 33 voluntários (16 homens, 17 mulheres, idade: 19-63 anos em Janeiro de 1999. Resíduos de POPs (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, pp'DDE, Aldrim, Dieldrim, Endrim, Heptacloro, Heptacloro-epóxido, alfa-, beta- and gama-Hexaclorociclo-hexano, Hexaclorobenzeno e PCBs (congeneres: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 foram extraídos com n-hexano e analisados em cromatógrafo gasoso com detector de captura de elétrons. Com exceção do pp'DDE (limite de detecção =1,4µg/L, não foram encontrados outros resíduos de POPs nas amostras. Não foram encontrados também, congêneres de PCBs (limite de detecção = 2,0µg/L. O pp'DDE foi

  10. Purificación de aceites aislantes contaminados con bifenilos policlorados (PCB´s

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    ELIANA LOPERA POSADA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se da una breve descripción de los métodos de eliminación de los PCB´s, y se profundiza en el método de tratamiento químico, por lo que se escogen cuatro procesos diferentes con los cuales se realizaron ensayos a nivel de laboratorio y, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, se recomienda el proceso KPEG como el más apropiado, tanto desde el punto de vista técnico como económico. También se muestra un procedimiento, utilizando el proceso escogido, para la decloración de los PCB´s a nivel de laboratorio, con estimaciones de cantidades de reactivos a utilizar y costos de éstos. Finalmente se presentan algunas recomendaciones de equipamiento para el proceso a mayor escala y las conclusiones.

  11. Purificación de aceites aislantes contaminados con bifenilos policlorados (pcb´s)

    OpenAIRE

    ELIANA LOPERA POSADA; JAIME AGUIRRE CARDONA

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se da una breve descripción de los métodos de eliminación de los PCB´s, y se profundiza en el método de tratamiento químico, por lo que se escogen cuatro procesos diferentes con los cuales se realizaron ensayos a nivel de laboratorio y, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, se recomienda el proceso KPEG como el más apropiado, tanto desde el punto de vista técnico como económico. También se muestra un procedimiento, utilizando el proceso escogido, para la decloraci...

  12. Respuesta transcripcional de Populus a bifenilos policlorados: Aspectos aplicados a la fitorremediación

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Gutiérrez, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    La degradación del suelo ha adquirido una magnitud preocupante. Los métodos tradicionales de descontaminación, son costosos e insuficientes. La fitorremediación representa una alternativa eficaz, de bajo coste, respetuosa con el medio ambiente, que además mejora las propiedades del suelo, si bien ha habido desarrollos relevantes en la última década. Desde el punto de vida científico, el reto principal es descifrar las rutas metabólicas implicadas en respuesta a contaminantes y comprender su r...

  13. Photochemistry treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in dielectric fluid; Tratamiento fotoquimico de bifenilos policlorados en fluidos dielectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In this work a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) photodegradation in dielectric fluid have been done. The experiments has been carried out in a pilot scale photo rector with an ultraviolet light source. The results obtained showed a 92% elimination of PCB following a first kinetic order. In addition the photo reaction products have been identified. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Concentraciones de pesticidas organoclorados y bifenilos policlorados en Zalophus californianus, Balaenopterea physalus, y Tursiops truncatus del Golfo de California /

    OpenAIRE

    Niño Torres, Carlos Alberto sustentante.

    2009-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, presenta Carlos Alberto Niño Torres ; asesor Susan Camile Gardner. 75 páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, 2009

  15. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOS PERSISTENTES (COP): I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS (PCB)

    OpenAIRE

    ZIV ARBELI

    2009-01-01

    Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las espe- cies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se de- positan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos e...

  16. Current BPC3 Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This will expand the BPC3 to serve as a rapid verification test set for SNPs identified in the scans other than the CGEMS scan, and to examine gene-environment interactions in the SNPs identified in CGEMS and other studies as being associated with breast and prostate cancer.

  17. Chemico-biological treatment of polluted soils by polychorinated biphenyls; Tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico de suelos contaminados por bifenilos policlorados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    In this work a study of biological and chemical treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil has been done. The experiments have been carried out in pilot scale reactors and the results obtained showed 98% elimination and a high mineralization of PCBs employing a Integrated Chemical-Biological Treatment. (Author) 12 refs.

  18. The biodegradation kinetics of polychlorinated biphenol in water/sediment systems; Cinetica de biodegradacion de bifenilos policlorados en sistemas agua/sedimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    This article presents a kinetic study of the biodegradation process of a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenol. Aroclor 1242, in water/sediment systems using an acclimated mixed culture. The variables tested were: the sediment mass to water volume ratio (m/V), the addition of a co-substrate, the influence of biostimulation and bio increase and the addition of an ionic tensioactive. The results obtained employing the Middleton or General Bioremediation Model show that the model fits all the cases studied and makes it possible to obtain useful kinetic parameters such as the concentration of biodegradation-resistant substrate and the kinetic rate constant. (Author) 7 refs.

  19. Evaluación de los transformadores que contienen bifenilos policlorados en las bodegas de la Empresa Eléctrica Regional Centro Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Cedeño, Víctor Manuel

    2012-01-01

    En la década de los sesenta en las ciudades de YUSO (Japón) y YU-CHENG (Taiwán) se produjo contaminación de alimentos con los PCBs, atribuyéndole al suceso como causante de problemas dermatológicos, gastrointestinales, y más aún problemas genéticos en los descendientes de las personas que ingirieron los víveres contaminados; después de varias investigaciones los científicos calificaron a los PCBs como órganos clorados, motivo por el cual la Agencia de Protección del Medio Ambiente de Estados ...

  20. Perforating corneal injury in rat and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnec, Sanja; Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Kalauz, Miro; Kunjko, Kristian; Radic, Bozo; Klicek, Robert; Drmic, Domagoj; Lazic, Ratimir; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Radivoje; Ivekovic, Renata; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2015-07-01

    Based on its healing effects in various tissues, we hypothesized that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals corneal ulcerations in rats and effects corneal transparency. We made a penetrant linear 2-mm incision in the paralimbal region of the left cornea at the 5 o'clock position with a 20-gauge MVR incision knife at 45° under an operating microscope. Medication was BPC 157 (2 pg/mL, 2 ng/mL, and 2 μg/mL distilled water, two eye drops/left rat eye) immediately after injury induction and then every 8 h up to 120 h; controls received an equal volume of distilled water. In contrast to the poor healing response in controls, BPC 157 significantly accelerated the healing process in 2 μg and 2 ng BPC 157-treated eyes, starting 24 h after the injury, and the fluorescein and Seidel tests became negative. The epithelial defects were completely healed at 72 h (2 μg BPC 157-treated group) and at 96 h (2 ng BPC 157-treated group) after injury. Aqueous cells were absent at 96 h and 120 h after injury in the 2 μg and 2 ng BPC 157-treated groups, respectively. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects the rapid regaining of corneal transparency. Whereas controls developed new vessels that grew from the limbus to the penetrated area, BPC 157-treated rats generally had no new vessels, and those that did form in the limbus did not make contact with the penetrated area. Thus, BPC 157 eye drops successfully close perforating corneal incisions in rats.

  1. Influencia del solvente en el espectro ultravioleta de nitro y amino bifenilos

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    María Cristina B. de Gómez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los nitro y amino bifenilos fueron sintetizados, caracterizados y usados como solutos, para determinarles su espectro U.V. Los solventes empleados corresponden a la serie de los alcoholes, como son: Metanol, Etanol, n- e iso-Propanol, n-, iso- y sec-Butanol. Se encontró que la posición de la banda de máxima absorción de cada una de las soluciones se relaciona tanto con las características del soluto como del solvente. Estos efectos se resumen en la ecuación de Rao (12, cuya aplicabilidad queda confirmada para este caso.

  2. METALES PESADOS (CD Y PB) Y COMPUESTOS ORGANICLORADOS (PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS Y BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS) EN PECES DE DIFERENTES NIVELES TROFICOS (ENGRAULIS RINGENS, TRACHURUS MURPHYI Y MERLUCCIUS GAYI), EN LA REGION DEL BIOBIO, CHILE.

    OpenAIRE

    FUENTEALBA CRUZ, MARTA

    1998-01-01

    Las hipótesis que explican la presencia de contaminantes en los tejidos de organismos visos, incluyen la biomagnificación y la hidrot'ohicidad la prinlera, señala que algunos contaminantes pueden aumentar sus niveles a través de las cadenas tróficas, por 91p.

  3. Determinação de bifenilos policlorados em milho através de extração em fase sólida seguida de cromatografia a gás acoplada à espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Guilherme Schwanz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analytical method for analyzing polychlorinated biphenyls in corn samples using solid phase extraction (SPE followed by determination by GC-MS. All calibration curves proved linear (r> 0.99. Recoveries ranged between 74.1 and 110.6% with relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all compounds. The limits of quantitation for the method were between 0.025 and 0.1 ng g-1. Of the 51 samples analyzed, PCB 180 showed the highest frequency, being detected in more than 39%, followed by PCB 138, detected in more than 33% of samples.

  4. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals rat colovesical fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Tihomir; Grgic, Dora; Drmic, Domagoj; Sever, Anita Zenko; Petrovic, Igor; Sucic, Mario; Kokot, Antonio; Klicek, Robert; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-06-05

    To establish the effects of BPC 157 on the healing of rat colovesical fistulas, Wistar Albino male rats were randomly assigned to different groups. BPC 157, a stable gastric pentadecapeptide, has been used in clinical applications-specifically, in ulcerative colitis-and was successful in treating both external and internal fistulas. BPC 157 was provided daily, perorally, in drinking water (10µg/kg, 12ml/rat/day) until sacrifice or, alternatively, 10µg/kg or 10ng/kg intraperitoneally, with the first application at 30min after surgery and the last at 24h before sacrifice. Controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5.0ml/kg ip) or water only (12ml/rat/day). Assessment (i.e., colon and vesical defects, fistula leaking, fecaluria and defecation through the fistula, adhesions and intestinal obstruction as healing processes) took place on days 7, 14 and 28. Control colovesical fistulas regularly exhibited poor healing, with both of the defects persisting; continuous fistula leakage; fecaluria and defecation through the fistula; advanced adhesion formation; and intestinal obstruction. By contrast, BPC 157 given perorally or intraperitoneally and in µg- and ng-regimens rapidly improved the whole presentation, with both colon and vesical defects simultaneously ameliorated and eventually healed. The maximal instilled volume was continuously raised until it reached the values of healthy rats, there were no signs of fecaluria and no defecation through the fistula, there was counteraction of advanced adhesion formation or there was an intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects appear to be suited to inducing full healing of colocutaneous fistulas in rats.

  5. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

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    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  6. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chang Xue; Yong-Jie Wu; Ming-Tang Gao; Wen-Guang Li; Ning Zhao; Zeng-Lu Wang; Chun-Jie Bao; Zhen Yan; Ying-Qi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods.METHODS: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers.RESULTS: Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P<0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P<0.05),in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%,respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P<0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P<0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control).CONCLUSION: Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the effective

  7. Deficiência e BPC: o que muda na vida das pessoas atendidas? Deficiency and BPC: what changes in the lives of people assisted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o impacto de bem-estar provocado na vida das pessoas deficientes após o acesso ao Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC. O BPC é um benefício da assistência social e consiste na transferência incondicional e mensal de renda, equivalente a um salário mínimo, destinado também às pessoas pobres idosas acima de 65 anos. A metodologia do estudo teve técnicas qualitativas e quantitativas de coleta e análise de dados. Foram realizadas entrevistas orientadas por um questionário semi-estruturado com trinta pessoas com deficiência atendidas pelo BPC. Os principais resultados. Os principais resultados da pesquisa mostraram que: (1 o BPC se configura como mecanismo de segurança de renda, proporcionando consumo de bens básicos de alimentação, tratamentos de saúde e gastos com moradia dos deficientes e suas famílias; (2 as pessoas deficientes relacionaram a concessão do benefício com o aumento da independência social e financeira delas em relação as suas famílias, contribuindo para a ampliação das noções de autonomia e cidadania; (3 o BPC é um instrumento capaz de proteger os beneficiados e suas famílias da situação de vulnerabilidade social resultante da pobreza ou desemprego, muito embora as mães das crianças deficientes saiam do mercado de trabalho para exercer o cuidado diário dos filhos e não recebam nenhum tipo de proteção social por parte do Estado.The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of well-being provoked in the life of the disabled people after the Cash Benefit to Disabled People (BPC. The BPC is a social assistance benefit consisting in an unconditional and monthly transference of the equivalent of a minimum wage, to poor people with deficiency and elders with more than 65 years. The methodology used was a case study with qualitative and quantitative techniques of data collection and analysis. BPC performed interviews guided by a semi

  8. Stress in gastrointestinal tract and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Finally, do we have a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, Predrag; Seiwerth, Sven; Rucman, Rudolf; Drmic, Domagoj; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Kokot, Antonio; Sever, Marko; Zoricic, Ivan; Zoricic, Zoran; Batelja, Lovorka; Ziger, Tihomil; Vlainic, Josipa; Rasic, Zarko; Bencic, Martina Lovric

    2017-02-20

    Selye's syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents and "response to damage as such" means Selye's stress triad in stress coping response to reestablish homeostasis. Logically, from the gastrointestinal tract viewpoint, such organoprotective/healing response implies the angiogenic growth factors that commonly signify the healing. Thereby, the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-organoprotection (huge range of beneficial effects) signifies the Selye's stress concept/stress coping response implemented in and from gastrointestinal tract, and BPC 157 as an integrative mediator that integrates the adaptive bodily response to stress. In clinical trials without side effects, LD1 was not achieved, BPC 157 healing in gastrointestinal tract, and particularly the healing of the extra-gastrointestinal tissues (i.e., skin/tendon/ligament/muscle/bone; nerve; cornea/ brain) were referred throughout its integrative capabilities (i.e., ulcerative colitis/multiple sclerosis model equally counteracted), native in gastrointestinal tract, stability in human gastric juice (and thereby, strong efficacy and applicability), its relevance for dopamine-system function (and thereby, counteracting effects of dopamine-system dysfunction and over-function, centrally and peripherally (mucosa maintenance); interaction with serotonin- and GABA-system)), afforded cytoprotection/adaptive cytoprotection/organoprotection (and thereby, beneficial effects on gastric and whole intestinal tract lesions and adaptation, wounds and fistulas healing, blood vessels, somatosensory neurons, NSAIDs-side effects (including also pancreas, liver, brain lesions, and blood disturbances, prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis)). Further, we combine such gut-brain axis and the NO-system where BPC 157 counteracts complications of either L-NAME application (i.e., various lesions aggravation, hypertension) or L-arginine application (i.e., hypotension, prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia). Also, BPC 157 particularly

  9. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates chronic amphetamineinduced behavior disturbances%十五肽BPC 157减弱慢性苯丙胺诱导的行为障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag SIKIRIC; Gorana ARALICA; Gojko BULJAT; Ingrid PRKACIN; Martina LOVRIC-BENCIC; Jadranka SEPAROVIC; Sven SEIWERTH; Rudolf RUCMAN; Marijan PETEK; Branko TURKOVIC; Tihomil ZIGER; Nikola JELOVAC; Alenka BOBAN-BLAGAIC; Vlado BEDEKOVIC; Ante TONKIC; Slaven BABIC; Andjelka JELOVAC-GJELDUM; Goran DODIG; Mario STARESINIC; Tomislav ANIC; Ivan ZORICIC; Davor RAK; Darko PEROVIC

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on chronic exposure to amphetamine in rats,particularly the changes commonly referred in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance (lesser grade of stereotyped behavior, without increased excitability) and reverse tolerance (ie, prominent stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response upon late amphetamine challenges ). METHODS: After initial application (initial single dose-regimen), amphetamine (10 mg/kg,ip) was given once daily till d 5 (continuous administration-regimen ), and thereafter on d 8, 16, and 46(intermittent administration regimen). For stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response the observation period was 120 min after amphetamine application, and each animal was observed for 10 s in 5 min intervals.Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg, ip)or saline (5.0 mL/kg, ip) were given only at the beginning of the experiment, simultaneously with the initial dose of amphetamine. RESULTS: In relation to applied initial-single/continuous/intermittent amphetamine applications regimen, the control amphetamine rats throughout the experiment showed the changes in stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response,increment or decrement, commonly explained in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance and reverse tolerance.After the initial application of the amphetamine, the higher BPC 157 dosage apparently attenuated the stereotyped behavior, while the lower dosage of BPC 157 did not reach a statistical significance. Considering the forthcoming amphetamine challenges, in the rats initially treated with pentadecapeptide BPC 157, either 10 μg- or 10 ng-dose, at the time of the first application of amphetamine, the stereotyped behavior remains to be attenuated after all additional amphetamine challenges (on d 2- 5, 8, 16, and 46). This attenuation was not limited to stereotyped behavior only. After the initial application of the amphetamine the heightened startle response was also

  10. Determinação de bifenilos policlorados em soro de cordão umbilical através de extração por hidrólise ácida seguida de cromatografia a gás acoplada a um microdetector de captura de elétrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mohr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in 123 umbilical cord serum samples by liquid-liquid extraction method with acid hydrolyze step and analysis by GC-mECD. The analytical method was evaluated with following figures of merit for all PCBs: linearity (>0.997; precision (<12.55%; recoveries (73-119%; limit of detection (0.1 ng mL-1; limit of quantification (0.25-0.5 ng mL-1. The results showed high contamination in the analyzed samples. PCB more frequent was 138 (66.7%, followed by 180 (55.3% and 52 (51.3%.

  11. Polyphenolic drug composition based on benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BP-C3) increases life span and inhibits spontaneous tumorigenesis in female SHR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Yurova, Maria N.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Anikin, Ivan V.; Egormin, Peter A.; Baldueva, Irina A.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Pigarev, Sergey E.; Panchenko, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of long-term application of novel polyphenolic composition BP-C3, containing polyphenolic benzenepolycarboxylic acids, vitamins and minerals on some biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis has been studied in female SHR mice. Administration of BP-C3 with drinking water (0.005%) did not exert any toxic effect (did not have effect on general condition of animals, weight dynamics and consumption of food), postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function, caused slight reduction of body temperature. An increased survival was observed in mice treated with BP-C3 (p=0.00164, log rank test). BP-C3 increased mean lifespan – by 8.4%, lifespan of the last 10% of animals – by 12.4%, and life span of tumor-free mice – by 11.6%. A tendency in ability of BP-C3 to inhibit development of spontaneous tumors in mice was detected, though it did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.166, log rank test). The number of malignant mammary tumors was 1.5 times less and total number of tumors of various localizations was 1.6 times less in BP-C3 treated animals. Multiple tumors were registered in 8% of mice in the control group and no cases – in BP-C3 treated group. Thus, BP-C3 demonstrated some anti-carcinogenic and a pronounced geroprotective activity. PMID:27574962

  12. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals cysteamine-colitis and colon-colon-anastomosis and counteracts cuprizone brain injuries and motor disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klicek, R; Kolenc, D; Suran, J; Drmic, D; Brcic, L; Aralica, G; Sever, M; Holjevac, J; Radic, B; Turudic, T; Kokot, A; Patrlj, L; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2013-10-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was suggested to link inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis, and thereby, shown to equally counteract the models of both of those diseases. For colitis, cysteamine (400 mg/kg intrarectally (1 ml/rat)) and colon-colon anastomosis (sacrifice at day 3, 5, 7, and 14) were used. BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) was applied either intraperitoneally once time daily (first application immediately after surgery, last at 24 hours before sacrifice) or per-orally in drinking water (0.16 μg/ml/12 ml/day till the sacrifice) while controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5 ml/kg) intraperitoneally or drinking water only (12 ml/day). A multiple sclerosis suited toxic rat model, cuprizone (compared with standard, a several times higher regimen, 2.5% of diet regimen + 1 g/kg intragastrically/day) was combined with BPC 157 (in drinking water 0.16 μg or 0.16 ng/ml/12 ml/day/rat + 10 μg or 10 ng/kg intragastrically/day) till the sacrifice at day 4. In general, the controls could not heal cysteamine colitis and colon-colon anastomosis. BPC 157 induced an efficient healing of both at the same time. Likewise, cuprizone-controls clearly exhibited an exaggerated and accelerated damaging process; nerve damage appeared in various brain areas, with most prominent damage in corpus callosum, laterodorsal thalamus, nucleus reunions, anterior horn motor neurons. BPC 157-cuprizone rats had consistently less nerve damage in all damaged areas, especially in those areas that otherwise were most affected. Consistently, BPC 157 counteracted cerebellar ataxia and impaired forelimb function. Thereby, this experimental evidence advocates BPC 157 in both inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis therapy.

  13. Incidencia de la dieta y factores socio-demográficos sobre los niveles de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en leche materna de poblaciones urbanas y rurales de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Della Ceca, Lara

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se estudia la distribución y composición de los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes incluídos en el Convenio de Estocolmo (DDT: diclorodifeniltricloroetano y sus metabolitos DDE y TDE); α-, β- y γ-HCH: hexaclorociclohexanos; CHLDs: heptacloro y su epóxido, trans- y cis- clordanos y nonaclors; PCBs: bifenilos policlorados y PBDEs: éteres de bifenilos polibromados) en leche materna (n=189) obtenida en distintos centros de salud de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Ciudad Autónoma de ...

  14. ABO Blood Group Alleles and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C.; Shui, Irene M.; Unger, Robert H.; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D.; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). Results We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.87-1.08; Type B: OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between ‘dose’ of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. Conclusions ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:26268879

  15. Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindstrom

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10⁻²⁸. Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P = 0.0001 and rs266849, P = 0.0004; case-only test, where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade < 8 tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined.

  16. Characterizing Associations and SNP-Environment Interactions for GWAS-Identified Prostate Cancer Risk Markers—Results from BPC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick; Siddiq, Afshan; Travis, Ruth C.; Campa, Daniele; Berndt, Sonja I.; Diver, W. Ryan; Severi, Gianluca; Allen, Naomi; Andriole, Gerald; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, David; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Guo, Carolyn; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Halkjaer, Jytte; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Navarro, Carmen; Riboli, Elio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Henderson, Brian; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Albanes, Demetrius; Kraft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade) and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10−28). Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P = 0.0001 and rs266849, P = 0.0004; case-only test), where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade <8) tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined. PMID:21390317

  17. Duodenocutaneous fistula in rats as a model for "wound healing-therapy" in ulcer healing: the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157, L-nitro-arginine methyl ester and L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorjanec, S; Kokot, A; Drmic, D; Radic, B; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Kolenc, D; Zenko, A; Lovric Bencic, M; Belosic Halle, Z; Situm, A; Zivanovic Posilovic, G; Masnec, S; Suran, J; Aralica, G; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2015-08-01

    While very rarely reported, duodenocutanenous fistula research might alter the duodenal ulcer disease background and therapy. Our research focused on rat duodenocutaneous fistulas, therapy, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, an anti-ulcer peptide that healed other fistulas, nitric oxide synthase-substrate L-arginine, and nitric oxide synthase-inhibitor L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). The hypothesis was, duodenal ulcer-healing, like the skin ulcer, using the successful BPC 157, with nitric oxide-system involvement, the "wound healing-therapy", to heal the duodenal ulcer, the fistula-model that recently highlighted gastric and skin ulcer healing. Pressure in the lower esophageal and pyloric sphincters was simultaneously assessed. Duodenocutaneous fistula-rats received BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg, intraperitoneally or perorally (in drinking water)), L-NAME (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally), L-arginine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) alone and/or together, throughout 21 days. Duodenocutaneous fistula-rats maintained persistent defects, continuous fistula leakage, sphincter failure, mortality rate at 40% until the 4(th) day, all fully counteracted in all BPC 157-rats. The BPC 157-rats experienced rapidly improved complete presentation (maximal volume instilled already at 7(th) day). L-NAME further aggravated the duodenocutaneous fistula-course (mortality at 70% until the 4(th) day); L-arginine was beneficial (no mortality; however, maximal volume instilled not before 21(st) day). L-NAME-worsening was counteracted to the control level with the L-arginine effect, and vice versa, while BPC 157 annulled the L-NAME effects (L-NAME + L-arginine; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157 brought below the level of the control). It is likely that duodenocutaneous fistulas, duodenal/skin defect simultaneous healing, reinstated sphincter function, are a new nitric oxide-system related phenomenon. In conclusion, resolving the duodenocutanenous fistulashealing

  18. Factors associated with oxidative stress and cancer risk in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Sophie; Berndt, Sonja; Joshi, Amit D.; Campa, Daniele; Ziegler, Regina G.; Riboli, Elio; Cox, David G.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Yeager, Meredith; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Crawford, E. David; Isaacs, Claudine; Berg, Christine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Lindström, Sara; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Willett, Walter H.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Lee, I-Min; Buring, Julie; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence; Haiman, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Both endogenous factors (genomic variations) and exogenous factors (environmental exposures, lifestyle) impact the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Variants of the ND3 (rs2853826; G10398A) gene of the mitochondrial genome, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; rs4880 Val16Ala) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1; rs1050450 Pro198Leu) are purported to have functional effects on regulation of ROS balance. In this study, we examined associations of breast and prostate cancer risk and survival with these variants, and interactions between rs4880 - rs1050450 and alcohol consumption - rs2853826. Nested case-control studies were conducted in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), consisting of nine cohorts. The analyses included over 10726 post-menopausal breast and 7532 prostate cancer cases with matched controls. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations with risk, and proportional hazard models were used for survival outcomes. We did not observe significant interactions between polymorphisms in MnSOD and GPX-1, or between mitochondrial polymorphisms and alcohol intake and risk of either breast (p-interaction of 0.34 and 0.98 respectively) or prostate cancer (p-interaction of 0.49 and 0.50 respectively). We observed a weak inverse association between prostate cancer risk and GPX-1 Leu198Leu carriers (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 – 0.97, p = 0.01). Overall survival among women with breast cancer was inversely associated with G10398 carriers who consumed alcohol (HR 0.66 95% CI 0.49 – 0.88). Given the high power in our study, it is unlikely that interactions tested have more than moderate effects on breast or prostate cancer risk. Observed associations need both further epidemiological and biological confirmation. PMID:24437375

  19. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  20. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Lindström, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G; McCullough, Marjorie L; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chanock, Stephen J; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-07-15

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p  0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p > 0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  2. DESARROLLO Y OPTIMIZACION DE UNA METODOLOGIA DE EXTRACCION CON DISOLVENTE PRESURIZADO DE DERIVADOS DE ALQUILFENOLES EN BIOSOLIDOS Y SUELOS APLICACION EN ESTUDIOS DE DEGRADACION Y MOVILIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Los lodos provenientes de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales, por sus características, pueden ser reutilizados en la agricultura, como mejoradores de suelos o reemplazo parcial de fertilizantes. Se caracterizan por tener un elevado porcentaje de materia orgánica, la cual puede interaccionar con una serie de compuestos orgánicos tóxicos a niveles traza, como hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs), plaguicidas, bifenilos policlorados (PCBs), dioxinas y furanos (PCDD/F), comp...

  3. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes en plasma de tortugas bobas (Caretta caretta) varadas en las Islas Canarias

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, M; OP Luzardo; J Orós; P Calabuig; M Zumbado; J Pinós; M Almeida González; N Ruiz-Suárez; A. Rodríguez-Hernández; M Sangil-Monroy; LA Henríquez-Hernández; LD Boada

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se ha evaluado el grado de contaminación por contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en 193 ejemplares de tortuga boba (Caretta caretta) varadas en las Islas Canarias entre 2007-2011. La cuantificación en plasma de los niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs), bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs) se realizó mediante GC-MS. Todas las muestras analizadas presentaron niveles cuantificables de alguno de los COPs incluidos en el...

  4. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPS) en leche materna de centros urbanos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Migoya, Carolina; Capelletti, Natalia; Gómez, Graciela; Arozamena, Diego; Sobral, Madelón; Piñero, Julia H.; Soimer, Marisa; Bosco, Nerisa; Pérez, Elvira; Gluzman, Osvaldo; María A Rosa; López, Mariela; Ceca, Lara S. Della; Colombo, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Los COPs se acumulan en matrices ricas en materia grasa como la leche materna, que es un buen indicador de sus niveles en poblaciones humanas debido a su fácil y no invasiva extracción. Con el objeto de evaluar la exposición a COPs en la provincia de Buenos Aires y compararla con otras áreas, se analizaron bifenilos policlorados (PCBs), diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT) y sus metabolitos (DDT, TDE), hexaclorociclohexanos (α, β y γ-HCH) y clordanos (CHLDs: heptaclor y su epóxido, trans y cis c...

  5. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en leche materna de centros urbanos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Sofia Della Ceca; Carolina Migoya; Natalia Capelletti; Graciela Gómez; Diego Arozamena; Madelón Sobral; Piñero, Julia H.; Marisa Soimer; Nerisa Bosco; Elvira Perez; Osvaldo Gluzman; María A Rosa; Mariela López; Colombo, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) se acumulan en matrices ricas en materia grasa como la leche materna, que es un buen indicador de sus niveles en poblaciones humanas debido a su fácil y no invasiva extracción. Con el objeto de evaluar la exposición a COPs en la provincia de Buenos Aires y compararla con otras  áreas, se analizaron bifenilos policlorados (PCBs), diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT) y sus metabolitos (DDT, TDE), hexaclorociclohexanos (?, ? y ?-HCH) y clordanos (CHLD...

  6. Consecuencias fatídicas de un ambiente antropogénico. El caso de la disrupción endocrina

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Serrano, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Los disruptores endocrinos son compuestos químicos, contaminantes ambientales, que una vez dentro del organismo modifican el equilibrio hormonal. Su presencia en el medioambiente es muy frecuente ya que pueden formar parte de los productos químicos empleados en las prácticas agrícolas al haber sido utilizados como pesticidas en el control de plagas (Por ejemplo, endosulfán y DDT), pueden ser contaminantes ambientales de origen industrial (P.e., PCBs o bifenilos policlorados y dioxinas), son c...

  7. Degradación biológica de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes por hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    OpenAIRE

    Osmel Luis Domínguez-Guilarte; Miguel Ramos-Leal; Ayixon Sánchez-Reyes; Ana Margarita Manzano -León; Juan Argüelles-Álvarez; María Isabel Sánchez-López; Gilda Guerra-Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Una de las causas más importantes que han alterado el medio ambiente de manera significativa es la acumulación en varios ecosistemas de sustancias de difícil degradación, entre las que destacan los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (bifenilos policlorados, plaguicidas, pesticidas y compuestos no intencionales). Estos son compuestos químicos extremadamente estables, propensos a viajar distancias considerables y resistentes a los procesos de degradación natural. La mayoría de ellos se utilizan ...

  8. Evaluación de la distribución de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en aire en la zona de la cuenca del Plata mediante muestreadores pasivos artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Astoviza, Malena J.

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta los resultados del estudio de Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes (HAPs: Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos; PCBs: Bifenilos Policlorados y POCLs: Pesticidas Organoclorados incluyendo Endos: Endosulfanos; DDTs: diclorodifeniltricloroetano y sus metabolitos DDE y DDD; α- β- y γ-HCHs: hexaclorociclohexanos; y CLDs: heptacloro y su epóxido, trans- y cis- clordanos y nonaclors) en el aire de 23 localidades del sur de la cuenca del Plata (Litoral: Entre Rios y Santa Fe; y B...

  9. Poluentes orgânicos persistentes e ingestão de plásticos em albatrozes e petréis (Procellariiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Imperatrice Colabuono

    2011-01-01

    Os albatrozes e petréis (Procellariiformes) são aves oceânicas e migratórias de grande interesse conservacionista. Neste trabalho foram estudadas duas classes de poluentes bastante conhecidos por afetarem negativamente as aves marinhas: os poluentes orgânicos persistentes e os plásticos. Bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) e pesticidas organoclorados foram detectados no tecido adiposo, fígado e músculo de oito espécies de Procellariiformes. Apesar da grande variabilidade intraespecífica nas concent...

  10. Efectos de la exposición prenatal a contaminantes presentes en los alimentos (PCBs y metilmercurio) sobre la capacidad de aprendizaje en ratas. Papel de las alteraciones en la función de la via glutamato-oxido nitrito-GMP cíclico en el cerebelo.

    OpenAIRE

    Piedrafita Baudín, Blanca

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Estudiamos los efectos que la exposición Metilmercurio (MeHg) y los bifenilos policlorados PCB153 y PCB126, durante la gestación y lactancia, a tiene sobre la capacidad de aprendizaje en ratas adultas y la relación de las alteraciones causadas con la función de la vía glutamato-óxido nítrico-GMP cíclico en el cerebro. Tanto el MeHg como los PCBs (de la familia de los hidrocarburos aromáticos halogenados) son contaminantes de gran persistencia en el medio ambiente. Se incorporan a l...

  11. Replication of five prostate cancer loci identified in an Asian population – Results from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Campa, Daniele; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Ganziano, J. Michael; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Hsing, Ann W.; Kraft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background A recent Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) of prostate cancer in a Japanese population identified five novel regions not previously discovered in other ethnicities. In this study, we attempt to replicate these five loci in a series of nested prostate cancer case-control studies of European ancestry. Methods We genotyped five SNPs: rs13385191 (chromosome 2p24), rs12653946 (5p15), rs1983891 (6p21), rs339331 (6p22) and rs9600079 (13q22), in 7,956 prostate cancer cases and 8,148 controls from a series of nested case-control studies within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We tested each SNP for association with prostate cancer risk and assessed if associations differed with respect to disease severity and age of onset. Results Four SNPs (rs13385191, rs12653946, rs1983891 and rs339331) were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (p-values ranging from 0.01 to 1.1×10-5). Allele frequencies and odds ratios were overall lower in our population of European descent compared to the discovery Asian population. SNP rs13385191 (C2orf43) was only associated with low-stage disease (p=0.009, case-only test). No other SNP showed association with disease severity or age of onset. We did not replicate the 13q22 SNP, rs9600079 (p=0.62). Conclusions Four SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk in an Asian population are also associated with prostate cancer risk in men of European descent. Impact This study illustrates the importance of evaluation of prostate cancer risk markers across ethnic groups. PMID:22056501

  12. Common genetic variants in prostate cancer risk prediction – Results from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Sara; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cox, David; Travis, Ruth C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Andriole, Gerald; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Ganziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Henderson, Brian; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Pala, Valeria; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Hayes, Richard B.; Severi, Gianluca; Haiman, Christopher A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the goals of personalized medicine is to generate individual risk profiles that could identify individuals in the population that exhibit high risk. The discovery of more than two-dozen independent SNP markers in prostate cancer has raised the possibility for such risk stratification. In this study, we evaluated the discriminative and predictive ability for prostate cancer risk models incorporating 25 common prostate cancer genetic markers, family history of prostate cancer and age. Methods We fit a series of risk models and estimated their performance in 7,509 prostate cancer cases and 7,652 controls within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). We also calculated absolute risks based on SEER incidence data. Results The best risk model (C-statistic=0.642) included individual genetic markers and family history of prostate cancer. We observed a decreasing trend in discriminative ability with advancing age (P=0.009), with highest accuracy in men younger than 60 years (C-statistic=0.679). The absolute ten-year risk for 50-year old men with a family history ranged from 1.6% (10th percentile of genetic risk) to 6.7% (90th percentile of genetic risk). For men without family history, the risk ranged from 0.8% (10th percentile) to 3.4% (90th percentile). Conclusions Our results indicate that incorporating genetic information and family history in prostate cancer risk models can be particularly useful for identifying younger men that might benefit from PSA screening. Impact Although adding genetic risk markers improves model performance, the clinical utility of these genetic risk models is limited. PMID:22237985

  13. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  14. Original BPC3 Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Prostate Cancer and Hormone-Related Gene Variant Study allows large-scale analyses of breast and prostate cancer risk in relation to genetic polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions that affect hormone metabolism.

  15. Presencia de residuos y contaminantes en leche humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Flores Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  16. PRESENCIA DE RESIDUOS Y CONTAMINANTES EN LECHE HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Prado Flores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  17. Quality of Cuban shark liver oil. Comparison with Icelandic cod liver oil (Calidad del aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano. Comparación con el aceite de hígado de bacalao Islandés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Nuñez, Giselle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenA través del contenido de vitaminas A, D y E, dioxinas, metales pesados y escualeno, se estudió la calidad del aceite de hígado de tiburón obtenido a partir de un pool de hígados de tres especies de tiburones (Ginglimostoma cirratum, Carcharhinus longimanus, y Carcharhinus falciformiscapturados en costas cubanas. Se evalúan los contenidos de hierro y cobre como indicadores de posible oxidación en el aceite. Se determinan los niveles de rancidez del aceite mediante análisis sensoriales. Las dioxinas y los bifenilos policlorados (BPC son químicos muy persistentes responsables de la contaminación en los aceites de pescado, cuyo contenido es también evaluado. También se estudió el aceite de hígado de bacalao de la especie Gadus morhua y otras especies de Gadus del suroeste de Islandia, con el fin de comparar ambos aceites en términos de sucalidad. En el aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano se detectó un bajocontenido de escualeno. Su contenido de vitaminas E y A indica que puede ser potencialmente utilizado como suplemento nutricional, contribuyendo a una completa utilización de los hígados de tiburones cubanos. No se detectó vitamina D. El contenido de hierro y cobre indica que el aceite constituye una buena fuente de estos minerales. Los análisis sensoriales revelaron niveles ligeramente más elevados de rancidez en el aceite de bacalao islandés que en el aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano. No se detectó un alto contenido de dioxinas en el aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano (3.69 ngkg-1, menor que los limites permisibles para aceites crudos, (Food Standard Agency, 2002. Las dioxinas como PCBs detectadas en el aceite (14.3 ngkg-1 pueden ser removidas durante los procesos de purificación en la producción.SummaryThe quality of shark liver oil obtained from a pool of livers of three sharks species (Ginglimostoma cirratum, Carcharhinus longimanus, and Carcharhinus falciformis caught in the Cuban coast was studied by

  18. SYNTHESIS AND FLUORESCENCE PROPERTY OF DOPED TYPE YEu-LRH AND BPC COMPOSITE%掺杂型层状稀土氢氧化物YEu-LRH及4-联苯甲酸复合体的合成及发光性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马辉; 孙亚红; 楚楠凯; 李新新; 王娟; 马淑兰

    2011-01-01

    采用水热和回流2种方法合成了Cl-型层状稀土氢氧化物(Cl-LRH)(R为Y0.95Eu0.05),以此为前体,与去质子的4-联苯甲酸(加入NaOH)进行离子交换,合成了4-联苯甲酸根-YEu-LRH复合体.用XRD、FT-IR及PL等方法研究了其结构及性质,证明4-联苯甲酸根插入Cl-LRH层间,并发现其在层间有2种不同排列方式.与前体相比,所得复合体发光强度明显增强.%The Cl-type layered rare earth hydroxide(Cl-LRH)(R=Y0.95Eu0.05) was synthesized by hydrothermal and reflux methods.Cl-LRH was used as precursor,NaOH was added to deprotonate 4-biphenylcarboxylic(BPC),then BPC/YEu-LRH composite was synthesized by ion-exchange method.Products were characterized by XRD,FT-IR and PL.Data showed that BPC anion was intercalated into Cl-LRH,two different arrangements in the interlayers were found.In comparison with Cl-LRH precursor,the fluorescence intensity of composite increased significantly.

  19. Avaliação da função diastólica por meio de Doppler tecidual pulsado e colorido em gatos da raça Maine Coon geneticamente testados para a mutação no gene MyBPC-A31P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arine Pellegrino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH é a principal cardiopatia dos felinos e é caracterizada por hipertrofia miocárdica concêntrica, sem dilatação ventricular. Disfunções miocárdicas ocorrem em gatos com CMH, mas pouco se conhece a respeito destas alterações nos estágios iniciais da afecção. Em gatos da raça Maine Coon, a mutação no gene MyBPC-A31P está relacionada com a CMH de origem familial, porém, a correlação exata entre o genótipo e o fenótipo ainda é inconclusiva. A ecocardiografia tecidual é uma modalidade não invasiva que permite avaliação da função miocárdica e é mais sensível que a ecocardiografia convencional. Para avaliar as funções sistólica e diastólica, antes ou após a ocorrência de hipertrofia ventricular, gatos da raça Maine Coon (n=57, geneticamente testados para a mutação, foram avaliados por meio de ecocardiografias convencional e tecidual (nas modalidades Doppler tecidual pulsado e Doppler tecidual colorido. Posteriormente, foram fenotipicamente classificados em: normais (n=45, suspeitos (n=7 e acometidos pela CMH (n=5; e genotipicamente classificados em: negativos (n=28, heterozigotos (n=26 e homozigotos para a mutação (n=3. Valores de velocidades miocárdicas (Doppler tecidual pulsado e colorido medidos na região basal e média do septo interventricular (SIV, da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo (PVE, da parede anterior do ventrículo esquerdo (PAVE, da parede posterior do ventrículo esquerdo (PPVE e do segmento radial da PVE, foram comparados nos diferentes grupos. Observou-se que as velocidades longitudinais Em (Doppler tecidual pulsado na região média da PVE foram menores nos gatos com CMH quando comparados com suspeitos e normais. Os valores de Em/Am (Doppler tecidual colorido, na região basal do SIV, foram inferiores nos gatos com CMH quando comparados com suspeitos e normais. A relação E/Em (Doppler tecidual colorido, na região basal do SIV, foi maior nos gatos

  20. Cambios en las concentraciones de compuestos organoclorados en las mujeres de Flix, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas-Fitó N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La población de Flix (comarca de la Ribera del Ebro, Tarragona se encuentra altamente expuesta a hexaclorobenceno (HCB debido a la proximidad de una empresa electroquímica. Aunque los niveles de contaminación por HCB en esta población continúan siendo elevados, se ha observado que las concentraciones en sangre venosa de las mujeres de 18-40 años en 1997-1999 fueron un 61% más bajos que en 1994 (4,1 ng/ml frente a 10,6 ng/ml. Las concentraciones de diclorodifenil dicloroetano (p,p'-DDE y betahexaclorociclohexano (ß-HCH tambiιn mostraron esta tendencia a la baja, aunque su disminuciσn no fue estadνsticamente significativa. Por el contrario, los niveles de bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 1997-1999 aumentaron con relaciσn a 1994, aunque la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa.

  1. Tóxicos ambientales y su efecto sobre el neurodesarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Arroyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del neurodesarrollo son consecuencia de un disturbio de la función cerebral. Son frecuentes, se manifiestan con sintomatología variada, en distintos momentos de la vida y suelen ser persistentes con repercusión a nivel individual, familiar y social. La asociación de estos trastornos del desarrollo con entidades genéticas neurológicas es baja. Aunque las investigaciones apoyan un modo de herencia genética los factores epigenéticos y ambientales pueden jugar un rol importante. En los últimos años hubo un llamativo incremento de estos trastornos, especialmente del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad y del trastorno generalizado del desarrollo y se comenzó a comprender y profundizar que la exposición a sustancias tóxicas ambientales puede provocar alteraciones en el neurodesarrollo y en la salud. Dentro de los factores ambientales se reconocen que la intoxicación del feto por metales pesados, especialmente plomo y mercurio, son los responsables en algunos niños de estos trastornos. Otras sustancias de amplio uso, escasa degradación y mantenimiento en la cadena alimenticia como los pesticidas, los bifenilos policlorados y ahora el reciclado de residuos electrónicos pone especialmente a lactantes y niños a riesgo y aún más en los países subdesarrollados.

  2. Cambios en las concentraciones de compuestos organoclorados en las mujeres de Flix, Tarragona Changes in concentrations of organochloride compounds in women from Flix, Tarragona [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ribas-Fitó

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La población de Flix (comarca de la Ribera del Ebro, Tarragona se encuentra altamente expuesta a hexaclorobenceno (HCB debido a la proximidad de una empresa electroquímica. Aunque los niveles de contaminación por HCB en esta población continúan siendo elevados, se ha observado que las concentraciones en sangre venosa de las mujeres de 18-40 años en 1997-1999 fueron un 61% más bajos que en 1994 (4,1 ng/ml frente a 10,6 ng/ml. Las concentraciones de diclorodifenil dicloroetano (p,p'-DDE y betahexaclorociclohexano (ß-HCH tambiιn mostraron esta tendencia a la baja, aunque su disminuciσn no fue estadνsticamente significativa. Por el contrario, los niveles de bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 1997-1999 aumentaron con relaciσn a 1994, aunque la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa.The population of Flix (region of Ribera del Ebro, Tarragona is highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB due to the closeness of an electrochemical factory. Although the degree of HCB contamination in this population is still high, concentrations of HCB in the sera of women aged 18-40 years from 1997 to 1999 were 61% lower than those observed in 1994 (4.1 ng/ml vs. 10.6 ng/ml. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (p,p'-DDE and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH also decreased, although the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB in the period 1997-1999 showed a nonsignificant increase compared with those in 1994.

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders — Trolle Residence, Danbury, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder of this 1,650-ft2 cabin won a Custom Home honor in the 2014 Housing Innovations Awards. The home meets Passive House Standards with 5.5-in. of foil-faced polysiocyanurate foam boards lining the outside walls, R-55 of rigid EPS foam under the slab, R-86 of blown cellulose in the attic, triple-pane windows, and a single ductless heat pump to heat and cool the entire home.

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, New Fairfield, Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This LEED Platinum home was built on the site of a 60-year-old bungalow that was demolished. It boasts views of Candlewood Lake, a great deal of daylight, and projected annual energy savings of almost $3,000. This home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  5. Reliability of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Behavior Problems for Children (ASD-BPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention has occurred with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) of children and youth. Furthermore, the rationale for using the most restrictive of the applied behavior analysis methods and medication has been largely based on the presence of severe challenging behaviors such as…

  6. DOE ZERH Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Taft School, Watertown, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 33 without PV or HERS -14 with PV, with 8.5” double 2x4 walls with 8.5” (R-32) blown cellulose plus R-6 rigid foam, basement with 3” ccsf on interior plus 2x4 stud walls with R-13 blown cellulose, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; a central heat pump; HRV; heat pump water heater; 100% LED; and Passive House Institute U.S.+, LEED platinum, and Living Building Challenge certifications.

  7. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes en plasma de tortugas bobas (Caretta caretta varadas en las Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Camacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se ha evaluado el grado de contaminación por contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs en 193 ejemplares de tortuga boba (Caretta caretta varadas en las Islas Canarias entre 2007-2011. La cuantificación en plasma de los niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs, bifenilos policlorados (PCBs e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs se realizó mediante GC-MS. Todas las muestras analizadas presentaron niveles cuantificables de alguno de los COPs incluidos en el estudio. El grupo de COPs que presentó mayores niveles fue el de los PAHs (alcanzando la carga total de PAHs 6,45 ng/ml, siendo el fenantreno el hidrocarburo más frecuentemente detectado y a concentraciones más altas, lo que indica el origen petrogénico de estos contaminantes. La contaminación por PCBs alcanzó niveles menores (3,84 ng/ml, predominando el grupo de los hexaclorobifenilos (PCB-153 y PCB- 138 principalmente. Los niveles de contaminación por POCs fueron también bajos alcanzando valores de 1,67 ng/ml, siendo el principal metabolito del DDT, el p,p´-DDE el compuesto más frecuentemente detectado (89,6% y a más altas concentraciones (0,68 ng/ml. Fue evidente una asociación inversa entre el tamaño de las tortugas y la carga de PCBs y PAHs. Asimismo existieron niveles más altos de contaminación por COPs en los años 2009 y 2010. Este trabajo evalúa por vez primera la presencia de PAHs en sangre de tortugas varadas y nuestros resultados parecen indicar que esta metodología y esta especie animal pueden ser muy útiles para monitorizar la presencia de contaminación por derivados del petróleo en el medio acuático.

  8. PCB's take a stroll Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio

  9. Testing the role of contaminants in depressing avian numbers Evaluando el rol de los contaminantes sobre la disminución del número de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLIAM H. KARASOV

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants are ubiquitous and so are often key suspects in cases of lagging wildlife populations. How do we test hypotheses about cause-effect linkages between contaminants and wildlife health? We present three case studies in which different approaches were used to test hypotheses about effects of contaminants on wildlife. The cases involve the possible impacts of (1 polychlorinated biphenyl on Lake Superior bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; (2 dioxin on osprey (Pandion halieatus; and (3 methyl mercury on common loons (Gavia immer. The different approaches were dictated by legal, logistic, and financial limitations, but the relative strengths of experimental and mechanistic approaches over correlative approaches is underscored. For all three species, the simple correlation between a single contaminant and performance was confounded by covariation with other types of contaminants and/or natural ecological factors such as food availability and predationLos contaminantes ambientales son ubicuos y a menudo los principales sospechosos en los casos de disminución en las poblaciones de fauna silvestre. ¿Cómo probamos las hipótesis sobre las relaciones causa - efecto entre los contaminantes y la salud de la fauna silvestre? Presentamos tres estudios de caso en que se usaron diferentes aproximaciones para someter a prueba las hipótesis sobre los efectos de los contaminantes sobre la fauna silvestre. Los casos involucran los posibles impactos de (1 el bifenilos policlorados en el águila calva (Haliaeetus leucocephalus en el Lago Superior; (2 las dioxinas sobre el águila pescadora (Pandion halieatus; y (3 el mercurio de metilo en colimbo grande (Gavia immer. Las limitaciones legales, logísticas y financieras, determinaron diferentes aproximaciones en estos estudios, pero se destaca que la fuerza relativa de las aproximaciones experimentales y mecanicistas es superior a la de un acercamiento correlacional. Se demuestra que, en

  10. Degradación biológica de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes por hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Luis Domínguez-Guilarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las causas más importantes que han alterado el medio ambiente de manera significativa es la acumulación en varios ecosistemas de sustancias de difícil degradación, entre las que destacan los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (bifenilos policlorados, plaguicidas, pesticidas y compuestos no intencionales. Estos son compuestos químicos extremadamente estables, propensos a viajar distancias considerables y resistentes a los procesos de degradación natural. La mayoría de ellos se utilizan como plaguicidas y como productos químicos en procesos industriales o como subproductos que se generan de manera no intencional a partir de ciertas actividades humanas, tales como los procesos de combustión o generación de energía. En el caso del dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano (DDT, se ha encontrado en lugares donde no ha sido aplicado, tal y como ocurre en las zonas árticas. Los hongos de la podredumbre blanca son un grupo de microorganismos que desempeñan un papel clave como reguladores del ciclo del carbono. Son activos transformadores de la lignina. Sus enzimas ligninolíticas están directamente involucradas no solo en la degradación de la lignina, sino también, en la biotrasformación de una diversidad de polímeros orgánicos complejos de los cuales algunos constituyen contaminantes ambientales, con una estructura química similar a la lignina. Esto se debe a la inespecificidad de su sistema multienzimático, lo que abre el espacio para su incorporación en procesos de biorremediación. En este trabajo, se presentan resultados preliminares de la inducción de las enzimas ligninolíticas lacasa y MnP con la utilización del DDT como inductor de las actividades enzimáticas mediante cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca.

  11. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs en leche materna de centros urbanos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Sofia Della Ceca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs se acumulan en matrices ricas en materia grasa como la leche materna, que es un buen indicador de sus niveles en poblaciones humanas debido a su fácil y no invasiva extracción. Con el objeto de evaluar la exposición a COPs en la provincia de Buenos Aires y compararla con otras  áreas, se analizaron bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT y sus metabolitos (DDT, TDE, hexaclorociclohexanos (?, ? y ?-HCH y clordanos (CHLDs: heptaclor y su epóxido, trans y cis clordanos y nonaclors en muestras de leche materna colectadas durante 2010 y 2011 en Punta Lara, Ensenada, Florencio Varela y Capital Federal.Las  muestras fueron colectadas con sacaleches manuales, centrifugadas para separar la crema que fue liofilizada y extraída con éter de petróleo y ultrasonido. Los extractos previamente tratados con ácido para eliminación parcial de lípidos, fueron purificados por cromatografía en gel de sílice y analizados por cromatografía gaseosa.Las concentraciones de COPs en ng.g-1 lípido decrecieron en el orden DDTs (76±91 ? PCBs (67±64 > HCHs (33±36 ³ CHLDs (22±24.  Los DDTs oscilaron entre 7.7-510 ng.g-1 lípido y  los PCBs entre 5-247 ng.g-1 lípido, estos valores son comparables al rango más bajo reportado en la literatura (DDTs Noruega: 39-292 ng.g-1 lípido; PCBs Vietnam: 26-210 ng.g-1, Japón: 23-370 ng.g-1. En cambio, las concentraciones de HCHs y CHLDs, que oscilaron entre 5.8-197 ng.g-1 lípido y  1.3-124 ng.g-1 lípido respectivamente, corresponden al rango medio reportado para otras áreas (HCHs Indonesia 1.6-120 ng.g-1; CHLDs 3.4-92 ng.g-1. La composición de residuos en la leche materna es relativamente conservativa para cada clase de COPs, así se observa uniforme predominancia de productos de degradación (p.ej. DDE: 90±17% de SDDTs; epóxido de heptaclor: 50±18% y t-nonaclordano: 34±13% de SCHLDs y los isómeros y congéneres más persistentes (?-HCH

  12. Using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to support regulatory decision making for neurotoxicants: lessons learned from a case study of PCBs Utilizando revisões sistemáticas e meta-análise de apoio às decisões regulatórias para neurotóxicos: lições de um estudo de caso dos PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goodman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined prospective cohort studies evaluating the relation between prenatal and neonatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and neurodevelopment in children to assess the feasibility of conducting a meta-analysis to support decision making. We described studies in terms of exposure and end point categorization, statistical analysis, and reporting of results. We used this evaluation to assess the feasibility of grouping studies into reasonably uniform categories. The most consistently used tests included Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the neurologic optimality score in the neonatal period, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 5-8months of age, and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities in 5-year-olds. Despite administering the same tests at similar ages, the studies were too dissimilar to allow a meaningful quantitative examination of outcomes across cohorts. These analyses indicate that our ability to conduct weight-of-evidence assessments of the epidemiologic literature on neurotoxicants may be limited, even in the presence of multiple studies, if the available study methods, data analysis, and reporting lack comparability.Foram examinados estudos de grupo que avaliaram a relação entre a exposição pré-natal e neonatal aos bifenilos policlorados (PCB e o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em crianças a fim de avaliar a viabilidade da realização de uma meta-análise para suporte à tomada de decisão. Nós descrevemos os estudos em termos de exposição, categorizações, análise estatística e elaboração de relatórios de resultados. Nós utilizamos esta avaliação para verificar a viabilidade de agrupar os estudos em categorias razoavelmente uniformes. Os testes mais utilizados foram Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, a pontuação de otimalidade neurológica no período neonatal, as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil de 5 a 8 meses de idade, e as Escalas McCarthy de

  13. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Appleby, Paul N.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lindstroem, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Key, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding pro

  14. BPC216全自动生化分析仪速率法检测血清CK-MB酶海力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹伦琴

    1994-01-01

    肌酸激酶(Creatine Kinase,CK)是由B和M两条亚基组成的二聚体,有三种同工酶。存在于脑和前列腺等非肌组织者为CK-BB,存在于骨骼肌及心肌中为CK-MM,心肌除以CK-MM型为主外,尚有CK-MB型。正常血清中绝大部分为CK-MM型,

  15. PTGS2 and IL6 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer : results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Albanes, Demetrius; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, John M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gonzalez, Carlos; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Dan O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Riboli, Elio; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Cox, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Genes involved in the inflammation pathway have been associated with cancer risk. Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast and prostat

  16. PTGS2 and IL6 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Albanes, Demetrius; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, John M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gonzalez, Carlos; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Dan O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Riboli, Elio; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Cox, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Genes involved in the inflammation pathway have been associated with cancer risk. Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast and prostate cancers. We conducted a study within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium to examine the association between IL6 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and breast and prostate cancer risk. Twenty-seven polymorphisms, selected by pairwise tagging, were genotyped on 6292 breast cancer cases and 8135 matched controls and 8008 prostate cancer cases and 8604 matched controls. The large sample sizes and comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism tagging in this study gave us excellent power to detect modest effects for common variants. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of the associations examined remained statistically significant at P = 0.01. In analyses not adjusted for multiple testing, one IL6 polymorphism (rs6949149) was marginally associated with breast cancer risk (TT versus GG, odds ratios (OR): 1.32; 99% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00–1.74, Ptrend = 0.003) and two were marginally associated with prostate cancer risk (rs6969502-AA versus rs6969502-GG, OR: 0.87, 99% CI: 0.75–1.02; Ptrend = 0.002 and rs7805828-AA versus rs7805828-GG, OR: 1.11, 99% CI: 0.99–1.26; Ptrend = 0.007). An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for the PTGS2 polymorphism rs7550380 (TT versus GG, OR: 1.38, 99% CI: 1.04–1.83). No association was observed between PTGS2 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. In conclusion, common genetic variation in these two genes might play at best a limited role in breast and prostate cancers. PMID:19965896

  17. Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Ardanaz, Eva; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Diver, W. Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loïc; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Stattin, Pär; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Yeager, Meredith; Kaaks, Rudolf; Hunter, David J.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17β-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 × 10−21), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 × 10−15), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 × 10−6) and SRD5A2 with 3α-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 × 10−6). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones. PMID:19574343

  18. Genetic Variation in the Vitamin D Pathway in Relation to Risk of Prostate Cancer – Results from Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M.; Shui, Irene M.; Yu, Kai; Travis, Ruth C.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Campa, Daniele; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Berndt, Sonja; Crawford, E. D.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindström, Sara; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Purdue, Mark; Stampfer, Meir J.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that vitamin D status may be associated with prostate cancer risk, although the direction and strength of this association differs between experimental and observational studies. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status. We examined prostate cancer risk in relation to SNPs in four genes shown to predict circulating levels of 25(OH)D. Methods SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25(OH)D were genotyped in 10,018 cases and 11,052 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and cumulative association between genetic variants and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer. Results We observed a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with the allele in rs6013897 near CYP24A1 associated with lower serum 25(OH)D (per A allele, OR=0.86, 95%CI=0.80–0.93, p-trend=0.0002), but an increased risk for non-aggressive disease (per a allele: OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.04–1.17, p-trend=0.002). Examination of a polygenic score of the four SNPs revealed statistically significantly lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with a greater number of low vitamin D alleles (OR for 6–8 vs. 0–1 alleles = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44 – 0.98; p-trend=0.003). Conclusions In this large, pooled analysis, genetic variants related to lower 25(OH)D were associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Impact Our genetic findings do not support a protective association between loci known to influence vitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk. PMID:23377224

  19. CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the national Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.; Albanes, Demetrius; Altshuler, David; Berglund, Gran; Buring, Julie; Calle, Eugenia E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Cox, David G.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Linseisen, Jakob; Lund, Eiliv; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polym

  20. Consolidating findings from business process change case studies using system dynamics: The example of employee morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kristekova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore system dynamics as a useful approach to consolidate findings from case studies on business process change (BPC projects. We compile data from 65 BPC case studies to develop a system dynamics simulation model that helps us to investigate ‘employee morale’ as an important construct in BPC projects. We show that such simulation models consolidate the complex and often non-linear findings from BPC case studies in a way that makes it available to discourse among researchers, lecturers and students as well as BPC professionals. Thus, this paper contributes to knowledge management and learning by suggesting system dynamics as a valuable approach to illustrate and convey the complex relationships between important constructs in BPC. This paper also contributes to the domain of business process management by demonstrating the benefits of system dynamics as a way to review and consolidate the abundance of BPC case studies.

  1. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.;

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined...... with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from...

  2. Critique of Quantum Optical Experimental Refutations of Bohr's Principle of Complementarity, of the Wootters-Zurek Principle of Complementarity, and of the Particle-Wave Duality Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloyerou, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    I argue that quantum optical experiments that purport to refute Bohr's principle of complementarity (BPC) fail in their aim. Some of these experiments try to refute complementarity by refuting the so called particle-wave duality relations, which evolved from the Wootters-Zurek reformulation of BPC (WZPC). I therefore consider it important for my forgoing arguments to first recall the essential tenets of BPC, and to clearly separate BPC from WZPC, which I will argue is a direct contradiction of BPC. This leads to a need to consider the meaning of particle-wave duality relations and to question their fundamental status. I further argue (albeit, in opposition to BPC) that particle and wave complementary concepts are on a different footing than other pairs of complementary concepts.

  3. Insumos utilizados en la preparación de alimentos en producción porcina y su potencial de contaminación por dioxinas en la carne Feed materials used in the preparation of food in pork production and its potential for dioxin contamination in the meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samsing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la contribución de los diversos insumos utilizados en la alimentación de los cerdos, como fuente de contaminación de dioxinas, furanos y bifenilos policlorados similares a dioxinas (DL-PCBs de la carne, considerando las variaciones dietarias durante la recría, crianza y engorda. Las materias primas o insumos fueron separadas en diferentes categorías, elaborándose un conjunto de datos con los resultados de análisis mediante el bioensayo EROD/H4IIE (determinación de la actividad de 7-Etoxiresorufina -O-detilasa en la línea celular de hepatoma de rata H4IIE. Además se establecieron dos dietas tipo utilizadas en Chile, considerando los porcentajes de incorporación de materias primas, los cuales varían a lo largo del ciclo productivo del cerdo. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de la información contenida en el conjunto de datos, caracterizándose el comportamiento de las observaciones. Se propuso un modelo de transferencia, en que la carga corporal de dioxinas aumenta en forma proporcional al consumo de alimentos contaminados. Como resultados se obtuvo la media de contaminación más alta, expresada como equivalentes tóxicos de 2,3,7,8-tetraclorodibenzo-p-dioxina derivados del bioensayo EROD/H4IIE (TCDD-EQ/g, en las materias primas de origen mineral, con 16,21 pg TCDD-EQ/g, seguido por las mezclas de ácidos grasos (2,03 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Las concentraciones medias más bajas de contaminación se presentaron en las premezclas (0,29 pg TCDD-EQ/g y los aceites vegetales (0,35 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Respecto del modelo de transferencia, al evaluar la contribución de los diferentes insumos al total de contaminación de la ración, las materias primas de origen vegetal fueron las que más aportaron, debido al alto porcentaje en que éstas se incorporan en las dietas tipo. El segundo mayor aporte fue el de las materias primas de origen mineral.This study assessed the contribution of various feed ingredients used in

  4. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  5. Pathway Ranking for In-place Sediment Management (CU1209). Site 2 Report - Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    1.3 -1.3 -1.3 NA Manganese (Mn) 798 2172 766 766 2172 1245 803 Zinc (Zn) 179 389 499 179 499 356 163 112 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 As Cu NiF l u...Chrysenes C4-Chrysenes BPC-BFSD1- A1 -PAHs BPC-BFSD1-A2-PAHs BPC-BFSD1-A3-PAHs U2110 U2111 U2112 02-739 02-739 02-739 A1122.D A1123.D A1124.D 12/20/02 12/20/02...BFSD1- A1 -PAHs BPC-BFSD1-A2-PAHs BPC-BFSD1-A3-PAHs U2110 U2111 U2112 02-739 02-739 02-739 A1122.D A1123.D A1124.D 12/20/02 12/20/02 12/20/02 01/19/03 01/19

  6. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the fish tissues of a coastal lagoon system of the SE Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Alvarez, J M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Amezcua, F; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2012-10-01

    Mean Cd trend in the muscle of omnivorous (O), planktivorous (P), benthopelagic-carnivorous (BPC), and benthic carnivorous (BC) fish of one lagoon of NW Mexico was BPC > BC > P > O (0.89, 0.59, 0.55 and 0.24 μg g(-1)). That of Pb was P > BC > O > BPC (1.07, 0.48, 0.17 and 0.04 μg g(-1)). In the liver Cd was P > BPC > O > BC (5.09, 2.40, 2.07 and 1.95 μg g(-1)). Pb was P > O > BPC > BC (0.63, 0.40, 0.13 and 0.07 μg g(-1)). There were no differences in Cd and Pb contents due to feeding habits, and the correlations between metals and troph level were not significant (p > 0.05 in all cases).

  7. Biomarcadores moleculares en la medicina moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La medicina del siglo XXI se caracteriza por el enfoque molecular, tanto en el diagnóstico, como en el tratamiento. En este sentido, abundan en la literatura científica los trabajos relacionados con el empleo de biomarcadores o marcadores biológicos. El término biomarcador se utiliza para medir una interacción entre un sistema biológico y un agente de tipo químico, físico o biológico, evaluando así una respuesta funcional o fisiológica, a nivel celular o molecular, asociada con la probabilidad del desarrollo de una enfermedad. Los biomarcadores pueden diferenciarse en tres tipos: biomarcadores de exposición, los que evalúan en un organismo la presencia de sustancias exógenas, metabolitos o el producto de la interacción entre el agente xenobiótico (compuestos naturales o sintéticos del ambiente que el organismo metaboliza y acumula y una molécula o célula diana; biomarcadores de efecto, que evalúan la alteración bioquímica, fisiológica o de comportamiento producida en el organismo y que puede ser asociada con una enfermedad; biomarcadores de susceptibilidad, indicador de la capacidad heredada o adquirida de un organismo para responder a la exposición a una sustancia xenobiótica. (1 En el campo de la salud humana, el desarrollo, validación y uso de biomarcadores se incrementa cada día por la necesidad de conocer acerca de los efectos adversos, generados por estilos de vida y, en general, por la interacción del hombre con diferentes entornos. Muchos son los ejemplos actuales del empleo de biomarcadores en la medicina. Pueden ser usados para evaluar la presencia de cáncer y la progresión y monitoreo de los tratamientos. Técnicas físico-químicas o inmunoquímicas de alta sensibilidad han sido desarrolladas para la detección de concentraciones de carcinógenos en sangre u orina, tales como: arsénico, cadmio, cromo, níquel, benceno, bifenilos policlorados, tetracloroetileno, estireno. Otros ejemplos de biomarcadores

  8. Polyacrylamide grafted cellulose as an eco-friendly flocculant: Key factors optimization of flocculation to surfactant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of effluents from surfactant manufacturers is giving rise to increasingly serious environmental problems. In order to develop the eco-friendly flocculation materials to achieve effective removal of pollutants from the surfactant effluents, the bamboo pulp cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla is employed as the skeleton material to synthesize an eco-friendly bamboo pulp cellulose-g-polyacrylamide (BPC-g-PAM) for flocculation. The BPC-g-PAM is used with the metal ions as the coagulant to treat the effluent from a surfactant manufacturer. The response surface methodology coupled with Box-behnken design is employed to optimize the key factors of coagulation-flocculation. The results show that the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM achieves the best coagulation-flocculation performance like, the fast treatment time, minimum coagulant and BPC-g-PAM dosages compared with the other two combinations of Al(3+) with BPC-g-PAM and Ca(2+) with BPC-g-PAM. Therefore, the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM is expected to promote its application for the pollution control in the surfactant manufacturers.

  9. Myosin binding protein C:Structural abnormalities in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The muscle protein myosin binding protein C (MyBPC) is a large multi-domain protein whose role in the sarcomere is complex and not yet fully understood. Mutations in MyBPC are strongly associated with the heart disease familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and these experiments of nature have provided some insight into the intricate workings of this protein in the heart. While some regions of the MyBPC molecule have been assigned a function in the regulation of muscle contraction, the interaction of other regions with various parts of the myosin molecule and the sarcomeric proteins, actin and titin, remain obscure. In additic n, several intra-domain interactions between adjacent MyBPC molecules have been identified. Although the basic structure of the molecule (a series of immunoglobulin and fibronectin domains) has been elucidated, the assembly of MyBPC in the sarcomere is a topic for debate. By analysing the MyBPC sequence with respect to FHC-causing mutations it is possible to identify individual residues or regions of each domain that may be important either for binding or regulation. This review looks at the current literature, in concert with alignments and the structural models of MyBPC, in an attempt to understand how FHC mutations may lead to the disease state.

  10. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair.Keywords: mesoporous bioglass, polyamide, composite scaffolds, biocompatibility, bone repair

  11. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  12. A simple method for determining split renal function from dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scintigraphic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, Michal J.; Watson, Gage; Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Babyn, Paul [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Conrad, Gary R. [University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Lexington, KY (United States); Samal, Martin [Charles University Prague and the General University Hospital in Prague, Department of Nuclear Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Wesolowski, Carl A. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Commonly used methods for determining split renal function (SRF) from dynamic scintigraphic data require extrarenal background subtraction and additional correction for intrarenal vascular activity. The use of these additional regions of interest (ROIs) can produce inaccurate results and be challenging, e.g. if the heart is out of the camera field of view. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method for determining SRF called the blood pool compensation (BPC) technique, which is simple to implement, does not require extrarenal background correction and intrinsically corrects for intrarenal vascular activity. In the BPC method SRF is derived from a parametric plot of the curves generated by one blood-pool and two renal ROIs. Data from 107 patients who underwent {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy were used to determine SRF values. Values calculated using the BPC method were compared to those obtained with the integral (IN) and Patlak-Rutland (PR) techniques using Bland-Altman plotting and Passing-Bablok regression. The interobserver variability of the BPC technique was also assessed for two observers. The SRF values obtained with the BPC method did not differ significantly from those obtained with the PR method and showed no consistent bias, while SRF values obtained with the IN method showed significant differences with some bias in comparison to those obtained with either the PR or BPC method. No significant interobserver variability was found between two observers calculating SRF using the BPC method. The BPC method requires only three ROIs to produce reliable estimates of SRF, was simple to implement, and in this study yielded statistically equivalent results to the PR method with appreciable interobserver agreement. As such, it adds a new reliable method for quality control of monitoring relative kidney function. (orig.)

  13. Development and validation of a general non-digestive method for the determination of palladium in bulk pharmaceutical chemicals and their synthetic intermediates by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Walden, S; Egan, R

    1997-02-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive, accurate and relatively inexpensive method for the determination of palladium in bulk pharmaceutical chemicals (BPC) and their synthetic intermediates by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy has been developed and validated. Sample preparation by direct dissolution of sample in 70% nitric acid is simple and effective without adverse effects. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation of the method were determined to be 0.7 ppm and 2 ppm respectively in BPC.

  14. A photoaffinity analogue of discodermolide specifically labels a peptide in beta-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shujun; Kenesky, Craig S; Rucker, Paul V; Smith, Amos B; Orr, George A; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2006-10-01

    Discodermolide is a potentially important antitumor agent that stabilizes microtubules and blocks cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle in a manner similar to that of Taxol. Discodermolide also has unique properties that distinguish it from Taxol. In the present study, photoaffinity-labeled discodermolide analogues are used to investigate their binding site in tubulin. Three photoaffinity-labeled discodermolide analogues were synthesized, all of which promoted microtubule polymerization in the absence of GTP. The analogue, C19-[4-(4-(3)H-benzoyl-phenyl)-carbamate]-discodermolide (C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide), was selected for photolabeling studies because it had the highest extent of photoincorporation, approximately 1%, of the three radiolabeled discodermolide analogues explored. Although compared to discodermolide, C19-BPC-discodermolide revealed no hypernucleation effect in the in vitro microtubule polymerization assay, it was more cytotoxic than discodermolide, and, like discodermolide, demonstrated synergism with Taxol. These results suggest that the hypernucleation effect of discodermolide is not involved in its cytotoxic activity. Similar to discodermolide, C19-BPC-discodermolide can effectively displace [3H]Taxol from microtubules, but Taxol cannot effectively displace C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide binding. Discodermolide can effectively displace C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide binding. Formic acid hydrolysis, immunoprecipitation experiments, and subtilisin digestion indicate that C19-BPC-discodermolide labels amino acid residues 305-433 in beta-tubulin. Further digestion with Asp-N and Arg-C enzymes suggested that C19-BPC-discodermolide binds to amino acid residues, 355-359, in beta-tubulin, which is in close proximity to the Taxol binding site. Molecular modeling guided by the above evidence led to a putative binding model for C19-BPC-discodermolide in tubulin.

  15. An MSK Waveform for Radar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a minimum shift keying (MSK) waveform developed for use in radar applications. This waveform is characterized in terms of its spectrum, autocorrelation, and ambiguity function, and is compared with the conventionally used bi-phase coded (BPC) radar signal. It is shown that the MSK waveform has several advantages when compared with the BPC waveform, and is a better candidate for deep-space radar imaging systems such as NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar.

  16. Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla: An efficient and eco-friendly flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Hangcheng; Yao, Juming

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a synthesis process and flocculation characteristics of an eco-friendly flocculant based on bamboo pulp cellulose (BPC) from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Ployacrylamide (PAM) was grafted onto the BPC by free-radical graft copolymerization in homogeneous aqueous solution. The optimal synthesis conditions of the bamboo pulp cellulose-graft-ployacrylamide flocculant (BPC-g-PAM) and its performance on wastewater treatments were investigated. A UV-based method was used to rapidly determine the degree of substitution (DS) of BPC. The results showed that, under the optimal synthesis conditions, the obtained BPC-g-PAM held a grafting ratio of 43.8% and DS of 1.31. Turbidity removal of the product reached 98.0% accompanying with the significant flocculation and sedimentation in target suspensions. The flocculation mechanism was explored by means of zeta potential method. For negatively charged contaminants, like kaolin clay particles, the BPC-g-PAM could remove the contaminants efficiently via bridging and charge neutralization in acidic or neutral environment.

  17. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tonglie Huang,1,* Kuo Zhang,2,* Lijuan Sun,3 Xiaochang Xue,1 Cun Zhang,1 Zhen Shu,1 Nan Mu,1 Jintao Gu,1 Wangqian Zhang,1 Yukun Wang,1 Yingqi Zhang,1 Wei Zhang1 1State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, The Fourth Military Medical University, 2National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin–eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of

  18. A Chilean Berry Concentrate Protects against Postprandial Oxidative Stress and Increases Plasma Antioxidant Activity in Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Felipe; Echeverria, Guadalupe; Perez, Druso; Trejo, Sebastian; Leighton, Federico

    2017-01-01

    This study formulated and characterized an antioxidant-rich concentrate of berries (BPC-350) produced in Chile, which was used to perform a crossover study aimed at determining the effect of the berries on the modulation of plasma postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Healthy male volunteers (N = 11) were randomly assigned to three experimental meals: (1) 250 g of ground turkey burger (GTB) + 500 mL of water; (2) 250 g of GTB + 500 mL of 5% BPC-350; (3) 250 g of GTB prepared with 6% BPC-350 + 500 mL of 5% BPC-350. Venous blood samples were collected prior to meal intake and every hour for six hours after intake. Malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyls in proteins, and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) antioxidant capacity were quantified in plasma. Significant differences indicated that BPC-350 decreases MDA plasma concentration and protein carbonyls (p < 0.05). Additionally, a significant increase in the DPPH antioxidant capacity was observed in Meals 2 and 3 when compared to Meal 1 (p < 0.05). The results are discussed in terms of oxidative reactions that occur during digestion at the stomach level and the important effect of oxidative reactions that occur during the thermal processing of red meat. PMID:28243359

  19. A Chilean Berry Concentrate Protects against Postprandial Oxidative Stress and Increases Plasma Antioxidant Activity in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Urquiaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study formulated and characterized an antioxidant-rich concentrate of berries (BPC-350 produced in Chile, which was used to perform a crossover study aimed at determining the effect of the berries on the modulation of plasma postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Healthy male volunteers (N=11 were randomly assigned to three experimental meals: (1 250 g of ground turkey burger (GTB + 500 mL of water; (2 250 g of GTB + 500 mL of 5% BPC-350; (3 250 g of GTB prepared with 6% BPC-350 + 500 mL of 5% BPC-350. Venous blood samples were collected prior to meal intake and every hour for six hours after intake. Malondialdehyde (MDA, carbonyls in proteins, and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl antioxidant capacity were quantified in plasma. Significant differences indicated that BPC-350 decreases MDA plasma concentration and protein carbonyls (p<0.05. Additionally, a significant increase in the DPPH antioxidant capacity was observed in Meals 2 and 3 when compared to Meal 1 (p<0.05. The results are discussed in terms of oxidative reactions that occur during digestion at the stomach level and the important effect of oxidative reactions that occur during the thermal processing of red meat.

  20. Alanine zipper-like coiled-coil domains are necessary for homotypic dimerization of plant GAGA-factors in the nucleus and nucleolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierk Wanke

    Full Text Available GAGA-motif binding proteins control transcriptional activation or repression of homeotic genes. Interestingly, there are no sequence similarities between animal and plant proteins. Plant BBR/BPC-proteins can be classified into two distinct groups: Previous studies have elaborated on group I members only and so little is known about group II proteins. Here, we focused on the initial characterization of AtBPC6, a group II protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. Comparison of orthologous BBR/BPC sequences disclosed two conserved signatures besides the DNA binding domain. A first peptide signature is essential and sufficient to target AtBPC6-GFP to the nucleus and nucleolus. A second domain is predicted to form a zipper-like coiled-coil structure. This novel type of domain is similar to Leucine zippers, but contains invariant alanine residues with a heptad spacing of 7 amino acids. By yeast-2-hybrid and BiFC-assays we could show that this Alanine zipper domain is essential for homotypic dimerization of group II proteins in vivo. Interhelical salt bridges and charge-stabilized hydrogen bonds between acidic and basic residues of the two monomers are predicted to form an interaction domain, which does not follow the classical knobs-into-holes zipper model. FRET-FLIM analysis of GFP/RFP-hybrid fusion proteins validates the formation of parallel dimers in planta. Sequence comparison uncovered that this type of domain is not restricted to BBR/BPC proteins, but is found in all kingdoms.

  1. Fractal characteristics for binary noise radar waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing C.

    2016-05-01

    Noise radars have many advantages over conventional radars and receive great attentions recently. The performance of a noise radar is determined by its waveforms. Investigating characteristics of noise radar waveforms has significant value for evaluating noise radar performance. In this paper, we use binomial distribution theory to analyze general characteristics of binary phase coded (BPC) noise waveforms. Focusing on aperiodic autocorrelation function, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of sidelobes for a BPC noise waveform depend on the distances of these sidelobes to the mainlobe. The closer a sidelobe to the mainlobe, the higher the probability for this sidelobe to be a maximum sidelobe. We also develop Monte Carlo framework to explore the characteristics that are difficult to investigate analytically. Through Monte Carlo experiments, we reveal the Fractal relationship between the code length and the maximum sidelobe value for BPC waveforms, and propose using fractal dimension to measure noise waveform performance.

  2. Social assistance and disability in Brazil: the reflection of the international debate of the rights of people with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the debate on the social model of disability has influenced conceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001 and adopted in Brazil in 2007, through the law of the Continuous Cash Benefit. The BPC is a major social policy of income transfer to poor disabled people, affecting over one million and half disabled people in the country. Since 2009, the evaluation of persons with disabilities for the BPC will make by medical and social skills targeted by ICF. Will be demonstrated that, although the adoption of the ICF maybe to represent regard to how to understand disability as social inequality, the adoption of the ICF by the law of the BPC will face challenges in ensuring the right to dignity of disabled people.

  3. Design and evaluation of hydraulic baffled-channel PAC contactor for taste and odor removal from drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Bae, Byung-Uk

    2007-05-01

    Based on the concept of hydraulic flocculator, a baffled-channel powdered activated carbon (PAC) contactor, placed before the rapid-mixing basin, was designed and evaluated for removal of taste and odor (T&O) in drinking water. PAC adsorption kinetic tests for raw water samples were conducted for selection of design parameters related to contact time and degree of mixing. Within the tested range of velocity gradient (G) from 18 to 83s(-1), mixing had a relatively minor effect on the adsorption kinetics of the PAC. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the pilot-scale horizontally and vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor were investigated by tracer tests. It was found that the plug flow fractions of vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor (vBPC) were higher than those of the horizontally baffled-channel PAC contactor (hBPC) for the same bend width or bend height. However, the hBPC seems to be more appropriate than the vBPC in terms of construction and maintenance. The geosmin and MIB removal rate increased with the number of baffles, PAC dose and contact time increased regardless of bend width in the pilot-scale hBPC. The pair of full-scale hBPCs at Pohang water treatment plant, having a design capacity of 6.5x10(4)m(3)/d with 20min of hydraulic retention time with a safety factor of 2, was designed based on lab- and pilot-scale experimental results. Under a velocity gradient of 20s(-1), the number of baffles to be installed was calculated to be 20 with a space of about 2m between each baffle, resulting in a hydraulic head loss through the contactor of about 0.056m. The successful application of hBPC for T&O removal from drinking water supplies should provide momentum for developing more effective treatment methods.

  4. Differential modulation of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function by cytisine, varenicline, and two novel bispidine compounds: emergent properties of a hybrid molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Can; Stokes, Clare; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R; Tian, Chengju; Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Guendisch, Daniela; Papke, Roger L

    2013-11-01

    Partial agonist therapies for the treatment of nicotine addiction and dependence depend on both agonistic and antagonistic effects of the ligands, and side effects associated with other nAChRs greatly limit the efficacy of nicotinic partial agonists. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacological properties of four partial agonists, two current smoking cessation drugs, varenicline and cytisine, and two novel bispidine compounds, BPC and BMSP, by using defined nAChR subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Similar to varenicline and cytisine, BPC and BMSP are partial agonists of α4β2 nAChRs, although BMSP produced very little activation of these receptors. Unlike varenicline and cytisine, BPC and BMSP showed desired low activity. BPC produced mecamylamine-sensitive steady-state activation of α4* receptors that was not evident with BMSP. We evaluated the modulation of α4*- and α7-mediated responses in rat lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons and hippocampal stratum radiatum (SR) interneurons, respectively. The LGN neurons were sensitive to a very low concentration of varenicline, and the SR interneuron responses were also sensitive to varenicline at a submicromolar concentration. Although 300 nM BPC strongly inhibited the ACh-evoked responses of LGN neurons, it did not inhibit the α7 currents of SR interneurons. Similar results were observed with 300 nM BMSP. Additionally, the bispidine compounds were efficacious in the mouse tail suspension test, demonstrating that they affect receptors in the brain when delivered systemically. Our data indicate that BPC and BMSP are promising α4β2* partial agonists for pharmacotherapeutics.

  5. Declining trends in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection by birth-year in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Ashida, Chieko; Tajima, Kazuo; Katoh, Hisato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Gastric cancer incidence and mortality have been decreasing in Japan. These decreases are likely due to a decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to characterize the trends in prevalence of H. pylori infection focused on birth-year. We carried out a cross-sectional study that included 4285 subjects who were born from 1926 to 1989. We defined H. pylori infection by the serum H. pylori antibody titer. Individuals having H. pylori infection and those with negative H. pylori antibody titer and positive pepsinogen test were defined as high-risk individuals for gastric cancer. We estimated the birth-year percent change (BPC) of the prevalence by Joinpoint regression analysis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among the subjects born from 1927 to 1949 decreased from 54.0% to 42.0% with a BPC of -1.2%. It was followed by a rapid decline in those born between 1949 (42.0%) and 1961 (24.0%) with a BPC of -4.5%, which was followed by those born between 1961 (24.0%) and 1988 (14.0%) with a BPC of -2.1%. The proportion of high-risk individuals for gastric cancer among the subjects born from 1927 to 1942 decreased from 62.0% to 55.0% with a BPC of -0.8%. A subsequent rapid declining trend was observed in those born between 1942 (55.0%) and 1972 (18.0%) with a BPC of -3.6%, and then it became stable. These remarkable declining trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection by birth-year would be useful to predict the future trend in gastric cancer incidence in Japan.

  6. Recombinant human thrombopoietin is an effective treatment for thrombocytopenia in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yini; Wang, Zhao; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Jingshi; Yan, Lijuan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) by recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO). A prospective randomized study was conducted between March 2010 and December 2011 in 40 patients with adult HLH whose blood platelet counts (BPC) were lower than 40 × 10(9)/L. The 40 patients were randomly assigned into the rhTPO group or control group based on sex, age, primary disease, and BPC (20 in each group). All patients were given conventional systemic therapy for HLH. The rhTPO group was administered by subcutaneous injection of rhTPO at a dose of 300 IU/kg Qd. The BPC, platelet transfusion, bleeding, and survival rate in the two groups were monitored and compared. There was no significant difference in BPC between the two groups before the treatment. Two weeks after the treatment, the BPC of the rhTPO group was significantly higher than that of the control group at every time point (P rhTPO group and control group, however, the number of patients presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, urinary tract bleeding, and pulmonary bleeding in the control group were higher than that in the rhTPO group (P = 0.013). The frequency of platelet transfusion in the control group (7.25 per patient, 145 in 19 patients) was significantly higher than that in the rhTPO group (2.25 per patient, 45 in 14 patients) (P rhTPO groups was shorter than that in the control group (the rhTPO group vs the control group: 13.43 ± 4.62 D vs 18.00 ± 3.98 D, P = 0.013). In the early stage of HLH treatment, rhTPO combined with conventional systemic therapy can restore the BPC to normal level within a shorter period of time, reduce the frequency of platelet transfusion and severe bleeding.

  7. Response assessment of NovoTTF-100A versus best physician's choice chemotherapy in recurrent glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric T; Lok, Edwin; Swanson, Kenneth D; Gautam, Shiva; Engelhard, Herbert H; Lieberman, Frank; Taillibert, Sophie; Ram, Zvi; Villano, John L

    2014-01-01

    The NovoTTF-100A device emits frequency-tuned alternating electric fields that interfere with tumor cell mitosis. In phase III trial for recurrent glioblastomas, NovoTTF-100A was shown to have equivalent efficacy and less toxicity when compared to Best Physician's Choice (BPC) chemotherapy. We analyzed the characteristics of responders and nonresponders in both cohorts to determine the characteristics of response and potential predictive factors. Tumor response and progression were determined by Macdonald criteria. Time to response, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS) ± Simon–Makuch correction, overall survival (OS), prognostic factors, and relative hazard rates were compared between responders and nonresponders. Median response duration was 7.3 versus 5.6 months for NovoTTF-100A and BPC chemotherapy, respectively (P = 0.0009). Five of 14 NovoTTF-100A responders but none of seven BPC responders had prior low-grade histology. Mean cumulative dexamethasone dose was 35.9 mg for responders versus 485.6 mg for nonresponders in the NovoTTF-100A cohort (P Makuch-adjusted PFS was longer in responders than in nonresponders treated with NovoTTF-100A (P = 0.0007) or BPC chemotherapy (P = 0.0222). Median OS was longer for responders than nonresponders treated with NovoTTF-100A (P < 0.0001) and BPC chemotherapy (P = 0.0235). Pearson analysis showed strong correlation between response and OS in NovoTTF-100A (P = 0.0002) but not in BPC cohort (P = 0.2900). Our results indicate that the response characteristics favor NovoTTF-100A and data on prior low-grade histology and dexamethasone suggest potential genetic and epigenetic determinants of NovoTTF-100A response. PMID:24574359

  8. Automatic Identification System (AIS) Collection and Reach-back System: System Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-20

    Supply Module ( PSM ) is shown in Fig. 14; specification highlights are listed below. The RPC and BPC use the same model PSM . • Manufacturer: WinSystems Inc...bit PC/104 Bus ACRBS 13 Fig. 14 — WinSystems PCM-DC/DC PSM 3.2.3.3 GPS Receiver Module The GPS receiver module is shown in Fig. 15; specification...as the RPC; it is described in Section 3.2.3.1. 3.3.3.2 Power Supply Module The BPC uses the same model PSM as the RPC; it is described in Section

  9. Leveraging Effectual Means through Business Plan Competition Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores whether the business plan competition (BPC), as a classically causational mechanism for extracurricular entrepreneurship education, can facilitate the development of the means that underpin an effectual approach to new venture creation. In-depth, open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in a regional…

  10. Applying Service Learning to Computer Science: Attracting and Engaging Under-Represented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Bean, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a computer science course that uses service learning as a vehicle to accomplish a range of pedagogical and BPC (broadening participation in computing) goals: (1) to attract a diverse group of students and engage them in outreach to younger students to help build a diverse computer science pipeline, (2) to develop leadership…

  11. Special Operations Liaison Officer: Looking Back to See the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    for Intelligence ASI additional skill identifier BA Bachelor of Arts BPC building partner capacity CA civil affairs CDR Commander COA...Consensus, Solve Problems, and Make Decisions (San Francisco , CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002), 40, Kindle Edition. 10...plans and approved all staff agreements for the new program. Additional skill identifiers ( ASIs ) were used as personnel 59 Brad Plumer, “America’s

  12. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GENETIC EROSION IN THE PROCESS OF EXTINCTION .4. INBREEDING DEPRESSION AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS CAUSED BY SELFING AND OUTCROSSING IN SCABIOSA-COLUMBARIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; OUBORG, NJ; VANDELDEN, W

    1993-01-01

    The effects of self-fertilization, within-population crosses (WPC) and between-population crosses (BPC) on progeny fitness were investigated in the greenhouse for Scabiosa columbaria populations of varying size. Plants grown from field collected seeds were hand pollinated to produce selfed, WPC, and

  13. Photovoltaic Design Integration at Battery Park City, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Medio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the photovoltaic (PV systems in the buildings’ design of the Battery Park City (BPC residential development, in New York. The BPC development is the first in the US to mandate, through the 2000 Battery Park City Authority (BPCA guidelines, the use of PV as a renewable energy generation system in its individual buildings. The scope of this study is to show how PV is integrated in the BPC buildings’ design process, and what can be learned for future PV applications. The study draws directly from the design decision making sources, investigating on the concerns and suggestions of the BPCA director of sustainability and the BPC architects and PV installers. It attempts to contrast a theoretical approach that sees PV as a technology to domesticate in architecture and bring, through grounded research, PV industry closer to the architectural design process. The findings of the study suggest that while stringent environmental mandates help, in the short term, to kick-start the use of PV systems in buildings, it is the recognition of the PV’s primary role as energy provider, its assimilation in the building industry, and its use in a less confining building program that allows for its evolution in architecture.

  14. Choosing to Win: How Sof Can Better Select Partners for Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the conduct of BPC, and useful traits for desirable partners.63 The analysis from the report produces the following findings: 1. Matching matters...0.37 19 Benin BEN BN AFRICOM 0.37 105 Malawi MWI MI AFRICOM 0.37 98 Liberia LBR LI AFRICOM 0.37 42 Cote d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) CIV IV AFRICOM 0.37

  15. The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional…

  16. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  17. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  18. Kinetics of photochemical reactions of biphotochromic compounds based on spironaphthopyran and enamine--conjugation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Peter P; Tatikolov, Alexander S; Zaichenko, Natalia L; Shienok, Andrey I; Koltsova, Liubov S; Sherbakova, Irina M; Mardaleishvili, Irina R; Berlin, Alexander A

    2016-03-01

    A novel biphotochromic compound (BPC) with two photochromic fragments, namely spironaphthopyran and hydroxyazomethine, was synthesized and studied by nanosecond laser flash photolysis using the excitation wavelengths of 337, 430, 470 and 500 nm in methanol and toluene. The photoexcitation of BPC results in the formation of at least two colored transients. The first one is the merocyanine form B (the maximum in the absorption spectrum is near 600 nm and the lifetime is 0.1 and 0.05 s in methanol and toluene, respectively) due to the spiro-bond break followed by isomerization. The second one is the trans-keto form A(Kt) (the maximum in the absorption spectra is near 480 nm and the lifetime is 0.1 and 5 ms in methanol and toluene, respectively) as a result of cis-enol or cis-keto tautomer transformations. The relative yields of B and A(Kt) depends essentially on the wavelength of excitation. The form A(Kt) is the key transient formed under excitation with the visible light, whereas its yield under excitation with UV light is comparable with that of B. The specific solvation by methanol molecules favors the spirocycle opening even under visible light excitation. The results obtained for novel BPC were compared with those for other BPC where the same fragments are combined in such a way that the form B is the major one under excitation with UV light whereas it virtually is not observed under visible light excitation. The difference in both BPC is discussed in terms of conjugation (π-coupling) between photochromic fragments.

  19. Reductions in child obesity among disadvantaged school children with community involvement: the Travis County CATCH Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Springer, Andrew E; Ranjit, Nalini; Perry, Cheryl L; Evans, Alexandra E; Stigler, Melissa; Kelder, Steven H

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the impact of two intervention approaches on the prevalence of child overweight and obesity: (i) Coordinated Approach To Child Health BasicPlus (CATCH BP), in which schools were provided evidence-based coordinated school health program training, materials, and facilitator support visits, and (ii) CATCH BP and Community (BPC), in which BP schools received additional promotion of community partnerships with the aim of integrating community members and organizations into schools, local decision making and action, and best practices workshops. Schools (n = 97) in four central Texas districts were recruited to participate in the 4-year project. Of the low-income schools (n = 58), 15 schools were selected to receive the BPC intervention and matched with 15 schools in the BP condition. A serial cross-sectional design was used, in which 4th grade student BMI, physical activity, and diet were assessed in the 30 schools in spring 2007 and 2008. Measurements in spring 2007 included 1,107 students, with 53% female; 61% Hispanic, and 14% African American; and mean age of 9.9 years. Adjusted prevalence of overweight/obesity (>or=85th percentile) was 42.0 and 47.4% in spring 2007 for the BP and BPC students, respectively. From spring 2007 to spring 2008, the percent of students classified as overweight/obese decreased by 1.3 percentage points (P = 0.33) in BP schools, compared to a decrease of 8.3 percentage points (P < 0.005) in students from BPC schools; the difference between conditions was significant (P = 0.05). CATCH BPC students also reported more positive trends in related behaviors. Implementation of a community-enhanced school program can be effective in reducing the prevalence of child overweight in low-income student populations.

  20. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling.

  1. Bare platinum coils vs. HydroCoil in the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms—A single center randomized controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech, E-mail: wponcyl@poczta.onet.pl [Departament of Interventional Radiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Neurointerventional Cath Lab MSW Hospital, Al. Powst. Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Zarzycki, Artur, E-mail: arturzarzycki@o2.pl [Department of Neurosurgery and Pediatric Neurosurgery, Pomeranian Medical University, Unii Lubelskiej 1, 71-242 Szczecin Poland (Poland); Zwarzany, Łukasz, E-mail: zwarzany@gmail.com [Departament of Interventional Radiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Neurointerventional Cath Lab MSW Hospital, Al. Powst. Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Burke, Thomas H., E-mail: tom.burke@microvention.com [Microvention–Terumo, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of HydroCoil tends to improve immediate angiographic outcome. • Less total number of coils is needed when using HydroCoil. • HydroCoil is equivocal to bare platinum coil. - Abstract: Purpose: The HydroCoil Embolic System (HES) was developed to improve aneurysm filling to provide superior occlusion efficacy, reduce retreatment rates and enhance long-term durability. We performed a randomized clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of bare platinum coils (BPC) vs. HES for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Ninety-six patients underwent endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The aneurysms were randomized equally to receive BPC or HES. Immediate angiographic results, number of coils used and complications were evaluated and all cases had 12-month follow-up angiography. Results: Immediate angiographic results demonstrated that 84.0% of aneurysms treated with HES were completely occluded compared to 76.1% of aneurysms treated with BPC (p = 0.3310). The mean number of coils utilized to fill the aneurysm was significantly lower in the HES arm (5.04 vs. 6.93). Additional adjunctive techniques were performed in 51.1% of all cases. There were seven patients (7.3%) with postoperative complications during the study period. The coil type used during the treatment did not demonstrate any significant differences on the overall recurrence rate (HES – 18.0%, BPC – 17.4%, p = 0.9712). There was a statistically significant difference in the aneurysm size and the neck width between completely occluded aneurysms and aneurysms with residual flow in both immediate angiographic and mid-term follow-up. Conclusions: Overall, aneurysm size and neck width are the main risk factors associated with aneurysm recurrence. HES compared to BPC required less total number of coils to provide a denser aneurysm filling. However, there were equivocal results with both devices, at the mid-term angiographic follow-up.

  2. Aplicación de la teoría de las perturbaciones al befenilo y a las fenilpiridinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ewert S.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la perturbación introducida en el Bifenilo por la torsión de la molécula alrededor del eje principal, calculamos, según la aproximación de Húckel, la energía de la banda principal de este compuesto ensolución en el n.heptano, utilizando los valores exprimentales de X max para esta banda en el estado sólido, en solución y en el estado vapor. Los valores de los coeficientes de Hüekel que resultan del cálculo anterior, permiten a su turno la obtención de la energía de transición de la misma banda para la orto, la meta y la parafenilpiridina. La posición relativa de X max corresponde a los desplazamientos observadospara estos compuestos.

  3. Black point compensation and its influence on image appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub Novaković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Black point compensation (BPC is a feature developed by the Adobe company in order to address the problem causedby differences between the darkest level of black achievable on input and output devices and it’s not a part of ICCspecifications. If it’s turned on – black colour of input device will be mapped into the black colour of an output device;if it’s not – mapping will be performed regarding the rendering intents. By default this option is turned on, which isa good solution in most cases. The aim of the work is to accurately define when black point compensation should beactivated, and when not, and also to investigate influence of different colour management modules on colours allocationafter conversions, in accordance to their psychophysical values. Regarding theoretical background and results ofexperimental part of this work conclusions about BPC usability are carried out.

  4. A sub nrad beam pointing monitoring and stabilization system for controlling input beam jitter in GW interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Canuel, Benjamin; Mantovani, Maddalena; Marque, Julien; Ruggi, Paolo; Tacca, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a simple and very effective control system to monitor and suppress the beam jitter noise at the input of an optical system, called Beam Pointing Control (BPC) system, will be described showing the theoretical principle and an experimental demonstration for the application of large scale gravitational wave interferometers, in particular for the Advanced Virgo detector. For this purpose the requirements for the control accuracy and the sensing noise will be computed by taking into account the Advanced Virgo optical configuration and the outcomes will be compared with the experimental measurement obtained in the laboratory. The system has shown unprecedented performance in terms of control accuracy and sensing noise. The BPC system has achieved a control accuracy of ~ $10^{-8}$ rad for the tilt and ~ $10^{-7}$ m for the shift and a sensing noise of less than 1 nrad/$\\sqrt{Hz}$ resulting compliant with the Advance Virgo gravitational wave interferometer requirements.

  5. Effect of Soil Drought on C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Activities of Flag Leaf and Ear in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ai-li; WANG Zhi-min; ZHAI Zhi-xi; GONG Yuan-shi

    2003-01-01

    The activities of RuBPC and C4 photosynthetic enzymes in ear and flag leaf blade were examinedin wheat. The results showed that photosynthesis of ear was less sensitive to soil drought than that of flag leaf,and decrease of CO2 assimilation in flag leaf blade with water stress was more than that in ear. Compared withflag leaf, ear organs(awn, glume and lemma) had higher C4 enzyme activities and lower RuBPC activity. Un-der moderate water-stress, the increase of C4 enzyme activities was induced, and the increase was higher in earthan in flag leaf. Under severe water-stress, relatively higher C4 enzyme activities were still maintained in ear,rather than that in flag leaf. It suggests that high activities of C4 enzymes in ear may contribute to its high tol-erance of photosynthesis to water-stress.

  6. Uma metodologia para explicar diferenças entre dados administrativos e pesquisas amostrais, com aplicação para o Bolsa Família e o Benefício de Prestação Continuada na PNAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimativas feitas com base em pesquisas domiciliares amostrais muitas vezes diferem bastante dos dados administrativos. Nas PNADs, o número estimado de beneficiários do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF e do Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC é sempre bem inferior ao número oficial. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma metodologia simples, baseada nas características do desenho amostral das pesquisas domiciliares, para explicar essa diferença, decompondo-a em três termos: o viés de representatividade (derivado da escolha dos locais, áreas censitárias ou municípios para a pesquisa; o viés de captação (decorrente de problemas de captação nos locais selecionados; e a interação entre ambos. A aplicação dessa metodologia ao PBF e ao BPC mostra que, no primeiro caso, o viés de representatividade explica boa parte do problema: a seleção de municípios pesquisados é responsável por 40% da diferença observada entre os dados oficiais e os da PNAD. No caso do BPC, o viés de representatividade tenderia a agir no sentido oposto. Portanto, o viés de captação é inteiramente responsável pela diferença observada. Além disso, a declaração equivocada do BPC como benefício previdenciário na PNAD parece ocorrer, sobretudo, no período anterior a 2004 e não explica inteiramente o pequeno número de beneficiários identificados nas PNADs.

  7. Role of the U.S. Military in the Professionalization of the Armed Forces of Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    efforts resides in the culture of professionalism. This culture brings together soldiers from different backgrounds and social divides, and gives...to thank my beautiful wife, Elizabeth. You are an amazing wife and mother. I realize during the hours I spent at the desk reading and writing, you...of Effort (LOE) and examines specific ways that the U.S. military accomplishes the end states of BPC in different environments. Finally, this

  8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE MULTI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS,POLY[1,6-BIS(4-OXYBENZOYL-OXY)HEXANE TEREPHTHALATE]-b-BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Zhang; Xiong-yan Zhao; De-shan Liu; Qi-xiang Zhou

    1999-01-01

    A series of liquid crystalline multi-block copolymers poly[1,6-bis(4-oxybenzoyl-oxy)hexane terephthalate]-b-bisphenol A polycarbonate (PHTH-6-b-PC) with different segment lengths were synthesized in tetrachloroethane by solution polycondensation in which hydroxyl terminated PC and acyl chloride terminated PHTH-6 were used. It is found that block copolymers with high molecular weight and welldefined structures were obtained. All the block copolymers exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline texture.

  9. Partners of Choice and Necessity: Special Operations Forces and the National Security Imperatives of Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    partner with or leverage the commitment of assets by conventional forces to achieve the desired state of BPC?” Because the focus of this monograph...remarkable first, for its cognitive recognition that this phase 0 campaign was about warfare, and second, for its application of UW against a non...Afghanistan “wars,” but demonstrated significant resolve in a phase 0 conflict. One of the best outcomes of this effort is the intangible result

  10. Fractionation and Characterization of Brewers' Spent Grain Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Celus, Inge; BRIJS, Kristof; Delcour, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates with a low and high degree of hydrolysis were enzymatically produced from brewers' spent grain (BSG), the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort in the production of beer. To that end, BSG protein concentrate (BPC), prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation, was enzymatically hydrolyzed with Alcalase during both 1.7 and 120 min. Because these hydrolysates contained many different peptides, fractionation of th...

  11. Polyoxomolybdate Bisphosphonate Heterometallic Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Activity on a Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ali; Zhu, Wei; Rousseau, Guillaume; Mialane, Pierre; Marrot, Jérôme; Haouas, Mohamed; Taulelle, Francis; Dessapt, Rémi; Serier-Brault, Hélène; Rivière, Eric; Kubo, Tadahiko; Oldfield, Eric; Dolbecq, Anne

    2015-07-13

    Six polyoxometalates containing Mn(II) , Mn(III) , or Fe(III) as the heteroelement were synthesized in water by treating Mo(VI) precursors with biologically active bisphosphonates (alendronate (Ale), zoledronate (Zol), an n-alkyl bisphosphonate (BPC9 ), an aminoalkyl bisphosphonate (BPC8 NH2 )) in the presence of additional metal ions. The Pt complex was synthesized from a polyoxomolybdate bisphosphonate precursor with Mo(VI) ions linked by the 2-pyridyl analogue of alendronate (AlePy). The complexes Mo4 Ale2 Mn, Mo4 Zol2 Mn, Mo4 Ale2 Fe, Mo4 Zol2 Fe, Mo4 (BPC8 NH2 )2 Fe, and Mo4 (BPC9 )2 Fe contain two dinuclear Mo(VI) cores bound to a central heterometallic ion. The oxidation state of manganese was determined by magnetic measurements. Complexes Mo12 (AlePy)4 and Mo12 (AlePy)4 Pt4 were studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and the photochromic properties were investigated in the solid state; both methods confirmed the complexation of Pt. Activity against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 was determined and the most potent compound was Mn(III) -containing Mo4 Zol2 Mn (IC50 ≈1.3 μM). Unlike results obtained with vanadium-containing polyoxometalate bisphosphonates, cell growth inhibition was rescued by the addition of geranylgeraniol, which reverses the effects of bisphosphonates on isoprenoid biosynthesis/protein prenylation. The results indicate an important role for both the heterometallic element and the bisphosphonate ligand in the mechanism of action of the most active compounds.

  12. CHIPS. Volume 27, Number 2, April-June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    food quality or taste. As you would expect, the galley serves tradi- tional French cuisine . Gaillard explained that BPC ships com- ply with MARPOL...Air Corps commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Ha- waii at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Dec...7, 1941. Based on prevailing belief that local Japanese sympathizers were a greater threat than a Japanese air attack, Short made, what was

  13. TOMAS DE CONTROL EN EL MUNDO Y BENEFICIOS PRIVADOS DEL CONTROL BAJO LAS DISTINTAS REGULACIONES VIGENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Patricia Jurfest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisa la regulación sobre transferencias de control vigente en el mundo y encontramos evidencia de que a nivel global la legislación está con - vergiendo desde la regla de mercado ( MR , por sus siglas en inglés hacia la regla de igualdad de oportunidad ( EOR , por sus siglas en inglés. La literatura sobre la racionalidad económica de estas reglas muestra que los beneficios privados del con - trol ( BPC afectan los cambios de control; en particular, la EOR tiene el potencial de bloquear transferencias ineficientes aunque también de ralentizar la actividad del mercado del control. Jurfest, Paredes y Riutort (2015 proponen un modelo que permite estimar los BPC bajo las distintas regulaciones, tomando como caso especial el conocido modelo del Block Premium de Barclay y Holderness (1989 y Dyck y Zingales (2004. Asimismo, se ilustra la aplicabilidad y consistencia de este modelo para estimar los BPC en los diferentes regímenes regulatorios vigentes y bajo distri - buciones alternativas del poder de negociación del vendedor del control.

  14. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here.

  15. Catalytic water oxidation by mononuclear Ru complexes with an anionic ancillary ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lianpeng; Inge, A Ken; Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Zou, Xiaodong; Sun, Licheng

    2013-03-04

    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru(II)(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(II)(bpc)(pic)3](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce(IV) as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce(IV) was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra.

  16. ОСОБЛИВОСТІ СПІВПРАЦІ КОРПУСУ ОХОРОНИ ПРИКОРДОННЯ З ОРГАНАМИ ДЕРЖАВНОЇ ВЛАДИ РЕЧІ ПОСПОЛИТОЇ НА ТЕРИТОРІЇ ВОЛИНСЬКОГО ВОЄВОДСТВА у 1924 –1939 рр.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Бортник

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The features of cooperation between Border Protection Corps (BPC and state authorities on the territory of Volhynian Voivodeship are analyzed in this article. This cooperation embraces a brigade of BPC «Wolhyn», the public administrations authorities of the first and the second instance, security services. It concerns border protection issues, security and public order protection on the territory of boundary. The most effective form of cooperation were the conferences deal with the border security between Border Protection Corps and public administration. The purpose of conferences was the mutual coordination activities, the installation of general principles of cooperation. The maim subjects of conferences were: border zone placing (building telecommunicatios networks and organization of cooperation programs of general government administration with Border Protection Corps in this regard; confusions in jurisdiction between the administrative authorities, State Police and BPC; strengthening of the border control at the appropriate border areas ; mutual exchange of information and observations about the situation in the border; activity coordination in the areas of border patrols, criminality fighting with border crimes etc.

  17. Impact of Nitrification on the Formation of N-Nitrosamines and Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts within Distribution System Storage Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-03-15

    Distribution system storage facilities are a critical, yet often overlooked, component of the urban water infrastructure. This study showed elevated concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), total N-nitrosamines (TONO), regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetamides (HAMs) in waters with ongoing nitrification as compared to non-nitrifying waters in storage facilities within five different chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. The concentrations of NDMA, TONO, HANs, and HAMs in the nitrifying waters further increased upon application of simulated distribution system chloramination. The addition of a nitrifying biofilm sample collected from a nitrifying facility to its non-nitrifying influent water led to increases in N-nitrosamine and halogenated DBP formation, suggesting the release of precursors from nitrifying biofilms. Periodic treatment of two nitrifying facilities with breakpoint chlorination (BPC) temporarily suppressed nitrification and reduced precursor levels for N-nitrosamines, HANs, and HAMs, as reflected by lower concentrations of these DBPs measured after re-establishment of a chloramine residual within the facilities than prior to the BPC treatment. However, BPC promoted the formation of halogenated DBPs while a free chlorine residual was maintained. Strategies that minimize application of free chlorine while preventing nitrification are needed to control DBP precursor release in storage facilities.

  18. A Genome-wide Pleiotropy Scan for Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Siddiq, Afshan; Papatheodorou, Stefania I.; Stanford, Janet L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Overvad, Kim; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Le Marchand, Loic; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hunter, DavidJ.; Koutros, Stella; Yeager, Meredith; Hoover, Robert N.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Wacholder, Sholom; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2014-01-01

    Background No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Objective To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Design, setting, and participants SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p ≤ 10−7) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24 534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated. Results and limitations A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p = 1.6 × 10-6), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95%CI 1.16–1.27; p = 3.22 × 10−18). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86–0.94; p = 2.5 × 10−6). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12,95% CI 1.06–1.19; p = 4.67 × 10−5); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL. Conclusions We did

  19. 小儿继发性血小板增多症537例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 537 cases of secondary thrombocytosis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘智军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the incidence, causes and prognosis of secondary thrombocytosis in children. Methods The blood platelet count (BPC) of 6167 cases in hospital were detected, and the patients whose BPC were more than 400 × 109/L should be double checked next day. The mean of BPC were analyzed combined with clinical data. Results BPC in 537 cases were more than 400 × 109/L.The incidence was 8.71% and the ratio of male and female was 1.62: 1. Three hundred and fifty one children (65.4%) were younger than 3 years old. Among them, the BPC was higher in infants and younger children than in older children (P < 0. 01 ). Infection was the main cause. Acute inflammation accounted for 74. 2% in children younger than 6 years old, and 61.0% in those older than 6 years old.The platelets count returned normal in 2 - 51 days with a mean of ( 15.0 ± 5.3 ) days. There were no hemorrhage, thrombopoiesis, and any other complications in heart and nervous system. Conclusion Secondary thrombocytosis was not very common, which was mainly related to infection and inflammation with favourable prognosis.%目的 探讨小儿继发性血小板增多症的发病情况、病因及预后.方法 对6167例住院患儿采用全自动血细胞计数仪检测血小板数量,对血小板计数≥400×109/者次日重检1次,取其均值,结合临床资料进行比较分析.结果血小板计数≥400×109/L者537例,占8.71%,男与女比例为1.62∶1.以婴幼儿为主,≤3岁351例,占65.4%.感染为主要病因,血小板计数在2~51 d内恢复正常,平均(15.0±5.3)d,病程中未发生出血、血栓形成及心脏、神经系统等并发症.结论 小儿继发性血小板增多症较为常见,主要与感染相关,预后好.

  20. THE ROLE OF CHRONIC POLYPOID RHINOSINUSITIS IN OCCURRENCE OF MALIGNANT EPITHELIAL TUMORS OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES AND THE NASAL CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vereshchagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of occurrence of malignant epithelial tumors of the nasal cavity (NC and the paranasal sinuses (PNS is noted. Absolute majority of patients come for treatment with the III and the IV stage of the disease. No trend for decreasing of the untreatedness parameter is observed. Increasing of the efficiency of treatment of patients with cancer depends on timely diagnostics. The main reason of late diagnostics is insufficient oncological alertness of doctors in polyclinics. The issues of therapy tactics at the stage of pre-tumor diseases of the NC and the PNS remain unsolved, while background process that precede development of cancer are morphologically revealed with 56.7 % of patients. One of the most frequently occurred background development processes of the NC and the PNS cancer is chronic polypoid rhinosinusitis (CPR. The degree of occurrence of CPR is high, and the annual growth of its incidence by 2 to 4 % has been observed for the previous 10 years. There are only certain works that view CPR as a pre-cancer disease.The objective of the study is improvement of results of early diagnostics of cancer and optimization of the surgical tactics with pre-cancer diseases of the upper jaw and the PNS.Materials and methods. Retrospective and prospective clinical and morphological analysis of data of 58 patients with benign polypous changes (BPC and of 182 patients with malignant epithelial tumors (MET  of the NC and the PNS treated at the Arkhangelsk Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary from 1980 to 2010 has been performed.Results and discussion The maximum number of patients in both groups is at the age category from 40 to 59 years. Besides, the average age of patients with the BPC was lower than that of the patients with the MET (45.6 ± 2.3 and 54.0 ± 1.5 years old, respectively.Patients of working age prevailed both in the group with the BPC and the group with the MET of the NC and the PNS (19.0 / 81.0 % and 39.6 / 62.1 %, respectively

  1. 近2ka以来东海内陆架泥质区记录的高分辨率古气候演化%Recent 2 000 a climatic record of mud area on the inner shelf of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘升发; 石学法; 刘焱光; 吴永华; 乔淑卿; 杨刚

    2011-01-01

    通过对位于东海内陆架泥质区中部的MZ02柱样岩芯进行粒度、常量元素、AMS14C分析,获得了粒度和常量元素随时间变化的高分辨率曲线.结果表明,近2 ka以来研究区沉积环境稳定,以沿岸流控制的浅海沉积为主,沉积物中CaO/K2O,MgO/Al2 O3和MnO/Na2 O比值的变化与我国东部气候变化序列具有较好的一致性,证明这些元素地球化学指标可以作为古气候变化的高分辨率替代性指标.近2 ka以来CaO/K2 O、MgO/Al2 O3和MnO/Na2 O共同识别出的7次极值揭示了同期的降温事件,分别发生在~1 480 a BP(C1),~1 200 a BP(C2),~1 020 a BP(C3),~780 a BP(C4),~580 a BP(C5),~330 a BP(C6),~120 a BP(C7),且在其他区域不同介质中也能找到相应的降温证据,揭示了气候变化的区域性以至全球性联系.%Recent 2000 a environmental record of Core MZ02, recovered in the center of mud area on the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea, reflecting a low-energy shallow sea shelf depositional environment dominated by the coastal currents. The temporal variation of most geochemical element percentages corresponds to the climate inferred from historical record, i. e. , the relatively low values of MgO/Al2O3,CaO/K2 O and high value of MnO/Na2O generally concur with the warm and humid climate, and vice versa. This geochemical response suggests the potential application of these proxies in the interpretation of palaeoclimate variation of eastern China. Recent 2000 a climatic variation history is reconstructed for the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea, and there are at least seven low-temperature events during this period, which occur in ~1 480 a BP (C1), ~1 200 a BP (C2), ~1 020 a BP (C3), ~780 a BP (C4),~580 a BP (C5), ~330 a BP (C6) and ~120 a BP (C7). All the cooling events are corroborated by other proxies in various areas, which show that regional and even global relationship of climate changes exist.

  2. The investigation and analyses on blood count of the part of officers and soldiers from Zhoushan district%舟山地区部分部队官兵血常规的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; 王晓波; 宋伟娜; 常晓慧; 刘晓宇; 王伟; 杜欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查舟山地区部分部队官兵血常规的异常检出情况.方法 采用整群抽样方法,采集444名陆海军官兵的静脉血2ml,检测白细胞(WBC)、红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(BPC).结果 ①受检官兵的WBC、RBC、Hb、BPC分别为(5.9±1.4)× 109/L、(5.2±0.4)×1012/L、(144.4±12.1)g/L、(243.9±47.4)× 109/L;②WBC、RBC、Hb和BPC异常检出率分别为8.0%、17.6%、7.5%和11.7%,其中RBC异常检出率最高,其次为WBC、BPC;③海军官兵4项指标的异常检出率均高于陆军,其中Hb的异常检出率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 舟山地区受检官兵WBC、RBC、Hb和BPC等4项血常规的主要指标均在正常范围,对于异常检出率应采取措施予以动态观察、及时诊治.%Objective To investigate and analyzing the abnormal detection condition on blood count in the part of officers and soldiers from Zhoushan district. Methods The cluster sampling was used. About 2 ml of venous blood were individually collected from 444 officers and soldiers in army and navy. White blood cell count( WBC) ,red blood cell count( RBC) ,hemoglobin(Hb) and blood platelet count( BPC) were detected. Results Among 444 officers and soldiers,WBC,RBC,Hb,BPC were(5.9 ±1.4) × 109/L, (5. 2 ±0.4) × 1012/ L,( 144.4 ±12. l)g/L,(243.9±47.4) X lO'/L respectively. The abnormality detection rates of WBC,RBC, Hb,and BPC were 8. 0% , 17. 6% ,7.5% and 11.7% respectively. RBC was the highest and the higher was WBC and BPC. Each abnormality detection rate of 4 indexes from navy was higher than that of army,but the difference of Hb only had statistical significance ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The chief indexes of blood count such as WBC,RBC,Hb,and BPC of the officers and 9oldiers can maintain normal level. The measures should be adopted for abnormality detection rate with dynamic status in order to diagnose and treat in time.

  3. Subchronic toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles and its attenuation with the help of a combination of bioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalova, Larisa I; Katsnelson, Boris A; Loginova, Nadezhda V; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Shur, Vladimir Y; Valamina, Irene E; Makeyev, Oleg H; Sutunkova, Marina P; Minigalieva, Ilzira A; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Rusakov, Vadim O; Tyurnina, Anastasia E; Kozin, Roman V; Meshtcheryakova, Ekaterina Y; Korotkov, Artem V; Shuman, Eugene A; Zvereva, Anastasia E; Kostykova, Svetlana V

    2014-07-14

    In the copper metallurgy workplace air is polluted with condensation aerosols, which a significant fraction of is presented by copper oxide particlescopper oxide particles with mean (±SD) diameter 20±10 nm was prepared by laser ablation of pure copper in water. It was being injected intraperitoneally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg (0.5 mg per mL of deionized water) three times a week up to 19 injections. In parallel, another group of rats was so injected with the same suspension against the background of oral administration of a "bio-protective complex" (BPC) comprising pectin, a multivitamin-multimineral preparation, some amino acids and fish oil rich in ω-3 PUFA. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices for the organism's status, as well as pathological changes of liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain microscopic structure were evaluated for signs of toxicity. In the same organs we have measured accumulation of copper while their cells were used for performing the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) test for DNA fragmentation. The same features were assessed in control rats infected intraperitoneally with water with or without administration of the BPC. The copper oxide nanoparticles proved adversely bio-active in all respects considered in this study, their active in vivo solubilization in biological fluids playing presumably an important role in both toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. The BPC proposed and tested by us attenuated systemic and target organs toxicity, as well as genotoxicity of this substance. Judging by experimental data obtained in this investigation, occupational exposures to nano-scale copper oxide particles can present a significant health risk while the further search for its management with the help of innocuous bioprotectors seems to be justified.

  4. Diversidade corporal e perícia médica: novos contornos da deficiência para o Benefício de Prestação Continuada = The disabled body and the medical model: disability and unconditional cash transfer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC é a principal política de transferência de renda para a população deficiente no Brasil. Para acessar o benefício, os deficientes devem comprovar a pobreza e se submeter a uma perícia médica que atesta os impedimentos corporais. Este artigo analisa os conceitos de deficiência utilizados pelos médicos peritos responsáveis pela avaliação e seleção dos beneficiários do BPC. Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado, autoministrado, para 448 médicos peritos. O questionário simula situações de candidatos ao BPC e solicita que o perito assinale sua postura em cada uma das situações relacionadas. Os resultados mostram que os modelos médico e social da deficiência disputam a autoridade discursiva sobre a deficiência no momento da perícia. Há situações em que o modelo biomédico é hegemônico, situações de alternância entre os dois modelos e situações em que os modelos se tensionam. O estudo revela que a compreensão da deficiência como uma questão de justiça social conquistou novos espaços, mesmo aqueles tradicionalmente dominados pelo modelo biomédico, como o contexto da perícia médica

  5. An MSK Radar Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  6. PHASE STRUCTURE AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE MULTI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS,POLY[1,6-BIS(4-OXYBENZOYL-OXY)HEXANE TEREPHTHALATE]-b-BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Zhang; Xiong-yan Zhao; De-shan Liu; Qi-xiang Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Liquid crystalline multi-block copolymers poly[1,6-bis(4-oxybenzoyl-oxy)hexane terephthalate]-b-bisphenol A polycarbonate (PHTH-6-b-PC) with different segments of polycarbonate (PC) and thermotropic polyester PHTH-6 were synthesized in tetrachloroethane at 144~146℃. The influence of segment length on the resulting phase structure and thermal behavior of block copolymers was also discussed. It is demonstrated by TEM and DMA that the resulting block copolymers show a considerable microphase separation. The degree of phase separation and the thermal behavior of the block copolymers are strongly dependent on the molecular weight of the segments incorporated.

  7. Reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography-diode array detection of the bispyridinium compound MB327: plasma analysis of a potential novel antidote for the treatment of organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Mikler, John; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-02-01

    In the case of poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents or pesticides, there is still a lack of pharmacological treatment of the cholinergic crisis selectively targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Recently, the compound MB327 was identified as a potential novel lead structure to close this gap, thus demanding a quantitative assay for initial pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. MB327 is a salt consisting of the dicationic bispyridinium compound (BPC) 1,1´-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) and two iodide counter ions. Due to the permanent positive charge of the BPC, an isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic separation (RPIPC) was developed using heptanesulfonic acid as ion-pairing reagent and 45% v/v methanol as organic modifier (1 mL/min). Selective UV-detection (230 nm) was done by a diode array detector (DAD) for reliable, rugged, precise (RSD < 7%) and accurate (96-104%) quantitative analysis of 50 μL swine plasma (linear range 1-1000 µg BPC/mL plasma, lower limit of quantification 2 µg/mL). During method validation, diverse parameters essential for the chromatographic process were investigated to generate van´t Hoff, van Deemter and width plots allowing calculation of thermodynamic data like the distribution constant K (5.7 ± 0.3), change in enthalpy, ΔH(0) : -23.66 kJ/mol, and entropy, ΔS(0) : -65 J/(mol*K). In addition, RPIPC-DAD analysis enabled calculation of molar absorptivities of the BPC, ε230 : 17 400 ± 1100 L/(mol*cm), and iodide, ε230 : 9900 ± 400 L/(mol*cm), which determination was hampered by interference with each other in conventional cuvette UV-spectrophotometric measurements. Finally, the RPIPC-DAD procedure was applied to samples from an in vivo study of swine.

  8. Comparison of radiopaque perfluorocarbon and Ethiodol in lymphography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D M; Nielson, M D; Mutter, F K; Lasser, E C; Liu, M S; Russell, S

    1979-10-01

    Lymphangiography was performed on 40 adult cats, 39 dogs, 20 rabbits, and 12 rats of mixed sex using Ethiodol or radiopaque perfluorocarbon (BPC). Ethiodol was more radiodense than RPC, but imaging of lymph channels and nodes was satisfactory with the latter. RPC could be infused rapidly, while Ethiodol infusion was time consuming. RPC was biologically inert; Ethiodol produced both local and systemic inflammatory reactions. The lymph node distribution with RPC was more uniform and persisted for longer periods. It was concluded that RPC was an improvement over Ethiodol for lymphangiography.

  9. Nanocompósitos de blendas poliméricas condutoras e óxidos de metais de transição

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Ariel Ponzio

    2006-01-01

    No presente trabalho, é apresentado o desenvolvimento de novos nanocompósito híbridos orgânico-inorgânico, especificamente MnO2/Blendas poliméricas condutoras (BPC) e nanofibras de V2O5 e V2O5/Pani, com propriedades diferenciadas. Estes óxidos nanoestruturados com morfologia definida, bem como a sua combinação com matrizes de polímeros condutores, apresentaram as características necessárias para um bom desempenho como material para catodos de baterias secundárias de lítio e/ou supercapacitore...

  10. Effect of Composite Salvia Injection on Platelet Parameters in Children with Anaphylactoid Purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雪兰; 寇素茹; 许月红; 李朝英

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of composite salvia injection(CSI) on platelet parameters in children with anaphylactoid purpura(AP) and its clinical significance.Methods:One hundred and fifty children with AP were assigned to two groups,80 in Group A and 70 in Group B.They were treated,respectively,with conventional therapy only or conventional therapy combined with CSI.Their platelet parameters,including blood platelet count(BPC),mean platelet volume(MPV),platelet distribution width(PDW) and plateletcr...

  11. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BOBWHITE QUAIL POPULATION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先义; 朱德明

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the qualitative behavior of solutions of the bobwhite quail pop-ulation modelwhere 0 < a < 1 < a + b,p,c ∈ (0, ∞) and k is a nonnegative integer, is investigated.Some necessary and suficient as well as sufficient conditions for all solutions of the modelto oscillate and some sufficient conditions for all positive solutions of the model to benonoscillatory and the convergence of nonoscillatory solutions are derived. Furthermore,the permanence of every positive solution of the model is also showed. Many known resultsare improved and extended and some new results are obtained for G. Ladas' open problems.

  12. Comparative in Vivo Assessment of Some Adverse Bioeffects of Equidimensional Gold and Silver Nanoparticles and the Attenuation of Nanosilver’s Effects with a Complex of Innocuous Bioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Katsnelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable suspensions of nanogold (NG and nanosilver (NS with mean particle diameter 50 and 49 nm, respectively, were prepared by laser ablation of metals in water. To assess rat’s pulmonary phagocytosis response to a single intratracheal instillation of these suspensions, we used optical, transmission electron, and semi-contact atomic force microscopy. NG and NS were also repeatedly injected intraperitoneally into rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg (0.5 mg per mL of deionized water three times a week, up to 20 injections. A group of rats was thus injected with NS after oral administration of a “bioprotective complex” (BPC comprised of pectin, multivitamins, some amino acids, calcium, selenium, and omega-3 PUFA. After the termination of the injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features of the spleen, kidneys and liver were evaluated for signs of toxicity, and accumulation of NG or NS in these organs was measured. From the same rats, we obtained cell suspensions of different tissues for performing the RAPD test. It was demonstrated that, although both nanometals were adversely bioactive in all respects considered in this study, NS was more noxious as compared with NG, and that the BPC tested by us attenuated both the toxicity and genotoxicity of NS.

  13. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-08

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  14. Evolution goes GAGA: GAGA binding proteins across kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nathalie; Dubreucq, Bertrand

    2012-08-01

    Chromatin-associated proteins (CAP) play a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and development in higher organisms. They are involved in the control of chromatin structure and dynamics. CAP have been extensively studied over the past years and are classified into two major groups: enzymes that modify histone stability and organization by post-translational modification of histone N-Terminal tails; and proteins that use ATP hydrolysis to modify chromatin structure. All of these proteins show a relatively high degree of sequence conservation across the animal and plant kingdoms. The essential Drosophila melanogaster GAGA factor (dGAF) interacts with these two types of CAP to regulate homeobox genes and thus contributes to a wide range of developmental events. Surprisingly, however, it is not conserved in plants. In this review, following an overview of fly GAF functions, we discuss the role of plant BBR/BPC proteins. These appear to functionally converge with dGAF despite a completely divergent amino acid sequence. Some suggestions are given for further investigation into the function of BPC proteins in plants.

  15. In vitro prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation with antibiotics used in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García-Castillo, María; Maiz, Luis; Lamas, Adelaida; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    The ability of antibiotics used in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation was studied using a biofilm microtitre assay with 57 non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates (44 first colonisers and 13 recovered during the initial intermittent colonisation stage) obtained from 35 CF patients. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs) of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramycin, colistin and azithromycin were determined by placing a peg lid with a formed biofilm onto microplates containing antibiotics. A modification of this protocol consisting of antibiotic challenge during biofilm formation was implemented in order to determine the biofilm prevention concentration (BPC), i.e. the minimum concentration able to prevent biofilm formation. The lowest BPCs were for fluoroquinolones, tobramycin and colistin and the highest for ceftazidime and imipenem. The former antibiotics had BPCs identical to or only slightly higher than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution and were also active on formed biofilms as reflected by their low BIC values. In contrast, ceftazidime and imipenem were less effective for prevention of biofilm formation and on formed biofilms. In conclusion, the new BPC parameter determined in non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates recovered during early colonisation stages in CF patients supports early aggressive antimicrobial treatment guidelines in first P. aeruginosa-colonised CF patients.

  16. COMPARISON OF MERCURY BLOOD PRESSURE READINGS TO OSCILLOMETRIC AND CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREDICTING TARGET ORGAN DAMAGE IN YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Elaine M; Khoury, Philip R; McCoy, Connie E; Daniels, Stephen R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Kimball, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor for target organ damage (TOD). New methods for measuring BP are replacing mercury sphygmomanometry in many clinics. We examined the utility of different BP measurement techniques in predicting subclinical TOD in adolescents and young adults. Methods Subjects in a study of the CV effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were evaluated (N=677, 18 ± 3.3 years, 35% male, 60% non-Caucasian, 30% T2DM). We measured adiposity, lab, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness & pulse wave. BP was measured 3 times with mercury sphygmomanometery (BPm) an oscillometric device (BPo) and central aortic BP (BPc) was derived with arterial tonometry. Subjects were stratified as normotensive (N), pre-hypertensive (P) or hypertensive (H). Results The prevalence of HT this cohort with mean BMI of 31 was highest with BPo (16%), followed by BPm (11%) and BPc (9%), p≤0.001. BPm was most consistent in differentiating left ventricular mass and pulse wave velocity among subjects in the P group as compared to the N & H groups. Mercury BP was also more sensitive and specific in predicting greater left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity and carotid thickness than the other BP measurement techniques in logistic regression. Conclusions We conclude that mercury sphygmomanometry should remain the gold standard for evaluation of HT and the risk for TOD in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25647284

  17. Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible.

  18. Carbon dioxide and water exchange of a soybean stand grown in the biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    Soybean plants were grown under metal halide lamps in NASA's biomass production chamber (BPC). Experiments were conducted to determine whole stand rates of carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration as influenced by time of day, CO2 concentration, irradiance, and temperature. Plants were grown at a population of 24 plants/sq m, a daily cycle of 12 hr light/12 hr dark, and average temperature regime of 26 C light/20 C dark, and a CO2 concentration enriched and maintained at 1000 ppm during the photoperiod. A distinct diurnal pattern in the rate of stand transpiration was measured at both ambient and enriched (1000 ppm) concentration of CO2. Data generated in this study represent true whole stand responses to key developmental and environmental variables and will be valuable in database construction for future working CELSS. Crop growth studies in the BPC were conducted with a high degree of environmental control, gas tightness during growth, and have used large plant stands. These characteristics have placed it in a unique position internationally as a research tool and as a preprototype subcomponent to a fully integrated CELSS. The results from the experiments are presented.

  19. Effect of Genetic Strain and Sex on Water Absorption and Water-To-Protein Ratio in Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJGS Ferrari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the water and protein contents and the water-to-protein ratio of chicken parts before and after the pre-chilling process, to compare these results with the values officially recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, and to evaluate the effect of genetic strain and sex on these parameters. Water (% and protein (% contents, and water-to-protein ratio (WPR of boneless and skinless breast (FILLETS and breast with bone and skin (BREAST were determined before (BPC and after (APC carcass pre-chilling. A total of 585 samples were evaluated: 221 fillets/male, 216 breasts/male, 76 fillets/female, and 72 fillets/female of four different broilers strains were evaluated before (BPC and after (APC samples. Water and protein contents and water-to-protein ratio were determined according to the Brazilian legislation. Results showed that there were no significant differences between genetic strains (p<0.05 neither in samples collected before or after the chiller. There were no statistical differences in the parameters studied among genetic strains. However, a high percentage of male breast samples presented water level and water-to-protein ratio above the official limits already before pre-chilling.

  20. Slingshot Mechanism in Orion: Kinematic Evidence For Ejection of Protostars by Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Stutz, Amelia M

    2015-01-01

    By comparing 3 constituents of Orion A (gas, protostars, and pre-main-sequence stars), both morhologically and kinematically, we derive the following. The gas surface density near the integral-shaped filament (ISF) is well represented by a power law, Sigma(b)=72 Msun/pc^2(b/pc)^{-5/8} for our entire range, 0.05<b/pc<8.5, of distance from the filament ridge. Essentially all protostars lie on the ISF or other filament ridges, while almost all pre-main-sequence stars do not. Combined with the fact that protostars move <1 kms relative to the filaments while stars move several times faster, this implies that protostellar accretion is terminated by a slingshot ejection from the filaments. The ISF is the 3rd in a series of star bursts that are progressively moving south, with separations of a few Myr in time and 3 pc in space. This, combined with the filament's observed undulations (spatial and velocity), suggests that repeated propagation of transverse waves thru the filament is progressively digesting the...

  1. High performance word level sequential and parallel coding methods and architectures for bit plane coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG ChengYi; TIAN JinWen; LIU Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced a novel high performance algorithm and VLSI architectures for achieving bit plane coding (BPC) in word level sequential and parallel mode. The proposed BPC algorithm adopts the techniques of coding pass prediction and par-allel & pipeline to reduce the number of accessing memory and to increase the ability of concurrently processing of the system, where all the coefficient bits of a code block could be coded by only one scan. A new parallel bit plane architecture (PA) was proposed to achieve word-level sequential coding. Moreover, an efficient high-speed architecture (HA) was presented to achieve multi-word parallel coding. Compared to the state of the art, the proposed PA could reduce the hardware cost more efficiently, though the throughput retains one coefficient coded per clock. While the proposed HA could perform coding for 4 coefficients belonging to a stripe column at one intra-clock cycle, so that coding for an N×N code-block could be completed in approximate N2/4 intra-clock cycles. Theoretical analysis and ex-perimental results demonstrate that the proposed designs have high throughput rate with good performance in terms of speedup to cost, which can be good alter-natives for low power applications.

  2. Reforma da Previdência Social: simulações e impactos sobre os diferenciais de sexo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Guimarães Marri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Como reflexo da sua atuação diferenciada no mercado de trabalho (marcada pela menor atividade econômica e menores salários, as mulheres recebem, em média, aposentadorias menores do que os homens, são as principais recebedoras das pensões por morte (dos maridos e constituem a maioria dos beneficiários do Benefício de Proteção Continuada - BPC. Ao mesmo tempo em que recebem menores benefícios médios, maior é a dependência econômica relativa das idosas dos benefícios previdenciários e dos rendimentos de outros membros da família em que vivem. O presente trabalho busca verificar como possíveis modificações nas regras de elegibilidade de aposentadorias, pensão por morte e BPC, frequentemente mencionadas por especialistas como necessárias ao equilíbrio orçamentário do Sistema de Previdência Social brasileiro, podem afetar as iniquidades de renda entre os sexos na velhice, incorporando mais uma dimensão relevante para a avaliação das propostas de reforma do sistema.

  3. Metal-organic frameworks based on rigid ligands as separator membranes in supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Ping; Gong, Yun; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Hui-Fang; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-03-28

    Two thermally stable MOFs formulated as CoL(1,4-bdc)·2DMF (L = 3,5-bis(5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine), 1,4-H2bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) (1) and CdL(4,4'-bpc)·3DMF (4,4'-H2bpc = 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid) (2) have been solvothermally synthesized and exhibit a similar uninodal 6-connected 3D architecture with {4(12)·6(3)}-pcu topology. MOF1 shows a non-interpenetrated network with larger channel, whereas MOF 2 exhibits a 3-fold interpenetrating framework with smaller pore size. When the two MOFs are used as separator membranes in a supercapacitor, the equivalent series resistance (Res) is larger than the Res in the blank supercapacitor, and the smaller the current density, the more the Res. After being charged and discharged at the low current density, the supercapacitor with MOF 1 as separator membrane (denoted as 1a) possesses a much larger specific capacitance (SC) than the blank supercapacitor, and the amorphous separator membrane 1a shows a more porous morphology than the original MOF membrane 1.

  4. Comparative study of using different materials as bacterial carriers to treat hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Zhu, Nanwen; Cao, Xinde; Jia, Jinping

    2008-12-01

    The use of support media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and protect the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, molecular sieve, granular porous carbon, and ferric oxide desulfurizer, immobilized with autotrophic bacteria capable of oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron, were developed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Their corresponding bioreactors were referred to as BMS, BPC, and BFO, respectively. H(2)S loading, gas retention time, hydrogen ion, and aluminous, ferric, and ferrous iron concentrations of recycling effluents were evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis, Brauner-Emmett-Teller method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize packing materials. Results showed that the elimination capacity was in the order of BFO > BPC > BMS. This study suggested that the material characteristics progressively influenced the deodorization capacities of bioreactors. H(2)S was oxidized into elemental sulfur and oxidized sulfur species, according to differences of carriers. Furthermore, this study revealed the potential application of simultaneously treating of H(2)S under extremely acidic conditions.

  5. Sub-nanoradiant beam pointing monitoring and stabilization system for controlling input beam jitter in gravitational wave interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, B; Genin, E; Mantovani, M; Marque, J; Ruggi, P; Tacca, M

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a simple and effective control system to monitor and suppress the beam jitter noise at the input of an optical system, called a beam pointing control (BPC) system, will be described, showing the theoretical principle and an experimental demonstration for the application of large-scale gravitational wave (GW) interferometers (ITFs), in particular for the Advanced Virgo detector. For this purpose, the requirements for the control accuracy and the sensing noise will be computed by taking into account the Advanced Virgo optical configuration, and the outcomes will be compared with the experimental measurement obtained in the laboratory. The system has shown unprecedented performance in terms of control accuracy and sensing noise. The BPC system has achieved a control accuracy of ~10⁻⁸ rad for the tilt and ~10⁻⁷ m for the shift and a sensing noise of less than 1 n  rad/√Hz, which is compliant with the Advanced Virgo GW ITF requirements.

  6. An XRD and Electron Diffraction Study of Cristobalite-Related Phases in the NaAlO 2-NaAlSiO 4System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John G.; Melnitchenko, Alexandra; Palethorpe, Stephen R.; Withers, Ray L.

    1997-06-01

    A detailed study of the sodium aluminate-carnegieite system (Na2-xAl2-xSixO4, 0≤x≤1) at temperatures between 800 and 1300°C has revealed five previously unreported phases. All of the new phases can be described as modulated variants of an underlyingβ-cristobalite parent structure. Atx≈0.05 theγ-NaAlO2-type structure (P41212,a=1/2ap,c=cp) (p=parent) is stabilized to room-temperature; atx≈0.2-0.45 an orthorhombic (Pbca,a=2ap,b=2bp,c=1/2cp) KGaO2-type structure is obtained, except atx≈0.35 where a new tetragonal (P41212,a=2ap,c=cp) phase is observed; atx≈0.5-0.6 a new cubic (P213,a=2ap) phase is obtained; atx≈0.7-0.9 a new orthorhombic (Pc21b,a=2ap,b=2bp,c=2cp) phase is obtained. XRD and electron diffraction data, refined unit cell dimensions, and the phase relationships at 1300°C are presented. The proposed space group symmetries are based on observed extinction conditions and constraints provided by a modulated structure description of the new phases. The materials are prepared by gel synthesis followed by solid state reaction in air.

  7. O Benefício de Prestação Continuada no Supremo Tribunal Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Penalva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa um conjunto de decisões do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF relativas ao Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC, um benefício assistencial de transferência de renda para idosos ou pessoas com deficiência incapacitadas para o trabalho e a vida independente, cuja renda familiar per capita seja inferior a um quarto do salário mínimo. A judicialização das políticas sociais é um fenômeno crescente à Suprema Corte brasileira e o caso do BPC é paradigmático. O artigo discute os argumentos de cunho orçamentário que prevaleceram nas recentes decisões do STF e contesta a adequação do recorte de renda estabelecido pela Lei Orgânica de Assistência Social (Loas como critério de elegibilidade ao benefício. Por fim, o artigo avalia os impactos orçamentários de uma elevação do critério de elegibilidade para meio salário mínimo. A principal conclusão do artigo é de que uma elevação do critério de renda será acompanhada por um aumento da população legalmente elegível para o BPC, mas, devido a atuais erros de focalização da política, a expansão de custos será inferior ao aumento no tamanho da população legalmente elegível.This paper analyses decisions of the Brazilian Supreme Court regarding the Beneficio de Prestacao Continuada (BPC, Continuous Cash Benefit, a regular income transfer to the elderly and persons with disability not capable of working or living an independent life whose family per capita income is lower than a quarter of the minimum wage. The litigation of social policies before the Brazilian Supreme Court is a growing phenomena and the case of BPC is paradigmatic. The paper examines the budgetary arguments prevailing in recent Supreme Court decisions, and challenges the appropriateness of the income eligibility threshold set by the Lei Organica da Assistencia Social (Social Assistance Act. In addition, the paper evaluates the fiscal impact of raising the threshold to half minimum

  8. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las especies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se depositan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgánicos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe-ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.

    Palabras clave: contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COP; bifeniles policlorados (PCB; biodegradación; biorremediación.


    ABSTRACT

    Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places, such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed

  9. Biorremediación de suelo contaminado con pesticidas: caso DDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Betancur Corredor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El 1,1,1-tricloro-2,2'bis(p-clorofeniletano (DDT ha sido usado desde la segunda guerra mundial para controlar enfermedades transmitidas por insectos en humanos y animales domésticos. El uso de estos insecticidas organoclorados se ha prohibido en la mayoría de los países, debido a su persistencia en el ambiente, susceptibilidad de biomagnificación y potencial toxicidad a animales superiores. La biorremediación involucra el uso de microorganismos para degradar contaminantes orgánicos presentes en el ambiente, transformándolos en compuestos más simples y de menor peligrosidad, inclusive inocuos. Esta estrategia de descontaminación tiene bajos costos, una amplia aceptación pública y puede llevarse a cabo en el sitio. Comparado con otros métodos, la biorremediación es una forma más promisoria y menos costosa de eliminar los contaminantes presentes en suelos y agua. En suelo los compuestos bifenilos clorados como el DDT, pueden ser parcialmente biodegradados por un grupo de bacterias aerobias que cometabolizan el contaminante. La biodisponibilidad de los contaminantes puede ser mejorada, tratando los suelos en presencia de agentes movilizadores del contaminante como los surfactantes. En esta revisión se discuten las diferentes estrategias de biorremediación de suelo contaminado con DDT, incluyendo mecanismos y rutas de degradación. Se describe la aplicación de estas técnicas en suelo contaminado y se discute cuál es la mejor estrategia para remediación de DDT. 

  10. Long-term results of PRRT in advanced bronchopulmonary carcinoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariniello, Annapaola; Bodei, Lisa; Baio, Silvia Melania; Gilardi, Laura; Colandrea, Marzia; Papi, Stefano; Grana, Chiara Maria [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Tinelli, Carmine [IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, Pavia (Italy); Valmadre, Giuseppe [Presidio Ospedaliero E. Morelli AOVV, Sondalo (Italy); Fazio, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Milan (Italy); Galetta, Domenico [European Institute of Oncology, Thoracic Surgery Division, Milan (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) has been explored for almost two decades, but there are still few trials that have exclusively investigated well-differentiated and moderately differentiated NET arising from the respiratory tree. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the outcome in patients affected by bronchopulmonary carcinoid (BPC) following PRRT. We retrospectively analysed 114 patients with advanced stage BPC consecutively treated with PRRT at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, from 1997 to 2012 and followed until October 2014. The objective responses, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were rated, and three different PRRT protocols ({sup 90}Y-DOTATOC vs. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE vs. {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) were compared with regard to their efficacy and tolerability. The median OS (evaluated in 94 of the 114 patients) was 58.8 months. The median PFS was 28.0 months. The {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol resulted in the highest 5-year OS (61.4 %). Morphological responses (partial responses + minor responses) were obtained in 26.5 % of the cohort and were associated with longer OS and PFS. The {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol provided the highest response rate (38.1 %). Adverse events were mild in the majority of patients. However, haematological toxicity negatively affected survival. No severe (grade 3/4) serum creatinine increase was observed. Patients treated with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC alone more frequently showed a mild/moderate decrease in renal function. In patients treated with chemotherapy before PRRT had a shorter OS and PFS, and a higher risk of developing nephrotoxicity. In a large cohort of patients with advanced BPC treated in a ''real-world'' scenario and followed up for a median of 45.1 months (range 2 - 191 months), PRRT proved to be promising in prolonging survival and delaying disease progression. Despite

  11. Subchronic Toxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Attenuation with the Help of a Combination of Bioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Privalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the copper metallurgy workplace air is polluted with condensation aerosols, which a significant fraction of is presented by copper oxide particles <100 nm. In the scientific literature, there is a lack of their in vivo toxicity characterization and virtually no attempts of enhancing organism’s resistance to their impact. A stable suspension of copper oxide particles with mean (±SD diameter 20 ± 10 nm was prepared by laser ablation of pure copper in water. It was being injected intraperitoneally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg (0.5 mg per mL of deionized water three times a week up to 19 injections. In parallel, another group of rats was so injected with the same suspension against the background of oral administration of a “bio-protective complex” (BPC comprising pectin, a multivitamin-multimineral preparation, some amino acids and fish oil rich in ω-3 PUFA. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices for the organism’s status, as well as pathological changes of liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain microscopic structure were evaluated for signs of toxicity. In the same organs we have measured accumulation of copper while their cells were used for performing the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD test for DNA fragmentation. The same features were assessed in control rats infected intraperitoneally with water with or without administration of the BPC. The copper oxide nanoparticles proved adversely bio-active in all respects considered in this study, their active in vivo solubilization in biological fluids playing presumably an important role in both toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. The BPC proposed and tested by us attenuated systemic and target organs toxicity, as well as genotoxicity of this substance. Judging by experimental data obtained in this investigation, occupational exposures to nano-scale copper oxide particles can present a significant health risk while the further search for its

  12. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Nutrition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism at Late Growing Stage and Grain Yield Formation in Spring Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Study on the relationship between grain yield formation and metabolism of carbon and nitrogen as influenced by N and K nutrition level during maturation was carried out through field experiments and biochemistry analyses. The results confirmed that it was necessary to maintain a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant N supplies for root at late growing stages. The soluble protein content, RuBPC and PEPC activities in leaves, harvest index(HI) and harvest index of nitrogen (HIN)increased obviously with appropriate N and K application rate, which accelerated C and N translocation from vegetative parts to grain, enhanced photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant(but not excessive)N supply for root during late growing period.

  13. Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research we proposed a dynamic power adjustment protocol that will be used for sending the periodical safety message. (Beacon)based on the analysis of the channel status depending on the channel congestion and the power used for transmission. The Beacon Power Control (BPC) protocol first sensed and examined the percentage of the channel congestion, the result obtained was used to adjust the transmission power for the safety message to reach the optimal power. This will lead to decrease the congestion in the channel and achieve good channel performance and beacon dissemination.

  14. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  15. Alkylation of benzene with propylene catalyzed by FeCl3-Chloropyridine ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xuewen; ZHAO Suoqi; LI Hui

    2007-01-01

    Alkylation of benzene with propylene was carried out with FeCl3-chloro-butyl-pyridine(FeCl3-[bpc])ionic liquid as catalyst to obtain cumene.Significant improvements in propylene conversion and cumene selectivity under mild reaction conditions were attained by modification of the catalyst with HCl.Under 20℃,0.1 MPa,reaction time 5 min,increase from 83.60%to 100.00%and selectivity of cumene can increase from 90.86%to 98.47%.If reaction is carried out in following two stages,the result will be very good.At the initial stage of the reaction,alkylation is the main reaction and a higher conversion of propylene is obtained at a lower temperature.At the later stage of the reaction,transalkylation is the main reaction and selectivity to cumene can be increased by appropriately raising the reaction temperature.

  16. A possibility of parallel and anti-parallel diffraction measurements on neutron diffractometer employing bent perfect crystal monochromator at the monochromatic focusing condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Nam Choi; Shin Ae Kim; Sung Kyu Kim; Sung Baek Kim; Chang-Hee Lee; Pivel Mikula

    2004-07-01

    In a conventional diffractometer having single monochromator, only one position, parallel position, is used for the diffraction experiment (i.e. detection) because the resolution property of the other one, anti-parallel position, is very poor. However, a bent perfect crystal (BPC) monochromator at monochromatic focusing condition can provide a quite flat and equal resolution property at both parallel and anti-parallel positions and thus one can have a chance to use both sides for the diffraction experiment. From the data of the FWHM and the / measured on three diffraction geometries (symmetric, asymmetric compression and asymmetric expansion), we can conclude that the simultaneous diffraction measurement in both parallel and anti-parallel positions can be achieved.

  17. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors.

  18. Two-klystron Binary Pulse Compression at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.

    1993-04-01

    The Binary Pulse Compression system installed at SLAC was tested using two klystrons, one with 10 MW and the other with 34 MW output. By compressing 560 ns klystron pulses into 70 ns, the measured BPC output was 175 MW, limited by the available power from the two klystrons. This output was used to provide 100-MW input to a 30-cell X-band structure in which a 100-MV/m gradient was obtained. This system, using the higher klystron outputs expected in the future has the potential to deliver the 350 MW needed to obtain 100 MV/m gradients in the 1.8-m NLC prototype structure. This note describes the timing, triggering, and phase coding used in the two-klystron experiment, and the expected and measured net-work response to three- or two-stage modulation.

  19. Superiorities of Simultaneous Bayes Estimation of the Estimable Function of Regression Coefficients and the Error Variance in Linear Model%线性模型中回归系数的可估函数和误差方差同时的Bayes估计及优良性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 韦来生

    2014-01-01

    在线性模型中回归系数与误差方差具有正态-逆Gamma先验分布,且假定设计阵非列满秩的情形下,导出了回归系数的可估函数与误差方差同时的Bayes估计.分别在均方误差矩阵(MSEM)准则和Bayes Pitman Closeness (BPC)准则下,研究了回归系数可估函数的Bayes估计相对于最小二乘(LS)估计的优良性,讨论了误差方差的B ayes估计在均方误差(MSE)准则下相对于LS估计的优良性.

  20. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  1. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    observation window compared to the conventional spectral Doppler method. The thesis shows, that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight in to the complexity of fluid dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool......In this PhD project new ultrasound techniques for blood flow measurements have been investigated in-vivo. The focus has mainly been on vector velocity techniques and four different approaches have been examined: Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane...... Wave Excitation. Furthermore two different adaptive spectral estimators have been investigated: Blood spectral Power Capon method (BPC) and Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation method (BAPES). The novel techniques investigated in this thesis are developed to circumvent some of the main limitations...

  2. Fast Spectral Velocity Estimation Using Adaptive Techniques: In-Vivo Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Udesen, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to provide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the observation window(OW) is very sbort. In this paper two adaptive techniques are tested and compared to the averaged perlodogram (Welch) for blood velocity estimation. The Blood Power...... spectral Capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slowtime and depth. The Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering...... the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the power spectral density estimate. In this paper, the two adaptive methods are explained, and performance Is assessed in controlled steady How experiments and in-vivo measurements. The three methods were tested on a circulating How rig...

  3. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process.

  4. Differential responses of photosynthetic parameters of pigeonpea and amaranth leaf discs to SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswathi, J.; Rao, K.V.M. [Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India). Dept. of Botany

    1995-08-01

    The reduction in chlorophyll (Chl) and protein contents and the increase in amino acid content in leaf discs in response to aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure under continuous irradiance were more expressed in Amaranthus paniculatus (C-4 plant) than in Cajantus cajan (C-3 plant). The content of SH-compounds increased more in pigenonpea than in amaranth leaf discs in response to SO{sub 2}. Aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure also reduced the CO{sub 2} fixation and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities in leaf discs of both plant species. The differences in sensitivity of these plants to SO{sub 2} were related to their conversion efficiency of SO{sub 2} to less toxic substances and sulphydryl compounds.

  5. Optimization for preparation technology of baicalin-phospholipid complex in situ nasal gel by central composite design-response surface method%中心复合设计-效应面法优化黄芩苷磷脂复合物鼻用原位凝胶的制备工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许润春; 林彦君; 吴品江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the preparation technology of baicalin-phospholipids complex (BPC) in situ nasal gel. Methods Key factors affecting the preparation technology of BPC in situ nasal gel, Poloxamer407 (P407), Poloxamcr188 (P188), and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) were studied using central composite design-response surface method (CCD-RSM) with gelation temperature as evaluation index. The correlation between preparation technology parameters and gelation temperature was analyzed to establish relative equation of preparation technology parameters and gelation temperature and the best preparation technology parameters using multivariate mathematical statistical moment model. Results BPC (1.0 g) was dissolved in 0.1% triethylamine solution, then P407 (18 g), P188 (6 g), PEG 6000 (1 g), glucose (5 g), BKC (0.02 g), and deionized water were added to reach 100 g. The mixture was uniformly dispersed in ice bath (4 ℃) under magnetic stirring and then was stored at 4 ℃ in refrigerator for more than 24 h until polymer was fully dissolved and clear solution was obtained. Conclusion The preparation technology of BPC in situ nasal gel by CCD-RSM is stable and suitable for industry.%目的 优化黄芩苷磷脂复合物鼻用原位凝胶的制备工艺.方法 采用中心复合设计-效应面优化法,以胶凝温度为评价指标,对黄芩苷磷脂复合物鼻用原位凝胶的制备工艺关键影响因素Poloxamer407( P407)、Poloxamer188 (P188)、聚乙二醇6000(PEG 6000)进行研究,利用多元数学统计矩模型,对制备工艺参数和胶凝温度的相关性进行研究,建立工艺参数与胶凝温度的相关方程,确立最佳工艺参数.结果 先将黄芩苷磷脂复合物1.0g溶于0.1%三乙醇胺溶液中,再加入18gP407、6 g P188、1g PEG 6000、葡萄糖5g、苯扎氯胺0.02g,加去离子水至100g,于冰浴(4℃)磁力搅拌下使其分散均匀,置4℃冰箱中保存24h以上,直至聚合物完全溶解得到澄明溶液.结论 采

  6. 尼曼-匹克病一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏绪廷; 姜梅杰; 孙慧清

    2004-01-01

    患者 女,24岁,婚后妊娠3个月,感觉全身乏力,纳差并下肢浮肿来院就诊。查体:发育正常,营养一般,皮肤巩膜无黄染,面色苍白,无肝掌及蜘蛛痣;浅表淋巴结无肿大;心肺未见异常;腹软,肝脾肋下未触及;双手无震颤,双膝反射正常,Kernig征与Babinski征阴性。实验检查:HGB57g/L,WBC3.5×109/L,RBC1.94×1012/L,BPC43×109/L,RBC部分见大

  7. On ASGS framework: general requirements and an example of implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KULESZA Kamil; KOTULSKI Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    In the paper we propose a general, abstract framework for Automatic Secret Generation and Sharing (ASGS) that should be independent of underlying Secret Sharing Scheme (SSS). ASGS allows to prevent the Dealer from knowing the secret.The Basic Property Conjecture (BPC) forms the base of the framework. Due to the level of abstraction, results are portable into the realm of quantum computing.Two situations are discussed. First concerns simultaneous generation and sharing of the random, prior nonexistent secret.Such a secret remains unknown until it is reconstructed. Next, we propose the framework for automatic sharing of a known secret.In this case the Dealer does not know the secret and the secret Owner does not know the shares. We present opportunities for joining ASGS with other extended capabilities, with special emphasis on PVSS and pre-positioned secret sharing. Finally, we illustrate framework with practical implementation.

  8. Estimating P-coverage of biosynthetic pathways in DNA libraries and screening by genetic selection: biotin biosynthesis in the marine microorganism Chromohalobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Angell, Scott; Janes, Jeff; Watanabe, Coran M H

    2008-06-01

    Traditional approaches to natural product discovery involve cell-based screening of natural product extracts followed by compound isolation and characterization. Their importance notwithstanding, continued mining leads to depletion of natural resources and the reisolation of previously identified metabolites. Metagenomic strategies aimed at localizing the biosynthetic cluster genes and expressing them in surrogate hosts offers one possible alternative. A fundamental question that naturally arises when pursuing such a strategy is, how large must the genomic library be to effectively represent the genome of an organism(s) and the biosynthetic gene clusters they harbor? Such an issue is certainly augmented in the absence of expensive robotics to expedite colony picking and/or screening of clones. We have developed an algorism, named BPC (biosynthetic pathway coverage), supported by molecular simulations to deduce the number of BAC clones required to achieve proper coverage of the genome and their respective biosynthetic pathways. The strategy has been applied to the construction of a large-insert BAC library from a marine microorganism, Hon6 (isolated from Honokohau, Maui) thought to represent a new species. The genomic library is constructed with a BAC yeast shuttle vector pClasper lacZ paving the way for the culturing of libraries in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Flow cytometric methods are utilized to estimate the genome size of the organism and BPC implemented to assess P-coverage or percent coverage. A genetic selection strategy is illustrated, applications of which could expedite screening efforts in the identification and localization of biosynthetic pathways from marine microbial consortia, offering a powerful complement to genome sequencing and degenerate probe strategies. Implementing this approach, we report on the biotin biosynthetic pathway from the marine microorganism Hon6.

  9. Photosynthesis, photorespiration and productivity of wheat and soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, Jalal A

    2012-07-01

    The results of the numerous measurements obtained during the last 40 years on gas exchange rate, photosynthetic carbon metabolism by exposition in ¹⁴CO₂ and activities of primary carbon fixation enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC/O), in various wheat and soybean genotypes grown over a wide area in the field and contrasting in photosynthetic traits and productivity are presented in this article. It was established that high productive wheat genotypes (7-9 t ha⁻¹) with the optimal architectonics possess higher rate of CO₂ assimilation during the leaf ontogenesis. Along with the high rate of photosynthesis, high values of photorespiration are characteristic for the high productive genotypes. Genotypes with moderate (4-5 t ha⁻¹) and low (3 t ha⁻¹) grain yield are characterized by relatively low rates of both CO₂ assimilation and photorespiration. A value of photorespiration constitutes 28-35% of photosynthetic rate in contrasting genotypes. The activities of RuBPC and RuBPO were changing in a similar way in the course of the flag leaf and ear elements development. High productive genotypes are also characterized by a higher rate of biosynthesis and total value of glycine-serine and a higher photosynthetic rate. Therefore, contrary to conception arisen during many years on the wastefulness of photorespiration, taking into account the versatile investigations on different aspects of photorespiration, it was proved that photorespiration is one of the evolutionarily developed vital metabolic processes in plants and the attempts to reduce this process with the purpose of increasing the crop productivity are inconsistent.

  10. Age determination of marine sediments in the western North Pacific by aspartic acid chronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Naomi; Kusakabe, Masashi [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Handa, Nobuhiko; Oba, Tadamichi; Matsuoka, Hiromi; Kimoto, Katsunori

    1997-02-01

    The ages of fossil planktonic foraminifera, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, in sediments (core 3bPC) from the western North Pacific were determined by aspartic acid chronology, which uses the racemization reaction rate constant of aspartic acid (k{sub Asp}). Aspartic acid racemization-based ages (Asp ages) ranged from 7,600 yrBP at the surface, to 307,000 yrBP at a depth of 352.9 cm in the sediments. This sediment core was also dated by the glacial-interglacial fluctuation of {sigma}{sup 18}O chronology, and the ages determined by both chronologies were compared. The ages derived from aspartic acid chronology and {sigma}{sup 18}O stratigraphy were more or less consistent, but there appeared to be some differences in age estimates between these two dating methods at some depths within the core. In the core top sediments, the likely cause for the age discrepancy could be the loss of the surface sediment during sampling of the core. At depths of 66.3 and 139 cm within the core, Asp ages indicated reduced sedimentation rates during ca. 60,000-80,000 yrBP and ca. 140,000-190,000 yrBP. The maximum age differences in both chronologies are 33,000 yr and 46,600 yr during each of these periods. These anomalous reductions in sedimentation rates occurring during these periods could possibly be related to some geological events, such as an increased dissolution effect of the calcium carbonate in the western North Pacific. Another possible reason for these age differences could be the unreliability in {sigma}{sup 18}O ages of core 3bPC as they were estimated by {sigma}{sup 18}O ages of another core, 3aPC. (author)

  11. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Calle, Eugenia E.; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M.; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O.; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sex hormones, in particular the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiological evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterised variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5–10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men (association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292–rs727479 (A–A) versus noncarriers; P=1 × 10−5), and withinverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterised by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk for prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  12. Attenuation of Combined Nickel(II Oxide and Manganese(II, III Oxide Nanoparticles’ Adverse Effects with a Complex of Bioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilzira A. Minigalieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs with a mean (±s.d. diameter of 16.7 ± 8.2 and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (IP to rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either alone or in combination. A group of rats was injected with this combination with the background oral administration of a “bio-protective complex” (BPC comprising pectin, vitamins A, C, E, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, iodide and omega-3 PUFA, this composition having been chosen based on mechanistic considerations and previous experience. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features (with morphometric assessment of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The Ni and Mn content of these organs was measured with the help of the atomic emission and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. We obtained blood leukocytes for performing the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA test. Although both metallic NPs proved adversely bio-active in many respects considered in this study, Mn3O4-NPs were somewhat more noxious than NiO-NPs as concerns most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations and they induced more marked damage to neurons in the striatum and the hippocampus, which may be considered an experimental correlate of the manganese-induced Parkinsonism. The comparative solubility of the Mn3O4-NPs and NiO-NPs in a biological medium is discussed as one of the factors underlying the difference in their toxicokinetics and toxicities. The BPC has attenuated both the organ-systemic toxicity and the genotoxicity of Mn3O4-NPs in combination with NiO-NPs.

  13. Population genetic variation in the tree fern Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae: effects of reproductive strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Essentially all ferns can perform both sexual and asexual reproduction. Their populations represent suitable study objects to test the population genetic effects of different reproductive systems. Using the diploid homosporous fern Alsophila spinulosa as an example species, the main purpose of this study was to assess the relative impact of sexual and asexual reproduction on the level and structure of population genetic variation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Inter-simple sequence repeats analysis was conducted on 140 individuals collected from seven populations (HSG, LCH, BPC, MPG, GX, LD, and ZHG in China. Seventy-four polymorphic bands discriminated a total of 127 multilocus genotypes. Character compatibility analysis revealed that 50.0 to 70.0% of the genotypes had to be deleted in order to obtain a tree-like structure in the data set from populations HSG, LCH, MPG, BPC, GX, and LD; and there was a gradual decrease of conflict in the data set when genotypes with the highest incompatibility counts were successively deleted. In contrast, in population ZHG, only 33.3% of genotypes had to be removed to achieve complete compatibility in the data set, which showed a sharp decline in incompatibility upon the deletion of those genotypes. All populations examined possessed similar levels of genetic variation. Population ZHG was not found to be more differentiated than the other populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sexual recombination is the predominant source of genetic variation in most of the examined populations of A. spinulosa. However, somatic mutation contributes most to the genetic variation in population ZHG. This change of the primary mode of reproduction does not cause a significant difference in the population genetic composition. Character compatibility analysis represents an effective approach to separate the role of sexual and asexual components in shaping the genetic pattern of fern populations.

  14. A Demonstration of the Uncertainty in Predicting the Estrogenic Activity of Individual Chemicals and Mixtures From an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay (T47D-KBluc) to the In Vivo Uterotrophic Assay Using Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Justin M; Hannas, Bethany R; Furr, Johnathan R; Wilson, Vickie S; Gray, L Earl

    2016-10-01

    In vitro estrogen receptor assays are valuable tools for identifying environmental samples and chemicals that display estrogenic activity. However, in vitro potency cannot necessarily be extrapolated to estimates of in vivo potency because in vitro assays are currently unable to fully account for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. To explore this issue, we calculated relative potency factors (RPF), using 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) as the reference compound, for several chemicals and mixtures in the T47D-KBluc estrogen receptor transactivation assay. In vitro RPFs were used to predict rat oral uterotrophic assay responses for these chemicals and mixtures. EE2, 17β-estradiol (E2), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-AF (BPAF), bisphenol-C (BPC), bisphenol-S (BPS), and methoxychlor (MET) were tested individually, while BPS + MET, BPAF + MET, and BPAF + BPC + BPS + EE2 + MET were tested as equipotent mixtures. In vivo ED50 values for BPA, BPAF, and BPC were accurately predicted using in vitro data; however, E2 was less potent than predicted, BBP was a false positive, and BPS and MET were 76.6 and 368.3-fold more active in vivo than predicted from the in vitro potency, respectively. Further, mixture ED50 values were more accurately predicted by the dose addition model using individual chemical in vivo uterotrophic data (0.7-1.5-fold difference from observed) than in vitro data (1.4-86.8-fold). Overall, these data illustrate the potential for both underestimating and overestimating in vivo potency from predictions made with in vitro data for compounds that undergo substantial disposition following oral administration. Accounting for aspects of toxicokinetics, notably metabolism, in in vitro models will be necessary for accurate in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolations.

  15. 当归对人体血栓素A2与前列环素平衡影响的研究现状%Present Status of study of Chinses Angelica Root on TXA2-PGI2 Balance Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓君; 黄文增; 张步延

    2000-01-01

    @@ 血小板(blood platelet cell,BPC)与血管壁分别合成和释放两种对BPC聚集和血管舒缩有作用的血栓素A2(thromboxaneA2,TXA2)与前列环素(prostacycline,PGI2).TXA2主要产生于BPC,近年来发现鼠血管内皮细胞亦能产生TXA2[1],具有收缩血管和促BPC聚集作用.PGI2主要产生于脂肪组织、动脉、静脉及毛细血管内细胞,可扩张血管,抑制BPC聚集.在正常情况下,TXA2和PGI2在体内保持一定的平衡,这两种生理活性物质的相对比值在维护血管张力,血管壁完整性以及调节BPC功能等方面,起着重要作用.任何因素造成两者平衡失调均可引起血管疾病[2],导致许多严重的病理变化[3].因此,应用抑制TXA2合成,促进PGI2合成,维持二者平衡的药物,将对防治心脑血管疾病甚为有益[4],亦为临床开展药物干预TXA2-PGI2的研究提供了广阔的前景.本文拟就中药当归对TXA2-PGI2平衡影响的研究现状综述如下.

  16. CORRESPONDENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Pérez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Señor Editor:Un editorial publicado en Colombia Médica aborda el tema de las Buenas Prácticas Clínicas (BPC en la investigación con seres humanos en Colombia1. La presente nota va dirigida a ofrecer una panorámica sobre el cumplimiento de estas normas en Cuba y en especial su implementación en los ensayos clínicos desarrollados en la provincia de Villa Clara.La guía de BPC aprobada por la Junta Directiva de la Conferencia Internacional de Armonización, conocida por las siglas ICH (Internacional Conference Harmonization en la que han participado países de la Comunidad Europea, Japón y Estados Unidos, así como Australia, Canadá, los países nórdicos y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, promueve una norma unificada entre estos países, para facilitar así la aceptación mutua de los datos clínicos por las autoridades reguladoras de estas jurisdicciones2.Los países que apliquen las normas internacionales de calidad científica y ética en la investigación clínica, aseguran la credibilidad y veracidad en los resultados de sus investigaciones, lo que favorece el proceso de solicitud y registro sanitario de nuevos productos farmacéuticos en los grandes mercados.Como han sido varios los acontecimientos que ponen en duda la seguridad de los sujetos que participan en la investigación clínica, se hace necesario que la sociedad disponga de medicamentos verdaderamente seguros y eficaces. Para asegurar esto, las agencias reguladoras del mundo han aumentado las exigencias que debe cumplir un nuevo fármaco para su registro y comercialización, y establecen que durante todo el proceso de investigación-desarrollo se asegure el cumplimento de las Normas de Buena Práctica de Laboratorio (BPL, de Manufactura (BPM y Clínicas (BPC.Los países de latinoamérica que desarrollan investigación clínica han acogido muy bien el cumplimiento de estas normas internacionales, y las sometieron a discusión en el llamado Documento de las Am

  17. Disruptores endocrinos. El caso particular de los xenobióticos estrogénicos. II Estrógenos sintéticos Endocrine disrupters. The case of oestrogenic xenobiotics II: synthetic oestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín Olmedo

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha puesto en evidencia que muchas sustancias químicas de origen antropogénico son capaces de alterar el sistema endocrino de los seres vivos y se ha acuñado el nombre de disruptores endocrinos para definirlas. El número de disruptores endocrinos es una preocupación creciente si se añade a la inclusión de nuevos compuestos químicos, hasta ahora insospechados, la información generada sobre sus precursores, metabolitos y productos de degradación que tan solo ahora empiezan a conocerse. No se ha podido definir una estructura química única que permita clasificar a un compuesto químico como mimetizador de las hormonas sexuales femeninas, de tal manera que estructuras químicas similares a los estrógenos naturales, basados en el ciclopentanoperhidrofenantreno, comparten con los estilbenos, bisfenoles, bifenilos, alquilfenoles, dioxinas, furanos y parabenes su efecto hormonal estrogénico. El reconocimiento de la actividad estrogénica en diferentes modelos biológicos se ha utilizado para actualizar el censo de xenoestrógenos y poner de manifiesto fuentes de exposición humana hasta el momento insospechadas.In recent years, it has been demonstrated that endocrine systems of living beings can be altered by many chemical substances of anthropogenic origin, designated as endocrine disrupters. There are growing concerns about the number of these endocrine disrupters. It has not been possible to define a single chemical structure that allows the classification of a chemical compound as a mimic of female sex hormones, so that chemical structures similar to natural estrogens, based on cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene, share their hormonal effect with stilbenes, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dioxins, furans and parabenes. The recognition of estrogenic activity in different biological models has been used to update the list of xenoestrogens and reveal sources of human exposure that were previously unknown. New previously

  18. Dioxins and environment Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the generic term of dioxin is named the groups of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF, typical representans of the persistent organic compounds (POPs. They are obtained as not desired secondary products from several industrial process in which chlorine is used in some of its phases. The dioxins have centrated in the last decade an important part if the medical investigations in environmental health do to its notable toxicity, since they are one of the more powerful toxic chemical substances created by mankind, characterized for affecting the nervous and inmunitary system, being implicated into appearance of difference types of cancer and causing the appearance of several endocrine disorders, because of what they have been nowadays classified as endocrine disruptors. On degradation, bioaccumulation and on a large scale atmospheric transport capacity between the several environmental phases, make them to be considerate nowadays as dangerous compounds for human beings.Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosf

  19. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs: I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las especies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se depositan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgánicos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe-ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places, such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and possible

  20. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil Micro-poluentes orgânicos em sedimentos fluviais no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Machado Torres

    2002-04-01

    organoclorados (OCs, bifenis policlorados (PCBs e outros hidrocarbonetos polinucleares (PAHs. Os organoclorados, inclusive os PCBs, estavam presentes em quantidades muito reduzidas nas amostras, provavelmente refletindo as restrições contra o uso dessa classe de compostos no mercado brasileiro. Entretanto, os PAHs mostravam níveis elevados ao redor de uma grande indústria siderúrgica na cidade de Volta Redonda. Tal contaminação deve-se, provavelmente, ao uso maciço de carvão nesta fábrica.

  1. 重症肺炎患儿降钙素原与凝血纤溶指标的临床意义%The changes and meaning of procalcitonin and coagulation/fibrinolysis index in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳芳; 尹占良; 邱建凯; 姚海珍; 李令娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨重症肺炎(SCAP)患儿降钙素原(PCT)与凝血纤溶指标的变化与临床意义。方法选取2012年3月至2015年7月廊坊市第四人民医院儿童重症监护病房治疗的儿童SCAP患者92例(SCAP组),根据血清PCT水平将SCAP组患者分为高PCT组(血清PCT≥2.00 ng/ml)与低PCT组(血清PCT<2.00 ng/ml)。对照组为无感染性疾病的儿童患者54例。检测和比较各组PCT水平与血小板计数(BPC)、抗凝血酶Ⅲ活性(AT-Ⅲ:C)及D-二聚体(D-dimer,D-D)等的变化情况。结果与对照组比较,SCAP组BPC、D-D、 PCT水平明显升高,AT-Ⅲ:C明显降低(P<0.01);高PCT组的BPC及AT-Ⅲ:C水平明显低于低PCT组,而D-D明显高于低PCT组(P<0.01或P<0.05)。高PCT组弥散性血管内凝血的发生率明显高于低PCT组(P<0.05)。结论重症肺炎患儿存在凝血功能紊乱和PCT水平升高,PCT水平与凝血功能紊乱有关。%Objective To explore the changes and meaning of procalcitonin (PCT) and coagulation/fibrinolysis index in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). Methods 92 cases of children with SCAP were chosen as the SCAP group in pediatric intensive care unit, at the Fourth People′s Hospital of Langfang City between March 2012 and July 2015,and the SCAP group was divided into high PCT group (PCT ≥2.00 ng/ml) and low PCT group (PCT <2.00 ng/ml) according to the serum PCT level.54 cases of child patients without infectious diseases served as the control group. The levels of PCT, blood platelet count (BPC), antithrombin-Ⅲ activity (AT-Ⅲ:C ) and D-dimer (D-D) were determined and compared among each group. Results Compared with the control group, the levels of BPC,D-D,PCT were significantly increased and AT-Ⅲ:Cwas significantly decreased(P<0.01).The levels of BPC and AT-Ⅲ:C in the high PCT group were lower than those in the low PCT group; the level of

  2. [Effects of N-Arachidonoylethanolamine on the quality of platelets stored in M-sol platelet preservative solution in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Yi; Qiao, Wen-Ben; Yu, Yuan; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Gui-Zhi; Zhao, Cui-Yun; Nie, Xiang-Min; Liu, Hong; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Zhu, Chuan-Fu

    2013-10-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the effects of N-Arachidonoylethanolamine (ANA) on the quality of platelets (Plt) stored in Plt M-sol preservative solution at 22 ± 2°C. Samples taken from collecting apheresis Plt by the Amicus instrument and splited into two equal parts were stored in Plt M-sol preservative solution on a shaker at 22 ± 2°C. Different working concentrations of ANA (from 0.1 to 50 µmol/L) were then added into one part of stored Plt as the experimental group, the other without ANA was used as the control group. The viability of Plts stored at 22 ± 2°C for 7 days was evaluated by MTT colorimetric assay. The most effective concentration of ANA was selected and added to the subsequent experimental group. Plt count (BPC), mean Plt volume (MPV), Plt distribution width (PDW), phosphatidyl serine (PS) and soluble P-selectin were detected on the 1(st), 5(th), 7(th), 9(th) and 11(th) day of storage. The results showed that the most effective working concentration of ANA was 0.5 µmol/L, which showed significant increasing Plt viability (91.23 ± 5.44%) compared to the control group (62.54 ± 4.79%). Thus, ANA concentration at 0.5 µmol/L was choose to perform subsequent experiments. During 11 days of storage, the BPC, MPV and PDW were not changed significantly between the experimental group and control group, although there was decreasing trend in the BPC and increasing trends in MPV and PDW in the two groups. The rate of Plt PS positive was enhanced during the storage period: the rate of PS positive in experimental group increased from 7.69 ± 1.82% to 10.74 ± 1.78% while it in control group increased from 11.21 ± 2.03% to 15.37 ± 1.95%, with significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05) on the 9(th) and 11(th) day of storage, respectively. Soluble P-selectin contents in experimental group on the 9(th) and 11(th) day of storage were 30.19 ± 2.03 ng/ml and 34.52 ± 2.64 ng/mL, respectively, while those in control group were 39

  3. Human Brain Model of Smile,Calmness,Honesty and Lying:Chua’s Circuit%微笑、平静、说谎和诚实的人脑蔡氏电路模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷; 李文石

    2013-01-01

    Based on the similarity of chaos in human brain and Chua′s circuit ,we propose the methods to model human brain with Chua′s circuit .With the simulation of Multisim 10® ,we set voltages across resistor R1 as original signals .Also ,Analogous def-inite integral ,Lyapunov ,Micro-segmented windows and P values are applied to gain data window .Then ,minimum mean power of R1(PR1min :1.56×10-4W) is discovered after tuning inductance L and nonlinear-resistor parameter R5 .Furthermore ,we suppose PR1min as log-base ,and calculate the new indexes for each power of R1 as reference values .After compared with previous indexes of brain power consumption (BPC )in frontal lobe at cognitive states of calmness ,honesty ,or lying (BPC at smile as base ) ,two-set in-dexes equal to each other .According to actual BPC ,and with Chua′s circuit corresponding to minimum mean power PR1min ,we ac-complish human brain model in frontal lobe at cognitive states of calmness ,honesty ,lying and smile .This work will provide novel thinking for nonlinear modeling of human brain .%基于人脑和蔡氏电路都能表现复杂的混沌特征,本文利用蔡氏电路为人脑建立电路模型.文中利用Multisim10®仿真蔡氏电路,提取纯阻 R1两端电压,作为原始待分析数据.类积分法、李亚普若夫指数、微窗口法和 P分数等四种方法顺次应用于选取数据分析窗口.基于数据窗口,分别调整电感 L和非线性电阻参数R5,得到纯阻 R1的平均功率及其最小值 PR1min (1.56×10-4W).同时以 PR1min为底数,利用Log函数计算 R1的平均功率对应的指数值.对比最近几年人脑近红外耳穴信号研究成果,R1平均功率指数与以微笑时人脑额区消耗功率为底数的人脑平静、诚实和说谎的功率消耗指数分布相同.结合人脑实际消耗功率,我们选取纯阻 R1最小平均功率对应的蔡氏电路并联,实现平静、微笑、诚实和说谎的人脑额区

  4. Response to temperature and light and thermal property of reversibly thermochromic bamboo/plastic composite%可逆热致变色竹塑复合材料的温度与光响应及热学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋宁; 宋剑斌; 余方兵; 陈丽红; 杨文斌※

    2013-01-01

      为更进一步了解可逆热致变色竹塑复合材料所具有的特性,该论文对可逆变色竹塑复合材的温度与光响应及热学性能进行研究,主要包括:环境温度对变色时间的影响、变色复合材料的曝晒试验(测试环境温度与曝晒装置内的温度)、试样表面的反射率、导热系数等。研究结果表明:变色竹塑复合材料在较高的环境温度下竹塑复合材料的变色响应时间较短,如WTB1在45、50、55、60、65℃的变色时间分别为256.11、146.18、82.78、69.16、45.06 s;曝晒试验的结果表明颜色影响试验箱内温度,添加钛白粉可降低曝晒装置内的温度;在12:00时,WTB1、WTB2、WTB3、WTB4、WTR1、WTR2与环境的温差分别为14.3、12.8、15.3、11.3、15.3、11.3℃。可逆变色竹塑材料的导热系数随着温度的升高而增大,WTB2在15、30、45、60℃下的导热系数分别为0.098、0.099、0.103、0.107 W/(m K),WTB1(未添加钛白粉)表面自由能和接触角分别为67.3°、41.50 MJ/m2,而WTB2(添加钛白粉)的表面自由能和接触角分别为74.6°、37.52 MJ/m2;各种试样的反射率存在差异,添加钛白粉提高了材料的表面反射率,颜色是影响太阳反射率的重要因素之一。研究结果为该材料的实际应用提供数据支持。%  In order to understand more features about reversibly thermochromic bamboo/plastic composites(BPC), we focused on its response to the temperature, light and thermal property, which included that, the effect of environment temperature on discoloration time, insolation experiment (test temperature of outside environment and inside of insolation device), reflectance and thermal conductivity of reversibly thermochromic bamboo/plastic composites and so on. The results showed that, the higher the environment temperature was, the shorter the discoloration time of the reversibly thermochromic BPC was. Taking WTB1 (BPC and

  5. 妊娠晚期乙二胺四乙酸依赖性假性血小板减少一例的识别与诊治%Recognition and Treatment of Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA)-Dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia in Late Trimester of Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊裔明; 周辉; 廖建梅; 侯倩男

    2013-01-01

    Objective To raise the awareness of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) dependent pseudothrombocyto-penia (PTCP). Methods The process of diagnosis and treatment of one patient with EDTA-PTCP during late trimester of pregnancy who applied for consultation was retrospectively analyzed. Results The patient had early amniorrhexis in late trimester of pregnancy, and applied for consultation due to blood platelet counts (BPC) 5 × 109/L. Inquiring and physical examination did not show bleeding history or pathological signs. Then BPC was 70 × 109/L with heparin-anticoagulant sample by hand and 34 × l09/L with automatic blood counter respectively, which suggested that the EDTA-PTCP might be caused by part platelet aggregation. The pregnant woman did not have abnormal bleeding during and after cesarean section, and was diagnosed as having EDTA-PTCP. Conclusion EDTA-PTCP should be one of the most important differential items in diagnosis of thrombocytopenia to avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment.%目的 提高对乙二胺四乙酸(ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid,EDTA)依赖性假性血小板减少(EDTA-PTCP)的认识.方法 对1例申请会诊的妊娠晚期EDTA-PTCP的诊治经过进行回顾性分析.结果 本例因妊娠晚期羊膜早破,查血小板5×109/L申请会诊.经问诊与查体,未发现出血病史和体征.后采用肝素抗凝血手工进行血小板计数70×109/L,自动计数仪血小板计数34×109/L,两者差异推测可能与肝素引起了部分血小板聚集有关,诊断为EDTA-PTCP.患者剖宫产术中与术后均无明显出血.结论 临床上应将EDTA-PTCP作为血小板减少的重要鉴别项目之一,以免造成误诊误治.

  6. 探讨小剂量肝素治疗白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血的临床疗效%To Discuss the Clinical Effect of Small Dose of Heparin in Treatment of Leukemia Associated with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努尔阿米娜•依明尼亚孜; 夏木西卡马尔•买买提明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical ef ect of smal dose of heparin in treatment of leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Methods 100 cases of patients with leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation in our hospital were divided into observation group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Control group accepted conventional chemotherapy, observation group received smal dose of heparin on basis of control, comparing treatment ef ect. Results The total ef ective rate of observation group was higher than control, <0.05. BPC, D-D, et al of observation group were bet er than control, <0.05. Conclusion Smal dose of heparin in treatment of leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation can obtain remarkable ef ect, ef ectively improve the prognosis.%目的:本文探讨小剂量肝素治疗白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血的临床疗效。方法选取我院接受治疗的白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血患者100例,随机分为观察组与对照组,每组50例。对照组患者行常规化疗,观察组患者在此基础上联合小剂量肝素进行治疗,比较治疗效果。结果观察组患者治疗总有效率高于对照组,<0.05。观察组患者在血小板计数(BPC)、D-二聚体含量(D-D)等指标明显优于对照组<0.05。结论小剂量肝素治疗白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血效果显著,可有效改善患者预后。

  7. A System for Managing Replenishment of a Nutrient Solution Using an Electrical Conductivity Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Control of nutrient solution parameters is very important for the growth and development of plants grown hydroponically. Protocols involving different nutrient solution replenishment times (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day replenishment) provide manual periodic control of the nutrient solution's electrical conductivity (EC). Since plants take-up nutrients as they grow, manual control has a drawback in that EC is not held constant between replenishments. In an effort to correct this problem the Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space at Tuskegee University has developed a system for managing and controlling levels of EC over a plant's entire growing cycle. A prototype system is being tested on sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT), and it is being compared to a system in which sweetpotatoes are grown using NFT with manual control. NASA has played an important role in the development of environmental control systems. They have become a forerunner in growing plants hydroponically with some control systems through the use of networked data acquisition and control using environmental growth chambers. Data acquisition systems which involve the use of real-time, calibration, set points, user panel, and graphical representation programming provide a good method of controlling nutrient solution parameters such as EC and pH [Bledsoe, 19931]. In NASA's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center, control is provided by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This is an industrial controller which combines ladder computer logic which has the ability to handle various levels of electrical power. The controller controls temperature, light and other parameters that affect the plant's environment, in the BPC, the Nutrient Delivery System (NIX), a sub-system of the PLC, controls nutrient solution parameters such as EC, pH, and solution levels. When the nutrient EC measurement goes outside a preset range (120

  8. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Kerhervé, Philippe; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Many, Gaël; Morata, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012-2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (< 0.3%OC), however the high primary productivity in the water column displayed during spring was reflected in summer sediments, and exhibited higher freshness of material at the inner station compared to the outer basin (means C-chlorophyll-a/OC 5 and 1.5%, respectively). However, sediments at the glacier front were depleted in BPC

  9. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  10. Basic Pentacysteine Proteins Repress Abscisic Acid Insensitive4 Expression via Direct Recruitment of the Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2 in Arabidopsis Root Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ying; Zou, Meijuan; Sun, Xuwu; He, Baoye; Xu, Xiumei; Liu, Yini; Zhang, Lixin; Chi, Wei

    2017-01-30

    Plant transcription factors generally act in complex regulatory networks that function at multiple levels to govern plant developmental programs. Dissection of the interconnections among different classes of transcription factors can elucidate these regulatory networks and thus improve our understanding of plant development. Here, we investigated the molecular and functional relationships of the transcription factors ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) and members of the BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) family in lateral root (LR) development of Arabidopsis thaliana Genetic analysis showed that BPCs promote LR development by repressing ABI4 expression. Molecular analysis showed that BPCs bind to the ABI4 promoter and repress ABI4 transcription in roots. BPCs directly recruit the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to the ABI4 locus and epigenetically repress ABI4 expression by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. In addition, BPCs and ABI4 coordinate their activities to fine-tune the levels of PIN-FORMED1, a component of the auxin signaling pathway, and thus modulate LR formation. These results establish a functional relationship between two universal and multiple-role transcription factors and provide insight into the mechanisms of the transcriptional regulatory networks that affect Arabidopsis organogenesis.

  11. Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

  12. FVB Energy Inc. Technical Assistance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.

    2011-05-17

    The request made by FVB asked for advice and analysis regarding the value of recapturing the braking energy of trains operating on electric light rail transit systems. A specific request was to evaluate the concept of generating hydrogen by electrolysis. The hydrogen would, in turn, power fuel cells that could supply electric energy back into the system for train propulsion or, possibly, also to the grid. To allow quantitative assessment of the potential resource, analysis focused on operations of the SoundTransit light rail system in Seattle, Washington. An initial finding was that the full cycle efficiency of producing hydrogen as the medium for capturing and reusing train braking energy was quite low (< 20%) and, therefore, not likely to be economically attractive. As flywheel energy storage is commercially available, the balance of the analysis focused the feasibility of using this alternative on the SoundTransit system. It was found that an investment in a flywheel with a 25-kWh capacity of the type manufactured by Beacon Power Corporation (BPC) would show a positive 20-year net present value (NPV) based on the current frequency of train service. The economic attractiveness of this option would increase initially if green energy subsidies or rebates were applicable and, in the future, as the planned frequency of train service grows.

  13. Analysis of high efficiency back point contact silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Antonio

    1988-01-01

    A model has been developed for the analysis of Back Point-Contact (BPC) cells under variable injection level. The analysis has been applied to an experimental cell from Stanford University to allow the extraction of the recombination parameters of this cell. While the bulk SRH recombination and the recombination in the surface and in the emitters are those expected, the Auger constant takes a higher value (2.1 × 10 -30 cm 6/s), than the one usually accepted, and in agreement with the measurements by the Stanford group, for the carrier density involved here. The analysis indicates that best efficiency results are obtained with cells with finely designed emitter dots and well passivated surfaces, made on high resistivity substrates, leading to an upper limit of efficiency obtained at 20 W/cm 2 of about 30.4%. If our technology prevents us from a fine dot delineation (below 5-10 μm) then the highest efficiency is to be expected from the more conventional Interdigitated Back Contact cells with a limit (with our fitted Auger constant) of about 30%. Finally, if the commonly accepted value of the Auger constant (3.8 × 10 -31 cm 6/s) is used this limit is obtained at 50 W/cm 2 and is of 33.1% with a strongly idealized cell. All the efficiencies are at 25°C.

  14. Green Development Performance in China: A Metafrontier Non-Radial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a green development growth index (GDGI for measuring the changes in sustainable development over time. This index considers a wide range of pollutants, and allows for the incorporation of group heterogeneity and non-radial slack in the conventional green development index. The GDGI is calculated based on a non-radial directional distance function derived by several data envelopment analysis (DEA models, and was decomposed into an efficiency change (EC index, a best-practice gap change (BPC index and a technology gap change (TGC index. The proposed indices are employed to measure green development performance in 30 provinces in China from 2000 to 2012. The empirical results show that China has a low level of green development, with a 2.58% increase per year driven by an innovation effect. China’s green development is mainly led by the eastern region, and the technology gaps between the eastern region and the other two regions (the central and western regions have become wider over the years. The group innovative provinces have set a target for resource utilization of non-innovative provinces in order to catch-up with the corresponding groups, while the metafrontier innovative provinces provide targets for the technology levels of other provinces to improve their green development performance.

  15. Investigating combustion as a method of processing inedible biomass produced in NASA's biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the John F. Kennedy Space Center is a research program to integrate and evaluate biological processes to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This project focuses on the use of conventional crop plants as grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) for the production and recycling of oxygen, food, and water. The inedible portion of these crops has the potential to be converted to edible biomass or directly to the elemental constituents for direct recycling. Converting inedible biomass directly, by combustion, to carbon dioxide, water, and minerals could provide a baseline for estimating partitioning of the mass balance during recycling in a CELSS. Converting the inedible biomass to carbon dioxide and water requires the same amount of oxygen that was produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen produced during crop growth is just equal to the oxygen required to oxidize all the biomass produced during growth. Thus, the amount of oxygen produced that is available for human consumption is in proportion to the amount of biomass actually utilized by humans. The remaining oxygen must be available to oxidize the rest of the biomass back to carbon dioxide and water or the system will not be a regenerative one.

  16. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  17. Balance of Payments Constraint and Economic Growth in China%国际收支约束与中国经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦武

    2011-01-01

    文章研究了国际收支约束条件下中国经济的长期均衡增长问题。文章把中国国际收支出现的长期、持续“双顺差”现象纳入研究框架中,拓展了已有文献的研究范围。通过实证分析,得到并对比检验了国际收支约束下中国经济长期增长率、Thirlwall经济增长率和中国实际经济增长率的异同,分析了其中的经济含义。最后,在对研究结论做进一步分析的基础上文章提出了相应的政策建议。%This paper studies the long-term equilibrium issue of economic growth in China under BPC conditions. It incorporates the long-term and constant double-surplus of China' s balance of payments in the analytical framework and extends current research scope.

  18. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  19. Natural polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanocomposite based biosensor for detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phukon, Pinkee [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Radhapyari, Keisham [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006, Assam (India); Konwar, Bolin Kumar [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Nagaland University (Central), Lumami, Zunheboto, Nagaland 798627 (India); Khan, Raju, E-mail: khan.raju@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006, Assam (India)

    2014-04-01

    The worrisome trend of antimalarial resistance has already highlighted the importance of artemisinin as a potent antimalarial agent. The current investigation aimed at fabricating a biosensor based on natural polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle composite mounting on an indium-tin oxide glass plate for the analysis of artemisinin. The biosensor was fabricated using an adsorbing horse-radish peroxidase enzyme on the electrode surface for which cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor the electro-catalytic reduction of artemisinin under diffusion controlled conditions. Electrochemical interfacial properties and immobilization of enzyme onto a polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle film were evaluated, and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The differential pulse voltammetric peak current for artemisinin was increased linearly (concentration range of 0.01–0.08 μg mL{sup −1}) with sensitivity of 0.26 μA μg mL{sup −1}. The greater sensitivity of the fabricated biosensor to artemisinin (optimum limits of detection were 0.0035 μg mL{sup −1} and 0.0036 μg mL{sup −1} in bulk and spiked human serum, respectively) could be of much aid in medical diagnosis. - Highlights: • Extraction of PHA from indigenously isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa BPC2 • Developed PHA/AuNPs/HRP/ITO based biosensor without the use of chemical cross linker • Detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin using the nanocomposite based biosensor.

  20. A high-power SLED 2 pulse compression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, N.M. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Ruth, R.D.; Wilson, P.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nantista, C. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-03-01

    The enhancement of peak power by means of RF pulse compression has found important application for driving high energy electron linacs, the SLAC linac in particular. The SLAC Energy Doubler (SLED), however, yields a pulse shape in the form of a decaying exponential which limits the applicability of the method. Two methods of improving this situation have been suggested: binary pulse compression (BPC), in which the pulse is compressed by successive factors of two, and SLED II in which the pair of resonant cavities of SLED are replaced by long resonant delay lines (typically waveguides). Intermediate schemes in which the cavity pair is replaced by sequences of coupled cavities have also been considered. In this paper we describe our efforts towards the design and construction of high-power SLED II systems, which are intended to provide drivers for various advanced accelerator test facilities and potentially for the Next Linear Collider itself. The design path we have chosen requires the development of a number of microwave components in overmoded waveguide, and the bulk of this paper will be devoted to reporting our progress.

  1. 环胞菌素A治疗过敏性紫癜肾1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维忠; 郭劲红

    2005-01-01

    患者男,25岁,因全身皮肤瘀点瘀斑半年余,近半月腰疼伴有血尿,于2000年6月20日人院。查体:非贫血貌,全身皮肤可见散在瘀点瘀斑,呈紫红色,略高出皮肤表面,双下肢尤为显著,浅表淋巴结不大,胸骨压痛(-),心肺听诊正常,肝脾无肿大。实验室检查:血常规WBC12.2×109/L,Sg0.66、Ly0.31、Mon0.02、E0.01、Hb136g/L,Bpc155×109/L。尿常规.肉眼血尿,RBC满视野,WBC1-3/HP,颗粒管型1-3/100×,PRO++,BLD++,URO+。

  2. 结节性发热性非化脓性脂膜炎1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国素

    2000-01-01

    @@ 患者,男,26岁.因发热、茶色尿、贫血3月余,于1996年3月21日以"贫血原因待查、溶血性贫血"收住院.入院前3月无明显诱因地发热,体温38 C~40℃,伴畏寒、盗汗、茶色尿及头昏、乏力.2月前在当地医院查血常规:Hb101g/L,WBC3.9×109/L,BPC320×109/L,ESR23mm/h.肝功能异常,肥达氏反应阴性.尿常规:URO+3.B超:肝回声密集,脾肿大.曾诊断为败血症、伤寒、结核、肝炎、淋巴瘤及恶性组织细胞病等,并用多种抗菌药物,保肝治疗均无效.

  3. 低温保存对富含血小板血浆质量影响的实验观察%Cryopreservation to platelet rich plasma collection and the experiment lobserue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 欧阳锡林; 骆群

    2006-01-01

    目的:分析富含血小板血浆(platelet rich plasma,PRP)低温保存后的质量变化.方法:采用定时限量、温和水平振荡方法将终浓度5%二甲基亚砜(dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO)加入已制备的PRP中,测定-80℃条件下冻存前后血小板数(platelet count,BPC)、乳酸脱氢酶(lactic acid dehydrogenase,LDH)含量及pH值.结果:制备PRP可获全血中75%的血小板;PRP加DMSO冷冻前后血小板计数差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);LDH活性有明显增高(P0.05).结论:富含血小板血浆冷冻保存后可获得较高回收率,血小板数量和血浆pH值没有明显改变.

  4. Synthetic Cyclolipopeptides Selective against Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Targets by Incorporation of D-Amino Acids or Histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Sílvia; Badosa, Esther; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides derived from the antimicrobial peptide c(Lys-Lys-Leu-Lys-Lys-Phe-Lys-Lys-Leu-Gln) (BPC194) were prepared on solid-phase and screened against four plant pathogens. The incorporation at Lys5 of fatty acids of 4 to 9 carbon atoms led to active cyclolipopeptides. The influence on the antimicrobial activity of the Lys residue that is derivatized was also evaluated. In general, acylation of Lys1, Lys2 or Lys5 rendered the sequences with the highest activity. Incorporation of a D-amino acid maintained the antimicrobial activity while significantly reduced the hemolysis. Replacement of Phe with a His also yielded cyclolipopeptides with low hemolytic activity. Derivatives exhibiting low phytotoxicity in tobacco leaves were also found. Interestingly, sequences with or without significant activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, but with differential hemolysis and phytotoxicity were identified. Therefore, this study represents an approach to the development of bioactive peptides with selective activity against microbial, plant and animal cell targets. These selective cyclolipopeptides are candidates useful not only to combat plant pathogens but also to be applied in other fields.

  5. Synthetic Cyclolipopeptides Selective against Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Targets by Incorporation of D-Amino Acids or Histidine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vilà

    Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides derived from the antimicrobial peptide c(Lys-Lys-Leu-Lys-Lys-Phe-Lys-Lys-Leu-Gln (BPC194 were prepared on solid-phase and screened against four plant pathogens. The incorporation at Lys5 of fatty acids of 4 to 9 carbon atoms led to active cyclolipopeptides. The influence on the antimicrobial activity of the Lys residue that is derivatized was also evaluated. In general, acylation of Lys1, Lys2 or Lys5 rendered the sequences with the highest activity. Incorporation of a D-amino acid maintained the antimicrobial activity while significantly reduced the hemolysis. Replacement of Phe with a His also yielded cyclolipopeptides with low hemolytic activity. Derivatives exhibiting low phytotoxicity in tobacco leaves were also found. Interestingly, sequences with or without significant activity against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi, but with differential hemolysis and phytotoxicity were identified. Therefore, this study represents an approach to the development of bioactive peptides with selective activity against microbial, plant and animal cell targets. These selective cyclolipopeptides are candidates useful not only to combat plant pathogens but also to be applied in other fields.

  6. Assessment of the relationship of government spending on social assistance programs with Brazilian macroeconomic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Senna, Viviane; Souza, Adriano Mendonça

    2016-11-01

    Since the 1988 Federal Constitution social assistance has become a duty of the State and a right to everyone, guaranteeing the population a dignified life. To ensure these rights federal government has created programs that can supply the main needs of people in extreme poverty. Among the programs that provide social assistance to the population, the best known are the "Bolsa Família" Program - PBF and the Continuous Cash Benefit - Continuous Cash Benefit - BPC. This research's main purpose is to analyze the relationship between the main macroeconomic variables and the Federal government spending on social welfare policy in the period from January 2004 to August 2014. The used methodologies are the Vector auto regression model - VAR and Error Correction Vector - VEC. The conclusion, was that there is a meaningful relationship between macroeconomic variables and social assistance programs. This indicates that if the government takes a more abrupt resolution in changing the existing programs it will result in fluctuations in the main macroeconomic variables interfering with the stability of Brazilian domestic economy up to twelve months.

  7. Virus-induced dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by increased levels of fibrotic extracellular matrix proteins and reduced amounts of energy-producing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtala, Krishnatej; Phong, Truong Q; Steil, Leif; Sauter, Martina; Salazar, Manuela G; Kandolf, Reinhard; Kroemer, Heyo K; Felix, Stephan B; Völker, Uwe; Klingel, Karin; Hammer, Elke

    2011-11-01

    The most relevant clinical phenotype resulting from chronic enteroviral myocarditis is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Mice of the susceptible mouse strain A.BY/SnJ mimick well human DCM since they develop as a consequence of persistent infection and chronic inflammation a dilation of the heart ventricle several weeks after coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Therefore, this model is well suited for the analysis of changes in the heart proteome associated with DCM. Here, we present a proteomic survey of the dilated hearts based on differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric centered methods in comparison to age-matched non-infected hearts. In total, 101 distinct proteins, which belong to categories immunity and defense, cell structure and associated proteins, energy metabolism and protein metabolism/modification differed in their levels in both groups. Levels of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism and electron transport chain were found to be significantly reduced in infected mice suggesting a decrease in energy production in CVB3-induced DCM. Furthermore, proteins associated with muscle contraction (MLRV, MLRc2, MYH6, MyBPC3), were present in significantly altered amounts in infected mice. A significant increase in the level of extracellular matrix proteins in the dilated hearts indicates cardiac remodeling due to fibrosis.

  8. Ecological literacy through critical/place-based pedagogy in the environmental studies program at a small liberal arts college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

    In 2007 Pioneer High School, a public school in Whittier, California changed the sequence of its science courses from the Traditional Biology-Chemistry-Physics (B-C-P) to Biology-Physics-Chemistry (B-P-C), or "Physics Second." The California Standards Tests (CSTs) scores in Physics and Chemistry from 2004-2012 were used to determine if there were any effects of the Physics Second sequencing on student achievement in those courses. The data was also used to determine whether the Physics Second sequence had an effect on performance in Physics and Chemistry based on gender. Independent t tests and chi-square analysis of the data determined an improvement in student performance in Chemistry but not Physics. The 2x2 Factorial ANOVA analysis revealed that in Physics male students performed better on the CSTs than their female peers. In Chemistry, it was noted that male and female students performed equally well. Neither finding was a result ofthe change to the "Physics Second" sequencing.

  9. A distribuição das transferências, público-alvo e cobertura do Benefício de Prestação Continuada = The Distribution of transfers, target-group and coverage of the Continuous Cash Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma nova definição operacional de deficiência e uma metodologia de cálculo para estimar as distribuições de pessoas idosas e deficientes incapazes para o trabalho e vida independente, dos benefícios e dos níveis de cobertura do Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC, segundo diferentes estratos de renda da população brasileira. São usados dados do Censo 2000, da Pnad 2006 e de registros administrativos do MDS. A estimativa indica que a população de idosos e deficientes incapazes distribui-se uniformemente nos estratos de renda, mas os benefícios são distribuídos predominantemente nos grupos de renda mais baixa da população, com a cobertura maior entre os mais pobres. Os resultados sugerem que a cobertura da população-alvo ainda é insuficiente e que o programa apresenta erros de focalização, mas estes são, em sua maioria, de baixa intensidade

  10. Hydrogel membrane electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sampath; N A Choudhury; A K Shukla

    2009-09-01

    Polymer electrolytes are known to possess excellent physicochemical properties that are very useful for electrochemical energy systems. The mobility in polymer electrolytes is understood to be mainly due to the segmental motion of polymer chains and the ion transport is generally restricted to the amorphous phase of the polymer. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) that are formed using plastizicers and polymers along with ionic salts are known to exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity while maintaining the dimensional stability of a solid matrix. In the present study, the preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogel membranes (PHMEs) as electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors have been reported. Varying HClO4 dopant concentration leads to different characteristics of the capacitors. The EC comprising PHME doped with 2 M HClO4 and black pearl carbon (BPC) electrodes has been found to exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 97 F g-1, a phase angle value of 78°, and a maximum charge-discharge coulombic efficiency of 88%.

  11. Optimizing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug carriers using an in vitro blood–brain barrier model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Di; Mi, Gujie; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, an optimized in vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) model was established using mouse brain endothelial cells (b.End3) and astrocytes (C8-D1A). Before measuring the permeability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) samples, the BBB was first examined and confirmed by an immunofluorescent stain and evaluating the transendothelial electrical resistance. After such confirmation, the permeability of the following five previously synthesized SPIONs was determined using this optimized BBB model: 1) GGB (synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid, and bovine serum albumin [BSA]), 2) GGC (glycine, glutamic acid, and collagen), 3) GGP (glycine, glutamic acid, and polyvinyl alcohol), 4) BPC (BSA, polyethylene glycol, and collagen), and 5) CPB (collagen, polyvinyl alcohol, and BSA). More importantly, after the permeability test, transmission electron microscopy thin section technology was used to investigate the mechanism behind this process. Transmission electron microscopy thin section images supported the hypothesis that collagen-coated CPB SPIONs displayed better cellular uptake than glycine and glutamine acid-coated GGB SPIONs. Such experimental data demonstrated how one can modify SPIONs to better deliver drugs to the brain to treat a wide range of neurological disorders.

  12. c-Reactive protein levels as a biomarker of inflammation and stress in the Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) from three southeastern USA estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, A H; Rice, C D

    2004-01-01

    Circulating c-reactive protein (CRP) levels can be used as a bioindicator of the acute phase inflammatory response and as a possible biomarker of inflammation and neurogenic stress in vertebrates. Currently, there are no data describing the ranges of CRP levels in sharks living in different habitats, especially habitats of differing degrees of pollution. Developing antibodies against CRP is a first and critical step towards developing sensitive methods for quantifying CRP, and thus inflammatory and stress responses in sharks. Sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, serum C-reactive protein was purified sequentially over AH-sepharose 4B-PC and sepharose CL-4B columns and used to immunize balb/c mice for generating stocks of polyclonal anti-sera. Serum samples from 131 sharpnose sharks were collected from three different geographical regions along the coast of SC and GA, USA between June and November 2002. Total CRP concentrations were quantified by ELISA and found to be highest in the sharpnose shark population collected in the summer from Charleston, SC, compared to Beaufort, SC and Brunswick, GA. Seasonal comparisons indicated a higher CRP concentration in the summer of the Charleston, SC population compared to the fall. These data suggest that sharks living in the Charleston, SC harbor estuary may be exposed to a suite of pathogens or other stressors that are different than those found in the Beaufort, SC and Brunswick, GA estuaries. These data support the use of CRP as a bioindicator of health status in elasmobranchs.

  13. Phytoremediation of Indoor Air: NASA, Bill Wolverton, and the Development of an Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    It was during this period of the early 1970's and 1980's when the issues associated with Sick Building Syndrome were gaining attention that the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) became an unlikely leader in identifying biological solutions to the problem of poor indoor air quality. NASA had been supporting work using biological systems for atmospheric regeneration since the 1950's, with the emphasis on using photosynthetic systems for the removal of carbon dioxide and regeneration of oxygen as part of a life support system. The then Soviet Union was conducting tests using algae systems in the BIO-1 program (1964-1968) to regenerate the air at the Siberian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk (Later renamed the Institute of Biophysics). These tests were expanded to include the use of higher plants in the BIOS-2 testing in the 1970's, and humans during BIO-3 in the 1980'SI3. Within NASA, large scale testing of bioregenerative life support systems was conducted in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center, Florida as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Breadboard project.

  14. Research on High-Bandgap Materials and Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells, Final Technical Report, 15 May 1994-15 January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, E. A.; Gu, Q.; Jiang, L.; Lyou, J.; Nurdjaja, I.; Rao, P. (Department of Physics, Syracuse University)

    1998-12-28

    This report describes work performed by Syracuse University under this subcontract. Researchers developed a technique based on electroabsorption measurements for obtaining quantitative estimates of the built-in potential Vbi in a-Si:H-based heterostructure solar cells incorporating microcrystalline or a-SiC:H p layers. Using this new electroabsorption technique, researchers confirmed previous estimates of Vbi {yields} 1.0 V in a-Si:H solar cells with ''conventional'' intrinsic layers and either microcrystalline or a-SiC:H p layers. Researchers also explored the recent claim that light-soaking of a-Si:H substantially changes the polarized electroabsorption associated with interband optical transitions (and hence, not defect transitions). Researchers confirmed measurements of improved (5') hole drift mobilities in some specially prepared a-Si:H samples. Disturbingly, solar cells made with such materials did not show improved efficiencies. Researchers significantly clarified the relationship of ambipolar diffusion-length measurements to hole drift mobilities in a-Si:H, and have shown that the photocapacitance measurements can be interpreted in terms of hole drift mobilities in amorphous silicon. They also completed a survey of thin BP:H and BPC:H films prepared by plasma deposition using phosphine, diborane, trimethylboron, and hydrogen as precursor gases.

  15. Measurement of D{sup *{+-}} production at low Q{sup 2} with the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang, P.

    2004-12-01

    The production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The total D* production cross-section and the differential cross-sections as functions of Q{sup 2}, y, p{sub t}(D*) and {eta}(D*) have been measured at low Q{sup 2}. The data sample used was collected during the period 1998-2000 and amounts to an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb{sup -1}. The low Q{sup 2} region could be reached using the beam-pipe calorimeter which measures the scattered electron at very small angles. Therefore special emphasis was put on the calibration of the BPC in order to reconstruct events in the kinematic range 0.05 < Q{sup 2} < 0.7 GeV{sup 2} and 0.02 < y < 0.85. The D* mesons have been identified via the decay into lighter mesons D{sup *}+{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and the charged conjugated decay in the kinematic region 1.5

  16. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    KAUST Repository

    Bourgeois, Solveig

    2016-08-23

    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012–2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (< 0.3%OC), however the high primary productivity in the water column displayed during spring was reflected in summer sediments, and exhibited higher freshness of material at the inner station compared to the outer basin (means C-chlorophyll-a/OC ~ 5 and 1.5%, respectively). However, sediments at the glacier front were depleted

  17. Hematological Malignancies and Thrombophilia%血液恶性肿瘤与易栓症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 阿孜古丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between coagulation function and thrombophilia in hematological malignancies .Methods The hospital blood malignant tumor in 100 cases of patients ( group A myeloproliferative disease in 30 cases,20 cases of group B myeloma,lymphoma in group C 50 cases)in plas-ma prothrombin time(PT)was measured for and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT),thrombin time (TT),fibrin original(Fbg),D-dimer(D-D)compared with healthy subjects,and blood platelet count(BPC). Results Compared with the normal control group ,BPC difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05);the Fbg and D-D were higher than the normal control group (P0.05).The thrombosis incidence of A was 6/30(20%),B group was 2/20(10%),C group was 8/50(16%).Conclusion Blood clotting index should be observed in the blood ,and the abnormal increase of D-D should be on the alert for thrombosis .Appropriate further screening ,immediately take antico-agulation after confirmed .%目的探讨血液恶性肿瘤的凝血功能与易栓症的相关性。方法本院血液恶性肿瘤住院患者100例( A组骨髓增殖性疾病30例,B组骨髓瘤20例,C组淋巴瘤50例),测定其血浆中凝血酶原时间( PT),活化部分凝血酶时间(aPTT),凝血酶时间(TT),纤维蛋白原(Fbg),D二聚体(D-D)多项凝血功能指标及血小板计数(BPC),并与健康者对比。结果患者组较正常对照组的血小板数,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);Fbg、D-D较正常对照组的检测值均高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。患者组较正常对照组的PT,TT,aPTT差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。各疾病组血栓发生率:A组骨髓增殖性疾病为6/30(20%);B组骨髓瘤为2/20(10%);C组淋巴瘤为8/50(16%);而对照组无血栓发生。结论血液恶性肿瘤应定期观测凝血指标,D二聚体异常增高者要警惕有血栓形成,

  18. Um estudo sobre o perfil dos empregados com deficiência em uma organização A study on the profile of disabled employees in an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cypriano Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseado na premissa de que todo processo inclusivo, seja este educacional, social ou laboral, precisa partir de uma apropriação do contexto sociocultural dos diferentes atores envolvidos - no caso desta pesquisa: empregadores, pessoas com deficiência e empresa, o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar o perfil dos empregados com deficiência em uma organização de grande porte do ramo da alimentação. Procuramos discutir o contexto social no qual os trabalhadores com deficiência estão inseridos através de um recorte quantitativo dos resultados de uma pesquisa desenvolvida sobre o processo de inclusão em uma organização. O estudo foi desenvolvido por meio dos documentos disponibilizados pela empresa, bem como de documentos nacionais. Os resultados revelam uma cartografia das pessoas com deficiência inseridas na organização através de informações sobre escolaridade, idade, salário, funções e tipos de deficiência, comparando-os aos dados nacionais disponíveis sobre as pessoas com deficiência. Por fim, discutimos alguns resultados obtidos com o estudo. Em que pese a importância das políticas públicas, propomos uma reflexão acerca de mecanismos como o Benefício da Prestação Continuada (BPC, para o favorecimento desta relação entre trabalho e deficiência. Entendemos, finalmente, que é urgente educar e qualificar as pessoas com deficiência, mas não é suficiente, pois também são necessárias ações estruturantes da sociedade para o sucesso do processo de inclusão.based on the premise that all inclusive processes, be they educational, social or occupational, require an appropriation of the sociocultural context of the different actors involved - in the case of this research: employers, disabled people and company, the aim of this study is to identify the profile of employees with disabilities in a large food industry company. We attempted to discuss the social context in which workers with disabilities are

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of the complete series of B-N analogues of triptycene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Omer; Popp, Sebastian; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2014-06-14

    The reaction between the bisborate Li2[o-C6H4(BH3)2] and 2 equivalents of an appropriate pyrazole derivative (Hpz(R)) in the presence of Me3SiCl yields o-phenylene-bridged pyrazaboles HB(μ-pz(R))2(μ-o-C6H4)BH (3a-3e; Hpz(R) = 4-iodopyrazole (3a), 4-(trimethylsilyl)pyrazole (3b), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3c), 3,5-di(tert-butyl)pyrazole (3d), 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole (3e)). The synthesis approach thus provides access to uncharged B-N triptycenes bearing (i) functionalisable groups, (ii) electron-donating or -withdrawing substituents and (iii) pyrazole rings of varying steric demand. Treatment of p-R*C6H4BBr2 with the potassium tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borates K[HBpz3] or K[p-R*C6H4Bpz3] yields cationic pyrazolyl-bridged pyrazaboles [p-BrC6H4B(μ-pz)3BH]Br ([4a]Br) and [p-R*C6H4B(μ-pz)3Bp-C6H4R*]Br (R* = Br ([4b]Br), I ([4c]Br), SiMe3 ([4d]Br)), which can be regarded as full B-N analogues of triptycene. The B-H bonds of 3b and [4a]Br are unreactive towards tBuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH even at temperatures of 80 °C, thereby indicating an appreciable thermal stability of the corresponding B-N cage bonds. Most of the cage compounds are sufficiently inert towards water to allow quick aqueous workup. However, NMR spectroscopy in CD3OD solution reveals degradation of 3b or [4a]Br to the corresponding pyrazoles and o-C6H4(B(OCD3)2)2 or p-BrC6H4B(OCD3)2/B(OCD3)3. The diphenylated species [4b]Br is significantly more stable under the same measurement conditions; even after 76 d, most of the material degrades only to the stage of the syn/anti-pyrazaboles p-BrC6H4(CD3O)B(μ-pz)2B(OCD3)p-C6H4Br (11a/11b). A derivatisation of [4c]Br with nBu3SnC≡CtBu through Stille-type coupling reactions furnishes the alkynyl derivative [p-tBuC≡CC6H4B(μ-pz)3Bp-C6H4C≡CtBu]Br ([4e]Br). Larger B-N aggregates are also accessible: treatment of the tetrakisborate Li4[1,2,4,5-C6H2(BH3)4] with 4 equivalents of Hpz(R) in the presence of Me3SiCl leads to the corresponding B

  20. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  1. Eighteen Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) pathway genes, circulating levels of IGF-1 and its binding protein (IGFBP-3), and risk of prostate and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fangyi; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Canzian, Federico; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine D; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buring, Julie E.; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lagiou, Pagona; Lee, I-Min; LeMarchand, Loic; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Jing; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, Maria-José; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Pär; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Zhang, Shumin M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Ziegler, Regina G.; Kraft, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins. Methods We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in over 5500 Caucasian men and 5500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Results After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-1 (p<2.1×10−4); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R2=0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-1 and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers. Conclusion Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes appears to influence circulating IGF-1 levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS appears to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women. Impact Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes. PMID:20810604

  2. A Inclusão de Pessoas com Deficiência no Contexto do Trabalho em Florianópolis: Relato de Experiência no Sistema Nacional de Emprego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Hammes

    Full Text Available Após a implantação da Lei de Cotas, que obriga as empresas com mais de cem funcionários a contratarem pessoas com deficiência (PcD, percebeu-se uma mudança de paradigma que coaduna com o princípio de inclusão. Além disso, estudos de Responsabilidade Social Empresarial têm levantado a importância da diversidade dentro das organizações, apontando a inclusão das PcD como forte aliada para uma gestão socialmente responsável, com significativos ganhos para a empresa. Assim, este artigo pretende mostrar a experiência vivida pelo Sistema Nacional de Emprego (SINE, na Grande Florianópolis, por meio do desenvolvimento de ações específicas para inclusão das PcD no mundo do trabalho. Realizando atividades focadas no público interno, nos empregadores e trabalhadores com deficiência, o SINE teve um aumento de 52% no fluxo de atendimentos às PcD, intermediando a inserção desse público no mercado de trabalho. Constatou-se que as principais dificuldades encontradas no desenvolvimento dessas ações são as barreiras atitudinais, ou seja, o preconceito e o desconhecimento das pessoas acerca da deficiência, além da falta de rotina de fiscalização do cumprimento das cotas nas empresas e da presença de barreiras programáticas relativas ao BPC (Benefício da Prestação Continuada.

  3. Transgene inheritance and quality improvement by expressing novel HMW glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes in winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The expression vector pBPC30, which carries the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes, was transferred into hexaploid winter wheat cv. Jinghua No. 1, Jing411 and Jingdong No. 6 explants of immature embryos and immature inflorescence by particle bombardment. A large number of resistant transgenic plants were obtained under the selection of herbicide bialaphos or phosphinothricin (PPT). Confirmed transgenic plants of T0 generation showed successful integration of HMW-GS genes and bar gene into the wheat genome. T1 generation of transgenic plants can resist 20-150 mg/L PPT. Protein analysis of T2 seed by SDS-PAGE showed that HMW-GS 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes were well expressed in offspring seed of transgenic lines by co-expression with or substitution of endogenous 1Dx2 or 1Dy10. In one transgenic line, TG3-74, a new protein band between endogenous protein subunits 7 and 8 (marked as 8*) of glutenin appeared, but endogenous subunit 8 (encoded by 1By8 gene) was absent. Analysis of gluten rheological quality on seed proteins of 102 T3 plants showed that the sedimentation value of 5 transgenic lines (44.2-49.0 mL) was remarkably improved, 59.6%-64.3% higher than that of wild type Jinghua No. 1 and Jingdong No. 6, similar to bread wheat Cheyenne (48.0 mL). Analysis of dough rheological properties of transgenic lines showed that the dough stable time of 5 transgenic lines range from 16 to 30 min, whereas the dough stable time of wild type was only between 3-7 min. Our research suggests that introducing novel HMW-GS genes into wheat is an efficient way to improve its bread-making quality.

  4. Chlor-alkali plant contamination of Aussa River sediments induced a large Hg-resistant bacterial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Gallo, Michele; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Covelli, Stefano; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    A closed chlor-alkali plant (CAP) discharged Hg for decades into the Aussa River, which flows into Marano Lagoon, resulting in the large-scale pollution of the lagoon. In order to get information on the role of bacteria as mercury detoxifying agents, analyses of anions in the superficial part (0-1 cm) of sediments were conducted at four stations in the Aussa River. In addition, measurements of biopolymeric carbon (BPC) as a sum of the carbon equivalent of proteins (PRT), lipids (LIP), and carbohydrates (CHO) were performed to correlate with bacterial biomass such as the number of aerobic heterotrophic cultivable bacteria and their percentage of Hg-resistant bacteria. All these parameters were used to assess the bioavailable Hg fraction in sediments and the potential detoxification activity of bacteria. In addition, fifteen isolates were characterized by a combination of molecular techniques, which permitted their assignment into six different genera. Four out of fifteen were Gram negative with two strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, one Enterobacter sp., and one strain of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The remaining strains (11) were Gram positive belonging to the genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus. We found merA genes in only a few isolates. Mercury volatilization from added HgCl2 and the presence of plasmids with the merA gene were also used to confirm Hg reductase activity. We found the highest number of aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria (one order magnitude higher) and the highest number of Hg-resistant species (11 species out of 15) at the confluence of the River Aussa and Banduzzi's channel, which transport Hg from the CAP, suggesting that Hg is strongly detoxified [reduced to Hg(0)] at this location.

  5. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  6. Goldstone Solar System Radar Waveform Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    Due to distances and relative motions among the transmitter, target object, and receiver, the time-base between any transmitted and received signal will undergo distortion. Pre-distortion of the transmitted signal to compensate for this time-base distortion allows reception of an undistorted signal. In most radar applications, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) would be used to store the pre-calculated waveform and then play back this waveform during transmission. The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), however, has transmission durations that exceed the available memory storage of such a device. A waveform generator capable of real-time pre-distortion of a radar waveform to a given time-base distortion function is needed. To pre-distort the transmitted signal, both the baseband radar waveform and the RF carrier must be modified. In the GSSR, this occurs at the up-conversion mixing stage to an intermediate frequency (IF). A programmable oscillator (PO) is used to generate the IF along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the RF carrier. This serves as the IF input to the waveform generator where it is mixed with a baseband radar waveform whose time-base has been distorted to match the given time-base distortion function producing the modulated IF output. An error control feedback loop is used to precisely control the time-base distortion of the baseband waveform, allowing its real-time generation. The waveform generator produces IF modulated radar waveforms whose time-base has been pre-distorted to match a given arbitrary function. The following waveforms are supported: continuous wave (CW), frequency hopped (FH), binary phase code (BPC), and linear frequency modulation (LFM). The waveform generator takes as input an IF with a time varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier. The waveform generator supports interconnection with deep-space network (DSN) timing and frequency standards, and

  7. 分子印迹固相萃取检测罐装食品中双酚A%Molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres for solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A in canned food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史伟; 付绍平; 朱靖博

    2012-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres with special molecule recognition properties for bisphenol A (BPA ) were prepared with a sol-gel process using bisphenol A as a template molecule, and aminopropyltriethoxysilane(APTES) as a functional monomer. The BPA-imprinted silica nanospheres, as the solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, the SPE conditions were optimized, and dichloromethane was selected as the loading solvent. The selective extraction of BPA from BPA and its three structural analogues BPC, TBBPA and NP showed that the BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles SPE column had much higher selectivity for BPA with recoveries of 90. 7%. The canned food samples spiked at two concentration levels of 2. 5 and 5 ujnol/L BPA were prepared by SPE column and determined by HPLC with recoverey of 72% - 84% and relative standard deviations( n = 3) of 2. 9% -4.4%.%以双酚A为模板分子,3-氨基丙基乙氧基硅烷为功能单体,通过溶胶-凝胶反应合成双酚A分子印迹纳米硅胶微球.以印迹微球为固相萃取吸附剂,优化固相萃取条件,确定二氯甲烷为上样溶剂.固相萃取选择性实验表明,在双酚A及其结构类似物四溴双酚A、双酚C、壬基酚的混合物溶液中,印迹萃取柱对双酚A具有良好的选择性能,回收率达到90.7%.浓度为2.5和5μmol/L的加标罐装食品样品,经印迹萃取柱预处理,液相色谱检测得到回收率72%~84%,相对标准偏差2.9%~4.4%.

  8. 求二面角大小的常用方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奇志

    2006-01-01

    二面角问题是立体几何中的一个重点也是难点,它的求法较多,且在各种求法中需要充分运用立体几何中的线线、线面、面面关系,教材引进空间向量后解法就更多了.因此,二面角问题具有综合性强、灵活性大的特点,这一内容也自然成为高考的热点,学生需要掌握这一问题的常用方法.PQMBAN图11.直接作出二面角的平面角来求其大小例1在三棱锥P-ABC中,∠APB=∠BPC=∠C-PA=60°,求二面角A-PB-C的余弦值.解:如图1,在二面角的棱PB上任取一点Q,在面PBA和面PBC上分别作QM⊥PB,QN⊥PB,则由定义可得∠MQN即为二面角A-PB-C的平面角.设PQ=a,则在Rt△PQM和Rt△PQN中可求得QM=QN=$#3a;PN=PM=2a.又由∠NPM=60°得△PMN为正三角形,则MN=2a.在△MQN中,由余弦定理得cos∠MQN=13,即二面角的余弦值为31.点评在二面角α-l-β的棱l上任取一点,然后在α,β两个平面内分别作棱l的垂线a,b,则这两条垂线a,b所成的角即为二面角的平面角,这是利用二面角的定义来年5月号αβAEC D图2图3SBAC作平面角.也可以认为是在二面角的棱上任取一点作棱的垂面,与二面角...

  9. Mechanical Behavior and Thermal Stability of Acid-Base Phosphate Cements and Composites Fabricated at Ambient Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Lopera, Henry Alonso

    C. This is a significant result since phosphates typically show strength degradation at temperatures over 500°C. In addition, other PCs materials were developed during this research with their current and potential applications. These include a new PC based on fly ash (Fly ash-PC) as raw material; and PC-based on boron (B-PC), which can be used in shielding neutron irradiation and infrastructure for nuclear facilities.

  10. Th unnatural order of things: A history of the high school science sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis M.

    Historical studies of US high school science education are rare. This study examines the historical origins of a unique characteristic of the secondary science curriculum, the Biology-Chemistry-Physics (B-C-P) order of courses. Statements from scientists, educators and the media claim that B-C-P has been the traditional curriculum sequence for over a century and can be traced back to the influential educational commission known as the Committee of Ten (CoT) of 1893. This study examines the history of the ordering of high school science subjects over the last 150 years. The reports and primary documents of important national educational commissions, such as the CoT, were searched for their recommendations on secondary science, particularly on course ordering. These recommendations were then compared to national, state and local statistical data on subject offerings and student enrollments to measure the effect of these national commissions on school policy. This study concludes that the Committee of Ten did not create B-P-C. The CoT made six recommendations, five placed Chemistry before Physics (P-C). One recommendation for C-P met with strong disagreement because it was thought an illogical order. Biology as a "uniform" course did not exist at this time and so the CoT made no recommendations for its grade placement. Statistical data shows that B-C-P evolved over many decades. From 1860 up to 1920 most schools used a P-C curriculum believing Physics was a foundational prerequisite of Chemistry. Biology was introduced in the early 1900s and it assumed a position before the physical sciences. Through the 1920s Chemistry and Physics were placed equally likely in 11th or 12 th grades and Biology was in the 10th grade. After World War II, B-C-P became the dominant pattern, exhibited in over 90% of schools. But up to this point in time no educational body or national commission had recommended B-C-P. The Biology-Chemistry-Physics order of courses is a product of many

  11. DPI-ELISA: a fast and versatile method to specify the binding of plant transcription factors to DNA in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaban Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 10% of all genes in eukaryote genomes are predicted to encode transcription factors. The specific binding of transcription factors to short DNA-motifs influences the expression of neighbouring genes. However, little is known about the DNA-protein interaction itself. To date there are only a few suitable methods to characterise DNA-protein-interactions, among which the EMSA is the method most frequently used in laboratories. Besides EMSA, several protocols describe the effective use of an ELISA-based transcription factor binding assay e.g. for the analysis of human NFκB binding to specific DNA sequences. Results We provide a unified protocol for this type of ELISA analysis, termed DNA-Protein-Interaction (DPI-ELISA. Qualitative analyses with His-epitope tagged plant transcription factors expressed in E. coli revealed that EMSA and DPI-ELISA result in comparable and reproducible data. The binding of AtbZIP63 to the C-box and AtWRKY11 to the W2-box could be reproduced and validated by both methods. We next examined the physical binding of the C-terminal DNA-binding domains of AtWRKY33, AtWRKY50 and AtWRKY75 to the W2-box. Although the DNA-binding domain is highly conserved among the WRKY proteins tested, the use of the DPI-ELISA discloses differences in W2-box binding properties between these proteins. In addition to these well-studied transcription factor families, we applied our protocol to AtBPC2, a member of the so far uncharacterised plant specific Basic Pentacysteine transcription factor family. We could demonstrate binding to GA/TC-dinucleotide repeat motifs by our DPI-ELISA protocol. Different buffers and reaction conditions were examined. Conclusions We successfully applied our DPI-ELISA protocol to investigate the DNA-binding specificities of three different classes of transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the analysis of the binding affinity of any DNA-binding protein to any given DNA

  12. 编码系统研究及VLSI实现%A Study of JPEG2000 Encoding System and Its VLSI Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 汶德胜

    2009-01-01

    A system architecture and its VLSI implementation for JPEG2000 were presented. Parallel coding architecture based on wavelet sub-band was introduced in the system. Simplified logic and parallel processing were adopted to optimize arithmetic for JPEG2000 standard, such as 2-line-parallelling 9/7 lifting discrete wavelet transform, strip-paralleling bit plane coding, compacted interval update and parallel renormalization for binary arithmetic coding, etc. All modules are pipelined manner. Especially, asynchronous pipelining implementation was adopted in the BPC and BAC to distribute execution time dynamically. The speed ratio was tested close to pipeline segment 3. Original image is imported by the image data generating board, and the compressed data is send into PC to be truncated and decoded by software. The average difference of PSNR between LuraWave and the proposed system is below 0.8dB, which shows the validity of the improved arithmetic. The input pixel clock can reach to 20MHz.%提出了一种JPEG2000编码系统结构和VLSI方案.该方案以小波子带为单位,多套并行处理.对JPEG2000标准中各个模块的算法进行了逻辑化简、并行编码等优化.如采用双行并行9/7提升小波分解,条带并行的比特平面编码,简化区间更新和并行归一化算术编码等.各模块均以流水线方式工作,其中的比特平面编码和算术编码采用异步流水线方式动态分配执行时间,加速比均接近于流水段数3.以图像信号产生板送入原始图像,编码后送入PC机进行码流截断和解压缩.该系统在各个压缩率下的信噪比与LuraWave商用压缩软件的差距均在0.8 dB之内,可见改进后的算法可行且有效,像元时钟可达20 MHz.

  13. 缺血预处理的次数对兔缺血心肌电生理活动的影响%Study on effect of various dose of ischemia preconditioning on rabbit cardiac electrophysiological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉; 曾晓荣; 陈连璧

    2003-01-01

    目的:观察缺血预处理(IPC)的次数对缺血-再灌流过程中兔心脏电生理活动的影响,探讨IPC的抗心律失常作用机制.方法:家兔24只,随机分为对照组(C)、缺血组(IR)、一次预处理组(SPC)和两次预处理组(BPC).应用心外膜单相动作电位(MAP)探针记录技术检测缺血-再灌流过程中MAP幅度(MAPA)、复极50%时程(MAPD5o)、零相最大上升速度(Vmax)及心律失常发生率.结果:各预处理组中缺血后5 min时的MAPD5o、MAPA、Vmax迅速缩短或降低(P<0.05).SPC组与IR组相比,促进了缺血20min之后MAPA、Vmax的恢复,改善了缺血20 min MAPD50的过度缩短,限制了复灌时MAPD50的过度延长(P<0.05).SPC完全抑制了缺血-再灌中室颤的发生率(0%,P<0.05).BPC组中,缺血-再灌注中室颤发生率及在缺血30 min末及再灌注末上述参数与缺血组比较均无显著差异.结论:①SPC在在体家兔心脏上具有最好的抗心律失常作用,随IPC次数增加,其抗心律失常作并不增强;②缺血早期sPC迅速缩短MAPD,抗早期心律失常的机制可能是缩小了造成单向阻滞的窗口;③改善缺血晚期电生理参数,抗晚期心律失常的机制可能是减小不应期离散度;④限制复灌时MAPD过度延长,抗再灌注心律失常可能与减少内向离子流及触发活性有关.

  14. Loss of DDB1 Leads to Transcriptional p53 Pathway Activation in Proliferating Cells, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Apoptosis in Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhilian; Holzschuh, Jochen; Driever, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a large subunit of the heterodimeric DDB complex that recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the nucleotide excision repair process. DDB1 is also a component of the CUL4 E3 ligase complex involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes by targeted ubiquitination of key regulators. Functions of DDB1 in development have been addressed in several model organisms, however, are not fully understood so far. Here we report an ENU induced mutant ddb1 allele (ddb1m863) identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and analyze its effects on development. Zebrafish ddb1 is expressed broadly, both maternally and zygotically, with enhanced expression in proliferation zones. The (ddb1m863 mutant allele affects the splice acceptor site of exon 20, causing a splicing defect that results in truncation of the 1140 amino acid protein after residue 800, lacking part of the β-propeller domain BPC and the C-terminal helical domain CTD. ddb1m863 zygotic mutant embryos have a pleiotropic phenotype, including smaller and abnormally shaped brain, head skeleton, eyes, jaw, and branchial arches, as well as reduced dopaminergic neuron groups. However, early forming tissues develop normally in zygotic ddb1m863 mutant embryos, which may be due to maternal rescue. In ddb1m863 mutant embryos, pcna-expressing proliferating cell populations were reduced, concurrent with increased apoptosis. We also observed a concomitant strong up-regulation of transcripts of the tumor suppressor p53 (tp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor cdkn1a (p21a/bCIP1/WAF1) in proliferating tissues. In addition, transcription of cyclin genes ccna2 and ccnd1 was deregulated in ddb1m863 mutants. Reduction of p53 activity by anti-sense morpholinos alleviated the apoptotic phenotype in ddb1m863 mutants. These results imply that Ddb1 may be involved in maintaining proper cell cycle progression and viability of dividing cells during development through transcriptional mechanisms regulating genes

  15. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    communities and a return to traditional ways of supporting the development of our "story" or purpose for being. The opportunities include residential summer field experiences, interdisciplinary curriculums and development of Tribally-driven Native research experiences. The National Science Foundation, University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment, Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), and Tribes have provided funding to support the development of Native geosciences. The presentation will focus on current projects: NSF OEDG "He Sapa Bloketu Woecun; Geosciences at the Heart of Everything That Is", NSF S-STEM "Scientific Leadership Scholars" and the NSF BPC "Coalition of American Indians in Computing". The expressed goal of future initiatives is to connect Tribal communities across the Midwest and West in developing a Native Geosciences Pathway. This pathway supports the identification and support of Tribal students with an interest or "story" connected to geosciences ensuring a future Native geosciences workforce.

  16. Effects of Sowing Date and Interplanting Patterns on Carboxylase Activity and Grain Yield of Summer Maize%播期与接茬方式对夏玉米羧化酶活性及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党红凯; 李瑞奇; 李雁鸣; 李晓爽; 孟建

    2015-01-01

    旨为明确播期和接茬方式对夏玉米羧化酶活性及产量的影响,同时为确定夏玉米与小麦的适宜接茬方式和播种期提供研究依据。2008,2009年进行了4个播期的夏玉米田间试验,6月1,6,11日为“三密一稀”种植的麦田中套种,6月16日为15 cm等行距小麦收获后平播,分别用S06-01、S06-06、S06-11、S06-16表示。生育期间测定羧化酶活性。结果表明,随播期推迟,夏玉米基部第1~4叶的RuBPCase 和PEPCase 活性增强,PEPC/RuBPC 比值减小。棒3叶PEPCase活性随生育进程呈单峰变化,播期早的叶片展开虽早,PEPCase活性高峰出现也早,但后期下降幅度也较大,以致不同处理棒3叶生育期间PEPCase活性的平均值差异并不显著。随播期推迟,棒3叶同叶位叶片光合势与叶源量有减小的趋势,玉米成穗数有增加趋势。千粒质量变化与灌浆期温度密切相关而与播期关系不大,最终产量以S06-16处理较高。处理间经济系数也以S06-16最高或较高,说明产量形成不仅与光合物质生产能力有关,还与光合物质有效转运相关。综上可见,夏玉米平播既保证与套种相同或较高的产量,又便于小麦玉米生产的全程机械化,是较适宜的接茬方式。但为避开集中平播后的浇水高峰,在不早于小麦收获前9 d(6月6日以后)套播,可为夏收夏种期间的农事操作提供较为充足的时间。%In order to clarify the effect of sowing date and interplanting pattern on carboxylase activity and grain yield of summer maize and to provide research support for decision-making on interplanting pattern and sowing date,field experiments were conducted in the years 2008 and 2009.The experiment included four treatments of maize sowing dates,June 1,6,11 seeded inter-rows of previous wheat ,and June 16 directly-seeded after wheat har-vest,and the four treatments were expressed in S06-01,S06-06,S06

  17. 组合型人工肾治疗肾性骨病的前瞻性研究%Prospective study of combinative artificial kidney treatment on renal osteopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林永明; 伍艳萍; 李妙玲; 陈英华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨组合型人工肾对尿毒症患者肾性骨病的治疗作用.方法 我院于2008年6月至2009年2月采用血液透析(HD)+血液灌流(HP)方法 治疗30例尿毒症患者(HD+HP组),并与单纯HD治疗尿毒症患者31例(HD组)进行对比研究,通过比较治疗前与治疗后3个月时2组患者的骨痛、皮肤瘙痒、血压、食欲、睡眠等临床症状及尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(SXr)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(BPC)、钙(Ca)、磷(P)、全段甲状旁腺素(iPTH)等生化指标的变化,客观评价两种方法 治疗尿毒症患者肾性骨病的疗效.结果 HD组、HD+HP组治疗后骨痛的缓解率分别为67.7%(21/31)、96.7%(29/30),皮肤瘙痒的缓解率分别为71.0%(22/31)、96.7%(29/30),HD+HP在缓解维持性透析患者的骨痛与皮肤瘙痒中显著优于单纯HD(P均<0.01);HD组治疗前后iPTH分别为(65.5±34.4)pmol/L和(57.1±21.4)pmol/L,HD+HP组治疗前后iPTH分别为(73.5±44.4)pmol/L和(19.1±17.4)pmol/L,单纯HD未能很好地清除iPTH(P>0.05),而HD+HP则可(P<0.05).结论 对于iPTH水平较高的维持性HD患者,可通过增加HP,达到更好地清除这些患者血中大、中、小分子毒素物质,从而降低肾性骨病发生率,提高其生存质量.%Objective To explore therapeutic effects of combinative artificial kidney treatment on renal osteopathy.Methods HD + HP Group composed by 30 urinaemia was treated with hemodialysis and hemoperfusion,and the HD Group was treated only with hemodialysis.Clinical symptoms and lab indicators including osteodynia,itch of skin,blood pressure,appetite,sleep,as well as BUN,SCr,Hb,BPC,Ca,P and iPTH,were compared between the two groups.Results Osteodynia decreased by 67.7% (21/31),and itch of skin by 71.0% (22/31)in HD group.Osteodynia decreased by 96.7% (29/30) ,and itch of skin by 96.7% (29/30) in HD + HP group (P <0.01 ).iPTH were (65.5 ± 34.4) pmol/L before treatment and (57.1 ± 21.4) pmol/L after treatment in HD group,and (73.5 ± 44.4)pmol

  18. 鬼针聚炔苷对CCl4诱导的小鼠急性肝损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside on acute liVer injury induced by CCl4 in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 陈飞虎; 许慧; 王晓宇; 林梅英; 汤文建; 张群林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside on acute liver injury induced by CCl4in mice. Methods Mice were divided into 6 groups including control group, model group, positive group Silymarin, and bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside treatment(12.5,25,50 mg · kg-1 ) group. Acute hepatic injury was induced by injecting 0. 1ml( 10g)-1 0.2% olive oil solution of carbon tetrachloride and mice in bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside treatment group were intragastric administered with bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside for 6 days before given carbon tetrachloride. Serum AST and ALT were detemined. The contents of SOD, GSH-Px , MDA, and NO in liver homogenate were determined. The index as well as the histopathological test of liver was observed and the expression of NF-ΚB p65 in liver was tested by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with those in model group, the levels of AST, ALT in serum, the contents of MDA, NO in liver homogenate were reduced significantly while the levels of SOD, GSH-Px in liver homogenate were markedly increased. In bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside treatment (12. 5,25,50 mg ·kg-1) groups, histopathological study showed that the degenerative and necrotic liver cells could be evidently ameliorated , and, immunohistochemistry research demonstrated that the expression of NF-ΚB was dramatically decreased. Conclusion The bipinnatpolyacetylenicloside has a protective effect on the carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice, the mechanism of which may be related to its antioxidant characteristic as well as the production of NO and the expression of NF-ΚB being inhibited.%目的 研究鬼针聚炔苷(BPC)对CCl4诱导的小鼠急性肝损伤的保护作用.方法 腹腔注射0.2%CCl4橄榄油溶液建立小鼠急性肝损伤模型,以水飞蓟素为阳性对照,鬼针聚炔苷(12.5、25、50 mg·kg-1)灌胃给药6 d,测定各组小鼠血清中丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)的含量;检测肝组织

  19. 猪Toll样受体基因的变异及其与支原体肺炎感染的关系%Genetic Variation of Toll-like Receptors and Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓敏; 刘筱; 孟翠; 任守文; 李碧侠; 王学敏; 涂枫

    2012-01-01

    As significant pattern-recognition receptors,Toll-like receptors(TLRs) play an important role in the innate immunity and serve as the first barrier in the host defense against microbial pathogens. Variation of TLR genes would affect the resistance or susceptibility to diseases in human beings and animals. The purpose of this article is to analyze the correlation between the genetic variation of Toll-like receptors and Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in pigs. In this study .PCR-SSCP was applied to detect the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)in Western Commercial pig breeds( Landrace,Large White,Pietrain) .Chinese indigenous pig breeds (Meis-han,Erhualian,Jiangquhai,Jinhua)and Jiangsu cultivated breed( Suzhong pig). And then porcine alveolar tnacro-phages( PAMs)of different genotype were stimulated by LPS and the expression levels of TLR2 ,TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a,IL-l|3 at different time points were detected by real-time PCR to reveal the relationship between mutations in porcine TLRs and Mycoplasma pneumonia infection. Results show that: ( 1) Overall three non-synonymous SNPs(T611A,G962A,C1027A)and a synonymous SNPs( G960A)were found in TLR4 coding sequence, and the distribution of C1027A was biased in Western pig and Chinese indigenous pig populations. (2)The expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TNF-a, IL-1 £ were enhanced at different levels by LPS stimulation. TLR2, TLR4 gene expression and growth rate of CC-genotype in 1 027 bp of TLR4 were significantly higher than AC-genotypepigs(P<0.01) ,whereas TNF-a,IL-lp expression was significantly lower than that of AC groups(P <0. 01). Thus, alleles C in 1 027 bp(C 1 027 A)of TLR4 may probably be the resistance gene to M. Pneumonia infections in pigs.%Toll样受体(TLRs)作为重要的模式识别受体,在动物的天然免疫中发挥重要作用,是机体抵抗感染的第一道屏障;TLRs基因变异会改变机体对病原的抗性或易感性,本试验旨在探讨TLR2、TLR4

  20. 自身抗体及生化学指标对自身免疫性肝病筛查及诊断的意义%Significance of autoantibodies and biochemical indicators in diagnosis of autoimmune liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽利; 路遥; 张艳丽; 申戈; 张璐; 邱国华; 吴云忠; 杨民; 李明慧

    2012-01-01

    AIH,BPC-AIH overlap syndrome were 13.3% (4/30),16.7% (1/6)respectively.Conclusions For patients with chronic liver disease of unknown cause,even ff autoantibodies were negative,AILD should also be considered ; for patients with negative AMA-M2 antibody,diagnosis of PBC could not be ruled out; non-specific antibodies Ro-52,CENPB,SS-A,etc accounted for a certain percentage in AILD; the positive rates of ANA,AMA,AMA-M2 in PBC-AIH overlap syndrome were predominant.%目的 回顾分析肝脏穿刺病理确诊为自身免疫性肝病(AILD)的人群的自身抗体及生化指标的特点,为我国AILD的筛查及诊断提供实验室依据.方法 对首都医科大学附属北京地坛医院2008年7月至2011年6月经肝脏组织病理学诊断的65例AILD患者,采用描述性分析方法分析其自身抗体及生化指标.结果 自身免疫性肝炎(AIH) 39例,占60%;原发性胆汁性肝硬化(PBC) 14例,占21.5%;原发性硬化性胆管炎(PSC)5例,占7.7%;PBC-AIH重叠综合征7例,占10.8%.中年女性多见.生化指标发现AIH中,ALT、AST、TBA、TBiL、GLO、GGT、ALP、IgG、RA、γ球蛋白高于正常值的比例分布于54%~100%.39例AIH患者中ANA阳性比例较高,为87.2% (34/39),SMA的阳性比例较低,为10.3% (4/39),无抗微粒体肝肾抗体(LKM)阳性病例.39例AIH患者中,有9例未查,30例AIH中Ro-52、SS-A、SS-B、抗nRNP/Sm抗体(nRNP/Sm)、CENPB、抗双链DNA抗体(dsDNA)、抗组蛋白抗体(Histones)的阳性比例分别为26.7%(8/30)、13.3% (4/30)、13.3% (4/30)、3.3% (1/30)、6.7% (2/30)、3.3% (1/30)、6.7% (2/30). 14例PBC患者中,2例未查,12例PBC中AMA、AMA-M2的阳性比例分别为50% (6/12)、41.7% (5/12);Ro-52、CENPB、抗核糖体P蛋白抗体(Rib.P.Protein)阳性比例分别为25%(3/12)、25%(3/12)、8.3%(1/12).结论 对于原因不明的慢性肝病患者,生化指标ALT、AST、TBA、TBiL、GLO、GGT、ALP、IgG、RA、γ球蛋白多项异常,要高度