WorldWideScience

Sample records for bifenilos policlorados bpc

  1. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  2. Bifenilos policlorados em arroz e feijão do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cocco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Os bifenilos policlorados (PCBs estão entre os poluentes mais tóxicos presentes no meio ambiente, apresentando os alimentos como principal fonte de exposição humana. Com base nisso, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os sete PCBs indicadores de contaminação ambiental em 22 amostras de arroz e 18 de feijão do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Além disso, objetivou-se calcular a ingestão diária estimada de resíduos, a partir da contaminação existente no arroz e feijão, assim como determinar o teor de gordura das amostras para correlacioná-lo com os níveis de PCBs. A extração e purificação dos compostos foram realizadas pelo método QuEChERS, seguido de identificação e quantificação por CG-EM. Os PCBs 153 e 101 apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias nas amostras de arroz e feijão, respectivamente. Considerando o somatório dos PCBs, este foi de 4,39ng g-1 para o arroz e de 4,17ng g-1 para o feijão. Quanto à ingestão diária estimada, esta foi de 7,82ng kg-1 e de 3,14ng kg-1 de peso corporal por dia, para o arroz e o feijão, respectivamente. Em relação ao percentual de gordura, o arroz e o feijão apresentaram teores de gordura de 0,32% e de 1,1%, respectivamente. No entanto, a correlação com os níveis de PCBs não foi significativa. Os resultados demonstram que o estado do RS apresenta fontes importantes de contaminação desses resíduos químicos persistentes

  3. BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS: RELACIÓN ENTRE ESTRUCTURA QUÍMICA, PARÁMETROS CONFORMACIONALES Y TOXICIDAD EFECTO-DIOXINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio A. Marzocchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la relación estructura-toxicidad de los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs con efecto dioxina con fines didácticos utilizando herramientas informáticas de fácil acceso. Analizando los datos de los 209 congéneres, mediante combinaciones de filtros se define el grupo de 12 PCBs con TEF, mostrando que el número y posición de las sustituciones con cloro cumplen las condiciones (orto ≤ 1, meta ≥ 2 y para = 2. El análisis mediante filtrado, tabla dinámica y diagramas, evidencia también que los PCBs con TEF tienen un ángulo diedro ≤ 56o y que a menor ángulo corresponde mayor TEF. Para visualización de los distintos casos se generaron imágenes tridimensionales de PCBs usando Gabedit, interfase gráfica libre, a partir de coordenadas de centros atómicos obtenidas mediante simulador diseñado en planilla de cálculo. Las metodologías aplicadas y los modelos obtenidos son simples, de fácil uso, muy útiles para educación y potencialmente aplicables a otras familias químicas.

  4. Aspectos toxicológicos e ocorrência dos bifenilos policlorados em alimentos Toxicological aspects and occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os PCBs são compostos orgânicos sintéticos que foram muito utilizados na indústria como fluídos dielétricos em transformadores e capacitores, tintas e óleos lubrificantes hidráulicos. Após serem detectados no meio ambiente no final dos anos 60, em seguida foram identificados como contaminantes de todo o ecossistema global, incluindo o ar, água, solo, plantas, animais, seres humanos e alimentos, o que levou à sua proibição em 1977, nos Estados Unidos, e, em 1981, no Brasil. Porém, sua utilização ainda é permitida no nosso país em equipamentos eletrônicos antigos, até que seja realizada a sua substituição por produto isento de PCBs. Esse fato tem resultado em diversos episódios de utilização, armazenamento e descarte inadequados, contaminando o meio ambiente, os animais, os seres humanos e toda a cadeia alimentar. Estudos demonstram que esses compostos são capazes de causar relevantes alterações, tais como neurotoxicidade, disrupção endócrina, imunossupressão, entre outros. Segundo a IARC, os PCBs estão classificados no Grupo 2A (provavelmente carcinogênicos para seres humanos, com exceção do PCB 126, que pertence ao Grupo 1 (carcinogênico para seres humanos. Como estes compostos são altamente lipofílicos, acumulam-se na cadeia alimentar e têm sido detectados nos mais diversos tipos de alimentos com bastante frequência, sendo esta a principal fonte de contaminação dos seres humanos. Esta revisão bibliográfica tem por objetivo apresentar os principais aspectos relacionados aos bifenilos policlorados em alimentos, incluindo suas características, aspectos toxicológicos e ocorrência.PCBs are synthetic organic compounds that were widely used in industry as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors, paints and lubricants hydraulic oils. After being detected in the environment on the end of 60, then they were identified as contaminants in the whole ecosystem, including the air, water, soil, plants

  5. Avaliação de adsorventes sólidos para determinação de pesticidas organoclorados e bifenilos policlorados na atmosfera marinha Evaluation of solid adsorbents for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyis analysis in the marine atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Montone

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Um sistema de amostragem foi desenvolvido para ser usado em áreas costeiras e a bordo de embarcações oceanográficas para a determinação de pesticidas organoclorados e bifenilos policlorados (PCBs na atmosfera. Este sistema baseia-se na pré-concentração em adsorventes sólidos. Foram usados Florosil, Resina XAD-2 e espuma de poliuretano (EPU. A eficiência de amostragens para estes adsorventes foi de 16-118% (florosil, 41-131% (XAD-2 e 66-112 (EPU, para os compostos organoclorados analisados.A sampling system was developed to be used in coastal areas and on board of océanographie vessels for the determination of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB in the atmosphere. The basis of the system is the pre-concentration step on solid adsorbents. Florisil, XAD-2 resin and polyurethane foam (PUF were tested. The sampling efficiency presented variations between 16-118% (florisil, 41131% (XAD-2 and 66-122% (PUF depending on the organochlorine compound.

  6. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls among inhabitants of Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Níveis séricos de pesticidas organoclorados e bifenilos policlorados em habitantes da Área Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Fernandes Delgado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in the blood serum of people living and working in the urban area of greater Rio de Janeiro city. Blood samples from 33 volunteers (16 males, 17 females, 19-63 years old were taken in January 1999. OCP residues (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, pp'DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor-epoxide, alpha-, beta- and gamma-Hexachlorocyclo-hexane, Hexachlorobenzene and PCBs (congeners: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Except for pp'DDE (detection limit = 1.4µg/L no other OCP residue was found in the samples. No PCB congener (detection limit = 2.0µg/L was detected either. pp'DDE was found in 17 out of 33 samples in concentrations that ranged from 1.4 to 8.4 µg/L of serum or, on a fat basis, from 0.200 to 3.452 µg/g of serum lipids. Percentage of positive samples (% and levels of pp'DDE (range of positive samples increased from the youngest to the oldest group ( or = 40 yrs: 77%, 0.257-3.452µg/g.Os níveis de pesticidas organoclorados persistentes (POPs e de bifenilos policlorados (PCBs foram determinados no soro sangüíneo de pessoas que vivem e trabalham na área urbana do grande Rio de Janeiro. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 33 voluntários (16 homens, 17 mulheres, idade: 19-63 anos em Janeiro de 1999. Resíduos de POPs (op'DDT, pp'DDT, pp'DDD, pp'DDE, Aldrim, Dieldrim, Endrim, Heptacloro, Heptacloro-epóxido, alfa-, beta- and gama-Hexaclorociclo-hexano, Hexaclorobenzeno e PCBs (congeneres: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 foram extraídos com n-hexano e analisados em cromatógrafo gasoso com detector de captura de elétrons. Com exceção do pp'DDE (limite de detecção =1,4µg/L, não foram encontrados outros resíduos de POPs nas amostras. Não foram encontrados também, congêneres de PCBs (limite de detecção = 2,0µg/L. O pp'DDE foi

  7. Purificación de aceites aislantes contaminados con bifenilos policlorados (PCB´s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIANA LOPERA POSADA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se da una breve descripción de los métodos de eliminación de los PCB´s, y se profundiza en el método de tratamiento químico, por lo que se escogen cuatro procesos diferentes con los cuales se realizaron ensayos a nivel de laboratorio y, de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, se recomienda el proceso KPEG como el más apropiado, tanto desde el punto de vista técnico como económico. También se muestra un procedimiento, utilizando el proceso escogido, para la decloración de los PCB´s a nivel de laboratorio, con estimaciones de cantidades de reactivos a utilizar y costos de éstos. Finalmente se presentan algunas recomendaciones de equipamiento para el proceso a mayor escala y las conclusiones.

  8. Photochemistry treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in dielectric fluid; Tratamiento fotoquimico de bifenilos policlorados en fluidos dielectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In this work a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) photodegradation in dielectric fluid have been done. The experiments has been carried out in a pilot scale photo rector with an ultraviolet light source. The results obtained showed a 92% elimination of PCB following a first kinetic order. In addition the photo reaction products have been identified. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Current BPC3 Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This will expand the BPC3 to serve as a rapid verification test set for SNPs identified in the scans other than the CGEMS scan, and to examine gene-environment interactions in the SNPs identified in CGEMS and other studies as being associated with breast and prostate cancer.

  10. Chemico-biological treatment of polluted soils by polychorinated biphenyls; Tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico de suelos contaminados por bifenilos policlorados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    In this work a study of biological and chemical treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil has been done. The experiments have been carried out in pilot scale reactors and the results obtained showed 98% elimination and a high mineralization of PCBs employing a Integrated Chemical-Biological Treatment. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. The biodegradation kinetics of polychlorinated biphenol in water/sediment systems; Cinetica de biodegradacion de bifenilos policlorados en sistemas agua/sedimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    This article presents a kinetic study of the biodegradation process of a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenol. Aroclor 1242, in water/sediment systems using an acclimated mixed culture. The variables tested were: the sediment mass to water volume ratio (m/V), the addition of a co-substrate, the influence of biostimulation and bio increase and the addition of an ionic tensioactive. The results obtained employing the Middleton or General Bioremediation Model show that the model fits all the cases studied and makes it possible to obtain useful kinetic parameters such as the concentration of biodegradation-resistant substrate and the kinetic rate constant. (Author) 7 refs.

  12. Influencia del solvente en el espectro ultravioleta de nitro y amino bifenilos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina B. de Gómez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los nitro y amino bifenilos fueron sintetizados, caracterizados y usados como solutos, para determinarles su espectro U.V. Los solventes empleados corresponden a la serie de los alcoholes, como son: Metanol, Etanol, n- e iso-Propanol, n-, iso- y sec-Butanol. Se encontró que la posición de la banda de máxima absorción de cada una de las soluciones se relaciona tanto con las características del soluto como del solvente. Estos efectos se resumen en la ecuación de Rao (12, cuya aplicabilidad queda confirmada para este caso.

  13. Perforating corneal injury in rat and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnec, Sanja; Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Kalauz, Miro; Kunjko, Kristian; Radic, Bozo; Klicek, Robert; Drmic, Domagoj; Lazic, Ratimir; Brcic, Luka; Radic, Radivoje; Ivekovic, Renata; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2015-07-01

    Based on its healing effects in various tissues, we hypothesized that the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals corneal ulcerations in rats and effects corneal transparency. We made a penetrant linear 2-mm incision in the paralimbal region of the left cornea at the 5 o'clock position with a 20-gauge MVR incision knife at 45° under an operating microscope. Medication was BPC 157 (2 pg/mL, 2 ng/mL, and 2 μg/mL distilled water, two eye drops/left rat eye) immediately after injury induction and then every 8 h up to 120 h; controls received an equal volume of distilled water. In contrast to the poor healing response in controls, BPC 157 significantly accelerated the healing process in 2 μg and 2 ng BPC 157-treated eyes, starting 24 h after the injury, and the fluorescein and Seidel tests became negative. The epithelial defects were completely healed at 72 h (2 μg BPC 157-treated group) and at 96 h (2 ng BPC 157-treated group) after injury. Aqueous cells were absent at 96 h and 120 h after injury in the 2 μg and 2 ng BPC 157-treated groups, respectively. In conclusion, BPC 157 effects the rapid regaining of corneal transparency. Whereas controls developed new vessels that grew from the limbus to the penetrated area, BPC 157-treated rats generally had no new vessels, and those that did form in the limbus did not make contact with the penetrated area. Thus, BPC 157 eye drops successfully close perforating corneal incisions in rats.

  14. Determinação de bifenilos policlorados em milho através de extração em fase sólida seguida de cromatografia a gás acoplada à espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Guilherme Schwanz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analytical method for analyzing polychlorinated biphenyls in corn samples using solid phase extraction (SPE followed by determination by GC-MS. All calibration curves proved linear (r> 0.99. Recoveries ranged between 74.1 and 110.6% with relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all compounds. The limits of quantitation for the method were between 0.025 and 0.1 ng g-1. Of the 51 samples analyzed, PCB 180 showed the highest frequency, being detected in more than 39%, followed by PCB 138, detected in more than 33% of samples.

  15. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  16. Protective effects of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on gastric ulcer in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chang Xue; Yong-Jie Wu; Ming-Tang Gao; Wen-Guang Li; Ning Zhao; Zeng-Lu Wang; Chun-Jie Bao; Zhen Yan; Ying-Qi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effects of gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rats and to compare the results in therapy of human gastric ulcers by different administration methods.METHODS: Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was administered (initial single or continuous administration) into rats either intragastrically or intramuscularly before (induced acute gastric ulcer) or after (induced chronic gastric ulcer) the applications of inducing agents, and each animal was sacrificed to observe the protective effects of BPC 157 on gastric ulcers.RESULTS: Both intramuscular (im) and intragastric (ig) administration of BPC 157 could apparently reduce the ulcer area and accelerate the healing of induced ulcer in different models and the effect of im administered BPC 157 was better than that of ig. The rats treated with higher dosages (400 ng/kg, 800 ng/kg) of BPC 157 (im and ig) showed significantly less lesion (P<0.01 vs excipient or saline control), the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation varied between 45.7% and 65.6%, from all measurements except 400 ng/kg BPC 157 in pylorus ligation induced model (P<0.05),in which the inhibition rate was 54.2%. When im administered (800 ng/kg BPC 157) in three models, the inhibition ratio of ulcer formation was 65.5%, 65.6% and 59.9%, respectively, which was better than that of famotidine (its inhibition rate was 60.8%, 57.2% and 34.3%,respectively). Continuous application of BPC 157 (in chronic acetate induced gastric ulcer) could accelerate rebuilding of glandular epithelium and formation of granulation tissue (P<0.05 at 200 ng/kg and P<0.01 at 400 ng/kg and 800 ng/kg vs excipient or saline control).CONCLUSION: Both im and ig administered gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 can apparently ameliorate acute gastric ulcer in rats and antagonize the protracted effect of acetate challenge on chronic ulcer. The effect of im administration of BPC 157 is better than that of ig, and the effective

  17. Deficiência e BPC: o que muda na vida das pessoas atendidas? Deficiency and BPC: what changes in the lives of people assisted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o impacto de bem-estar provocado na vida das pessoas deficientes após o acesso ao Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC. O BPC é um benefício da assistência social e consiste na transferência incondicional e mensal de renda, equivalente a um salário mínimo, destinado também às pessoas pobres idosas acima de 65 anos. A metodologia do estudo teve técnicas qualitativas e quantitativas de coleta e análise de dados. Foram realizadas entrevistas orientadas por um questionário semi-estruturado com trinta pessoas com deficiência atendidas pelo BPC. Os principais resultados. Os principais resultados da pesquisa mostraram que: (1 o BPC se configura como mecanismo de segurança de renda, proporcionando consumo de bens básicos de alimentação, tratamentos de saúde e gastos com moradia dos deficientes e suas famílias; (2 as pessoas deficientes relacionaram a concessão do benefício com o aumento da independência social e financeira delas em relação as suas famílias, contribuindo para a ampliação das noções de autonomia e cidadania; (3 o BPC é um instrumento capaz de proteger os beneficiados e suas famílias da situação de vulnerabilidade social resultante da pobreza ou desemprego, muito embora as mães das crianças deficientes saiam do mercado de trabalho para exercer o cuidado diário dos filhos e não recebam nenhum tipo de proteção social por parte do Estado.The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of well-being provoked in the life of the disabled people after the Cash Benefit to Disabled People (BPC. The BPC is a social assistance benefit consisting in an unconditional and monthly transference of the equivalent of a minimum wage, to poor people with deficiency and elders with more than 65 years. The methodology used was a case study with qualitative and quantitative techniques of data collection and analysis. BPC performed interviews guided by a semi

  18. Determinação de bifenilos policlorados em soro de cordão umbilical através de extração por hidrólise ácida seguida de cromatografia a gás acoplada a um microdetector de captura de elétrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mohr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in 123 umbilical cord serum samples by liquid-liquid extraction method with acid hydrolyze step and analysis by GC-mECD. The analytical method was evaluated with following figures of merit for all PCBs: linearity (>0.997; precision (<12.55%; recoveries (73-119%; limit of detection (0.1 ng mL-1; limit of quantification (0.25-0.5 ng mL-1. The results showed high contamination in the analyzed samples. PCB more frequent was 138 (66.7%, followed by 180 (55.3% and 52 (51.3%.

  19. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates chronic amphetamineinduced behavior disturbances%十五肽BPC 157减弱慢性苯丙胺诱导的行为障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Predrag SIKIRIC; Gorana ARALICA; Gojko BULJAT; Ingrid PRKACIN; Martina LOVRIC-BENCIC; Jadranka SEPAROVIC; Sven SEIWERTH; Rudolf RUCMAN; Marijan PETEK; Branko TURKOVIC; Tihomil ZIGER; Nikola JELOVAC; Alenka BOBAN-BLAGAIC; Vlado BEDEKOVIC; Ante TONKIC; Slaven BABIC; Andjelka JELOVAC-GJELDUM; Goran DODIG; Mario STARESINIC; Tomislav ANIC; Ivan ZORICIC; Davor RAK; Darko PEROVIC

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on chronic exposure to amphetamine in rats,particularly the changes commonly referred in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance (lesser grade of stereotyped behavior, without increased excitability) and reverse tolerance (ie, prominent stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response upon late amphetamine challenges ). METHODS: After initial application (initial single dose-regimen), amphetamine (10 mg/kg,ip) was given once daily till d 5 (continuous administration-regimen ), and thereafter on d 8, 16, and 46(intermittent administration regimen). For stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response the observation period was 120 min after amphetamine application, and each animal was observed for 10 s in 5 min intervals.Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg, ip)or saline (5.0 mL/kg, ip) were given only at the beginning of the experiment, simultaneously with the initial dose of amphetamine. RESULTS: In relation to applied initial-single/continuous/intermittent amphetamine applications regimen, the control amphetamine rats throughout the experiment showed the changes in stereotyped behavior and heightened startle response,increment or decrement, commonly explained in chronic amphetamine studies as tolerance and reverse tolerance.After the initial application of the amphetamine, the higher BPC 157 dosage apparently attenuated the stereotyped behavior, while the lower dosage of BPC 157 did not reach a statistical significance. Considering the forthcoming amphetamine challenges, in the rats initially treated with pentadecapeptide BPC 157, either 10 μg- or 10 ng-dose, at the time of the first application of amphetamine, the stereotyped behavior remains to be attenuated after all additional amphetamine challenges (on d 2- 5, 8, 16, and 46). This attenuation was not limited to stereotyped behavior only. After the initial application of the amphetamine the heightened startle response was also

  20. Polyphenolic drug composition based on benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BP-C3) increases life span and inhibits spontaneous tumorigenesis in female SHR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Yurova, Maria N.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Anikin, Ivan V.; Egormin, Peter A.; Baldueva, Irina A.; Fedoros, Elena I.; Pigarev, Sergey E.; Panchenko, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of long-term application of novel polyphenolic composition BP-C3, containing polyphenolic benzenepolycarboxylic acids, vitamins and minerals on some biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumorigenesis has been studied in female SHR mice. Administration of BP-C3 with drinking water (0.005%) did not exert any toxic effect (did not have effect on general condition of animals, weight dynamics and consumption of food), postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function, caused slight reduction of body temperature. An increased survival was observed in mice treated with BP-C3 (p=0.00164, log rank test). BP-C3 increased mean lifespan – by 8.4%, lifespan of the last 10% of animals – by 12.4%, and life span of tumor-free mice – by 11.6%. A tendency in ability of BP-C3 to inhibit development of spontaneous tumors in mice was detected, though it did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.166, log rank test). The number of malignant mammary tumors was 1.5 times less and total number of tumors of various localizations was 1.6 times less in BP-C3 treated animals. Multiple tumors were registered in 8% of mice in the control group and no cases – in BP-C3 treated group. Thus, BP-C3 demonstrated some anti-carcinogenic and a pronounced geroprotective activity. PMID:27574962

  1. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and anaphylactoid reaction in rats and mice after intravenous dextran and white egg administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplancic, Bozidar; Stambolija, Vasilije; Holjevac, Jadranka; Zemba, Mladen; Balenovic, Igor; Drmic, Domagoj; Suran, Jelena; Radic, Bozo; Filipovic, Marinko; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Brcic, Luka; Kolenc, Danijela; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-03-15

    Anesthetized mice or rats received intravenously 6%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 90% dextran and/or white egg (1ml/rat or 0.15ml/mouse) into their tails. Medication (/kg b.w., 5ml/kg) was given intraperitoneally (BPC 157 10µg, 1µg, 10ng, and 10pg/kg, chloropyramine 20mg/kg, and cimetidine 10mg/kg intraperitoneally, alone or in combination while controls received an equivolume of saline), immediately after challenge or, alternatively, at 5min after or 24 or 48h before challenge. The effect was assessed at 5, 10, 20 and 30min after dextran and/or white egg challenge. We commonly noted prominent edema involving the face, upper and lower lip, snout, paws and scrotum (presented with extreme cyanosis), poor respiration and the number of fatalities after dextran and/or white egg application. Contrary, BPC 157 regimens (10µg, 1µg, 10ng, and 10pg/kg) effectively, may both prevent anaphylactoid reactions that may arise from dextran and/or white egg application and furthermore, rescue already advanced reactions when given after the challenge. Chloropyramine and cimetidine given alone were only moderately effective. When given together with BPC 157, the observed effect correlates with the strong effect of BPC 157 given alone. PMID:24486708

  2. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals cysteamine-colitis and colon-colon-anastomosis and counteracts cuprizone brain injuries and motor disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klicek, R; Kolenc, D; Suran, J; Drmic, D; Brcic, L; Aralica, G; Sever, M; Holjevac, J; Radic, B; Turudic, T; Kokot, A; Patrlj, L; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2013-10-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was suggested to link inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis, and thereby, shown to equally counteract the models of both of those diseases. For colitis, cysteamine (400 mg/kg intrarectally (1 ml/rat)) and colon-colon anastomosis (sacrifice at day 3, 5, 7, and 14) were used. BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) was applied either intraperitoneally once time daily (first application immediately after surgery, last at 24 hours before sacrifice) or per-orally in drinking water (0.16 μg/ml/12 ml/day till the sacrifice) while controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5 ml/kg) intraperitoneally or drinking water only (12 ml/day). A multiple sclerosis suited toxic rat model, cuprizone (compared with standard, a several times higher regimen, 2.5% of diet regimen + 1 g/kg intragastrically/day) was combined with BPC 157 (in drinking water 0.16 μg or 0.16 ng/ml/12 ml/day/rat + 10 μg or 10 ng/kg intragastrically/day) till the sacrifice at day 4. In general, the controls could not heal cysteamine colitis and colon-colon anastomosis. BPC 157 induced an efficient healing of both at the same time. Likewise, cuprizone-controls clearly exhibited an exaggerated and accelerated damaging process; nerve damage appeared in various brain areas, with most prominent damage in corpus callosum, laterodorsal thalamus, nucleus reunions, anterior horn motor neurons. BPC 157-cuprizone rats had consistently less nerve damage in all damaged areas, especially in those areas that otherwise were most affected. Consistently, BPC 157 counteracted cerebellar ataxia and impaired forelimb function. Thereby, this experimental evidence advocates BPC 157 in both inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis therapy.

  3. Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindstrom

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10⁻²⁸. Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P = 0.0001 and rs266849, P = 0.0004; case-only test, where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade < 8 tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined.

  4. Individual and mixture endocrine activity of BPS and BPC using in vitro estrogenic/anti-androgenic transcriptional activation assays and the in vivo uterotrophic assay- RAP 2.2-SSWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol C (BPC).Research from our lab ha...

  5. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE RIESGO AMBIENTAL EN UN TIRADERO CON QUEMA DE BASURA

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Michael ATENCIO PÉREZ; Jaime Alonso REYES-LÓPEZ; Guevara-García, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Los impactos ambientales de los sitios de residuos sólidos urbanos están, en su ma- yoría, relacionados con la migración de contaminantes ya sea en forma de gas y/o lixiviados. De estos sitios, resultan por demás peligrosos aquellos en donde se realiza la quema a cielo abierto de basura, en los cuales los contaminantes liberados (en la ceniza, en el suelo y en el aire) pueden incluir: metales pesados, hidrocarburos del petróleo, compuestos orgánicos semivolátiles (SVOC), bifenilos policlorado...

  7. Bioacumulación de contaminantes y sus efectos sobre moluscos dek Mar Menor

    OpenAIRE

    Campillo-González, J.A. (Juan Antonio); Moreno-González, R.; Albentosa-Verdú, M. (Marina); León-León, V.M. (Víctor Manuel)

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Este trabajo resume las investigaciones realizadas por el IEO sobre el estudio de la presencia ambiental de contaminantes persistentes y de sus efectos biológicos en bivalvos del Mar Menor. La bioacumulación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs), pesticidas organoclorados (POCs) y bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) se caracterizó en berberechos, ostras y nacra de nueve zonas de la laguna del Mar Menor, con diferentes fuentes de contaminación y condiciones hidrodinámicas. Tenie...

  8. El papel de la membrana corioalantoídea en la retención de contaminantes organoclorados (plaguicidas) y su relación con otras variables ambientales: sedimentos y plasma de tortuga marina golfina (Lepidochelys olivacea) de Baja California Sur, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Rosales Ledezma; Orlando Lugo Lugo; Tania Zenteno Zavín; Lia Celina Méndez Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Se ha sugerido que las tortugas al consumir sus alimentos, como algas, sargazo y vegetación marina pueden ingerir agua y sedimentos contaminados por compuestos órganoclorados (OCs). También se considera que la exposición a los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) por parte de las tortugas marinas es de manera directa y la transferencia de estos contaminantes se daría desde la madre hacia los huevos y posiblemente perturbar el nacimiento de las crías. La acumulación de los OCs en los huevos de aves y...

  9. Evaluación de la distribución de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en aire en la zona de la cuenca del Plata mediante muestreadores pasivos artificiales

    OpenAIRE

    Astoviza, Malena J.

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta los resultados del estudio de Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes (HAPs: Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos; PCBs: Bifenilos Policlorados y POCLs: Pesticidas Organoclorados incluyendo Endos: Endosulfanos; DDTs: diclorodifeniltricloroetano y sus metabolitos DDE y DDD; α- β- y γ-HCHs: hexaclorociclohexanos; y CLDs: heptacloro y su epóxido, trans- y cis- clordanos y nonaclors) en el aire de 23 localidades del sur de la cuenca del Plata (Litoral: Entre Rios y Santa Fe; y B...

  10. Estudio de los efectos causados por la introducción de sistemas de rizorremediación en las poblaciones bacterianas nativas de un suelo contaminado por PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Los diferentes análisis llevados a cabo en este estudio sostienen que la comunidad bacteriana de la rizosfera, que evolucionó de la población nativa de un suelo con un historial de contaminación por bifenilos policlorados, durante el desarrollo de las raíces de Salix vimminalis, fue diferente de la comunidad parental tanto a niveles funcionales como estructurales. La rizosfera estuvo enriquecida en especies de Proteobacteria, y en genes de ISP altamente relacionados con el grupo de las bacte...

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  13. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  14. Original BPC3 Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Prostate Cancer and Hormone-Related Gene Variant Study allows large-scale analyses of breast and prostate cancer risk in relation to genetic polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions that affect hormone metabolism.

  15. Presencia de residuos y contaminantes en leche humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Flores Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  16. PRESENCIA DE RESIDUOS Y CONTAMINANTES EN LECHE HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Prado Flores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  17. Quality of Cuban shark liver oil. Comparison with Icelandic cod liver oil (Calidad del aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano. Comparación con el aceite de hígado de bacalao Islandés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Nuñez, Giselle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenA través del contenido de vitaminas A, D y E, dioxinas, metales pesados y escualeno, se estudió la calidad del aceite de hígado de tiburón obtenido a partir de un pool de hígados de tres especies de tiburones (Ginglimostoma cirratum, Carcharhinus longimanus, y Carcharhinus falciformiscapturados en costas cubanas. Se evalúan los contenidos de hierro y cobre como indicadores de posible oxidación en el aceite. Se determinan los niveles de rancidez del aceite mediante análisis sensoriales. Las dioxinas y los bifenilos policlorados (BPC son químicos muy persistentes responsables de la contaminación en los aceites de pescado, cuyo contenido es también evaluado. También se estudió el aceite de hígado de bacalao de la especie Gadus morhua y otras especies de Gadus del suroeste de Islandia, con el fin de comparar ambos aceites en términos de sucalidad. En el aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano se detectó un bajocontenido de escualeno. Su contenido de vitaminas E y A indica que puede ser potencialmente utilizado como suplemento nutricional, contribuyendo a una completa utilización de los hígados de tiburones cubanos. No se detectó vitamina D. El contenido de hierro y cobre indica que el aceite constituye una buena fuente de estos minerales. Los análisis sensoriales revelaron niveles ligeramente más elevados de rancidez en el aceite de bacalao islandés que en el aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano. No se detectó un alto contenido de dioxinas en el aceite de hígado de tiburón cubano (3.69 ngkg-1, menor que los limites permisibles para aceites crudos, (Food Standard Agency, 2002. Las dioxinas como PCBs detectadas en el aceite (14.3 ngkg-1 pueden ser removidas durante los procesos de purificación en la producción.SummaryThe quality of shark liver oil obtained from a pool of livers of three sharks species (Ginglimostoma cirratum, Carcharhinus longimanus, and Carcharhinus falciformis caught in the Cuban coast was studied by

  18. Cambios en las concentraciones de compuestos organoclorados en las mujeres de Flix, Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas-Fitó N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La población de Flix (comarca de la Ribera del Ebro, Tarragona se encuentra altamente expuesta a hexaclorobenceno (HCB debido a la proximidad de una empresa electroquímica. Aunque los niveles de contaminación por HCB en esta población continúan siendo elevados, se ha observado que las concentraciones en sangre venosa de las mujeres de 18-40 años en 1997-1999 fueron un 61% más bajos que en 1994 (4,1 ng/ml frente a 10,6 ng/ml. Las concentraciones de diclorodifenil dicloroetano (p,p'-DDE y betahexaclorociclohexano (ß-HCH tambiιn mostraron esta tendencia a la baja, aunque su disminuciσn no fue estadνsticamente significativa. Por el contrario, los niveles de bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 1997-1999 aumentaron con relaciσn a 1994, aunque la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa.

  19. Tóxicos ambientales y su efecto sobre el neurodesarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Arroyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del neurodesarrollo son consecuencia de un disturbio de la función cerebral. Son frecuentes, se manifiestan con sintomatología variada, en distintos momentos de la vida y suelen ser persistentes con repercusión a nivel individual, familiar y social. La asociación de estos trastornos del desarrollo con entidades genéticas neurológicas es baja. Aunque las investigaciones apoyan un modo de herencia genética los factores epigenéticos y ambientales pueden jugar un rol importante. En los últimos años hubo un llamativo incremento de estos trastornos, especialmente del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad y del trastorno generalizado del desarrollo y se comenzó a comprender y profundizar que la exposición a sustancias tóxicas ambientales puede provocar alteraciones en el neurodesarrollo y en la salud. Dentro de los factores ambientales se reconocen que la intoxicación del feto por metales pesados, especialmente plomo y mercurio, son los responsables en algunos niños de estos trastornos. Otras sustancias de amplio uso, escasa degradación y mantenimiento en la cadena alimenticia como los pesticidas, los bifenilos policlorados y ahora el reciclado de residuos electrónicos pone especialmente a lactantes y niños a riesgo y aún más en los países subdesarrollados.

  20. Avaliação da função diastólica por meio de Doppler tecidual pulsado e colorido em gatos da raça Maine Coon geneticamente testados para a mutação no gene MyBPC-A31P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arine Pellegrino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH é a principal cardiopatia dos felinos e é caracterizada por hipertrofia miocárdica concêntrica, sem dilatação ventricular. Disfunções miocárdicas ocorrem em gatos com CMH, mas pouco se conhece a respeito destas alterações nos estágios iniciais da afecção. Em gatos da raça Maine Coon, a mutação no gene MyBPC-A31P está relacionada com a CMH de origem familial, porém, a correlação exata entre o genótipo e o fenótipo ainda é inconclusiva. A ecocardiografia tecidual é uma modalidade não invasiva que permite avaliação da função miocárdica e é mais sensível que a ecocardiografia convencional. Para avaliar as funções sistólica e diastólica, antes ou após a ocorrência de hipertrofia ventricular, gatos da raça Maine Coon (n=57, geneticamente testados para a mutação, foram avaliados por meio de ecocardiografias convencional e tecidual (nas modalidades Doppler tecidual pulsado e Doppler tecidual colorido. Posteriormente, foram fenotipicamente classificados em: normais (n=45, suspeitos (n=7 e acometidos pela CMH (n=5; e genotipicamente classificados em: negativos (n=28, heterozigotos (n=26 e homozigotos para a mutação (n=3. Valores de velocidades miocárdicas (Doppler tecidual pulsado e colorido medidos na região basal e média do septo interventricular (SIV, da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo (PVE, da parede anterior do ventrículo esquerdo (PAVE, da parede posterior do ventrículo esquerdo (PPVE e do segmento radial da PVE, foram comparados nos diferentes grupos. Observou-se que as velocidades longitudinais Em (Doppler tecidual pulsado na região média da PVE foram menores nos gatos com CMH quando comparados com suspeitos e normais. Os valores de Em/Am (Doppler tecidual colorido, na região basal do SIV, foram inferiores nos gatos com CMH quando comparados com suspeitos e normais. A relação E/Em (Doppler tecidual colorido, na região basal do SIV, foi maior nos gatos

  1. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  2. Síntesis y evaluación de la capacidad complejante de ligandos nitrogenados derivados de bifenilos sustituidos.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis Martínez, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    RESUMEN El diseño y preparación de moléculas sensoras de cationes, aniones o moléculas neutras constituye un atractivo reto dentro de la Química Supramolecular. Una molécula sensora es capaz de reconocer al sustrato para la que ha sido diseñada y está encargada de poner de manifiesto, de alguna manera, que este reconocimiento ha tenido lugar mediante la modificación de una propiedad fisico-química medible macroscópicamente. En el presente trabajo se han desarrollado quince nuevas mol...

  3. Cambios en las concentraciones de compuestos organoclorados en las mujeres de Flix, Tarragona Changes in concentrations of organochloride compounds in women from Flix, Tarragona [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ribas-Fitó

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La población de Flix (comarca de la Ribera del Ebro, Tarragona se encuentra altamente expuesta a hexaclorobenceno (HCB debido a la proximidad de una empresa electroquímica. Aunque los niveles de contaminación por HCB en esta población continúan siendo elevados, se ha observado que las concentraciones en sangre venosa de las mujeres de 18-40 años en 1997-1999 fueron un 61% más bajos que en 1994 (4,1 ng/ml frente a 10,6 ng/ml. Las concentraciones de diclorodifenil dicloroetano (p,p'-DDE y betahexaclorociclohexano (ß-HCH tambiιn mostraron esta tendencia a la baja, aunque su disminuciσn no fue estadνsticamente significativa. Por el contrario, los niveles de bifenilos policlorados (PCB en 1997-1999 aumentaron con relaciσn a 1994, aunque la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa.The population of Flix (region of Ribera del Ebro, Tarragona is highly exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB due to the closeness of an electrochemical factory. Although the degree of HCB contamination in this population is still high, concentrations of HCB in the sera of women aged 18-40 years from 1997 to 1999 were 61% lower than those observed in 1994 (4.1 ng/ml vs. 10.6 ng/ml. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (p,p'-DDE and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH also decreased, although the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB in the period 1997-1999 showed a nonsignificant increase compared with those in 1994.

  4. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders, New Fairfield, Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This LEED Platinum home was built on the site of a 60-year-old bungalow that was demolished. It boasts views of Candlewood Lake, a great deal of daylight, and projected annual energy savings of almost $3,000. This home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BPC Green Builders — Trolle Residence, Danbury, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder of this 1,650-ft2 cabin won a Custom Home honor in the 2014 Housing Innovations Awards. The home meets Passive House Standards with 5.5-in. of foil-faced polysiocyanurate foam boards lining the outside walls, R-55 of rigid EPS foam under the slab, R-86 of blown cellulose in the attic, triple-pane windows, and a single ductless heat pump to heat and cool the entire home.

  6. Reliability of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Behavior Problems for Children (ASD-BPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention has occurred with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) of children and youth. Furthermore, the rationale for using the most restrictive of the applied behavior analysis methods and medication has been largely based on the presence of severe challenging behaviors such as…

  7. DOE ZERH Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Taft School, Watertown, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 33 without PV or HERS -14 with PV, with 8.5” double 2x4 walls with 8.5” (R-32) blown cellulose plus R-6 rigid foam, basement with 3” ccsf on interior plus 2x4 stud walls with R-13 blown cellulose, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; a central heat pump; HRV; heat pump water heater; 100% LED; and Passive House Institute U.S.+, LEED platinum, and Living Building Challenge certifications.

  8. Testing the role of contaminants in depressing avian numbers Evaluando el rol de los contaminantes sobre la disminución del número de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLIAM H. KARASOV

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants are ubiquitous and so are often key suspects in cases of lagging wildlife populations. How do we test hypotheses about cause-effect linkages between contaminants and wildlife health? We present three case studies in which different approaches were used to test hypotheses about effects of contaminants on wildlife. The cases involve the possible impacts of (1 polychlorinated biphenyl on Lake Superior bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; (2 dioxin on osprey (Pandion halieatus; and (3 methyl mercury on common loons (Gavia immer. The different approaches were dictated by legal, logistic, and financial limitations, but the relative strengths of experimental and mechanistic approaches over correlative approaches is underscored. For all three species, the simple correlation between a single contaminant and performance was confounded by covariation with other types of contaminants and/or natural ecological factors such as food availability and predationLos contaminantes ambientales son ubicuos y a menudo los principales sospechosos en los casos de disminución en las poblaciones de fauna silvestre. ¿Cómo probamos las hipótesis sobre las relaciones causa - efecto entre los contaminantes y la salud de la fauna silvestre? Presentamos tres estudios de caso en que se usaron diferentes aproximaciones para someter a prueba las hipótesis sobre los efectos de los contaminantes sobre la fauna silvestre. Los casos involucran los posibles impactos de (1 el bifenilos policlorados en el águila calva (Haliaeetus leucocephalus en el Lago Superior; (2 las dioxinas sobre el águila pescadora (Pandion halieatus; y (3 el mercurio de metilo en colimbo grande (Gavia immer. Las limitaciones legales, logísticas y financieras, determinaron diferentes aproximaciones en estos estudios, pero se destaca que la fuerza relativa de las aproximaciones experimentales y mecanicistas es superior a la de un acercamiento correlacional. Se demuestra que, en

  9. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes en plasma de tortugas bobas (Caretta caretta varadas en las Islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Camacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se ha evaluado el grado de contaminación por contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs en 193 ejemplares de tortuga boba (Caretta caretta varadas en las Islas Canarias entre 2007-2011. La cuantificación en plasma de los niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs, bifenilos policlorados (PCBs e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs se realizó mediante GC-MS. Todas las muestras analizadas presentaron niveles cuantificables de alguno de los COPs incluidos en el estudio. El grupo de COPs que presentó mayores niveles fue el de los PAHs (alcanzando la carga total de PAHs 6,45 ng/ml, siendo el fenantreno el hidrocarburo más frecuentemente detectado y a concentraciones más altas, lo que indica el origen petrogénico de estos contaminantes. La contaminación por PCBs alcanzó niveles menores (3,84 ng/ml, predominando el grupo de los hexaclorobifenilos (PCB-153 y PCB- 138 principalmente. Los niveles de contaminación por POCs fueron también bajos alcanzando valores de 1,67 ng/ml, siendo el principal metabolito del DDT, el p,p´-DDE el compuesto más frecuentemente detectado (89,6% y a más altas concentraciones (0,68 ng/ml. Fue evidente una asociación inversa entre el tamaño de las tortugas y la carga de PCBs y PAHs. Asimismo existieron niveles más altos de contaminación por COPs en los años 2009 y 2010. Este trabajo evalúa por vez primera la presencia de PAHs en sangre de tortugas varadas y nuestros resultados parecen indicar que esta metodología y esta especie animal pueden ser muy útiles para monitorizar la presencia de contaminación por derivados del petróleo en el medio acuático.

  10. PCB's take a stroll Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio

  11. Degradación biológica de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes por hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Luis Domínguez-Guilarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las causas más importantes que han alterado el medio ambiente de manera significativa es la acumulación en varios ecosistemas de sustancias de difícil degradación, entre las que destacan los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (bifenilos policlorados, plaguicidas, pesticidas y compuestos no intencionales. Estos son compuestos químicos extremadamente estables, propensos a viajar distancias considerables y resistentes a los procesos de degradación natural. La mayoría de ellos se utilizan como plaguicidas y como productos químicos en procesos industriales o como subproductos que se generan de manera no intencional a partir de ciertas actividades humanas, tales como los procesos de combustión o generación de energía. En el caso del dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano (DDT, se ha encontrado en lugares donde no ha sido aplicado, tal y como ocurre en las zonas árticas. Los hongos de la podredumbre blanca son un grupo de microorganismos que desempeñan un papel clave como reguladores del ciclo del carbono. Son activos transformadores de la lignina. Sus enzimas ligninolíticas están directamente involucradas no solo en la degradación de la lignina, sino también, en la biotrasformación de una diversidad de polímeros orgánicos complejos de los cuales algunos constituyen contaminantes ambientales, con una estructura química similar a la lignina. Esto se debe a la inespecificidad de su sistema multienzimático, lo que abre el espacio para su incorporación en procesos de biorremediación. En este trabajo, se presentan resultados preliminares de la inducción de las enzimas ligninolíticas lacasa y MnP con la utilización del DDT como inductor de las actividades enzimáticas mediante cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca.

  12. Using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to support regulatory decision making for neurotoxicants: lessons learned from a case study of PCBs Utilizando revisões sistemáticas e meta-análise de apoio às decisões regulatórias para neurotóxicos: lições de um estudo de caso dos PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Goodman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined prospective cohort studies evaluating the relation between prenatal and neonatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and neurodevelopment in children to assess the feasibility of conducting a meta-analysis to support decision making. We described studies in terms of exposure and end point categorization, statistical analysis, and reporting of results. We used this evaluation to assess the feasibility of grouping studies into reasonably uniform categories. The most consistently used tests included Brazelton's Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, the neurologic optimality score in the neonatal period, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 5-8months of age, and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities in 5-year-olds. Despite administering the same tests at similar ages, the studies were too dissimilar to allow a meaningful quantitative examination of outcomes across cohorts. These analyses indicate that our ability to conduct weight-of-evidence assessments of the epidemiologic literature on neurotoxicants may be limited, even in the presence of multiple studies, if the available study methods, data analysis, and reporting lack comparability.Foram examinados estudos de grupo que avaliaram a relação entre a exposição pré-natal e neonatal aos bifenilos policlorados (PCB e o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em crianças a fim de avaliar a viabilidade da realização de uma meta-análise para suporte à tomada de decisão. Nós descrevemos os estudos em termos de exposição, categorizações, análise estatística e elaboração de relatórios de resultados. Nós utilizamos esta avaliação para verificar a viabilidade de agrupar os estudos em categorias razoavelmente uniformes. Os testes mais utilizados foram Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, a pontuação de otimalidade neurológica no período neonatal, as Escalas Bayley de Desenvolvimento Infantil de 5 a 8 meses de idade, e as Escalas McCarthy de

  13. Contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs en leche materna de centros urbanos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Sofia Della Ceca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs se acumulan en matrices ricas en materia grasa como la leche materna, que es un buen indicador de sus niveles en poblaciones humanas debido a su fácil y no invasiva extracción. Con el objeto de evaluar la exposición a COPs en la provincia de Buenos Aires y compararla con otras  áreas, se analizaron bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, diclorodifeniltricloroetano (DDT y sus metabolitos (DDT, TDE, hexaclorociclohexanos (?, ? y ?-HCH y clordanos (CHLDs: heptaclor y su epóxido, trans y cis clordanos y nonaclors en muestras de leche materna colectadas durante 2010 y 2011 en Punta Lara, Ensenada, Florencio Varela y Capital Federal.Las  muestras fueron colectadas con sacaleches manuales, centrifugadas para separar la crema que fue liofilizada y extraída con éter de petróleo y ultrasonido. Los extractos previamente tratados con ácido para eliminación parcial de lípidos, fueron purificados por cromatografía en gel de sílice y analizados por cromatografía gaseosa.Las concentraciones de COPs en ng.g-1 lípido decrecieron en el orden DDTs (76±91 ? PCBs (67±64 > HCHs (33±36 ³ CHLDs (22±24.  Los DDTs oscilaron entre 7.7-510 ng.g-1 lípido y  los PCBs entre 5-247 ng.g-1 lípido, estos valores son comparables al rango más bajo reportado en la literatura (DDTs Noruega: 39-292 ng.g-1 lípido; PCBs Vietnam: 26-210 ng.g-1, Japón: 23-370 ng.g-1. En cambio, las concentraciones de HCHs y CHLDs, que oscilaron entre 5.8-197 ng.g-1 lípido y  1.3-124 ng.g-1 lípido respectivamente, corresponden al rango medio reportado para otras áreas (HCHs Indonesia 1.6-120 ng.g-1; CHLDs 3.4-92 ng.g-1. La composición de residuos en la leche materna es relativamente conservativa para cada clase de COPs, así se observa uniforme predominancia de productos de degradación (p.ej. DDE: 90±17% de SDDTs; epóxido de heptaclor: 50±18% y t-nonaclordano: 34±13% de SCHLDs y los isómeros y congéneres más persistentes (?-HCH

  14. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Appleby, Paul N.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lindstroem, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Key, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding pro

  15. BPC216全自动生化分析仪速率法检测血清CK-MB酶海力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹伦琴

    1994-01-01

    肌酸激酶(Creatine Kinase,CK)是由B和M两条亚基组成的二聚体,有三种同工酶。存在于脑和前列腺等非肌组织者为CK-BB,存在于骨骼肌及心肌中为CK-MM,心肌除以CK-MM型为主外,尚有CK-MB型。正常血清中绝大部分为CK-MM型,

  16. CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the national Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.; Albanes, Demetrius; Altshuler, David; Berglund, Gran; Buring, Julie; Calle, Eugenia E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Cox, David G.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Linseisen, Jakob; Lund, Eiliv; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polym

  17. Prevalence of aging male sexual dysfunction in Beijing: the result from a community-based cross-sectional survey of BPC-BPH stndy group%北京市社区中老年男性性功能调查报告:BPC-BPH研究结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵强; 宋健; 孙少鹏; 田野; BPC-BPH研究小组

    2010-01-01

    目的 调查北京市社区中老年男性性欲低下、勃起功能障碍(ED)、射精障碍的患病情况.方法 采用分层多阶段整群不等比例随机抽样方法选择北京市15个社区1656名年龄≥50岁男性作为调查对象,分别记录国际勃起功能问卷(IIEF-5)评分及男性性功能问卷(O'Leary 1995),应用χ~2检验分析结果.结果 符合标准的调查对象共1644人.年龄50~93(64.5±9.8)岁.平均IIEF-5(9.4±8.6)分.以IIEF-5评分0~21诊断为ED,总ED患病率90.45%,性欲低下60.04%,射精障碍38.81%.各年龄组(10岁/组)间ED、性欲低下、射精障碍患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001),各年龄组间不同程度ED患病率差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001).趋势检验表明随年龄增加,ED、性欲低下、射精障碍患病率逐渐增加(Z=10.1,P<0.0001),与年龄呈正相关性.结论 随年龄增加ED、性欲低下、射精障碍的患病率逐渐增加.ED患病率最高.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of aging male sexual dysfunction in Beijing.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed based on community of Beijing in men aged over 50 years old.The International Index of Erectile Function-5(IIEF-5),Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory for Urology(Orleary 1995)were recorded and analyzed.Results 1644 subjects were enrolled and the mean age was 64.5 years(range 50-93 years).The mean score of IIEF-5 was 9.4±8.6.The prevalence of erectile dysfunction(ED),defined as IIEF-5 between 0-21,was 90.45%.The incidence of reduction of sexual desire and defective ejaculation was 60.04%and 38.81%,respectively.There was positive correlation between the prevalence of ED,reduction of sexual desire,defective ejaculation and age.Conclusions The incidence of ED,reduction of sexual desire and defective ejaculation are positively correlated with age.Compared with high prevalence of ED,the incidences of sexual desire and defective ejaculation are lower.

  18. Consolidating findings from business process change case studies using system dynamics: The example of employee morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kristekova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore system dynamics as a useful approach to consolidate findings from case studies on business process change (BPC projects. We compile data from 65 BPC case studies to develop a system dynamics simulation model that helps us to investigate ‘employee morale’ as an important construct in BPC projects. We show that such simulation models consolidate the complex and often non-linear findings from BPC case studies in a way that makes it available to discourse among researchers, lecturers and students as well as BPC professionals. Thus, this paper contributes to knowledge management and learning by suggesting system dynamics as a valuable approach to illustrate and convey the complex relationships between important constructs in BPC. This paper also contributes to the domain of business process management by demonstrating the benefits of system dynamics as a way to review and consolidate the abundance of BPC case studies.

  19. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiacan; Cao, Liehu; Yu, Baoqing; Song, Shaojun; Liu, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400-500 μm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair. PMID:22679367

  20. Insumos utilizados en la preparación de alimentos en producción porcina y su potencial de contaminación por dioxinas en la carne Feed materials used in the preparation of food in pork production and its potential for dioxin contamination in the meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Samsing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la contribución de los diversos insumos utilizados en la alimentación de los cerdos, como fuente de contaminación de dioxinas, furanos y bifenilos policlorados similares a dioxinas (DL-PCBs de la carne, considerando las variaciones dietarias durante la recría, crianza y engorda. Las materias primas o insumos fueron separadas en diferentes categorías, elaborándose un conjunto de datos con los resultados de análisis mediante el bioensayo EROD/H4IIE (determinación de la actividad de 7-Etoxiresorufina -O-detilasa en la línea celular de hepatoma de rata H4IIE. Además se establecieron dos dietas tipo utilizadas en Chile, considerando los porcentajes de incorporación de materias primas, los cuales varían a lo largo del ciclo productivo del cerdo. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de la información contenida en el conjunto de datos, caracterizándose el comportamiento de las observaciones. Se propuso un modelo de transferencia, en que la carga corporal de dioxinas aumenta en forma proporcional al consumo de alimentos contaminados. Como resultados se obtuvo la media de contaminación más alta, expresada como equivalentes tóxicos de 2,3,7,8-tetraclorodibenzo-p-dioxina derivados del bioensayo EROD/H4IIE (TCDD-EQ/g, en las materias primas de origen mineral, con 16,21 pg TCDD-EQ/g, seguido por las mezclas de ácidos grasos (2,03 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Las concentraciones medias más bajas de contaminación se presentaron en las premezclas (0,29 pg TCDD-EQ/g y los aceites vegetales (0,35 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Respecto del modelo de transferencia, al evaluar la contribución de los diferentes insumos al total de contaminación de la ración, las materias primas de origen vegetal fueron las que más aportaron, debido al alto porcentaje en que éstas se incorporan en las dietas tipo. El segundo mayor aporte fue el de las materias primas de origen mineral.This study assessed the contribution of various feed ingredients used in

  1. Critique of Quantum Optical Experimental Refutations of Bohr's Principle of Complementarity, of the Wootters-Zurek Principle of Complementarity, and of the Particle-Wave Duality Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloyerou, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    I argue that quantum optical experiments that purport to refute Bohr's principle of complementarity (BPC) fail in their aim. Some of these experiments try to refute complementarity by refuting the so called particle-wave duality relations, which evolved from the Wootters-Zurek reformulation of BPC (WZPC). I therefore consider it important for my forgoing arguments to first recall the essential tenets of BPC, and to clearly separate BPC from WZPC, which I will argue is a direct contradiction of BPC. This leads to a need to consider the meaning of particle-wave duality relations and to question their fundamental status. I further argue (albeit, in opposition to BPC) that particle and wave complementary concepts are on a different footing than other pairs of complementary concepts.

  2. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.;

    2011-01-01

    Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined...... with existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from...

  3. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the fish tissues of a coastal lagoon system of the SE Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Alvarez, J M; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Amezcua, F; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2012-10-01

    Mean Cd trend in the muscle of omnivorous (O), planktivorous (P), benthopelagic-carnivorous (BPC), and benthic carnivorous (BC) fish of one lagoon of NW Mexico was BPC > BC > P > O (0.89, 0.59, 0.55 and 0.24 μg g(-1)). That of Pb was P > BC > O > BPC (1.07, 0.48, 0.17 and 0.04 μg g(-1)). In the liver Cd was P > BPC > O > BC (5.09, 2.40, 2.07 and 1.95 μg g(-1)). Pb was P > O > BPC > BC (0.63, 0.40, 0.13 and 0.07 μg g(-1)). There were no differences in Cd and Pb contents due to feeding habits, and the correlations between metals and troph level were not significant (p > 0.05 in all cases).

  4. Biomarcadores moleculares en la medicina moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La medicina del siglo XXI se caracteriza por el enfoque molecular, tanto en el diagnóstico, como en el tratamiento. En este sentido, abundan en la literatura científica los trabajos relacionados con el empleo de biomarcadores o marcadores biológicos. El término biomarcador se utiliza para medir una interacción entre un sistema biológico y un agente de tipo químico, físico o biológico, evaluando así una respuesta funcional o fisiológica, a nivel celular o molecular, asociada con la probabilidad del desarrollo de una enfermedad. Los biomarcadores pueden diferenciarse en tres tipos: biomarcadores de exposición, los que evalúan en un organismo la presencia de sustancias exógenas, metabolitos o el producto de la interacción entre el agente xenobiótico (compuestos naturales o sintéticos del ambiente que el organismo metaboliza y acumula y una molécula o célula diana; biomarcadores de efecto, que evalúan la alteración bioquímica, fisiológica o de comportamiento producida en el organismo y que puede ser asociada con una enfermedad; biomarcadores de susceptibilidad, indicador de la capacidad heredada o adquirida de un organismo para responder a la exposición a una sustancia xenobiótica. (1 En el campo de la salud humana, el desarrollo, validación y uso de biomarcadores se incrementa cada día por la necesidad de conocer acerca de los efectos adversos, generados por estilos de vida y, en general, por la interacción del hombre con diferentes entornos. Muchos son los ejemplos actuales del empleo de biomarcadores en la medicina. Pueden ser usados para evaluar la presencia de cáncer y la progresión y monitoreo de los tratamientos. Técnicas físico-químicas o inmunoquímicas de alta sensibilidad han sido desarrolladas para la detección de concentraciones de carcinógenos en sangre u orina, tales como: arsénico, cadmio, cromo, níquel, benceno, bifenilos policlorados, tetracloroetileno, estireno. Otros ejemplos de biomarcadores

  5. Myosin binding protein C:Structural abnormalities in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The muscle protein myosin binding protein C (MyBPC) is a large multi-domain protein whose role in the sarcomere is complex and not yet fully understood. Mutations in MyBPC are strongly associated with the heart disease familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and these experiments of nature have provided some insight into the intricate workings of this protein in the heart. While some regions of the MyBPC molecule have been assigned a function in the regulation of muscle contraction, the interaction of other regions with various parts of the myosin molecule and the sarcomeric proteins, actin and titin, remain obscure. In additic n, several intra-domain interactions between adjacent MyBPC molecules have been identified. Although the basic structure of the molecule (a series of immunoglobulin and fibronectin domains) has been elucidated, the assembly of MyBPC in the sarcomere is a topic for debate. By analysing the MyBPC sequence with respect to FHC-causing mutations it is possible to identify individual residues or regions of each domain that may be important either for binding or regulation. This review looks at the current literature, in concert with alignments and the structural models of MyBPC, in an attempt to understand how FHC mutations may lead to the disease state.

  6. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair.Keywords: mesoporous bioglass, polyamide, composite scaffolds, biocompatibility, bone repair

  7. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  8. Low-accommodation detrital apron alongside a basement uplift, Pennsylvanian of Midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Nicklen, B. L.; Carlson, M. P.

    2007-04-01

    The northern end of the 650-km-long Nemaha Uplift (Nebraska and Kansas, USA) is an important example of basin-margin sedimentation in the North American Midcontinent. An apron of coarse, basal Pennsylvanian arkosic clastic sediments (BPC) was deposited on the flanks of the uplift while marine cyclothems were encroaching from the east. Small-scale fining-upward intervals, many with demonstrably erosional bases, dominate the BPC and are interpreted as overridingly fluvial in origin. Weak paleosols, desiccation cracks, and reddened intervals in the BPC record episodic subaerial exposure. Multiple, burrowed horizons and heterolithic strata of probable tidal origin and rare marine fossils also indicate episodic marine influence. The BPC appear to have been deposited as a thin apron of coalesced, alluvial fans and fan deltas. Deposition of the BPC occurred during the waning of uplift and subsequent quiescence. The comparative thinness and large-scale packaging of the BPC are compatible with the controlling effects of relict relief, regional subsidence, and eustasy, rather than ongoing, major vertical displacements along active faults. A strong autocyclic influence on sedimentation is evidenced by stacked fining-upward intervals of poorly-sorted conglomerates, sandstones, and sandy mudstones. Correlations demonstrate that the accumulation of the BPC took place over more than seven major sea-level cycles, beginning in Cherokee Group times (middle Moscovian/middle Pennsylvanian) and ending only when the eroded uplift was inundated and buried by marine cyclothems. On the basis of local correlations with marine cyclothems, and using black phosphatic shales (so-called "core shales" of Heckel, P.H., 1986. Sea-level surve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along Midcontinent outcrop belt, North America: Geology 14, 330-334., Heckel, P.H., 1994. Evaluation of evidence for glacio-eustatic control over marine Pennsylvanian cyclothems in

  9. A simple method for determining split renal function from dynamic {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scintigraphic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, Michal J.; Watson, Gage; Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Babyn, Paul [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Conrad, Gary R. [University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Lexington, KY (United States); Samal, Martin [Charles University Prague and the General University Hospital in Prague, Department of Nuclear Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Wesolowski, Carl A. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Radiology, St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Commonly used methods for determining split renal function (SRF) from dynamic scintigraphic data require extrarenal background subtraction and additional correction for intrarenal vascular activity. The use of these additional regions of interest (ROIs) can produce inaccurate results and be challenging, e.g. if the heart is out of the camera field of view. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method for determining SRF called the blood pool compensation (BPC) technique, which is simple to implement, does not require extrarenal background correction and intrinsically corrects for intrarenal vascular activity. In the BPC method SRF is derived from a parametric plot of the curves generated by one blood-pool and two renal ROIs. Data from 107 patients who underwent {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy were used to determine SRF values. Values calculated using the BPC method were compared to those obtained with the integral (IN) and Patlak-Rutland (PR) techniques using Bland-Altman plotting and Passing-Bablok regression. The interobserver variability of the BPC technique was also assessed for two observers. The SRF values obtained with the BPC method did not differ significantly from those obtained with the PR method and showed no consistent bias, while SRF values obtained with the IN method showed significant differences with some bias in comparison to those obtained with either the PR or BPC method. No significant interobserver variability was found between two observers calculating SRF using the BPC method. The BPC method requires only three ROIs to produce reliable estimates of SRF, was simple to implement, and in this study yielded statistically equivalent results to the PR method with appreciable interobserver agreement. As such, it adds a new reliable method for quality control of monitoring relative kidney function. (orig.)

  10. A photoaffinity analogue of discodermolide specifically labels a peptide in beta-tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shujun; Kenesky, Craig S; Rucker, Paul V; Smith, Amos B; Orr, George A; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2006-10-01

    Discodermolide is a potentially important antitumor agent that stabilizes microtubules and blocks cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle in a manner similar to that of Taxol. Discodermolide also has unique properties that distinguish it from Taxol. In the present study, photoaffinity-labeled discodermolide analogues are used to investigate their binding site in tubulin. Three photoaffinity-labeled discodermolide analogues were synthesized, all of which promoted microtubule polymerization in the absence of GTP. The analogue, C19-[4-(4-(3)H-benzoyl-phenyl)-carbamate]-discodermolide (C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide), was selected for photolabeling studies because it had the highest extent of photoincorporation, approximately 1%, of the three radiolabeled discodermolide analogues explored. Although compared to discodermolide, C19-BPC-discodermolide revealed no hypernucleation effect in the in vitro microtubule polymerization assay, it was more cytotoxic than discodermolide, and, like discodermolide, demonstrated synergism with Taxol. These results suggest that the hypernucleation effect of discodermolide is not involved in its cytotoxic activity. Similar to discodermolide, C19-BPC-discodermolide can effectively displace [3H]Taxol from microtubules, but Taxol cannot effectively displace C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide binding. Discodermolide can effectively displace C19-[3H]BPC-discodermolide binding. Formic acid hydrolysis, immunoprecipitation experiments, and subtilisin digestion indicate that C19-BPC-discodermolide labels amino acid residues 305-433 in beta-tubulin. Further digestion with Asp-N and Arg-C enzymes suggested that C19-BPC-discodermolide binds to amino acid residues, 355-359, in beta-tubulin, which is in close proximity to the Taxol binding site. Molecular modeling guided by the above evidence led to a putative binding model for C19-BPC-discodermolide in tubulin.

  11. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Su J; Cao L; Yu B; Song S; Liu X; Wang Z; Li M

    2012-01-01

    Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC) was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%...

  12. Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla: An efficient and eco-friendly flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Hangcheng; Yao, Juming

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a synthesis process and flocculation characteristics of an eco-friendly flocculant based on bamboo pulp cellulose (BPC) from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Ployacrylamide (PAM) was grafted onto the BPC by free-radical graft copolymerization in homogeneous aqueous solution. The optimal synthesis conditions of the bamboo pulp cellulose-graft-ployacrylamide flocculant (BPC-g-PAM) and its performance on wastewater treatments were investigated. A UV-based method was used to rapidly determine the degree of substitution (DS) of BPC. The results showed that, under the optimal synthesis conditions, the obtained BPC-g-PAM held a grafting ratio of 43.8% and DS of 1.31. Turbidity removal of the product reached 98.0% accompanying with the significant flocculation and sedimentation in target suspensions. The flocculation mechanism was explored by means of zeta potential method. For negatively charged contaminants, like kaolin clay particles, the BPC-g-PAM could remove the contaminants efficiently via bridging and charge neutralization in acidic or neutral environment.

  13. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tonglie Huang,1,* Kuo Zhang,2,* Lijuan Sun,3 Xiaochang Xue,1 Cun Zhang,1 Zhen Shu,1 Nan Mu,1 Jintao Gu,1 Wangqian Zhang,1 Yukun Wang,1 Yingqi Zhang,1 Wei Zhang1 1State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, The Fourth Military Medical University, 2National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, School of Life Sciences, Northwest University, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin–eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of

  14. MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WASTE BIO-POLYMER COMPOUND BY HOT COMPRESSION MOLDING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khairul Zaimy A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bio-polymer compound (BPC has attracted attention in various applications from industrial to medical. Therefore, the mechanical and thermal stability properties of recycling industrial waste BPC are very important to investigate. The waste BPC for this study is based on a mixture of hydroxylated waste cooking oil with hardeners to produce waste bio-polymer foam (WBF. The granulate of WBF was cast into the mold until all spaces were evenly filled and compacted into a homogeneous shape and thickness at 30–45 bar for 2 hours using hot compression molding. This method of BPC fabrication results in a tensile and flexural strength of 4.89 MPa and 18.08 MPa respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of laminated BPC was conducted using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA, and the first degradation of the soft segment occurred at 263°C, then subsequently the second degradation occurred at 351°C and the last at 416°C.

  15. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  16. Alanine zipper-like coiled-coil domains are necessary for homotypic dimerization of plant GAGA-factors in the nucleus and nucleolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierk Wanke

    Full Text Available GAGA-motif binding proteins control transcriptional activation or repression of homeotic genes. Interestingly, there are no sequence similarities between animal and plant proteins. Plant BBR/BPC-proteins can be classified into two distinct groups: Previous studies have elaborated on group I members only and so little is known about group II proteins. Here, we focused on the initial characterization of AtBPC6, a group II protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. Comparison of orthologous BBR/BPC sequences disclosed two conserved signatures besides the DNA binding domain. A first peptide signature is essential and sufficient to target AtBPC6-GFP to the nucleus and nucleolus. A second domain is predicted to form a zipper-like coiled-coil structure. This novel type of domain is similar to Leucine zippers, but contains invariant alanine residues with a heptad spacing of 7 amino acids. By yeast-2-hybrid and BiFC-assays we could show that this Alanine zipper domain is essential for homotypic dimerization of group II proteins in vivo. Interhelical salt bridges and charge-stabilized hydrogen bonds between acidic and basic residues of the two monomers are predicted to form an interaction domain, which does not follow the classical knobs-into-holes zipper model. FRET-FLIM analysis of GFP/RFP-hybrid fusion proteins validates the formation of parallel dimers in planta. Sequence comparison uncovered that this type of domain is not restricted to BBR/BPC proteins, but is found in all kingdoms.

  17. Synthesis and photopolymerization kinetics of benzophenone sesamol one-component photoinitiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinliang; Shi, Suqing; Xu, Fei; Nie, Jun

    2013-02-01

    A benzodioxole derivative, 4-(2-(benzodioxol-5-yloxy)ethoxy)benzophenone (BPC2BDO), based on 4-hydroxybenzophenone and sesamol was synthesized, and used as a one-component Type II photoinitiator. The structure of BPC2BDO was characterized by elementary analysis, APCI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The rate of decomposition (R(d)) of BPC2BDO in acetonitrile was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and found that R(d) was proportional to light intensity. Real-time near-IR was used to study the kinetics of photopolymerization of the photoinitiator. As the benzophenone (BP) moiety and hydrogen donor were introduced into one molecule in BPC2BDO, radicals could be generated through intra-molecular reaction due to the close vicinity of the hydrogen donor and BP, which might be faster than inter-molecular reaction. The results also showed that the rate of polymerization of acrylates was significantly higher than that of methacrylates at the same polymerization conditions; the functionality of acrylates, concentration of BPC2BDO, and light intensity affected the polymerization rate and the final conversion. PMID:23047776

  18. Ocorrência de Candida albicans em intestinos de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas a identificação e a sorotipagem de C. albicans isoladas de fezes de bovinos em amamentação natural. Para o isolamento, utilizou-se o meio seletivo e diferencial de Pagano Levin, adicionado de bifenilo na concentração final de 0,1%. De 210 bovinos inicialmente considerados, 70 adultos, 68 bezerros após o desmame e 72 bezerros em fase de amamentação natural, observou-se positividade para C. albicans somente em nove amostras de fezes de bezerros em fase de amamentação (12,5%. A determinação do sorotipo por meio de provas de aglutinação direta em lâmina, com soros monoespecíficos, revelou que a totalidade das amostras isoladas pertencia ao sorotipo A. O bifenilo na concentração de 0,1% mostrou-se inibitório para a maioria dos bolores sem, aparentemente, afetar a viabilidade de C. albicans. O isolamento de C. albicans somente a partir de fezes de bezerros em amamentação, provavelmente, está relacionado à dieta láctea.

  19. Social assistance and disability in Brazil: the reflection of the international debate of the rights of people with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wederson Rufino dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the debate on the social model of disability has influenced conceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health adopted by the World Health Organization in 2001 and adopted in Brazil in 2007, through the law of the Continuous Cash Benefit. The BPC is a major social policy of income transfer to poor disabled people, affecting over one million and half disabled people in the country. Since 2009, the evaluation of persons with disabilities for the BPC will make by medical and social skills targeted by ICF. Will be demonstrated that, although the adoption of the ICF maybe to represent regard to how to understand disability as social inequality, the adoption of the ICF by the law of the BPC will face challenges in ensuring the right to dignity of disabled people.

  20. Fractal characteristics for binary noise radar waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing C.

    2016-05-01

    Noise radars have many advantages over conventional radars and receive great attentions recently. The performance of a noise radar is determined by its waveforms. Investigating characteristics of noise radar waveforms has significant value for evaluating noise radar performance. In this paper, we use binomial distribution theory to analyze general characteristics of binary phase coded (BPC) noise waveforms. Focusing on aperiodic autocorrelation function, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of sidelobes for a BPC noise waveform depend on the distances of these sidelobes to the mainlobe. The closer a sidelobe to the mainlobe, the higher the probability for this sidelobe to be a maximum sidelobe. We also develop Monte Carlo framework to explore the characteristics that are difficult to investigate analytically. Through Monte Carlo experiments, we reveal the Fractal relationship between the code length and the maximum sidelobe value for BPC waveforms, and propose using fractal dimension to measure noise waveform performance.

  1. Design and evaluation of hydraulic baffled-channel PAC contactor for taste and odor removal from drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Bae, Byung-Uk

    2007-05-01

    Based on the concept of hydraulic flocculator, a baffled-channel powdered activated carbon (PAC) contactor, placed before the rapid-mixing basin, was designed and evaluated for removal of taste and odor (T&O) in drinking water. PAC adsorption kinetic tests for raw water samples were conducted for selection of design parameters related to contact time and degree of mixing. Within the tested range of velocity gradient (G) from 18 to 83s(-1), mixing had a relatively minor effect on the adsorption kinetics of the PAC. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the pilot-scale horizontally and vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor were investigated by tracer tests. It was found that the plug flow fractions of vertically baffled-channel PAC contactor (vBPC) were higher than those of the horizontally baffled-channel PAC contactor (hBPC) for the same bend width or bend height. However, the hBPC seems to be more appropriate than the vBPC in terms of construction and maintenance. The geosmin and MIB removal rate increased with the number of baffles, PAC dose and contact time increased regardless of bend width in the pilot-scale hBPC. The pair of full-scale hBPCs at Pohang water treatment plant, having a design capacity of 6.5x10(4)m(3)/d with 20min of hydraulic retention time with a safety factor of 2, was designed based on lab- and pilot-scale experimental results. Under a velocity gradient of 20s(-1), the number of baffles to be installed was calculated to be 20 with a space of about 2m between each baffle, resulting in a hydraulic head loss through the contactor of about 0.056m. The successful application of hBPC for T&O removal from drinking water supplies should provide momentum for developing more effective treatment methods.

  2. Replacement of dietary soy- with air classified faba bean protein concentrate alters the hepatic transcriptome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Christian; Crampton, Viv O; Bicskei, Beatrix; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds

  3. Declining trends in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection by birth-year in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Oze, Isao; Ashida, Chieko; Tajima, Kazuo; Katoh, Hisato; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    Gastric cancer incidence and mortality have been decreasing in Japan. These decreases are likely due to a decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Our aim was to characterize the trends in prevalence of H. pylori infection focused on birth-year. We carried out a cross-sectional study that included 4285 subjects who were born from 1926 to 1989. We defined H. pylori infection by the serum H. pylori antibody titer. Individuals having H. pylori infection and those with negative H. pylori antibody titer and positive pepsinogen test were defined as high-risk individuals for gastric cancer. We estimated the birth-year percent change (BPC) of the prevalence by Joinpoint regression analysis. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among the subjects born from 1927 to 1949 decreased from 54.0% to 42.0% with a BPC of -1.2%. It was followed by a rapid decline in those born between 1949 (42.0%) and 1961 (24.0%) with a BPC of -4.5%, which was followed by those born between 1961 (24.0%) and 1988 (14.0%) with a BPC of -2.1%. The proportion of high-risk individuals for gastric cancer among the subjects born from 1927 to 1942 decreased from 62.0% to 55.0% with a BPC of -0.8%. A subsequent rapid declining trend was observed in those born between 1942 (55.0%) and 1972 (18.0%) with a BPC of -3.6%, and then it became stable. These remarkable declining trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection by birth-year would be useful to predict the future trend in gastric cancer incidence in Japan. PMID:26395018

  4. Applying Service Learning to Computer Science: Attracting and Engaging Under-Represented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Bean, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a computer science course that uses service learning as a vehicle to accomplish a range of pedagogical and BPC (broadening participation in computing) goals: (1) to attract a diverse group of students and engage them in outreach to younger students to help build a diverse computer science pipeline, (2) to develop leadership…

  5. Evaluation of preferred lightness rescaling methods for colour reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yerin

    2012-01-01

    In cross-media colour reproduction, it is common goal achieving media-relative reproduction. From the ICC specification, this often accomplished by linearly scaling XYZ data so that the media white of the source data matches that of the destination data. However, in this approach the media black points are not explicitly aligned. To compensate this problem, it is common to apply a black point compensation (BPC) procedure to improve the mapping of the black points. First, three lightness rescaling methods were chosen: linear, sigmoidal and spline. CIECAM02 was also implemented in an approach of a lightness rescaling method; simply, lightness values from results produced by CIECAM02 handle as if reproduced lightness values of an output image. With a chosen image set, above five different methods were implemented. A paired-comparison psychophysical experiment was performed to evaluate performances of the lightness rescaling methods. In most images, the Adobe's BPC, linear and Spline lightness rescaling methods are preferred over the CIECAM02 and sigmoidal lightness rescaling methods. The confidence interval for the single image set is +/-0.36. With this confidence interval, it is difficult to conclude the Adobe BPC' method works better, but not significantly so. However, for the overall results, as every single observation is independent to each other, the result was presented with the confidence interval of +/-0.0763. Based on the overall result, the Adobe's BPC method performs best.

  6. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  7. The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional…

  8. Limestone surfaces in built-up environment as indicators of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, A J; Camilleri, A; Tabone Adami, J P

    1996-12-01

    The concentration of sulphate on limestone surfaces of the external walls of churches in Malta is shown to be related to their position and distance from a power station, the main local point source of sulphur dioxide pollution. Limestone powder collected from these surfaces was examined for the presence of particles which, under low-power optical microscopy, appear as shiny black amorphous bodies which were interpreted as soot particles; the abundance of these bodies was expressed as a 'black particle count' (BPC). The degree of sulphation and BPC were shown to be correlated with each other and both appeared to be strongly dependent on the prevailing wind. The BPC contour map indicated an important contribution to the parameter from vehicular traffic. It is suggested that the degree of sulphation and BPC of limestone surfaces from the built environment should function as environmental indicators of the relative air quality with respect to SO2 and soot pollution. This data is possibly more accurately representative of the relative long-term air-quality status of different areas of habitation than that deduced from single or episodic measurements of atmospheric pollutant levels. PMID:24194411

  9. Degradability, cytocompatibility, and osteogenesis of porous scaffolds of nanobredigite and PCL–PEG–PCL composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Fan, Donghui; Zhao, Lingming; Yu, Baoqin; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-01-01

    Biocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by incorporation of nanobredigite (n-BD) into the polymer of poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethyleneglycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL–PEG–PCL). The results revealed that the addition of n-BD into PCL–PEG–PCL significantly improved water absorption, compressive strength, and degradability of the scaffolds of n-BD/PCL–PEG–PCL composite (n-BPC) compared with PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds alone. In addition, the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells cultured on n-BPC scaffolds were obviously higher than that cultured on PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds. Moreover, the results of the histological evaluation from the animal model revealed that the n-BPC scaffolds significantly improved new bone formation compared with the PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds, indicating good osteogenesis. The n-BPC scaffolds with good biocompatibility could stimulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone tissue regeneration and would be an excellent candidate for bone defect repair. PMID:27555774

  10. Degradability, cytocompatibility, and osteogenesis of porous scaffolds of nanobredigite and PCL-PEG-PCL composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Fan, Donghui; Zhao, Lingming; Yu, Baoqin; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-01-01

    Biocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by incorporation of nanobredigite (n-BD) into the polymer of poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL). The results revealed that the addition of n-BD into PCL-PEG-PCL significantly improved water absorption, compressive strength, and degradability of the scaffolds of n-BD/PCL-PEG-PCL composite (n-BPC) compared with PCL-PEG-PCL scaffolds alone. In addition, the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells cultured on n-BPC scaffolds were obviously higher than that cultured on PCL-PEG-PCL scaffolds. Moreover, the results of the histological evaluation from the animal model revealed that the n-BPC scaffolds significantly improved new bone formation compared with the PCL-PEG-PCL scaffolds, indicating good osteogenesis. The n-BPC scaffolds with good biocompatibility could stimulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone tissue regeneration and would be an excellent candidate for bone defect repair. PMID:27555774

  11. Leveraging Effectual Means through Business Plan Competition Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores whether the business plan competition (BPC), as a classically causational mechanism for extracurricular entrepreneurship education, can facilitate the development of the means that underpin an effectual approach to new venture creation. In-depth, open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in a regional…

  12. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  13. Evaluation of the Brief Problem Checklist: Child and Caregiver Interviews to Measure Clinical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Reise, Steven; Weisz, John R.; Grubbs, Kathleen; Becker, Kimberly D.; Krull, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To support ongoing monitoring of child response during treatment, we sought to develop a brief, easily administered, clinically relevant, and psychometrically sound measure. Method: We first developed child and caregiver forms of a 12-item Brief Problem Checklist (BPC) interview by applying item response theory and factor analysis to…

  14. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling.

  15. The influence of hydrolysis induced biopolymers from recycled aerobic sludge on specific methanogenic activity and sludge filterability in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntner, D; Spanjers, H; van Lier, J B

    2014-03-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of excess aerobic sludge on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), in order to establish the maximum allowable aerobic sludge loading. In batch tests, different ratios of aerobic sludge to anaerobic inoculum were used, i.e. 0.03, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15, showing that low ratios led to an increased SMA. However, the ratio 0.15 caused more than 20% SMA decrease. In addition to the SMA tests, the potential influence of biopolymers and extracellular substances, that are generated as a result of excess aerobic sludge hydrolysis, on membrane performance was determined by assessing the fouling potential of the liquid broth, taking into account parameters such as specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and supernatant filterability (SF). Addition of aerobic sludge to the anaerobic biomass resulted in a high membrane fouling potential. The increase in biopolymers could be ascribed to aerobic sludge hydrolysis. A clear positive correlation between the concentration of the colloidal fraction of biopolymer clusters (cBPC) and the SRF was observed and a negative correlation between the cBPC and the SF measured at the end of the above described SMA tests. The latter implies that sludge filtration resistance increases when more aerobic sludge is hydrolyzed, and thus more cBPC is released. During AnMBR operation, proteins significantly contributed to sludge filterability decrease expressed as SRF and SF, whereas the carbohydrate fraction of SMP was of less importance due to low concentrations. On the contrary, carbohydrates seemed to improve filterability and diminish SRF of the sludge. Albeit, cBPC increase caused an increase in mean TMP during the AnMBR operation, confirming that cBPC is positively correlated to membrane fouling. PMID:24284260

  16. Bare platinum coils vs. HydroCoil in the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms—A single center randomized controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The use of HydroCoil tends to improve immediate angiographic outcome. • Less total number of coils is needed when using HydroCoil. • HydroCoil is equivocal to bare platinum coil. - Abstract: Purpose: The HydroCoil Embolic System (HES) was developed to improve aneurysm filling to provide superior occlusion efficacy, reduce retreatment rates and enhance long-term durability. We performed a randomized clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of bare platinum coils (BPC) vs. HES for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Ninety-six patients underwent endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The aneurysms were randomized equally to receive BPC or HES. Immediate angiographic results, number of coils used and complications were evaluated and all cases had 12-month follow-up angiography. Results: Immediate angiographic results demonstrated that 84.0% of aneurysms treated with HES were completely occluded compared to 76.1% of aneurysms treated with BPC (p = 0.3310). The mean number of coils utilized to fill the aneurysm was significantly lower in the HES arm (5.04 vs. 6.93). Additional adjunctive techniques were performed in 51.1% of all cases. There were seven patients (7.3%) with postoperative complications during the study period. The coil type used during the treatment did not demonstrate any significant differences on the overall recurrence rate (HES – 18.0%, BPC – 17.4%, p = 0.9712). There was a statistically significant difference in the aneurysm size and the neck width between completely occluded aneurysms and aneurysms with residual flow in both immediate angiographic and mid-term follow-up. Conclusions: Overall, aneurysm size and neck width are the main risk factors associated with aneurysm recurrence. HES compared to BPC required less total number of coils to provide a denser aneurysm filling. However, there were equivocal results with both devices, at the mid-term angiographic follow-up

  17. Bare platinum coils vs. HydroCoil in the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms—A single center randomized controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech, E-mail: wponcyl@poczta.onet.pl [Departament of Interventional Radiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Neurointerventional Cath Lab MSW Hospital, Al. Powst. Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Zarzycki, Artur, E-mail: arturzarzycki@o2.pl [Department of Neurosurgery and Pediatric Neurosurgery, Pomeranian Medical University, Unii Lubelskiej 1, 71-242 Szczecin Poland (Poland); Zwarzany, Łukasz, E-mail: zwarzany@gmail.com [Departament of Interventional Radiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Neurointerventional Cath Lab MSW Hospital, Al. Powst. Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Burke, Thomas H., E-mail: tom.burke@microvention.com [Microvention–Terumo, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of HydroCoil tends to improve immediate angiographic outcome. • Less total number of coils is needed when using HydroCoil. • HydroCoil is equivocal to bare platinum coil. - Abstract: Purpose: The HydroCoil Embolic System (HES) was developed to improve aneurysm filling to provide superior occlusion efficacy, reduce retreatment rates and enhance long-term durability. We performed a randomized clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of bare platinum coils (BPC) vs. HES for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Ninety-six patients underwent endovascular coiling of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The aneurysms were randomized equally to receive BPC or HES. Immediate angiographic results, number of coils used and complications were evaluated and all cases had 12-month follow-up angiography. Results: Immediate angiographic results demonstrated that 84.0% of aneurysms treated with HES were completely occluded compared to 76.1% of aneurysms treated with BPC (p = 0.3310). The mean number of coils utilized to fill the aneurysm was significantly lower in the HES arm (5.04 vs. 6.93). Additional adjunctive techniques were performed in 51.1% of all cases. There were seven patients (7.3%) with postoperative complications during the study period. The coil type used during the treatment did not demonstrate any significant differences on the overall recurrence rate (HES – 18.0%, BPC – 17.4%, p = 0.9712). There was a statistically significant difference in the aneurysm size and the neck width between completely occluded aneurysms and aneurysms with residual flow in both immediate angiographic and mid-term follow-up. Conclusions: Overall, aneurysm size and neck width are the main risk factors associated with aneurysm recurrence. HES compared to BPC required less total number of coils to provide a denser aneurysm filling. However, there were equivocal results with both devices, at the mid-term angiographic follow-up.

  18. A sub nrad beam pointing monitoring and stabilization system for controlling input beam jitter in GW interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Canuel, Benjamin; Mantovani, Maddalena; Marque, Julien; Ruggi, Paolo; Tacca, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a simple and very effective control system to monitor and suppress the beam jitter noise at the input of an optical system, called Beam Pointing Control (BPC) system, will be described showing the theoretical principle and an experimental demonstration for the application of large scale gravitational wave interferometers, in particular for the Advanced Virgo detector. For this purpose the requirements for the control accuracy and the sensing noise will be computed by taking into account the Advanced Virgo optical configuration and the outcomes will be compared with the experimental measurement obtained in the laboratory. The system has shown unprecedented performance in terms of control accuracy and sensing noise. The BPC system has achieved a control accuracy of ~ $10^{-8}$ rad for the tilt and ~ $10^{-7}$ m for the shift and a sensing noise of less than 1 nrad/$\\sqrt{Hz}$ resulting compliant with the Advance Virgo gravitational wave interferometer requirements.

  19. Black point compensation and its influence on image appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub Novaković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Black point compensation (BPC is a feature developed by the Adobe company in order to address the problem causedby differences between the darkest level of black achievable on input and output devices and it’s not a part of ICCspecifications. If it’s turned on – black colour of input device will be mapped into the black colour of an output device;if it’s not – mapping will be performed regarding the rendering intents. By default this option is turned on, which isa good solution in most cases. The aim of the work is to accurately define when black point compensation should beactivated, and when not, and also to investigate influence of different colour management modules on colours allocationafter conversions, in accordance to their psychophysical values. Regarding theoretical background and results ofexperimental part of this work conclusions about BPC usability are carried out.

  20. Effect of Soil Drought on C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Activities of Flag Leaf and Ear in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ai-li; WANG Zhi-min; ZHAI Zhi-xi; GONG Yuan-shi

    2003-01-01

    The activities of RuBPC and C4 photosynthetic enzymes in ear and flag leaf blade were examinedin wheat. The results showed that photosynthesis of ear was less sensitive to soil drought than that of flag leaf,and decrease of CO2 assimilation in flag leaf blade with water stress was more than that in ear. Compared withflag leaf, ear organs(awn, glume and lemma) had higher C4 enzyme activities and lower RuBPC activity. Un-der moderate water-stress, the increase of C4 enzyme activities was induced, and the increase was higher in earthan in flag leaf. Under severe water-stress, relatively higher C4 enzyme activities were still maintained in ear,rather than that in flag leaf. It suggests that high activities of C4 enzymes in ear may contribute to its high tol-erance of photosynthesis to water-stress.

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE MULTI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS,POLY[1,6-BIS(4-OXYBENZOYL-OXY)HEXANE TEREPHTHALATE]-b-BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Zhang; Xiong-yan Zhao; De-shan Liu; Qi-xiang Zhou

    1999-01-01

    A series of liquid crystalline multi-block copolymers poly[1,6-bis(4-oxybenzoyl-oxy)hexane terephthalate]-b-bisphenol A polycarbonate (PHTH-6-b-PC) with different segment lengths were synthesized in tetrachloroethane by solution polycondensation in which hydroxyl terminated PC and acyl chloride terminated PHTH-6 were used. It is found that block copolymers with high molecular weight and welldefined structures were obtained. All the block copolymers exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline texture.

  2. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U3O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U3O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  3. A Singular Miquel Configuration and the Miquel Direct Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Let ABC be a triangle with P on AB, and let circle APC meet BC at Q and circle BPC meet CA at R, then the special Miquel configuration is when P, Q, R are the operative points on the sides. We show that in this case if S is the Miquel point then ASQ and BSR are straight lines. In the last part we investigate the direct similarity between ABC and DEF the triangle formed by the centres of the Miquel circles.

  4. The response to isoniazid of action tremor in multiple sclerosis and its assessment using polarised light goniometry.

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Francis; Grundy, D; Heron, J R

    1986-01-01

    Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid) was evaluated in five patients as a treatment for the control of severe cerebellar action tremor occurring in multiple sclerosis. Oral doses of isoniazid BPC were increased every 2 weeks from 300 mg to 1200 mg daily over an 8 week period. Four patients reported considerable symptomatic benefit at doses ranging from 600 mg to 900 mg daily. Polarised light goniometry demonstrated a two to three-fold reduction of tremor in these patients when standard meth...

  5. Polyoxomolybdate Bisphosphonate Heterometallic Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Activity on a Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ali; Zhu, Wei; Rousseau, Guillaume; Mialane, Pierre; Marrot, Jérôme; Haouas, Mohamed; Taulelle, Francis; Dessapt, Rémi; Serier-Brault, Hélène; Rivière, Eric; Kubo, Tadahiko; Oldfield, Eric; Dolbecq, Anne

    2015-07-13

    Six polyoxometalates containing Mn(II) , Mn(III) , or Fe(III) as the heteroelement were synthesized in water by treating Mo(VI) precursors with biologically active bisphosphonates (alendronate (Ale), zoledronate (Zol), an n-alkyl bisphosphonate (BPC9 ), an aminoalkyl bisphosphonate (BPC8 NH2 )) in the presence of additional metal ions. The Pt complex was synthesized from a polyoxomolybdate bisphosphonate precursor with Mo(VI) ions linked by the 2-pyridyl analogue of alendronate (AlePy). The complexes Mo4 Ale2 Mn, Mo4 Zol2 Mn, Mo4 Ale2 Fe, Mo4 Zol2 Fe, Mo4 (BPC8 NH2 )2 Fe, and Mo4 (BPC9 )2 Fe contain two dinuclear Mo(VI) cores bound to a central heterometallic ion. The oxidation state of manganese was determined by magnetic measurements. Complexes Mo12 (AlePy)4 and Mo12 (AlePy)4 Pt4 were studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and the photochromic properties were investigated in the solid state; both methods confirmed the complexation of Pt. Activity against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 was determined and the most potent compound was Mn(III) -containing Mo4 Zol2 Mn (IC50 ≈1.3 μM). Unlike results obtained with vanadium-containing polyoxometalate bisphosphonates, cell growth inhibition was rescued by the addition of geranylgeraniol, which reverses the effects of bisphosphonates on isoprenoid biosynthesis/protein prenylation. The results indicate an important role for both the heterometallic element and the bisphosphonate ligand in the mechanism of action of the most active compounds.

  6. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  7. Degradability, cytocompatibility, and osteogenesis of porous scaffolds of nanobredigite and PCL–PEG–PCL composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jun Hou,1 Donghui Fan,2 Lingming Zhao,2 Baoqin Yu,3 Jiacan Su,3 Jie Wei,2 Jung-Woog Shin4 1The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hefei, 2Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education and The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 3Department of Orthopaedics Trauma, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Republic of Korea Abstract: Biocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by incorporation of nanobredigite (n-BD into the polymer of poly(ε-caprolactone–poly(ethyleneglycol–poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL–PEG–PCL. The results revealed that the addition of n-BD into PCL–PEG–PCL significantly improved water absorption, compressive strength, and degradability of the scaffolds of n-BD/PCL–PEG–PCL composite (n-BPC compared with PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds alone. In addition, the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells cultured on n-BPC scaffolds were obviously higher than that cultured on PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds. Moreover, the results of the histological evaluation from the animal model revealed that the n-BPC scaffolds significantly improved new bone formation compared with the PCL–PEG–PCL scaffolds, indicating good osteogenesis. The n-BPC scaffolds with good biocompatibility could stimulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone tissue regeneration and would be an excellent candidate for bone defect repair. Keywords: nanobredigite, PCL–PEG–PCL, biocomposite scaffolds, degradability, osteo­genesis

  8. Post-GWAS gene–environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79 000 women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Joshi, Amit D.; Ruth C Travis; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Auer, Paul L.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia; Diver, W Ryan; Brian E Henderson; Haiman, Christopher A.; Fredrick R Schumacher; Le Marchand, Loïc; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case–control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC...

  9. Balancing Study and Paid Work: The Experiences of Construction Undergraduates in an Australian University

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Lingard

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was undertaken among third year studentsenrolled in the University of Melbourne’s Bachelor of Property andConstruction (BPC) programme. The survey explored students’experiences in balancing paid work with study. Hours spent in paidemployment were at least as long and, in many cases, were inexcess of hours spent at university. While work was not perceivedby students to pose a difficulty for attending lectures and tutorials,students indicated that their paid work made it ...

  10. Catalytic water oxidation by mononuclear Ru complexes with an anionic ancillary ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lianpeng; Inge, A Ken; Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Zou, Xiaodong; Sun, Licheng

    2013-03-01

    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru(II)(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(II)(bpc)(pic)3](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce(IV) as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce(IV) was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra.

  11. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here.

  12. ОСОБЛИВОСТІ СПІВПРАЦІ КОРПУСУ ОХОРОНИ ПРИКОРДОННЯ З ОРГАНАМИ ДЕРЖАВНОЇ ВЛАДИ РЕЧІ ПОСПОЛИТОЇ НА ТЕРИТОРІЇ ВОЛИНСЬКОГО ВОЄВОДСТВА у 1924 –1939 рр.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Бортник

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The features of cooperation between Border Protection Corps (BPC and state authorities on the territory of Volhynian Voivodeship are analyzed in this article. This cooperation embraces a brigade of BPC «Wolhyn», the public administrations authorities of the first and the second instance, security services. It concerns border protection issues, security and public order protection on the territory of boundary. The most effective form of cooperation were the conferences deal with the border security between Border Protection Corps and public administration. The purpose of conferences was the mutual coordination activities, the installation of general principles of cooperation. The maim subjects of conferences were: border zone placing (building telecommunicatios networks and organization of cooperation programs of general government administration with Border Protection Corps in this regard; confusions in jurisdiction between the administrative authorities, State Police and BPC; strengthening of the border control at the appropriate border areas ; mutual exchange of information and observations about the situation in the border; activity coordination in the areas of border patrols, criminality fighting with border crimes etc.

  13. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  14. Impact of Nitrification on the Formation of N-Nitrosamines and Halogenated Disinfection Byproducts within Distribution System Storage Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-03-15

    Distribution system storage facilities are a critical, yet often overlooked, component of the urban water infrastructure. This study showed elevated concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), total N-nitrosamines (TONO), regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetamides (HAMs) in waters with ongoing nitrification as compared to non-nitrifying waters in storage facilities within five different chloraminated drinking water distribution systems. The concentrations of NDMA, TONO, HANs, and HAMs in the nitrifying waters further increased upon application of simulated distribution system chloramination. The addition of a nitrifying biofilm sample collected from a nitrifying facility to its non-nitrifying influent water led to increases in N-nitrosamine and halogenated DBP formation, suggesting the release of precursors from nitrifying biofilms. Periodic treatment of two nitrifying facilities with breakpoint chlorination (BPC) temporarily suppressed nitrification and reduced precursor levels for N-nitrosamines, HANs, and HAMs, as reflected by lower concentrations of these DBPs measured after re-establishment of a chloramine residual within the facilities than prior to the BPC treatment. However, BPC promoted the formation of halogenated DBPs while a free chlorine residual was maintained. Strategies that minimize application of free chlorine while preventing nitrification are needed to control DBP precursor release in storage facilities.

  15. GC-MS study of Artabotrys odoratissimus fatty oil (leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS study of two fatty oil fractions from Artabotrys odoratissimus (leaves indicated the presence of fifteen compounds namely, nonanoic acid; methyl phenyl propanoate; decanoic acid; diethyl phthalate; dibutyl phthalate; 2-amino-3-ethyl biphenyl; 5-methyl-9-phenylnonan-3-ol; hexadeca-2,7,11-triene; 2,6-dimethyl-1-phenylhepta-1-one; 2,5-dimethyltetradecahydrophenenthrene; 1-phenylundecane; 1-isopropyl-4,6-dimethyl naphthalene; 5-(2-butyl phenylpent-3-en-2-ol; 1-phenyldeca-1-one and 1-phenylundecan-1-one. Some of the compounds are rare occurring and biologically activeEl estudio por GC-MS de dos fracciones del aceite de la hoja de Artabotrys odoratissimus indicó la presencia de quince compuestos tales como: ácido nonanoico; fenil propanoato de metilo; ácido decanoico; ftalato de dietilo; ftalato de dibutilo; 2-amino-3-etil bifenilo; 5-metil-9-fenilnonan-3-ol; hexadeca-2,7,11-trieno; 2,6-dimetil-1-fenilheptan-1-ona; 2,5-dimetiltetradecahidrofenantreno; 1-fenilundecano; 1-isopropil-4,6-dimetil naftaleno; 5-(2-butilfenil-3-penten-2-ol; 1-fenildecan-1-ona y 1-fenilundecan-1-ona. Algunos de estos compuestos son poco frecuentes y activos biológicamente.

  16. The investigation and analyses on blood count of the part of officers and soldiers from Zhoushan district%舟山地区部分部队官兵血常规的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; 王晓波; 宋伟娜; 常晓慧; 刘晓宇; 王伟; 杜欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查舟山地区部分部队官兵血常规的异常检出情况.方法 采用整群抽样方法,采集444名陆海军官兵的静脉血2ml,检测白细胞(WBC)、红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(BPC).结果 ①受检官兵的WBC、RBC、Hb、BPC分别为(5.9±1.4)× 109/L、(5.2±0.4)×1012/L、(144.4±12.1)g/L、(243.9±47.4)× 109/L;②WBC、RBC、Hb和BPC异常检出率分别为8.0%、17.6%、7.5%和11.7%,其中RBC异常检出率最高,其次为WBC、BPC;③海军官兵4项指标的异常检出率均高于陆军,其中Hb的异常检出率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 舟山地区受检官兵WBC、RBC、Hb和BPC等4项血常规的主要指标均在正常范围,对于异常检出率应采取措施予以动态观察、及时诊治.%Objective To investigate and analyzing the abnormal detection condition on blood count in the part of officers and soldiers from Zhoushan district. Methods The cluster sampling was used. About 2 ml of venous blood were individually collected from 444 officers and soldiers in army and navy. White blood cell count( WBC) ,red blood cell count( RBC) ,hemoglobin(Hb) and blood platelet count( BPC) were detected. Results Among 444 officers and soldiers,WBC,RBC,Hb,BPC were(5.9 ±1.4) × 109/L, (5. 2 ±0.4) × 1012/ L,( 144.4 ±12. l)g/L,(243.9±47.4) X lO'/L respectively. The abnormality detection rates of WBC,RBC, Hb,and BPC were 8. 0% , 17. 6% ,7.5% and 11.7% respectively. RBC was the highest and the higher was WBC and BPC. Each abnormality detection rate of 4 indexes from navy was higher than that of army,but the difference of Hb only had statistical significance ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The chief indexes of blood count such as WBC,RBC,Hb,and BPC of the officers and 9oldiers can maintain normal level. The measures should be adopted for abnormality detection rate with dynamic status in order to diagnose and treat in time.

  17. Degradability, bioactivity, and osteogenesis of biocomposite scaffolds of lithium-containing mesoporous bioglass and mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanrong Cai,1 Lieping Guo,2 Hongxing Shen,2 Xiaofei An,2 Hong Jiang,3 Fang Ji,2 Yunfei Niu21The College of Basic Science of Medicine, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide-poly(L-lysine (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer were fabricated in this study. The results showed that the water absorption and degradability of Li-containing mesoporous bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-MBPC scaffolds were obviously higher than Li-containing bioglass/mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL composite (l-BPC scaffolds. Moreover, the apatite-formation ability of l-MBPC scaffolds was markedly enhanced as compared with l-BPC scaffolds, indicating that l-MBPC scaffolds containing mesoporous bioglass exhibited good bioactivity. The cell experimental results showed that cell attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on l-MBPC scaffolds were remarkably improved as compared to l-BPC scaffolds. In animal experiments, the histological elevation results revealed that l-MBPC scaffolds significantly promoted new bone formation, indicating good osteogenesis. l-MBPC scaffolds with improved properties would be an excellent candidate for bone tissue repair.Keywords: MBG, copolymer, degradability, bioactivity, osteogenesis, cell proliferation, bone repair

  18. Diversidade corporal e perícia médica: novos contornos da deficiência para o Benefício de Prestação Continuada = The disabled body and the medical model: disability and unconditional cash transfer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC é a principal política de transferência de renda para a população deficiente no Brasil. Para acessar o benefício, os deficientes devem comprovar a pobreza e se submeter a uma perícia médica que atesta os impedimentos corporais. Este artigo analisa os conceitos de deficiência utilizados pelos médicos peritos responsáveis pela avaliação e seleção dos beneficiários do BPC. Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado, autoministrado, para 448 médicos peritos. O questionário simula situações de candidatos ao BPC e solicita que o perito assinale sua postura em cada uma das situações relacionadas. Os resultados mostram que os modelos médico e social da deficiência disputam a autoridade discursiva sobre a deficiência no momento da perícia. Há situações em que o modelo biomédico é hegemônico, situações de alternância entre os dois modelos e situações em que os modelos se tensionam. O estudo revela que a compreensão da deficiência como uma questão de justiça social conquistou novos espaços, mesmo aqueles tradicionalmente dominados pelo modelo biomédico, como o contexto da perícia médica

  19. Post-GWAS gene-environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79,000 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Joshi, Amit D; Travis, Ruth C; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Auer, Paul L; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia; Diver, W Ryan; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Rudolph, Anja; Ziegler, Regina G; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Hankinson, Susan E; Lindström, Sara; Willet, Walter; Hunter, David J; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Zhang, Shumin; Dossus, Laure; Cox, David G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lund, Eiliv; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Quirós, J Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Sund, Malin; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Prentice, Ross L; Kraft, Peter; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case-control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), with 16 285 BC cases and 19 376 controls. We performed stratified analyses for both the risk and prognostic factors, testing for heterogeneity for the risk factors, and case-case comparisons for differential associations of polymorphisms by subgroups of the prognostic factors. We analyzed multiplicative interactions between the SNPs and the risk factors. Finally, we also performed a meta-analysis of the interaction ORs from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. After correction for multiple testing, no significant interaction between the SNPs and the established risk factors in the BPC3 study was found. The meta-analysis showed a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 (Pinteraction = 8.84 × 10(-4)) which, although not significant after considering multiple comparison, has a plausible biological explanation. In conclusion, in this study of up to almost 79 000 women we can conclusively exclude any novel major interactions between genome-wide association studies hits and the epidemiologic risk factors taken into consideration, but we propose a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 that if further replicated could help our understanding in the etiology of BC. PMID:24895409

  20. PHASE STRUCTURE AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE MULTI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS,POLY[1,6-BIS(4-OXYBENZOYL-OXY)HEXANE TEREPHTHALATE]-b-BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Zhang; Xiong-yan Zhao; De-shan Liu; Qi-xiang Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Liquid crystalline multi-block copolymers poly[1,6-bis(4-oxybenzoyl-oxy)hexane terephthalate]-b-bisphenol A polycarbonate (PHTH-6-b-PC) with different segments of polycarbonate (PC) and thermotropic polyester PHTH-6 were synthesized in tetrachloroethane at 144~146℃. The influence of segment length on the resulting phase structure and thermal behavior of block copolymers was also discussed. It is demonstrated by TEM and DMA that the resulting block copolymers show a considerable microphase separation. The degree of phase separation and the thermal behavior of the block copolymers are strongly dependent on the molecular weight of the segments incorporated.

  1. Comparison of radiopaque perfluorocarbon and Ethiodol in lymphography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D M; Nielson, M D; Mutter, F K; Lasser, E C; Liu, M S; Russell, S

    1979-10-01

    Lymphangiography was performed on 40 adult cats, 39 dogs, 20 rabbits, and 12 rats of mixed sex using Ethiodol or radiopaque perfluorocarbon (BPC). Ethiodol was more radiodense than RPC, but imaging of lymph channels and nodes was satisfactory with the latter. RPC could be infused rapidly, while Ethiodol infusion was time consuming. RPC was biologically inert; Ethiodol produced both local and systemic inflammatory reactions. The lymph node distribution with RPC was more uniform and persisted for longer periods. It was concluded that RPC was an improvement over Ethiodol for lymphangiography.

  2. Effect of Composite Salvia Injection on Platelet Parameters in Children with Anaphylactoid Purpura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢雪兰; 寇素茹; 许月红; 李朝英

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of composite salvia injection(CSI) on platelet parameters in children with anaphylactoid purpura(AP) and its clinical significance.Methods:One hundred and fifty children with AP were assigned to two groups,80 in Group A and 70 in Group B.They were treated,respectively,with conventional therapy only or conventional therapy combined with CSI.Their platelet parameters,including blood platelet count(BPC),mean platelet volume(MPV),platelet distribution width(PDW) and plateletcr...

  3. High performance word level sequential and parallel coding methods and architectures for bit plane coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG ChengYi; TIAN JinWen; LIU Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced a novel high performance algorithm and VLSI architectures for achieving bit plane coding (BPC) in word level sequential and parallel mode. The proposed BPC algorithm adopts the techniques of coding pass prediction and par-allel & pipeline to reduce the number of accessing memory and to increase the ability of concurrently processing of the system, where all the coefficient bits of a code block could be coded by only one scan. A new parallel bit plane architecture (PA) was proposed to achieve word-level sequential coding. Moreover, an efficient high-speed architecture (HA) was presented to achieve multi-word parallel coding. Compared to the state of the art, the proposed PA could reduce the hardware cost more efficiently, though the throughput retains one coefficient coded per clock. While the proposed HA could perform coding for 4 coefficients belonging to a stripe column at one intra-clock cycle, so that coding for an N×N code-block could be completed in approximate N2/4 intra-clock cycles. Theoretical analysis and ex-perimental results demonstrate that the proposed designs have high throughput rate with good performance in terms of speedup to cost, which can be good alter-natives for low power applications.

  4. Comparative in Vivo Assessment of Some Adverse Bioeffects of Equidimensional Gold and Silver Nanoparticles and the Attenuation of Nanosilver’s Effects with a Complex of Innocuous Bioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Katsnelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable suspensions of nanogold (NG and nanosilver (NS with mean particle diameter 50 and 49 nm, respectively, were prepared by laser ablation of metals in water. To assess rat’s pulmonary phagocytosis response to a single intratracheal instillation of these suspensions, we used optical, transmission electron, and semi-contact atomic force microscopy. NG and NS were also repeatedly injected intraperitoneally into rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg (0.5 mg per mL of deionized water three times a week, up to 20 injections. A group of rats was thus injected with NS after oral administration of a “bioprotective complex” (BPC comprised of pectin, multivitamins, some amino acids, calcium, selenium, and omega-3 PUFA. After the termination of the injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features of the spleen, kidneys and liver were evaluated for signs of toxicity, and accumulation of NG or NS in these organs was measured. From the same rats, we obtained cell suspensions of different tissues for performing the RAPD test. It was demonstrated that, although both nanometals were adversely bioactive in all respects considered in this study, NS was more noxious as compared with NG, and that the BPC tested by us attenuated both the toxicity and genotoxicity of NS.

  5. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  6. Slingshot Mechanism in Orion: Kinematic Evidence For Ejection of Protostars by Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Stutz, Amelia M

    2015-01-01

    By comparing 3 constituents of Orion A (gas, protostars, and pre-main-sequence stars), both morhologically and kinematically, we derive the following. The gas surface density near the integral-shaped filament (ISF) is well represented by a power law, Sigma(b)=72 Msun/pc^2(b/pc)^{-5/8} for our entire range, 0.05<b/pc<8.5, of distance from the filament ridge. Essentially all protostars lie on the ISF or other filament ridges, while almost all pre-main-sequence stars do not. Combined with the fact that protostars move <1 kms relative to the filaments while stars move several times faster, this implies that protostellar accretion is terminated by a slingshot ejection from the filaments. The ISF is the 3rd in a series of star bursts that are progressively moving south, with separations of a few Myr in time and 3 pc in space. This, combined with the filament's observed undulations (spatial and velocity), suggests that repeated propagation of transverse waves thru the filament is progressively digesting the...

  7. COMPARISON OF MERCURY BLOOD PRESSURE READINGS TO OSCILLOMETRIC AND CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREDICTING TARGET ORGAN DAMAGE IN YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Elaine M; Khoury, Philip R; McCoy, Connie E; Daniels, Stephen R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Kimball, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hypertension (HT) is an important risk factor for target organ damage (TOD). New methods for measuring BP are replacing mercury sphygmomanometry in many clinics. We examined the utility of different BP measurement techniques in predicting subclinical TOD in adolescents and young adults. Methods Subjects in a study of the CV effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were evaluated (N=677, 18 ± 3.3 years, 35% male, 60% non-Caucasian, 30% T2DM). We measured adiposity, lab, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness & pulse wave. BP was measured 3 times with mercury sphygmomanometery (BPm) an oscillometric device (BPo) and central aortic BP (BPc) was derived with arterial tonometry. Subjects were stratified as normotensive (N), pre-hypertensive (P) or hypertensive (H). Results The prevalence of HT this cohort with mean BMI of 31 was highest with BPo (16%), followed by BPm (11%) and BPc (9%), p≤0.001. BPm was most consistent in differentiating left ventricular mass and pulse wave velocity among subjects in the P group as compared to the N & H groups. Mercury BP was also more sensitive and specific in predicting greater left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity and carotid thickness than the other BP measurement techniques in logistic regression. Conclusions We conclude that mercury sphygmomanometry should remain the gold standard for evaluation of HT and the risk for TOD in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25647284

  8. In vitro prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation with antibiotics used in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García-Castillo, María; Maiz, Luis; Lamas, Adelaida; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    The ability of antibiotics used in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation was studied using a biofilm microtitre assay with 57 non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates (44 first colonisers and 13 recovered during the initial intermittent colonisation stage) obtained from 35 CF patients. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs) of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramycin, colistin and azithromycin were determined by placing a peg lid with a formed biofilm onto microplates containing antibiotics. A modification of this protocol consisting of antibiotic challenge during biofilm formation was implemented in order to determine the biofilm prevention concentration (BPC), i.e. the minimum concentration able to prevent biofilm formation. The lowest BPCs were for fluoroquinolones, tobramycin and colistin and the highest for ceftazidime and imipenem. The former antibiotics had BPCs identical to or only slightly higher than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution and were also active on formed biofilms as reflected by their low BIC values. In contrast, ceftazidime and imipenem were less effective for prevention of biofilm formation and on formed biofilms. In conclusion, the new BPC parameter determined in non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates recovered during early colonisation stages in CF patients supports early aggressive antimicrobial treatment guidelines in first P. aeruginosa-colonised CF patients. PMID:22727530

  9. Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible.

  10. Nanostructured Black Phosphorus/Ketjenblack-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Composite as High Performance Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Chen, Zonghai; Zhong, Gui-Ming; Liu, Yuzi; Yang, Yong; Ma, Tianyuan; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Wu, Xue-Hang; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, the low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes for sodium-ion batteries are bottlenecks for future developments. Here, we report a high performance nanostructured anode material for sodium-ion batteries that is fabricated by high energy ball milling to form black phosphorus/Ketjenblack-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (BPC) composite. With this strategy, the BPC composite with a high phosphorus content (70 wt %) could deliver a very high initial Coulombic efficiency (>90%) and high specific capacity with excellent cyclability at high rate of charge/discharge (∼1700 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.3 A g(-1) based on the mass of P). In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction, ex situ small/wide-angle X-ray scattering, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance were further used to unravel its superior sodium storage performance. The scientific findings gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design on high performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. PMID:27222911

  11. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las especies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se depositan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgánicos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe-ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.

    Palabras clave: contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COP; bifeniles policlorados (PCB; biodegradación; biorremediación.


    ABSTRACT

    Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places, such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed

  12. Biorremediación de suelo contaminado con pesticidas: caso DDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Betancur Corredor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El 1,1,1-tricloro-2,2'bis(p-clorofeniletano (DDT ha sido usado desde la segunda guerra mundial para controlar enfermedades transmitidas por insectos en humanos y animales domésticos. El uso de estos insecticidas organoclorados se ha prohibido en la mayoría de los países, debido a su persistencia en el ambiente, susceptibilidad de biomagnificación y potencial toxicidad a animales superiores. La biorremediación involucra el uso de microorganismos para degradar contaminantes orgánicos presentes en el ambiente, transformándolos en compuestos más simples y de menor peligrosidad, inclusive inocuos. Esta estrategia de descontaminación tiene bajos costos, una amplia aceptación pública y puede llevarse a cabo en el sitio. Comparado con otros métodos, la biorremediación es una forma más promisoria y menos costosa de eliminar los contaminantes presentes en suelos y agua. En suelo los compuestos bifenilos clorados como el DDT, pueden ser parcialmente biodegradados por un grupo de bacterias aerobias que cometabolizan el contaminante. La biodisponibilidad de los contaminantes puede ser mejorada, tratando los suelos en presencia de agentes movilizadores del contaminante como los surfactantes. En esta revisión se discuten las diferentes estrategias de biorremediación de suelo contaminado con DDT, incluyendo mecanismos y rutas de degradación. Se describe la aplicación de estas técnicas en suelo contaminado y se discute cuál es la mejor estrategia para remediación de DDT. 

  13. Long-term results of PRRT in advanced bronchopulmonary carcinoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariniello, Annapaola; Bodei, Lisa; Baio, Silvia Melania; Gilardi, Laura; Colandrea, Marzia; Papi, Stefano; Grana, Chiara Maria [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Tinelli, Carmine [IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, Pavia (Italy); Valmadre, Giuseppe [Presidio Ospedaliero E. Morelli AOVV, Sondalo (Italy); Fazio, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Milan (Italy); Galetta, Domenico [European Institute of Oncology, Thoracic Surgery Division, Milan (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) has been explored for almost two decades, but there are still few trials that have exclusively investigated well-differentiated and moderately differentiated NET arising from the respiratory tree. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the outcome in patients affected by bronchopulmonary carcinoid (BPC) following PRRT. We retrospectively analysed 114 patients with advanced stage BPC consecutively treated with PRRT at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, from 1997 to 2012 and followed until October 2014. The objective responses, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were rated, and three different PRRT protocols ({sup 90}Y-DOTATOC vs. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE vs. {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) were compared with regard to their efficacy and tolerability. The median OS (evaluated in 94 of the 114 patients) was 58.8 months. The median PFS was 28.0 months. The {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol resulted in the highest 5-year OS (61.4 %). Morphological responses (partial responses + minor responses) were obtained in 26.5 % of the cohort and were associated with longer OS and PFS. The {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol provided the highest response rate (38.1 %). Adverse events were mild in the majority of patients. However, haematological toxicity negatively affected survival. No severe (grade 3/4) serum creatinine increase was observed. Patients treated with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC alone more frequently showed a mild/moderate decrease in renal function. In patients treated with chemotherapy before PRRT had a shorter OS and PFS, and a higher risk of developing nephrotoxicity. In a large cohort of patients with advanced BPC treated in a ''real-world'' scenario and followed up for a median of 45.1 months (range 2 - 191 months), PRRT proved to be promising in prolonging survival and delaying disease progression. Despite

  14. Subchronic Toxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Attenuation with the Help of a Combination of Bioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Privalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the copper metallurgy workplace air is polluted with condensation aerosols, which a significant fraction of is presented by copper oxide particles <100 nm. In the scientific literature, there is a lack of their in vivo toxicity characterization and virtually no attempts of enhancing organism’s resistance to their impact. A stable suspension of copper oxide particles with mean (±SD diameter 20 ± 10 nm was prepared by laser ablation of pure copper in water. It was being injected intraperitoneally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg (0.5 mg per mL of deionized water three times a week up to 19 injections. In parallel, another group of rats was so injected with the same suspension against the background of oral administration of a “bio-protective complex” (BPC comprising pectin, a multivitamin-multimineral preparation, some amino acids and fish oil rich in ω-3 PUFA. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices for the organism’s status, as well as pathological changes of liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain microscopic structure were evaluated for signs of toxicity. In the same organs we have measured accumulation of copper while their cells were used for performing the Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD test for DNA fragmentation. The same features were assessed in control rats infected intraperitoneally with water with or without administration of the BPC. The copper oxide nanoparticles proved adversely bio-active in all respects considered in this study, their active in vivo solubilization in biological fluids playing presumably an important role in both toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. The BPC proposed and tested by us attenuated systemic and target organs toxicity, as well as genotoxicity of this substance. Judging by experimental data obtained in this investigation, occupational exposures to nano-scale copper oxide particles can present a significant health risk while the further search for its

  15. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  16. Effect of Nitrogen and Potassium Nutrition on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism at Late Growing Stage and Grain Yield Formation in Spring Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Jiyun; He Ping

    2000-01-01

    Study on the relationship between grain yield formation and metabolism of carbon and nitrogen as influenced by N and K nutrition level during maturation was carried out through field experiments and biochemistry analyses. The results confirmed that it was necessary to maintain a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant N supplies for root at late growing stages. The soluble protein content, RuBPC and PEPC activities in leaves, harvest index(HI) and harvest index of nitrogen (HIN)increased obviously with appropriate N and K application rate, which accelerated C and N translocation from vegetative parts to grain, enhanced photosynthetic capacity of leaves and abundant(but not excessive)N supply for root during late growing period.

  17. Differential responses of photosynthetic parameters of pigeonpea and amaranth leaf discs to SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswathi, J.; Rao, K.V.M. [Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India). Dept. of Botany

    1995-08-01

    The reduction in chlorophyll (Chl) and protein contents and the increase in amino acid content in leaf discs in response to aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure under continuous irradiance were more expressed in Amaranthus paniculatus (C-4 plant) than in Cajantus cajan (C-3 plant). The content of SH-compounds increased more in pigenonpea than in amaranth leaf discs in response to SO{sub 2}. Aqueous SO{sub 2} exposure also reduced the CO{sub 2} fixation and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activities in leaf discs of both plant species. The differences in sensitivity of these plants to SO{sub 2} were related to their conversion efficiency of SO{sub 2} to less toxic substances and sulphydryl compounds.

  18. Genome-wide association study of prostate cancer-specific survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szulkin, Robert; Karlsson, Robert; Whitington, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unnecessary intervention and overtreatment of indolent disease are common challenges in clinical management of prostate cancer. Improved tools to distinguish lethal from indolent disease are critical. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide survival analysis of cause-specific death in 24......,023 prostate cancer patients (3,513 disease-specific deaths) from the PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. Top findings were assessed for replication in a Norwegian cohort (CONOR). RESULTS: We observed no significant association between genetic variants and prostate cancer survival. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic...... variants with large impact on prostate cancer survival were not observed in this study. IMPACT: Future studies should be designed for identification of rare variants with large effect sizes or common variants with small effect sizes....

  19. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process.

  20. Two-klystron Binary Pulse Compression at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.

    1993-04-01

    The Binary Pulse Compression system installed at SLAC was tested using two klystrons, one with 10 MW and the other with 34 MW output. By compressing 560 ns klystron pulses into 70 ns, the measured BPC output was 175 MW, limited by the available power from the two klystrons. This output was used to provide 100-MW input to a 30-cell X-band structure in which a 100-MV/m gradient was obtained. This system, using the higher klystron outputs expected in the future has the potential to deliver the 350 MW needed to obtain 100 MV/m gradients in the 1.8-m NLC prototype structure. This note describes the timing, triggering, and phase coding used in the two-klystron experiment, and the expected and measured net-work response to three- or two-stage modulation.

  1. Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research we proposed a dynamic power adjustment protocol that will be used for sending the periodical safety message. (Beacon)based on the analysis of the channel status depending on the channel congestion and the power used for transmission. The Beacon Power Control (BPC) protocol first sensed and examined the percentage of the channel congestion, the result obtained was used to adjust the transmission power for the safety message to reach the optimal power. This will lead to decrease the congestion in the channel and achieve good channel performance and beacon dissemination.

  2. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  3. Measurement of D*± production at low Q2 with the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The total D* production cross-section and the differential cross-sections as functions of Q2, y, pt(D*) and η(D*) have been measured at low Q2. The data sample used was collected during the period 1998-2000 and amounts to an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb-1. The low Q2 region could be reached using the beam-pipe calorimeter which measures the scattered electron at very small angles. Therefore special emphasis was put on the calibration of the BPC in order to reconstruct events in the kinematic range 0.05 2 2 and 0.02 *+→K-π+π- and the charged conjugated decay in the kinematic region 1.5t(D*)2 in agreement with the corresponding perturbative QCD predictions. (orig.)

  4. A possibility of parallel and anti-parallel diffraction measurements on neutron diffractometer employing bent perfect crystal monochromator at the monochromatic focusing condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Nam Choi; Shin Ae Kim; Sung Kyu Kim; Sung Baek Kim; Chang-Hee Lee; Pivel Mikula

    2004-07-01

    In a conventional diffractometer having single monochromator, only one position, parallel position, is used for the diffraction experiment (i.e. detection) because the resolution property of the other one, anti-parallel position, is very poor. However, a bent perfect crystal (BPC) monochromator at monochromatic focusing condition can provide a quite flat and equal resolution property at both parallel and anti-parallel positions and thus one can have a chance to use both sides for the diffraction experiment. From the data of the FWHM and the / measured on three diffraction geometries (symmetric, asymmetric compression and asymmetric expansion), we can conclude that the simultaneous diffraction measurement in both parallel and anti-parallel positions can be achieved.

  5. The effect of mixed infusion of bone marrow cells and bone marrow stromal cells on hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To observe the effect of mixed infusion of bone marrow and bone marrow stromal cells on hematopoietic reconstitution in lethally irradiated mice, Balb/c mice irradiated lethally received 1 x 107 syngeneic bone marrow cells and 2 x 105 syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells via the intravenous route. As compared with the simple BMT group, the WBC and the BPC in peripheral blood in mixed infusion group recover more quickly on day 14 after BMT and BMSCT. The numbers of CFU-GM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-S in mixed infusion group are higher than that of the simple BMT group on day 15 and day 20 after BMT and BMSCT. Conclusion: Primary cultured bone marrow stromal cells not only is transplantable , but also can accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution

  6. On ASGS framework: general requirements and an example of implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KULESZA Kamil; KOTULSKI Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    In the paper we propose a general, abstract framework for Automatic Secret Generation and Sharing (ASGS) that should be independent of underlying Secret Sharing Scheme (SSS). ASGS allows to prevent the Dealer from knowing the secret.The Basic Property Conjecture (BPC) forms the base of the framework. Due to the level of abstraction, results are portable into the realm of quantum computing.Two situations are discussed. First concerns simultaneous generation and sharing of the random, prior nonexistent secret.Such a secret remains unknown until it is reconstructed. Next, we propose the framework for automatic sharing of a known secret.In this case the Dealer does not know the secret and the secret Owner does not know the shares. We present opportunities for joining ASGS with other extended capabilities, with special emphasis on PVSS and pre-positioned secret sharing. Finally, we illustrate framework with practical implementation.

  7. In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    in conventional Doppler ultrasound. That is angle dependency, reduced temporal resolution and low frame rate. Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture and Directional Beamforming can estimate the blood velocity angle independently. The three methods were validated in-vivo against magnetic resonance......-vivo with the two techniques on ten volunteers were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively and compared to the conventional spectral Doppler method. Descriptive statistics, kappa statistics and multiple t-tests were performed and it was shown that BAPES and BPC can produce useful spectrograms with a narrower...... observation window compared to the conventional spectral Doppler method. The thesis shows, that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight in to the complexity of fluid dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool...

  8. Alkylation of benzene with propylene catalyzed by FeCl3-Chloropyridine ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xuewen; ZHAO Suoqi; LI Hui

    2007-01-01

    Alkylation of benzene with propylene was carried out with FeCl3-chloro-butyl-pyridine(FeCl3-[bpc])ionic liquid as catalyst to obtain cumene.Significant improvements in propylene conversion and cumene selectivity under mild reaction conditions were attained by modification of the catalyst with HCl.Under 20℃,0.1 MPa,reaction time 5 min,increase from 83.60%to 100.00%and selectivity of cumene can increase from 90.86%to 98.47%.If reaction is carried out in following two stages,the result will be very good.At the initial stage of the reaction,alkylation is the main reaction and a higher conversion of propylene is obtained at a lower temperature.At the later stage of the reaction,transalkylation is the main reaction and selectivity to cumene can be increased by appropriately raising the reaction temperature.

  9. Preferências, Instituições e Política na Formulação e Implementação do Benefício de Prestação Continuada

    OpenAIRE

    de Miranda, Geralda Luiza

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho é analisada a influência das preferências sociais e políticas e das instituições sobre a formulação e a implementação da política brasileira de garantia de renda não contributiva para pessoas com deficiência e idosas, denominada Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC). O argumento que orienta a análise é o de que os avanços e os recuos na evolução dessa política relacionam-se com o grau de convergência entre as preferências dos atores sociais e as dos atores políticos e com o t...

  10. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. PMID:26367771

  11. Population genetic variation in the tree fern Alsophila spinulosa (Cyatheaceae: effects of reproductive strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Essentially all ferns can perform both sexual and asexual reproduction. Their populations represent suitable study objects to test the population genetic effects of different reproductive systems. Using the diploid homosporous fern Alsophila spinulosa as an example species, the main purpose of this study was to assess the relative impact of sexual and asexual reproduction on the level and structure of population genetic variation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Inter-simple sequence repeats analysis was conducted on 140 individuals collected from seven populations (HSG, LCH, BPC, MPG, GX, LD, and ZHG in China. Seventy-four polymorphic bands discriminated a total of 127 multilocus genotypes. Character compatibility analysis revealed that 50.0 to 70.0% of the genotypes had to be deleted in order to obtain a tree-like structure in the data set from populations HSG, LCH, MPG, BPC, GX, and LD; and there was a gradual decrease of conflict in the data set when genotypes with the highest incompatibility counts were successively deleted. In contrast, in population ZHG, only 33.3% of genotypes had to be removed to achieve complete compatibility in the data set, which showed a sharp decline in incompatibility upon the deletion of those genotypes. All populations examined possessed similar levels of genetic variation. Population ZHG was not found to be more differentiated than the other populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sexual recombination is the predominant source of genetic variation in most of the examined populations of A. spinulosa. However, somatic mutation contributes most to the genetic variation in population ZHG. This change of the primary mode of reproduction does not cause a significant difference in the population genetic composition. Character compatibility analysis represents an effective approach to separate the role of sexual and asexual components in shaping the genetic pattern of fern populations.

  12. A Demonstration of the Uncertainty in Predicting the Estrogenic Activity of Individual Chemicals and Mixtures From an In Vitro Estrogen Receptor Transcriptional Activation Assay (T47D-KBluc) to the In Vivo Uterotrophic Assay Using Oral Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Justin M; Hannas, Bethany R; Furr, Johnathan R; Wilson, Vickie S; Gray, L Earl

    2016-10-01

    In vitro estrogen receptor assays are valuable tools for identifying environmental samples and chemicals that display estrogenic activity. However, in vitro potency cannot necessarily be extrapolated to estimates of in vivo potency because in vitro assays are currently unable to fully account for absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. To explore this issue, we calculated relative potency factors (RPF), using 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) as the reference compound, for several chemicals and mixtures in the T47D-KBluc estrogen receptor transactivation assay. In vitro RPFs were used to predict rat oral uterotrophic assay responses for these chemicals and mixtures. EE2, 17β-estradiol (E2), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-AF (BPAF), bisphenol-C (BPC), bisphenol-S (BPS), and methoxychlor (MET) were tested individually, while BPS + MET, BPAF + MET, and BPAF + BPC + BPS + EE2 + MET were tested as equipotent mixtures. In vivo ED50 values for BPA, BPAF, and BPC were accurately predicted using in vitro data; however, E2 was less potent than predicted, BBP was a false positive, and BPS and MET were 76.6 and 368.3-fold more active in vivo than predicted from the in vitro potency, respectively. Further, mixture ED50 values were more accurately predicted by the dose addition model using individual chemical in vivo uterotrophic data (0.7-1.5-fold difference from observed) than in vitro data (1.4-86.8-fold). Overall, these data illustrate the potential for both underestimating and overestimating in vivo potency from predictions made with in vitro data for compounds that undergo substantial disposition following oral administration. Accounting for aspects of toxicokinetics, notably metabolism, in in vitro models will be necessary for accurate in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolations.

  13. Attenuation of Combined Nickel(II Oxide and Manganese(II, III Oxide Nanoparticles’ Adverse Effects with a Complex of Bioprotectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilzira A. Minigalieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stable suspensions of NiO and Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs with a mean (±s.d. diameter of 16.7 ± 8.2 and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm, respectively, purposefully prepared by laser ablation of 99.99% pure nickel or manganese in de-ionized water, were repeatedly injected intraperitoneally (IP to rats at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg 3 times a week up to 18 injections, either alone or in combination. A group of rats was injected with this combination with the background oral administration of a “bio-protective complex” (BPC comprising pectin, vitamins A, C, E, glutamate, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, iodide and omega-3 PUFA, this composition having been chosen based on mechanistic considerations and previous experience. After the termination of injections, many functional and biochemical indices and histopathological features (with morphometric assessment of the liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were evaluated for signs of toxicity. The Ni and Mn content of these organs was measured with the help of the atomic emission and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. We obtained blood leukocytes for performing the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA test. Although both metallic NPs proved adversely bio-active in many respects considered in this study, Mn3O4-NPs were somewhat more noxious than NiO-NPs as concerns most of the non-specific toxicity manifestations and they induced more marked damage to neurons in the striatum and the hippocampus, which may be considered an experimental correlate of the manganese-induced Parkinsonism. The comparative solubility of the Mn3O4-NPs and NiO-NPs in a biological medium is discussed as one of the factors underlying the difference in their toxicokinetics and toxicities. The BPC has attenuated both the organ-systemic toxicity and the genotoxicity of Mn3O4-NPs in combination with NiO-NPs.

  14. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thun, Michael J; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J

    2009-10-01

    Sex hormones, particularly the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiologic evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterized variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5% to 10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men [association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292-rs727479 (A-A) versus noncarriers; P = 1 x 10(-5)], and with inverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  15. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil Micro-poluentes orgânicos em sedimentos fluviais no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Machado Torres

    2002-04-01

    organoclorados (OCs, bifenis policlorados (PCBs e outros hidrocarbonetos polinucleares (PAHs. Os organoclorados, inclusive os PCBs, estavam presentes em quantidades muito reduzidas nas amostras, provavelmente refletindo as restrições contra o uso dessa classe de compostos no mercado brasileiro. Entretanto, os PAHs mostravam níveis elevados ao redor de uma grande indústria siderúrgica na cidade de Volta Redonda. Tal contaminação deve-se, provavelmente, ao uso maciço de carvão nesta fábrica.

  16. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs: I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las especies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se depositan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgánicos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe-ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places, such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and possible

  17. Disruptores endocrinos. El caso particular de los xenobióticos estrogénicos. II Estrógenos sintéticos Endocrine disrupters. The case of oestrogenic xenobiotics II: synthetic oestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín Olmedo

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha puesto en evidencia que muchas sustancias químicas de origen antropogénico son capaces de alterar el sistema endocrino de los seres vivos y se ha acuñado el nombre de disruptores endocrinos para definirlas. El número de disruptores endocrinos es una preocupación creciente si se añade a la inclusión de nuevos compuestos químicos, hasta ahora insospechados, la información generada sobre sus precursores, metabolitos y productos de degradación que tan solo ahora empiezan a conocerse. No se ha podido definir una estructura química única que permita clasificar a un compuesto químico como mimetizador de las hormonas sexuales femeninas, de tal manera que estructuras químicas similares a los estrógenos naturales, basados en el ciclopentanoperhidrofenantreno, comparten con los estilbenos, bisfenoles, bifenilos, alquilfenoles, dioxinas, furanos y parabenes su efecto hormonal estrogénico. El reconocimiento de la actividad estrogénica en diferentes modelos biológicos se ha utilizado para actualizar el censo de xenoestrógenos y poner de manifiesto fuentes de exposición humana hasta el momento insospechadas.In recent years, it has been demonstrated that endocrine systems of living beings can be altered by many chemical substances of anthropogenic origin, designated as endocrine disrupters. There are growing concerns about the number of these endocrine disrupters. It has not been possible to define a single chemical structure that allows the classification of a chemical compound as a mimic of female sex hormones, so that chemical structures similar to natural estrogens, based on cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene, share their hormonal effect with stilbenes, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dioxins, furans and parabenes. The recognition of estrogenic activity in different biological models has been used to update the list of xenoestrogens and reveal sources of human exposure that were previously unknown. New previously

  18. CORRESPONDENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Pérez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Señor Editor:Un editorial publicado en Colombia Médica aborda el tema de las Buenas Prácticas Clínicas (BPC en la investigación con seres humanos en Colombia1. La presente nota va dirigida a ofrecer una panorámica sobre el cumplimiento de estas normas en Cuba y en especial su implementación en los ensayos clínicos desarrollados en la provincia de Villa Clara.La guía de BPC aprobada por la Junta Directiva de la Conferencia Internacional de Armonización, conocida por las siglas ICH (Internacional Conference Harmonization en la que han participado países de la Comunidad Europea, Japón y Estados Unidos, así como Australia, Canadá, los países nórdicos y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, promueve una norma unificada entre estos países, para facilitar así la aceptación mutua de los datos clínicos por las autoridades reguladoras de estas jurisdicciones2.Los países que apliquen las normas internacionales de calidad científica y ética en la investigación clínica, aseguran la credibilidad y veracidad en los resultados de sus investigaciones, lo que favorece el proceso de solicitud y registro sanitario de nuevos productos farmacéuticos en los grandes mercados.Como han sido varios los acontecimientos que ponen en duda la seguridad de los sujetos que participan en la investigación clínica, se hace necesario que la sociedad disponga de medicamentos verdaderamente seguros y eficaces. Para asegurar esto, las agencias reguladoras del mundo han aumentado las exigencias que debe cumplir un nuevo fármaco para su registro y comercialización, y establecen que durante todo el proceso de investigación-desarrollo se asegure el cumplimento de las Normas de Buena Práctica de Laboratorio (BPL, de Manufactura (BPM y Clínicas (BPC.Los países de latinoamérica que desarrollan investigación clínica han acogido muy bien el cumplimiento de estas normas internacionales, y las sometieron a discusión en el llamado Documento de las Am

  19. [Effects of N-Arachidonoylethanolamine on the quality of platelets stored in M-sol platelet preservative solution in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Yi; Qiao, Wen-Ben; Yu, Yuan; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Juan; Sun, Gui-Zhi; Zhao, Cui-Yun; Nie, Xiang-Min; Liu, Hong; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Zhu, Chuan-Fu

    2013-10-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the effects of N-Arachidonoylethanolamine (ANA) on the quality of platelets (Plt) stored in Plt M-sol preservative solution at 22 ± 2°C. Samples taken from collecting apheresis Plt by the Amicus instrument and splited into two equal parts were stored in Plt M-sol preservative solution on a shaker at 22 ± 2°C. Different working concentrations of ANA (from 0.1 to 50 µmol/L) were then added into one part of stored Plt as the experimental group, the other without ANA was used as the control group. The viability of Plts stored at 22 ± 2°C for 7 days was evaluated by MTT colorimetric assay. The most effective concentration of ANA was selected and added to the subsequent experimental group. Plt count (BPC), mean Plt volume (MPV), Plt distribution width (PDW), phosphatidyl serine (PS) and soluble P-selectin were detected on the 1(st), 5(th), 7(th), 9(th) and 11(th) day of storage. The results showed that the most effective working concentration of ANA was 0.5 µmol/L, which showed significant increasing Plt viability (91.23 ± 5.44%) compared to the control group (62.54 ± 4.79%). Thus, ANA concentration at 0.5 µmol/L was choose to perform subsequent experiments. During 11 days of storage, the BPC, MPV and PDW were not changed significantly between the experimental group and control group, although there was decreasing trend in the BPC and increasing trends in MPV and PDW in the two groups. The rate of Plt PS positive was enhanced during the storage period: the rate of PS positive in experimental group increased from 7.69 ± 1.82% to 10.74 ± 1.78% while it in control group increased from 11.21 ± 2.03% to 15.37 ± 1.95%, with significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05) on the 9(th) and 11(th) day of storage, respectively. Soluble P-selectin contents in experimental group on the 9(th) and 11(th) day of storage were 30.19 ± 2.03 ng/ml and 34.52 ± 2.64 ng/mL, respectively, while those in control group were 39

  20. Human Brain Model of Smile,Calmness,Honesty and Lying:Chua’s Circuit%微笑、平静、说谎和诚实的人脑蔡氏电路模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷; 李文石

    2013-01-01

    Based on the similarity of chaos in human brain and Chua′s circuit ,we propose the methods to model human brain with Chua′s circuit .With the simulation of Multisim 10® ,we set voltages across resistor R1 as original signals .Also ,Analogous def-inite integral ,Lyapunov ,Micro-segmented windows and P values are applied to gain data window .Then ,minimum mean power of R1(PR1min :1.56×10-4W) is discovered after tuning inductance L and nonlinear-resistor parameter R5 .Furthermore ,we suppose PR1min as log-base ,and calculate the new indexes for each power of R1 as reference values .After compared with previous indexes of brain power consumption (BPC )in frontal lobe at cognitive states of calmness ,honesty ,or lying (BPC at smile as base ) ,two-set in-dexes equal to each other .According to actual BPC ,and with Chua′s circuit corresponding to minimum mean power PR1min ,we ac-complish human brain model in frontal lobe at cognitive states of calmness ,honesty ,lying and smile .This work will provide novel thinking for nonlinear modeling of human brain .%基于人脑和蔡氏电路都能表现复杂的混沌特征,本文利用蔡氏电路为人脑建立电路模型.文中利用Multisim10®仿真蔡氏电路,提取纯阻 R1两端电压,作为原始待分析数据.类积分法、李亚普若夫指数、微窗口法和 P分数等四种方法顺次应用于选取数据分析窗口.基于数据窗口,分别调整电感 L和非线性电阻参数R5,得到纯阻 R1的平均功率及其最小值 PR1min (1.56×10-4W).同时以 PR1min为底数,利用Log函数计算 R1的平均功率对应的指数值.对比最近几年人脑近红外耳穴信号研究成果,R1平均功率指数与以微笑时人脑额区消耗功率为底数的人脑平静、诚实和说谎的功率消耗指数分布相同.结合人脑实际消耗功率,我们选取纯阻 R1最小平均功率对应的蔡氏电路并联,实现平静、微笑、诚实和说谎的人脑额区

  1. Response to temperature and light and thermal property of reversibly thermochromic bamboo/plastic composite%可逆热致变色竹塑复合材料的温度与光响应及热学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋宁; 宋剑斌; 余方兵; 陈丽红; 杨文斌※

    2013-01-01

      为更进一步了解可逆热致变色竹塑复合材料所具有的特性,该论文对可逆变色竹塑复合材的温度与光响应及热学性能进行研究,主要包括:环境温度对变色时间的影响、变色复合材料的曝晒试验(测试环境温度与曝晒装置内的温度)、试样表面的反射率、导热系数等。研究结果表明:变色竹塑复合材料在较高的环境温度下竹塑复合材料的变色响应时间较短,如WTB1在45、50、55、60、65℃的变色时间分别为256.11、146.18、82.78、69.16、45.06 s;曝晒试验的结果表明颜色影响试验箱内温度,添加钛白粉可降低曝晒装置内的温度;在12:00时,WTB1、WTB2、WTB3、WTB4、WTR1、WTR2与环境的温差分别为14.3、12.8、15.3、11.3、15.3、11.3℃。可逆变色竹塑材料的导热系数随着温度的升高而增大,WTB2在15、30、45、60℃下的导热系数分别为0.098、0.099、0.103、0.107 W/(m K),WTB1(未添加钛白粉)表面自由能和接触角分别为67.3°、41.50 MJ/m2,而WTB2(添加钛白粉)的表面自由能和接触角分别为74.6°、37.52 MJ/m2;各种试样的反射率存在差异,添加钛白粉提高了材料的表面反射率,颜色是影响太阳反射率的重要因素之一。研究结果为该材料的实际应用提供数据支持。%  In order to understand more features about reversibly thermochromic bamboo/plastic composites(BPC), we focused on its response to the temperature, light and thermal property, which included that, the effect of environment temperature on discoloration time, insolation experiment (test temperature of outside environment and inside of insolation device), reflectance and thermal conductivity of reversibly thermochromic bamboo/plastic composites and so on. The results showed that, the higher the environment temperature was, the shorter the discoloration time of the reversibly thermochromic BPC was. Taking WTB1 (BPC and

  2. Enhanced cardiac function in Gravin mutant mice involves alterations in the β-adrenergic receptor signaling cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N Guillory

    Full Text Available Gravin, an A-kinase anchoring protein, targets protein kinase A (PKA, protein kinase C (PKC, calcineurin and other signaling molecules to the beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR. Gravin mediates desensitization/resensitization of the receptor by facilitating its phosphorylation by PKA and PKC. The role of gravin in β-AR mediated regulation of cardiac function is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute β-AR stimulation on cardiac contractility in mice lacking functional gravin. Using echocardiographic analysis, we observed that contractility parameters such as left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were increased in gravin mutant (gravin-t/t animals lacking functional protein compared to wild-type (WT animals both at baseline and following acute isoproterenol (ISO administration. In isolated gravin-t/t cardiomyocytes, we observed increased cell shortening fraction and decreased intracellular Ca(2+ in response to 1 µmol/L ISO stimulation. These physiological responses occurred in the presence of decreased β2-AR phosphorylation in gravin-t/t hearts, where PKA-dependent β2-AR phosphorylation has been shown to lead to receptor desensitization. cAMP production, PKA activity and phosphorylation of phospholamban and troponin I was comparable in WT and gravin-t/t hearts both with and without ISO stimulation. However, cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBPC phosphorylation site at position 273 was significantly increased in gravin-t/t versus WT hearts, in the absence of ISO. Additionally, the cardioprotective heat shock protein 20 (Hsp20 was significantly more phosphorylated in gravin-t/t versus WT hearts, in response to ISO. Our results suggest that disruption of gravin's scaffold mediated signaling is able to increase baseline cardiac function as well as to augment contractility in response to acute β-AR stimulation by decreasing β2-AR phosphorylation and thus attenuating receptor

  3. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Correlation of Cefquinome against Experimental Catheter-associated Biofilm Infection due to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng eZhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formations play an important role in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and contribute to antibiotic treatment failures in biofilm-associated infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD profiles of cefquinome against an experimental catheter-related biofilm model due to S. aureus, including three clinical isolates and one non-clinical isolate. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC, biofilm bactericidal concentration (BBC, minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC and biofilm prevention concentration (BPC and in vitro time-kill curves of cefquinome were studied in both planktonic and biofilm cells of study S. aureus strains. The in vivo post-antibiotic effects (PAEs, PK profiles and efficacy of cefquinome were performed in the catheter-related biofilm infection model in murine. A sigmoid Emax model was utilized to determine the PK/PD index that best described the dose-response profiles in the model.The MICs and MBICs of cefquinome for the four S. aureus strains were 0.5 and 16μg/mL, respectively. The BBCs (32-64 μg/mL and MBECs (64-256 μg/mL of these study strains were much higher than their corresponding BPC values (1-2 μg/mL. Cefquinome showed time-dependent killing both on planktonic and biofilm cells, but produced much shorter PAEs in biofilm infections. The best-correlated PK/PD parameters of cefquinome for planktonic and biofilm cells were the duration of time that the free drug level exceeded the MIC (fT>MIC, R2=96.2% and the MBIC (fT>MBIC, R2=94.7%, respectively. In addition, the AUC24h/MBIC of cefquinome also significantly correlated with the anti-biofilm outcome in this model (R2=93.1%. The values of AUC24h/MBIC for biofilm-static and 1-log10-unit biofilm-cidal activity were 22.8 h and 35.6 h; respectively. These results indicate that the PK/PD profiles of cefquinome could be used as valuable guidance for effective

  4. 探讨小剂量肝素治疗白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血的临床疗效%To Discuss the Clinical Effect of Small Dose of Heparin in Treatment of Leukemia Associated with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努尔阿米娜•依明尼亚孜; 夏木西卡马尔•买买提明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical ef ect of smal dose of heparin in treatment of leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Methods 100 cases of patients with leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation in our hospital were divided into observation group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Control group accepted conventional chemotherapy, observation group received smal dose of heparin on basis of control, comparing treatment ef ect. Results The total ef ective rate of observation group was higher than control, <0.05. BPC, D-D, et al of observation group were bet er than control, <0.05. Conclusion Smal dose of heparin in treatment of leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation can obtain remarkable ef ect, ef ectively improve the prognosis.%目的:本文探讨小剂量肝素治疗白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血的临床疗效。方法选取我院接受治疗的白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血患者100例,随机分为观察组与对照组,每组50例。对照组患者行常规化疗,观察组患者在此基础上联合小剂量肝素进行治疗,比较治疗效果。结果观察组患者治疗总有效率高于对照组,<0.05。观察组患者在血小板计数(BPC)、D-二聚体含量(D-D)等指标明显优于对照组<0.05。结论小剂量肝素治疗白血病并发弥散性血管内凝血效果显著,可有效改善患者预后。

  5. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  6. Between- and within-patient n-level response surface pathway design in dose-finding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sagita Dewi,1 Veronica Kristiansen,2 Steen Lindkær-Jensen,3,4 Stig Larsen1 1Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; 2Department of Companion Animal Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Surgery and Cancer, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College, Du Cane Road, London, UK; 4Meabco A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: The most commonly used escalation methods in dose-finding studies have obvious weaknesses, and the Bayesian approach is difficult for clinicians to understand and to apply. The study aims were to introduce and assess the performance of clinically based response surface pathway (RSP design for dose-finding studies, exemplified by one between-patient study, one within-patient study, and simulation studies. Methods: The between-patient study consisted of 15 women suffering from stage IV breast cancer, while the within-patient study consisted of seven female dogs with metastatic mammary cancer. The studies were conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD of a new anticancer agent named BP-C1 using three-level RSP designs. Adjustment of the dose from one design level to the next was based on a k-adjustment factor estimated to ensure coverage of the entire predefined dose window. Patient sequences with an equal number of patients as design levels were included in the between-patient design, whereas the same patients were included in all the design levels in the within-patient design. Results: Four of the five patient sequences in the between-patient study and all seven dogs in the within-patient study reached the upper limit of the dose windows without any increase in toxicity. The MTD of BP-C1 was thus found to be higher than the predefined cumulative dose window for both patient groups. In all three scenarios, the RSP design

  7. Benthic trophic status of sediments in a metropolitan area (Rio de la Plata estuary): Linkages with natural and human pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Natalia; Pita, Ana Laura; Brugnoli, Ernesto; García-Rodríguez, Felipe; Burone, Leticia; Kandratavicius, Noelia; Hutton, Marisa; Muniz, Pablo

    2012-10-01

    matter indicates hypertrophic conditions and poor environmental quality in the sediments of the inner stations of Montevideo Bay due to strongest human impact. However, biochemical descriptors showed a relative improvement of the benthic trophic status in the external coastal areas subjected to moderate levels of anthropogenic pressure. This study confirmed the utility of this biochemical approach to establish zones with distinct benthic trophic status associated to different degrees of natural and human pressures. Nevertheless, our results suggest that threshold levels for PRT, BPC and the algal contribution to the BPC that properly reflect hypertrophic conditions should be further investigated.

  8. An assessment of ozone levels, UV radiation and their occupational health hazard estimation during photocopying operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra Pratap, E-mail: bpsingh0783@gmail.com; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Deepak; Punia, Monika; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • First quantitative report of ozone level and UV radiation emission from photocopier. • Ozone production is directly proportional with intensity of photocopy operation. • Ozone level from ground floor is significantly higher than basement photocopier. • Ozone production and UV radiation studied has less correlation during photocopy. • Health hazard issue has been evaluated for effect of UV radiation in terms of SED. - Abstract: This study investigates the levels of ozone concentration along with an ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral radiation at eight photocopy centers in an academic institute, Delhi. Sampling was done in two types of locations, i.e., basement photocopy centers (BPC) and ground floor photocopy centers (GPC) for 8 h. Measurements of levels of ozone, UV and visible radiation were done by ozone analyzer, UV radiometer and Field spectra instrument, respectively. Results show that the hourly mean concentration of ozone was observed to be in the range of 1.8–10.0 ppb and 5.3–45.8 ppb for BPC and GPC, respectively. In terms UV radiations, energy lies between 5.0 × 10{sup −3} and 7.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet A (UVA), 1.0 × 10{sup −3} and 2.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet B (UVB) and 6.0 × 10{sup −3} and 8.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet C (UVC). Correlation between the UV radiations and ozone production observed was statistically insignificant. To know the health hazard occurred to the workers, the standard erythema dose (SED) value was calculated for emitting UV radiation. The SED was estimated to be in the range of 0.02–0.04 and 0.02–0.32 for direct and indirect methods which is less than the guideline prescribed by Commission Internationale del’ Eclairage (CIE). In nutshell, person involved in photocopy operation for their livelihood must be trained and should have knowledge for the long term gradual build up health problems due to ozone and UV production from

  9. An assessment of ozone levels, UV radiation and their occupational health hazard estimation during photocopying operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First quantitative report of ozone level and UV radiation emission from photocopier. • Ozone production is directly proportional with intensity of photocopy operation. • Ozone level from ground floor is significantly higher than basement photocopier. • Ozone production and UV radiation studied has less correlation during photocopy. • Health hazard issue has been evaluated for effect of UV radiation in terms of SED. - Abstract: This study investigates the levels of ozone concentration along with an ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral radiation at eight photocopy centers in an academic institute, Delhi. Sampling was done in two types of locations, i.e., basement photocopy centers (BPC) and ground floor photocopy centers (GPC) for 8 h. Measurements of levels of ozone, UV and visible radiation were done by ozone analyzer, UV radiometer and Field spectra instrument, respectively. Results show that the hourly mean concentration of ozone was observed to be in the range of 1.8–10.0 ppb and 5.3–45.8 ppb for BPC and GPC, respectively. In terms UV radiations, energy lies between 5.0 × 10−3 and 7.0 × 10−3 mW/cm2 for ultraviolet A (UVA), 1.0 × 10−3 and 2.0 × 10−3 mW/cm2 for ultraviolet B (UVB) and 6.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mW/cm2 for ultraviolet C (UVC). Correlation between the UV radiations and ozone production observed was statistically insignificant. To know the health hazard occurred to the workers, the standard erythema dose (SED) value was calculated for emitting UV radiation. The SED was estimated to be in the range of 0.02–0.04 and 0.02–0.32 for direct and indirect methods which is less than the guideline prescribed by Commission Internationale del’ Eclairage (CIE). In nutshell, person involved in photocopy operation for their livelihood must be trained and should have knowledge for the long term gradual build up health problems due to ozone and UV production from photocopier. The manufactures should be ultimated

  10. Phytoremediation of Indoor Air: NASA, Bill Wolverton, and the Development of an Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    It was during this period of the early 1970's and 1980's when the issues associated with Sick Building Syndrome were gaining attention that the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) became an unlikely leader in identifying biological solutions to the problem of poor indoor air quality. NASA had been supporting work using biological systems for atmospheric regeneration since the 1950's, with the emphasis on using photosynthetic systems for the removal of carbon dioxide and regeneration of oxygen as part of a life support system. The then Soviet Union was conducting tests using algae systems in the BIO-1 program (1964-1968) to regenerate the air at the Siberian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk (Later renamed the Institute of Biophysics). These tests were expanded to include the use of higher plants in the BIOS-2 testing in the 1970's, and humans during BIO-3 in the 1980'SI3. Within NASA, large scale testing of bioregenerative life support systems was conducted in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center, Florida as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) Breadboard project.

  11. Top-Down Visual Saliency Detection in Optical Satellite Images Based on Local Adaptive Regression Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel top-down visual saliency detection method for optical satellite images using local adaptive regression kernels. This method provides a saliency map by measuring the likeness of image patches to a given single template image. The local adaptive regression kernel (LARK is used as a descriptor to extract feature and compare against analogous feature from the target image. A multi-scale pyramid of the target image is constructed to cope with large-scale variations. In addition, accounting for rotation variations, the histogram of kernel orientation is employed to estimate the rotation angle of image patch, and then comparison is performed after rotating the patch by the estimated angle. Moreover, we use the bounded partial correlation (BPC to compare features between image patches and the template so as to rapidly generate the saliency map. Experiments were performed in optical satellite images to find airplanes, and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and robust in complex scenes.

  12. Controlling ferrofluid permeability across the blood–brain barrier model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, an in vitro blood–brain barrier model was developed using murine brain endothelioma cells (b.End3 cells). Confirmation of the blood–brain barrier model was completed by examining the permeability of FITC-Dextran at increasing exposure times up to 96 h in serum-free medium and comparing such values with values from the literature. After such confirmation, the permeability of five novel ferrofluid (FF) nanoparticle samples, GGB (ferrofluids synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid and BSA), GGC (glycine, glutamic acid and collagen), GGP (glycine, glutamic acid and PVA), BPC (BSA, PEG and collagen) and CPB (collagen, PVA and BSA), was determined using this blood–brain barrier model. All of the five FF samples were characterized by zeta potential to determine their charge as well as TEM and dynamic light scattering for determining their hydrodynamic diameter. Results showed that FF coated with collagen passed more easily through the blood–brain barrier than FF coated with glycine and glutamic acid based on an increase of 4.5% in permeability. Through such experiments, diverse magnetic nanomaterials (such as FF) were identified for: (1) MRI use since they were less permeable to penetrate the blood–brain barrier to avoid neural tissue toxicity (e.g. GGB) or (2) brain drug delivery since they were more permeable to the blood–brain barrier (e.g. CPB). (paper)

  13. FVB Energy Inc. Technical Assistance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.

    2011-05-17

    The request made by FVB asked for advice and analysis regarding the value of recapturing the braking energy of trains operating on electric light rail transit systems. A specific request was to evaluate the concept of generating hydrogen by electrolysis. The hydrogen would, in turn, power fuel cells that could supply electric energy back into the system for train propulsion or, possibly, also to the grid. To allow quantitative assessment of the potential resource, analysis focused on operations of the SoundTransit light rail system in Seattle, Washington. An initial finding was that the full cycle efficiency of producing hydrogen as the medium for capturing and reusing train braking energy was quite low (< 20%) and, therefore, not likely to be economically attractive. As flywheel energy storage is commercially available, the balance of the analysis focused the feasibility of using this alternative on the SoundTransit system. It was found that an investment in a flywheel with a 25-kWh capacity of the type manufactured by Beacon Power Corporation (BPC) would show a positive 20-year net present value (NPV) based on the current frequency of train service. The economic attractiveness of this option would increase initially if green energy subsidies or rebates were applicable and, in the future, as the planned frequency of train service grows.

  14. Autism spectrum conditions in individuals with Möbius sequence, CHARGE syndrome and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: diagnostic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of multidisciplinary surveys of three Behavioural Phenotype Conditions (BPCs); Möbius sequence (Möbius), CHARGE syndrome (CHARGE) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAV), autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) was diagnosed in 45%, 68% and 42% of the individuals, respectively. Diagnostic difficulties due to additional dysfunctions such as mental retardation (MR), impaired vision, reduced hearing and cranial nerve dysfunction, were experienced in all three BPC groups. The applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments, such as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Autistic Behaviour Checklist (ABC), in individuals with ASCs and Möbius/CHARGE/OAV was analysed. Use of an extensive battery of diagnostic instruments, including both observational schedules and parent interviews, and, if possible, independent judgements from two clinicians, is essential in the diagnostics of ASCs in these individuals. Further, in individuals who are deaf and blind the applicability of current autism diagnostic instruments is highly questionable. PMID:19709852

  15. Lithium storage on carbon nitride, graphenylene and inorganic graphenylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankel, Marlies; Searles, Debra J

    2016-06-01

    We present results of density functional theory calculations on the lithium (Li) ion storage capacity of three different two dimensional porous graphene-like membranes. The graphitic carbon nitride membrane, g-CN, is found to have a large Li storage capacity of at least 813 mA h g(-1) (LiCN). However, it is also found that the Li interacts very strongly with the membrane indicating that this is most likely irreversible. According to the calculations, graphenylene or biphenylene carbon (BPC) has a storage capacity of 487 mA h g(-1) (Li1.5C6) which is higher than that for graphite. We also find that Li is very mobile on these materials and does not interact as strongly with the membrane making it a more suitable anode material. Inorganic graphenylene, which is a boron nitride analog of graphenylene, shows very low binding energies, much lower than the cohesive energy of lithium, and it appears to be unsuitable as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. We discuss how charge transfer leads to the very different behaviour observed in these three similar materials.

  16. Natural polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanocomposite based biosensor for detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worrisome trend of antimalarial resistance has already highlighted the importance of artemisinin as a potent antimalarial agent. The current investigation aimed at fabricating a biosensor based on natural polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle composite mounting on an indium-tin oxide glass plate for the analysis of artemisinin. The biosensor was fabricated using an adsorbing horse-radish peroxidase enzyme on the electrode surface for which cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor the electro-catalytic reduction of artemisinin under diffusion controlled conditions. Electrochemical interfacial properties and immobilization of enzyme onto a polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle film were evaluated, and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The differential pulse voltammetric peak current for artemisinin was increased linearly (concentration range of 0.01–0.08 μg mL−1) with sensitivity of 0.26 μA μg mL−1. The greater sensitivity of the fabricated biosensor to artemisinin (optimum limits of detection were 0.0035 μg mL−1 and 0.0036 μg mL−1 in bulk and spiked human serum, respectively) could be of much aid in medical diagnosis. - Highlights: • Extraction of PHA from indigenously isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa BPC2 • Developed PHA/AuNPs/HRP/ITO based biosensor without the use of chemical cross linker • Detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin using the nanocomposite based biosensor

  17. Response of soybean rhizosphere communities to human hygiene water addition as determined by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, L.; Santoro, M.; Garland, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe an experiment conducted at Kennedy Space Center in the biomass production chamber (BPC) using soybean plants for purification and processing of human hygiene water. Specifically, we tested whether it was possible to detect changes in the root-associated bacterial assemblage of the plants and ultimately to identify the specific microorganism(s) which differed when plants were exposed to hygiene water and other hydroponic media. Plants were grown in hydroponics media corresponding to four different treatments: control (Hoagland's solution), artificial gray water (Hoagland's+surfactant), filtered gray water collected from human subjects on site, and unfiltered gray water. Differences in rhizosphere microbial populations in all experimental treatments were observed when compared to the control treatment using both community level physiological profiles (BIOLOG) and molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (TRFLP). Furthermore, screening of a clonal library of 16S rRNA genes by TRFLP yielded nearly full length SSU genes associated with the various treatments. Most 16S rRNA genes were affiliated with the Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Burkholderia, Bordetella and Isosphaera groups. This molecular approach demonstrated the ability to rapidly detect and identify microorganisms unique to experimental treatments and provides a means to fingerprint microbial communities in the biosystems being developed at NASA for optimizing advanced life support operations.

  18. Challenges to implementing of development plans at local-level government in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Saimbel Barcson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1995 local-level government reforms undertaken in Papua New Guinea (PNG were largely in response to increasing concern that the public service was failing in its responsibility towards the people.  As a result, the 1995 Organic Law on Provincial and Local Governments (OLPLLG was established.  The prime purpose of this was to address this issue through deeper engagement of the lower levels of government, particularly local-level governments (LLGs. Almost two decades on, poor socio-economic conditions and deterioration in infrastructure/services suggest that the proposed change has not materialised.  The purpose of this paper is to address the question of whether the lower tiers of government are capable of implementing the development plans under the reforms.  The paper finds that the 1995 reforms have made LLGs dependent upon their Joint District Planning and Budget Priorities Committee (JDP & BPC and their district administration, which have become the main impediment to local government effectiveness.  This in turn has greatly hindered LLG capacity and has reinforced unequal relations, rather than assisting service delivery in PNG.  There is therefore a need to make LLGs more effective players.

  19. A high-power SLED 2 pulse compression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, N.M. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Ruth, R.D.; Wilson, P.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nantista, C. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-03-01

    The enhancement of peak power by means of RF pulse compression has found important application for driving high energy electron linacs, the SLAC linac in particular. The SLAC Energy Doubler (SLED), however, yields a pulse shape in the form of a decaying exponential which limits the applicability of the method. Two methods of improving this situation have been suggested: binary pulse compression (BPC), in which the pulse is compressed by successive factors of two, and SLED II in which the pair of resonant cavities of SLED are replaced by long resonant delay lines (typically waveguides). Intermediate schemes in which the cavity pair is replaced by sequences of coupled cavities have also been considered. In this paper we describe our efforts towards the design and construction of high-power SLED II systems, which are intended to provide drivers for various advanced accelerator test facilities and potentially for the Next Linear Collider itself. The design path we have chosen requires the development of a number of microwave components in overmoded waveguide, and the bulk of this paper will be devoted to reporting our progress.

  20. Natural polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanocomposite based biosensor for detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phukon, Pinkee [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Radhapyari, Keisham [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006, Assam (India); Konwar, Bolin Kumar [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Nagaland University (Central), Lumami, Zunheboto, Nagaland 798627 (India); Khan, Raju, E-mail: khan.raju@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006, Assam (India)

    2014-04-01

    The worrisome trend of antimalarial resistance has already highlighted the importance of artemisinin as a potent antimalarial agent. The current investigation aimed at fabricating a biosensor based on natural polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle composite mounting on an indium-tin oxide glass plate for the analysis of artemisinin. The biosensor was fabricated using an adsorbing horse-radish peroxidase enzyme on the electrode surface for which cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor the electro-catalytic reduction of artemisinin under diffusion controlled conditions. Electrochemical interfacial properties and immobilization of enzyme onto a polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle film were evaluated, and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The differential pulse voltammetric peak current for artemisinin was increased linearly (concentration range of 0.01–0.08 μg mL{sup −1}) with sensitivity of 0.26 μA μg mL{sup −1}. The greater sensitivity of the fabricated biosensor to artemisinin (optimum limits of detection were 0.0035 μg mL{sup −1} and 0.0036 μg mL{sup −1} in bulk and spiked human serum, respectively) could be of much aid in medical diagnosis. - Highlights: • Extraction of PHA from indigenously isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa BPC2 • Developed PHA/AuNPs/HRP/ITO based biosensor without the use of chemical cross linker • Detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin using the nanocomposite based biosensor.

  1. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify prostate cancer susceptibility loci associated with aggressive and non-aggressive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Berndt, Sonja I.; Benlloch, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hunter, David J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Thun, Michael J.; Gaziano, Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Siddiq, Afshan; Travis, Ruth C.; Cox, David G.; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J.; Andriole, Gerald; Albanes, Demetrius; Hayes, Richard B.; Schleutker, Johanna; Auvinen, Anssi; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Weischer, Maren; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Sorensen, Karina D.; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A.; Chambers, Suzanne; Aitken, Joanne; Gardiner, Robert A.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Dörk, Thilo; Brenner, Hermann; Habuchi, Tomonori; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Dickinson, Joanne L.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Kaneva, Radka; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Lu, Yong-Jie; Park, Jong Y.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Saunders, Edward; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Guy, Michelle; Govindasami, Koveela; O'Brien, Lynne T.; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Hall, Amanda L.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Dadaev, Tokhir; Morrison, Jonathan; Dearnaley, David P.; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Parker, Christopher C.; Van As, Nicholas; Woodhouse, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alan; Dudderidge, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin S.; Lophatonanon, Artitaya; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; English, Dallas; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loic; Campa, Daniele; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lindstrom, Sara; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan; Yeager, Meredith; Cox, Angela; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; Aly, Markus; Isaacs, William; Adolfsson, Jan; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S. Lilly; Wahlfors, Tiina; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula; Klarskov, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Røder, M. Andreas; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Bojesen, Stig E.; FitzGerald, Liesel M.; Kolb, Suzanne; Kwon, Erika M.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Orntoft, Torben Falck; Borre, Michael; Rinckleb, Antje; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Meyer, Andreas; Serth, Jürgen; Marthick, James R.; Patterson, Briony; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Spurdle, Amanda; Lose, Felicity; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Joshi, Amit D.; Shahabi, Ahva; Pinto, Pedro; Santos, Joana; Ray, Ana; Sellers, Thomas A.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Stephenson, Robert A.; Teerlink, Craig; Muller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Narita, Shintaro; Cao, Guang-Wen; Slavov, Chavdar; Mitev, Vanio; Chanock, Stephen; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common genetic variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PrCa), but these explain less than one-third of the heritability. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS including 5953 cases of aggressive PrCa and 11 463 controls (men without PrCa). We computed association tests for approximately 2.6 million SNPs and followed up the most significant SNPs by genotyping 49 121 samples in 29 studies through the international PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. We not only confirmed the association of a PrCa susceptibility locus, rs11672691 on chromosome 19, but also showed an association with aggressive PrCa [odds ratio = 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.21), P = 1.4 × 10−8]. This report describes a genetic variant which is associated with aggressive PrCa, which is a type of PrCa associated with a poorer prognosis. PMID:23065704

  2. Assessment of the relationship of government spending on social assistance programs with Brazilian macroeconomic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Senna, Viviane; Souza, Adriano Mendonça

    2016-11-01

    Since the 1988 Federal Constitution social assistance has become a duty of the State and a right to everyone, guaranteeing the population a dignified life. To ensure these rights federal government has created programs that can supply the main needs of people in extreme poverty. Among the programs that provide social assistance to the population, the best known are the "Bolsa Família" Program - PBF and the Continuous Cash Benefit - Continuous Cash Benefit - BPC. This research's main purpose is to analyze the relationship between the main macroeconomic variables and the Federal government spending on social welfare policy in the period from January 2004 to August 2014. The used methodologies are the Vector auto regression model - VAR and Error Correction Vector - VEC. The conclusion, was that there is a meaningful relationship between macroeconomic variables and social assistance programs. This indicates that if the government takes a more abrupt resolution in changing the existing programs it will result in fluctuations in the main macroeconomic variables interfering with the stability of Brazilian domestic economy up to twelve months.

  3. Stable phantoms for characterization of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Van de Sompel, Dominique; Bodapati, Sandhya; Kothapalli, Sri Rajasekhar; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging modality that combines the high contrast of optical imaging, with the spatial resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound, by exploiting the photoacoustic effect. As with any new imaging modality, reliable physical phantoms are needed to: calibrate instruments; validate performance; optimize signal-to-noise; perform routine quality control; and compare systems. Phantom materials for testing small animal PAT systems should also mimic both the optical and acoustic properties of soft tissue, while for calibration purposes should be resistant to degradation over long time periods. We show here that polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) phantoms enable calibration and performance validation using two PAT systems with distinct designs (Visualsonics Vevo LAZR and Endra Nexus 128) across a wavelength range of 680 nm - 950 nm. Inclusions between 2 and 3.2 mm in diameter were fabricated from PVCP using a range of dye concentrations (0 % to 0.256 % Black Plastic Color, BPC) in a custom mold. A calibration phantom was imaged repeatedly on both systems, over time scales of minutes, hours and days, to assess system stability. Both systems demonstrated good reproducibility over time, with the coefficient of variation in the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) being less than 15% over the course of 30 days. Imaging performance was optimized by plotting SNR as a function of different system parameters. The visualization of objects embedded in optically absorbing and scattering backgrounds was also assessed. PVCP is easy to work with and provides stable phantoms for assessing PAT system performance.

  4. Green Development Performance in China: A Metafrontier Non-Radial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a green development growth index (GDGI for measuring the changes in sustainable development over time. This index considers a wide range of pollutants, and allows for the incorporation of group heterogeneity and non-radial slack in the conventional green development index. The GDGI is calculated based on a non-radial directional distance function derived by several data envelopment analysis (DEA models, and was decomposed into an efficiency change (EC index, a best-practice gap change (BPC index and a technology gap change (TGC index. The proposed indices are employed to measure green development performance in 30 provinces in China from 2000 to 2012. The empirical results show that China has a low level of green development, with a 2.58% increase per year driven by an innovation effect. China’s green development is mainly led by the eastern region, and the technology gaps between the eastern region and the other two regions (the central and western regions have become wider over the years. The group innovative provinces have set a target for resource utilization of non-innovative provinces in order to catch-up with the corresponding groups, while the metafrontier innovative provinces provide targets for the technology levels of other provinces to improve their green development performance.

  5. Ecological literacy through critical/place-based pedagogy in the environmental studies program at a small liberal arts college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

    In 2007 Pioneer High School, a public school in Whittier, California changed the sequence of its science courses from the Traditional Biology-Chemistry-Physics (B-C-P) to Biology-Physics-Chemistry (B-P-C), or "Physics Second." The California Standards Tests (CSTs) scores in Physics and Chemistry from 2004-2012 were used to determine if there were any effects of the Physics Second sequencing on student achievement in those courses. The data was also used to determine whether the Physics Second sequence had an effect on performance in Physics and Chemistry based on gender. Independent t tests and chi-square analysis of the data determined an improvement in student performance in Chemistry but not Physics. The 2x2 Factorial ANOVA analysis revealed that in Physics male students performed better on the CSTs than their female peers. In Chemistry, it was noted that male and female students performed equally well. Neither finding was a result ofthe change to the "Physics Second" sequencing.

  6. Integration of waste processing and biomass production systems as part of the KSC Breadboard project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J L; Mackowiak, C L; Strayer, R F; Finger, B W

    1997-01-01

    After initial emphasis on large-scale baseline crop tests, the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Breadboard project has begun to evaluate long-term operation of the biomass production system with increasing material closure. Our goal is to define the minimum biological processing necessary to make waste streams compatible with plant growth in hydroponic systems, thereby recycling nutrients into plant biomass and recovering water via atmospheric condensate. Initial small and intermediate-scale studies focused on the recycling of nutrients contained in inedible plant biomass. Studies conducted between 1989-1992 indicated that the majority of nutrients could be rapidly solubilized in water, but the direct use of this crop "leachate" was deleterious to plant growth due to the presence of soluble organic compounds. Subsequent studies at both the intermediate scale and in the large-scale Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) have indicated that aerobic microbiological processing of crop residue prior to incorporation into recirculating hydroponic solutions eliminated any phytotoxic effect, even when the majority of the plant nutrient demand was provided from recycled biomass during long term studies (i.e. up to 418 days). Current and future studies are focused on optimizing biological processing of both plant and human waste streams. PMID:11542556

  7. Measurement of D{sup *{+-}} production at low Q{sup 2} with the beam-pipe calorimeter of ZEUS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang, P.

    2004-12-01

    The production of D* mesons in deep-inelastic ep-scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The total D* production cross-section and the differential cross-sections as functions of Q{sup 2}, y, p{sub t}(D*) and {eta}(D*) have been measured at low Q{sup 2}. The data sample used was collected during the period 1998-2000 and amounts to an integrated luminosity of 82.2 pb{sup -1}. The low Q{sup 2} region could be reached using the beam-pipe calorimeter which measures the scattered electron at very small angles. Therefore special emphasis was put on the calibration of the BPC in order to reconstruct events in the kinematic range 0.05 < Q{sup 2} < 0.7 GeV{sup 2} and 0.02 < y < 0.85. The D* mesons have been identified via the decay into lighter mesons D{sup *}+{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and the charged conjugated decay in the kinematic region 1.5

  8. Virus-induced dilated cardiomyopathy is characterized by increased levels of fibrotic extracellular matrix proteins and reduced amounts of energy-producing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtala, Krishnatej; Phong, Truong Q; Steil, Leif; Sauter, Martina; Salazar, Manuela G; Kandolf, Reinhard; Kroemer, Heyo K; Felix, Stephan B; Völker, Uwe; Klingel, Karin; Hammer, Elke

    2011-11-01

    The most relevant clinical phenotype resulting from chronic enteroviral myocarditis is dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Mice of the susceptible mouse strain A.BY/SnJ mimick well human DCM since they develop as a consequence of persistent infection and chronic inflammation a dilation of the heart ventricle several weeks after coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Therefore, this model is well suited for the analysis of changes in the heart proteome associated with DCM. Here, we present a proteomic survey of the dilated hearts based on differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric centered methods in comparison to age-matched non-infected hearts. In total, 101 distinct proteins, which belong to categories immunity and defense, cell structure and associated proteins, energy metabolism and protein metabolism/modification differed in their levels in both groups. Levels of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism and electron transport chain were found to be significantly reduced in infected mice suggesting a decrease in energy production in CVB3-induced DCM. Furthermore, proteins associated with muscle contraction (MLRV, MLRc2, MYH6, MyBPC3), were present in significantly altered amounts in infected mice. A significant increase in the level of extracellular matrix proteins in the dilated hearts indicates cardiac remodeling due to fibrosis.

  9. Optimizing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug carriers using an in vitro blood–brain barrier model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Di; Mi, Gujie; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, an optimized in vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) model was established using mouse brain endothelial cells (b.End3) and astrocytes (C8-D1A). Before measuring the permeability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) samples, the BBB was first examined and confirmed by an immunofluorescent stain and evaluating the transendothelial electrical resistance. After such confirmation, the permeability of the following five previously synthesized SPIONs was determined using this optimized BBB model: 1) GGB (synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid, and bovine serum albumin [BSA]), 2) GGC (glycine, glutamic acid, and collagen), 3) GGP (glycine, glutamic acid, and polyvinyl alcohol), 4) BPC (BSA, polyethylene glycol, and collagen), and 5) CPB (collagen, polyvinyl alcohol, and BSA). More importantly, after the permeability test, transmission electron microscopy thin section technology was used to investigate the mechanism behind this process. Transmission electron microscopy thin section images supported the hypothesis that collagen-coated CPB SPIONs displayed better cellular uptake than glycine and glutamine acid-coated GGB SPIONs. Such experimental data demonstrated how one can modify SPIONs to better deliver drugs to the brain to treat a wide range of neurological disorders.

  10. Hydrogel membrane electrolyte for electrochemical capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sampath; N A Choudhury; A K Shukla

    2009-09-01

    Polymer electrolytes are known to possess excellent physicochemical properties that are very useful for electrochemical energy systems. The mobility in polymer electrolytes is understood to be mainly due to the segmental motion of polymer chains and the ion transport is generally restricted to the amorphous phase of the polymer. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) that are formed using plastizicers and polymers along with ionic salts are known to exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity while maintaining the dimensional stability of a solid matrix. In the present study, the preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hydrogel membranes (PHMEs) as electrolytes for electrochemical capacitors have been reported. Varying HClO4 dopant concentration leads to different characteristics of the capacitors. The EC comprising PHME doped with 2 M HClO4 and black pearl carbon (BPC) electrodes has been found to exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 97 F g-1, a phase angle value of 78°, and a maximum charge-discharge coulombic efficiency of 88%.

  11. Research on High-Bandgap Materials and Amorphous Silicon-Based Solar Cells, Final Technical Report, 15 May 1994-15 January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, E. A.; Gu, Q.; Jiang, L.; Lyou, J.; Nurdjaja, I.; Rao, P. (Department of Physics, Syracuse University)

    1998-12-28

    This report describes work performed by Syracuse University under this subcontract. Researchers developed a technique based on electroabsorption measurements for obtaining quantitative estimates of the built-in potential Vbi in a-Si:H-based heterostructure solar cells incorporating microcrystalline or a-SiC:H p layers. Using this new electroabsorption technique, researchers confirmed previous estimates of Vbi {yields} 1.0 V in a-Si:H solar cells with ''conventional'' intrinsic layers and either microcrystalline or a-SiC:H p layers. Researchers also explored the recent claim that light-soaking of a-Si:H substantially changes the polarized electroabsorption associated with interband optical transitions (and hence, not defect transitions). Researchers confirmed measurements of improved (5') hole drift mobilities in some specially prepared a-Si:H samples. Disturbingly, solar cells made with such materials did not show improved efficiencies. Researchers significantly clarified the relationship of ambipolar diffusion-length measurements to hole drift mobilities in a-Si:H, and have shown that the photocapacitance measurements can be interpreted in terms of hole drift mobilities in amorphous silicon. They also completed a survey of thin BP:H and BPC:H films prepared by plasma deposition using phosphine, diborane, trimethylboron, and hydrogen as precursor gases.

  12. Controlling ferrofluid permeability across the blood–brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Di; Sun, Linlin; Mi, Gujie; Sheikh, Lubna; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-02-21

    In the present study, an in vitro blood–brain barrier model was developed using murine brain endothelioma cells (b.End3 cells). Confirmation of the blood–brain barrier model was completed by examining the permeability of FITCDextran at increasing exposure times up to 96 h in serum-free medium and comparing such values with values from the literature. After such confirmation, the permeability of five novel ferrofluid (FF) nanoparticle samples, GGB (ferrofluids synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid and BSA), GGC (glycine, glutamic acid and collagen), GGP (glycine, glutamic acid and PVA), BPC (BSA, PEG and collagen) and CPB (collagen, PVA and BSA), was determined using this blood–brain barrier model. All of the five FF samples were characterized by zeta potential to determine their charge as well as TEM and dynamic light scattering for determining their hydrodynamic diameter. Results showed that FF coated with collagen passed more easily through the blood–brain barrier than FF coated with glycine and glutamic acid based on an increase of 4.5% in permeability. Through such experiments, diverse magnetic nanomaterials (such as FF) were identified for: (1) MRI use since they were less permeable to penetrate the blood–brain barrier to avoid neural tissue toxicity (e.g. GGB) or (2) brain drug delivery since they were more permeable to the blood–brain barrier (e.g. CPB). PMID:24457539

  13. Balancing Study and Paid Work: The Experiences of Construction Undergraduates in an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lingard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was undertaken among third year studentsenrolled in the University of Melbourne’s Bachelor of Property andConstruction (BPC programme. The survey explored students’experiences in balancing paid work with study. Hours spent in paidemployment were at least as long and, in many cases, were inexcess of hours spent at university. While work was not perceivedby students to pose a difficulty for attending lectures and tutorials,students indicated that their paid work made it difficult for them toengage in independent learning activities, such as using libraryresources or preparing for classes by reading beforehand. Twoscales, previously used in other countries to measure students’burnout and engagement, were tested. Both scales were foundto be valid and reliable in that the factorial structures foundin previous studies were confirmed and acceptable internalconsistency reliability coefficients were generated for each of thescales’ component factors. This opens the way for more in-depthmultivariate analysis to determine the linkages between workhours, work-study conflict and students’ burnout or engagementwith university life.

  14. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  15. Expression of lysine-rich protein gene and analysis of lysine content in transgenic wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Chaomin; CHEN Xü qing; LIANG Rongqi; YANG Fengping; ZHANG Liquan; ZHANG Xiaodong; CHEN Tianyou; S. S. M. Sun

    2004-01-01

    Expression vector pBPC102, which carries winged bean lysine-rich protein (wblrp) gene and dihydropicolinate synthase (DHDPS) gene, was transferred into hexaploid winter wheat cv. Jinghua No.1, Jing411, You899 and Yangnong15 explants of immature inflorescence and immature embryos by particle bombardment. More than 100 transgenic plants were obtained under the selection of s-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC). Confirmed transgenic plants of T0 and T1 generation by PCR and PCR-Southern blotting analyses showed successful integration of wblrp gene into wheat genome. Analysis of transgenic plant lines of T2 by Northern dot-blotting showed good expression of wblrp gene in offspring seed. The content of free lysine in leaves, contents of bound lysine and total proteins in seeds of T2 transgenic wheat lines were determined and analyzed. Among 34 tested transgenic lines, levels of free lysine content in leaves of 9 transgenic lines are 2~3times higher than un-trans- formed wild-type cultivars. Among 17 analyzed transgenic lines, bound lysine content of 4 transgenic lines is more than 10% higher than that of wild-type cultivars. Our research suggests that introducing wblrp gene into wheat is an effective way to improve its nutrition quality.

  16. Um estudo sobre o perfil dos empregados com deficiência em uma organização A study on the profile of disabled employees in an organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cypriano Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseado na premissa de que todo processo inclusivo, seja este educacional, social ou laboral, precisa partir de uma apropriação do contexto sociocultural dos diferentes atores envolvidos - no caso desta pesquisa: empregadores, pessoas com deficiência e empresa, o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar o perfil dos empregados com deficiência em uma organização de grande porte do ramo da alimentação. Procuramos discutir o contexto social no qual os trabalhadores com deficiência estão inseridos através de um recorte quantitativo dos resultados de uma pesquisa desenvolvida sobre o processo de inclusão em uma organização. O estudo foi desenvolvido por meio dos documentos disponibilizados pela empresa, bem como de documentos nacionais. Os resultados revelam uma cartografia das pessoas com deficiência inseridas na organização através de informações sobre escolaridade, idade, salário, funções e tipos de deficiência, comparando-os aos dados nacionais disponíveis sobre as pessoas com deficiência. Por fim, discutimos alguns resultados obtidos com o estudo. Em que pese a importância das políticas públicas, propomos uma reflexão acerca de mecanismos como o Benefício da Prestação Continuada (BPC, para o favorecimento desta relação entre trabalho e deficiência. Entendemos, finalmente, que é urgente educar e qualificar as pessoas com deficiência, mas não é suficiente, pois também são necessárias ações estruturantes da sociedade para o sucesso do processo de inclusão.based on the premise that all inclusive processes, be they educational, social or occupational, require an appropriation of the sociocultural context of the different actors involved - in the case of this research: employers, disabled people and company, the aim of this study is to identify the profile of employees with disabilities in a large food industry company. We attempted to discuss the social context in which workers with disabilities are

  17. A Crewed Mission to Apophis Using a Hybrid Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Electric Propulsion (BNTEP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, David R.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Burke, Laura M.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    A BNTEP system is a dual propellant, hybrid propulsion concept that utilizes Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion during high thrust operations, providing 10's of kilo-Newtons of thrust per engine at a high specific impulse (Isp) of 900 s, and an Electric Propulsion (EP) system during low thrust operations at even higher Isp of around 3000 s. Electrical power for the EP system is provided by the BNTR engines in combination with a Brayton Power Conversion (BPC) closed loop system, which can provide electrical power on the order of 100's of kWe. High thrust BNTR operation uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) as reactor coolant propellant expelled out a nozzle, while low thrust EP uses high pressure xenon expelled by an electric grid. By utilizing an optimized combination of low and high thrust propulsion, significant mass savings over a conventional NTR vehicle can be realized. Low thrust mission events, such as midcourse corrections (MCC), tank settling burns, some reaction control system (RCS) burns, and even a small portion at the end of the departure burn can be performed with EP. Crewed and robotic deep space missions to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) are best suited for this hybrid propulsion approach. For these mission scenarios, the Earth return V is typically small enough that EP alone is sufficient. A crewed mission to the NEA Apophis in the year 2028 with an expendable BNTEP transfer vehicle is presented. Assembly operations, launch element masses, and other key characteristics of the vehicle are described. A comparison with a conventional NTR vehicle performing the same mission is also provided. Finally, reusability of the BNTEP transfer vehicle is explored.

  18. Chlor-alkali plant contamination of Aussa River sediments induced a large Hg-resistant bacterial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Gallo, Michele; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Covelli, Stefano; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    A closed chlor-alkali plant (CAP) discharged Hg for decades into the Aussa River, which flows into Marano Lagoon, resulting in the large-scale pollution of the lagoon. In order to get information on the role of bacteria as mercury detoxifying agents, analyses of anions in the superficial part (0-1 cm) of sediments were conducted at four stations in the Aussa River. In addition, measurements of biopolymeric carbon (BPC) as a sum of the carbon equivalent of proteins (PRT), lipids (LIP), and carbohydrates (CHO) were performed to correlate with bacterial biomass such as the number of aerobic heterotrophic cultivable bacteria and their percentage of Hg-resistant bacteria. All these parameters were used to assess the bioavailable Hg fraction in sediments and the potential detoxification activity of bacteria. In addition, fifteen isolates were characterized by a combination of molecular techniques, which permitted their assignment into six different genera. Four out of fifteen were Gram negative with two strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, one Enterobacter sp., and one strain of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The remaining strains (11) were Gram positive belonging to the genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus. We found merA genes in only a few isolates. Mercury volatilization from added HgCl2 and the presence of plasmids with the merA gene were also used to confirm Hg reductase activity. We found the highest number of aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria (one order magnitude higher) and the highest number of Hg-resistant species (11 species out of 15) at the confluence of the River Aussa and Banduzzi's channel, which transport Hg from the CAP, suggesting that Hg is strongly detoxified [reduced to Hg(0)] at this location.

  19. Crop production data for bioregenerative life support: Observations from testing at NASA's Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    NASA s Biomass Production Chamber BPC at Kennedy Space Center was decommissioned ca 1998 but in the preceding decade several crop tests were conducted that have not been reported in the open literature These included monoculture studies with wheat soybean potato and tomato For each of these studies 20 m 2 of crops were grown in an atmospherically closed chamber 113 m 3 vol using a nutrient film hydroponic technique along with elevated CO 2 1000 or 1200 mu mol mol -1 Canopy light PAR levels ranged from 30 to 85 mol m -2 d -1 depending on the crop and selected photoperiod Total biomass DM productivities reached 40 g m -2 d -1 for wheat 16 g m -2 d -1 for soybean 33 g m -2 d -1 for potato and 20 g m -2 d -1 for tomato Edible biomass DM productivities reached 13 g m -2 d -1 for wheat 6 g m -2 d -1 for soybean 20 g m -2 d -1 for potato and 10 g m -2 d -1 for tomato The highest radiation use efficiencies for biomass were 0 60 g DM mol -1 PAR for wheat 0 50 g mol -1 for soybean 0 95 g mol -1 for potato and 0 51 g mol -1 for tomato The highest radiation use efficiencies for edible biomass were 0 22 g DM mol -1 for wheat 0 18 g mol -1 for soybean 0 58 g mol -1 for potato and 0 25 g mol -1 for tomato Use of transplanting cycles or spacing techniques to reduce open gaps between plants early in growth would have improved productivities and radiation use efficiencies for soybeans potatoes and

  20. Investigating the performance of neural network backpropagation algorithms for TEC estimations using South African GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarulema, J. B.; McKinnell, L.-A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, results obtained by investigating the application of different neural network backpropagation training algorithms are presented. This was done to assess the performance accuracy of each training algorithm in total electron content (TEC) estimations using identical datasets in models development and verification processes. Investigated training algorithms are standard backpropagation (SBP), backpropagation with weight delay (BPWD), backpropagation with momentum (BPM) term, backpropagation with chunkwise weight update (BPC) and backpropagation for batch (BPB) training. These five algorithms are inbuilt functions within the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS) and the main objective was to find out the training algorithm that generates the minimum error between the TEC derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and the modelled TEC data. Another investigated algorithm is the MatLab based Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (L-MBP), which achieves convergence after the least number of iterations during training. In this paper, neural network (NN) models were developed using hourly TEC data (for 8 years: 2000-2007) derived from GPS observations over a receiver station located at Sutherland (SUTH) (32.38° S, 20.81° E), South Africa. Verification of the NN models for all algorithms considered was performed on both "seen" and "unseen" data. Hourly TEC values over SUTH for 2003 formed the "seen" dataset. The "unseen" dataset consisted of hourly TEC data for 2002 and 2008 over Cape Town (CPTN) (33.95° S, 18.47° E) and SUTH, respectively. The models' verification showed that all algorithms investigated provide comparable results statistically, but differ significantly in terms of time required to achieve convergence during input-output data training/learning. This paper therefore provides a guide to neural network users for choosing appropriate algorithms based on the availability of computation capabilities used for research.

  1. Synthesis and structural evaluation of five coordination complexes of benzenepentacarboxylic acid with aza-donor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Manishkumar R.; Biswas, Sharmita Nandy; Sarkar, Sohini; Pedireddi, V. R.

    2016-06-01

    Synthesis and structural features of five new coordination assemblies, [Co(bpyH)(H2O)5](BPCH)·(bpyH2)0.5·(H2O) (1a), [{Cu(H2O)3}·{Cu0.5(bpy)0.5(H2O)0.5}2(μ-BPCH)] (1b), [{Cd0.5(BPCH)}2·{Cd0.5(bpy)(H2O)2}2]·6(H2O) (1c), [Cu(BPCH2)(bpyeaH)]·2(H2O) (1d) and [Cd2 (bpyea)0.5(oxalate)0.5(μ-BPC) (H2O)]·(bpyeaH2)·2(H2O) (1e), have been reported. All the assemblies were prepared by co-crystallization of benzenepentacarboxylic acid (BPCH5) either with 4,4‧-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpyea) in the presence of a transition metal ion (either Co(II), Cu(II) or Cd(II)) as the case may be. All the five compounds were synthesized by hydrothermal method and structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the obtained compounds, 1a-1e, exhibit distinct 3-D polymeric architectures either in the form of stacked layers or host-guest networks in which water molecules play a pivotal role providing additional stabilization by coordinate bonds as well as hydrogen bonds. Other non-covalent interactions such as C-H … π and π … π stacking also participate in the formation of exotic 3-D structures of these complexes.

  2. A comparative study of dynamic changes in CO2 emission performance of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to conduct a comparative study of the changes in CO2 emission performance of state-owned fossil fuel power plants between China and Korea. For this purpose, we combine the concept of the metafrontier Malmquist productivity index and the non-radial directional distance function to develop a new index called the non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI). This new methodology allows for the incorporation of technological heterogeneities and slack variables into the previously introduced Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (MCPI). The NMMCPI can be derived by solving several non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. The NMMCPI can be decomposed into an efficiency change (EC) index, a best-practice gap change (BPC) index, and a technology gap change (TGC) index. By fixing the non-energy inputs, we measure the pure CO2 emission performance change. Based on the proposed indices, the comparative study between Chinese and Korean fossil fuel power industries is conducted for the 2005–2010 period. Empirical results indicate significant differences in terms of various decomposed CO2 emission performance changes between China and Korea. Korean power plants demonstrate improvements in innovation, while Chinese power plants demonstrate a higher ability for technological leadership. Some related policy implications are also proposed based on the empirical results. -- Highlights: •The non-radial metafrontier Malmquist CO2 emission performance index (NMMCPI) is proposed. •It allows for the incorporation of group heterogeneity and non-radial slack. •The changes in CO2 emission performance and its decomposition of fossil fuel power plants in China and Korea are compared

  3. Transgene inheritance and quality improvement by expressing novel HMW glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes in winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The expression vector pBPC30, which carries the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes, was transferred into hexaploid winter wheat cv. Jinghua No. 1, Jing411 and Jingdong No. 6 explants of immature embryos and immature inflorescence by particle bombardment. A large number of resistant transgenic plants were obtained under the selection of herbicide bialaphos or phosphinothricin (PPT). Confirmed transgenic plants of T0 generation showed successful integration of HMW-GS genes and bar gene into the wheat genome. T1 generation of transgenic plants can resist 20-150 mg/L PPT. Protein analysis of T2 seed by SDS-PAGE showed that HMW-GS 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes were well expressed in offspring seed of transgenic lines by co-expression with or substitution of endogenous 1Dx2 or 1Dy10. In one transgenic line, TG3-74, a new protein band between endogenous protein subunits 7 and 8 (marked as 8*) of glutenin appeared, but endogenous subunit 8 (encoded by 1By8 gene) was absent. Analysis of gluten rheological quality on seed proteins of 102 T3 plants showed that the sedimentation value of 5 transgenic lines (44.2-49.0 mL) was remarkably improved, 59.6%-64.3% higher than that of wild type Jinghua No. 1 and Jingdong No. 6, similar to bread wheat Cheyenne (48.0 mL). Analysis of dough rheological properties of transgenic lines showed that the dough stable time of 5 transgenic lines range from 16 to 30 min, whereas the dough stable time of wild type was only between 3-7 min. Our research suggests that introducing novel HMW-GS genes into wheat is an efficient way to improve its bread-making quality.

  4. Loss of DDB1 Leads to Transcriptional p53 Pathway Activation in Proliferating Cells, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Apoptosis in Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhilian; Holzschuh, Jochen; Driever, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a large subunit of the heterodimeric DDB complex that recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the nucleotide excision repair process. DDB1 is also a component of the CUL4 E3 ligase complex involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes by targeted ubiquitination of key regulators. Functions of DDB1 in development have been addressed in several model organisms, however, are not fully understood so far. Here we report an ENU induced mutant ddb1 allele (ddb1m863) identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and analyze its effects on development. Zebrafish ddb1 is expressed broadly, both maternally and zygotically, with enhanced expression in proliferation zones. The (ddb1m863 mutant allele affects the splice acceptor site of exon 20, causing a splicing defect that results in truncation of the 1140 amino acid protein after residue 800, lacking part of the β-propeller domain BPC and the C-terminal helical domain CTD. ddb1m863 zygotic mutant embryos have a pleiotropic phenotype, including smaller and abnormally shaped brain, head skeleton, eyes, jaw, and branchial arches, as well as reduced dopaminergic neuron groups. However, early forming tissues develop normally in zygotic ddb1m863 mutant embryos, which may be due to maternal rescue. In ddb1m863 mutant embryos, pcna-expressing proliferating cell populations were reduced, concurrent with increased apoptosis. We also observed a concomitant strong up-regulation of transcripts of the tumor suppressor p53 (tp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor cdkn1a (p21a/bCIP1/WAF1) in proliferating tissues. In addition, transcription of cyclin genes ccna2 and ccnd1 was deregulated in ddb1m863 mutants. Reduction of p53 activity by anti-sense morpholinos alleviated the apoptotic phenotype in ddb1m863 mutants. These results imply that Ddb1 may be involved in maintaining proper cell cycle progression and viability of dividing cells during development through transcriptional mechanisms regulating genes

  5. 求二面角大小的常用方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奇志

    2006-01-01

    二面角问题是立体几何中的一个重点也是难点,它的求法较多,且在各种求法中需要充分运用立体几何中的线线、线面、面面关系,教材引进空间向量后解法就更多了.因此,二面角问题具有综合性强、灵活性大的特点,这一内容也自然成为高考的热点,学生需要掌握这一问题的常用方法.PQMBAN图11.直接作出二面角的平面角来求其大小例1在三棱锥P-ABC中,∠APB=∠BPC=∠C-PA=60°,求二面角A-PB-C的余弦值.解:如图1,在二面角的棱PB上任取一点Q,在面PBA和面PBC上分别作QM⊥PB,QN⊥PB,则由定义可得∠MQN即为二面角A-PB-C的平面角.设PQ=a,则在Rt△PQM和Rt△PQN中可求得QM=QN=$#3a;PN=PM=2a.又由∠NPM=60°得△PMN为正三角形,则MN=2a.在△MQN中,由余弦定理得cos∠MQN=13,即二面角的余弦值为31.点评在二面角α-l-β的棱l上任取一点,然后在α,β两个平面内分别作棱l的垂线a,b,则这两条垂线a,b所成的角即为二面角的平面角,这是利用二面角的定义来年5月号αβAEC D图2图3SBAC作平面角.也可以认为是在二面角的棱上任取一点作棱的垂面,与二面角...

  6. 优质HMW谷蛋白亚基转基因小麦的获得及其遗传稳定性和品质性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 梁荣奇; 陈绪清; 杨凤萍; 张立全

    2003-01-01

    利用编码除草剂PPT抗性的bar基因作为选择标记, 构建了含有优质HMW谷蛋白亚基1Dx5和1Dy10基因的植物表达载体pBPC30, 用基因枪导入京花1号、京411号和京冬6号等受体品种的幼胚和幼穗, 获得了一批转基因小麦植株(T0)及其后代株系(T1~T5). PCR, 点杂交和Southern杂交鉴定表明, 外源基因已整合到转化植株T0的基因组, 并稳定表达. 转基因植株T1代能抗20~80 mg/L的PPT, 其中1株抗性超过150 mg/L. 经SDS-PAGE分析表明, 外源1Dx5和1Dy10基因在T2代不同株系中获得了表达. 转基因系TG3-74缺失了亚基8, 但亚基2, 5, 10和12都表达, 同时出现了一个新的亚基位于亚基7与原有亚基8之间(暂记为8*). 品质分析结果表明, 有5个株系的Zeleny沉淀值为44.2~49.0 mL, 与对照CNN(48.0 mL)相当, 分别比京花1号(26.9 mL)和京冬6号(30.7 mL)提高了59.6%~64.3%. T5代株系的粉质曲线稳定时间比受体品种(3~7 min)大幅增长, 转基因株系TG5-23b的稳定时间为16 min, TG1-28d, TG3-76b, TG5-98和TG5-99的面团稳定时间高达30 min以上.

  7. 缺血预处理的次数对兔缺血心肌电生理活动的影响%Study on effect of various dose of ischemia preconditioning on rabbit cardiac electrophysiological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉; 曾晓荣; 陈连璧

    2003-01-01

    目的:观察缺血预处理(IPC)的次数对缺血-再灌流过程中兔心脏电生理活动的影响,探讨IPC的抗心律失常作用机制.方法:家兔24只,随机分为对照组(C)、缺血组(IR)、一次预处理组(SPC)和两次预处理组(BPC).应用心外膜单相动作电位(MAP)探针记录技术检测缺血-再灌流过程中MAP幅度(MAPA)、复极50%时程(MAPD5o)、零相最大上升速度(Vmax)及心律失常发生率.结果:各预处理组中缺血后5 min时的MAPD5o、MAPA、Vmax迅速缩短或降低(P<0.05).SPC组与IR组相比,促进了缺血20min之后MAPA、Vmax的恢复,改善了缺血20 min MAPD50的过度缩短,限制了复灌时MAPD50的过度延长(P<0.05).SPC完全抑制了缺血-再灌中室颤的发生率(0%,P<0.05).BPC组中,缺血-再灌注中室颤发生率及在缺血30 min末及再灌注末上述参数与缺血组比较均无显著差异.结论:①SPC在在体家兔心脏上具有最好的抗心律失常作用,随IPC次数增加,其抗心律失常作并不增强;②缺血早期sPC迅速缩短MAPD,抗早期心律失常的机制可能是缩小了造成单向阻滞的窗口;③改善缺血晚期电生理参数,抗晚期心律失常的机制可能是减小不应期离散度;④限制复灌时MAPD过度延长,抗再灌注心律失常可能与减少内向离子流及触发活性有关.

  8. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  9. DPI-ELISA: a fast and versatile method to specify the binding of plant transcription factors to DNA in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaban Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 10% of all genes in eukaryote genomes are predicted to encode transcription factors. The specific binding of transcription factors to short DNA-motifs influences the expression of neighbouring genes. However, little is known about the DNA-protein interaction itself. To date there are only a few suitable methods to characterise DNA-protein-interactions, among which the EMSA is the method most frequently used in laboratories. Besides EMSA, several protocols describe the effective use of an ELISA-based transcription factor binding assay e.g. for the analysis of human NFκB binding to specific DNA sequences. Results We provide a unified protocol for this type of ELISA analysis, termed DNA-Protein-Interaction (DPI-ELISA. Qualitative analyses with His-epitope tagged plant transcription factors expressed in E. coli revealed that EMSA and DPI-ELISA result in comparable and reproducible data. The binding of AtbZIP63 to the C-box and AtWRKY11 to the W2-box could be reproduced and validated by both methods. We next examined the physical binding of the C-terminal DNA-binding domains of AtWRKY33, AtWRKY50 and AtWRKY75 to the W2-box. Although the DNA-binding domain is highly conserved among the WRKY proteins tested, the use of the DPI-ELISA discloses differences in W2-box binding properties between these proteins. In addition to these well-studied transcription factor families, we applied our protocol to AtBPC2, a member of the so far uncharacterised plant specific Basic Pentacysteine transcription factor family. We could demonstrate binding to GA/TC-dinucleotide repeat motifs by our DPI-ELISA protocol. Different buffers and reaction conditions were examined. Conclusions We successfully applied our DPI-ELISA protocol to investigate the DNA-binding specificities of three different classes of transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the analysis of the binding affinity of any DNA-binding protein to any given DNA

  10. D-D dimer levels in patients with sickle cell disease during bone pain crises and in the steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakunle EE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eyitayo Emmanuel Fakunle,1 Kapoona Iwara Ibiang Eteng,2 Wuraola Adebola Shokunbi21Department of Pathology, King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda; 2Department of Hematology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaObjective: To determine the presence of ongoing thrombosis by measuring the D-D dimer levels in bone pain crises (BPCs and in the steady state of patients with sickle cell disease, comparing these levels with those in individuals with normal hemoglobin (HbAA in southwest Nigeria.Study design, patients, and methods: The study design involved 38 patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia (HbSS and 78 adults with the HbAA phenotype, seen at the Hematology Day Care and Accident and Emergency units of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The TintElize kit was used to quantitatively determine human D-D dimer levels in the plasma with enzyme immunoassay.Results: The mean D-D dimer level measured of the 78 individuals with HbAA was 73.59 ng/mL. The mean D-D dimer level of the patients with HbSS during BPCs was 4002.40 ng/mL, while the mean level in the same patients in the steady state measured 6 weeks after their BPCs, with no other painful crisis episode before the sample was collected, was 1320.00 ng/mL.Conclusion: This study demonstrated a significant increase in the D-D dimer levels of patients with HbSS in the steady state, when compared with those of individuals with HbAA of the same age and sex distribution. There was also an approximate threefold increase in the D-D dimer levels in the same patients with HbSS during BPCs. This confirms the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in patients with HbSS in the steady state, which is further escalated during BPCs. A multicenter study on the use of anticoagulants in BPCs in patients with sickle cell disease is required.Keywords: anticoagulant, dimer, sickle cell disease, BPC, Nigeria, chronic hemolytic anemia

  11. Native Geosciences: Strengthening the Future Through Tribal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Quigley, I.; Douville, V.; Hollow Horn Bear, D.

    2008-12-01

    communities and a return to traditional ways of supporting the development of our "story" or purpose for being. The opportunities include residential summer field experiences, interdisciplinary curriculums and development of Tribally-driven Native research experiences. The National Science Foundation, University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment, Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), and Tribes have provided funding to support the development of Native geosciences. The presentation will focus on current projects: NSF OEDG "He Sapa Bloketu Woecun; Geosciences at the Heart of Everything That Is", NSF S-STEM "Scientific Leadership Scholars" and the NSF BPC "Coalition of American Indians in Computing". The expressed goal of future initiatives is to connect Tribal communities across the Midwest and West in developing a Native Geosciences Pathway. This pathway supports the identification and support of Tribal students with an interest or "story" connected to geosciences ensuring a future Native geosciences workforce.

  12. Th unnatural order of things: A history of the high school science sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis M.

    Historical studies of US high school science education are rare. This study examines the historical origins of a unique characteristic of the secondary science curriculum, the Biology-Chemistry-Physics (B-C-P) order of courses. Statements from scientists, educators and the media claim that B-C-P has been the traditional curriculum sequence for over a century and can be traced back to the influential educational commission known as the Committee of Ten (CoT) of 1893. This study examines the history of the ordering of high school science subjects over the last 150 years. The reports and primary documents of important national educational commissions, such as the CoT, were searched for their recommendations on secondary science, particularly on course ordering. These recommendations were then compared to national, state and local statistical data on subject offerings and student enrollments to measure the effect of these national commissions on school policy. This study concludes that the Committee of Ten did not create B-P-C. The CoT made six recommendations, five placed Chemistry before Physics (P-C). One recommendation for C-P met with strong disagreement because it was thought an illogical order. Biology as a "uniform" course did not exist at this time and so the CoT made no recommendations for its grade placement. Statistical data shows that B-C-P evolved over many decades. From 1860 up to 1920 most schools used a P-C curriculum believing Physics was a foundational prerequisite of Chemistry. Biology was introduced in the early 1900s and it assumed a position before the physical sciences. Through the 1920s Chemistry and Physics were placed equally likely in 11th or 12 th grades and Biology was in the 10th grade. After World War II, B-C-P became the dominant pattern, exhibited in over 90% of schools. But up to this point in time no educational body or national commission had recommended B-C-P. The Biology-Chemistry-Physics order of courses is a product of many

  13. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  14. 组合型人工肾治疗肾性骨病的前瞻性研究%Prospective study of combinative artificial kidney treatment on renal osteopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林永明; 伍艳萍; 李妙玲; 陈英华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨组合型人工肾对尿毒症患者肾性骨病的治疗作用.方法 我院于2008年6月至2009年2月采用血液透析(HD)+血液灌流(HP)方法 治疗30例尿毒症患者(HD+HP组),并与单纯HD治疗尿毒症患者31例(HD组)进行对比研究,通过比较治疗前与治疗后3个月时2组患者的骨痛、皮肤瘙痒、血压、食欲、睡眠等临床症状及尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(SXr)、血红蛋白(Hb)、血小板(BPC)、钙(Ca)、磷(P)、全段甲状旁腺素(iPTH)等生化指标的变化,客观评价两种方法 治疗尿毒症患者肾性骨病的疗效.结果 HD组、HD+HP组治疗后骨痛的缓解率分别为67.7%(21/31)、96.7%(29/30),皮肤瘙痒的缓解率分别为71.0%(22/31)、96.7%(29/30),HD+HP在缓解维持性透析患者的骨痛与皮肤瘙痒中显著优于单纯HD(P均<0.01);HD组治疗前后iPTH分别为(65.5±34.4)pmol/L和(57.1±21.4)pmol/L,HD+HP组治疗前后iPTH分别为(73.5±44.4)pmol/L和(19.1±17.4)pmol/L,单纯HD未能很好地清除iPTH(P>0.05),而HD+HP则可(P<0.05).结论 对于iPTH水平较高的维持性HD患者,可通过增加HP,达到更好地清除这些患者血中大、中、小分子毒素物质,从而降低肾性骨病发生率,提高其生存质量.%Objective To explore therapeutic effects of combinative artificial kidney treatment on renal osteopathy.Methods HD + HP Group composed by 30 urinaemia was treated with hemodialysis and hemoperfusion,and the HD Group was treated only with hemodialysis.Clinical symptoms and lab indicators including osteodynia,itch of skin,blood pressure,appetite,sleep,as well as BUN,SCr,Hb,BPC,Ca,P and iPTH,were compared between the two groups.Results Osteodynia decreased by 67.7% (21/31),and itch of skin by 71.0% (22/31)in HD group.Osteodynia decreased by 96.7% (29/30) ,and itch of skin by 96.7% (29/30) in HD + HP group (P <0.01 ).iPTH were (65.5 ± 34.4) pmol/L before treatment and (57.1 ± 21.4) pmol/L after treatment in HD group,and (73.5 ± 44.4)pmol

  15. Crop productivities and radiation use efficiencies for bioregenerative life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    NASA’s Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center was decommissioned in 1998, but several crop tests were conducted that have not been reported in the open literature. These include several monoculture studies with wheat, soybean, potato, lettuce, and tomato. For all of these studies, either 10 or 20 m2 of plants were grown in an atmospherically closed chamber (113 m3 vol.) using a hydroponic nutrient film technique along with elevated CO2 (1000 or 1200 μmol mol-1). Canopy light (PAR) levels ranged from 17 to 85 mol m-2 d-1 depending on the species and photoperiod. Total biomass (DM) productivities reached 39.6 g m-2 d-1 for wheat, 27.2 g m-2 d-1 for potato, 19.6 g m-2 d-1 for tomato, 15.7 g m-2 d-1 for soybean, and 7.7 g m-2 d-1 for lettuce. Edible biomass (DM) productivities reached 18.4 g m-2 d-1 for potato, 11.3 g m-2 d-1 for wheat, 9.8 g m-2 d-1 for tomato, 7.1 g m-2 d-1 for lettuce, and 6.0 g m-2 d-1 for soybean. The corresponding radiation (light) use efficiencies for total biomass were 0.64 g mol-1 PAR for potato, 0.59 g DM mol-1 for wheat, 0.51 g mol-1 for tomato, 0.46 g mol-1 for lettuce, and 0.43 g mol-1 for soybean. Radiation use efficiencies for edible biomass were 0.44 g mol-1 for potato, 0.42 g mol-1 for lettuce, 0.25 g mol-1 for tomato, 0.17 g DM mol-1 for wheat, and 0.16 g mol-1 for soybean. By initially growing seedlings at a dense spacing and then transplanting them to the final production area could have saved about 12 d in each production cycle, and hence improved edible biomass productivities and radiation use efficiencies by 66% for lettuce (to 11.8 g m-2 d-1 and 0.70 g mol-1), 16% for tomato (to 11.4 g m-2 d-1and 0.29 g mol-1), 13% for soybean (to 6.9 g m-2 d-1 and 0.19 g mol-1), and 13% for potato (to 20.8 g m-2 d-1 and 0.50 g mol-1). Since wheat was grown at higher densities, transplanting seedlings would not have improved yields. Tests with wheat resulted in a relatively low harvest index of 29%, which may have been

  16. Impact of heparin on coagulation index during the therapy of molecular adsorbent recirculating system in patients with liver failure%肝素在分子吸附再循环治疗肝衰竭中的应用及对凝血指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁素娥; 周阳; 谭德明; 李丹; 周涛; 谢群英; 范娟

    2011-01-01

    randomly divided into 2 groups:92 MARS treatment sessions in the heparin-free group and 82in the low-dose heparin group. Time points of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h were selected to observe the coagulation changes of prothrombin time (PT) , PTA, thrombin time (TT) , activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio (INR) dynamically. Adverse e-vents such as line / filter coagulation, rupture and bleeding were also investigated and compared due to frequency and severity between the 2 groups. Results There was no difference in PT, PTA, INR between the 2 groups, but significant differences were observed in APTT and TT and fibrinogen ( Fbg). APTT and TT levels in the low-dose heparin group was increased rapidly after the first given dose of anticoagulant heparin and reached the peak within 30 min. The levels at each time point was statistically different between the 2 groups ( P <0.05 ). A significant difference in the Fbg level was obtained between the 2 groups. In the low-dose heparin group it was stabilized and increased slightly at the end of the treatment. While in the heparin-free group it was decreased gradually and reached a ravine at the end of the treatment. A curve was observed after 2. 5 h treatment between the 2 groups (P =0.001). There were 2 cases of severe bleeding after MARS was finished in the heparin group, and 1 was terminated because of degree III clotting in the heparin-free group. Conclusion Fibrinogen should be adsorbed while the blood touches the MARS circuit path and anticoagulants can prevent it. Comprehensive analysis of blood platelet count ( BPC ) , fibrin degradation products (FDP) , D-dimer and clinical symptoms is critical and required to determine the coagulation status to select an anticoagulation system before MARS. The use of low dose heparin in MARS improves the disorder of hypercoagulable state during the high coaguation period, while heparin-free during low coagulation period can effectively prevent the

  17. Clinical observation of postoperative intravenous analgesia with flurbiprofen axetil injection combined with low-dose fentanyl in patients with abnormal liver function for low-segment cesarean section%氟比洛芬酯复合小剂量芬太尼用于肝功能不全产妇术后自控镇痛的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维峰; 廖建梅; 殷国平; 王佳; 张建

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess analgesic efficacy and adverse reactions of postoperative analgesia with flurbiprofen axetil combined with low-dose fentanyl in patients with abnormal liver function for low-segment cesarean sectioa Methods Ninety patients with ASA class Ⅱor Ⅲ and Child-Pugh class A for low-segment cesarean section were randomly divided into groups A, B, C and 30 cases in each group. For postoperative FCIA, the patients in group A received fentanyl 1.0 mg+0. 9% NaCl solution to 100 ml, group B, flurbiprofen 100 mg+fentanyl 1.0 mg+0.9% NaCl solution to 100 ml, and group C, flurbiprofen 100 mg +fentanyl 0.5 mg+0. 9% NaCl solution to 100 ml The evaluation of VAS score at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after operation, the number of button-pressing during FCIA and incidence rate of side effects were recorded. Results There were no statistical differences in the VAS score and the number of button-pressing among three groups. The incidences of nausea and vomiting, lethargy in group C were significantly lower than those of in group A and B(P0.05). There were no complication of abnormal bleeding and respiratory depression. There were no statistical differences in the blood clotting function among three groups. Conclusion Flurbiprofen axetil injection combined with low-dose fentanyl has satisfying analgesia effects and no significant effects on liver function in patients with abnormal liver function for low-segment cesarean.%目的 评估氟比洛芬酯复合小剂量芬太尼在肝功能不全产妇术后静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)的效果与不良反应.方法 90例乙型肝炎肝功能不全行子宫下段剖宫产术患者,ASA分级Ⅱ或Ⅲ级,Child-Pugh分级A级,术中应用腰-硬联合麻醉,术后行PCIA,根据不同用药方法随机均分为A、B、C三组.A组:芬太尼1.0 mg+生理盐水至100 ml;B组:氟比洛芬酯100 mg+芬太尼1.0 mg+生理盐水至100 ml;C组:氟比洛芬酯100 mg+芬太尼0.5 mg+生理盐水至100ml.分别于术后6、12、24和48 h用视

  18. Treatment of childhood aplastic anemia with antithymocyte globulin, management of side effects and long-term follow-up%抗胸腺细胞球蛋白治疗儿童再生障碍性贫血的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅晓燕; 谢晓恬; 蒋莎义; 石苇; 邵越霞

    2011-01-01

    . Comprehensive measures are needed to prevent and handle the side effects to avoid treatment-related death. Long-term supportive therapy and proper follow up contribute to the favourable outcomes of the patients.%目的 总结以抗胸腺细胞球蛋白(ATG)为主的免疫抑制疗法治疗儿童再生障碍性贫血时,ATG的实施方法、不良反应防治和长期随访措施等与远期疗效的相关性.方法 儿童再生障碍性贫血35例,其中极重型再生障碍性贫血(VSAA)6例,急性再生障碍性贫血(SAA)11例,慢性重型SAA8例,中型再生障碍性贫血(MAA)10例.ATG治疗期间措施包括:治疗前清除感染灶;积极防治过敏反应;密切观察和处理因ATG相关血小板减少所致严重出血和免疫抑制所致严重感染;积极防治血清病;重视长期随访中的治疗措施与质量.结果 ATG治疗后,所有病例均出现60%以上的淋巴细胞绝对计数下降.平均随访28个月,总有效率为77.14%(27/35),显效率为57.14%(20/35).VSAA、SAA和MAA间疗效无明显差异.ATG不良反应观察结果:①48.6%出现轻度类过敏反应;②血清病发生率42.9%,平均病程3.6 d;③9例(25.7%)外周血小板(BPC)计数<10×109/L;④8例(22.9%)在ATG治疗后1个月内发生感染;⑤未发生ATG治疗相关死亡.Genzyme和Fresenius两种不同ATG制剂,在疗效和ATG相关不良反应发生率方面差异均无统计学意义.结论 ATG治疗儿童SAA和MAA疗效显著,但需积极预防和控制ATG不良反应,避免治疗相关死亡.长期辅助治疗和提高随访质量,也是确保疗效的重要环节.

  19. 自身抗体及生化学指标对自身免疫性肝病筛查及诊断的意义%Significance of autoantibodies and biochemical indicators in diagnosis of autoimmune liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽利; 路遥; 张艳丽; 申戈; 张璐; 邱国华; 吴云忠; 杨民; 李明慧

    2012-01-01

    AIH,BPC-AIH overlap syndrome were 13.3% (4/30),16.7% (1/6)respectively.Conclusions For patients with chronic liver disease of unknown cause,even ff autoantibodies were negative,AILD should also be considered ; for patients with negative AMA-M2 antibody,diagnosis of PBC could not be ruled out; non-specific antibodies Ro-52,CENPB,SS-A,etc accounted for a certain percentage in AILD; the positive rates of ANA,AMA,AMA-M2 in PBC-AIH overlap syndrome were predominant.%目的 回顾分析肝脏穿刺病理确诊为自身免疫性肝病(AILD)的人群的自身抗体及生化指标的特点,为我国AILD的筛查及诊断提供实验室依据.方法 对首都医科大学附属北京地坛医院2008年7月至2011年6月经肝脏组织病理学诊断的65例AILD患者,采用描述性分析方法分析其自身抗体及生化指标.结果 自身免疫性肝炎(AIH) 39例,占60%;原发性胆汁性肝硬化(PBC) 14例,占21.5%;原发性硬化性胆管炎(PSC)5例,占7.7%;PBC-AIH重叠综合征7例,占10.8%.中年女性多见.生化指标发现AIH中,ALT、AST、TBA、TBiL、GLO、GGT、ALP、IgG、RA、γ球蛋白高于正常值的比例分布于54%~100%.39例AIH患者中ANA阳性比例较高,为87.2% (34/39),SMA的阳性比例较低,为10.3% (4/39),无抗微粒体肝肾抗体(LKM)阳性病例.39例AIH患者中,有9例未查,30例AIH中Ro-52、SS-A、SS-B、抗nRNP/Sm抗体(nRNP/Sm)、CENPB、抗双链DNA抗体(dsDNA)、抗组蛋白抗体(Histones)的阳性比例分别为26.7%(8/30)、13.3% (4/30)、13.3% (4/30)、3.3% (1/30)、6.7% (2/30)、3.3% (1/30)、6.7% (2/30). 14例PBC患者中,2例未查,12例PBC中AMA、AMA-M2的阳性比例分别为50% (6/12)、41.7% (5/12);Ro-52、CENPB、抗核糖体P蛋白抗体(Rib.P.Protein)阳性比例分别为25%(3/12)、25%(3/12)、8.3%(1/12).结论 对于原因不明的慢性肝病患者,生化指标ALT、AST、TBA、TBiL、GLO、GGT、ALP、IgG、RA、γ球蛋白多项异常,要高度