WorldWideScience

Sample records for bids

  1. Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Scarsini, Marco; Vieille, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    We consider a class of auctions (Lowest Unique Bid Auctions) that have achieved a considerable success on the Internet. Bids are made in cents (of euro) and every bidder can bid as many numbers as she wants. The lowest unique bid wins the auction. Every bid has a fixed cost, and once a participant makes a bid, she gets to know whether her bid was unique and whether it was the lowest unique. Information is updated in real time, but every bidder sees only what's relevant to the bids she made. We show that the observed behavior in these auctions differs considerably from what theory would prescribe if all bidders were fully rational. We show that the seller makes money, which would not be the case with rational bidders, and some bidders win the auctions quite often. We describe a possible strategy for these bidders.

  2. Mergers in Bidding Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the effects of mergers in first-price sealed-bid auctions on bidders' equilibrium bidding functions and on revenue. We also study the incentives of bidders to merge given the private information they have. We develop two models, depending on how after-merger valuations are cre

  3. The BID`s of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    , the aim is to present a theoretical and analytical framework for understanding such ? urban mini territories? both in relation to urban power an politics, and in relation to the spatial layout of such forms of urban intervention. In section two the paper shortly describe the phenomenon of New York BIDs...

  4. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The...

  5. Bidding for Concessions Bidding for Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Klein

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Privatization of infrastructure ventures in sectors such as energy, telecommunications, transport and water has become popular over the last decade. Often –for good or bad reasons- private firms are given monopoly franchises under some type of long-term concession agreement, for example "Build-Operate-Transfer" schemes. The article surveys the issues arising in designing concession contracts and in awarding them to private parties. It is crucial to define performance specifications as well as incentive and risk-sharing parameters comprehensively and consistently both to achieve efficient performance by the concessionaire and to minimize post-award re-negotiation. Concession award should as a rule be made competitively, unless special requirements of speed, innovation or excessive transaction costs argue otherwise. Typically, competitive concession award is made by first price sealed bids. There are strong arguments, however, to consider open auctions more seriously in a number of cases. Auctions may also be re-awarded by way of auction. However, somewhat arbitrary bid preferences may have to be set. Auctioneers for complex concession contracts should operate at arms-length for all interested parties, including politicians. It may be sensible to let independent agencies that regulate the concession scheme run the auction. Privatization of infrastructure ventures in sectors such as energy, telecommunications, transport and water has become popular over the last decade. Often –for good or bad reasons- private firms are given monopoly franchises under some type of long-term concession agreement, for example "Build-Operate-Transfer" schemes. The article surveys the issues arising in designing concession contracts and in awarding them to private parties. It is crucial to define performance specifications as well as incentive and risk-sharing parameters comprehensively and consistently both to achieve efficient performance by the concessionaire and

  6. ROK Corporation Won Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)completed the bidding for the platform project of Pinghu Oilfield in East China Sea on July 2, 1996. The Pinghu project was started at the beginning of this year. Among the nine firms from seven countries participating in the competitive bidding, Korean Heavy Industrial Corporation, with its good credit and technical strength, won the bid for construction of the drilling and oil-producing platform. It is a fixed offshore platform in a steel and iron structure with a total weight of 15 000 tons. It is also the largest production and processing platform in the offshore oilfields being operated by China itself. The platform is designed to produce 800 000 tons of crude and 530million cubic meters of natural gas each year.

  7. Essays on bid rigging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seres, Gyula

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating prices in auctions raises antitrust concerns. Collusion lowers the revenue of the auctioneer and creates information rents. Bid rigging is a prevalent phenomenon and the affected market is enormous. Public procurement amounts to between 10 and 25 percent of national GDP in industrialize

  8. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  9. Bidding for Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanism by which club memberships, activities, and rules are chosen in a decentralized economy. For this purpose, we develop a model of competing auctions for club goods. This is a dynamic game where each seller first chooses an auction format; next, each buyer chooses a seller; and, finally, each buyer bids for membership. If sellers are restricted to simple auctions without reserve prices, then the decentralized equilibrium is generally inefficient across a multitud...

  10. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Nazarian, H. [Shahrood Univ. of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moham Shargh Engineering Co., Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Electricity markets around the world can be classified as pool-based electricity markets; pure bilateral contract markets; and hybrid markets. The bidding strategy has emerged as an important issue for producers in pool-based electricity markets. Power producers can use several approaches to develop bidding strategies that determine the optimal bid to maximize profit. The various approaches fall into 2 categories, notably forecasting market clearing prices, and estimating the behaviour of other competitors. This paper presented a simple and efficient approach for developing a bidding strategy in pay-as-bid electricity markets. It used the multiple step bid to estimate the optimal bid. One step was allocated to revenue earning while the other steps were allocated to information acquiring. Information acquiring steps obtain information from the market for estimating the optimal bid of the next day. The proposed method was used at a specified power generating unit operating in the Iranian electricity market. The study showed that the proposed bidding strategy can increase the total revenue of the unit by thirty nine per cent. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Information Feedback and Learning in Construction Bidding

    OpenAIRE

    Bee Lan Oo; Abdul-Rashid Abdul-Aziz; Yoke Mui Lim

    2011-01-01

    Information feedback condition in recurrent construction bidding is an important design variable about optimal procurement design. Contractors tend to optimize their bids in recurrent bidding with positive review of historic bids. Our experiment examines the effects of partial and no information feedback conditions on student (inexperienced) bidders’ bidding trends, and the extent to which their bidding trends agree with the behavioural patterns proposed by learning direction theory. Th...

  12. A Model for Contract Bid Markup Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-ping; CHEN Rong-qiu; ZHOU Shao-fu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a bid model which can be readily implemented in a competitive bid environment within the construction industry. Competitive bid situations involve a multiplicity of criteria. In this paper, 31 criteria, which effect optimum estimation, are considered. The model is based on CBR, the database of past completed bids, and information associated with successful bids. CBR is considered the best method because of the complexity of the construction domain and the wealth of information that the contractors possessed on past bids.

  13. Bidding for Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    This paper studies the mechanism by which club memberships, activities, and rules are chosen in a decentralized economy. For this purpose, we develop a model of competing auctions for club goods. This is a dynamic game where each seller first chooses an auction format; next, each buyer chooses...... a seller; and, finally, each buyer bids for membership. If sellers are restricted to simple auctions without reserve prices, then the decentralized equilibrium is generally inefficient across a multitude of important margins. However, if the sellers can compete by a broader class of auctions - and where...... the anonymity of buyer strategies implies coordination frictions - the sellers generally choose negative reserve prices and the equilibrium is constrained efficient. The advertisement of a negative reserve price is equivalent to the advertisement of an amenity that augments the value of the club good...

  14. 24 CFR 291.304 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bidding process. 291.304 Section 291.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Family Mortgage Loans § 291.304 Bidding process. (a) Submission of bids. All bids must be submitted...

  15. Bid invitations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Types of bid invitations, basic requirements on bid invitation documents, basic content of a turnkey bid invitation (bid invitation letter, instructions to the bidders, terms and conditions of the draft contract, technical specifications, site data and information), nuclear fuel procurement, differences turnkey - non-turnkey, legal, commerical, and technical matters concerning the contract document. (HP)

  16. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal of... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not...

  17. On Auctions with Withdrawable Winning Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Michael H. Rothkopf

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers sealed bidding in which bidders may submit two or more bids and after the bids are opened may, perhaps at a cost, withdraw bids that are more aggressive than would be necessary to win. Such withdrawal strategies are sometimes followed, but currently are surreptitious. However, legitimization of them would create potentially useful market mechanisms of potential interest to government agencies. These market mechanisms are also of theoretical interest since they are interme...

  18. 47 CFR 90.910 - Bidding credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding credits. 90.910 Section 90.910....910 Bidding credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in § 90.912(b)(2), or a consortium of very small businesses may use a bidding credit of 35 percent to lower...

  19. 42 CFR 414.910 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding process. 414.910 Section 414.910 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Under Part B § 414.910 Bidding process. (a) Entities may bid to furnish CAP drugs in all...

  20. 36 CFR 223.231 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.231... methods. The Contracting Officer or designated forest officer shall offer advertised sales of special forest products through sealed bid or sealed bid followed by oral auction. The method selected shall:...

  1. Emerging behavior in online bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I.; Kahng, B.

    2007-06-01

    With the advancement in the information age, people are using electronic media more frequently for commercial transactions. Online auction is a prototypical example. In online auctions, bidders or agents can easily participate into many different transactions simultaneously and the number of bidders participating in a given transaction is not bounded. Owing to such benefits, distinct features emerge compared with the traditional auctions, which are reviewed here. There form a number of bidders who are responsible for a significant fraction of the total bidding activities due to the online characteristics. We show that they exert strong influence on the final prices in distinct auctions. This domination of online auctions by such a unusually active minority may be a generic feature of all online mercantile processes. On the other hand, the bidding process in the auction systems is described by using a master equation with the transition probability determined with empirical data. We show that the bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction. Finally, the bidding pattern emerging from the interactions between individual bidders or items is analyzed in the perspective of the graph theory.

  2. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  3. Competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage: effect of benchmark changes on plan bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices that Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006-2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power.

  4. 25 CFR 163.18 - Acceptance and rejection of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bids; or (2) Acceptance of the offer of another bidder who, at bid opening, makes written request that... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance and rejection of bids. 163.18 Section 163.18... Forest Management and Operations § 163.18 Acceptance and rejection of bids. (a) The high bid received...

  5. 48 CFR 14.202-1 - Bidding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding time. 14.202-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-1 Bidding time. (a) Policy. A reasonable time for prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids shall be allowed in all invitations,...

  6. tBid and cardiolipin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya;

    2007-01-01

    The abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefore...... a general CL induced instability and kick the system into a favourite curvature conformation. The presence of CL seems to make membranes more expandable at essentially constant limiting tension. As the protein adsorbs to the interface, the expansion modulus is apparently increased, both in the...

  7. Competitive Bidding Behavior in Uniform-Price Auction Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton

    2003-01-01

    Profit-maximizing bidding in uniform price auction markets involves bidding above marginal cost. It therefore is not surprising that such behavior is observed in electricity markets. Common bidding behavior such as "hockey stick" bids easily are explained by suppliers determining their supply offers to maximize profits. This incentive to bid above marginal cost is not the result of coordinated action among the bidders. Rather, each bidder is independently selecting its bid to maximize profits...

  8. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  9. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.88... methods. (a) Competitive sales of National Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for each sale will: (1) Insure open and fair competition, (2)...

  10. The Effect of Information Feedback in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Soo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.

  11. Bid distribution derived from consistent mixed strategy in lowest unique bid auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2014-12-01

    The Lowest Unique Bid Auction (LUBA) booms recently through the Internet. A typical distribution pattern of bid price in this reverse auction has been found and needs to be interpreted. The distribution curve is a decreasing one whose slope has a close relationship with the number of agents participating in the auction. To explain this stylized fact, we develop a model assuming that agents prefer to bid on the price at which the probability of winning is higher. The bid distributions of actual auctions with the number of agents less than 200 can be fitted very well using the parameters for the value of items and the number of bids. When this number becomes larger, however, a deviation occurs between prediction and empirical data, which can be adjusted by introducing cognitive illusion of the bid number.

  12. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected...

  13. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... nonresponsive an individual bid that is not in compliance with the Government's bid acceptance time,...

  14. 48 CFR 814.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsiveness of bids. 814.301 Section 814.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 814.301 Responsiveness of bids....

  15. Bimodal Bidding in Experimental All-Pay Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Ernst; Christian Thöni

    2013-01-01

    We report results from experimental first-price, sealed-bid, all-pay auctions for a good with a common and known value. We observe bidding strategies in groups of two and three bidders and under two extreme information conditions. As predicted by the Nash equilibrium, subjects use mixed strategies. In contrast to the prediction under standard assumptions, bids are drawn from a bimodal distribution: very high and very low bids are much more frequent than intermediate bids. Standard risk prefer...

  16. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, P

    2009-01-01

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Mana...

  17. The commitee system for competitve bids in local government

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bolton

    2009-01-01

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Mana...

  18. Proapoptotic Bid is required for pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Budinger, G.R. Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Eisenbart, James; Fuller, Alyson C.; Bellmeyer, Amy A.; Baker, Christina M.; Wilson, Mindy; Ridge, Karen; Terrence A. Barrett; Lee, Vivian Y.; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis are poorly understood. Previous reports indicate that activation of TGF-β1 is essential for the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report that the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid is required for the development of pulmonary fibrosis after the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Mice lacking Bid exhibited significantly less pulmonary fibrosis in response to bleomycin compared with WT mice. The attenuation in pulmonary fibrosis w...

  19. Europe wrestles with ITER site bid

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, T

    2003-01-01

    "The European Union is in a quandary over whether to put forward the French or Spanish site to host ITER, a $5 billion magnetic fusion experiment intended to prove the feasability of fusion energy. The decision is set for 27 November, with the final site selection, between the victorious European bid and bids from Canada and Japan, to follow within a couple of months" (1 page)

  20. Minimizing forced outage risk in generator bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dibyendu

    Competition in power markets has exposed the participating companies to physical and financial uncertainties. Generator companies bid to supply power in a day-ahead market. Once their bids are accepted by the ISO they are bound to supply power. A random outage after acceptance of bids forces a generator to buy power from the expensive real-time hourly spot market and sell to the ISO at the set day-ahead market clearing price, incurring losses. A risk management technique is developed to assess this financial risk associated with forced outages of generators and then minimize it. This work presents a risk assessment module which measures the financial risk of generators bidding in an open market for different bidding scenarios. The day-ahead power market auction is modeled using a Unit Commitment algorithm and a combination of Normal and Cauchy distributions generate the real time hourly spot market. Risk profiles are derived and VaRs are calculated at 98 percent confidence level as a measure of financial risk. Risk Profiles and VaRs help the generators to analyze the forced outage risk and different factors affecting it. The VaRs and the estimated total earning for different bidding scenarios are used to develop a risk minimization module. This module will develop a bidding strategy of the generator company such that its estimated total earning is maximized keeping the VaR below a tolerable limit. This general framework of a risk management technique for the generating companies bidding in competitive day-ahead market can also help them in decisions related to building new generators.

  1. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  2. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N., E-mail: bigdeli@ee.sharif.ed [EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, K., E-mail: k_afshar@ee.sharif.ed [EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M., E-mail: fotuhi@sharif.ed [EE Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  3. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  4. Secure quantum sealed-bid auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2009-05-01

    A new experimentally feasible and secure quantum sealed-bid auction protocol using quantum secure direct communication based on GHZ states is proposed. In this scheme all bidders Bob, Charlie, … , and Zach use M groups n-particle GHZ states to represent their bids. Here, an auctioneer gives the auction outcome by performing a sequence of n-particle GHZ-basis measurements on the final quantum states. It has been shown that using this method guarantees the honesty of the protocol, and malicious bidders can not collude with the auctioneers.

  5. Tender and Bidding in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Tejas C Patil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction Industry plays a key role in the process of economic transformation and growth. Export of projects and services indicate a country's progress in technology and export performance. Most of the companies are versed only with engineering and technology. The decision to bid is a major financial decision because of two reasons. First, the contractor assumes substantial costs for the preparations of the estimates and the tender at the risk of not recovering them if he is not awarded the job. Second, andmost importantly, thecontractor commits himself to investment in the construction of the project if he wins the bid

  6. A BID on mitochondria with MTCH2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Cogliati; Luca Scorrano

    2010-01-01

    @@ Apoptosis is a key process for tissue homeostasis and renewal. Its dysregulation is implicated in most human diseases, from cancer to neurodegeneration. Apoptosis is triggered by stimuli that damage the internal structures of the cell, or by specialized "death"receptors on its surface. In certain cell types, Bid, a "BH3-only" member of the Bcl-2 family of death regulators integrates these two pathways at the mitochondrial level. Despite years of intense research, the mechanisms by which Bid translocates to mitochondria remain unclear. A recent study by Gross and colleagues sheds new light on this process.

  7. Optimal bid disclosure in license auctions with downstream interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Wolfstetter, Elmar G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on license auctions for process innovations in oligopoly assumed that the auctioneer reveals the winning bid and stressed that this gives firms an incentive to signal strength through their bids, to the benefit of the innovator. In the present paper we examine whether revealing the winning bid is optimal. We consider three disclosure rules: full, partial, and no disclosure of bids, which correspond to standard auctions. We show that more information disclosure increases the tot...

  8. 48 CFR 14.408-6 - Equal low bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respects: (1) Small business concerns that are also labor surplus area concerns. (2) Other small business concerns. (3) Other business concerns. (b) If two or more bidders still remain equally eligible after... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-6 Equal low bids....

  9. 48 CFR 731.771 - Bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) below, bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period of both successful and unsuccessful bids and proposals normally should be treated as indirect costs for allocation to all current activities, and no bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods will be allocable to the current...

  10. Synthetic Evaluation on Decision of Public Bidding for Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 颜秋许

    2002-01-01

    Public bidding is the international current practice to contract construction project. But the decision on the bidding often is made according to the qualitative evaluation based on the subjective opinion of specialists. Therefore, the fuzzy mathematics principle was applied and a synthetic evaluation model was established to provide an effective method for the development of quantitative bidding decision in this paper.

  11. 48 CFR 14.202-8 - Electronic bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart 4.5, contracting officers may authorize use of electronic commerce for submission of bids. If electronic bids are authorized, the solicitation shall specify the electronic commerce method(s) that bidders... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic bids....

  12. 7 CFR 1955.147 - Sealed bid sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property has been in inventory, previous marketing efforts, the type property involved, and potential... file. (b) Successful bids. The highest complying bid meeting the minimum established price will be... close. If a successful bidder fails to perform under the terms of the offer, the bid deposit will...

  13. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  14. Bidding behavior in a symmetric Chinese auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Benegas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purposes a symmetric all-pay auction where the bidders compete neither for an object nor the object itself but for a lottery on receive. That lottery is determined endogenously through the bids. This auction is known as chance auction or more popularly as Chinese auction. The model considers the possibility that for some bidders the optimal strategy is to bid zero and to rely on luck. It showed that bidders become less aggressive when the lottery satisfies a variational condition. It was also shown that luck factor is decisive to determine if the expected payoff in Chinese auction is bigger or smaller than expected payoff in standard all-pay auction.

  15. 48 CFR 14.406 - Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic bid. 14.406 Section 14.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.406 Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid. If a bid received at the Government facility by electronic...

  16. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors ...

  17. Review of consolidated Edison`s integrated resource bidding program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Baldick, R.; Milne, A.

    1993-07-01

    Competitive bidding has emerged as the dominant method for procuring new resources by US utilities. In New York, the Public Service Commission (NYPSC) ordered the state`s seven investor-owned utilities to develop bidding programs to acquire supply and DSM resource options. Utilities were allowed significant discretion in program design in order to encourage experimentation. Competitive bidding programs pose formidable policy, design, and management challenges for utilities and their regulators. Yet, there have been few detailed case studies of bidding programs, particularly of those utilities that take on the additional challenge of having supply and DSM resources compete head-to-head for a designated block of capacity. To address that need, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy`s Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the bidding programs of two utilities that tested the integrated ``all-sources`` approach. This study focuses primarily on Consolidated Edison Company of New York`s (Con Edison) bidding program; an earlier report discusses our review of Niagara Mohawk`s program (Goldman et al 1992). We reviewed relevant Commission decisions, utility filings and signed contracts, interviewed utility and regulatory staff, surveyed DSM bidders and a selected sample of DSM non-bidders, and analyzed the bid evaluation system used in ranking bids based on detailed scoring information on individual bids provided by Con Edison.

  18. Strategic Bidding in Hybrid CPC/CPM Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhu; Kenneth C. Wilbur

    2008-01-01

    Websites increasingly allow advertisers to choose whether to bid for advertising on a per-impression or per-click basis. We present the first analysis of this new hybrid auction market. The conventional wisdom in this industry is that brand advertisers (e.g., Coca-Cola) will bid for impressions, while direct response advertisers (e.g., Amazon.com) will bid for clicks. We find that in an auction setting similar to that used by Facebook and Google, brand advertisers may have an incentive to bid...

  19. The bidding paradox: why rational politicians still want to bid for mega sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses reasons why politicians still favor hosting mega events despite the discouraging evidence regarding their financial benefits: (1) early political enthusiasm, (2) tying side-projects to the bid to raise political support, (3) biased reading of history, (4) the winners curse, (5)

  20. Pla d'empresa BidMarket

    OpenAIRE

    Momblona Selles, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    En aquest treball, es confecciona el pla d'empresa de BidMarket, un projecte empresarial que ofereix solucions de negociació electrònica als departaments de compres corporatius, simplificant els processos de sourcing i reduint els costos totals d'aprovisionament. Aquest servei està basat en una aplicació web de disseny i desenvolupament propi. Aquesta aplicació està essent implementada amb les últimes tecnologies de desenvolupament web (html5, javascript, Node.js, angular.js ). La princ...

  1. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  2. Implementing Cooperative Solution Concepts : A Generalized Bidding Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Wettstein, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for implementing and comparing several solution concepts for transferable utility cooperative games.We construct bidding mechanisms where players bid for the role of the proposer.The mechanisms differ in the power awarded to the proposer.The Shapley, consensus and equ

  3. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  4. 48 CFR 52.214-16 - Minimum Bid Acceptance Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum Bid Acceptance... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-16 Minimum Bid Acceptance Period. As prescribed in 14.201-6(j), insert the following provision...

  5. 48 CFR 2052.214-72 - Bid evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.214-72 Bid evaluation. As... be made to that responsive, responsible bidder within the meaning of FAR Subpart 9.1 whose total bid... the bidder is responsible within the meaning of FAR 9.1, and whether the bidder...

  6. 48 CFR 814.201 - Preparation of invitations for bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assigned by the national system or VA's Electronic Contract Management System (eCMS). VHA shall use eCMS... AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 814.201 Preparation of... accepted, and will become a contract in the same fiscal year but, because of procurement lead time,...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.502 - Bid selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section will be further reviewed by CCC and ranked in order of the greatest reduction in sugar program... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind... acreage of sugar beets or sugarcane from production, CCC will rank bids on the basis of the bid amount...

  8. Bid Preparation and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plant Project Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bid preparation and evaluation is one of the main activities in Nuclear Power Plant Project management. International Atomic Energy Agency guide and Korean experience was studied for Malaysian requirement in realization of first Nuclear Power Plant. Several aspects shall be taken into consideration such as political scenario, financial capabilities, sitting, human resource, technologies, fuel supplies and decommissioning for long term exceeded hundred years. Bidding process and activities is proposed for our country requirement. The main activities included but unlimited to Bid Invitation Specification, Bid Evaluation Process, Technical Evaluation, Economic Bid Evaluation and Contracting. On the end of day, Malaysia need safe and reliable Nuclear Power Plant. Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme also get benefit from spin-off localization products and services as well as Technology Transfer Programme. (author)

  9. Bidding price analysis for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new method to analyze the bidding price of each participant (power suppliers and large consumers) in a pay-as-bid market. The bidding price will be decomposed into a variety of components corresponding to five factors, such as the incremental values of the subject bidder's generation on the system operational costs, on the income or payment of other bidders, and on the binding tradable constraints, and the first-order approximation of the subjective participant's bidding price. From an economic viewpoint, each component provides useful information for participants to design the strategic planning. The advantages of the method include that the decomposition is well defined without assumptions and that each decomposition term has its own economical and/or engineering meaning. The proposed method is numerically verified through computer simulations on a three-bus example system and a modified IEEE 30-bus power system with both generator and large consumer bidding. (author)

  10. Determination of the Prosumer's Optimal Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Gabriella; Rossi, Federico; Russo, Angela

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a microgrid connected with a medium-voltage (MV) distribution network. It is assumed that the microgrid, which is managed by a prosumer, operates in a competitive environment and participates in the day-ahead market. Then, as the first step of the short-term management problem, the prosumer must determine the bids to be submitted to the market. The offer strategy is based on the application of an optimization model, which is solved for different hourly price profiles of energy exchanged with the main grid. The proposed procedure is applied to a microgrid and four different its configurations were analyzed. The configurations consider the presence of thermoelectric units that only produce electricity, a boiler or/and cogeneration power plants for the thermal loads, and an electric storage system. The numerical results confirmed the numerous theoretical considerations that have been made.

  11. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants. 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in a country is a major undertaking for all entities involved. The necessary planning work and co-ordination of the different fields of interest, from the point of view of governments, authorities, industries, universities and of the general public, must be done on a long term basis. This IAEA report may help support the work of the utility in the bidding process, especially in the economic bid evaluation. The different methods, aspects and parameters described should be regarded as a guide. The report's target criterion of lowest levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) is a very useful and practical way of ranking bids. In view of the huge investment needed, the owner's country must be fully committed to a nuclear programme. A nuclear programme also requires a guarantee of long term financing, which implies the provision of local and foreign contributions. The necessary staff for all of the various areas of a nuclear programme must be recruited and trained. Within the planning phase, the bid invitation specification (BIS) has to be prepared and sent out in order to receive bids for the scope of supply and services desired by the owner. The evaluation of the bids received from the suppliers in response to the BIS is a huge and long-term task. The evaluation process should lead to the selection of the best bidder and at least to the final decision on the partners constructing the NPP. The responsibility for the entire bidding process lies with the plant owner. For technology transfer, two requirements need to be satisfied: the owner needs a well established and experienced engineering capability, and the supplier must be ready to transfer the agreed technology in such a way as to support the project goals. During the bid evaluation process, all aspects of the technical, financial and contractual approaches must be considered. Nowadays, political, socioeconomic and public acceptance aspects play a

  12. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Management Policy to provide for a committee system to oversee the different stages. Such committee system must, moreover, consist of at least a bid specification committee, a bid evaluation committee and a bid adjudication committee. Until recently, little attention has been given by the courts to the roles and composition of the different committees in the committee system. It is only after government, and in particular, municipalities have begun to implement the committee system in their procurement processes that it is evident that problems are arising. In recent months, the courts have increasingly had to deal with issues pertaining to the implementation of the committee system.In this article, the relevant legislative provisions on the committee system for competitive bids in local government are discussed. The functions of each committee are explained and all the cases that have thus far involved the implementation of the committee system are critically analysed. Much attention is given to the cases since they serve as a warning to municipalities to uphold and comply with the rules relating to the roles and composition of the different committees. The cases illustrate how important it is for municipalities to ensure that the different committees are properly constituted and that decisions at meetings are properly taken. They also highlight the importance of the supervisory role of the municipal manager over the different committees. In light of the

  13. A Grey Decision Model Used in Bidding for Equipment Purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bidding has long been used as a method for allocating and procuring goods andservices.An acurrate and comprehensive evaluation of bidders is the key to make the bid-ding a successful one for tenderee. Howoever, evaluation of bidders is a tough work and theresult of evaluation is always affected by the evaluator's understanding of the standardsset for evaluation, and the evaluator's expertise, experience and preferrence. We make aneffort to find a method for selecting bidders as accurately as possible. A grey decisionmodel is presented, and an example is illustrated to make the practioners kenow how to usethe model.

  14. Bidding in sequential electricity markets: The Nordic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Juul, Nina; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2014-01-01

    For electricity market participants trading in sequential markets with differences in price levels and risk exposure, coordinated bidding is highly relevant. We consider a Nordic power producer who engages in the day-ahead spot market and the near real-time balancing market. In both markets...... problem as a multi-stage stochastic program. We investigate whether higher risk exposure can explain the hesitation, often observed in practice, to bid into the balancing market, even in cases of higher expected price levels. Furthermore, we quantify the gain from coordinated bidding, and by deriving...

  15. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the guidebook is to assist an organisation responsible for a nuclear power project in evaluating and establishing an economic order of merit among competing bids. An approximate overall time schedule for a first nuclear power plant project is provided. A schematic outline of technical bid evaluation is given. The basic procedure of economic bid evaluation is outlined, e.g. evaluation of the present worth of all cost items of plant capital investment, of the nuclear cycle, of O and M costs (operation and maintenance costs), and of economic corrections. All these cost items are evaluated for the economic life of the plant and corrected for escalation where applicable

  16. Supporting contractors' bidding decision: RBF neural networks application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    A bidding decision, despite its being important for the contractor, often needs to be made quickly and within a limited timeframe. To facilitate the contractor's reasoning by limiting randomness that may lead to mistakes decision support models are frequently applied. This paper presents possible applications of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to support bidding decisions. The proposed model involving networks with radial basis functions (RBF) was to perform a classification task. On the basis of a set of input data, the network was to suggest either participation in the bid or resignation from it. The results, 93% of correctly classified cases, confirmed the usability of RBF network in solving the problem.

  17. 48 CFR 1814.302 - Bid submission. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bid submission. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1814.302 Section 1814.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 1814.302 Bid submission. (NASA...

  18. 41 CFR 102-38.210 - What happens when bids have been rejected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have been rejected? 102-38.210 Section 102-38.210 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.210 What happens when bids have been rejected? You may re-offer items for which all bids have been rejected at the same sale, if possible, or...

  19. Strategic bidding in electricity markets using particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yucekaya, Ahmet D.; Valenzuela, Jorge [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 207 Dunstan Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5347 (United States); Dozier, Gerry [Applied Computational Intelligence Lab., Computer Science and Software Engineering, 109 Dunstan Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5347 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Profit maximization for power companies is highly related to the bidding strategies used. In order to sell electricity at high prices and maximize profit, power companies need suitable bidding models that consider power operating constraints and price uncertainty within the market. In this paper, we present two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to determine bid prices and quantities under the rules of a competitive power market. The first method uses a conventional PSO technique to find solutions. The second method uses a decomposition technique in conjunction with the PSO approach. This new decomposition-based PSO dramatically outperforms the conventional form of PSO. We show that for nonlinear cost functions PSO solutions provide higher expected profits than marginal cost-based bidding. (author)

  20. 48 CFR 14.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions that do not vary from the terms and conditions of the invitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated...

  1. Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz M. Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.

  2. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  3. Common Agency and Coordinated Bids in Sponsored Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Decarolis; Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta

    2012-01-01

    As auctions are becoming the main mechanism for selling advertisement space on the web, marketing agencies specialized in bidding in online auctions are proliferating. We analyze theoretically how bidding delegation to a common marketing agency can undermine both revenues and efficiency of the generalized second price auction, the format used by Google and Microsoft-Yahoo!. Our characterization allows us to quantify the revenue losses relative to both the case of full competition and the case...

  4. Takeover Bids below the Expected Value of Minority Shares

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk

    1988-01-01

    Focusing on takeover bids whose outcome can be predicted in advance with certainty, Grossman and Hart established the proposition, which subsequent work accepted, that successful bids must be made at or above the expected value of minority shares. This proposition provided the basis for Grossman and Hart's identification of a free-rider problem and became a major premise for the analysis of takeovers This paper shows that this important proposition does not always hold once we drop the assump...

  5. Fuzzy Comprehensive Judgment on the Mechanical Equipment Bid Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reasonable model of fuzzy comprehensive judgment is found by means of thetheory and method of multi-level fuzzy judgment on the basis of the judging index systemof mechanical equipment bid sheets. The scientific method is supplied for the judgingbids, the key chain of the judging process of the mechanical equipment bid sheet. All factors are considered, especially quantitative factors or qualitative factors in the process ofjudgment.

  6. Strategic bidding for wind power producers in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Game theoretic bidding strategy approach developed to optimize wind power producers bids. • Rival behavior modeled through Stochastic Cournot model. • Location based dual imbalance price mechanism proposed to obtain imbalance charges. • Proposed approach evaluated using two realistic case studies. • Proposed approach increases profit of strategic wind power producers significantly. - Abstract: In evolving electricity markets, wind power producers (WPPs) would increase their profit through strategic bidding. However, generated power by WPPs is highly random, which may result into heavy imbalance charges. In markets dominated by wind generators, they would optimize their offered bids, considering rival behavior. In oligopolistic day-ahead electricity markets, this strategic behavior can be represented as a Stochastic Cournot model. Wind uncertainty is represented by scenarios generated using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. With a consideration of wind power uncertainty and imbalance charges, strategic WPPs can maximize their expected payoff or profit through the proposed Nash equilibrium based bidding strategy. Nash equilibrium is obtained using payoff matrix approach. Proposed approach is evaluated on two realistic case studies considering different technical constraints. Obtained results shows that proposed bidding strategy mechanism offers quantum increase in profit for WPPs, when their behavior is modeled in a game theoretic framework. Flexibility of approach offers opportunities for its extension to associated challenges

  7. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  8. Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Wan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Network Management (ANM enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM.

  9. Winning FIFA World Cup Bids: Country Image Analysis as a Tool to Understand and Secure Bids. A Moroccan Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamelin Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to apply country image analysis to understanding and securing a successful host country FIFA bid with Morocco as a case study. Country image was conceptualized as having cognitive and personality dimensions. The findings revealed the most salient elements upon which Morocco’s country image is built and provide a strong foundation for any future world cup bidding committee to promote or reposition perceptual aspects of Morocco’s country image.

  10. Bidding strategies that minimize risk with options and futures contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research builds on earlier research in developing bidding strategies through the inclusion of options and future contracts. In the competitive environment, electric traders` profits depends on the implementation of a successful bidding strategy. Bidding strategies are studied in an environment in which distribution companies (DISTCOs) and generation companies (GENCOs), buy and sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. The market framework being used was proposed by Kumar and Sheble and allows participants to trade in the spot, future, planning and swap markets, and also gives rise to the use of option contracts. Bid-strategy research previously published by the authors focused on increasing electric generators` profit as they participated in a spot/cash market. Here the authors incorporate techniques such as game theory and decision analysis to minimize the risk to the electric utility or energy trader. The goal is to ensure reliable power system operation while also ensuring that contracts are fulfilled and traders adopting the strategies remain profitable. The developed strategies are tested in the electric market trading simulator which can be used off-line to predict whether bid strategies will be profitable and successful.

  11. Bidding Strategies for Carrier in Combinatorial Transportation Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittawat Ueasangkomsate

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In combinatorial auction for truckload transportation service procurement, we introduce thebidding strategy for carrier facing the hard valuation problem to all possible routes. The modeluses a bid-to-cost ratio of carriers surveyed in Thailand to represent the bidding behavior incombinatorial freight procurement. This model facilitates carrier to value the bid price forinterested packages that involve with pattern of transportation service under different competitiveenvironment. The results of analysis with hypotheses in regression model reveal significantly thata pattern of transportation service, a number of competitors, and a pre-empty backhaul to newlane distance ratio with number of competitors do impact negatively on a bid-to-cost ratio ofcarrier, whereas a pre-empty backhaul to new lane distance ratio does impact positively on a bidto-cost ratio of carrier in combinatorial transportation auction. To find optimal bid price forinterested packages in the incomplete information game, the empirical study in stochasticoptimization problem with Monte Carlo method can provide the best solution for carrier in order toacquire the maximum expected profit in the auction. The results present that the expected profitwith optimal solution of bidder is more than the average benefit in the competition marketobviously. While in turn the results also show that shipper could potentially reduce the cost oftransportation service procurement regarding our solution algorithm considerably.

  12. Optimal bidding strategies for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists the potential for gaming such as strategic bidding by participants (power suppliers and large consumers) in a deregulated power market, which is more an oligopoly than a laissez-faire market. Each participant can increase his or her own profit through strategic bidding but this has a negative effect on maximising social welfare. A method to build bidding strategies for both power suppliers and large consumers in a poolco-type electricity market is presented in this paper. It is assumed that each supplier/large consumer bids a linear supply/demand function, and the system is dispatched to maximise social welfare. Each supplier/large consumer chooses the coefficients in the linear supply/demand function to maximise benefits, subject to expectations about how rival participants will bid. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimisation problem, and solved by a Monte Carlo approach. A numerical example with six suppliers and two large consumers serves to illustrate the essential features of the method. (author)

  13. Issues in bidding for contracts for occupational therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, S; Law, M

    2001-06-01

    There is an increasing number of occupational therapists in Canada who are involved in bidding for contracts to deliver occupational therapy services. Occupational therapists working in an institutional or community-based setting may not have had the responsibility of developing a proposal or a marketing plan for bidding purposes. However, the responsibility of developing a bid to compete for a service delivery contract often rests on occupational therapists who are sole practitioners in a private practice setting. The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues in the literature such as service delivery plans, marketing strategies and costing of services that can assist the occupational therapist in the development of a contractual bid. A specific clinical example, school therapy services, has been used to illustrate how these strategies can be applied to practice. Success in contractual bids appears to be primarily influenced by cost of the service, the expertise of the service provider, ability to provide coordinated care, ease of access for clients, and inclusion of methods to measure client outcome. PMID:11433914

  14. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  15. On the external validity of construction bidding experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lan Oo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The external validity of experimental studies and in particular, the subject pool effects have been much debated among researchers. The common objections are that the use of student as experimental subjects is invalid as they are likely to be unrepresentative. This paper addresses this methodological aspect in building economics research. It compares the bidding behavioural patterns of experienced construction executives (professionals and student subjects through replication of a bidding experiment that aimed at testing theories. The results show that the student subjects’ bidding behavourial patterns, in terms of decision to bid and mark-up decision, are sufficiently similar to that of the professionals. This suggests that the subject pool per se is not a threat to the external validity of the bidding experiment. In addition, the demonstrated practicality of an experimental approach in testing theories should lead to more use of experimental studies with student subjects in building economics research. It is suggested that experimental and field findings should be seen as complementary in building economics research, as advocated in social sciences.

  16. Trend arbitrage, bid-ask spread and market dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitsev, N

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure of market dynamics is studied through analysis of tick price data. Linear trend is introduced as a tool for such analysis. Trend arbitrage inequality is developed and tested. The inequality sets limiting relationship between trend, bid-ask spread, market reaction and average update frequency of price information. Average time of market reaction is measured from market data. This parameter is interpreted as a constant value of the stock exchange and is attributed to the latency of exchange reaction to actions of traders. This latency and cost of trade are shown to be the main limit of bid-ask spread. Data analysis also suggests some relationships between trend, bid-ask spread and average frequency of price update process.

  17. Applications of Classifying Bidding Strategies for the CAT Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruman, Mark L.; Narayana, Manjunath

    In the CAT Tournament, specialists facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers with the intention of maximizing profit from commission and other fees. Each specialist must find a well-balanced strategy that allows it to entice buyers and sellers to trade in its market while also retaining the buyers and sellers that are currently subscribed to it. Classification techniques can be used to determine the distribution of bidding strategies used by all traders subscribed to a particular specialist. Our experiments showed that Hidden Markov Model classification yielded the best results. The distribution of strategies, along with other competition-related factors, can be used to determine the optimal action in any given game state. Experimental data shows that the GD and ZIP bidding strategies are more volatile than the RE and ZIC strategies. An MDP framework for determining optimal actions given an accurate distribution of bidding strategies is proposed as a motivator for future work.

  18. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way. PMID:15460809

  19. ALAS BID premios al desarrollo infantil temprano: 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Näslund-Hadley

    2012-01-01

    Los Premios ALAS-BID nacen de la necesidad de reconocer el compromiso de tantas personas que trabajan por el desarrollo infantil temprano en América Latina y el Caribe. Los premios son otorgados por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) y la fundación ALAS, dirigida por la artista internacional Shakira. Existen cuatro categorías que distinguen a aquellos educadores, centros, publicaciones e innovaciones de desarrollo infantil temprano que se destacan como líderes en la región.

  20. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  1. An analysis of competitive bidding by providers for indigent medical care contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkman-Liff, B L; Christianson, J B; Hillman, D G

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a model of behavior in bidding for indigent medical care contracts in which bidders set bid prices to maximize their expected utility, conditional on estimates of variables which affect the payoff associated with winning or losing a contract. The hypotheses generated by this model are tested empirically using data from the first round of bidding in the Arizona indigent health care experiment. The behavior of bidding organizations in Arizona is found to be consistent in m...

  2. The empirics of key factors in the success of bids for olympic games

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Feddersen; Wolfgang Maennig; Philipp Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the probability of the success of city bid campaigns on the basis of quantified determinants for a total of 48 bids for the Summer Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012. Using a model comprising the distance of sporting venues from the Olympic Village, local temperatures and unemployment rates, we can correctly predict the decision for 100% of failed bids and 50% of successful bids.

  3. How to win the Olympic Games: the empirics of key success factors of Olympic bids

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the probability of the success of city bid campaigns on the basis of the quantified factors of a total of 43 bids for the Summer Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012. By using a model with the distance of the sporting venues to the Olympic Village, the local temperatures and unemployment rates, we can correctly predict the decision in 97 % of failed bids and in 60 % of successful bids.

  4. Bid, a widely expressed proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, displays lipid transfer activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposti, M D; Erler, Janine Terra; Hickman, J A;

    2001-01-01

    Bid is an abundant proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is crucial for the induction of death receptor-mediated apoptosis in primary tissues such as liver. Bid action has been proposed to involve the relocation of its truncated form, tBid, to mitochondria to facilitate the release of apo...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-18 Independent research and development and bid and proposal..., defined in this subsection. Basic research, (See 2.101). Bid and proposal (B&P) costs means the costs... 9904.420, Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs,...

  6. 48 CFR 814.404-70 - Questions involving the responsiveness of a bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsiveness of a bid. 814.404-70 Section 814.404-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Contract 814.404-70 Questions involving the responsiveness of a bid. If a contracting officer cannot resolve a question involving the responsiveness of a bid, the contracting officer may submit the...

  7. Script Fading to Promote Unscripted Bids for Joint Attention in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Joy S.; Betz, Alison M.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    We used a script-fading procedure to teach 3 children with autism to initiate bids for joint attention. We examined the effects of (a) scripts, (b) varied adult scripted responses, and (c) multiple-exemplar script training on promoting unscripted language during bids for joint attention. All 3 participants learned to initiate bids for joint…

  8. 7 CFR 3560.504 - Sales price and bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3560.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Management and Disposition of Real Estate Owned (REO) Properties § 3560.504 Sales price and bidding process. (a) The loan documents...

  9. Bidding for Nothing? The Pitfalls of overly Neutral Framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dürsch (Peter); J. Müller (Julia)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Neutral framing is a standard tool of experimental economics. However, overly neutral instructions, which lack any contextual clues, can lead to strange behavior. In a contextless second price auction for a meaningless good, a majority of subjects enter positive bids -

  10. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved bids submitted under § 423.265 in order to calculate the base beneficiary premium, as provided in... number of Part D eligible individuals enrolled in the plan in the reference month (as defined in § 422.258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  11. Beijing won the bid for hosting the FISM 2009 Convention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆定纲

    2006-01-01

    On August 4th, 2006, the fifth day of the 23rd FISM 2006 Convention in Stockholm. Beijing. after a fierce competition with the other two candidates-Granada and Vienna, finally won the bid for hosting FISM 2009 Convention, gaining 62 percent of the votes in the General Assembly.

  12. International Engineering Bidding and Quoting Statics and Quotation Compilation Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li

    2009-01-01

    By learning from foreign advanced ideas, this paper summarizes and compares the engineering cost management modes and theories in America, England, and Europe, and advances suggestions for the international bidding and quoting tactics and quotation compilation skills of China’s construction industry.

  13. CHINA NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION Notice for Third Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)hereby announces the commencement of the Third Round of Bidding for the Exploration of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises. 12 exploration blocks with a total area of 112 739 square kilometers are on offer.

  14. GE Wins Bid for Gas Turbines in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The United States-based General Electric Power Systems has won a bid to build gas turbines for a key power plant program in China's 10th Five-Year Plan (2001-05). Agreements on equipment purchases and technology transfers for the project were signed in Beijing in early March. GE Power Systems. in

  15. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun;

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  16. Mothers Respond Differently to Infants' Gestural versus Nongestural Communicative Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2013-01-01

    Thirty infants at 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while playing for 18 minutes. Experimental stimuli were presented in three communicative intent contexts--proto-declarative, proto-imperative, and ambiguous--to elicit infant communicative bids that did and did not contain gestures. Mothers' responses were analyzed, and their verbal responses…

  17. 48 CFR 52.214-5 - Submission of Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the solicitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation. (End of provision) ... submitted by electronic means) (1) addressed to the office specified in the solicitation, and (2)...

  18. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  19. Dynamic Interaction of cBid with Detergents, Liposomes and Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicken, Stephanie; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Conte, Elena; Bordignon, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    The BH3-only protein Bid plays a key role in the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis, but its mechanism of action is still not completely understood. Here we studied the two main activation events of Bid: Caspase-8 cleavage and interaction with the membrane bilayer. We found a striking reversible behaviour of the dissociation-association events between the Bid fragments p15 and p7. Caspase-8 cleavage does not induce per se separation of the two Bid fragments, which remain in a stable complex resembling the full length Bid. Detergents trigger a complete dissociation, which can be fully reversed by detergent removal in a range of protein concentrations from 100 µM down to 500 nM. Incubation of cBid with cardiolipin-containing liposomes leads to partial dissociation of the complex. Only p15 (tBid) fragments are found at the membrane, while p7 shows no tendency to interact with the bilayer, but complete removal of p7 strongly increases the propensity of tBid to become membrane-associated. Despite the striking structural similarities of inactive Bid and Bax, Bid does not form oligomers and reacts differently in the presence of detergents and membranes, highlighting clear differences in the modes of action of the two proteins. The partial dissociation of cBid triggered by the membrane is suggested to depend on the strong and specific interaction between p15 and p7. The reversible disassembly and re-assembly of the cBid molecules at the membrane was as well proven by EPR using spin labeled cBid in the presence of isolated mitochondria. The observed dynamic dissociation of the two Bid fragments could allow the assistance to the pore-forming Bax to occur repeatedly and may explain the proposed “hit-and-run" mode of action of Bid at the bilayer. PMID:22540011

  20. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A., E-mail: Rabiee@iust.ac.i [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  1. Valuing the Environment Via Bidding Games: A Psychological Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebert, J. A.; Shikiar, R.; Perry, R. W.

    1980-08-01

    How to place a monetary value on the environment and manmade environmental change represents a major methodological problem. The merits of using a monetary scale for valuing environmental goods are that it is familiar to all, can be related to wealth, and, if successfully implemented, can be combined with monetary information from actual costs. Assigning monetary values to "goods" not bought and sold in the marketplace is difficult at best. Several methods are available: direct costing, indirect costing, and bidding games. Direct costs measure the cost of damages associated with environmental change. Indirect costs measure values associated with environmental change (e.g., change in property values). Neither are seen as adequate for measuring net or aggregate social value for public policy decisions. Bidding games are seen as the most appropriate method. Based on the concept of consumer surplus, bidding games are said to measure the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for a good (e.g., environmental change). Four valid games can be played: 1) WTP to get a positive environmental change; 2) WTP to prevent a negative environmental change; 3) minimum willingness to accept (WTA) in compensation to forego a positive environmental change; and 4) WTA to put up with a negative environmental change. Close examination of the assumptions of these games reveals two important considerations: perceived rights and perceived positive or negative nature of the proposed change. For example, if a respondent is asked to state his/her maximum WTP to prevent the construction of a power plant, the game is valid only if 1) the respondent agrees that he/she has no right to the current state and has to "purchase" the right, and 2) that the construction is perceived by the respondent as a negative change. Many environmental changes are, in fact, ambiguous with respect to rights and positive or negative quality. This is often the case across a sample of area residents. Forcing the respondent to

  2. Cleavage by Caspase 8 and Mitochondrial Membrane Association Activate the BH3-only Protein Bid during TRAIL-induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Zhang, Jingjing; O'Neill, Katelyn L; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Quadros, Rolen M; Tu, Yaping; Luo, Xu

    2016-05-27

    The BH3-only protein Bid is known as a critical mediator of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis following death receptor activation. However, since full-length Bid possesses potent apoptotic activity, the role of a caspase-mediated Bid cleavage is not established in vivo In addition, due to the fact that multiple caspases cleave Bid at the same site in vitro, the identity of the Bid-cleaving caspase during death receptor signaling remains uncertain. Moreover, as Bid maintains its overall structure following its cleavage by caspase 8, it remains unclear how Bid is activated upon cleavage. Here, Bid-deficient (Bid KO) colon cancer cells were generated by gene editing, and were reconstituted with wild-type or mutants of Bid. While the loss of Bid blocked apoptosis following treatment by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), this blockade was relieved by re-introduction of the wild-type Bid. In contrast, the caspase-resistant mutant Bid(D60E) and a BH3 defective mutant Bid(G94E) failed to restore TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By generating Bid/Bax/Bak-deficient (TKO) cells, we demonstrated that Bid is primarily cleaved by caspase 8, not by effector caspases, to give rise to truncated Bid (tBid) upon TRAIL treatment. Importantly, despite the presence of an intact BH3 domain, a tBid mutant lacking the mitochondrial targeting helices (α6 and α7) showed diminished apoptotic activity. Together, these results for the first time establish that cleavage by caspase 8 and the subsequent association with the outer mitochondrial membrane are two critical events that activate Bid during death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27053107

  3. Cost-sensitive Learning for Bidding in Online Advertising Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile, Flavian; Lefortier, Damien

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in computational advertising is the prediction of ad click and conversion rates for bidding in online advertising auctions. State-of- the-art prediction methods include using the maximum entropy framework (also known as logistic regression) and log linear models. However, one unaddressed problem in the previous approaches is the existence of highly non-uniform misprediction costs. In this paper, we present our approach for making cost-sensitive predictions...

  4. A REPRESENTATIVE MARKET MODEL OF FARMLAND BID PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, Glenn D.

    1982-01-01

    A land bid-price model is formulated which integrates asset pricing models form prior studies to illustrate the singular and joint effects of ordinary and capital gains taxes, growth of returns, diseconomies of size, and risk behavior on farmland prices. An application of the model to primary data from cash grains farms illustrates that the ceteris paribus effect of increased marginal tax rates on a perpetual, growing income stream is to increase its present value. Larger farms in higher marg...

  5. Technical evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In continuation of its efforts to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need to introduce nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency is issuing this guidebook as part of a series of guidebooks and codes of practice and, in particular, as a necessary supplement to 'Economic Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants: A Guidebook', published by the IAEA in 1976 as Technical Reports Series No.175. The present publication is intended for project managers and senior engineers of electric utilities who are concerned with the evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It assumes that the reader has a good knowledge of the technical characteristics of nuclear power plants and of nuclear power project implementation. Its purpose is to provide the information necessary to organize, guide and supervise the technical evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It goes without saying that the technical staff carrying out the evaluation must have prior technical experience which cannot be provided by a guidebook

  6. On bid-price controls for network revenue management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariş Ata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a network revenue management problem and advance its dual formulation. The dual formulation reveals that the (optimal shadow price of capacity forms a nonnegative martingale. This result is proved under minimal assumptions on network topology and stochastic nature of demand, allowing an arbitrary statistical dependence structure across time and products. Next, we consider a quadratic perturbation of the network revenue management problem and show that a simple (perturbed bid-price control is optimal for the perturbed problem; and it is ε-optimal for the original network revenue management problem. Finally, we consider a predictable version of this control, where the bid prices used in the current period are last updated in the previous period, and provide an upper bound on its optimality gap in terms of the (quadratic variation of demand. Using this upper bound we show that there exists a near-optimal such control in the usual case when periods are small compared to the planning horizon provided that either demand or the incremental information arriving during each period is small. We establish the martingale property of the (near optimal bid prices in both settings. The martingale property can have important implications in practice as it may offer a tool for monitoring the revenue management systems.

  7. Full Length Bid is sufficient to induce apoptosis of cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Manus W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2 homology domain (BH 3-only proteins are pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family that couple stress signals to the mitochondrial cell death pathways. The BH3-only protein Bid can be activated in response to death receptor activation via caspase 8-mediated cleavage into a truncated protein (tBid, which subsequently translocates to mitochondria and induces the release of cytochrome-C. Using a single-cell imaging approach of Bid cleavage and translocation during apoptosis, we have recently demonstrated that, in contrast to death receptor-induced apoptosis, caspase-independent excitotoxic apoptosis involves a translocation of full length Bid (FL-Bid from the cytosol to mitochondria. We induced a delayed excitotoxic cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by a 5-min exposure to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 300 μM. Results Western blot experiments confirmed a translocation of FL-Bid to the mitochondria during excitotoxic apoptosis that was associated with the release of cytochrome-C from mitochondria. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis of Bid translocation during excitotoxic cell death using an antibody raised against the amino acids 1–58 of mouse Bid that is not able to detect tBid. Finally, inducible overexpression of FL-Bid or a Bid mutant that can not be cleaved by caspase-8 was sufficient to induce apoptosis in the hippocampal neuron cultures. Conclusion Our data suggest that translocation of FL-Bid is sufficient for the activation of mitochondrial cell death pathways in response to glutamate receptor overactivation.

  8. Influence of Number of Bidders and StandardMinimum Price for Investigation to Bid Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    Recently, several issues are pointed out, such as dangou and extremely low bidding price that may cause the insufficient quality of infrastructures. First, counter measures taken by MLIT(Ministry of Land, Infrastructures, Transport and Tourism) were analyzed. Then, supposing that the minimum bid price will be taken as winner, bidding model was constructed to find out the influence of number of bidders to bid rate in public works. The model was calibrated and validated using the tender data of Kanto Regional Development Bureau, MLIT. Using the model, it was applied to the analysis of the influence of Standard MinimumPrice for Investigation. The constructed model shows good performance.

  9. ELECTRONIC SEALED-BID AUCTION WITH THE EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION COMPLEXITY USING TOURNAMENT OPENING-METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Her, Yong-Sork; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Sakurai, Kouichi

    2004-01-01

    Recently, an electronic sealed-bid auction using cryptography techniques has been proposed. An electronic sealed-bid auction is a type of electronic auctions. The aim of an auction including an electronic sealed-bid auction is to decide the price of goods fairly. So, the decision method of the price on goods in an electronic auction is very important scheme. In this paper, we propose the electronic sealed-bid auction with efficient communication complexity using a tournament opening-method. A...

  10. The dynamics of bidding markets with financial constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo F. Beker; Hernando-Veciana, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of bidding markets with financial constraints `a la Che and Gale (1998b) in which two firms choose their budgets optimally and we extend it to a dynamic setting over an infinite horizon. We provide three main results for the case in which the exogenous cash-flow is not too large and the opportunity cost of budgets is positive but arbitrarily low. First, firms keep small budgets and markups are high most of the time. Second, the dispersion of markups and “money left on the table”...

  11. Comprehensive bidding strategies with genetic programming/finite state automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is an extension of the authors' previous work in double auctions aimed at developing bidding strategies for electric utilities which trade electricity competitively. The improvements detailed in this paper come from using data structures which combine genetic programming and finite state automata termed GP-Automata. The strategies developed by the method described here are adaptive--reacting to inputs--whereas the previously developed strategies were only suitable in the particular scenario for which they had been designed. The strategies encoded in the GP-Automata are tested in an auction simulator. The simulator pits them against other distribution companies (distcos) and generation companies (gencos), buying and selling power via double auctions implemented in regional commodity exchanges. The GP-Automata are evolved with a genetic algorithm so that they possess certain characteristics. In addition to designing successful bidding strategies (whose usage would result in higher profits) the resulting strategies can also be designed to imitate certain types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be implemented directly in on-line trading, or can be used as realistic competitors in an off-line trading simulator

  12. Power in Dreams? The Spatial Effects of Chicago's Failed Olympic Bid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Terry van; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Plans change the world in subtle ways, through persuasive power with reframing effects, that precede their actual execution. We empirically tested this persuasive power, taking a failed Olympic bid as a case. Bidding entails making very detailed plans for sites and infrastructure that are n

  13. The degree of rationality in actual bidding of hydropower at Nord Pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Erik Nicholas; Grøndahl, Roger; Fleten, Stein-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's generation in day-ahead auctions. We analyse bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profi...

  14. Coordination of bidding strategies in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the problem of building optimally coordinated bidding strategies for competitive suppliers in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets is addressed. It is assumed that each supplier bids 24 linear energy supply functions and 24 linear spinning reserve supply functions, one for each hour, into the energy and spinning reserve markets, respectively, and each market is cleared separately and simultaneously for all the 24 delivery hours. Each supplier makes decisions on unit commitment and chooses the coefficients in the linear energy and spinning reserve supply functions to maximise total benefits, subject to expectations about how rival suppliers will bid in both markets. Two different bidding schemes have been suggested for each hour, and based on them an overall coordinated bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is then developed. Stochastic optimisation models are first developed to describe these two different bidding schemes and a genetic algorithm (GA) is then used to build the optimally coordinated bidding strategies for each scheme and to develop an overall bidding strategy for the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets. A numerical example is utilised to illustrate the essential features of the method. (Author)

  15. Strategic Bidding in Multi-Unit Auctions with Capacity Constrained Bidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a simple model to describe bidding behavior in multi-unit uniform price procurement auctions when firms are capacity constrained. Using data from the New York City procurement auctions for power generating capacity, I find that firms use simple bidding strategies to coordinate...

  16. Caspase-8 Binding to Cardiolipin in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Provides a Functional Docking Platform for Bid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalmar, Olivier; Franc¸ois-Moutal, Liberty; García-Sáez, Ana-Jesus;

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-8 is involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis in type II cells, the proapoptotic programme of which is triggered by truncated Bid. Indeed, caspase-8 and Bid are the known intermediates of this signalling pathway. Cardiolipin has been shown to provide an anchor and an essential activa...

  17. 48 CFR 231.205-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allocated more than $1,100,000 in independent research and development and bid and proposal (IR&D/B&P) costs... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. 231.205-18 Section 231.205-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  18. 48 CFR 242.771 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 242.771 Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. 242.771 Section 242.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  19. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal costs. (c) Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal costs are unallowable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. 970.3102-05-18 Section 970.3102-05-18 Federal Acquisition...

  20. Analysis of variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    The aim of this study is to analyze the variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender using data on MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), Kanto Regional Development Bureau. It was revealed that number of bidder and level of minimum price affect variation of successful bid rate based on multiple linear regression analysis.

  1. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a wage determination was obtained through the e98 process, and bid opening, or commencement of work...

  2. 42 CFR 422.256 - Review, negotiation, and approval of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., benefits, or cost-sharing structure. (ii) Transition period for MA organizations with new acquisitions... Information and Plan Approval § 422.256 Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. (a) Authority. Subject to paragraphs (a)(2), (d), and (e) of this section, CMS has the authority to review the aggregate bid...

  3. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments. 422.308 Section 422.308 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.308 Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and...

  4. Existence and computation of equilibria of first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escamocher, Guillaume; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Santillan, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    We consider existence and computation of symmetric Pure Strategy Nash Equilibrium (PSNE) in single-item, sealed-bid, first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids. For the most general case, we show that existence of PSNE is NP-hard. Then, we present algorithmic results for the case of i...

  5. Knowledge Management in BID Preparation for Global Engineering and Manufacturing Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingwei; Mo, John; Nemes, Laszlo; Hall, William

    The core competence of a global engineering and manufacturing enterprise increasingly depends on the quality of its intellectual resources and how these resources are used in critical missions such as bid preparation. This paper discusses the knowledge management issues in the development of VIEWBID, a web-based system for supporting online bidding document preparation for global engineering and manufacturing projects. The VIEWBID system aims to supports inter-enterprise collaboration for compiling accurate bids. The enterprise engineering architectures and methodologies, such as VERA and iRoadmap, have been used to analyze the bidding process to capture different levels of procedural knowledge. A set of component-based technologies has been developed using XML and Java to capture, configure and compose the bidding documents.

  6. A Sealed-Bid Two-Attribute Yardstick AuctionWithout Prior Scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Hougaard, Jens; Nielsen, Kurt; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    that following this type of equilibrium behavior often leads to winner’s curse. The simulations show that in auctions with more than 12 participants the chance of facing winner’s curse is around 95%. Truthful reporting, on the other hand, does not constitute a Nash equilibrium but it is ex post individually....... This is done simply by replacing the submitted sealed bids by yardstick bids, computed by a linear weighting of the other participants’ bids.We show that there is only one type of Nash equilibria where some agents may win the auction by submitting a zero price-bid. Using a simulation study we demonstrate...... rational. Using a simulation study we demonstrate that truthful bidding may indeed represent some kind of focal point....

  7. 48 CFR 603.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 603.104-4... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized to receive contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information...

  8. 48 CFR 1303.104-4 - Disclosure, protection and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1303.104-4 Section... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. Contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information must be protected from unauthorized disclosure in accordance...

  9. 48 CFR 1403.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1403.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized access to contractor bid or proposal information and source...

  10. Learning for Dynamic Bidding in Cognitive Radio Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Fangwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we model the various wireless users in a cognitive radio network as a collection of selfish, autonomous agents that strategically interact in order to acquire the dynamically available spectrum opportunities. Our main focus is on developing solutions for wireless users to successfully compete with each other for the limited and time-varying spectrum opportunities, given the experienced dynamics in the wireless network. We categorize these dynamics into two types: one is the disturbance due to the environment (e.g. wireless channel conditions, source traffic characteristics, etc.) and the other is the impact caused by competing users. To analyze the interactions among users given the environment disturbance, we propose a general stochastic framework for modeling how the competition among users for spectrum opportunities evolves over time. At each stage of the dynamic resource allocation, a central spectrum moderator auctions the available resources and the users strategically bid for the require...

  11. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  12. Lowest Unique Bid Auctions over the Internet: Ability, Lottery or Scam?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gallice

    2008-01-01

    A lowest unique bid auction allocates a good to the agent who submits the lowest bid that is not matched by any other bid. This peculiar auction format is getting increasingly popular over the internet. We show that such a selling mechanism is unprofitable if bidders are rational but can become highly lucrative if bidders are myopic. In this second case, we analyze the key role played by the existence of some private signals that the seller sends to the bidders. Data about actual auctions con...

  13. Bidding Strategy with Forecast Technology Based on Support Vector Machine in Electrcity Market

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, C; Napoli, R; Wan, Q

    2007-01-01

    The participants of the electricity market concern very much the market price evolution. Various technologies have been developed for price forecast. SVM (Support Vector Machine) has shown its good performance in market price forecast. Two approaches for forming the market bidding strategies based on SVM are proposed. One is based on the price forecast accuracy, with which the being rejected risk is defined. The other takes into account the impact of the producer's own bid. The risks associated with the bidding are controlled by the parameters setting. The proposed approaches have been tested on a numerical example.

  14. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  15. A Multi-Agent Based Equipment Bidding System on the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new framework of multi-agent based equipment bidding system on the Web(MAEBSW). The purpose of the paper is to make the process of enterprise equipment bidding, especially the decisionprocess of enterprise equipment bidding, more intelligent. The system discussed in this paper is an efficient method forthe enterprises doing business electronically. We also present our opinion of the approaches to defining agents. We em-phasize the importance of agent being able to provide explanation about its behavior for the user or other agents. Based onthis opinion we design a new common architecture of most agents in MAEBSW.

  16. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2016-01-01

    in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission...... market. The results demonstrate that wind farm owners change their bid shading behavior in a PAB Auction. However, the expected revenue of the wind farm will also decrease in a PAB auction. As a result, it is not recommended to make an obligation for the wind farms to participate in a PAB auction...

  17. 30 CFR 285.222 - What does MMS do with my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to, insufficiency, illegality, anti-competitive behavior, administrative error, and the presence of... Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.222 What does MMS do with my bid? (a) If...

  18. 48 CFR 52.214-7 - Late submissions, modifications, and withdrawals of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitted through an electronic commerce method authorized by the IFB, it was received at the initial point... Government processes resume. (e) Bids may be withdrawn by written notice received at any time before...

  19. Strategic bidding of generating units in competitive electricity market with considering their reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the restructured power systems, they are typically scheduled based on the offers and bids to buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) subject to operational and security constraints. Generally, no account is taken of unit reliability when scheduling it. Therefore generating units have no incentive to improve their reliability. This paper proposes a new method to obtain the equilibrium points for reliability and price bidding strategy of units when the unit reliability is considered in the scheduling problem. The proposed methodology employs the supply function equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a unit's bidding strategy. Units change their bidding strategies and improve their reliability until Nash equilibrium points are obtained. GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language has been used to solve the market scheduling problem using DICOPT optimization software with mixed integer non-linear programming. (author)

  20. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    This paper details a practical methodology based on simple statistical calculations for modeling the performance of a single bidder or a group of bidders, constituting a useful resource for analyzing one’s own success while benchmarking potential bidding competitors.

  1. Supplier's optimal bidding strategy in electricity pay-as-bid auction: Comparison of the Q-learning and a model-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bidding decision making problem in electricity pay-as-bid auction is studied from a supplier's point of view. The bidding problem is a complicated task, because of suppliers' uncertain behaviors and demand fluctuation. In a specific case, in which, the market clearing price (MCP) is considered as a continuous random variable with a known probability distribution function (PDF), an analytic solution is proposed. The suggested solution is generalized to consider the effect of supplier market power due to transmission congestion. As a result, an algebraic equation is developed to compute optimal offering price. The basic assumption in this approach is to take the known probabilistic model for the MCP. The above-mentioned method, called model-based approach, is not more applicable in a realistic situation. In order to overcome the drawback of this method, which needs information about the MCP and its PDF, the supplier learns from past experiences using the Q-learning algorithm to find out the optimal bid price. The simulation results of the model-based and Q-learning methods are compared on a studied system. It is shown that a supplier using the Q-learning algorithm is able to find the optimal bidding strategy similar to one obtained by the model-based approach. Furthermore, to analyze a more realistic situation, the suppliers' behaviors are modeled using a multi-agent system. Simulation results illustrate that the studied supplier finds the optimal bidding strategy in power market using the Q-learning algorithm. (author)

  2. Supplier's optimal bidding strategy in electricity pay-as-bid auction: Comparison of the Q-learning and a model-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Electrical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, the bidding decision making problem in electricity pay-as-bid auction is studied from a supplier's point of view. The bidding problem is a complicated task, because of suppliers' uncertain behaviors and demand fluctuation. In a specific case, in which, the market clearing price (MCP) is considered as a continuous random variable with a known probability distribution function (PDF), an analytic solution is proposed. The suggested solution is generalized to consider the effect of supplier market power due to transmission congestion. As a result, an algebraic equation is developed to compute optimal offering price. The basic assumption in this approach is to take the known probabilistic model for the MCP. The above-mentioned method, called model-based approach, is not more applicable in a realistic situation. In order to overcome the drawback of this method, which needs information about the MCP and its PDF, the supplier learns from past experiences using the Q-learning algorithm to find out the optimal bid price. The simulation results of the model-based and Q-learning methods are compared on a studied system. It is shown that a supplier using the Q-learning algorithm is able to find the optimal bidding strategy similar to one obtained by the model-based approach. Furthermore, to analyze a more realistic situation, the suppliers' behaviors are modeled using a multi-agent system. Simulation results illustrate that the studied supplier finds the optimal bidding strategy in power market using the Q-learning algorithm. (author)

  3. An examination of criminalization of Russia’s anti-bid rigging policy

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proce...

  4. Forecasting Winning Bid Prices in an Online Auction Market:Data Mining Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hongil; BAEK Seung

    2004-01-01

    To solve information asymmetry problem on online auction, this study suggests and validates a forecasting model of winning bid prices. Especially, it explores the usability of data mining approaches, such as neural network and Bayesian network in building a forecasting model. This research empirically shows that, in forecasting winning bid prices on online auction, data mining techniques have shown better performance than traditional statistical analysis, such as logistic regression and multivariate regression.

  5. Building and Researching the Bidding Model Based on the Cost of Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春申; 叶春; 赵景峰

    2004-01-01

    A bidding model of neural network was presented to pursue the largest benefit according to the policy of separating power plants from network and bidding transaction. This model bases on the cost of power plant and its research object is a power plant in the market. The market clearing price (MCP) can be predicted and an optimized load curve can be decided in this model. The model may provide technical support for the power plant.

  6. Profitability of a Hydro Power Producer Bidding in Multiple Power Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Caroline; Hansen, Jakob Boye; Korpås, Magnus; Fodstad, Marte

    2016-01-01

    The production scheduling of a hydro power producer exposed to the day-ahead, balancing and capacity market is examined to find what profit the producer may achieve by strategically bid in the above mentioned markets. Optimizing the bidding in multiple markets is expected to be increasingly important in the coming years as the share of renewable energy in the power system grows. A multi-stage, multi-scenario, short-term deterministic prototype model undertakes this task. The producer is assum...

  7. Study on the Winning Probability for a Bid in Procurement Combinational Auction with Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian; HUANG He

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the processes to determine winning probability for the correspondingbidder's deterministic bid are presented. The analysis of the winning probability is Crucial for studying the bidding equilibria and designing the mechanism of procurement combinational auctions (CAs), and it also provides the decision making support for bidders who are in commercial synergies surrounding.Finally, an example is used to illustrate the feasibility and detailed processes of calculating winning probability.

  8. The 2003 proposal for a directive on Takeover Bids - Impact on the regulation in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'.......The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'....

  9. Cost Control Method and Software in Bidding Process Based on Gray System Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Liu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of social economy, the competition between enterprises in construction projects becomes more and more serious. The cost control method is proposed to the bidding process of enterprises based on the gray system forecast. At the same time, the cost control software is also constructed to the bidding process of enterprises. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach is feasible and correct.

  10. One Way to Eliminate Corruption—Educating People——Brief Introduction on Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuShi-feng; YangRu-ping

    2001-01-01

    This article,according to the author's working experience in a hydropower project,briefly introduces some basic knowledge about bidding process and sample contract document.It is aiming at giving a common knowledge to the students who will be involved in work relating to bid after their graduation in the college.It is hoped that this kind of knowledge can help people properly use funds for a project and thus corruption can be minimized.

  11. Negotiating a demand side bid: City of San Jose case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report emphasizes the transferability of the gathered information to other local municipal governments. The report provides: general background information on demand side bidding; advantages and disadvantages of participation; alternative and ``ideal`` scenarios for bidding; review of potential pitfalls and lessons learned; and a general framework of information based on this particular request for DSB proposals and the City of San Joe`s response experience.

  12. Role of benzimidazole (Bid) in the delta-opioid agonist pseudopeptide H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid (UFP-502).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Severo; Fiorini, Stella; Trapella, Claudio; Porreca, Frank; Davis, Peg; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Marczak, Ewa D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Balboni, Gianfranco

    2008-03-15

    H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid (UFP-502) was the first delta-opioid agonist prepared from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore. It showed interesting pharmacological properties, such as stimulation of mRNA BDNF expression and antidepression. To evaluate the importance of 1H-benzimidazol-2-yl (Bid) in the induction of delta-agonism, it was substituted by similar heterocycles: The substitution of NH(1) by O or S transforms the reference delta-agonist into delta-antagonists. Phenyl ring of benzimidazole is not important for delta-agonism; in fact 1H-imidazole-2-yl retains delta-agonist activity.

  13. A matrix game model for analyzing FTR bidding strategies in deregulated electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppliers in deregulated electric power markets compete for financial transmission rights (FTRs) to hedge against congestion charges. The system operator receives the bids for FTRs submitted by the suppliers and develops an allocation strategy by solving an optimization model. Each FTR bid is defined by a path, a quantity indicating the amount of FTRs the supplier is bidding for in that path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR. The FTR revenue is calculated only after the electricity market has been cleared by computing the differences in the LMPs at the pair of nodes that connect each path. Thus, suppliers rely on forecasts of locational marginal prices (LMPs) to develop their FTR bids. In this paper, we present a game theoretic modeling approach to develop FTR bidding strategies for power suppliers assuming that they have forecasts of LMPs. The game theoretic model considers multiple participants as well as network contingencies. We apply the game theoretic model on a sample network to assess impacts of variations of bid and network parameters on the FTR market outcome. (author)

  14. Minority business bidding for local government contracts: the complexity of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Ralph L; Murrell, Audrey; Constance-Huggins, Monique

    2007-01-01

    While minority-business enterprises (MBEs) have gained some access to local government contracts during the last three decades, these firms continue to receive a small share of local government contract spending relative to the number of available firms. Researchers have suggested two general explanations for the low representation of MBEs in contract awards: (1) lack of qualifications and capacity among MBEs, and (2) public and private discrimination against MBEs in contracting processes. This study on prime contract opportunities in a Northern central city and county with a large minority population finds that low bid rates greatly contribute to the low MBE shares of prime contracts and that bidding is reduced by both local government processes and characteristics of the firms. Some implications of these findings are that local governments need to: (1) monitor MBE shares of prime contract bids by size of contract and use share of bids as one measure of program and organizational effectiveness; (2) identify MBEs that are qualified for prime contracts and encourage and help interested firms to submit competitive bids; and (3) ensure that local government policies and practices do not diminish access to information about prime contract opportunities for qualified and interested minority firms. Another implication is that bidders lists should not be a primary basis for determining MBE availability, since many qualified and interested MBEs do not bid because of perceived barriers in local government.

  15. A vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model for bidding purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhou-jing; QIAN Edward Y.

    2007-01-01

    A vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model is developed for evaluating bidding plans in a bidding purchase process. A group of decision-makers (DMs) first independently assess bidding plans according to their experience and preferences, and these assessments may be expressed as linguistic terms, which are then converted to fuzzy numbers. The resulting decision matrices are then transformed to objective membership grade matrices. The lower bound of satisfaction and upper bound of dissatisfaction are used to determine each bidding plan's supporting, opposing, and neutral objective sets, which together determine the vague value of a bidding plan. Finally, a score function is employed to rank all bidding plans. A new score function based on vague sets is introduced in the model and a novel method is presented for calculating the lower bound of satisfaction and upper bound of dissatisfaction. In a vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model, different valuations for upper and lower bounds of satisfaction usually lead to distinct ranking results. Therefore, it is crucial to effectively contain DMs' arbitrariness and subjectivity when these values are determined.

  16. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  17. An Examination of Criminalization of Russia’s Anti-Bid Rigging Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proceedings which were designed to contribute to anticartel enforcement.The aim of this research is to determine factors that have caused the very rare use of criminal sanctions for cartel enforcement with the focus on bid rigging. For the purpose of the research, the paper outlines the regulation of tendering in Russia and the system of sanctions for bid rigging, including leniency. Case analysis of the first custodial sentence for anticompetitive agreement on a public tender highlights specific features resulting in successful prosecution. Since this is one of the first attempts to assess criminalization of bid rigging in Russia, original empirical data including interviews with officials from federal competition authorities and regional representatives constitute the basis of the study.Findings of the research determine the influence of social norms on the enforcement as the main challenge for criminalization of bid rigging which is weighed down by the insufficient political influence of competition authorities. The paper’s findings may be of interest for assessing enforcement in other jurisdictions experiencing the same difficulties.

  18. New Sealed-Bid Electronic Auction with Fairness, Security and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Chi Wu; Chin-Chen Chang; Iuon-Chang Lin

    2008-01-01

    Electronic sealed-bid auction schemes usually have a common drawback, the third party (auction host) can conspire with a malicious bidder to leak all bidding prices before the opening stage. It results in the malicious bidder wining the auction with an optimal bidding price. Recently, Liaw et al. proposed an auction protocol for electronic online bidding in which they designed a deposit deduction certification for government procurement. However, it also has above mentioned flaw. Moreover, we further found that there were some extra security drawbacks in their protocol. First, the bidder can forge a bidding receipt to claim that he/she is a valid auction winner. Second, it may suffer from the third party forging attack. Third, their protocol leaked some bidders' private information to the third party, such as the bidder's bank account number and the authorization code. Thus, it cannot protect the bidder's privacy at all. In this paper, we not only point out the drawbacks from the previous scheme but also propose a new electronic auction scheme to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks. Furthermore, the computational complexity can be decreased in our online sealed-bid auction scheme.

  19. Cardiolipin or MTCH2 can serve as tBID receptors during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemy, E; Montessuit, S; Pierredon, S; van Kampen, A H; Vaz, F M; Martinou, J-C

    2016-07-01

    During apoptosis, proapoptotic BAX and BAK trigger mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. BH3-only proteins such as tBID, together with lipids of the MOM, are thought to play a key role in BAX and BAK activation. In particular, cardiolipin (CL) has been shown to stimulate tBID-induced BAX activation in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether this process also relies on CL in the cell, or whether it is more dependent on MTCH2, a proposed receptor for tBID present in the MOM. To address this issue, we deleted both alleles of cardiolipin synthase in human HCT116 cells by homologous recombination, which resulted in a complete absence of CL. The CL-deficient cells were fully viable in glucose but displayed impaired oxidative phosphorylation and an inability to grow in galactose. Using these cells, we found that CL was not required for either tBID-induced BAX activation, or for apoptosis in response to treatment with TRAIL. Downregulation of MTCH2 in HCT116 cells also failed to prevent recruitment of tBID to mitochondria in apoptotic conditions. However, when both CL and MTCH2 were depleted, a significant reduction in tBID recruitment was observed, suggesting that in HCT116 cells, CL and MTCH2 can have redundant functions in this process. PMID:26794447

  20. An Experience-Based Evaluation Process for ERP Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Al Bar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems integrate information across an entire organization that automate core activities such as finance/accounting , human resources, manufacturing, production and upply chain management... etc. to facilitate an inte grated centralized system and rapid decision making – resulting in cost reduction, greater planning, and increased control. Many organizations are updating their current management information systems with ERP sys tems. This is not a trivial task. They have to identify the organization’s objectives and satisfy a myriad of stakeholders. They have to understand what business processes they have, how they can be improved, and what particular systems would best suit their needs . They have to understand how an ERP system is built; it involves the modification of an existing system with its own set of business rules. Deciding what to ask for and how to select the best option is a very complex operation and there is limited experience with this type of contractingn organizations. In this paper we discuss a particular experience with contracting out an ERP system, provide some lessons learned, and offer suggestions in how the RFP and bid selection processes could have been improved.

  1. Construction bidding cost of KSC's space shuttle facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph Andrew

    1977-01-01

    The bidding cost of the major Space Transportation System facilities constructed under the responsibility of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is described and listed. These facilities and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) are necessary for the receiving, assembly, testing, and checkout of the Space Shuttle for launch and landing missions at KSC. The Shuttle launch configuration consists of the Orbiter, the External Tank, and the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB). The reusable Orbiter and SRB's is the major factor in the program that will result in lowering space travel costs. The new facilities are the Landing Facility; Orbiter Processing Facility; Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Facility (Dryden Test Center, California); Orbiter Mating Devices; Sound Suppression Water System; and Emergency Power System for LC-39. Also, a major factor was to use as much Apollo facilities and hardware as possible to reduce the facilities cost. The alterations to existing Apollo facilities are the VAB modifications; Mobile Launcher Platforms; Launch Complex 39 Pads A and B (which includes a new concept - the Rotary Service Structure), which was featured in ENR, 3 Feb. 1977, 'Hinged Space Truss will Support Shuttle Cargo Room'; Launch Control Center mods; External Tank and SRB Processing and Storage; Fluid Test Complex mods; O&C Spacelab mods; Shuttle mods for Parachute Facility; SRB Recovery and Disassembly Facility at Hangar 'AF'; and an interesting GSE item - the SRB Dewatering Nozzle Plug Sets (Remote Controlled Submarine System) used to inspect and acquire for reuse of SRB's.

  2. Individual Behavior of First-Price Sealed-Bid Auctions: The Importance of Information Feedback in Experimental Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Tibor; Selten, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    This article reports the results of a first-price sealed-bid auction experiment, which has been designed to test the Nash equilibrium predictions of individual bidding behavior. Subjects faced in 100 auctions always the same resale value and competed with computerized bids. Three treatments were considered which varied with the conditions of information feedback. In earlier experimental work an overbidding above the risk neutral Nash equilibrium has been frequently reported. Our data provide ...

  3. Optimal bidding of a profit-maximizing hydropowerproducer in day-ahead and real-time markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vardanyan, Yelena; Hesamzadeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a price-driven optimal bidding strategy to day-ahead and real-time markets for a profit maximizer hydro power producer. The electricity prices in different market places are unknown when the bidding takes place. The optimal bidding problem is modeled as a multi-stage stochastic program considering the market prices continuously clearing nature. Specifically for that purpose rolling planning is applied, which allow re-forecasting and re-dispatching according to the arrival ...

  4. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  5. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  6. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city(Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of megaevents.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of megaevents from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  7. Simulating GenCo bidding strategies in electricity markets with an agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we use an agent-based simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze market power in electricity markets. We focus on the effect of congestion management on the ability of generating companies (GenCos) to raise prices beyond competitive levels. An 11-node test power system is used to compare a market design based on locational marginal pricing with a market design that uses system marginal pricing and congestion management by counter trading. Bidding strategies based on both physical and economic withholding are compared to a base case with production cost bidding. The results show that unilateral market power is exercised under both pricing mechanisms. However, the largest changes in consumer costs and GenCo profits due to strategic bidding occur under the locational marginal pricing scheme. The analysis also illustrates that agent-based modeling can contribute important insights into the complex interactions between the participants in transmission-constrained electricity markets. (Author)

  8. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  9. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  10. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Joo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 665 Naeson2-dong, Uiwang City, Gyeonggi Province 437-808 (Korea); Kim, Balho H. [Hong-Ik University, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, 72-1 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea); Hur, Don [Kwangwoon University, Department of Electrical Engineering, 447-1 Wolgye1-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea)

    2007-04-15

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  11. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  12. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Ongsakul, Weerakorn, E-mail: ongsakul@ait.asi [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  13. Introduction to the Second Round of Bidding for Petroleum Resource Exploration Onshore China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Xiaoguang

    1994-01-01

    @@ The bidding blocks are distributed in different regions of China. There are seven blocks in West China, and seven blocks in Northeast China, the other twelve blocks are from North and Central China. All the blocks are located in prospective sedimentary basins with different geological conditions, some are from oil produced basin such as Bohai Bay Basin which is a prolific basin, it's production accounts for 50% in total prodcuction of China. Based on estimation, the total potential resource of oil is 3.55 billion tons and gas is 800billion cubic meters in bidding areas. As far as the exploratory objectives are concerned, there are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata, as well as continental clastic and marine-carbonate reservoir. These provide more choices for foreign companies. In addition, most of bidding blocks are adjacent to transport lines, so communication and petroleum transportation are very convenient.

  14. Bax/Bak activation in the absence of Bid, Bim, Puma, and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Huang, K; O'Neill, K L; Pang, X; Luo, X

    2016-01-01

    How BH3-only proteins activate Bax/Bak, the two gateway proteins of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway, remains incompletely understood. Although all pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins are known to bind/neutralize the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, the three most potent ones, Bid (tBid), Bim, and Puma, possess an additional activity of directly activating Bax/Bak in vitro. This latter activity has been proposed to be responsible for triggering Bax/Bak activation following apoptotic stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we generated Bid(-/)(-)Bim(-/)(-)Puma(-/)(-) (TKO), TKO/Bax(-/)(-)/Bak(-/)(-) (PentaKO), and PentaKO/Mcl-1(-/-) (HexaKO) HCT116 cells through gene editing. Surprisingly, although the TKO cells were resistant to several apoptotic stimuli, robust apoptosis was induced upon the simultaneous inactivation of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, two anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins known to suppress Bax/Bak activation and activity. Importantly, such apoptotic activity was completely abolished in the PentaKO cells. In addition, ABT-737, a BH3 mimetic that inhibits Bcl-xL/Bcl-w/Bcl-2, induced Bax activation in HexaKO cells reconstituted with endogenous level of GFP-Bax. Further, by generating TKO/p53(-/-) (QKO) cells, we demonstrated that p53, a tumor suppressor postulated to directly activate Bax, is not required for Bid/Bim/Puma-independent Bax/Bak activation. Together, these results strongly suggest that the direct activation activities of Bid (tBid), Bim, Puma, and p53 are not essential for activating Bax/Bak once the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are neutralized. PMID:27310874

  15. Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases versus the real world and vice versa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrenz, J.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    From the vantage point of builders and operators of Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases, users are addressed. Users are a polyglot lot of empiricists, mechanists, and theorists. The users' perfect data base would contain all data needed to examine all bidding theories and predict bidders' behavior using the theories. That ideal data base has not been attained. However, even the richly flawed history of these data bases leads one to the not particularly prescient notion that users, with omnipresent complaints about errors in and lack of data, will keep the data bases functioning by using them.

  16. Techniques and Programs Used in Bidding and Playing phases of Imperfect Information Game – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M DHARMALINGAM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bridge is an international imperfect information game played with similar rules all over the world and it is played by millions of players. It is an intelligent game; it increases creativity and knowledge of human mind. Many of the researchers analyses the Bridge bidding and playing phases, and they developed many programs for getting better results. The programs were performing well and it is also matter of time before the computer beats most human bridge players. As such, the researchers mainly focused on the techniques and computer programs which were used in bridge bidding and playing phases

  17. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial Title: Guia BID de apoio a projetos de segurança rodoviária

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2012-01-01

    Para fortalecer la asistencia técnica a los países de la región, el BID comisionó en 2010 la elaboración de una guía interactiva que apoye a los responsables de implementar programas de seguridad vial en el desarrollo y la planificación de estrategias y proyectos específicos. La "Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial" es el primer producto de ayuda técnica en línea que incorpora un planteamiento integral, cuya consulta facilita la identificación de deficiencias y la aplicación de so...

  18. 48 CFR 1503.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1503.104-5 Section... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a)(1) The Chief of... with FAR 3.104-5, 15.207, and Agency procedures at 40 CFR part 2....

  19. 48 CFR 203.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 203.104-4....104-4 Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (d)(3) For purposes of FAR 3.104-4(d)(3) only, DoD follows the...

  20. 48 CFR 2903.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 2903.104-5... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Government employees serving in the following positions are authorized access to proprietary or source selection information, but...

  1. 48 CFR 3.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 3.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Except as... information or source selection information to any person other than a person authorized, in accordance...

  2. An analytical Study on Dynamics of Public Procurement System and Bidding-Strategy in Local Contractor's Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Nanerikawa, Susumu

    Public procurement system such as Overall-Evaluation dynamically has been changed on local public works in Japan. However some characteristics of Bidding-Strategy and procurement system have not enough clarified. This paper attempt to analysis for a syatem dynamics and mechanisum of Overall-Evaluation by developing new simulation model focused on Bidding-Strategy, to propose some improvement scenario.

  3. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. 9904.420 Section 9904.420 Federal Acquisition... Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs....

  4. 30 CFR 285.223 - What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid? 285.223 Section 285.223 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... is a tie for the highest bid? (a) Unless otherwise specified in the Final Sale Notice, except in...

  5. 32 CFR 644.545 - Form of invitation for bids and contract of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and contract of sale. Sale contract forms will be prepared by the DE conducting the sale. ENG Form 571... sales of bare land or improved land and related personal property. ENG Form 1038-R, Invitation for Bids... provisions and conditions for use in the sale of standing timber are contained in ENG Form 2140-R,...

  6. Normal boundary intersection method for suppliers' strategic bidding in electricity markets: An environmental/economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.

  7. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  8. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  9. The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen Saeter

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…

  10. China National Petroleum Corporation Notice for the Second Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National petroleum Corporation (CNPC) hereby announces the commencement of the Second Round of Bidding for the Exploitation of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises.

  11. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  12. 48 CFR 52.214-15 - Period for Acceptance of Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Period for Acceptance of... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-15 Period for Acceptance of Bids. As prescribed in 14.201-6(i), insert the following...

  13. Bid Optimization for Internet Graphical Ad Auction Systems via Special Ordered Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, Ralphe

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization model for setting bid levels for certain types of advertisements on web pages. This model is non-convex, but we are able to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions rapidly using branch and cut open-source software. The financial benefits obtained using the prototype system have been substantial.

  14. Bid rounds: progress and future prospects; Rodadas de licitacoes: evolucao e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorelli Junior, D.C.; Silva, Paulo Alexandre S.; Campos, Thiago N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP is an institution integrating the indirect Federal Administration, under the special autarchic regime, as an entity regulating the petroleum industry, linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. The Minister of MME is the president of the National Council of Energy Policy - CNPE, which has the attribution of proposing national policies and specific measures to the President of the Republic. The ANP aims at promoting the regulation, contraction and inspection of the economic activities related to the petroleum industry, and shall elaborate the bidding protocols and promote the bidding for the concession of exploration, development and production activities, signing the relevant contracts and inspecting its execution. The Brazilian Bidding Rounds of blocks with exploratory risk, promoted by ANP, included areas from 22 of the 38 main Brazilian sedimentary basins divided into three exploratory models: High Potential Areas, New Frontier Areas and Mature Basins Areas. This work presents the framework evolution obtained in Bid Rounds, analyzing the main results of the auctions, and the future perspectives for management of the exploration and production activities according the national energy policy statements. (author)

  15. Effects of securities transaction taxes on depth and bid-ask spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, Dominique Y.; Lee, Gabriel S.

    2007-01-01

    This note investigates the effects of introducing a transaction tax on depth and bid-ask spread using a static model where a competitive market maker faces informed and liquidity traders. When the degree of information asymmetry is low, an increase in the transaction tax can result into a smaller ri

  16. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Bid packages for materials (Deliverable No. 28)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Fixed-price supply type bid packages for materials and/or service essentially are comprised of two parts, namely: (1) a technical requisition of the material, equipment, or service to be supplied; and (2) commercial and legal requirements, normally referred to as terms and conditions. Requisitions, providing technical requirements, for all equipment items identified for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant may be found in the 12 volumes of the Demonstration Plant Mechanical Design. The requisitions have been included within separate sections of the design report, sorted by appropriate plant unit. Combined with any General Notes Requisition and the necessary FWEC Job Standards, these various item requisitions provide all technical information for the prospective vendor to furnish his bid. The terms and conditions (boiler plate) to be included in the bid package identify all the contractual requirements which will be imposed upon the bidder. These requirements cover the conditions he must meet to bid on the particular item as well as the clauses to be included within the eventual purchase order/subcontract. A typical package of such terms and conditions is included.

  17. Reserve price and competing bids : reference points for product evaluation in online auctions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2015-01-01

    With an increasing number of products sold in online auctions, the effect of reference points on consumers' product valuations has received much attention in the literature. Two potentially relevant factors affecting bidders' preferences are the sellers' reserve price and the competing bids by other

  18. Cooperative Petroleum Contracts of the First Bidding Round are Perfectly Implemented in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengpeng; Zhang Yirong

    1995-01-01

    @@ Tarim Basin is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the world covering an area of 560 000 square kilometers, with a fairly-good petroleum geological conditions and richaccumulated petroleum resources.Therefore, the southeast part of Tarim Basin was selected as the first bidding rotund area that are divided into five blocks. The coverage area is 72 730 square kilometers in total.

  19. Multi-objective optimal strategy for generating and bidding in the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model is established. ► A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm is designed. ► Fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract the general best solution. ► The proposed approach of generating and bidding is efficient for maximizing profit and minimizing both risk and emissions. - Abstract: Based on the coordinated interaction between units output and electricity market prices, the benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model with objectives of maximal profit and minimal bidding risk and emissions is established. A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm, which successfully integrates Pareto non-dominated sorting with differential evolution algorithm and improves individual crowding distance mechanism and mutation strategy to avoid premature and unevenly search, is designed to achieve Pareto optimal set of this model. Moreover, fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract one of the Pareto optimal solutions as the general best solution. Several optimization runs have been carried out on different cases of generation bidding and scheduling. The results confirm the potential and effectiveness of the proposed approach in solving the multi-objective optimization problem of generation bidding and scheduling. In addition, the comparison with the classical optimization algorithms demonstrates the superiorities of the proposed algorithm such as integrality of Pareto front, well-distributed Pareto-optimal solutions, high search speed.

  20. 47 CFR 22.969 - Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.969 Section 22.969 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.969 Cellular RSA...

  1. Using a Real Life Contract Bid for Students to Learn Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamar, Maria McDonald

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a project where students in a low-performing suburban school learned about profit and area by forming their own companies and creating bids to re-surface of their school's floors. They learned by measuring floor area, calculating costs, performing cost analysis, determining desired profit, making a payment schedule and…

  2. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium...

  3. Application of online bid system%在线开标系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄圣强; 汤慧敏; 冯海东; 杨云瑞

    2016-01-01

    Guangdong Grid Co Logistics Service Center to carry out the bidding project bid opening mode by field artificial opening mode,subject to the bid opening room location, quantitative restrictions, supervisors,providers across the country must arrive on time at the Guangzhou opening room scene,pay a lot of travel time and cost, resulting in a huge waste of the power grid company,social resources. According to the laws and regulations and the current Internet technology.Members of the studio put forward the technical scheme of online bid opening on the Internet.%广东电网公司招标项目开标模式采用现场人工开标模式,受到开标室地理位置、数量限制,监察人员、全国各地供应商必须按时到达开标室现场,付出大量差旅和时间成本,造成了电网公司、社会资源的巨大浪费。根据法律法规及现有互联网技术,本文提出了在互联网上进行“在线开标”的技术解决方案。

  4. 电子招投标系统下清单与招标控制价的编制%Compilation of detailed list and bidding controlling price under electronic bidding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the compiling procedures of detailed list and bidding control price under electronic bidding system,illustrates the detailed list and bidding control price compiling points,and points out that:the development of electronic bidding guarantee the bidding open, public and fair,improves engineering bidding efficiency,and will be good for reducing bidding cost as well.%介绍了电子招投标系统下,清单与招标控制价的编制流程,并对清单与招标控制价编制的控制要点进行了阐述,指出电子招投标的发展保证了招投标工作的公开、公正、公平,提高了工程招投标的效率,有利于降低招投标的成本。

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site)

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).

  7. Corwin-Schultz Bid-ask Spread Estimator in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the validity of the Corwin-Schultz bid-ask spread estimator in the Brazilian stock market. The Corwin-Schultz estimator arises as an easy way to compute asymmetric information throughout daily high and low stock prices for estimating overnight and non-negative adjusted spreads. The sample consisted of Ibovespa firms from 1986 to 2014 and was analysed with time series econometrics. The findings show that the measures of spread have stationarity properties, allowing for forecasting in a period of lagged variables, besides having the property of time-varying cointegration with market-to-book ratio, debt on equity, size and return and also presenting sensibility to different periods, industries and listing segments. Thus, the Corwin-Schultz bid-ask spread estimator seems to be a valid and reliable measure for forecasting aggregate-data variables through the weighted average of firm-level variables.

  8. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  9. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.

  10. Optimal Bidding Strategies using New Aggregated Demand Model with Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.B.Subramanyam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Particle Swarm optimization(PSO and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithms are used to determine the optimal bidding strategy in competitive auction market implementation. The deregulated power industry meets the challenges of increase their profits and also minimize the associadted risks of the system. Themarket includes generating companies(Gencos and large Consumers. The demand prediction of the system has been determined by the neural network, which is trained by using the previous day demand dataset, the training process is achieved by the back propagation algorithm. The fitness of the system compared with PSO and ABC technique, the maximized fitness is the optimal bidding strategy of the system . The results for two techniques will be analyzed in this paper. The implementation of the two techniques could be implemented in theMATLAB Platform.

  11. Corwin-Schultz Bid-ask Spread Estimator in the Brazilian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2016-01-01

    This paper tests the validity of the Corwin-Schultz bid-ask spread estimator in the Brazilian stock market. The Corwin-Schultz estimator arises as an easy way to compute asymmetric information throughout daily high and low stock prices for estimating overnight and non-negative adjusted spreads. The sample consisted of Ibovespa firms from 1986 to 2014 and was analysed with time series econometrics. The findings show that the measures of spread have stationarity properties, allowing...

  12. To Bid or to Buy?: Online Shoppers’ Preferences for Online Purchasing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Fan-Chen Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Online retailing is a rapidly expanding business. There are three major purchasing channels for online shoppers to choose when they conduct online purchasing: (1) shopping in online stores, (2) bidding in online auctions, and (3) direct purchasing in online auctions. Each channel has its strengths and weaknesses, and suits different kinds of online shoppers. This article explores the relationships between online shoppers’ lifestyles and their preferences for online purchasing channels. Know...

  13. A laboratory stress-test of bid, double and offer auctions

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper reports on the empirical properties of the bid auction (buyers propose prices), offer auction (sellers suggest prices) and double auction (both buyers and seller initiate price quotes). These trading institutions are stress-tested using a nonstationary monopolistic market environment in which the buyers' demand schedule and the single seller's supply curve shift unpredictably between trading periods. The principal result is threefold. First, double-auction ...

  14. Suggestions on the Writing of Speeches Bidding for Votes from the Perspective of Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞娟

    2009-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative functional discourse analysis of Yang Lan's speech bidding for Olympic Games from Interpersonal, Experiential and Textual Metafunctions, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability. By revealing how choices of linguistic items in discourse production and comprehension help to meet Yang Lan's purposes of the speech, the writer hopes to provide some guidance to make better speeches bidding for votes. The research shows that,(1) In the Interpersonal Metafunction, positive declarative clauses are dominant in Yang Lan's speech; items about culture are constantly used to be the Subject;"will" appears at a high rate.(2) In the Experiential Metafunction, Material Processes are adopted most frequently in the speech; Mental Processes are in the second position. (3)In the Textual Metafunction, items about culture dominate the Theme; and a "you--we--you" thematic pattern turns up occasionally in the speech. This study has promising implications for speeches bidding for votes as foilows:(1)Positive declarative clauses are recommended to convey information and convince the prospective voters with fact.(2)The focus of the speech should be chosen as the Subject to call the attention of the audience; and the high modal commitment of modal verbal operators can show the addresser's firm determination to finish tasks.(3) Material Processes can emphasize the addresser's getting true action, instead of just stopping in a "slogan"; while a few Mental Processes are always helpful in moving the prospective voters with emotion.(4) The focus of the speech should be frequently chosen to be the Theme; a"you--we--you" thematic pattern helps to create an intimate dialogic style, which can further persuade the audience to share the same proposal of the addresser.[KeyWords] Functional Discourse Analysis; Three Metafunctions; Speeches bidding for votes

  15. Examining the Effect of Earnings Management on Bid-Ask Spread and Market Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sougné, Danielle; Ajina, Aymen

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to argue the extent that earnings management lowers liquidity. It should increase information asymmetry and impair trading liquidity. Using a sample of French firms from 2008 to 2011, we find that firms that manage earnings have wider bid-ask spreads. Our results are robust for both of two well established measures of market liquidity. Therefore the empirical results indicate that firms that exhibit greater earnings management are associated with lower market...

  16. Analysis of bidding behaviors in non-monetary incentivized, real-time uniform auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tiley, Joshua H.

    2010-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The Navy continually fights economic surge and recession, budget constraints, and natural personnel turnover to maintain personnel levels at desired "end-strength." Forecasting retention bonus levels based on these socio-economic factors is extremely difficult. Current forecasting techniques are less precise than retention auctions because auctions provide the market clearing price to retain the desired end strength. This research examines bidding strategies ad...

  17. Eesti tüübid : meie siin maal / Maris Rosenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenthal, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ja fotograaf Alar Madissoni projekti "Eesti tüübid" raames valminud fotonäitus "Meie siin maal" Tartus Raadi mõisapargis. Kaasaega dokumenteeriva projekti eesmärgiks oli jäädvustada kõigis Eesti maakondades elavaid eri generatsioonide ja sotsiaalsete rühmade esindajaid ERMi fotokogu täiendamiseks. Meenutusi pildistamistelt 2008. aasta suvel

  18. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city (Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of mega-events.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of mega-events from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  19. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost minimiz....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners.......Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...

  20. Estimation of Bid Curves in Power Exchanges using Time-varying Simultaneous-Equations Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuji, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    Simultaneous-equations model (SEM) is generally used in economics to estimate interdependent endogenous variables such as price and quantity in a competitive, equilibrium market. In this paper, we have attempted to apply SEM to JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange) spot market, a single-price auction market, using the publicly available data of selling and buying bid volumes, system price and traded quantity. The aim of this analysis is to understand the magnitude of influences to the auctioned prices and quantity from the selling and buying bids, than to forecast prices and quantity for risk management purposes. In comparison with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation where the estimation results represent average values that are independent of time, we employ a time-varying simultaneous-equations model (TV-SEM) to capture structural changes inherent in those influences, using State Space models with Kalman filter stepwise estimation. The results showed that the buying bid volumes has that highest magnitude of influences among the factors considered, exhibiting time-dependent changes, ranging as broad as about 240% of its average. The slope of the supply curve also varies across time, implying the elastic property of the supply commodity, while the demand curve remains comparatively inelastic and stable over time.

  1. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  2. 经评审的最低投标价法下投标报价低于成本价的识别研究%Identity Research on Bidding Below Cost Price under Lowest Bidding Price Evaluated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铁男; 高海超

    2015-01-01

    经评审的最低投标价法是我国常用的一种评标办法。本文主要采用文献综述和图表分析的方法,在研究经评审的最低投标价法下评审标准和投标策略相关性的基础上,根据相关学者现有的研究观点,进一步对经评审的最低投标价法下评审标准和投标策略进行分析研究,提出自己的见解,以期为业主在经评审的最低投标价法下识别承包商的投标报价是否低于成本价提供一些借鉴。%Lowest bidding price evaluated is a common bid evaluation method in our country. Mainly adopting methods of literature review and chart analysis, and based on study of the review standard under lowest bidding price evaluated and the correlation between bidding strategies, then according to the existing research viewpoints from relevant scholars, the article develops further analytical investigation on the review standard and bidding strategy under the lowest bidding price evaluated, then puts forward its own views, in order to provide some reference for the owner to identify whether the con⁃tractor's tender offer is below the cost under the lowest bidding price evaluated.

  3. Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Aron

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from centralised, controlled systems to decentralised interbank markets. This paper characterises the rules, regime shifts and auction outcomes in Ethiopia. It is emphasised that institutional micro-design and operation of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during liberalisation. Models for the Central Bank’s supply rules for pre-announced supply of dollars in fortnightly can later weekly auctions, confirm the objective was to stabilise the exchange rate (the marginal auction price in a thin market around depreciating trends. Bidders were able to learn the supply rules, clustering their bids around predicted target rates. Using a method novel in auction empirical literature, bidders’ learning in repeated auctions is examined via the adjustment to equilibrium in error correction equations for the bid spread. Robust models for a similar learning process were found across both frequency regimes; but learning was faster where the exchange rate target was more transparent and uncertainty lower. Thus, a fairly stable depreciation was achieved over four years, despite considerable regime shifts from trade liberalisation, the progressive lifting of auction entry barriers, increased frequency of auctions, fiscal and other seasonality in demand, and temporary price shocks in coffee export earnings. Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from

  4. A Requirement for Bid for Induction of Apoptosis by Photodynamic Therapy with a Lysosome- but not a Mitochondrion-Targeted Photosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-Yan; Lam, Minh; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Zhang, Ping; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with lysosome-targeted photosensitizers induces the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis via the cleavage and activation of the BH3-only protein Bid by proteolytic enzymes released from photo-disrupted lysosomes. To investigate the role of Bid in apoptosis induction and the role of damaged lysosomes on cell killing by lysosome-targeted PDT, we compared the responses of wild type and Bid-knock-out murine embryonic fibroblasts toward a mitochondrion/endoplasmic reticulum-bi...

  5. Study of Purchaser's Bidding Strategy in Bilateral Bidding Transaction by Fuzzy Neural Network%基于模糊神经网络的购电商双边竞价策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向婷; 赖晓丰

    2013-01-01

      以往针对双边竞价市场中购电商竞价策略的研究多以购电商在市场中的报价曲线参数的确定为主,给出的策略多是购电商应该以何种曲线决策其报价,而利用电力市场中的历史及实时数据信息对购电商报价策略进行研究的还不多见。文章从未来电力市场双边竞价交易原理入手,提出了利用模糊神经网络预测市场最低成交价格的购电商报价,从而为购电商制定其竞价策略提供依据。%The studies of purchaser's bidding strategy in bilateral bidding transaction are mostly on determining the curve parameters. But considering the purchaser's bidding strategy according to historical and real-time data of power market are rarely. This paper studies from the future principles of bilateral bidding transaction, proposes the method of forecasting the purchaser's price which corresponding the minimum transaction price based on fuzzy neural network. This method could show a reference for the purchasers to make its bidding strategies.

  6. Hypoxia-mediated down-regulation of Bid and Bax in tumors occurs via hypoxia-inducible factor 1-dependent and -independent mechanisms and contributes to drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Cawthorne, Christopher J; Williams, Kaye J;

    2004-01-01

    of the Bcl-2 protein family. Oxygen deprivation of human colon cancer cells in vitro provoked decreased mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic Bid and Bad. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) was dispensable for the down-regulation of Bad but required for that of Bid, consistent with the binding of HIF-1......alpha to a hypoxia-responsive element (positions -8484 to -8475) in the bid promoter. Oxygen deprivation resulted in proteosome-independent decreased expression of Bax in vitro, consistent with a reduction in global translation efficiency. The physiological relevance of Bid and Bax down...

  7. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Taddia; Elena de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Presentación de Elena de la Peña de la Asociación Española de la Carretera y Alejandro Taddia, especialista de Transporte del BID donde se muestra esta Guía interactiva para preparación de proyectos de seguridad vial en el contexto latinoamericano. Se realizó durante el Congreso Iberoamericano de Seguridad Vial (CISEV) III de Bogotá DC. Para acceder al recurso mencionado en la presentación, consulte el campo "Related URL" más abajo.

  8. Comments on alternative bid variables as instruments of OCS leasing policy, by Mead, Moseidjord and Muraoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothkopf, M.H.

    1983-07-01

    The paper by Mead, Moseridjord and Muraoka first defines a set of criteria for evaluating leasing systems. The bulk of the paper is then devoted to evaluating the effect of cash bonus, royalty, profit share and work commitment bidding against these criteria. Finally, the paper offers two paragraphs of conclusions and policy recommendations. This comment begins by discussing and analyzing these conclusions and recommendations. After that, it makes a number of observations and raises a number of quibbles about the bulk of the paper that do not have a major effect on the conclusions.

  9. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...... for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias....

  10. The System of Public Acquisitions by Means of Electronic Bids in the Light of European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce can lead in many different ways to cost reduction in case of a supplier and can subsequently increase the competition potential of a company. As for the competition mechanism, such changes produce significant modifications within a market economy. The Internet renders the possibility of creating business contacts in a rapid and geographically independent manner, as well as possibilities of obtaining data and realizing transactions within the world’s economy. Public acquisitions by means of dynamic systems and electronic bids are currently one of the significant areas of electronic commerce.

  11. On bidding and pricing strategies and skills%投标报价策略与技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彬兴

    2011-01-01

    According to the bidding and pricing status of the current engineering bill model, the paper explores the bidding strategies and skills, illustrates the main bidding strategies, including the low-price strategy, the reasonable optimization strategy and the future strategy, and indicates the unbalanced unit cost method and the sudden price adjustment method, so as to direct the practice.%针对目前工程量清单报价模式下招标现状,探讨了投标报价策略及技巧,分别阐述了低价策略,合理优化策略及未来策略等几种主要的投标策略,并着重阐述了不平衡单价法和突然调价法两种技巧,以期指导实践。

  12. G-Doob-Meyer Decomposition and Its Applications in Bid-Ask Pricing for Derivatives under Knightian Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to establish the bid-ask pricing framework for the American contingent claims against risky assets with G-asset price systems on the financial market under Knightian uncertainty. First, we prove G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition for G-supermartingale. Furthermore, we consider bid-ask pricing American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty, by using G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition; we construct dynamic superhedge strategies for the optimal stopping problem and prove that the value functions of the optimal stopping problems are the bid and ask prices of the American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty. Finally, we consider a free boundary problem, prove the strong solution existence of the free boundary problem, and derive that the value function of the optimal stopping problem is equivalent to the strong solution to the free boundary problem.

  13. The effect of electric transmission constraints on how power generation companies bid in the Colombian electrical power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gallego Vega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the effect of transmission constraints on both expected electrical energy to be dispatched and power generation companies’ bidding strategies in the Colombian electrical power market. The proposed model simulates the national transmission grid and economic dispatch by means of optimal power flows. The proposed methodology allows structural problems in the power market to be analyzed due to the exclusive effect of trans- mission constraints and the mixed effect of bidding strategies and transmission networks. A new set of variables is proposed for quantifying the impact of each generation company on system operating costs and the change in expected dispatched energy. A correlation analysis of these new variables is presented, revealing some interesting linearities in some generation companies’ bidding patterns.

  14. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in public bidding processes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Andrade Longaray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil (IFES play an important role in the country’s social and scientific development. Focused mainly on teaching, research and extension activities, the IFES are backed by support foundations aimed to the management of financial, human and material resources. Characterized as public bodies, the support foundations are governed by Law no 8.666/93 in what concerns the procurement of goods and services. Therefore, the present study is aimed to develop a model to assist the managers of such foundations in the selection of suppliers to participate in bidding processes that use invitation for bids. Therefore, we conducted a case study in one of the 55 foundations that support Brazilian federal universities. The intervention tool used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Firstly, we established the hierarchy of criteria for problem-solving. Then, a paired comparison was made between criteria for the same level. Subsequently, the consistency analysis of comparison matrices was verified. Finally, the relative priorities of each criterion were obtained and the objective function of the model was constructed. The model was tested through the assessment of the performance of three potential suppliers of IT equipment, and the result was legitimized by decision makers who found the instrument a valid tool to aid in making decisions on supplier selection for the foundation.

  15. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  16. Generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a statistical and econometric model to analyze the generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The generator level bidding data show very strong persistence in generators' grouping choices over time. Using dynamic random effect ordered probit model, we find that persistence is characterized by positive state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence is more important than unobserved heterogeneity. The finding of true state dependence suggests a scope for economic policy intervention. If NYISO can implement an effective policy to switch generators from higher price groups to lower price groups, the effect is likely to be lasting. As a result, the market price can be lowered in the long-run. Generators' offered capacity is estimated by a two-stage sample selection model. The estimated results show that generators in higher-priced groups tend to withhold their capacity strategically to push up market prices. It further confirms the importance of an effective policy to turn generators into lower price groups in order to mitigate unexpected price spikes. The simulated market prices based on our estimated aggregate supply curve can replicate most volatility of actual DA market prices. Applying our models to different demand assumptions, we find that demand conditions can affect market prices significantly. It validates the importance of introducing demand side management during the restructure of electricity industry. (author)

  17. BID-ASK SPREAD DAN PERIODE KEPEMILIKAN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN LQ-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus Maulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis gives quite big impact to the Indonesian Stock Exchange and also changes the investor behavior as well. Fundamental exchange which is considered fragile becomes instability threat and reflects uncertain condition. This research aims to analyze and explain empirically the impact of variance return, trading volume, stock prices and return shares toward bid-ask spread which is the measurement of asymmetrical information cost, also the impact of variance return, market value, bid-ask spread and dividend pay out towards common shares holding periods in Indonesia Stock Exchange and some dominant variable that affect them.The findings of this research strengthen the presumption that in conducting the investment, investors in Indonesian Stock Exchange is more oriented to short term investment by expecting more on common shares than dividend. Most investors keep their ownership in common shares in Indonesian Stock Exchange for two years. Besides, the efficient investment strategy which optimizes profit is “switching strategy”, following the market movement every time exactly, using technical information to active shares by moving from the shares that the price is predicted to decline to the increased ones. Moreover, the researcher also got the evidence that the investors in Indonesian capital market conduct their investment irrationally, investor’s analysis is getting technical and gives less attention to the fundamental factors. The decision of selling and buying which is conducted by the investors on common shares is based on the trading activity, that is actually a measurement of the scale of asymmetry information.

  18. Matrine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via BID-mediated mitochondrial pathway in esophageal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Du, Haoxin; Geng, Guojun; Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-05-01

    Matrine, as a member of Sophora family, is an alkaloid found in plants, and produces plethora pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. This study is conducted to investigate the anti-cancer mechanisms of matrine in human esophageal cancer in vitro and in vivo. In human esophageal cancer cell Eca-109, matrine significantly decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and induced apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by up-regulation of P53 and P21. The expression of several apoptosis-related proteins in cells and tumor tissues were evaluated by Western blot analysis. We found that matrine induced cell apoptosis by down-regulation of the ratio of BCL-2/BID and increasing activation of caspase-9. Further studies indicated that matrine induced apoptosis of Eca-109 was through the mitochondria-mediated internal pathway, but not by death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by the fact that Bid translocated from the nucleus to mitochondria during the process of the apoptosis induced by matrine. In vivo study found that matrine effectively inhibited the tumor formation of Eca-109 cells in nude mice. Our study suggests that matrine could serve as a potential novel agent from natural products to treat esophageal cancer.

  19. New approach to bidding strategies of generating companies in day ahead energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the restructured power systems, generating companies (Genco) are responsible for selling their product in the energy market. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate to maximize its profit. Therefore, this paper intends to propose a rational method to answer this question. In the proposed methodology, the hourly forecasted market clearing price (FMCP) is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. The forecasted price is the basis of the bidding strategies of each Genco, which can be achieved by solving a bi-level optimization problem using GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language. The first level, called upper sub-problem is used to maximize the individual Genco's payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, hereafter called the lower sub-problem uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer's payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. Similar to the other game problems, the Nash equilibrium strategies are the optimum bidding strategies of Gencos. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities. (author)

  20. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  1. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium

  2. Self-scheduling and bidding strategies of thermal units with stochastic emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The management of thermal power plants is considered for different emission allowance levels. • The uncertainty on electricity price is considered by a set of scenarios. • A stochastic MILP approach allows devising the bidding strategies and hedging against price uncertainty and emission allowances. - Abstract: This paper is on the self-scheduling problem for a thermal power producer taking part in a pool-based electricity market as a price-taker, having bilateral contracts and emission-constrained. An approach based on stochastic mixed-integer linear programming approach is proposed for solving the self-scheduling problem. Uncertainty regarding electricity price is considered through a set of scenarios computed by simulation and scenario-reduction. Thermal units are modelled by variable costs, start-up costs and technical operating constraints, such as: forbidden operating zones, ramp up/down limits and minimum up/down time limits. A requirement on emission allowances to mitigate carbon footprint is modelled by a stochastic constraint. Supply functions for different emission allowance levels are accessed in order to establish the optimal bidding strategy. A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness and the proficiency of the proposed approach in supporting biding strategies

  3. Mother-Child and Father-Child Dyadic Interaction: Parental and Child Bids and Responsiveness to Each Other during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C. Emily

    2013-01-01

    In accord with the now prevailing ecological view that both parent and child play an active role in shaping their interactions, the present study assessed the number of bids by parents and children for social engagement, compliance, and emotion regulation, and the quality of each partner's responsiveness to these bids, in a sample of mothers…

  4. 31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351.10 Section... redemption value calculations in this subpart? We use market yields, or market bid yields, derived...

  5. 工程量清单计价模式下投标报价策略探讨%Inquiry on bidding strategy undert the BOQ mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金峰

    2011-01-01

    从微观角度分析了工程量清单计价模式下投标报价需要考虑的四个因素,即招标条件因素、市场因素、投标方自身因素和竞争对手因素,并探讨了投标报价应遵循的原则、报价策略以及报价技巧,以期指导实践。%From micro aspect,it analyzes the four factors needing considering under BOQ mode including bidding factors,market factors,bidding self factors and competitor's factors,and explores principles,bidding strategies and bidding skills followed in bidding,so as to guide practice.

  6. 7 CFR 1726.253 - Prior approved contract modification related to alternative bid provision for payment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Modifications to RUS Standard Contract Forms § 1726.253 Prior approved contract modification related to alternative bid provision for payment to... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approved contract modification related...

  7. 36 CFR 18.7 - How are lease proposals solicited and selected if the Director issues a Request for Bids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under the authority of this section, the Director must comply with 36 CFR part 800 (commenting... process. (b) A request for bids under this section shall be advertised by public notice published at least twice in local and/or national newspapers of general circulation. The notice shall provide at least...

  8. Preliminary Study on Bidding Strategy for Electricity Market%电力市场竞价策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建平; 周浩

    2001-01-01

    通过对电力市场交易中的电力负荷和机组报价2者的历史数据曲线的分析和讨论,制定一些初步竞价原则,以帮助电厂获取更大利润;同时引入利润曲线概念,以较清楚地对机组竞价的赢利情况作出快速评价。%In this paper the strategies of bidding for generation unit supplying energy in the electricity market are discussed. A set of preliminary principle of bidding based on the electricity trade curve of historied data about load and bidding has been provided which can be used in helping generation unit to get more profit. It is also provided a new concept-the profit curve which can conveniently estimate whether the generation unit profited by bidding rapidly.

  9. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY... approximately 9.27 acres in Santa Clara County, California, for not less than the appraised fair market value of..., more or less, in Santa Clara County. The public land was originally identified as suitable for...

  10. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  11. 42 CFR 423.272 - Review and negotiation of bid and approval of plans submitted by potential Part D sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations. (1) Application of revenue requirements standard. CMS approves a bid submitted under § 423.265... revenue requirements (as used for purposes of section 1302(8)(C) of the Public Health Service Act) for... within a formulary is consistent with the model guidelines (if any) established by the United...

  12. Bidding strategies for virtual power plants considering CHPs and intermittent renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A stochastic optimization evaluates the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP. • Three different strategies were assessed: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. • The ‘flexible RT’ attains the largest profits. It adapts the VPP output in real-time. - Abstract: Energy efficiency and renewable-energy sources (RES) are fundamental parts of the European energy policy. For this reason, efficient distributed generation technologies such as combined heat and power coupled to district heating (CHP–DH) and RES based electricity are largely promoted. Additionally, the flexibility that CHP–DH offers to the power system is seen as an option to balance the intermittent output of RES-based generation. This could be done by aggregating RES based electricity generation and CHP DH in a virtual power plant (VPP). In this framework, the present work presents a methodology to evaluate the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP composed of a CHP–DH and RES based generators. The objective is to investigate the optimal bidding strategy for a VPP that uses CHP DH to compensate for the uncertainties regarding RES-based electricity generation and market prices. The VPP operator nominates its energy to the day ahead market the day before the actual delivery (D-1). In real time, any deviation from the day-ahead schedule is settled in the imbalance market. The uncertainties are modeled using a two stage stochastic programming approach. Three different bidding strategies are studied: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. The major difference between the studied strategies lies in the dispatch decisions. The ‘static’ strategy does not adjust the scheduled output of the CHP. Whereas, the ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’ strategies differ from each other in terms of the information available at the moment of performing the reschedule (second stage decision). The ‘flexible DA’ reschedules the CHP output for the whole day assuming

  13. Financing long term care under Medicaid: competitive bidding, vouchers and expenditure matching in an HMO framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, A J

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a Long Term Care--HMO, a series of innovative financing mechanisms are proposed to encourage efficiency, reduce cost increases and promote the quality of long term care. Competitive bidding is used to set prices for long term care. Based upon these competitively set prices, HMO enrollees are given long term care vouchers with which to purchase care. Cost savings, arising from choices of care less expensive than the value of the voucher, are shared with the enrollee and the case management team. Incentive payments to this team are made only after a quality of care review. A portion of the payment to the long term care provider is set aside as a quality assurance withhold. If quality of care is inadequate, the withhold is forfeit.

  14. Chaotic behavior of price in the power markets with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price forecasting in the current deregulated power markets is an important requirement for deriving proper bidding strategy and profit maximization of producers. On the other hand, the energy price in the power market experiences lots of fluctuations which may affect the accuracy of the price forecasting seriously. Seeking for predictability, in this paper, the characteristics of these fluctuations are investigated through time series analysis methods. The results of analyses are representative of the existence of a deterministic chaos in the system with a mimic predictability. Besides, it is observed that because of existing the seasonality and non-stationarity in the system dynamics, a fixed model cannot perform properly even in case of normalized input data, but the developed models should be updated regularly.

  15. Chaotic behavior of price in the power markets with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N. [Linear Systems Control Lab., EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: bigdeli@ee.sharif.edu; Afshar, K. [Electrical Machinery Lab., EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: k_afshar@ee.sharif.edu

    2009-11-30

    Price forecasting in the current deregulated power markets is an important requirement for deriving proper bidding strategy and profit maximization of producers. On the other hand, the energy price in the power market experiences lots of fluctuations which may affect the accuracy of the price forecasting seriously. Seeking for predictability, in this paper, the characteristics of these fluctuations are investigated through time series analysis methods. The results of analyses are representative of the existence of a deterministic chaos in the system with a mimic predictability. Besides, it is observed that because of existing the seasonality and non-stationarity in the system dynamics, a fixed model cannot perform properly even in case of normalized input data, but the developed models should be updated regularly.

  16. Neural correlates of reinforcement learning and social preferences in competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Talwar, Arjun; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-30

    In competitive social environments, people often deviate from what rational choice theory prescribes, resulting in losses or suboptimal monetary gains. We investigate how competition affects learning and decision-making in a common value auction task. During the experiment, groups of five human participants were simultaneously scanned using MRI while playing the auction task. We first demonstrate that bidding is well characterized by reinforcement learning with biased reward representations dependent on social preferences. Indicative of reinforcement learning, we found that estimated trial-by-trial prediction errors correlated with activity in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we found that individual differences in social preferences were related to activity in the temporal-parietal junction and anterior insula. Connectivity analyses suggest that monetary and social value signals are integrated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Based on these results, we argue for a novel mechanistic account for the integration of reinforcement history and social preferences in competitive decision-making.

  17. Power Pool中发电公司的竞价策略%BIDDING STRATEGIES OF GENERATION COMPANIES IN POWER POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿; 龚乐年; 宋燕敏; 曹荣章; 朱为民

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the bidding strategies of generation companiesin Power Pool. In an imperfect competition Power Pool, some generation companies (GenComs) may have market power. A GenCom can bid as a price acceptor or as a price changer. A price acceptor will bid according to its marginal cost curve, but the minimum bid price must be decided by dynamic programming based on price forecasting. A price changer will bid according to the strategy of restricting output and forcing up price. The Power Pool will be inefficient when market power of GenComs are strong.%研究了电力联营体(PowerPool)中发电公司的报价策略。在非完全竞争的PowerPool中,发电公司可以作为一个价格接受者,也可利用其市场势力操纵市场价格。发电公司作为价格接受者时将基于边际成本曲线报价,但其最低报价必须根据市场行情而变化;具有市场势力的发电公司可以采取限制产量、抬高电价的策略。PowerPool中市场势力的存在不利于资源的优化配置和利用。

  18. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  19. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun FENG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  20. PENGARUH HARGA SAHAM, TRADING VOLUME ACTIVITY DAN RISIKO SAHAM TERHADAP BID-ASK SPREAD (Studi pada Perusahaan LQ-45 di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Nurul Istanti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of stock price, shares of Tradimg volume activity and the risk of bid-ask spread. And test them with statistical tools. This study argued that share price, TVA and risk affect the stock bid-ask spread partially or together. For this purpose, we used multiple regression analysis. Samples taken are the LQ-45 firms listed on the JSE the period February 2002 until July 2005. The results showed that the Trading volume activity and risk affect the stock bid-ask spread, while stock prices are not. And jointly share price, Ttading volume activity and risk affect the stock bid-ask spread

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bao-guang [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong (China); Liu, Li-ping [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, George G., E-mail: gchen@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong); Ye, Cai Guo; Leung, Kevin K.C.; Ho, Rocky L.K.; Lin, Marie C.; Lai, Paul B.S. [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong)

    2014-06-10

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo

  3. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing;

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...... mechanism, which better exploits a battery’s fast ramping capability. However, battery life might be decreased by frequent charge–discharge cycling, especially when providing fast regulation service. It is profitable for battery storage to extend its service life by limiting its operational strategy to some...... degree. Thus, we incorporate a battery cycle life model into a profit maximization model to determine the optimal bids in day-ahead energy, spinning reserve, and regulation markets. Then a decomposed online calculation method to compute cycle life under different operational strategies is proposed...

  4. Seguridad Vial - BID: Una estrategia para la región de América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Roa

    2012-01-01

    Presentación del Jefe de la División de Transporte del Banco, Nestor Roa, durante el principal evento regional de Seguridad Vial de América Latina y el Caribe, CISEV III que se realizó en Bogotá DC entre el 12 y el 14 de junio de 2012. El documento muestra el trabajo de la estrategia de Seguridad Vial del BID.

  5. Brand Equity Effects on Bidding Strategies in an Online Environment: Evidence from eBay Coin Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Carl S. Bozman; Matthew Q. McPherson; Daniel Friesner; Ching-I Teng

    2014-01-01

    Internet auction bidders seldom have all the information resources upon which they have learned to comfortably rely. This raises the possibility that internet auction participants depend more on brand related knowledge and employ bidding strategies consistent with heightened valuations of brand related information. This study empirically examines how differences in brand equity affect consumer online auction behavior on eBay. Branded products with objective values (certified coins) are examin...

  6. Fatal Hepatitis Mediated by TNFα Requires Caspase-8 and Involves the BH3-only Proteins Bid and Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Thomas; Jost, Philipp J; Pellegrini, Marc; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Gugasyan, Raffi; Gerondakis, Steve; Cretney, Erika; Smyth, Mark J; Silke, John; Hakem, Razq; Bouillet, Philippe; Mak, Tak W; Dixit, Vishva M; Strasser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Apoptotic death of hepatocytes, a feature and contributing factor of many chronic and acute liver diseases, can be a consequence of over-activation of the immune system. Injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus the transcriptional inhibitor D(+)-galactosamine (GalN) or mitogenic T cell activation cause fatal hepatocyte apoptosis in mice. In both settings hepatocyte killing is mediated by TNFα/TNF-R signaling but the effector mechanisms remain unclear. Our analysis of gene-targeted mice showed that caspase-8 is essential for hepatocyte killing in both settings. Loss of Bid, the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein activated by caspase-8, and essential for Fas ligand-induced hepatocyte killing, resulted only in a minor reduction of liver damage. However, combined loss of Bid and another BH3-only protein, Bim, activated by JNK, protected mice from LPS+GalN-induced hepatitis. These observations identify caspase-8 and the BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of inflammatory liver diseases. PMID:19119023

  7. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance. PMID:23224233

  8. Del MERCOSUR al ALCA: críticas al modelo liberal de nuevo regionalismo del BID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Saludjian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera sección se discute un modelo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en favor del ALCA, sobre la base de la aplicación de la teoría de economía geográfica al proceso de integración económica del Cono Sur de América Latina (MERCOSUR. En la segunda sección, abordamos los límites de este modelo, insistiendo en la ausencia de ciertas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las economías de estas regiones. Por cierto, los aspectos de las economías industrial internacional, del desarrollo y de la inserción de estos países de la periferia en la economía mundial, son esenciales para analizar el régimen de acumulación dominado por el espacio financiero que la mayoría de las naciones latinoamericanas experimentan, así como el proceso de integración de América.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Bidding-Based Multi-Agent Scheduling Algorithms for Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gordillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have being applied to many problems in manufacturing systems in recent years. In the specific field of manufacturing scheduling many studies have been published trying to cope with the complexity of the manufacturing environment. One of the most utilized approaches is (multi agent-based scheduling. Nevertheless, despite the large list of studies reported in this field, there is no resource or scientific study on the performance measure of this type of approach under very common and critical execution situations. This paper focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS based algorithms for task allocation, particularly in manufacturing applications. The goal is to provide a mechanism to measure the performance of agent-based scheduling approaches for manufacturing systems under key critical situations such as: dynamic environment, rescheduling, and priority change. With this mechanism it will be possible to simulate critical situations and to stress the system in order to measure the performance of a given agent-based scheduling method. The proposed mechanism is a pioneering approach for performance evaluation of bidding-based MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling. The proposed method and evaluation methodology can be used to run tests in different manufacturing floors since it is independent of the workshop configuration. Moreover, the evaluation results presented in this paper show the key factors and scenarios that most affect the market-like MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling.

  10. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  11. Use of Markov Chains to Design an Agent Bidding Strategy for Continuous Double Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Birmingham, W P; Park, S; 10.1613/jair.1466

    2011-01-01

    As computational agents are developed for increasingly complicated e-commerce applications, the complexity of the decisions they face demands advances in artificial intelligence techniques. For example, an agent representing a seller in an auction should try to maximize the seller?s profit by reasoning about a variety of possibly uncertain pieces of information, such as the maximum prices various buyers might be willing to pay, the possible prices being offered by competing sellers, the rules by which the auction operates, the dynamic arrival and matching of offers to buy and sell, and so on. A naive application of multiagent reasoning techniques would require the seller?s agent to explicitly model all of the other agents through an extended time horizon, rendering the problem intractable for many realistically-sized problems. We have instead devised a new strategy that an agent can use to determine its bid price based on a more tractable Markov chain model of the auction process. We have experimentally ident...

  12. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image. PMID:25311196

  13. Meeting the Northwest's Energy Needs Through Competitive Bidding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1990-07-01

    Utilities have traditionally met load growth requirements through building projects (self-build), purchasing power from other utilities, or from running conservation programs. During the 1980s, alternative capacity expansion approaches were developed. Resources are now also obtained through PURPA-based or competitive bidding acquisition programs. Self-build programs typically involve large-scale hydropower; coal-, natural gas-, and oil-fired projects; and nuclear thermal electric generating projects. Characteristics of these projects, in addition to size, include long lead times, capital intensiveness, substantial environmental impacts, and a significant risk of cost overruns. The risk element became immediately apparent to those investor-owned utilities that, because of decreased load growth, had thermal project investments disallowed in rate cases or were forced to terminate projects. Phrases such as prudent investment,'' used and useful,'' and least-cost planning'' became familiar to the utility industry. Many utilities, once burned, subsequently adopted a policy of never again constructing a base-loaded generating plant. 2 figs.

  14. Does the Lowest Bid Price Evaluation Criterion Make for a More Efficient Public Procurement Selection Criterion? (Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.

  15. 密封第一价格采购中销售商串谋的监管机制研究%Research on Regulation Mechanism of Bid Rigging in Sealed-Bid First-Price Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菡密; 孙绍荣

    2015-01-01

    标准拍卖中普遍存在的竞拍者串谋不仅给拍卖方和社会福利带来损失,而且由于缺乏数据常难以检测和控制。鉴于此,采用四阶段序贯博弈分析密封第一价格采购中竞拍者串谋的监管问题,基于销售商的竞拍出价建立检测采购中竞拍者串谋的理论模型,相比其他检测模型多依赖于包括竞价、产能、库存、参与决策在内的大量竞拍者的历史和当期数据的“事后”检测特点,该模型具有仅依赖于竞价和估价的当期数据的“事中”检测特点。研究得到存在串谋和不存在串谋两种情况下,销售商不同的出价分布和出价区间,以及监管方对销售商串谋的概率判断和审核决策,解决了难以获取研究所需充足数据的困境,提高了串谋检测的可操作性。%The bidder collusion universally existed in standard auction usually brings loss of auctioneer and social welfare at large, and is often difficult to detect and control due to the lack of data. In view of this, this paper analyzes the regulation system in sealed-bid first-price procurement by four-stage Sequential game. In order to achieve this, a theoretical model based on the bidding price of sellers during auction has been established. Contrasted to previous models which could only post-detect auction re-lying on historical and current data such as bidding price, production capacity, inventory and anticipation decision of the partici-pants, this model can simultaneously detect the distribution and interval of sellers’ price as well as supervisor’ s probability recog-nizing and examine decision to them based on current data only in both cases of conspiracy and non-conspiracy during the bidding, thus solve the problem of lacking data and improve the operability of conspiracy-detecting.

  16. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  17. 竞价处置资产法律实务初探%On Legal Practices of Bidding Sales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章文霞

    2011-01-01

    Idle or abandoned assets disposal is a common procedure in a company's production and operation. Assets disposal should conform to laws and legislations as well as company rules. It primarily consists of three ways of disposal, namely sales on agreements, legal auction and bidding sales and each method has its own pros and cons. For example, bidding sales organized by company itself is widely used due to its simple and flexible procedure, low costs and high efficiency; however the potential risks cannot be neglected. This paper analyzed the procedures and major risks in designing and carrying out bidding sales and also proposed precautions to avoid the risks.%企业生产经营过程中不可避免地会有闲置或废弃资产需要处置,资产处置行为必须符合法律、法规、相关政策及企业规章制度规定。现实中资产处置方式大致分为协议出售、正规拍卖、竞价出售三种。三种方式各有利弊,企业自行组织的竞价处置方式因程序便捷、方式灵活、经济高效得到广泛应用,但也存在一定的风险。分析了竞价处置资产过程中方案设置、方案实施两个方面的程序及重要风险点,并提出了规避风险的建议。

  18. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and

  19. Strategy And Problems Of Road Engineering Bid%公路工程投标策略及投标注意问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 丁怀玉

    2011-01-01

    本文详细阐述了在投标过程中,各个阶段的注意事项及策略,并且详细研究招标文件和招标所在地的地理环境、人、机、料的价格、风土人情和地方的法律法规,使之更加科学合理的投标。%This paper states the proceeding and strategy of every phases in bid process,studies the inviting public bidding file,geography environment,human,machine and material price,climate and feeling,regional law and regulation of biding location to ensure science and reasonable bid.

  20. 工程建设项目招投标中的博弈量化分析%Game Quantitative Analysis on Tendering and Bidding of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭梅; 蔡光程; 甄晓云

    2014-01-01

    工程建设项目施工招投标中的竞标者、评标者之间存在一定的关联度和博弈关系。本文在目前招投标评标办法的基础上提出一种基于博弈的多方量化方法,利用竞标者报价、评标者以性能参数作为影响因子作评标估计,获得多竞标者参与竞标的最佳价格性能下的最优竞标价,以使评标过程更科学。实证数据实验结果显示通过该方法有利于鼓励竞争和保护质优价廉的竞标单位。%There exists a correlation and game relationship between users and bidders on tendering and bid-ding of a construction project.This paper presents a novel quantitative algorithm based on game theory for the user and the bidding corporations.This method uses the performance parameter to make an estimation for the bidding price.Optimum bidding value is obtained by the best performance values for all competition corpora-tions.It has more scientific decision for the process of bidding evaluation.Experimental results show that this method can embolden and protect the bedding enterprise of super quality and competitive price.

  1. Guaranteed prices, competitive bids or green certificates. What are the instruments to encourage the development of renewable energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration of the risk of a climatic change and the European States' obvious wish to seek high performance goals as regards the production of renewable electricity in order to meet it invite us to wonder about the relative efficiency of the inducement instruments used. The choice is between quantities - national objective-setting and competitive bids, or quota imposition and green certificate exchange - and prices - administered sales tariffs. This article examines the efficiency to these various inducement frameworks, from a theoretical point of view by opposing the price and quantity approaches, and also from a practical point of view, by referring to the concrete implementation experiences of the instruments. The article concludes that the administered price system is the most efficient compared with that of the bid system, but highlights the theoretical qualities of the approach with green certificates, which are to be confirmed by practice, given the influence of the market rules and structures on the performances of that type of approach. (authors)

  2. The Intraday Behaviour of Bid-Ask Spreads Across Auction and Specialist Market Structures: Evidence From The Italian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed liquidity across a trading day, and have documented that bid-ask spreads exhibita U-shaped pattern, with spreads wider at the start and end of the trading day, whilst spreads are tighter in themiddle of the day. This pattern has been attributed to inventory holding costs, the specialist’s market powerand adverse selection risk. On the 2nd April, 2001, several stocks on the Italian Bourse switched from anauction market to a specialist market. This provides a natural experiment where intraday spreads acrossdifferent market structures can be compared. Results indicate that volume, volatility and bid-ask spreadsexhibit the U-shaped intraday pattern both before and after the structural change. While time-weightedspreads are consistently higher throughout the trading day under the specialist structure, the specialists abilityto offer price improvement with the best quotes results in the ‘real’ cost of trading being lower under aspecialist system. These results are robust to the size of the firm, the event window around the structuralchange, as well as overall market-wide changes.

  3. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.

  4. Marketing in e-Commerce through the Implementation of the Service Perspective : A Case Study of the Start-Up Firm - EarnBidWin.com

    OpenAIRE

    Beik, Nima; Bergqvist, Kim; Karam, Jihane

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis will begin by highlighting the significance of social media networks and e-Commerce in today’s business environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop an external marketing strategy that can be employed by start-up firms operating in the e-Commerce of reverse auction sites.   The paper will particularly focus on the company EarnBidWin.com and the marketing strategy will be based on the Service Perspective. EarnBidWin.com is an online reverse auction site that is new and uniq...

  5. Modeling methods for GenCo bidding strategy optimization in the liberalized electricity spot market-A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity market has since 1980s been gradually evolving from a monopoly market into a liberalized one for encouraging competition and improving efficiency. This brings the opportunity for generation companies (GenCos) to make more profits while embracing more risks of not being dispatched. Therefore, it has become a core interest for the GenCos to develop optimal bidding strategies to maximize the profits and minimize the risks while participating in such a competitive market. The literature pertaining to this issue has grown rapidly in recent years, and many different modeling approaches, such as mathematical programming, game theory, and agent-based models, have been investigated under the liberalized market environment. Meanwhile, along with the increasing penetration of renewable energy, the electricity market is facing more complexity and stochasticity from both uncertain generation and dynamic demands. The intermittent and unsteady nature of these renewable power sources motivates the GenCos to further optimize their bidding strategy by considering the new constraints. This paper presents a comprehensive literature analysis on the state-of-the-art research of bidding strategy modeling methods. -- Highlights: → Publications on bidding in electricity spot markets are comprehensively reviewed. → Insights on the evolution of solution methodologies of recent 10 years are provided. → The pros and cons of these solution approaches are also discussed. → Future research directions, with renewable energy participations, are pointed out.

  6. On the Problem of University Equipment Bidding Procurement%高校设备招标采购问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉

    2012-01-01

    Bidding is to save money, improve the efficiency of a procurement method, standardization of the actual work of the col- leges and universities bidding procurement is an important work of the university management. This paper analyzes the equip- ment bidding procurement problems and put forward some measures to better implement the sun procurement, to improve the effi- ciency of bidding.%招投标是节约资金、提高效益的一种采购方法,如何使高校招投标采购的实际工作得到规范化,是高校管理的重要工作。文章分析了高校在设备招投标采购方面存在的问题并有针对性地提出几点措施,就更好地实施阳光采购工作,提高招投标的实效进行了探讨。

  7. 48 CFR 931.205-18 - Independent research and development (IR&D) and bid and proposal (B&P) costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development (IR&D) and bid and proposal (B&P) costs. 931.205-18 Section 931.205-18 Federal Acquisition... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 931.205-18 Independent research and development (IR&D)...

  8. Environmental aspects to be considered on public bids and concession agreements; A variavel ambiental na licitacao e no contrato de concessao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Maria Alice; Bezerra, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros, Maria Angelica [Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados Associados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present article is to discuss the controversies and propose solutions in order to manage environmental aspects aiming at minimizing excessive and unnecessary risks and costs for bid participants and concessionaires of the Brazilian oil and gas E and P activities. (author)

  9. BI-D1870 is a specific inhibitor of the p90 RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) isoforms in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Gopal P; Cummings, Lorna; Newell, Felicity S;

    2007-01-01

    , RSK3 and RSK4 in vitro with an IC(50) of 10-30 nM, but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher concentrations. BI-D1870 is cell permeant and prevents the RSK-mediated phorbol ester- and EGF (epidermal growth factor...

  10. Optimal bidding strategy of wind farms for joint operation with other ‎renewable resources in power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein parastegari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and bidding strategy of renewable units are two important problems of the restructured power market. In this paper, a new method for the joint operation of wind, photovoltaic and pump-storage units in day ahead power market is studied to increase the profit of joint units. In this study, artificial neural network is used to predict the wind power generation of wind farms. Since, there are uncertainties in energy and reserve prices, wind and photovoltaic power generation, the optimal operation of joint units can be modeled as a stochastic optimization problem. For this purpose, uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario tree method. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the renewable energy resources (wind farms, photovoltaic and pump-storage units of the modified IEEE 118 bus test system. Results of the proposed joint operation of renewable resources confirm that the value of expected profit increases in comparison with uncoordinated operation (UO of units.

  11. On the Optimization of Procurement Bidding Based on Value Engineering%基于价值工程对采购招标的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英斌; 余游; 比明智

    2015-01-01

    It is feasible and necessary to use value engineering theory in the enterprises' production and engineering construction to reduce the materials procurement cost of procurement bidding in purchasing management of enterprises' production and engineering construction. It needs to strengthen the values in the procurement bidding process of material for the enterprises' production and engineering construction and improve all the work of procurement bidding by value engineering theory. Based on value engineering theory, this paper studies the relationship between value engineering and procurement bidding. The studies of the paper are helpful to reduce the procurement cost and improve enterprises' revenue by value engineering for the material procurement bidding of enterprises' production and engineering construction.%在企业生产和工程建设中应用价值工程理论,降低采购招标材料购置成本,在企业生产和工程建设的采购管理中不仅可行而且是必要的。企业生产和工程建设在材料的招标采购过程中,需要强化价值观念,通过价值工程原理进行采购招标各项工作的改进。本文基于价值工程原理,研究了价值工程与采购招标的关系。本文的研究有助于在企业生产及工程建设进行材料招标采购时,通过价值工程管理降低采购成本,提高企业效益。

  12. Electricity market auction settings in a future Danish electricity system with a high penetration of renewable energy sources - A comparison of marginal pricing and pay-as-bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term goal for Danish energy policy is to be free of fossil fuels through the increasing use of renewable energy sources (RES) including fluctuating renewable electricity (FRE). The Danish electricity market is part of the Nordic power exchange, which uses a Marginal Price auction system (MPS) for the day-ahead auctions. The market price is thus equal to the bidding price of the most expensive auction winning unit. In the MPS, the FRE bid at prices of or close to zero resulting in reduced market prices during hours of FRE production. In turn, this reduces the FRE sources' income from market sales. As more FRE is implemented, this effect will only become greater, thereby reducing the income for FRE producers. Other auction settings could potentially help to reduce this problem. One candidate is the pay-as-bid auction setting (PAB), where winning units are paid their own bidding price. This article investigates the two auction settings, to find whether a change of auction setting would provide a more suitable frame for large shares of FRE. This has been done with two energy system scenarios with different shares of FRE. From the analysis, it is found that MPS is generally better for the FRE sources. The result is, however, very sensitive to the base assumptions used for the calculations. -- Highlights: → In this study two different auction settings for the Danish electricity market are compared. → Two scenarios are used in the analyses, one representing the present system and one representing a future 100% renewable energy system. → We find that marginal price auction system is most suitable for supporting fluctuating renewable energy in both scenarios. → The results are very sensitive to the assumptions about bidding prices for each technology.

  13. The Evasion of Legal Risk in Library Bids Purchasing%图书馆招标采购中的法律风险与规避

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆媛媛

    2012-01-01

    The library can carry on invitation to bid when buying electronics resources, modem equipments, and book etc. The library may undertake a law responsibility because of the law forbidding contents in the tender doc- ument ; breaching the law requirements to modify on a materiality negotiation; illegally signing the the tender document; illegal procedure of bid opening; carrying contract of the acceptance of the bid; and spilling the beans. The law risk of the inviting bids can be evaded through a certain measure. The article carries on a detailed dis- cussion about the law risk and its solutions of the purchasing bids of the library.%图书馆采购电子资源、现代化设备、图书等可以进行招标。招标采购过程中,图书馆可因招标文件包含法律规定的禁止性内容、违反法律规定修改招标文件、开标程序不合法、进行实质性谈判、违法签订中标合同,以及泄露秘密等而承担法律责任。招标采购中的法律风险可以通过一定措施予以规避。文章对图书馆招标采购过程中遇到的法律风险和应对措施进行了详细讨论。

  14. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  15. 如何提高技术标与施工组织设计的编制水平%On improvement of technical bids and compilation for design of construction organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓捷

    2012-01-01

    基于投标技术标和施工组织设计编制的重要性,论述了提高投标技术标和施工组织设计编制水平的方法,从而指导施工单位高效施工,提高单位的综合竞争力,创造出更大的经济效益。%Based on the importance of the bidding for the technical bids and the compilation for the design of the construction organization,the study indicates the methods to improve the bidding of the technical bids and the compilation for the design of the construction organization,so as to direct the construction enterprises to have efficient construction,to enhance their comprehensive competitions,and to create larger economic benefits.

  16. 浅谈铁路施工图招标模式下的变更索赔应对策略%Coping Strategy for Modification Claim under the Mode of Railway Construction Drawing Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛惊天

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly expounds the difference between railway project preliminary design bidding and construction drawing bidding, analyzes the characteristics of construction drawing bidding, and proposes the coping strategy for modification claim of construction drawing bidding projects, which is of referential value.%本文主要阐述了铁路项目初步设计招标与施工图招标之间差异,分析了施工图招标项目的特点,并提出了施工图招标项目变更索赔应对策略,进而为铁路工程施工图招标项目变更索赔提供参考依据。

  17. Signal transduction mediated by Bid, a pro-death Bcl-2 family proteins, connects the death receptor and mitochondria apoptosis pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two major apoptosis pathways have been defined in mammalian cells, the Fas/TNF-R1 death receptor pathway and the mitochondria pathway. The Bcl-2 family proteins consist of both anti-apoptosis and pro- apoptosis members that regulate apoptosis, mainly by controlling the release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, death signals mediated by Fas/TNF-R1 receptors can usually activate caspases directly, bypassing the need for mitochondria and escaping the regulation by Bcl-2 family proteins. Bid is a novel pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family protein that is activated by caspase 8 in response to Fas/TNF-R1 death receptor signals. Activated Bid is translocated to mitochondria and induces cytochrome c release, which in turn activates downstream caspases. Such a connection between the two apoptosis pathways could be important for induction of apoptosis in certain types of cells and responsible for the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases.

  18. 一种简单易行的投标报价方法%On simple and feasible bidding and pricing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小明; 谷新莲

    2012-01-01

    According to the research on the bidding, pricing and compiling with cost plus benefits, the paper analyzes the compiling methods of the bidding and pricing with cost plus benefits, and points out some compiling strategies, so it is meaningful to enhance the application of the pricing methods with cost plus benefits.%通过对成本加利润投标报价编制内容的研究,分析了成本加利润投标报价的编制方法,提出了成本加利润投标报价的编制策略,对成本加利润报价方法的推广有重要意义。

  19. El financiamiento de las competencias profesionales del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en la educación superior tecnológica (EST de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez Padilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación que tiene lugar entre el gobierno mexicano con organismos internacionales como el Banco Mundial (BM y, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID para el financiamiento de las competencias profesionales en las Instituciones de Educación Superior Tecnológicas (IEST. Desde la perspectiva teórica de la Nueva Gestión Pública (NGP se argumenta que el BID, a través de sus programas de competencias profesionales, tiene una gran influencia en las funciones y atribuciones de las Universidades Politécnicas (UUPP y, que dichos programas responden más a una lógica de compromisos institucionales que a una evaluación efectiva de resultados

  20. 采供血机构设备招标采购模式的探讨%Discussion on Bidding Procurement Model of Devices in Blood Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃鱼; 郑拉让

    2013-01-01

    本文探讨了采供血机构公开招标、邀请招标、竞争性谈判、单一来源采购、询价采购等多种采购方式及注意事项,旨在建立血站设备的采购模式,提高设备采购的时效和资金的使用效率,建立起规范的血站设备管理机制.%This paper discusses the main methods of public bidding, invitational bidding, competitive negotiation, single source purchase, enquiry purchase and attentions of establishing device procurement mode in blood stations, in order to improve the efficiency of device procurement and the use of funds, and build a standardized device management mechanism in the blood center.

  1. The arguments of corporate directors in takeover bids: Comparing argumentative strategies in the context of friendly and hostile offers in the UK takeover market

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Rudi; Rigotti, Eddo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes argumentative interactions in the context of corporate takeover bids, representing thus a first systematic study of financial communication from the perspective of argumentation theory. In general, the importance of financial communication is justified by the relevance of information for making sound investment decisions (cf. Healy & Palepu 2001; Williams 2008). But, information is a crucial factor insofar as it is an essential component of the argumentative...

  2. A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20-O-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponin formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. IH901 led to an early activation of procaspase-3 (12 h posttreatment), and the activation of caspase-8 became evident only later (18 h posttreatment). Caspase activation was a necessary requirement for apoptosis because caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited cell death by IH901. Treatment of HepG2 cells with IH901 also induced the cleavage of cytosolic factors such as Bid and Bax and translocation of truncated Bid (tBid) to mitochondria. A time-dependent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was observed, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-9. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), and a specific inhibitor for caspase-8, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zIETD-fmk), abrogated Bid processing and translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Cytochrome c release was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, however, the inhibition by zIETD-fmk was not complete. The activation of caspase-8 was inhibited not only by zIETD-fmk but also by zVAD-fmk. The results, together with the kinetic change of caspase activation, indicate that activation of caspase-8 occurred downstream of caspase-3 and -9. Our data suggest that the activation of caspase-8 after early caspase-3 activation might act as an amplification loop necessary for successful apoptosis. Primary hepatocytes isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were not affected by IH901 (0-60 μM). The very low toxicity in normal hepatocytes and high activity in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells suggest that IH901 is a promising experimental cancer chemopreventive agent

  3. Nuclear translocation of annexin 1 following oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion induces apoptosis by regulating Bid expression via p53 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Zhao, Yin; Xia, Qian; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Baoming; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the nuclear translocation of annexin 1 (ANXA1) is involved in neuronal apoptosis after ischemic stroke. As the mechanism and function of ANXA1 nuclear migration remain unclear, it is important to clarify how ANXA1 performs its role as an apoptosis 'regulator' in the nucleus. Here we report that importazole (IPZ), an importin β (Impβ)-specific inhibitor, decreased ANXA1 nuclear accumulation and reduced the rate of neuronal death induced by nuclear ANXA1 migration after oxygen-glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R). Notably, ANXA1 interacted with the Bid (BH3-interacting-domain death agonist) promoter directly; however; this interaction could be partially blocked by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Accordingly, ANXA1 was shown to interact with p53 in the nucleus and this interaction was enhanced following OGD/R. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANXA1 was involved in the regulation of p53-mediated transcriptional activation after OGD/R. Consistent with this finding, the nuclear translocation of ANXA1 after OGD/R upregulated the expression of Bid, which was impeded by IPZ, ANXA1 shRNA, or PFT-α. Finally, cell-survival testing demonstrated that silencing ANXA1 could improve the rate of cell survival and decrease the expression of both cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. These data suggested that Impβ-dependent nuclear ANXA1 migration participates in the OGD/R-dependent induction of neuronal apoptosis. ANXA1 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 transcriptional activity, which in turn regulates Bid expression. Silencing ANXA1 decreases the expression of Bid and suppresses caspase-3 pathway activation, thus improving cell survival after OGD/R. This study provides a novel mechanism whereby ANXA1 regulates apoptosis, suggesting the potential for a previously unidentified treatment strategy in minimizing apoptosis after OGD/R. PMID:27584794

  4. 47 CFR 27.501 - 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz bands subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz bands... Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.501 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz bands subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for licenses in the 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz,...

  5. Bidding Type to Select Government-invested Projects Construction Agency%政府投资项目代建单位招标方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严玲; 高海超; 杨苓刚

    2011-01-01

    针对代建单位招标中存在操作上不规范的问题,明确了代建单位招标是一种咨询服务采购,借鉴国外成熟的工程咨询服务招标方法改进我国政府投资项目代建单位招标.考虑到国内代建制的实际情况,引入声誉机制建立基于代建名录的代建单位招标程序,对规模小的全过程代建项目可以利用代建名录实行基于资质一阶段招标;提出了代建单位招标中的项目管理技术方案评审标准,以保证代建单位的代建能力.该方法对规模大、技术要求高的代建项目比较适用.%The non - standard operations in the bid of selecting construction agency were discussed; it is clear that selecting construction agency from bidding is a project consulting service procurement. In order to improve the bidding type to select construction agency,it's better to draw lessons from foreign countries. There are two key issues to solve the problem. One is using reputation mechanism to build construction agent list to solve the issues of qualification. The other is building the technical scheme for project management in bidding to select capable construction agency. The method is suitable to those projects in great scale and in high technical requirements.

  6. 桩基工程投标决策方法研究%Research on Decision-Making Method of Bidding for a Pile Foundation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽文

    2001-01-01

    以定量分析为基础,从风险和收益两方面入手,根据风险与收益均衡原则进行了决策过程的计算、分析, 并建立了投标方案的决策准则.在总结投标实践经验的基础上,构建了报价方案程序,初步研究了中标概率的确定方法,并结合工程实例验证了所提方法的正确性.同时,将决策树法应用于决策判断,使决策更为准确、快速.为桩基施工企业选择出风险小、收益大的投标决策方案提供了科学依据.%Based on the factors of quantitative analysis, risk and profit, the decision-making process was calculated and analyzed, and the decision-making principle for a bidding scheme was established according to the equilibrium principle of risk and profit. Based on the experience of bidding practice, the author established a bidding offer procedure and put out a method for determining the bid winning probability. The example shows that the method is correct and practical. Meanwhile, the method of decision-making tree can be used to form a quick and accurate decision-making judgment, providing a scientific basis for those pile foundation enterprises to select a scheme with minimized risk and maximized profit.

  7. Stage-specific expression of TNFα regulates bad/bid-mediated apoptosis and RIP1/ROS-mediated secondary necrosis in Birnavirus-infected fish cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Wang

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV can induce Bad-mediated apoptosis followed by secondary necrosis in fish cells, but it is not known how these two types of cell death are regulated by IPNV. We found that IPNV infection can regulate Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic death pathways via the up-regulation of TNFα in zebrafish ZF4 cells. Using a DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, two major subsets of differentially expressed genes were characterized, including the innate immune response gene TNFα and the pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bid. In the early replication stage (0-6 h post-infection, or p.i., we observed that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα underwent a rapid six-fold induction. Then, during the early-middle replication stages (6-12 h p.i., TNFα level was eight-fold induction and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bad and Bid were up-regulated. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of TNFα expression (AG-126 or TNFα-specific siRNA were used to block apoptotic and necrotic death signaling during the early or early-middle stages of IPNV infection. Inhibition of TNFα expression dramatically reduced the Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic cell death pathways and rescued host cell viability. Moreover, we used Rip1-specific inhibitors (Nec-1 and Rip1-specific siRNA to block Rip1 expression. The Rip1/ROS-mediated secondary necrotic pathway appeared to be reduced in IPNV-infected fish cells during the middle-late stage of infection (12-18 h p.i.. Taken together, our results indicate that IPNV triggers two death pathways via up-stream induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, and these results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RNA viruses.

  8. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data: Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Feng Gu; Wei Chen; Wei-Xing Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhib...

  9. Research on internal control construction of bidding and procurement in colleges and universities%高校招标采购内部控制建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延召; 祝光英

    2016-01-01

    该文分析了高校招标采购涉及的内部控制具体要素及存在的问题和风险,研究了高校招标采购在风险评估、内部环境、控制活动、信息与沟通、内部监督等方面的建设和完善措施,提出了设置独立统一的招标采购部门、加强事前事中与事后控制、建立决策论证和审批制度、采用信息管理系统和电子化招投标平台、建立回访和后评价制度、建立风险评估机制等对策和方法,使招标采购更加符合内部控制理念,更好地实现服务学校发展的目标。%This article analyzes the internal control elements involved in bidding and procurement ,and analyzes the problems and risks of bidding and procurement in internal environment ,control activities ,information and communication ,internal supervision ,etc .To solve the problems and risks ,this article studies the measures of internal control construction ,such as setting up an independent unified bidding and procurement management department ,establishing decision argumentation and approval system ,using information management systems and electronic bidding and procurement platform ,establishing a post‐evaluation system and a risk assessment mechanism ,in order to better serve the development of colleges and universities .

  10. 浅谈招标的前期策划与风控管理%Talk about bidding planning and wind control management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘扬

    2015-01-01

    Basedon the "Bidding Law", "government procurement law","construction project bidding for goods approach","international bidding of mechanical and electrical products implementation approach"and other laws and regulations as the basis, to planning the tender and the risk control work. In order to regulate the operation of the tender procedures as a means to tender process risk node control as the focus, in order to optimize the bidding business process for the purpose ofenterprises, closely around the core interests, and take effective measures to reduce the possibilities of risk events, reduce or control the risk event occurs caused by the loss of.%基于《招标投标法》、《政府采购法》、《工程建设项目货物招标投标办法》、《机电产品国际招标投标实施办法》等法律、法规为依据,做好招标的前期策划以及风险控制工作。以规范招标操作程序为手段,以招标流程风险节点控制为重点,以优化招标业务流程为目的,紧紧围绕企业核心利益,采取有效措施,降低风险事件发生的各种可能性,有效减少或控制风险事件发生时造成的损失。

  11. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data. Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G.-F.; Chen, W.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2007-05-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhibits evident intraday patterns consisting of a big L-shape in morning transactions and a small L-shape in the afternoon. The distributions of the spread with different definitions decay as power laws. The tail exponents of spreads at transaction level are well within the interval (2,3) and that of average spreads are well in line with the inverse cubic law for different time intervals. Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis, we found the evidence of long memory in the bid-ask spread time series for all three definitions, even after the removal of the intraday pattern. Using the classical box-counting approach for multifractal analysis, we show that the time series of bid-ask spread do not possess multifractal nature.

  12. 在线拍卖中托投标的监管博弈模型研究%Supervision game of shill bidding in online auctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕绪华; 陈莉莉; 邹明田

    2013-01-01

    针对在线拍卖中卖方实施托投标拍卖出现的欺诈行为,在考虑成本因素的条件下采用非合作博弈理论和方法建立了托投标监管博弈模型,并定量分析监管部门与拍卖方之间互相依存下的决策以及混合纳什均衡问题。通过该模型对拍卖网站监管方和拍卖方决策行为的研究,得出网站监管部门对卖者托投标的最优罚款系数解析式。%In light of the shill bidding fraud by the seller in online auctions ,this paper builds a supervi-sion game model for the shill bidding on the basis of non-cooperation game theory and method with the cost factors considered .It analyzes the possible strategies and the mixed Nash equilibrium w hen the supervision department and sellers are interdependent .With the research into the strategies by the regulatory authorities and the sellers ,it has obtained the optimal penalty factor analytic formula that can be used as a guidance by the regulatory authorities in their punishment of the sellers w ho have cheated by shill bidding .

  13. Matrine induces caspase-independent program cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma through bid-mediated nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Gao, Ya; Deng, Zhigang; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Zhan, Yanyan; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-03-16

    Matrine, a clinical drug in China, has been used to treat viral hepatitis, cardiac arrhythmia and skin inflammations. Matrine also exhibits chemotherapeutic potential through its ability to trigger cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the major determinant for the cell death induced by matrine in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We use human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in nude mice as models to study the action of matrine in hepatocellular cancers. We found that caspase-dependent and -independent Program Cell Death (PCD) occurred in matrine-treated HepG2 cells, accompanied by the decreasing of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the increasing ROS production. Further studies showed that AIF released from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and silencing of AIF reduced the caspase-independent PCD induced by matrine. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation, and the subsequent cell death as well, was prevented by Bid inhibitor BI-6C9, Bid-targeted siRNA and ROS scavenger Tiron. In the in vivo study, matrine significantly attenuated tumor growth with AIF release from mitochondria into nucleus in nude mice. These data imply that matrine potently induce caspase-independent PCD in HepG2 cells through Bid-mediated AIF translocation.

  14. 政府电子采购招标的过程和科学方法%Process and scientific method of government procurement bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会财

    2015-01-01

    当前情况下,我国政府采购最主要的方式就是招投标,公开、公平、公正是该采购方式的主要优势.评标作为政府采购招标的过程的关键,使能够最大效益化的采购形式.在我国近年来市场经济的框架下,政府开始日趋完善采购政策,而且逐步扩大采购的规模,如此就使得采购评标过程成为了多目标评价的复杂系统.%At present, our country government procurement the most important way is to recruit, open, fair and just is the main advantage of the procurement mode. Bid evaluation as the key to the process of government procurement bidding, so that the maximum benefit of the purchase form. In the framework of market economy in China in recent years, the government began to increasingly improve the procurement policy, and gradually expand the purchasing scale, so it makes the bidding process has become a multi objective evaluation of complex systems.

  15. 论远程电子评标的风险规避与防范%Risk Avoidance and Prevention of Remote Electronic Bid Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪宇

    2012-01-01

    远程电子评标具有评标电子化、评委异地化、平台虚拟化、组织远程化、监管网络化等特点,是电子招投标的发展方向。但在实践中存在缺乏法规支持、身份容易被冒用、网络环境复杂、难以组织协调、监管不到位等风险。通过健全立法、完善认证管理、加强预案演练、推行评标标准化建设、创新监管机制等措施能够进行有效的风险规避与防范。%Remote electronic bid evaluation has the features of evaluation electronically,off-site judges,virtual platform,remote organization and net work supervision,it is the development trend of electronic bidding.But there are some risks in practice,such as lacking of legislation support,identity easy to counterfeit,the complexity of the network environment,hard to organization,absence of regulation.Through strengthening legislation,perfecting certification management,reinforcing plans to drill,implementing bid evaluation standardization,innovating regulatory mechanism,the risks can be avoid and prevent.

  16. 第二价格密封招标中串谋预防机制研究%Conspiracy Prevention Mechanism in the Second Price Sealing Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖梅

    2012-01-01

    第二价格密封拍卖和招标机制作为一种可以使投标人“说真话”的机制受到理论界的广泛关注.本文研究了第二价格密封招标中,如何采用公开保留价机制对投标人平行串谋进行预防.首先建立了第二价格密封招标的串谋组织报价及利润分配机制,然后分析了存在串谋时招标人应采用的公开保留价定价机制,最后研究了串谋组织成员人数与招标公开保留价之间的关系.%The second price sealing auction and bidding mechanism as a mechanism which can make a bidder "tell the truth" attracts the concern of the theoretical circles. The article studies how to use public reservation mechanism to prevent conspiracy in bidding. First, establish conspiracy organization and profit distribution mechanism in the second price sealing offer, and analyzes the pricing mechanism of public reservation price that tenderee when they have conspiracy. At last, it studies the relationship of the number of conspiracy organization member and bidding public reservation price.

  17. Analysis of Construction Project Bidding Management Problems and Countermeasures%建设工程招投标管理工作问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶晶

    2015-01-01

    为保障建筑工程市场公平竞争,我国逐步完善了招标投标制度,但目前招投标市场仍存在一些问题,不仅破坏了市场竞争的公平性,同时也严重侵害了其它市场主体的合法权益,为社会发展和经济市场带来负面效应。本文主要阐述了当前我国工程建设领域的招投标过程中存在的一些问题,分析问题存在的原因,并提出相应的防范策略。%In order to guarantee fair competition in the building construction market , China has gradually improved the bidding system .But the current bidding market still have some problems , not only undermined the fairness of market competition , but also seriously infringed upon the legitimate rights and interests of other market players , give negative effect to social development and economic markets .This pa-per describes some currently existing problems of the construction field bidding process , and analyzes the reasons of problems and proposes appropriate preventive strategies .

  18. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with relative household income, diet and inflammation in the pSoBid cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Shiels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences. METHODS: A total of 382 blood samples from the pSoBid study were available for telomere analysis. For each participant, data was available for socio-economic status factors, biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Statistical analyses were undertaken to investigate the association between telomere lengths and these aforementioned parameters. RESULTS: The rate of age-related telomere attrition was significantly associated with low relative income, housing tenure and poor diet. Notably, telomere length was positively associated with LDL and total cholesterol levels, but inversely correlated to circulating IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest lower socio-economic status and poor diet are relevant to accelerated biological ageing. They also suggest potential associations between elevated circulating IL-6, a measure known to predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes with biological ageing. These observations require further study to tease out potential mechanistic links.

  19. Involvement of BID translocation in glycyrrhetinic acid and 11-deoxy glycyrrhetinic acid-induced attenuation of gastric cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejian; Zhong, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main chemical constituents of licorice, has shown remarkable anticancer activity. However, the side effects limit its widespread use. 11-DOGA is produced through reduction of GA 11-carbonyl to 11-hydroxyl to reduce its side effects, although its anticancer activities are largely unknown. Here, we report that the functional mechanisms of GA and 11-DOGA in gastric cancers, as well as the comparison between these two drugs' pharmacological potential. Firstly, we found that GA and 11-DOGA significantly inhibits the viabilities of gastric cancer cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Both GA and 11-DOGA induce gastric cancer cells apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2 phase by upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cdc2 and cyclin B1. Further studies show that GA and 11-DOGA-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells is associated with BID translocation from nucleus to mitochondria. Moreover, GA and 11-DOGA could effectively inhibit tumor formation of gastric cancer cells in nude mice. Comparing with 11-DOGA, GA presents higher toxicity toward gastric cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, the elucidation of the functional mechanisms of GA and 11-DOGA-induced attenuation of gastric cancer growth suggests a possible therapeutic role of GA and its derivatives.

  20. Optimal Bidding Strategy of Generation Companies (GenCos in Energy and Spinning Reserve Markets Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bidding strategy become modeling to day-ahead markets. The proposed algorithm is related to the point of view of a generation company (Genco that its end is maximized its benefit as a participant in sale markets of active power and spinning reserve. In this method, hourly forecasted energy price (FEP and forecasted reserve price (FRP is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. A bi-level optimization problem That first level, is used to maximize the individual Genco’s payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer’s payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. In this paper use of the game theory in exist optimization model. The paper proposes a linear programming approach. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities.

  1. Status Quo and Countermeasures of Essential Drug Bidding Policy in China%我国基本药物招投标政策的实施现状和完善对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 伍林生

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status quo and countermeasure of essential drug bidding policy. METHODS: Through understanding national essential drug bidding policy, based on the status quo of essential drug bidding policy, the problems about essential drug bidding were analyzed. RESULTS: Cost and price are not in balance during the implementation of national essential drug bidding policy, so that some enterprises had to withdraw from competitive bidding and the public were prevent from benefit. CONCLUSION: In the process of essential drugs bidding, the medical problems of "Difficulty and High Cost of Getting Medical Service" can really be resolved by balancing the relationship of quality and price, providing good quality and reasonable price drugs.%目的:探讨基本药物招投标政策的实施现状和完善对策.方法:通过解读国家基本药物招投标政策,着眼于基本药物招投标的实施现状,分析当前基本药物招投标实际操作中存在的问题.结果:国家基本药物招投标政策在推行过程中成本与价格倒挂的尴尬局面,使得一部分企业不得不退出竞标,百姓无法得到真正的实惠.结论:在基本药物招投标实施的过程中,平衡质量与价格的关系,为百姓提供质量优先、价格合理的药物,才有可能真正缓解百姓“看病难,看病贵”的问题.

  2. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  3. 基于B/S模式的高校招标采购管理信息系统建设%Based on B/S mode universities bidding management information system construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺锦

    2013-01-01

      针对传统招标采购管理存在资金来源多、工作效率低、档案管理难等问题,根据高校招标采购工作的需求,基于B/S模式,开发出一套招标采购管理系统,规范工作流程,提高工作效率,调动工作积极性。同时,系统可以及时查询采购工作的状态,统计采购信息,为领导决策和群众监督提供方便快捷的信息服务。%Aiming at the problems of the management mode of the traditional bidding procurement work, such as existing funding sources, low efficiency, the difficulty of file management, according to the needs of universities bidding procurement work, based on B/S model. People can develop a set of bidding procurement management system to standardize work processes, improve work efficiency, and mobilize the work enthusiasm. The same time, the system can query the status of the bidding procurement work, count the information of the bidding procurement work, and provide convenient information for leadership decision-making.

  4. A Procurement-bidding Method of Consigned Goods for a Grid Company%电网寄售物资的采购招标方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝泽军; 汪曲

    2015-01-01

    以电网公司采购需求量事先不能完全确定的寄售物资为对象,结合拍卖和谈判理论探讨了一种基于价格list 的物资采购招标方法。根据采购商和供应商的效用函数,给出了价格 list 模型和采购招标机制,设计和分析了供应商的得分规则和投标规则,进而以采购商效用最大化为目标建立了一个供应商选择模型,并增加了采购商和入围供应商谈判议价的环节,旨在进一步改善招标采购的效率。%Combined with the auction and negotiation theory,a bidding method based on price list is investigated,whose research object is a grid company purchasing some uncertain amount of consigned goods.Concretely,based on the buyer's utility function and the suppliers'profit utility function,we give the definition and assumption of the price list model and the mechanism of procurement-bidding,and the scoring rules and bidding rules are also designed and analyzed.Moreover,aiming at maximizing the buyer's expected utility,an optimization model of selecting the suppliers is established.And a process of negotiation between the buyer and the candidate supplier is added to improve the biding efficiency.

  5. 药品招标采购活动中相关质量术语解读%Interpretation of the Quality Related Terminology in Pharmaceutical Bidding Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 付加雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a monographic study and analysis on the issues of varied interpretations of the related terminology of drug quality in the pharmaceutical bidding schemes of various provinces and cities . Methods:The drug-related quality terminology used in each provincial pharmaceutical bidding scheme was summarized and ana-lyzed . Results:The new interpretations of the quality terms were worked out with more scientific explanations and sug-gestions as well . Conclusion: The standardization and unification of quality related terminology are not only conducive to the country ’ s pharmaceutical bidding activities , but also benefit to the level classification of pharmaceutical quality .%目的:针对目前各省市药品招标采购方案中药品相关的质量术语的解释存在不同的问题,进行专题研究和分析。方法:对各省药品招标采购方案中药品相关的质量术语进行总结、归纳与分析。结果:对各术语进行了新的解读,并给出了更为科学的解释和建议。结论:各个质量术语的规范与统一,不仅有利于全国的药品招标采购活动,更有利于药品的质量层次划分。

  6. A New Method for Construction Engineering Bidding Evaluation%基于改进数据包络分析的建设工程评标模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双晴; 袁永博; 双凯

    2012-01-01

    Bidding evaluation is a complex but important decision making process for buyer to ensure the project accomplish smoothly. This paper seeks to build a new bidding evaluation model by introducing a DEA cross-efficiency method with alternative secondary functions. The basic idea is to impose commercial standard as target and technical data as constrained condition. An illustrative example of a practice example is given to test and verity, and compare with the traditional DEA model. The result shows the new model produce a unique rank which is suitable for the construction engineering bidding evaluation.%建设工程评标是一项复杂的系统工程.为建立合理的评标决策支持系统,根据实际评标建立以商务标为目标函数,以技术标为约束条件的评标模型.引入数据包络分析(DEA)方法,建立第二目标函数为决策单元非效率值总和最小模型,进行交叉评价,解决了CCR模型在实际应用中不能完全确定中标顺序的问题.通过实际案例分析,交叉评价模型能够产生独立效率值并进行有效排序,证明了评标模型的可操作性与适用性.

  7. 经平审的最低投标价评标办法研究%Research on the Lowest Bid Evaluation Method after Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀亭

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the application scope of the lowest bid evaluation method after appraisal and the reason of award price lower than cost price, puts forward some countermeasures to ensure the award price is rational low price.%通过对经评审的最低投标价评标办法的适用范围和中标价低于成本价成因的分析,提出确保合理低价中标应采取的措施.

  8. 浅议WBS在大型国际工程投标中的应用%Application of WBS in the Large-scale International Project Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田昊

    2011-01-01

    WBS(Work Breakdown Structure)is a powerful tool for project management.Combining with instance with the international tender, based on the concept and principles of WBS, the criteria and methods of the application of WBS in large-scale international project bidding are discussed.%WBS(工作分解结构)是项目管理的有力工具.结合国际工程投标实例,依据WBS的概念与原则,探讨了WBS在大型国际工程投标中应用的准则与方法.

  9. Profitability of a Hydro Power Producer Bidding in Multiple Markets - An Analysis of the Specific Case of Tokke-Vinje Hydro Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jakob Boye Ørbæk; Rasmussen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of this project has been to study the production scheduling of a hydro power producer exposed to the day-ahead, balancing and capacity market. The objective was to find what profit the producer may achieve by strategically bid in the above mentioned markets. A prototype model that undertakes this task has been developed by SINTEF Energy Research as a part of their project "Integrating Balancing Markets in Hydro Power Scheduling Methods". It is a multi-stage, multi-scenario...

  10. 招投标有形市场市场活跃度研究--以某市招投标交易中心交易情况为例%Explore the Market Activity of Bidding Tangible Market--Takes the Transactions of Bidding Trade Center in A City as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a city bidding trade center as an example to explore the bidding tangible market activity. The author first carries on the definition from the four dimensions on the bidding tangible market activity, then uses the reference method and analyzes the fol owed four dimens-ions of market activity to obtain the market activity market of each month.%本文以某市招投标交易中心为例,对招投标有形市场活跃度开展了研究。首先,从四个维度对招投标有形市场活跃度进行了定义。然后利用基准法,依次从四个维度对市场活跃度进行了分析,得出了市场各个月份的市场活跃度。

  11. 专业院校图书馆文献采购研究%A Study on the Purchase of Books and Materials by way of Bidding in Libraries in Specialized Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes bidding way of Chinese book purchase in recent years, describes an active role in the bidding way and points out the shortcomings, especially for those libraries in specialized schools. Focusing on the negative aspects of book purchase by way of bidding,this paper come up with some suggestions and solutions to improve the purchase for libraries in speqialized schools.%本文对近年来图书采购招标方式进行了分析,重点阐述了专业院校图书采购招标的不足之处,并结合工作实际,提出了采购专业类文献资料的建议和对策。

  12. On prevention of malicious acceptance of bidding at lower price in construction programs%如何防范建设工程项目恶意低价中标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞跃

    2012-01-01

    针对目前工程建设项目招标中恶意低价中标现象,探讨了具体的防范措施,提出应从投标人的筛选,招标文件的报价要求,评标办法的设置及承包合同等方面入手,加强防范,从各个环节避免恶意低价中标行为。%The paper explores some factual prevention measures towards those malicious acceptance of bidding at lower price in current construction programs,points out the prevention should start from the selection of bidders,the pricing requirement of bidding documents,the allocation of the bidding evaluation methods and the contract,so as to strengthen the prevention and avoid these malicious acceptance behavior at all steps.

  13. Analysis on the Features and Operation Modes of Bid and Tender in Urban and Rural Planning%城乡规划招投标特点及运行模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代瑞刚

    2015-01-01

    阐述了城乡规划组织编制现状及存在问题,论述了实施城乡规划招投标的重要意义,比较了城乡规划招投标特点,分析了城乡规划招投标运行模式。%ABSTRACT:This paper expounds the current situation of and existing problems in the organization and compilation of urban and rural planning, discusses the important significance of implementing the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, compares the features of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, and analyzes the operation modes of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning.

  14. 建设项目投标阶段的工程造价风险规避%Risk Aversion of Engineering Cost in the Bidding Stage in Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚红

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the risk of engineering cost in bidding stage, the paper systematic-al y studied the factors causing bidding risk and response mea-sures, which is of great practical significance to avoid the risk of bidding of construction projects.%本文在分析工程造价投标阶段风险的特点上,系统地研究了投标风险产生的因素和应对措施,对建设项目规避投标报价风险具有重大的实践指导意义。

  15. 试论工程量清单模式下不平衡报价的应对策略%Response Strategy of Unbalanced Bids under the Mode of Bill of Quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文亮; 李慧英

    2011-01-01

    现行的工程量清单计价模式下,大量承包商往往采用不平衡报价手法,严重影响了建设工程施工合同的生成和实施.本文描述了不平衡报价的分类,列举了承包商不平衡报价的常用手法,提出防范不平衡报价的应对策略.%Under the current mode of Bill of Quantities, the large number of contractors often quoted the unbalanced way which seriously affects the formation and implementation of construction contract. This paper describes the classification of unbalanced bids, lists common way of unbalanced bid of the contractor, and proposes the response strategy to prevent unbalanced bids.

  16. On exploration for bidding and pricing strategies for TBM tunneling long and large tunnel%TBM掘进长大隧洞投标报价策略的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占平

    2012-01-01

    以某工程为例,通过对招标文件、专用条款、技术条款、工期及进度指标分析、TBM采购方式、业主招标控制价价格等因素评审,结合类似项目已完工程TBM掘进工程成本,制订了项目投标报价策略,以便工程应用。%Taking some project as the example, the paper reviews some factors, including the bidding documents, the special and technical terms and conditions, the construction period, the progress index analysis, TBM purchase ways, and the bidding control and pricing for owners, and makes out the bidding and pricing strategies for the program by combining with the tunneling engineering cost for the finished projects of similar programs, so as to adopt it in projects.

  17. EXPO BIDS ADIEU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    World Expo in Shanghai concludes amid praise and increased communication between China and the rest of the world The 184-day 2010 World Expo in Shanghai came to an end with a spectacular closing ceremony on the evening of October 31, which was attended by a host of world leaders. The first Expo staged in a developing

  18. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  19. EXPO BIDS ADIEU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 184-day 2010 World Expo in Shanghai came to an end with a spectacular closing ceremony on the evening of October 31,which was attended by a host of world leaders. The first Expo staged in a developing country in the event's 159-year history,the Expo in Shanghai attracted 246 participating countries and international organizations and 73 million visitors.Both figures are Expo records.

  20. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data: Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, G F; Zhou, W X; Chen, Wei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhibits evident intraday patterns consisting of a big L-shape in the morning and a small L-shape in the afternoon. The distributions of the spread with different definitions decay as power laws. The tail exponents of spreads at transaction level are well within the interval $(2,3)$ and that of average spreads are well in line with the inverse cubic law for different time intervals. Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis, we find evidence of long memory in the bid-ask spread time series for all three definitions, even aft...

  1. Enhanced Biological Trace Organic Contaminant Removal: A Lab-Scale Demonstration with Bisphenol A-Degrading Bacteria Sphingobium sp. BiD32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nicolette A; Gough, Heidi L

    2016-08-01

    Discharge of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may contribute to deleterious effects on aquatic life. Release to the environment occurs both through WWTP effluent discharge and runoff following land applications of biosolids. This study introduces Enhanced Biological TOrC Removal (EBTCR), which involves continuous bioaugmentation of TOrC-degrading bacteria for improved removal in WWTPs. Influence of bioaugmentation on enhanced degradation was investigated in two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), using bisphenol A (BPA) as the TOrC. The reactors were operated with 8 cycles per day and at two solids retention times (SRTs). Once each day, the test reactor was bioaugmented with Sphingobium sp. BiD32, a documented BPA-degrading culture. After bioaugmentation, BPA degradation (including both the dissolved and sorbed fractions) was 2-4 times higher in the test reactor than in a control reactor. Improved removal persisted for >5 cycles following bioaugmentation. By the last cycle of the day, enhanced BPA removal was lost, although it returned with the next bioaugmentation. A net loss of Sphingobium sp. BiD32 was observed in the reactors, supporting the original hypothesis that continuous bioaugmentation (rather than single-dose bioaugmentation) would be required to improve TOrCs removal during wastewater treatment. This study represents a first demonstration of a biologically based approach for enhanced TOrCs removal that both reduces concentrations in wastewater effluent and prevents transfer to biosolids. PMID:27338240

  2. Naïve Bayesian Classifier for Selecting Good/Bad Projects during the Early Stage of International Construction Bidding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, revenues generated by Korean contractors in international construction have increased rapidly, exceeding USD 70 billion per year in recent years. However, Korean contractors face significant risks from market uncertainty and sensitivity to economic volatility and technical difficulties. As the volatility of these risks threatens project profitability, approximately 15% of bad projects were found to account for 74% of losses from the same international construction sector. Anticipating bad projects via preemptive risk management can better prevent losses so that contractors can enhance the efficiency of bidding decisions during the early stages of a project cycle. In line with these objectives, this paper examines the effect of such factors on the degree of project profitability. The Naïve Bayesian classifier is applied to identify a good project screening tool, which increases practical applicability using binomial variables with limited information that is obtainable in the early stages. The proposed model produced superior classification results that adequately reflect contractor views of risk. It is anticipated that when users apply the proposed model based on their own knowledge and expertise, overall firm profit rates will increase as a result of early abandonment of bad projects as well as the prioritization of good projects before final bidding decisions are made.

  3. Oil and gas bidding rounds: judgement criteria in Brazil and abroad; Licitacoes no setor de petroleo e gas natural: criterios de julgamento no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrete, Bernardo do Amaral; Valois, Danielle Gomes de Almeida; Tavares, Henrique Campos Laborne; Gomes, Julia Medina da Costa [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the main rules governing the bidding process for the granting of exploration and production rights of hydrocarbons in Brazil, with emphasis to the criteria for judging competing applications. From a comparative law analysis it is possible to note that, despite the fact that the system adopted in Brazil may be seen as objective and transparent, there is still room for improvement, especially with regard to assessing the performance of bidders in acreage already previously granted. In major European oil-producing countries, such as the UK and Norway, the efficiency and responsibility with which the applicant conducts its ongoing operations in those jurisdictions are also taken into account as a criterion for judging competing applications. Brazil could benefit from this experience and adopt criteria similar to Europe, ensuring another legal tool able to require that companies operating in the country to adopt safer standards and stricter controls, under penalty of entering in disadvantage in the next bidding rounds. (author)

  4. OWA&CWAA Model of Construction Engineering Bid Evaluation and Its Application%建设工程评标的OWA&CWAA模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋良海; 魏雄伟; 黄河; 陈丽

    2011-01-01

    针对建设工程评标中存在主观性因素影响的问题,提出了运用有序加权平均(OWA)算子和组合加权算术平均(CWAA)算子的多属性群决策的评价模型,对各评价指标的分值进行纵向和横向集结.实例结果表明,该方法合理、科学,消除了决策者主观因素的影响,同时利用中间值合理过渡,可对各投标单位的综合得分进行排序,增强了评标的客观性.%Bid evaluation of construction engineering may be influenced by subjective factors. This paper proposes a multi-attribute group decision-making evaluation model by combination of ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and combined weighted arithmetic averaging (CWAA). Scores of each evaluation indicator will be processed from horizontal and vertical directions. And then the influence caused by subjective factors of the decision maker is eliminated and the medial magnitude is used to make reasonable transition. At the same time, the objectivity of bid evaluation is enhanced by sequencing the composite score of the bidders. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the rationality and scientifical-ness of the method.

  5. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on expression of Bid mRNA and caspase-3 activity in the brain of newborn rats subjected to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia%重组人促红细胞生成素对新生大鼠缺氧缺血时脑组织Bid mRNA表达及caspase-3活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔德荣; 许涛; 江伟

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究重组人促红细胞生成素(rhEPO)对新生大鼠缺氧缺血时脑组织Bid mRNA表达及半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶-3(caspase-3)活性的影响,以探讨其神经保护作用机制.方法 7日龄雄性SD大鼠90只,体重12~18 g,随机分为3组(n=30):假手术组(S组)、缺氧缺血组(HIBD组)和rhEPO组.HIBD组和rhEPO组建立HIBD模型后,分别腹腔注射生理盐水和rhEPO 3 000 IU/ks.于腹腔注射后6、12、24、48和72 h(T1~5)时每组各处死6只大鼠,取左侧大脑组织100 mg,采用RT-PCR法检测Bid mRNA表达,比色法测定caspase-3活性.结果 与S组相比,HIBD组和rhEPO组大鼠T1-5时脑组织Bid mRNA表达上调,caspase-3活性升高(P<0.01);与HIBD组相比,rhEPO组T1-5时脑组织BidmRNA表达下调(P<0.01),T2-4时caspase-3活性降低(P<0.01).脑组织Bid mRNA表达与caspase-3活性呈正相关(r=0.911,P<0.01).结论 外源性rhEPO可通过下调Bid mRNA表达和降低caspase-3活性从而对HIBD后脑组织产生保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human erythropeietin(rh-EPO)on Bid mRNA and caspase-3 activity in the brain after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage(HIBD)in neonatal rats and the possible mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of rh-EPO.Methods Ninety 7 day old male SD rats weighing 12-18 g were randomly divided into 3 groups(n=30 each):group Ⅰ sham operation(S);group Ⅱ hypoxia-ischemia group(HI)and group Ⅲ rh-EPO.The animals were anesthetized with ether.Left common carotid artery was ligated with 4-0 silk and 3 days later the animals were placed in a 2 L airtisht vessel filled with 8%O2-92%N2 at 2-3 L/min for 2 h in group Ⅱ and Ⅲ.rh-EPO 3 000 IU/kg in 4 ml/kg normal saline(NS)was administered intraperitoneally after induction of hypoxia-ischemia(HI)in group Ⅲ while in group Ⅱ NS 4 ml/kg was given IP instead.Six animals in each group were killed at 6,12,24,48 and 72 h(T1-5)respectively after IP NS or rh-EPO.Their brains were removed for

  6. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m2 (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m2/day at 1. course; 430 mg/m2/day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3 years for patients with a

  7. 河道采砂作业招标控制价研究%Bidding Control Price of Competitive Tender in River Bed Sand Excavating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧敏; 王卓甫; 周建春; 丁继勇

    2011-01-01

    为确保通航安全和生态环境不受破坏的条件下合理利用河道砂石资源,基于一级密封拍卖独立私人价值模型探讨了采砂作业招标中最高控制价设置模型,并对比了不设控制价、设置但不公开控制价、公开控制价三种情况对投标人报价、招标人支付的影响.结果表明,不设控制价时,投标人的报价和招标人支付均最高;招标人公开控制价不仅降低了投标人的报价,且降低了招标人的支付.当招标人数确定时,招标人的支付随控制价的增高而增高;当控制价确定时,投标人数的增加将减少招标人的支付.最后提出了基于个人成本系数的招标最低控制价设置方法.%The sand mined in river is valuable materials in civil construction. It is an important issue for river course management agency to make sure navigation safety and protect ecological environment while mining the sand. In this stud y, the announced and secret highest control prices for bidding are discussed based on independent private values model in first sealed bid auction. This study shows that if control price is not concerned in the model, the quoted prices of the bid ders and the payment of the buyers would be at the highest level; if the control price had been announced, the quoted prices of the bidders and the payment of the buyers would be reduced. When number of bidders is given, the payment of buyers would increase with control price. When the control price is give, the payment of buyers would reduce with num ber of bidders. Finally, the method of designing the lowest control price is proposed based on the cost index of individual bidders.

  8. Thinking on the Tender Response to the Divergences of Bidders in Bidding Process%招标人应对招投标过程中投标人异议问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国民

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of the divergent problems in tendering and bidding of engineering materials procurement,the paper elaborates the thinking to resolve these divergences of bidders,including investigating the conformity of project performance,preventing the bid in the name of others,clearing the bid qualification, increasingthe judges of economic class. Then,proposes exploratory thoughts to improve the bidding work of engineering materials procurement. This research can be helpful and referential to the further standardization and scientificity of tendering work on infrastructure engineering materials procurement in the university system.%通过总结工程货物采购招投标过程中常见的异议问题,阐述应对相关问题的对策思考,包括审查业绩符合度、防范以他人名义投标、明晰投标资格设定、增加经济类评委。然后,提出改进工程货物采购招标工作的探索思路,为高校系统基建工程货物采购招标工作进一步规范化、科学化推进提供了借鉴。

  9. Analysis of Questions of Successful Bid with Ultra Low-cost in Building Engineering%浅析建筑工程中超低价中标问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章勇; 肖稀; 胡高峰

    2012-01-01

    In today's profit-maximizing, the construction companies blindly pursue successful bid, blindly prices down, even successfully bid with unreasonable tender offer that is lower than the cost of business, take"after the first loss to obtain profits" strategy. However, unreasonably ultra-low bid often brings high claims, low-cost, low quality, a serious impediment to the healthy development of China's construction industry. This paper analyzes the harm caused by ultra-low bid, and recommends ways to prevent this abnormal forms of competition measures.%在追求利益最大化的今天,施工企业一味地追求中标,盲目压价,甚至以低于企业成本的不合理投标报价中标,采取“先亏后盈”的策略,往往导致的是低价中标高价索赔,低价低质,严重阻碍我国建筑行业的健康发展.文章分析了超低价中标带来的危害,并提出如何预防这种不正常竞争方式的措施.

  10. 工程招标过程中业主方风险分析与对策研究%Countermeasures Study and Risk Analysis of the Tenderee in Project Bidding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党济深

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically summarized the typical risks faced by the tenderee during the project bidding process, re-vealing the hidden risk issues comprehensively. On this basis, the causes of these risks were analyzed from all respects, then a systematic study of risk control in bidding process was carried out. In order to regulate the bidding behavior, perfect the inter-nal control, prevent fraud and provide reference for improving the quality and effectiveness of bidding.%针对工程招标过程中业主面临的常见风险进行了全面、系统的梳理,将较为隐蔽的风险事项全面揭示出来,在此基础上,对各类风险的成因进行了分析,从澄清对招标活动的认识、完善内部控制、优化管理机制的角度,提出对策和措施,以期对业主进一步完善招标活动的内部控制,改进招标工作质量与效果,提供参考。

  11. 应用BIM技术制定装饰工程投标方案的方法研究%Research on the Bidding Scheme Methods with the Application of BIM in Decoration Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兰; 彭中要

    2016-01-01

    Taking one decoration engineering that win the bidding by applying BIM as a typical case,the paper first makes an analysis on the current situation of BIM application in the decoration engineering projects and the difficulties existed in the application of BIM at the bidding stage. Then,explains the importance of the requirements and conditions of the bidding documents,points out that should analyze the bidding party application requirements of the BIM and engineering characteristics,make BIM application plan from all directions. Moreover,summarizes the methods to apply BIM in the whole construction process.%以某建筑装饰工程应用BIM中标为典型案例,通过梳理当前装饰工程BIM应用的现状和投标阶段应用BIM技术的障碍,说明招标文件要求和条件的重要性,指出应分析招标方的BIM应用需求及工程特点,制定全方位的BIM应用方案,并总结装饰工程全程应用BIM技术的投标方法.

  12. My Humble Opinion Based on the Construction Project Bidding Problem from the Owner%基于业主角度的建筑项目招投标问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓霞; 靖海如; 童如娟

    2012-01-01

      随着我国经济水平及综合国力的不断提高市场经济也在不断的发展,建筑工程项目逐渐发展成了我国的支柱产业之一。然而建筑项目并不是那么简单的,建筑项目投招标问题就是一种激烈的竞争方式。经常会在经济上出现一些纠纷问题。在建筑项目中实施投招标其目的主要是要营造一种公平、公正、公开的市场竞争环境,可以使我国建筑市场的秩序得以有效进行,本文就站在业主的角度来分析投招标问题,并采取一些管理措施及建议。%  along with our country economy level and the comprehensive national strength continuously improving and market economy also in constant development, construction engineering projects gradual y developed into one of the pil ar industry in China. However construction project is not so sim-ple, and construction project bid/bidding documents problem is a kind of competition mode. Some dispute problems often app-ear on the economy. In construction project implementation, the goal of bid/bidding documents is to create a fair, just and open market competition environment, which can make the or-der of China's construction market is effectively, this paper wi-l stand in the perspective of the owner, analyze the bid/bidd-ing documents problems, and take some management measu-res and Suggestions.

  13. Construction of electronic tendering and bidding system of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group%中国煤炭科工集团有限公司电子招投标系统建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海鹰

    2016-01-01

    通过对中国煤炭科工集团企业内部招标采购市场现状和电子招投标系统建设的需求分析,对集团建设企业采购电子招投标系统互联网平台的框架功能设置以及性能进行了探讨。指出,依据国家电子招投标政策的支持,在集团内建设电子招投标系统,可有效克服招投标过程中各种不规范行为,增加透明度,提高竞争力,减少干扰因素,为集团集约化招投标采购提供绿色、高效、安全、可行的管理方案,从而达到降低项目成本提高效益的目的。%Through the analysis on internal procurement market situation of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group, and the demand of electronic tendering and bidding system construction, the paper discusses the framework feature set and the performance of enterprise electronic tendering and bidding system internet platform, and points out, according to the national electronic tendering and bidding policy, the system can effectively overcome the irregularities in the bidding process, increase transparency, improve competitiveness, reduce interference factors, and provide green, efficient, safe and feasible management scheme for the intensive bidding procurement of the group, so as to reduce the project cost and increase the benefit.

  14. Analysis of Information Disclosure Impact on Bidding Strategies for Generation Companies%信息披露对发电商竞价策略影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩强; 刘琰; 丁乐群; 王宇拓; 徐越

    2012-01-01

    信息对每一个市场都有触发交易、引导竞争的基础性作用。在电力市场建设的过程中,信息的充分程度、准确性、时效性、获得信息的成本、利用信息的能力以及公平程度都会对市场参与者产生较大的影响。为此,从信息经济学基本理论入手,运用博弈论的方法对电力交易中发电侧成员在不同的信息充分度下所采取的竞价策略进行分析,研究了信息对电力交易发电侧竞价策略的影响。%Information plays a basic role of triggering transactions and competition guide in each market. In the process of building the electricity market, information adequacy, accuracy, timeliness, cost of access to information, the ability to use information and the fairness will have great impact on the market participants. Therefore, from the basic theory of information economics, this paper applies the game theory to analyze bidding strategies adopted by generation side members in different degrees of information in electricity trading, and studies the impact of information on the bidding strategy for generation side of electricity trading.

  15. 评标制度中的寻租问题及治理研究%Rent-seeking and Governance of Bidding Evaluation Institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯洪; 李英一

    2011-01-01

    The problems in the current bidding evaluation institution are epitomized by the excessive power for the evaluation experts, insufficient incentive for experts, evaluation bugs and poor management, and all those problems are embodied by the fact that the experts make use of their evaluation right to pursue rent-seeking.For solving the problems appeared in the rent-seeking, we should start from the institutional arrangements of separating the control and profit-earning right and the combination of responsibility, power and interest.Establishing clear property rights system and improving the incentive mechanism, the compensation mechanism and the supervision mechanism for the combination of the responsibility, power and interest can help dealing with the rent-seeking issues in the bidding evaluation institution.%当前评标制度中出现的问题,集中体现为评标专家权力过大、对其激励不足、评标程序缺陷和评标管理水平不高,并以评标专家运用评标权寻租的形式表现出来.解决评标制度中出现的寻租问题应从将控制权和收益权分离的制度安排和权责利的统一入手.建立产权清晰的制度并完善权责利统一的激励机制、报酬机制和监督机制,治理评标制度中的寻租问题.

  16. Analysis bidding agency Situation and Development Strategy%浅析招标代理机构发展现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁圆

    2012-01-01

    随着我国经济社会发展以及《中国招标投标法》等法律法规的实施,招标代理机构如雨后春笋般在全国各地开展招标代理活动,一方面为我国经济发展做出了一定的贡献,另一方面招标代理机构在发展过程中也产生了诸多问题,这些问题将直接影响招标代理机构的可持续发展,本文将分析招标代理行业发展的现状,并对其可持续发展提出相应对策与建议。%With the development of China's economic and social as well as the implementation of "China Bidding Law" and other related laws and regulations, the tendering agency mushroomed across the country with the tender agent, on the one hand, to make a certain contribution to China's economic development, on the other tender agencies produced many problems in the development process. These problems will directly affect the sustainable development of the bidding agency; the paper will analyze the development status of the tender agent industry, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable development of the tendering agency.

  17. Analysis on the Bidding Drug Prices and Its Sale-permission in the Centralized Bidding of Essential Drug in Sichuan Province in 2011%2011年四川省基本药物集中招标中标价格与挂网情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 李里; 黄尧州; 胡明; 李玉民; 徐珽

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference and suggestions for the improvement of essential drug bidding. METHODS: The centralized bidding of essential drugs and their sale-permission were explored by Sichuan province drugs & appliance purchase and supervision platform. The decrease of bidding price and the number of manufacturers who got the sale-permission in Sichuan province were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The price of bidding chemical drugs in only one manufacturer which got the sale-permission decreased by 5.2% and in more than 2 manufacturers which got the sale-permission decreased by 35.1%. The price of Chinese patent drugs in only one manufacturer which got the sale-permission decreased by 10.7% and in more than 2 manufacturers which got the sale-permission decreased by 20.7%. Only one manufacturer got the sale-permission for 69.23% drugs whose prices didn't cut, and two or more manufacturers for 30.77%. CONCLUSION: If we want great price cut in centralized bidding of drug purchase, we should purchase the specification and dosage form which are produced by many manufacturers.%目的:为完善基本药物招标提供参考与建议.方法:通过四川省药械采购与监管平台收集四川省2011年度基本药物集中招标结果及该品种在四川省的挂网情况,将药品中标价格降幅与挂网厂家数进行对比统计分析.结果:中标化学药品中,只有1家挂网的品规中标价降幅为5.20%,2家及以上挂网品规的平均降价幅度为35.10%.中成药中,只有1家挂网的品规中标价降幅为10.70%,2家及以上挂网品规的平均降价幅度为20.70%.在价格未下降品规中,69.23%的品规只有1家厂家挂网,30.77%有2家及以上厂家挂网.结论:在集中招标制定招标目录时,为了更好的降低药价,应结合临床选择厂家较多的规格/剂型.

  18. Comparison and analysis of centralized bidding procurement of essential medicines in Chinese provinces%中国各省基本药物集中招标采购方式比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管晓东; 郭志刚; 信枭雄; 洪冬喆; 韩晟; 王宝敏; 史录文

    2014-01-01

    目的::为完善我国各省基本药物集中招标采购工作提供建议。方法:检索收集各省基本药物集中招标采购最新方案、细则、办法等文件,采用文献分析、对比分析和实地调研访谈等方法进行归纳总结。结果:各省基本药物的集中招标采购机构、采购范围、采购周期、招标采购方式、确定中标产品方法等方面存在较大差异。结论:各省基本药物集中招标采购工作按国办发56号文件要求进度不一,建议各省应坚持基本药物集中招标采购方式,发挥集团采购优势,探索医保部门参与基本药物集中招标采购工作方式,同时完善经济技术标的评审,保障基本药物的质量。%Objective:To improve the centralized bidding procurement practice of essential medicine in China. Methods:By using literature review, comparative analysis and field investigation, implementation plans and regula-tions of the centralized bidding procurement of essential medicines in 30 provinces were collected and analyzed. Re-sults:There are differences in the operating organization, scope of implementation, purchasing cycle, bidding pro-curement mode, judgment criteria and other aspects among provinces. Conclusion: The progress of the implementa-tion of the centralized bidding procurement practice of essential medicine under the request of Document No. 56 of the State Council differed greatly among the provinces. The government should adhere to the centralized bidding procure-ment practice of essential medicine, give full play to the advantages of group purchasing, explore approaches of medi-cal insurance institutions participating in the centralized bidding procurement practice, and perfect the assessment of drug quality to assure the quality of essential medicine.

  19. 浅析环卫设备检测在招标采购中的重要作用%Important Role of Environmental Sanitation Equipment Inspection in Bidding Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华旸; 王晓燕

    2011-01-01

    According to introducing test items for common environmental sanitation equipments, such as plastic bins, road sweeper, and waste compressing equipment, and analyzing typical cases of bidding procurement of plastic bins for the Olympic Games and renovation project of environmental sanitation vehicles for Chaoyang district, the important role of inspection work in bidding procurement of environmental sanitation equipments was illuminated.%通过对常见环卫设备(塑料垃圾桶、扫路机、垃圾压缩设备)检测项目的介绍,以及奥运招标采购塑料垃圾桶、朝阳环卫黄标车改造项目的典型案例分析,说明了检测工作在环卫设备招标采购中的重要作用.

  20. Analysis on bidding parts preparation of curtain wall project tender documents%幕墙工程招标文件的投标报价部分编制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明娟

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzed the setting ways of comprehensive unit price analysis table in outer decorative curtain wall engineering ten-dering and bidding documents,and discussed in detail the shall be clearly quote part of other aspects bidding documents,in order to reasonably and effectively control the project cost.%主要分析了外装饰幕墙工程招标文件中综合单价分析表设置方式,并对招标文件中投标报价部分应明确的其他方面内容进行了详细说明,以合理有效的控制工程造价。

  1. The Role of Bidding Price in the Whole Process of Cost Control%招标限价的编制在全过程造价控制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童娴

    2015-01-01

    全过程工程造价控制是工程项目建设管理工作的重要组成部分,本文围绕在招标阶段作好造价控制在全过程造价控制中的作用进行阐述,提出招标限价的编制及造价控制的措施。%The whole process of project cost control is an important part of management of project construction, the role of cost control in the whole process of cost control in bidding stage is expounded, and the bidding price and cost control measures are proposed.

  2. Discussion on unbalanced bid and coping strategy under bill pricing mode%清单计价模式下不平衡报价及应对策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新杰; 侯庆德

    2011-01-01

    从建设单位角度,介绍了不平衡报价的常见做法,分析了存在的原因及后果,结合实践提出了几点实用的不平衡报价应对策略,以维护建设方正常利益和市场秩序,促进建筑业健康发展。%From the perspective of construction unit, this paper introduced the common method of unbalanced bid, analysed the existed reasons and consequences, combining with the practice put forward a few practical unbalanced bid coping strategies, so as to maintenance the normal profit of construction party and market order, promoted the healthy development of construction industry.

  3. 工程量清单计价模式下的投标报价分析%Analysis of the Bid Quote under the Bill of Quantity Valuation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银琴

    2014-01-01

    This paper researches the valuation principles of project cost and measures fee, the principle of tax valuation and fees valuation, bid price valuation and other project cost valuation principle, so as to obtain a beter grasp on bid quote skil and Provide certain reference for relevant personnel.%本文通过对工程费计价和措施项目费计价原则、规费计价和税金计价原则、投标总价计价和其他项目费计价原则的研究,可以更好地掌握投标报价技巧,希望本文能为相关人员提供参考。

  4. 基于核心竞争力的招标代理机构发展策略探讨%Based on the Core Competitiveness of the Bidding Agency Development Strategy to Discuss (PENG Ying)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭莹

    2011-01-01

    Bidding agency in the fierce competition to obtain sustainable competitive advantage, root end lies in the cultivation of their own core competitiveness. In this paper, the bidding agency the connotation of core competence on the basis of the analysis, discusses the influence factors and imnrovement strategy.%招标代理机构要在激烈的竞争中获得持续的竞争优势,归根到底在于培育自己的核心竞争力。本文在对招标代理机构核心竞争力的内涵进行分析的基础上,着重论述了其影响因素和提升策略。

  5. SWOT Analysis and Propaganda Strategy of Harbin City Bidding for Winter Olympic Games%哈尔滨申办冬季奥林匹克运动会的 SWOT 分析与宣传策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪卓群

    2013-01-01

    Bidding for Winter Olympic Games has far -reaching significance for the construction of Harbin . Harbin should take the long view, thinks deeply and plans carefully about bidding for the Winter Olympic Games.With the help of SWOT situation analysis , the paper expounds the advantages , disadvantages, chances and threats of Harbin bidding for Winter Olympic Games .And based on the SWOT analysis of the area, environment, society and culture of bidding for Winter Olympic Games in Harbin , the paper puts for-ward the propaganda strategies to setting up the city popularity level of Harbin ,“the ice-snow city”, pro-moting ice-snow sports popular and improving propaganda operation level .%  申办冬季奥林匹克运动会,对于哈尔滨的城市建设具有深远的意义和影响。哈尔滨申办冬奥会应该放长眼光,深谋远虑。借助SWOT态势分析法,论述了哈尔滨申办冬奥会的优势、劣势、机会和威胁,并基于哈尔滨申办冬奥会的地域、环境、社会、文化等的SWOT分析,从树立哈尔滨“冰雪之都”的城市知名度,促进冰雪运动大众化,提高宣传运作水平等多方面提出哈尔滨申办冬奥会的宣传战略与策略。

  6. 医院招投标管理服务系统的开发与应用%Development and application of the bidding service system for hospital management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design the application software of hospital material bidding pro-curement and management , for realization systematization and standardization in hospital bidding management .Methods Based on the microsoft .Net Framework 4.0 as development platform ,with Windows 7 operating system as the default platform , the function module and flow logic were set combining with the characteristics of hospital procurement management process according to the re -quirement and regulation of purchasing management .Results The bidding procurement in a series of preparation works gets standardized , the scene in implementation of the tender assessment gets specified , and management of hospital supplies procurement gets intelligent .Conclusion The effi-ciency and degree of standardization in the hospital material bidding procurement process are greatly improved .%目的:设计开发医院物资招标采购管理应用软件,实现医院招标采购管理的智能化、规范化。方法以Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0作为开发平台,以Windows 7操作系统为默认平台,按照采购管理法规监管的要求,结合医院采购管理流程特点设置功能模块和流转逻辑,开发医院招投标管理服务系统。结果系统应用实现了招标采购系列准备工作标准化、招标现场的评审实施规范化、采购资料管理智能化。结论系统应用提高了医院物资招标采购管理的工作效率和正规化程度。

  7. On tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model%工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度发展的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2009-01-01

    介绍了工程量清单计价的含义和工程量清单的分类,阐述了工程量清单计价模式下招投标活动遵循的原则及其对招投标机制的促进作用,并对工程量清单招标的相关问题进行了探讨并提出建议,以期完善工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度.%The paper introduces definition of quantity pricing and classification of quantity list, it states rules that must be follow under quantity pricing modal and it' s pushing effects to completion of tendering and bidding system, it also discusses about problems of tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model and proposes relative suggestion, so as to consummate tendering and bidding system under quantity pricing model.

  8. Reinforcement of Judgment and Supervision on Abnormal Score by Bidding Evaluation Experts%加强对评标专家异常性评分的判定与监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晶

    2013-01-01

    Based on the definition of abnormal score by bidding evaluation experts, constructs the judging methods for that from the perspectives of system variance, nonconsensual variance, peer variance and causal variance. And then, the paper puts forward some suggestions about how to strengthen the supervision management on the behavior of bidding evaluation expert from the perspectives of discipline management in bidding locale, the examination system of working quality and accountability mechanism to expert.%在对评标专家异常性评分定义的基础上,从系统偏差、非共识偏差、同行偏差和偶然偏差四个方面构建评标专家异常性评分的判定方法,并从评标现场纪律管理、工作质量考核制度、专家责任追究机制等三个方面,就加强评标专家评标行为的监督管理提出建议与措施.

  9. The Study of Unbalanced Based on Time Bid Model for Contractor Value of Money%基于资金时间价值的承包商不平衡报价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫星; 周国强

    2011-01-01

    介绍了不平衡报价的概念,划分了不平衡报价法策略,并在此基础上,从投标方的角度出发,利用资金时间价值理论,建立了以工程实际付款终值最大化为目标函数的非线性规划模型,配以具体的工程实例通过计算机软件(lingo8.0)求得不平衡报价的最优解,并对不平衡报价模型的实际应用进行了探讨。%This paper introduces the conception and the classification of unbalanced bids. Then from the con- tractors" point of view and based on the principle of the time value of money construct a non - linear program- ming model, maximizing the future value of actual payment. Finally taking a engineering project as an example give the optimal solution of unbalanced bids by the computer software ( lingo8.0) , and analyze the applicationof unbalanced bids model in practice.

  10. 工程保险无标底招标报价基准研究%The Study on Project Insurance the Non-price Bottom Bidding Quotation Benchmark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志刚; 郑伟; 白荣霞

    2012-01-01

    在工程项目保险招投标时,标底在评标过程中对业主项目预算管理和中标者的利益有着荭接影响。目前为止,保险招标中,站在第三方立场上:,既考虑客观的市场反应又考虑投标人投标报价的整体水平的报价基准研究较少,研究保险招标中具有切实可行、易操作、较客观的报价基准确定方法成为在项目操作过程中亟待解决的问题。%In the large scale project insurance bidding, pricing benchmark will directly affect the owners' budges managemen and the interests of the winning bidder. So far, during the insurance bid, there is less study on pricing benchmark which considers bc,th objective market response and the bids price overall level standing in the third party position, How to solve this problem both practical ,easy to operate and more objective in the process of insurance project will be Concerned.

  11. 试论如何做好园林绿化工程投标报价中的成本控制工作%Discussion on How to Do the Bidding in Garden Greening Project Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪鹃

    2014-01-01

    In garden greening engineering bid, cost control determines the operation of construction market, is an impor-tant link in the project bidding. This paper through introducing contents of greening engineering bidding and landscape engin-eering cost control, analyzing the existing issues of landsca-ping quotation, puts forward measures to the reasonable co-ntrol the landscaping quotation cost.%在园林绿化的工程投标中,成本控制决定了整个建筑市场的运行,是工程投标中的重要环节。本文通过介绍园林绿化工程投标报价和园林绿化工程成本控制的内容,对园林绿化报价中存在的问题进行分析,提出对园林绿化报价成本合理控制的措施。

  12. 强制要约收购中的中小股东利益保护研究%Minority Shareholders′ Protection in Mandatory Bid Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳璐

    2011-01-01

    With the introduction of Mandatory Bid Rule in China,the situation of the acquirer and its minority shareholders are becoming worse while the minority shareholders of the target company are becoming better.This paper analyzes the shortage of the system and tries to provide some solutions,such as establishing the exemption system in tender offer,regulating the agreement of shareholders′ meeting and so on.%强制要约收购制度引入我国后,在保护目标公司中小股东利益的同时,也在一定程度上损害了收购方及其中小股东的利益,阻碍了收购的进行。因此,在肯定该制度价值的同时,需要对其予以完善,主要是通过对收购方要约收购的豁免制度以及须经股东会同意通过的制度安排等,来平衡收购方与被收购方之间利益的平衡。

  13. The Intentionality Bidding Practicing in Medical Apparatus and Instruments Purchasing%医疗器械采购实行意向性招标的管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丹华

    2012-01-01

      The medical apparatus and instruments coming into the hospital are unceasingly upgraded along with the medical techniques unceasingly advancement, purchasing the medical apparatus and instruments is very important to reduce the price and ensure quality , enhance the medical institution , reduce the medical costs, relieve the disorders medical burden, improve the medical quality of service and so on. So our hospital suggests carrying out the intentionality bidding in purchasing the medical apparatus and instruments.%  随着医疗技术的不断进步,进入医院的医疗器械也不断更新换代,医疗器械的采购管理很重要,既要降低采购价格又要保障质量。因此,我院在医疗器械采购管理方面提出要实行院内意向性招标的方案。

  14. 如何完善政府采购招标管理流程%Analyses how to perfect government procurement bidding management process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海洋

    2015-01-01

    In the contemporary reform and opening up and economic development at the same time,the domestic government procurement situation is changed accordingly,it is under constant summary and improvement,has made no small achievement. However,along with the advancement of government procurement form the situation of the domestic government procurement has appeared a series of problems,and cause the obstacles to development and progress.So,in the form of government procurement specification and procurement of scale factor,to the state capital economy is of vital significance.For the present stage our country government procurement bidding management process detailed and thorough discussed this topic,is a very far-reaching significance.%伴随着政府采购形式的不断推进,国内政府采购的形势也出现了一连串问题,并对发展与进步造成了阻碍。政府采购形式的规范度与采购的规模扩大等因素,对国家资金的节约有着至关重要的的意义。对现阶段我国政府采购应对招标管理流程这一话题进行详尽而深入的探讨,具有非常深远的时代意义。

  15. The Operating Strategy of Bidding Procurement in the State-owned Enterprises%国有企业招标采购操作策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚再进

    2013-01-01

    By bidding within the enterprise, the prices can be prevented from going to be inflated, the purchase cost can be reduced effective⁃ly and the procurement can also be regulated. In the state-owned enterprises, procurement has become one of the most important measures to strengthen management of their own. Taking appropriate operating strategy is the key to achieving the institutionalization and regulation of the enterprises. The operating strategy of state-owned enterprises in the procurement is expounded from four aspects in this paper.%  在企业内部推行招标采购,既能够防止采购价格虚高和有效地降低采购成本,同时又可以对采购活动予以规范。招标采购已成为国有企业强化内部管理的重要举措之一。而采取适宜的操作策略则是企业的招标采购活动实现制度化和经常化的关键所在,从4个方面阐述了国有企业在实施招标采购时应采取的操作策略。

  16. Could what that ESCO sales rep said really be true? Savings realization rates in ESPC versus bid-to-spec projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Philip; Earni, Shankar; Williams, Charles

    2014-08-11

    Claims that savings realization is greater in energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are rampant at least among energy service company representatives and other ESPC cheerleaders. But hard supporting evidence for these claims has been virtually non-existent. The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program uses its Compliance Tracking System (CTS) database to document the performance of federal buildings and projects towards meeting various federal energy-saving goals. This paper focuses on preliminary analysis from CTS to understand and compare the performance of federal ESPCs with projects that have been implemented with more conventional government appropriations funding. The authors have found preliminary evidence using CTS that shows markedly higher savings realization rates among ESPC projects than appropriations-funded ones. There are numerous caveats to the data comparison that clamor for further study, but the difference is still intriguing. If borne out, this finding will provide concrete support to the idea that ESPCs guarantees and measurement and verification, long touted by energy service companies (ESCOs) as offering savings assurance, may truly yield substantial benefits. If ESPCs actually do perform better (i.e., have higher realization rates and savings persistence) than conventional bid-to-spec projects, the perceived premium for conducting them may look like a very good deal after all.

  17. Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in the Iran electricity market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K. [EE Department, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran); Amjady, N. [EE Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran)

    2009-06-15

    Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in Iran electricity market as a market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism has been considered in this paper. The data analysis procedure includes both correlation and predictability analysis of the most important load and price indices. The employed data are the experimental time series from Iran electricity market in its real size and is long enough to make it possible to take properties such as non-stationarity of market into account. For predictability analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and recurrence plots of the data have been investigated. The results of these analyses indicate existence of deterministic chaos in addition to non-stationarity property of the system which implies short-term predictability. In the next step, two artificial neural networks have been developed for forecasting the two price indices in Iran's electricity market. The models' input sets are selected regarding four aspects: the correlation properties of the available data, the critiques of Iran's electricity market, a proper convergence rate in case of sudden variations in the market price behavior, and the omission of cumulative forecasting errors. The simulation results based on experimental data from Iran electricity market are representative of good performance of the developed neural networks in coping with and forecasting of the market behavior, even in the case of severe volatility in the market price indices. (author)

  18. 关于施工企业投标报价几个问题的探讨%Discussion on Several Problems of Construction Enterprises Bidding Quotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小群

    2013-01-01

      随着我国经济体制转轨步伐的加快,工程造价改革成效显著,实现了由定额计价模式转向工程量清单计价模式的转变。本文对我国目前施工企业投标报价与企业成本价的界定作了阐述,强调施工企业投标报价不能低于成本价以及低于成本价报价的严重后果,使企业走向规范的、良性发展的道路。%Along with the pace of China's economic system tr-ansition is speeding up, the effectiveness of the reform of engi-neering cost is significant, achieved by the quota valuation mode to change the mode of valuation with bill of quantities. This thesis expounds the definition of China's current tender of er of construction enterprise and enterprise cost, emphasi-zing the bidding in construction enterprises should not be lo-wer than the cost price and the serious consequences of a price lower than the cost price, to enable enterprises went standa-rdize road and benign development.

  19. 基于二级密封拍卖招标的工程成本概率判断模型%Probability judgment model of project cost based on the second-price sealed auction bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕炜; 贺昌政; 高静

    2013-01-01

    One of the key factors to assess reasonable low bid is that how to judge whether a tender's offer is lower than its cost or not. In this paper, firstly, to analyze the optimal bidding strategy of bidder and find that the most optimal strategy is making bidding price equal to its cost by using the game theory. Then to build the probability judgment model of project cost based on bidder sample size by using hypothesis testing theory and bidder sample number under the second-price-sealed auction bidding. So at confidence level, whether one bidder is lower than its cost or not can be judged according to its position in accept region or rejection region. This model not only is used to solve problem that whether an offer is lower its cost, but also enriches bidding evaluation theory.%如何评判一个投标人的报价是否低于其成本是合理低价评标的关键因素之一.论文首先运用博弈理论思想分析了二级密封拍卖招标模式投标人的最优竞标策略是按其成本报价.然后针对投标人在二级密封拍卖招标模式下的最优竞标策略是按其真实成本报价这一特点,利用假设检验理论结合竞标人报价数的样本容量,建立了基于竞标人报价样本容量的工程成本概率判断模型.在α置信水平下,竞标人报价是落在拒绝域还是接受域以判断投标人的投标报价是否低于其成本.该模型既解决了如何判断施工企业投标报价是否低于成本的难题,又丰富和充实了工程评标理论.

  20. Strengthening Bidding Management of Construction Project with State-owned Funds%加强国拨资金建设工程招标控制的管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平

    2013-01-01

    《招标投标法》指出,全部或部分使用国有资金或国家融资的项目,必须进行招标。同时GB50500-2008《建设工程工程量清单计价规范》规定,上述项目必须采用工程量清单招标,并应编制招标控制价。文章从国拨资金建设工程实行招标投标制的法律框架谈起,简单介绍了国拨资金建设工程招标范围及方式,提出要充分重视建设项目招标方案的申报和审批环节,举例列出重点工程及重要材料、设备的名录,对准确编制招标控制价,是否编制标底等方面提出了建议,希望对国拨资金项目加强招标控制管理工作起到抛砖引玉的作用。%Law on Tenders and Bids said that all or part of projects used state-owned funds or financed by state must be tendered. At the same time, GB50500-2008 Code of Valuation with Bill Quantity of Construction Works provided that these projects must adopt BOQ bidding, and shall prepare the control price. Starting from the law on tenders and bids of projects used state-owned funds, the article presents the scope and manner of bidding for construction projects, proposes that we should pay full attention to the declare and approval procedures of the bidding program, list the key projects and important materials and equipment, how to prepare the control price, whether prepare the tender base, hoping to provide reference for strengthening control over the management of the tender.

  1. 集中招标采购对西药基本药物临床应用的影响%Effect of Centralized Purchasing by Invitation to Bid on Clinical Use of Essential Western Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政; 高佳莹; 杜瑜

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical use of essential western medicines in a hospital before and after the imple-mentation of centralized purchasing by invitation to bid for references of carrying out the system of centralized purchasing by invita-tion to bid and the essential drug system. METHODS:The clinical use of essential western medicines in a hospital in Fujian prov-ince before and after centralized purchasing of the 7th batch of drugs by invitation to bid was analyzed statistically with regard to the consumption sum,DDDs,DDC,etc. RESULTS:The implementation of centralized purchasing by invitation to bid resulted in reduction of the average cost of essential drugs by about 40% and decrease of the proportion of the consumption sum by about 50% but increase of DDDs by about 10%. CONCLUSIONS:Centralized purchasing by invitation to bid can promote clinical use of the essential drugs,however,it has problems. It is advisable to improve the system of the centralized purchasing by invitation to bid,further improve the cost-limitation mechanism,standardize the bidding mode,guarantee drug supply,strengthen supervision on drug dispensing and delivery meanwhile attaching importance to the management on the essential drugs,the implementation of the essential drug system and the promotion of clinical use of the essential drugs.%目的:了解集中招标采购前后某医院西药基本药物的应用情况,为集中招标采购制度和基本药物制度的实施提供参考。方法:调查该院在福建省第7批药品集中招标采购前后的用药情况,对西药基本药物的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计分析。结果:集中招标采购使基本药物平均价格下降约40%,销售金额占比下降约50%,但DDDs以10%左右的幅度持续增加。结论:集中招标采购对基本药物临床应用有促进作用,但也存在一些问题。建议完善集中招标采购制度,进一步完

  2. Deregulated expression of A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins and Bid, Bad, and Bax proapoptotic genes in polycythemia vera patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Patricia Lino Gasparotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis deregulation might have a role in the pathophysiology of polycythemia vera (PV. This study evaluated Bcl-2 molecule expression in CD34+ cells and leukocytes in 12 PV patients. Gene expression was investigated by real time PCR using SybrGreen Quantitect kit and protein expression was evaluated by western-blotting. JAK2 V617F mutation was detected according to Baxter et al (2005. CD34+ cells from PV patients presented higher levels of A1 and Mcl-1 expression (median: 22.6 and 5.2, respectively in comparison with controls (0.9 and 0.5, p=0.004 and p=0.020; while Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression decreased in PV patients (0.18 and 1.19 compared with controls (1.39 and 2.01, p=0.006 and p=0.020. CD34+ cells in PV patients showed an elevated Bid expression (14.4 in comparison with healthy subjects (1.0; p=0.002. Patients' leukocytes showed an A1 augmentation (7.41, p=0.001 and a reduced expression of Bax (0.19; p=0.040 and Bad (0.2; p=0.030. There was no correlation between JAK2 V617F allele burden and molecular expression. PV patients showed alterations in Bcl-2 members' expression, which may interfere with control of apoptotic machinery and contribute to disease pathogenesis.A desregulação da apoptose parece participar da fisiopatologia da policitemia vera (PV. Este estudo avaliou a expressão das moléculas da família Bcl-2 em células hematopoéticas CD34 + e leucócitos de 12 pacientes com PV. Foram realizados: a quantificação da expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real utilizando kit Sybrgreen Quantitect, avaliação da expressão de proteínas por western-blot e detecção da mutação JAK2 V617F segundo Baxter et al. (2005. Células CD34 + dos pacientes com PV apresentaram maior expressão de A1 e Mcl-1 (mediana: 22,6 e 5,2, respectivamente em comparação com controles (0,9 e 0,5, p = 0,004 e p = 0,020 e expressão de Bcl-2 e Bcl-xL diminuída nestes pacientes (0,18 e 1,19 em relação aos controles (1,39 e 2,01, p = 0,006 e p = 0

  3. 申奥背景下冬奥会世界竞争格局分析%Structure of Winter Olympics under Background of Olympics Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙

    2015-01-01

    运用数理统计、巴雷托分析等研究方法对冬奥会奖牌分布、竞技强国的优势潜优势项目、优势项目消长率、项目贡献率等进行了统计分析,并着重分析了我国近阶段的冬奥实力,建立了我国冬奥发展基本框架。得出结论:冬奥奖牌分布呈现出地域差异性和两极分化性;冬奥竞技强国优势明显;我国“冰强雪弱”,短道速滑是优势项目。在我国申办2022年冬奥会的大背景下,深入了解冬奥会世界竞技格局,为更有针对性的备战冬奥、发展冰雪运动提供理论依据和数据支撑。%Using methods of mathematical statistics and activity based classification,it analyzed the medal distribution,noticeable and potential advantage projects of power nations,the change of advantage projects and the contributions,upon that the power of China in Winter Olympics recently were discussed to establish the basic framework. The research got a conclusion that the games medal distribution presents the regional difference and polarization; the superiority of powerful sports countries is obvious; short track speed skating is an advantage project in China. In the context of China bid the 2022 Winter Olympics, it will be beneficial to prepare the Winter Olympics to insight the competition pattern and develop the ice and snow sports.

  4. Social Value of Harbin City Bidding for Winter Olympics%哈尔滨申办冬奥会的社会价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭时萍

    2011-01-01

    As a best opportunity, Harbin city bidding for winter Olympics can introduce itself all over the world with its cultural history, economic development and urban charm. On the occasion, there will are many reporters from all the bidding cities and countries participating in the Winter Olympics, who paying at tention to Harbin city which welcoming the world with beautiful appearance, confluens of European style, Chinese style and modern style, elegant and civilized gesture. By showing the style and quality of Harbin cit y, it will wittingly or unwittingly publicize and shape the urban well image, heighten the urban brand reputa tion, which intangible publicity of organically combining with Olympics will outmatch a designing descrip tion. Whether Harbin winning the host city of winter Olympics, it~ in fact successful for Harbin city to en large the urban popularity, which best success is to introduce this charming city all over the world, advance Harbin~ influence in the world. But considering the serious shortage of infrastructure hardware which impor tant causation resulting in Harbin's fail of bidding for winter Olympics, it must be for enhancing Harbin's competitiveness to firstly improve the infrastructure construction by exerting the governmental macro policy guidance and long term scientific planning, to finance and use the construction fund by developing various investments and management systems with the leading role of government finance and the main part of social, civilian and business capitals.%哈尔滨申办冬奥会是向世界推荐哈尔滨,是向全世界展示哈尔滨城市的文化历史、经济发展和城市魅力的最佳机遇,届时所有申办冬奥会的城市,以及参加冬奥会的国家都会有媒体记者采访哈尔滨,哈尔滨以靓丽的市容、市貌,欧式、中式、现代相互交融的城市风格,优雅、大方和文明的姿态迎接五湖四海的宾朋,在展示城市风格、城市品位和城市容貌

  5. 探索高校招标采购视域下构建制度笼子的路径%Analysis of construction of system cage on college bidding and purchasing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亮; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    Xi Jinping stressed:“We must strengthen the restriction and supervision to exercise of power;put power in the system cage;form the punishment mechanism that not dare to corrupt, prevention mechanism that cannot corrupt, and safeguard mechanism that is not easy to corrupt.”Thus it can be seen that we must pay high attention to institutional construction when deepening construction of a clean and honest government and the anticorruption campaign. This essay, with a view to college bidding and purchasing, analyzes the link of corruption that is easy to cause in the exercise of power and the construction of bidding system in current situation;proposes the countermeasure through perfecting system foundation, environment, structure, etc and the execution of rigidity system;provides a useful reference in order to realize the Scientiifc of system effect and supervision, and effective control integrity risk in the ifeld of bidding and purchasing.%从高校招标采购领域着眼,通过分析权力运行中易引发腐败环节及招标制度建设的现状,提出通过完善制度根基、环境、结构等对策,刚性化制度的执行,为实现制度管用及监督的科学化,为有效防控招标采购领域中的廉政风险提供有益借鉴。

  6. Ciencia tecnología e innovación en Uruguay: Avances, desafíos, y posibles áreas de cooperación con el BID

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Angelelli

    2009-01-01

    Analiza las principales características, reformas recientes y desafíos del sistema nacional de innovación uruguayo. Este documento forma parte de un conjunto de estudios realizados por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) para respaldar la definición de la estrategia con el Uruguay para el periodo 2010-2014. Se presenta como marco analítico el enfoque de sistema nacional de innovación, evaluando sus funciones principales, la evolución e interacción de sus componentes y las políticas e ...

  7. The Advantages and Disadvantages Analysis of Public Bidding and Competitive Negotiation in College Procurements%高校公开招标与竞争性谈判采购方式的优劣势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾

    2015-01-01

    Public bidding and competitive negotiation are two of the most common ways in government procurement. On the basis of advantages and disadvantages analysis, this paper encourage colleges to make feasible purchasing plan legally according to actual situation.%公开招标和竞争性谈判是高校常用的两种政府采购方式。在分析二者优劣势的基础上,鼓励高校在遵照法律法规执行的基础上结合实际情况制定切实可行的采购方式。

  8. The Settlement Cost Method under the Bidding Mode of Bill Quantities%工程量清单招投标模式下的结算造价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢翔军

    2014-01-01

    院工程量清单招投标模式下的结算造价一般包括以下五方面的造价:①招投标清单项目内的结算造价;②重新进行清单组价的结算造价;③价差调整造价,即招投标清单项目内的工料机价格变化超过合同约定的风险变化幅度时引起的价格调整造价;④综合单价调整引起的造价,即招投标清单项目内的清单工程量变化超过合同约定的风险变化幅度时综合单价引起的造价;⑤措施费调整造价。本文在介绍相关理论的基础上,结合实际案例论述了相关清单计价软件和电子表格软件的实战操作。%The settlement cost under the bidding mode of bill quantities includes the following five aspects of the cost:①the settlement cost within the bidding listing project; ②the settlement cost of renewed listing; ③the settlement cost for price adjustment, which is caused by the more machine price change within the bidding listing than the change variations in contract risk; ④the settlement cost for comprehensive unit price adjustment, which is induced by the more list of quantities within the bidding listing than the change variations in contract risk; ⑤the settlement cost for measures costs adjustment. In the current study, on the basis of the introduction of the relative theory, the actual practice of the related list valuation and spreadsheet software is discussed combined with the case.

  9. An efficient electronic marketplace bidding auction protocol with bid privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-bo; Hyeong Seon Yoo

    2007-01-01

    The multi-agent negotiation test-bed proposed by Collins was modified. It utilizes publish/subscribe system, time-release cryptography and anonymous communication. The proposed protocol reduces DOS attack and avoids replay data attack by providing ticket token and deal sequence number to the supplier. And it is proved that generating random number to the supplier by market is better than the supplier doing it by him in guaranteeing anonymity. Market publishes an interpolating polynomial for sharing the determination process data. It avoids collusion between a customer and a certain supplier. According to the comparison and analysis with other protocols, the proposed protocol shows good security and better efficiency.

  10. Normal tissue complication models for clinically relevant acute esophagitis (≥ grade 2) in patients treated with dose differentiated accelerated radiotherapy (DART-bid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the primary dose-limiting toxicities during thoracic irradiation is acute esophagitis (AE). The aim of this study is to investigate dosimetric and clinical predictors for AE grade ≥ 2 in patients treated with accelerated radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 66 NSCLC patients were included in the present analysis: 4 stage II, 44 stage IIIA and 18 stage IIIB. All patients received induction chemotherapy followed by dose differentiated accelerated radiotherapy (DART-bid). Depending on size (mean of three perpendicular diameters) tumors were binned in four dose groups: <2.5 cm 73.8 Gy, 2.5–4.5 cm 79.2 Gy, 4.5–6 cm 84.6 Gy, >6 cm 90 Gy. Patients were treated in 3D target splitting technique. In order to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), two Lyman models and the cutoff-logistic regression model were fitted to the data with AE ≥ grade 2 as statistical endpoint. Inter-model comparison was performed with the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc), which calculates the model’s quality of fit (likelihood value) in relation to its complexity (i.e. number of variables in the model) corrected by the number of patients in the dataset. Toxicity was documented prospectively according to RTOG. The median follow up was 686 days (range 84–2921 days), 23/66 patients (35 %) experienced AE ≥ grade 2. The actuarial local control rates were 72.6 % and 59.4 % at 2 and 3 years, regional control was 91 % at both time points. The Lyman-MED model (D50 = 32.8 Gy, m = 0.48) and the cutoff dose model (Dc = 38 Gy) provide the most efficient fit to the current dataset. On multivariate analysis V38 (volume of the esophagus that receives 38 Gy or above, 95 %-CI 28.2–57.3) was the most significant predictor of AE ≥ grade 2 (HR = 1.05, CI 1.01–1.09, p = 0.007). Following high-dose accelerated radiotherapy the rate of AE ≥ grade 2 is slightly lower than reported for concomitant radio-chemotherapy with the

  11. 建筑招投标价格博弈与市场均衡%Bidding price game and market equilibrium of construction products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张镇森; 王孟钧; 陆洋; 刘慧

    2012-01-01

    Price distortion seriously hinders the healthy development of the construction market. The construction bidding price game model was studied to solve this problem. The game theory was used to set up a double price used car model between the owner and the contractor which belongs to incomplete information dynamic non - cooperative game. The game process and the equilibrium price were analyzed on the price game between owners and contractors. The construction market was divided into three kinds,i. e. the completely successful market, the completely unsuccessful market and the partial successful market, and the existence conditions were discussed. It will be useful for the market regulator to use economic incentive means to control the market, and to safeguard the healthy development of the market.%建筑市场价格扭曲带来了一系列质量和安全问题,严重制约建筑市场的健康发展.为解决这一问题,应首先对建筑招投标价格的博弈模型进行分析.运用博弈论原理,构建建筑招投标过程中业主与承包商不完全信息动态非合作的双价二手车交易博弈模型.探讨业主与承包商就建筑产品价格所展开的博弈过程以及最终的市场均衡成交价格.将建筑招投标的价格均衡划分为市场完全成功、市场完全失败和市场部分成功,分别讨论3种市场类型存在的条件.对建筑招投标价格博弈模型及市场均衡的分析,有助于市场管理者运用经济激励手段调控市场,保障市场的健康发展.

  12. The Directive on Takeover Bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Lau

    2012-01-01

    En kritik af direktivet om overtagelsestilbud med anbefaling af, at direktivet under den forestående revision ændres, så de dele, der angår corporate governance, udtages, hvorved direktivet alene kommer til at angå reguleringen af overtagelsestilbud, deres indhold og procedure...

  13. Watchdog Barks At Big Bids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Turmoil caused by major refinancing plans of listed companies in the mainland stock market leads regulators to vow stricter approval processes On March 5,shareholders of Ping An Insurance(Group)Co.of China Ltd. (Ping An)passed a refinancing plan of 120 billion yuan($17 billion)at its first interim meeting of the year with an overwhelming 92 percent in favor.

  14. 关于双航段收益管理网络上投标价格法的分析%Analysis of Bid-Price Control for a Two-Leg Airline Revenue Management Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺洪智

    2015-01-01

    本文提出了双航段网络上投标价格法的三种性质:经济互补性、原始-对偶模型解之间的关系和系统的单调性。这些性质可以很好地帮助收益管理人员理解所操作的收益管理系统,从而提升人机互动的效果。%The bid-price method is the most commonly used revenue management method in today’ s airlines. The revenue management staff on the front desk usually doesn ’ t know the internal principle of revenue management systems.This paper puts forward three characteristics of bid-price method of the two-leg revenue management sys-tem:economic complementarity , relationship between the primal-dual solutions , and the monotonicity of the sys-tem.These properties can well enhance the revenue management staff ’ s understanding toward the revenue manage-ment system they operate .

  15. Problems Existed in the Bidding Work of Special Steel Enterprise and the Corresponding Countermeasures%浅析特钢企业招标工作中常见问题及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家云

    2013-01-01

    Like other enterprises, some works in the special steel enterprises such as procurement of goods and technological transformation project and services, bidding work play an important role for increasing the eco⁃nomic benefit, but there are still some problems existed in these works. This paper discussed and analyzed the prob⁃lems existed in the bidding works of special steel enterprises, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures.%  特钢企业和其他企业一样,货物采购、技改工程及服务招标工作在降低企业成本,提高经济效益等方面发挥了重要作用,但也存在着一些问题。本文对特钢企业招标工作中存在的部分常见问题进行了阐述和分析,并提出了相应的对策。

  16. 基于实时竞价的网络广告投放流程设计%Design of Internet advertising process based on real-time bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸿江; 孙国华

    2013-01-01

    Real-time bidding is a new procurement and delivery of online advertising technology.This paper analyzes the traditional advertising network paths,based on Internet,computer technology and auction theory,finds out the shortcomings,designs a Intemet advertising process based on real-time bidding.This can match the best advertising resources and goals,improve the utilization efficiency,save the costs,and achieve maximum benefit for the participants.%实时竞价是一种新兴的网络广告采购与投放技术,拥有着巨大的应用前景,本论文基于网络技术、计算机技术和拍卖机制理论,在分析传统网络广告投放路径的基础上,找出其不足,有针对性的设计了基于实时竞价的网络广告投放流程,该网络广告投放流程可以匹配最佳的广告资源与广告目标,提高广告资源利用效率,节约网络广告投放成本,实现网络广告的各个参与方效益最大化.

  17. 多部件采购外包的两阶段均衡投标策略%A Two-stage Equilibrium Bidding Strategy in Outsourcing Procurement of Multiple Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青

    2012-01-01

    本文考虑一个由单个制造商和多个供应商群体组成的供应链——该制造商需要采购多个部件,对于每个部件在市场上均存在多个供应商.不同于传统的从各供应商群体分别采购各个部件,制造商考虑将所有部件的采购整体外包给某个供应商.在第一阶段,制造商使用一级价格密封投标的逆向拍卖来确定赢得整体采购合约的供应商.接下来,第一阶段投标的获胜者生产其所能供应的部件,并使用逆向拍卖向第一阶段中未获胜的其他竞标者采购其余部件.我们分析了供应商在两个阶段的均衡竞价策略,并比较了制造商在亲自逐件采购和外包整体采购两种情况下的期望采购成本.我们证明了在两种机制下制造商的总的期望采购成本相等.%Procurement and outsourcing are two important topics for many firms. An increased number of companies outsource some of their internal functions to the third party in order to focus on their core competencies and improve their competitive advantage in the market. The popularity of outsourcing is growing, as both successes and failures have been observed in practice. It remains unclear about how the outsourcing decision influences each party's behavior and strategic decisions under different procurement mechanisms. In this paper we model a supply chain system in which a manufacturer purchases multiple components. For each component, there are multiple suppliers capable of providing it. The manufacturer considers outsourcing the procurement of all components to one of his suppliers, rather than purchasing them by himself. Since the production costs are not publicly known, auctions are used to reward the contract. In the first stage, the manufacturer uses the first-price sealed-bid reverse auction to determine which supplier wins the outsourcing contract. Then, the winner of the first auction produces the component that the company is able to provide, and uses

  18. 探讨“案例模拟教学”在《建设工程招投标》课程中的应用%Application of Case Simulation Teaching in Course of Construction Project Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦锋

    2012-01-01

    在《健设工程招投标》这门课程中,模拟案例教学法不仅可以形象的向学生们讲述如何在实践中更好的运用所学知识,也可以帮助学生毕业后走进工作岗位提前进入状态.文章从几个方面详细的阐述了《建设工程招投标》这一课程中如何引入案例模拟教学手法,并且提出了作者自己相对独到的意见.%When teaching the course of Construction Project Bidding, case-simulation teaching not only makes the teaching vivid, but also helps students smoothly adapt to the work environment after graduation. The article demonstrates how to use case-simulation teaching method when teaching the course of Construction Project Bidding from several aspects. At last, it gives the author's suggestion.

  19. On the Bidding Management of Construction Engineering at Small and Medium Hydro Power Station%浅谈中小型水电站工程建设中招投标管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳玲

    2014-01-01

    我国中小型水电站的建设速度和规范性都在提高。在中小型水电站建设中,招投标工作成为了水电站工程建设成败的一个关键因素。文章主要针对中小型水电站的招投标工作的概念、特点及管理工作中的重点等内容进行了探讨。%The construction speed and normality of small hy- dro-power station in our country has been improved. In the construction of smal hydro-power station, the bidding work has become a key factor in the success of the construction of the hydro-power station project. This paper mainly focused on the concept, content of bidding at the smal hydro-power sta- tion and the characteristics of the management.

  20. 冷链物流采购第一评分密封招投标研究%Procurement of Cold-Chain Logistics Based on the First-Score Sealed Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐欣; 王先甲; 吕凡

    2012-01-01

    The primary goals of cold-chain logistics for food refrigeration are food safety and quality. Cold-chain logistics also needs to consider the importance of timeliness, cost, and so on. Thus, procurement of cold-chain logistics is a multi-objective problem. To construct modern and efficient logistics procurement market, the design of specific bidding rules is necessary. This paper integrates multiple objects into the score function of the procurement side, and uses the first-score sealed bidding rule to remove the limitation of considering only the price. The findings of this paper have practical contributions to promoting the efficient procurement of cold cold-chain logistics.First, this paper discusses the classic auction theory assuming that auction items and item price are known variables. However, in reality a single-price auction does not have properties required in many logistics service transactions. Different from the traditional logistics, cold chain logistics not only considers cost minimization but also optimizes logistics properties, including safety, freshness, timely and cost, etc. Food safety attribute is particularly important for cold-chain logistics. Products involved in cold chain logistics range from agricultural products, such as vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry and eggs, to aquatic products, such as frozen food, packaging cooked food. Optimally integrated properties are essential to the logistics of the food industry. These properties can encourage logistics enterprises to achieve technological innovations and effective incentive mechanisms.Second, we transfer the traditional reverse one-price sealed-bid auction model into the first-score sealed bidding model. However, the model tries to optimize multiple factors, including cost and quality, rather than minimize the single factor of cost. The allocation rules and payment rules of the multi-attribute score auction model are evolved from the traditional one-price sealed auction. However, the

  1. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Pneumologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-09-23

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for < 2.5 cm, 79.2 Gy for 2.5-4.5 cm, 84.6 Gy for 4.5-6 cm, 90 Gy for > 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [German] Die Standardbehandlung fuer nichtkleinzellige Bronchialkarzinome (NSCLC) im Stadium I/II ist die Operation, wobei Radiotherapie fuer Patienten, die nicht operabel sind oder die Operation ablehnen, als Alternative

  2. Based on the Current Bidding Situation, General Situation of The Drug Prices in Our Analysis%基于当前招标形势下医院的药品价格概况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄好武; 林伟杰; 孟茜

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解在当前招标形式下医院药品价格的波动情况,为指导药事管理人员及药学人员掌握当前医院药品价格情况提供参考。方法以启动新招标模式前后医院的药品价格做比较,比较时间从2013年1月至2015年12月,从竞价品种的价格、议价品种的价格以及基本用药及非基本用药进入低价目录后的价格等进行统计分析。结果药品价格下降品种有107个,价格上升品种有82个,价格无变化品种520个,厂家/通用名/规格完全一致的药品总费用下降了211.85万元。结论从目前该院药品价格统计信息可以看出,启动新的招标模式后,纳入低价目录及采购困难品种的大部分药品价格上涨,参与竞价采购模式的药品价格下降,药品总费用也在下降。%Objective In order to understand the fluctuation of prices in our hospital in the form of the current bidding and offer some reference of the hospital drug price at present to pharmacy management personnel and pharmacists.Methods Compare the hospital drug price before and after the new bidding mode from January 2013 to December 2015,analyze the statistic from multiple aspects such as the price of the bidding varieties,the price of the bargaining varieties,the price of the basic medicine and non essential drugs in the low-cost directory.Results There were reduction in drug price of 107 varieties and price rise of 82 varieties,there were 520 varieties without price fluctuation.The overal cost decreased about 211.85 milion yuan.Conclusion As can be seen from the current drug prices in our statistical information, start a new bidding mode,in low price catalog and procurement difficulties most varieties of drug prices,participate in the bidding model drug prices fal, drugs total cost is faling.

  3. Research on the Social-cost-based Model for Bid Evaluation of BOT Project Concession Candidates%考虑社会成本的BOT项目特许经营者评标模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路浩; 何德文

    2014-01-01

    对于BOT项目委托方而言,项目的价值在于社会效益的实现程度而不仅仅是考虑项目的建设成本。提出了一套考虑社会成本的BOT项目特许经营者评标属性集,当特许经营者评标属性的权重已知,评标委员会对各属性的评价以及业主对特许经营者的偏好不确定的情况下,运用区间数和灰色关联分析来构建特许经营者评标模型,通过引入区间数距离,求得区间数的灰色关联度,最终对各候选特许经营者进行排序。由于该模型考虑了社会成本因素,对促使特许经营者更加合理地规划项目方案,减少社会成本的形成具有一定的作用。此外,引入区间数来处理社会成本等模糊评价信息,提高了评标结果的科学性。%For BOT project clients,the project value is to realize social benefit,rather than merely to consider the construction cost of the project. This paper presents a set of social-cost-based attributes for bid evaluation of BOT project concession candidates. The bid evaluation committee can develop a model for bid evaluation of concession candidates based on interval numbers and grey relational analysis,if they understand weighted attributes and face uncertainties concerning the attributes evaluation and the owner’s preference for concession candidates. The ranking of concession candidates can be done by obtaining grey correlation for interval numbers through the distance between interval numbers. This social-cost-based model is established to contribute to less social costs by forcing a concession candidate to work out a more reasonable operational scheme. Meanwhile,uncertain information for decision making is offset by interval numbers,yielding more practical evaluation results.

  4. Analysis on Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Purchasing Books through Public bidding in Colleges and Universities%浅析高校图书招标采购中存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国斌

    2011-01-01

    当前,随着市场经济的深入发展,图书市场开展有序的竞争,使得高校图书采购工作走向市场化、规范化,享受图书供应商高质量的服务。高校图书馆实行图书招标采购的方式,具有明显的优势,但是同时也应注意招标采购各个环节的工作。本文阐述了高校图书招标采购的意义,分析了高校图书招标采购存在的问题,提出了改进高校图书招标采购工作的建议。其对策包括:完善图书采购招标评标标准、严格规范图书招标程序、投标单位应严格执行协议、提高图书馆对图书代理商的选择能力。%At present,along with further development of market economy,book market proceeds with orderly competition,commercializes and standardizes the book procurement in universities which can enjoy high quality services of book suppliers.The implementation of bidding for purchasing library books enjoys obvious advantages,but attention should be paid to the whole process of bidding.This paper describes the significance of purchasing books by pubic bidding in university libraries,analyzes the existing problems and gives some recommendation to improve biding in books procurement.The measures include: improving criteria for assessing public tender for book purchasing,regulating the procedure process strictly,having bidders honor the agreement as well as strengthening libraries' selectivity of book agents.

  5. 附加资源与环境保护约束的矿业权招标出让机制设计%A Bidding Transfer Mechanism Imposed on a Constraint of Resource and Environment Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段涛

    2013-01-01

    In the process of mining right auction, the goals of government are not only achieving high transferring fees, but also some non-price factors such as efficient utilization of resources and effective protection of environment.However, mining right transfer in China is always a kind of one-dimensional bid competition.It lacks a bidding transfer mechanism available for environmental protection and efficient utilization of resource.This paper designs a bidding transfer mechanism imposed on a constraint of resource and environment protection, analyses the equilibrium strategies of government and investors by game analysis.The researches of this paper show that increase of investment on resource and environment protection leads to reduction of the transferring fee.Therefore government will balance the two goals and determine the optimal level of investment on resource and environment protection by boundary conditions.%在矿业权拍卖出让过程中,政府不仅要使矿业权以尽可能高的价格出让,还要充分考虑资源高效利用与环境保护等非价格因素.然而,迄今我国的矿业权出让多为一维的价格竞争,缺乏能够实现地质环境保护与资源高效利用的出让机制.为此,文章设计了一种附加资源与环境保护约束的矿业权招标出让机制,并通过建立博弈模型来分析政府与投资者的均衡策略.研究表明,要求投资者增加资源与环境保护投入会导致矿业权出让收益减少,因此政府要在这两方面目标之间进行权衡,政府将根据边际条件确定最优的资源与环境保护投入.

  6. Replica Creation Strategy Based on Bid Pattern and Accession Heat%基于竞标模式和访问热度的副本创建策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞璐璐; 曹耀钦

    2013-01-01

    研究典型数据副本创建策略,提出一种以节点在线率和节点存储能力作为价格的竞标模型副本创建策略。根据对基于访问热度的典型副本创建策略和基于竞标模型的典型副本创建策略的具体分析,改进典型副本创建策略对节点性能考虑的单一性,综合考虑节点的访问热度和负载等性能,实现基于竞标模式和访问热度相结合的副本创建策略。并通过基于网络带宽利用率和系统响应时间的实验,将该副本创建策略与两种典型副本创建策略进行实验对比,验证提出的基于竞标模式和访问热度的副本创建策略具有较好的性能。%Discusses typical strategy proposes of data replica creation, delivers a replication creation strategy that takes online rate and storage abili-ty of the node as “price”. Based on a detailed analysis of traditional creation strategy on visitation frequency and typical replica strategy on bid creation, improves the unity of consideration on node performance, considers the performance of node visitation frequency and load, and achieves data creation strategy on a combination of bid pattern and visitation frequency. Through experiments on web bandwidth utilization and system response time, article replica creation strategy and experimentaly compares two typical replica creation strategies to verify better performance of replica creation strategy on bid pattern and visitation frequency proposed.

  7. 多商业型虚拟发电厂联合竞标及分配策略%Joint Bidding and Distribution Strategies for Multiple Commercial Virtual Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡殿刚; 刘毅然; 王坤宇; 韩旭杉; 智勇; 何欣; 艾欣

    2016-01-01

    Multiple virtual power plants (VPP) can work together to participate in electricity market and get earnings through joint bidding. A scheduling-allocation cycle can be divided into scheduling day, execution day and allocation day. Uncertainty of market price and intermittent power generation can be dealt with multi-scenarios method in scheduling day. Goal of joint bidding is to maximize sum of bidding earnings in day-ahead market and rewards in balance market. The alliance must bear certain rewards/punishments because of deviation of actual output from forecast expectations of intermittent power generation in execution day. VPP can be divided into VPPs with controllable and intermittent generations. To study whether multiple VPP joint scheduling is beneficial to individuality, an approach of earnings and reward/punishment allocation based on their different characteristics is raised and an evaluation method based on reward/punishment allocation expectation is put forward. Finally, feasibility and rationality of the proposed allocation and evaluation method is verified with different actual examples of VPP combination.%多个虚拟发电厂(virtual power plant,VPP)可以合作参与电力市场,通过联合竞标获得收益。将 VPP 的一个调度-分配周期分为调度日、执行日和分配日,调度日中采用多场景法处理日前市场电价和间歇性电源的不确定性,以VPP 联盟在日前市场的竞标收益和平衡市场受到的奖惩之和最大为目标进行联合竞标;执行日中由于间歇性电源实际出力与预测期望之间存在偏差,联盟需承担一定的奖惩。将VPP划分为纯可控类VPP和含间歇性电源类VPP,为研究各类VPP联合调度对VPP个体是否有利,提出了基于各自不同特点的收益及奖惩的分摊方法和基于奖惩分摊期望的利害评判方法,并通过不同 VPP 组合的实际算例,验证了所提分摊方法和评判方法的可行性和合理性。

  8. Guarantee-bond: main concepts and overview of its application within the bidding process involving inactive areas with marginal accumulations of petroleum and natural gas; Seguro-garantia: conceituacao e panorama de sua aplicacao no processo licitatorio envolvendo areas inativas com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Antonio Sergio; Herrmann, Hildebrando [Universidade ERstadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Petroleum Agency has been working on the adoption of an efficient financial guarantee system in order to ensure the fulfillment of contractual obligations in upstream-related activities. This process is aimed at: creating incentives for responsible behavior in the industry; attending current demands from society for efficiency and transparency; attending to industries demands for the maintenance of investment flows within the sector; safeguarding the government against financial liabilities caused by irresponsible or insolvent concessionaires; and keeping the sector attractive and competitive for small and medium companies. Within the bidding process for the concession of inactive areas with marginal accumulations, ANP requires two kinds of guarantees: a bidding guarantee, and a PTI guarantee (for obligations under the Initial Work Program-PTI). In both cases, the ANP allows two kinds of financial instruments: 'Seguros-Garantia' and 'Letters of Credit'. According to bidding rules, guarantees must be presented before the bidding process. This instrument ensures that the winner will sign the concession contract. The PTI guarantee ensures performance in a timely fashion. This paper describes and analyzes the instrument 'Seguro-Garantia', its evolution, existing categories, and applicability. (author)

  9. Analysis of stroke in ATHENA: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Crijns, Harry J G M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    , on stroke has been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, ATHENA (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in patiENts with Atrial fibrillation...

  10. 物资设备招标采购“最低投标价法”存在的问题及风险防范%Problems and Risk Precaution in "Lowest Bid Price Method" of the Material Equipment Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡顺根

    2012-01-01

    Based on expounding the advantages of"the lowest bid price method"of the material equipment bid procurement,the problems of whether the "lowest bid price" is lower than cost in the tender and bid is hard to determine,"bad money out good money"frequently occurs which easily cause contract execution rate low and influence project construction are analyzed.Through the analysis and discussion,"the lowest bid price method"is at risk in procurement is put forward.We can take actions to enhance admittance threshold and execute pre-qualification.According to the design documents and requirements,we carefully prepare the tender documents and technical specifications and establish margin system to ensure that the renderers' legitimate rights and interests.If preventive measures are good,the"lowest bid price method"can make the bidding work run smoothly and effectively to realize the purposes of reducing the cost and controlling the project cost.%在阐述物资设备采购采用"最低投标价法"优点的基础上,对"最低投标价法"在招投标中存在的"最低投标价"是否低于成本难以界定,"劣币驱逐良币"现象时有发生,易造成合同履约率低,影响工程建设等主要问题进行分析。通过分析与探讨,提出招标采购采用"最低投标价法"存在的风险,可采取提高准入门槛,进行资格预审;根据设计文件及要求,认真编制招标文件和技术规格书;建立保证金制度,保证招标人的合法权益等措施进行防范。如果防范措施采取得好,采用"最低投标价法"可使招投标工作顺利进行,从而达到有效降低采购成本,控制工程造价的目的。

  11. Research and Design of Bidding Decision System Based on Taobao Train%基于淘宝直通车的竞价决策系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周润博; 张忠能

    2014-01-01

    电子商务蓬勃发展的大环境下,广告主具有强烈的电商广告投放意愿,显然他们并未达到电商广告的核心业务SEM (搜索引擎营销优化)的专业要求。所以广告主希望借助第三方工具来进行搜索引擎广告投放的一站式服务来满足其业务需求。基于此,本文将提供一整套的竞价词托管式服务的解决方案。以淘宝直通车这一全新的搜索竞价模式作为研究对象,从语义抽取、关键词扩展、竞价词生成、模型化出价、广告效果正向反馈监控模型几方面进行分析和统计,为直通车广告主提供最优投放策略整体解决方案。第一阶段针对商品信息进行数据挖掘,实现关键词推荐引擎。第二阶段实现投放优化模块,实施定价策略,建立的点击量与PPC(“平均点击花费”)模型,实现在预算资金的约束下对不同竞价组合进行ROI(投入产出比)最大化的投资决策。以实际效果改善直通车竞价搜索用户体验。%Under the booming development of e-commerce, however, they neither know nor understand SEM business well, which has both high professional requirements and threshold of SEM (Search engine marketing and optimization). Advertisers are keen to use third-party tools to supply the one-stop service of search engine advertising to meet their business needs. Based on this, this ar-ticle will provide a complete set of bidding word hosted service solutions. Taobao trains as a new search auction model as my subject of academic studies .After analyzing and collecting statistics of semantic extraction, keywords expansion, bid word generation, mod-eling bids, advertising effect positive feedback monitoring model, this thesis offers the optimal solution of placing advertising, I want to provide train advertisers the best overall solution delivery strategy. The first phase focuses on product information for data mining, to achieve keyword recommendation

  12. 招投标和预结算中清单与定额计价的应用分析%The application analysis on list and quota valuation in bidding and pre-settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永红

    2016-01-01

    介绍了建筑工程领域定额与清单计价的适用条件及优缺点,阐述了在招投标和工程预结算过程中,利用定额和清单计价的有效方法,实现企业经济社会效益的最大化。%This paper introduced the applied conditions and advantages and disadvantages of list and quota valuation in construction engineering field,elaborated the effective methods using list and quota valuation in bidding and engineering pre-settlement process,to achieve the maximiza-tion of enterprise’s economic and social benefits.

  13. The study of college basic construction project non-bidding procurement management risk%高校基建工程非招标采购管理廉政风险刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽霞

    2011-01-01

    通过对高校基建工程零星项目非招标采购现实状态的分析,指出了其潜在风险。并进行了相应的风险防范措施探讨,为高校基建工程采购非招标管理决策提供了参考依据。%Through the analysis non-bidding procurement of college basic construction project practical condition, this paper studies nonbidding procurement of potential risks and measures to prevent risks. The study provides reference basis for college basic construction nonbidding management decision.

  14. Límites legales del concubinato: normas y tabúes en la esclavitud sexual según la Bidāya de Ibn Rušd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Puente, Cristina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Concubinage is a kind of relationship between a man and a woman whose legal implications have been discussed and regulated by all Islamic legal schools. Norms of both religious and juridical nature regulate the relationship between a man and his concubine, in relation to several factors: sexual and family taboos, the slave condition of the concubine, the man’s obligations in regard to the individuals under his surveillance, etc. The goal of this paper is to investigate which are the limits of concubinage according to Mālikī legal doctrine, with special focus on cases in which marriage and concubinage show parallels. The basis for this study is the treatise on comparative law Bidāyat al-mujtahid, by Ibn Rushd (Averroes.

    El concubinato es una relación con consecuencias legales discutidas y reguladas por todas las escuelas jurídicas islámicas. Las relaciones entre un hombre y su concubina están limitadas por distintas normas de carácter jurídico-religioso, que tienen que ver con diferentes factores: tabúes sexuales y familiares, el estatus de esclava de la concubina, las obligaciones del hombre respecto a los individuos que hay bajo su guarda, etc. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar cuáles son los límites del concubinato según los establece la doctrina legal mālikí, prestando especial atención a los casos en que las relaciones de matrimonio o concubinato se asemejan o difuminan. El estudio se lleva a cabo a través del tratado de derecho comparado de Ibn Rušd (Averroes, Bidāyat al-muŷtahid.

  15. 上海市药品招标采用价格比较法的探讨%Explore a Method of Drug Bidding in Shanghai by Comparing the Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宬

    2014-01-01

    为方便慢性病患者长期用药,上海市探索将基本药物目录中部分适合慢性病长期用药以大简包装的形式进行招标。在价格评标的过程中采用了参考五省市同规格中标药品价格的方法,限制中标药品价格处于五省市中标价格区间的中下区域,在降低居民用药费用的同时,给予药品生产企业合理利润空间,避免由于价格过低造成企业停止供应或质量标准下降的局面。%For the convenience of patients with chronic diseases, parts of long-term used medicines in the Essential Medicine Lists were purchased by public bidding in the form of large packaging and simple packaging in Shanghai. In the process of bid assessment, the drug prices were compared with those of other five provinces and cities to limit them to the lower or middle interval of theirs. As the result, it lightened the economic burden on patients, while ensured a reasonable profit margin for the manufacturing enterprises. This method prevents the enterprises from stopping supply and reducing the drug quality, because the price is below the cost of its production.

  16. Impact of the Bidding for Winter Olympics on Zhangjiakou’s Tourism Industry and Corresponding Countermeasures%申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业的影响及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永莉; 王建红

    2015-01-01

    在当今世界,冬奥会是影响力仅次于夏奥会的综合性体育赛事,它对举办地的旅游业乃至经济会产生重大影响。在分析京张联合申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业产生影响的各种因素的基础上,从打造形象品牌、加强市场开发和创建旅游环境等方面提出一些建议与对策,希望能引起业界对奥运旅游的重视,采取积极主动的措施,实现奥运旅游效应的最大化。%Among the sport games in the modern world,the influence of the Winter Olympic Games is only second to that of the Summer Olympic Games,which tends to have a significant impact on the tourism industry and economy of the host city.Aiming at the Beijing-Zhangjiakou co-bidding for the Winter Olym-pics of 2022,the paper analyzes some impacts which the bidding brings about on Zhangjiakou,and offers some suggestions in forging image brand,strengthening market development and establishing tourist envi-ronment,hoping that the tourism industry can pay more attention to Olympic tourism,take initiative meas-ures and realize the maximization of Olympic tourist effect.

  17. A Study of the Contractors Unbalanced Bidding Strategies Based on Expected Variations%承包商基于变更预期的不平衡报价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹贻林; 钱坤

    2013-01-01

    Contractors can usually find the errors such as project characteristics do not matching the description,the lack of the item, quantities deviation error and so on through the research on tender Bill of quantities or through the site survey. Then they forecast the possible state change during the contract fulfillment stage and build SEDA model to analyze the possibility of high settlement based on priced bill of quantities by setting the bidding scheme and construct intermediate state. Once a change occurs, contractors would use unbalanced bidding to achieve revenue through the pre-set intermediate state changes and be exempt from any risk. Finally,an actual case will be used to analyze the operational processes of SEDA model.%承包商通过研究招标工程量清单,发现其中如项目特征不符、缺项、工程量偏差等错误,或者通过现场踏勘,预测合同履行阶段可能出现的状态改变,构建SEDA模型,分析在已标价的工程量清单的基础上实现高价结算的可能性,设置报价方案,构建中间状态,待未来该变化发生时,通过预先设置好的中间状态借助变更提高承包商的收益,承包商可以免于任何风险从而利用不平衡报价实现创收。并通过实际案例分析了SEDA模型的操作流程。

  18. Research on bidding strategy and modeling of equity auction based on stochastic differential equations%基于随机微分方程的股权拍卖报价策略及模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑君君; 张平; 胡晓诗; 蒋伟良

    2013-01-01

    Auction is a realizable way of venture capital equity exit. The problems of information asymmetry and the indefinite nature of external environment in venture capital equity auction make it difficult for the outside investors to accurately price the risk corporate equity. Given this, the equity bidding system can be considered as an open system, thus the changing state of outside investors' bidding strategies can be described by stochastic differential equations. On this basis, this paper constructs a venture capital exit equity auction model, then discusses the formation mechanism of the corporate equity clearing price and its influence factors such as the degree of information disclosure, bidder's susceptible extent and so on, and finally analyses the expected revenue of venture capitalist by means of calculus of variations.%拍卖是实现风险投资股权退出的方式之一.在风险投资股权拍卖交易中存在的信息不对称以及外部环境的不确定性使得外部投资者难以对风险企业股权准确地定价,鉴于此,将股权竞买系统视为一个开放系统,运用随机微分方程来描述外部投资者的报价策略状态演变过程,在此基础之上构建风险投资退出股权拍卖模型,并探讨市场出清价格的形成机理及其信息公布程度、竞买人易受影响程度等因素的影响,最后运用变分法对风险投资家的期望收益进行了分析.

  19. 政府工程建设项目代建招投标中波特五力分析%Analysis of government construction projects construction agent bidding Potter five forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周圣瑜

    2015-01-01

    近来几年,中国经济极速发展,中国的建设性的投资项目在逐年的扩展规划,工程的复杂性和难度都大幅度的提升。工程建设项目的代建招投标机制是中国建筑业和固定资产投资管理体系改革的主要内容之一,也是中国建筑市场走向标准化、完善化的重要行动之一。《招标投标法》的颁布实施,使中国的招标投标工作不断步入正轨,它对建筑市场产生了积极的效果。政府项目代建制,是指政府投资项目交由专业从事投资项目建设管理单位负责项目从可行性论证到建设实施的管理,项目建成后交付项目法人或使用单位的建设管理代理制度。政府工程项目经过招标的办法,目的即是挑选一个能担任该项目施工工作的承建商并与其签订一份公正反映市场水平的合同报价、合理分配风险、清晰分配工作和工作职责的合同;要完结好项目的代建招投标工作,有必要对这一进程的每一环节加以注重,标准操作,才能真正使代建招投标工作取得实效。公共管理范畴公共制度履行问题越来越受到世界各国的重视,政府管理形式变成大家重视的焦点,一种新的管理办法在西方各国公共部门日益盛行,各国的政府都纷繁将原因由自己承当的公共服务很多托付出去,交由公司和非盈利组织承当。这篇文章就有关影响要素联系波特五力模型进行研究。%In recent years, the Chinese economy fast development, China's constructive investment projects in the extension of the year by year planning, engineering complexity and difficulty have substantial improvement. Engineering construction project's construction bidding mechanism is China's construction industry and one of the main content of the investment in fixed assets management system reform, China's construction market toward standardization, one of the important action . The

  20. Evaluation Model for Bidding Risk of BOT Project of Passenger Dedicated Line%铁路客运专线BOT项目投标方案风险评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亚敏; 肖朝乾

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes: With the shortage of construction funds and inadequate infrastructure being increasingly prominent in China, to speed up the construction of railways and other infrastructure with the commonly - used BOT mode in the world is inevitable of the development of the era. The bidding scheme quality is crucial to the success bidding. As the BOT project has the features of long construction period, large construction investment, needing complex technology, many changeable factors and big project risk, the bidder will take the big risk when drawing up the bidding scheme.Research conclusions: Staring with the system theory, the decision - making evaluation index system is established for the bidding scheme for the BOT project of passenger dedicated line and the evaluation is made with grey situation decision - making model. In the railway BOT project, there are lots of factors to influence the project risks and it is difficult to determine the relations among the influence factors. Now the commonly - used evaluation methods include thecomprehensive fuzzy evaluation model, ANN model and so on. These methods have their own advantages, but also they have disadvantages. With these methods, the differences of the comprehensive optimization index values are not obvious of various schemes and the model results are affected by the objective factors. Especially, with these methods, the high risks of railway BOT project can not be considered. The result of the model presented in this paper can not be affected by the objective factors, so this model is more accurate and effective in revealing the differences of the comprehensive optimization index values of various bidding schemes. This model has universal property, so it can be available for BOT projects of the highway and power supply.%研究目的:随着我国建设资金短缺和基础设施不足的矛盾日益突出,采用国际上流行的BOT方式加快铁路等基础设施的建设已是时代发展的必

  1. Bidding Wave for Mega Event Abroad:Interpretation from the Political Perspective%国外大型事件申办热潮:政治视角的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳文敏

    2013-01-01

      对大型事件影响力共识的缺乏与其申办热情成为悖论,一方面其影响效应尚模糊不清,并引起学界的质疑和争议;另一方面城市的申办和举办热情有增无减,因而隐藏在经济目标之下的非经济动机值得关注。文章从已有文献中厘清国外大型事件的申办动机、申办过程及事件后所表征的政治效应,从政治视角解释当前国外大型事件的申办热潮。主要结论如下:1)超越“事件”本身来看,大型事件作为政府政策工具的角色突显;2)大型事件的时效性使得城市得以完成正常情况下难以在短时间内实施的城市空间改造、城市建设,以及将一些重要的政策尽早提上日程,城市采纳事件战略具有复杂的政治动机;3)大型事件的推动者往往是城市商业和政治精英结成的联盟,一方面他们共同致力于推动举办地的经济发展;另一方面他们也借此谋求政治及商业领域的社会资本;4)大型事件被用来作为合法化工具:是展示国家认同的合法化途径;获得公众支持的合法性;获得上一级政府支持,特别是资金支持的合法性;5)发展中国家,特别是非洲国家的申办更体现出其改善国际不平等关系及成为“非洲门户”的意愿。%It’s a paradox that there’s little consensus about mega-events’ impacts but there’s great enthusiasm to bid for it. On one hand, its impacts are still unclear that causes the academic challenge and controversy. On the other hand, the enthusiasm of bidding for mega-event is unabated, and spreads from developed to developing countries. Thus, the non-economic motives hidden under the economic objectives are of concern. This article explains the phenomenon from non-economic perspective by clarifying the motivations and its political effects during the bidding process and after the event. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Globalization

  2. Deviation Management of Wind Power Prediction and Decision-Making of Wind Power Bidding%风电功率预测偏差管理与申报出力决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴政球; 王韬

    2011-01-01

    The deviation of wind power prediction lead to a lot of adjustment cost for AGC, so how to utilize the incentive policy to improve the prediction accuracy of wind power is significant for secure and economic operation of power grid. The examination and management of prediction accuracy of wind power participated in market transaction and the optimal bidding of wind farm output are researched. Referring to present method to exam the generated power of conventional power plants by grid dispatch cooperation, a method to exam the uncertainty of wind power prediction is given; according to the probability density of wind power prediction and taking the maximum revenue expectation of wind farm as objective, a optimal decision-making strategy for the bidding of wind power is proposed. Case study results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of wind power prediction.%风电功率的预测偏差会产生大量的自动发电控制(automatic generation control,AGC)调节费用。如何采用政策激励来提高风电预测准确性对电网安全与经济运行具有重大意义。研究了上网风电预测准确性考核管理与风电场最佳功率申报问题。借鉴当前电网调度公司对常规电源发电功率考核的方法,提出了考核风电功率预测不准确性的方法,并根据风电场风电功率预测概率密度,以风电场收益期望值最大为目标,提出了风电场申报出力的最佳决策方案。算例结果表明,该方法可提高风电预测的准确性。

  3. Application of electronic medical records, hand-holding mobile terminals, bid data collection and analysis, and data security in medical quality control%电子病历、手持移动终端、大数据采集与分析、数据安全在医疗质控中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定珠; 周凡漪

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电子病历、手持移动终端、大数据采集与分析、数据安全在医疗质控中的应用.%Described in this paper is the application of electronic medical records, hand-holding mobile terminals,bid data collection and analysis, and data security in medical quality control.

  4. “招标破案”激励问题研究——以综合激励理论为视角%Research on the Motivation of"Bid to Investigation" --From the Perspective of Comprehensive Motivational Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆成; 汤庆

    2012-01-01

    As a newly emerged incentive form in practice, "Bid to Investigation"has provoked extensive controversies and queries in the academic circles. This paper analyses the mode of the operation of"Bid to Investigation"in the perspective of the comprehensive motivational theory, approving its effects to renovate the motivation in the police incentive,and puts forward some proposals on the application of"Bid to Investi- gation",so as to help it play a better role in the motivation.%"招标破案"作为一种实践中新兴的侦查工作激励形式,一经推出,即引起学界的广泛争议与质疑。根据综合激励理论,当前我国警察激励机制存在只注重任务结果激励,对任务完成激励和任务内在激励重视不足等问题。"招标破案"对警察激励机制不足起到了积极的修正作用。因此,对"招标破案"应进行规制,才能更好地发挥其激励作用。

  5. The Inspiration of"Wrestling "Fading Out the Olympic Games to Wushu Bid%“摔跤”淡出奥运对武术申奥的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚红军; 姜传银; 刘为坤

    2013-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee voted to take Wrestling out of the 2020 Summer Olympics at February 2013. Wushu is also one of the sports to impact the 2020 Summer Olympics. This time, Wrestling fading out of the Olympic Games has brought many aspects of the experiences and lessons . This study suggests that the development policies of the International Wushu Federation ,the competition rules of the martial arts and the popularity of martial arts are the key factors of Wushu bid.%  2013年2月,国际奥委会通过投票决定,摔跤将淡出2020年夏季奥运会,而武术则是冲击2020年夏季奥运会的体育项目之一。此次,摔跤淡出奥运给武术带来了诸多方面的经验和教训。文章认为,国际武术联合会的发展政策、武术的比赛规则、武术的普及度、武术赛事的运作是左右武术入奥的关键性因素。

  6. 北京市办公用地投标租金空间分异与影响因素%Spatial Heterogeneity and Locational Determinants of Bid-rent of Office Land in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓平; 封强; 李媛芳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the bid-rent theory and spatial econometric models, this paper examined spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity of bid-rent of office land in Beijing. By collecting the transaction dataset of office land from 1992 to 2012 in the downtown Beijing, we reported the kernel density estimation maps of the transacted office land. The maps show that office lands in Beijing, in general, have evident agglomeration characteristics. In general, the bid rent of office land in Beijing decreases gradually from city center to periphery. However, it also presents an evident spatial variation. The bid rent reaches the peak at CBD, financial street, Zhongguancun and Olympic Park area, etc. In the same period, the emergence of several hotspots of office space reflects the polycentric development trend of spatial structure in Beijing. By employing mono-centric and poly-centric regression models, and geographical weighted regression model, we evaluated the main determinants that have significantly affected the spatial pattern of office land rent in Beijing. It concluded that agglomeration economy is the most important factor for the explanation of urban spatial variation of office rent. There is significant spatial dependence and spatial cumulative effect in the distribution of office location, that is, the existing office clusters will affect the location of new office space. As China's urban land market develops mature and the impact of the market mechanism on land development mode is strengthened, it's important to study the relationship between land price and spatial location. It can help to enrich and improve the spatial structure theory of urban land use, and provide references for land use and planning practice as well.%基于投标租金理论,运用GIS空间分析和计量统计方法,以北京市1992-2012年城市办公用地交易数据为实证基础,重点分析北京市办公用地区位变动规律及投标租金空间不均衡

  7. Inclusion Complex of Zerumbone with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Induces Apoptosis in Liver Hepatocellular HepG2 Cells via Caspase 8/BID Cleavage Switch and Modulating Bcl2/Bax Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilah Muhammad Nadzri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone (ZER isolated from Zingiber zerumbet was previously encapsulated with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD to enhance ZER’s solubility in water, thus making it highly tolerable in the human body. The anticancer effects of this new ZER-HPβCD inclusion complex via apoptosis cell death were assessed in this study for the first time in liver hepatocellular cells, HepG2. Apoptosis was ascertained by morphological study, nuclear stain, and sub-G1 cell population accumulation with G2/M arrest. Further investigations showed the release of cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, proving mitochondrial dysfunction upon the ZER-HPβCD treatment as well as modulating proapoptotic and anti-apototic Bcl-2 family members. A significant increase in caspase 3/7, caspase 9, and caspase 8 was detected with the depletion of BID cleaved by caspase 8. Collectively, these results prove that a highly soluble inclusion complex of ZER-HPβCD could be a promising anticancer agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans.

  8. A View of “Horizon Fusion” From Translation of “Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi”%从《送元二使安西》的译文看视野融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a brief account of the concept of “horizon fusion”, the main idea of reception aesthetics and modern hermeneutics, pointing out the important role of readers in literary activities, in fusion of horizon especially. The writer specifies that translator is both the reader and the author and translation is both the process of comprehension and innovation. Through the comparison among four translation versions of the poem entitled“Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi” by Wangwei, illustrates the writer from the perspective of horizon fusion the preferable features of the one translated by Sun Dayu.%本文简述了视野融合的概念、接受关学和现代阐释学的主要观点,说明了读者的能动性在文学活动尤其在视野融合中的重要性,指出翻译者既是读者同时也是作者,翻译过程既是理解过程同时也是创造过程。作者通过对王维《送元二使安西》四个译文比较,从视野融合的角度说明了孙大雨译文的可取之处。

  9. Practice of the First Time Online Bidding for Drug Purchase in a Large-scale Hospital in Anhui Province:Investigation and Analysis%安徽省某大型医院首次药品网上招标采购执行情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维恒

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation and the outcome of the first time online bidding for drug purchase so as to provide reference of further standardizing the online bidding for drug purchase. METHODS: The data of the first time online bidding for drug purchase of a large grade three class A comprehensive hospital were subjected to a retro-spective statistical analysis with the use of Shanghai Jinshida Weining THIS4.0 system and Excel software. RESULTS: 86.06% of the drug varieties in this hospital underwent online bidding for drug purchase. The mean drug cost, per capita drug cost of outpatients and inpatients were reduced by 6.95% , 10.61% , and 1.10%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The online bidding for drug purchase contributes to the standardization of hospital drug purchase behavior and relieving of the problem of "high cost in medication" . However, which is far from perfect and thus remains to be improved further.%目的:考查安徽省首次药品网上招标采购的执行情况及其效果,为进一步规范药品网上招标采购提供参考.方法:采用上海金仕达卫宁THIS4.0系统和Excel软件,对某三级甲等大型综合性医院首次药品网上招标采购的执行数据进行回顾性统计分析.结果:医院执行品种比例达86.06%,药品零售价平均降幅6.95%,门诊和住院患者人均药品费用分别下降10.61%和1.10%.结论:药品网上招标采购对规范医院药品购销行为、解决百姓"看病贵"问题有积极作用,但与预期效果还有较大差距.需进一步完善.

  10. Research on the Unbalanced Bidding of the Pumped Storage Power Station Project Based on the Contract State Theory%基于合同状态理论对抽水蓄能电站工程不平衡报价的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖程宸

    2016-01-01

    在工程量清单计价模式下,不平衡报价策略是投标人在招投标阶段常采用的实现创收的有效手段。本文从不平衡报价的合法性分析入手,基于各地对于不平衡报价合法性的争议,确立不平衡报价是合法的基础上,从合同状态视角,立足于合同状态理论,选择了某抽水蓄能电站主体工程为研究对象进行案例研究,从合同状态的变化分析承包商是如何通过不平衡报价策略来转嫁风险,获取利润的。并建议招标人应通过编写科学严密的招标文件,评标方法,以及合同条款等有效措施将不平衡报价规范在一个合理的幅度以规避将来可能出现的风险。%Under the bil of quantities,the unbalanced bidding strategy is an effective method for the bidder to realize the income generation in the bidding period. This paper starts with the analysis of the legitimacy of the balance,and based on the disputed legal status of the unbalanced bidding and the contract state theory,choose a main body of pumped storage power station as an example,analyse how the contractor passes on the risk through the unbalanced bidding strategy to obtain the profit.And suggest that the tenderer should be prepared by the preparation of scientific and strict tender documents,bid evaluation method,and the effective measures of the contract terms to balance the price in a reasonable range in order to avoid possible risks in the future.

  11. Centralized Bidding Procurement of Hotel Groups:Case Study on Strategic Sourcing of GDH%酒店集团集中招标采购研究:粤海(国际)酒店集团的战略采购

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾国军; 吴艳芳

    2015-01-01

    This present paper does an analysis of the centralized bidding procurement of hotel groups with an case study on the strategic sourcing of GDH from Canton.The research results show as following:Firstly,there has to be some uniform rules in the process of bidding procurement of hotel groups.Secondly,some internal optimization management processes should be taken in procurement bidding process.Thirdly,the centralized bidding purchasing can get a series of performance.As to the hotel groups,there are a lot of management advantages of centralized purchasing mode,such as economic of scale,experience effect, and brand effect.For Guangdong international hotel management group co.,LTD(GDH),the centralized bidding purchasing brings the following advantages:cost reduction and profit increase,standardization of outside purchasing specifications,improve-ment of purchasing efficiency,promotion of product image,and promotion of corporate image,etc.%对粤海(国际)酒店管理集团有限公司的集中招标战略采购制度进行深入调查,结果发现:第一,集中招标采购对外必须要有一个统一的口径;第二,集中招标采购对内必须实行优化管理;第三,实行集中招标采购可以取得一系列的绩效。对于集团化的企业来说,集中采购模式的优势是形成规模经济、经验效应、品牌效应。而对于粤海(国际)酒店管理集团有限公司来说,其实行集中招标采购之后,其绩效有:降低了成本,使得公司的利润进一步上升;规范了对外的采购口径;采购工作效率提高;产品形象提升,形成品牌效应;有利于公司的管理监控等。

  12. Bidding Strategies for Generation Company Considering Randomness and Correlation Relationship of Electricity and Carbon Prices%考虑电价碳价随机性及其相关性的发电商投标决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周任军; 刘照; 陈彦秀; 张浩; 李莹莹; 范龙; 尹权

    2016-01-01

    Carbon price and electricity price are bound together under the influence of external factors. Thus,the price randomness of carbon and electricity along with their correlation should be taken into consideration to form the bidding model for generation compa-nies. The difference between actual profit and the expectation is defined as the risk and measured by multi-stochastic conditional risk method in this paper. Then,a CVaR-based bidding model which considers the price randomness of electricity and carbon along with their correlation is proposed. The Linear method is used to sample of the random variables concerning the correlation and to solve the conditional value at risk. Cases considering the correlation between electricity price and carbon price,carbon price cost,carbon price randomness and other risk measurement methods are tested respectively to evaluate their influences on the investment decision risk of generation companies. The results show that considering the price randomness of both electricity and carbon as well as their correlation is more in accordance with the generation companies’requirement of increasing revenue and reducing risk,and conditional risk method is able to describe the risk more accurately.%电价、碳价在外界因素的影响下具有某种相依关系,因此需要在发电商投标模型中考虑电价、碳价的随机性及其相关性对其决策的影响。本文将低于发电商预期收益部分的期望值定义为风险,采用多随机变量的条件风险方法对其进行度量,建立了考虑电价碳价随机性及其相关性影响的发电商投标决策模型,利用线性变换方法对相关性随机变量进行抽样并求解条件风险值。对电价碳价相关性、碳价成本、碳价随机性和不同风险度量方法对发电商投资决策风险的影响进行了仿真对比,结果表明考虑电价和碳价随机性及其相关性影响的投标模型更符合发电商提高收益降低

  13. First price bidding with employment constraint in the SOE auction in China%附加职工安置约束的国企产权拍卖机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海; 张卫东

    2008-01-01

    The transfer of SOE's property right involves benefits readjustment of its stakeholders; therefore the design of the trading mechanism is not only to sell the SOE with a high price but also to realize other non-price objectives such as rearrangement of original employees, further development of the enterprise etc. This paper constructs a bidding mechanism with the constraint of accommo- dating employees to analyze the tradeoff between maximizing SOE-auction revenue and minimizing induced unemployment. By adding that the winner is required to settle down a certain quantity of former SOE employees in the new enterprise, this mechanism brings on the competition among prospective inve- stors in both the price and the quantity of employment, which can help the go- vernment to balance the different objectives more efficiently. However, the constraint will only work under the condition that the government has stressed sufficiently on the employees' rearrangement and set the best constraint thre- shold. Moreover, the government should set an explicit compensation standard for the induced lay-offsto eliminate the investors' accommodating cost disper- sion and introduce more strategic investors with considerable heterogeneity to participate in the bidding.%国企产权转让牵涉到国有企业利益相关者利益的重新调整,因此其交易机制的设计不仅要使国有企业以尽可能高的价格出售,还要充分考虑其他非价格因素,如国企职工的安置、企业未来的发展等.通过提出一种附加职工安置约束的国企产权拍卖机制,在价格投标中增加职工安置人数的约束,实现了潜在投资者在国企产权转让价格和安置职工人数两个维度上的竞争,从而使政府能够很好地兼顾不同的目标.职工安置约束要发挥预期的效果需要政府对职工安置问题显示出足够的重视程度,同时设置最优的职工安置人数最低标准.如果政府能够根据当地经济的发展

  14. Analyzing Cost Estimation and Bidding Offer of Ocean Engineering Equipment Products%海工产品投标报价及成本估算应用浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶雯雯; 王怡

    2011-01-01

    产品报价的基础是成本,报价与成本估算有着密切的关系.文章在对海洋工程装备产品各方面的理论研究基础上,分析海工产品投标报价阶段和建造阶段的实践特点;阐述现有成本估算方法在海工企业的应用现状及存在的问题;综合应用类比法、特征映射以及作业成本法,提出一种基于BOM(Bill of Material,物料清单)的集成成本估算方法,提高企业报价竞争力,指导后续生产实施.%Cost is the foundation of product quotation, and cost estimation has a close relationship with the quotation. Based on the various theoretical research of ocean engineering equipment produets (OEEP),this paper analyses the practice characteristics of OEEP in bidding stage and construction phase. Then, it elaborates the present application situation and the existence prohlems of existing cost estimation methods. After considering analog method. feature mapping and activity-hased-costing methods,this paper presents an integrated cost estimate model which is hased on BOM. This proposed model is effective to improve the competitive strength of companies' offer and is helpful to guide following production in companies.

  15. Spatio-temporal Variation of Residential Land Bid-rent Curves in Transitional Beijing City%转型期北京住宅用地投标租金曲线的空间形态与演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文杰; 张文忠; 董冠鹏; 刘睿

    2011-01-01

    Transitions in the socio-economic environment have significant influences on reshaping the cities.While the western countries are undergoing post-urbanization changes, the transforming in Chinese urban land market can better reflect the trend of urban spatial reconstruction. In fact, dramatic socio-economic reforms in China are affecting the most Chinese cities' urban form since 1978. After that, the new approaches to land marketization widely spread to most Chinese cities, and ever since the late 1980s, Beijing municipal government has attempted to rationalize the previously planned urban land use distribution system by the way of economic reform measures. As the market economy has been established, Beijing's residential land market has been booming during the periods with different land reform policy. While the Chinese urban land market reform has been the subject of much research in recent decades, recent literatures have paid attention to spatial features of land price in transitional Chinese cities, and in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless,research on this issue has been limited by the lack of systematic data, especially spatial data, on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. This paper gives first attempt to add our understanding of the spatial variations of the residential land bid-rent function curve of the residential land market of a rapidly developing Chinese metropolis, Beijing--China' s capital city, based on the Beijing Land Leasing Parcel Database. By employing about 3 400 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2009 within the 6th ring road of Beijing metropolitan area, the period when the land leasing market has largely been established, a mono-centric city' s land bid-rent function model was established to quantitatively explore the spatio-temporal evolution of urban residential land development mode and its mechanism. Based on the empirical analysis, it can be observed that in

  16. Dynamic Power Market and its Chaos Control Based on Bidding Decisions with Different Expectations%基于不同预期报价决策的电力市场动态演化及其混沌控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪明; 谭韬; 赖明勇

    2012-01-01

    Market economy system is essentially a dynamic system. For general commodities, a number of economics models have been proposed to capture market dynamics, such as stable Nash equilibrium, period and chaos. To have a deeper understanding of power market dynamics, it is necessary to reformulate these models by considering the inherent properties of complex networks and the special characteristics of market transactions. Cournot and Stackelberg game, using the differential model of electric power producers in perfect competition, has been established to analyze the stability of market equilibrium. However, these models and methods do not consider the impact of transmission network constraints on market dynamics. In addition, most studies focus on stability analysis of market equilibriums. Studies on the dynamics of unstable market dynamics seem to lag behind. Therefore, we propose a novel dynamic model to study complex dynamics and chaos control of power market.In the first part, based on bidding decisions of market participants with different expectations, a dynamic model of power market considering power network constraints is proposed by a discrete difference equations embedded with the optimization problem of market clearing. The model describes different decision-making processes that accurately reflect the market clearing process by the ISO and considers the complex market constraints embedded in the inherent physical characteristics of power network.In the second part, this model is represented by a set of discrete difference equations embedded with the constraint of equal and unequal optimization problem. Considering this complicated mathematical structure, the nonlinear complementary function method is employed to obtain the solution of the dynamic model of power market. The model enables us to understand the stability of market equilibrium, and the periodic and chaotic market behaviors after the loss of equilibrium.In the third part, according to market

  17. Spatio-temporal Variation of Residential Land Bid-rent Curves in Transitional Beijing City%转型期北京住宅用地投标租金曲线的空间形态与演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文杰; 张文忠; 董冠鹏; 刘睿

    2011-01-01

    Transitions in the socio-economic environment have significant influences on reshaping the cities.While the western countries are undergoing post-urbanization changes, the transforming in Chinese urban land market can better reflect the trend of urban spatial reconstruction. In fact, dramatic socio-economic reforms in China are affecting the most Chinese cities' urban form since 1978. After that, the new approaches to land marketization widely spread to most Chinese cities, and ever since the late 1980s, Beijing municipal government has attempted to rationalize the previously planned urban land use distribution system by the way of economic reform measures. As the market economy has been established, Beijing's residential land market has been booming during the periods with different land reform policy. While the Chinese urban land market reform has been the subject of much research in recent decades, recent literatures have paid attention to spatial features of land price in transitional Chinese cities, and in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless,research on this issue has been limited by the lack of systematic data, especially spatial data, on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. This paper gives first attempt to add our understanding of the spatial variations of the residential land bid-rent function curve of the residential land market of a rapidly developing Chinese metropolis, Beijing--China' s capital city, based on the Beijing Land Leasing Parcel Database. By employing about 3 400 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2009 within the 6th ring road of Beijing metropolitan area, the period when the land leasing market has largely been established, a mono-centric city' s land bid-rent function model was established to quantitatively explore the spatio-temporal evolution of urban residential land development mode and its mechanism. Based on the empirical analysis, it can be observed that in

  18. Thinking of Relevant Problems about Budget Clearance in the Project Using Preliminary Design Documents Bidding%采用初步设计文件施工招投标的工程概算清理有关问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金海

    2012-01-01

    采用初步设计文件进行施工招投标的铁路建设项目,目前大部分正处于概算清理阶段。概算清理是针对采用初步设计文件进行施工招投标特别增加的一项投资管理措施,他涉及到施工图投资检算、变更设计、征地拆迁及价差调整、其他政策性费用调整等,政策性强、工作量大。此文针对施工总价承包招标文件范本的有关条款,就概算清理原则、施工图投资检算的编制、价差调整等进行论述与分析,并提出建议与计算方法,为实际工程概算清理提供借鉴。%The railway construction project using the preliminary design documents bidding are most in the clear stage of budget estimates. Clearing budget estimates for the preliminary design documents bidding is a special increase investment management measures. It related to construction drawing investment checking, design change, land demolition and price adjustment, and other policy cost adjustment, which has strong policy and big workload. Aiming at the relevant clauses of the construction contract price bidding documents sample, clearing principle, compiling of construction drawing budget investment and price adjustment are discussed and analyzed, and some suggestions and calculation methods is put forward to provide reference for the actual engineering clearing budget.

  19. 浅谈广州城市绿化工程招投标市场竞争存在的问题及解决途径%Analysis on the Problems and Solutions of Greening Projects Bidding Market Competition in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘款星; 黎宝莹

    2013-01-01

    文章从广州地区城市绿化工程投标工作的实践经验出发,简要总结回顾了广州地区城市绿化工程招投标历程,分析了目前招投标市场竞争中存在问题的主要表现形式及原因,提出了规范市场机制、加强职能部门监管、相关参与者依法依规、行业维护自律和企业内部强化管理等相应的解决途径,并提出了实施企业备案市场准入制度、严格审查资格条件、强调企业综合实力和加强招投标对工程造价的控制作用等建议。%According to the practice experience of bidding work in Guangzhou greening project ,the article briefly reviews the bidding process,analyses the forms and reasons of the main problems,it puts forward the solutions as corresponding regulation of market mechanism,strengthen the funtion of supervision,participants comply with the regulations,industry self-discipline and strengthen internal management,it proposes to inplement the record companies market access system,strictly examine the qualifications,emphasize the comprehensive strength and strengthen the bidding control to the construction cost.

  20. 基于J2EE的大型煤炭集团公司招标采购管理信息系统设计与实现%J2EE-Based Group of Companies Bidding Large Coal Management Information System Design and Implementafion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2013-01-01

    The current large coal groups bidding network, but also large coal company development the only way open and transparent. The tender procurement management information systems released bidding information through Internet technology to break the traditional information published on the geographical and time limitations, and to obtain more conducive to the advantage. This paper outlines the meaning of J2EE technology, and then from the demand and structural design, data analysis, software design and testing, to discuss the the large Coal Group companies bidding management information system based on J2EE Design and Implementation.%当前大型煤炭集团公司的招标采购越来越网络化,同时也是大型煤炭集团公司发展公开化与透明化的必经之路。招标采购管理信息系统通过互联网技术发布招标采购信息,打破了传统信息发布的地域和时间上的局限性,从而取得更加有利于的优势。文章首先概述了J2EE技术的含义,然后从需求与结构设计、数据分析、软件设计与测试方面,共同探讨了基于J2EE的大型煤炭集团公司招标采购管理信息系统设计与实现。

  1. 华东跨省集中交易中发电企业结盟报价实证研究%An empirical study on the power producers’ collusion bidding in the trans-provincial electric power market of East China Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小君; 李晓刚; 杨立兵; 邹斌

    2013-01-01

    To accrue more profits in market competitions, the power producers sometimes would adopt the collusion bidding strategy to force up prices. The paper discusses the collusion bidding behavior of the power producers, which is based on the actual running data of trans-provincial electric power market of the East China Power Grid. Firstly, the probability analysis based on the bidding data of the monthly producers is used to confirm whether it is a collusion one. On this foundation, based on the basic principles of the cooperative game, we analyze the internal mechanisms of the collusion bidding, and show the relationship between market rules and this behavior. Furthermore, several possible strategies are proposed to inhibit it. Both the theoretical analysis and the market practice show the effectiveness of the proposed strategies.%  发电厂商为获取更多收益,在市场竞争中有时会采取类似“串谋”的结盟报价行为抬高市场报价。以我国实际运营的华东电网跨省集中交易的实际数据为例研究了发电厂商结盟报价行为。首先对部分月份发电厂商的报价数据进行概率分析,确认其为结盟报价。在此基础上,基于合作博弈的基本原理分析了发电厂商结盟报价的内在机理,给出了市场规则与结盟报价之间的关系,进而提出了抑制发电厂商结盟报价的建议措施。理论分析以及市场实践均验证了所提措施的有效性。

  2. 灰色关联模型在投标前期决策中的应用——基于层次熵值组合赋权的研究%Application of grey relational model in pre-bid decision-making:based on hierarchy-entropy combined weight-assigning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东红; 尚思彤

    2012-01-01

    In the face of multiple projects in construction market,it is the practical requirement of the construction contracting market that scientific,rational and easily-implementing bidding decision-making methods are applied by the contractors.Based on it,the improved analytic hierarchy process(IAHP),entropy method and gray relational theory and their application are introduced in bidding decision-making of construction engineering project.According to the actual situation of engineering,the pre-bid decision-making indicator system is established,the weights are determined by hierarchy-entropy combined assigning method,and multiple projects are evaluated by improved grey relational model based on it.This method is validated by engineering examples,which proves that it can better overcome the limitation of single method,choose the best project,and make the bidding decision-making more fair and scientific.%面对建设市场上的多个项目,承包商采用科学、合理、易于实施的投标决策方法是建设承包市场的现实要求。基于此,介绍改进的层次分析法、熵值法、灰色关联原理及其在建设工程项目投标决策中的运用。根据工程实际,建立投标前期决策指标体系,并用层次熵值组合赋权法确定权重,在此基础上利用改进后的灰色关联分析模型对多个项目进行评价,并通过工程算例验证该方法,证明其能够很好地克服单一方法的局限性,选择出最优的项目,使投标决策更加公正、科学。

  3. Rationale and design of ATHENA: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in PatiENts with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, S.H.; Connolly, S.J.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.;

    2008-01-01

    . Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic compound currently being developed for treatment of AF. Methods: The ATHENA trial (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in pati...... hospitalization or death from any cause. The study has completed patient enrollment in December 2006 and is expected to end follow-up 1 year later. Conclusion: ATHENA will be the largest efficacy and safety trial of dronedarone, a multichannel blocker compound with properties from class I, II, III, and IV...

  4. The Special FSE of the World Cup and its Enlightenment to China’s Bidding%世界杯的特殊节事经济及对中国申办的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏正清

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theory of FSE and the method of documentary research ,this paper first discussed the economic effects resul‐ted from sports festivals ,then ,investigated the mass protests before and after the opening of the World Cup in Brazil .The World Cup ,as special FSE ,has some peculiarities ,which brings about not only positive influence but also an extreme pressure to the host country .So ,while China bids for the World Cup ,the economic effects resulted from the World Cup should be evaluated comprehen‐sively .In particular ,the factor that FIFA will grab most of the profits should be involved into the evaluation system .In order to host a World Cup that will win the whole world’s praise and bring benefit to our nation ,the economic benefit and the spreading of Chinese culture shall be taken into consideration .%以节事经济理论为指导,文献资料法为研究方法,探讨了节事特别是体育节事带来的经济效应,然后考察了巴西民众在巴西世界杯开幕前后的抗议风波。以此为基础,指出了世界杯作为特殊节事经济所具有的独特性:不仅有积极一面,而且会给主办国带来极大的压力。因此,建议中国申办世界杯时,要全面评估世界杯带来的各种效应,特别要将国际足联会攫取大部分利润的因素纳入到评判体系中来,在注重经济收益的同时,注重文化层面的传播,这样才能办好一次令全世界赞叹、令本国人民受益的世界杯。

  5. 碳交易机制下考虑节能减排的竞价交易模式%An Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Based Bidding Transaction Mode Under Carbon Trading Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李现忠; 蔡兴国; 付春梅

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that the power units in China are mostly coal-fired and the dispatching center is unable to directly obtain the units' coal consumption functions, a new bidding transaction mode that can balance energy saving and emission reduction is proposed. According to the CO2 emission function, CO2 emission per kilowatt-hour of each unit and all units can be calculated for the ratio between the two values to be used as a modifying factor to modify the quoted price, which can be used as the scheduling basis. The mode proposed can not only effectively control energy consumption and CO2 emission, but also guarantee the priority of the units using advanced discharge reduction technology to be scheduled. Finally the effect of the implementation of emission trading scheme (ETS) on generation right trade and the mode is analyzed. The analysis results show that the implementation of ETS can effectively promote the development of generation right trade and reduce Coz emission on the generation side while further pushing ahead the implementation of the mode to realize the social benefits of energy saving and emission reduction.%结合中国发电机组大多为燃煤机组以及电力调度中心无法直接获得机组实际煤耗函数的现状,提出了一种兼顾节能减排的竞价交易模式.该模式根据CO.排放函数计算出各机组单位电能CO排放量和所有机组平均单位电能CO排放量,以两者的比值作为修正因子来修正报价,以修正后的报价作为调度依据.算例分析表明,该模式不仅有效控制了能耗和CO排放,而且可优先调度采用先进减排技术的机组.最后分析了碳交易机制的实施对该模式和发电权交易的影响.分析表明,碳交易机制的实施有效促进了发电权交易的发展,降低了发电侧CO的排放,并进一步促进了所提模式的实施,从而实现了节能减排的社会效益.

  6. On the Applications of Construction Tender and Bid Evaluation in Value Engineering%浅析建筑工程招标评标中价值工程的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项明霞

    2012-01-01

      随着我国社会经济的发展,建筑工程行业也得到了较快的发展,经济发展的同时,市场经济的发展模式也给我国建筑工程行业带来了巨大的竞争压力,当前,企业竞争的方式有很多种,比如说,成本竞争、质量竞争、人才竞争等都是提高企业发展能力的竞争方式之一,但是在这其中,成本竞争方式是基础,对其他两种竞争方式具有影响作用,所以,在建筑工程的招投标工作中要积极使用价值工程,一方面控制成本,另一方面控制质量,即常提到的“降低成本,提高功能”。%  With the development of our social economy, construction industry has been rapid development, economic development and at the same time, the development pat ern of market economy but also to the construction industry in China has brought the huge pressure of competition, the competition of enterprises, there are many ways, for example, the cost competition, quality competition, talent competition. To improve the ability of enterprise development is one of the competition, but in this one, the cost competition is based, has an effect on the other two kinds of competition, so, in the construction project bidding work to actively make use of value engineering, on the one hand to control the cost, on the other hand, quality control, which is often mentioned "reduce costs, improve function".

  7. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Onderstal; A.J.H.C. Schram; A.R. Soetevent

    2013-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  8. What to bid and when to stop

    OpenAIRE

    Baarslag, T.

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation is an important activity in human society, and is studied by various disciplines, ranging from economics and game theory, to electronic commerce, social psychology, and artificial intelligence. Traditionally, negotiation is a necessary, but also time-consuming and expensive activity. Therefore, in the last decades there has been a large interest in the automation of negotiation, for example in the setting of e-commerce. This interest is fueled by the promise of automated agents ev...

  9. A Generation Pricing Method with Capacity Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Due to historic reasons China encounters some special difficulties in ESI (electricity system industry) restructuring. An easy and simple electricity value equivalent (es-EVE) method for day-ahead pool purchase pricing of China is therefore presented in this paper. The es-EVE method is different from two-part and one-part tariffs. It is more like the UK's method in form, but revised for China with some new concepts and procedure. The main contributions of it include: (1) Find two kinds of eigenvalue, namely EVEs, in an optimization model, (2) Define new concepts of virtual units and feasible region, (3) Twice merit orderings are employed successively to find marginal price. They are simple maximum and minimum comparison procedures and so on. The special economic significance of the method for China is discussed, and some suggestion for ESI restructuring based on es-EVE method are provided. A case study is offered at the end of the paper.

  10. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.;

    2016-01-01

    to maximize its profit, while the market operator aims at maximizing the social welfare. In this case, the storage facility adapts its strategic behavior to take advantage of market conditions. To model the imperfectly competitive market, a bi-level optimization model is implemented to present......This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates...

  11. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements.

  12. What to Bid and When to Stop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation is an important activity in human society, and is studied by various disciplines, ranging from economics and game theory, to electronic commerce, social psychology, and artificial intelligence. Traditionally, negotiation is a necessary, but also time-consuming and expensive activity. Th

  13. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements. PMID:27132302

  14. 50 CFR 600.1009 - Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract under which: (i) Each bidder makes an irrevocable offer to the United States of fishing capacity for reduction, and (ii) NMFS accepts or rejects, on behalf of the United States, each bidder's offer... revocation, by NMFS, of any reduction permit, and (ii) Where the program also involves the withdrawal...

  15. Bids requested for Genesis Mission analytical facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2000-01-01

    The Genesis Discovery mission, to be launched in January 2001, will expose ultrapure materials to the solar wind for about 2 years and then return this sample to Earth for isotopic and chemical analysis in terrestrial laboratories. Sample return missions use the best available instrumentation to achieve mission science goals. To complete the Genesis science objectives, advanced instrumentation that surpasses present laboratory sample analysis capabilities is required. Advanced Analytical ...

  16. 省级集中招标采购降低药价和减轻药费负担的效果研究%Study on the Provincial Drug Centralized Bidding and Purchasing to Reduce Drtug Prices and the Burden on Drugs of Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂林

    2012-01-01

    省级药品集中招标采购政策已实施两年多,为对该政策效果进行评估,选择该政策目标中的降低药价和减轻群众药费负担作用为评估指标,收集相关统计数据,从实证的角度对省级药品集中招标采购政策效果进行评价.研究发现该政策实施后并没有显著降低药价,也无法控制群众药费负担的增长.%The policy of Provincial drug bidding and purchasing has been implemented more than two years. In the article, statistical data has been collected, then the policy goals of reducing drug prices and Burden on Mass medication as Index is selected to assess its effect of this policy. It is found that the policy of provincial drug bidding and purchasing did not significantly reduce the drug prices, and the increase Burden on Drugs of Mass cannot be controlled loo. Finally, the reasons for the poor results of the policy have been analyzed.

  17. 浅谈资源估算在境外矿业项目投标决策中的重要作用%Discussion on the Importance of Cost Estimate in Bidding in Decision-making of Overseas Mining Proj ects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽艳

    2014-01-01

    With the example of a copper mine abroad and by means of the geologic modeling and resources estimate in respect with the deposit,it’s found out that resources and metals in the deposit show a negative variation in contrast with that shown in international tender document.Based on the tech-economic evaluation conducted,Chinese companies which intend to participate in the bidding resolutely determine to withdraw themselves from the proj ect bidding and thus avoiding losses on investment.Therefore,it shows that cost estimate plays an important role in investment and decision-making of mining proj ects.%以国外某铜矿为例,通过对矿床进行地质建模和资源估算,发现与国际招标文件相比,矿床资源量、金属量有很大程度的负变。在进行技术经济评价的基础上,参与投标的国内公司果断决策,选择退出项目招标,避免了投资损失,从而说明在矿业项目投资及决策方面,资源估算具有非常重要的作用。

  18. 南京市某医院药品集中招标采购对药品价格和医院收入的影响%The Effect of Drug Purchase by Centralized Bidding on Drug Price and Revenue of a Hospital,Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 陈玉文

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨南京市某三甲医院药品集中招标采购对药品价格和医院收入的影响.方法:查询南京市某三甲医院西药库计算机管理系统2009-2015年全部药品管理信息,分类汇总并统计分析中标药品种数、价格、差价率等管理指标数据.结果:2009-2015年采购中标药品品种构成比呈逐年上升趋势;部分药品零售价在招标采购的情况下有一定程度降低,抗生素类具有较大的降价幅度;其中国产氟康唑注射液具有最大的降价幅度,达到了86.68%;合资或进口药品零售价显著高于国产药品(P<0.05),同时其降价幅度显著低于国产药品(P<0.05);中标药品和非中标药品的差价率均逐年降低,中标药品差价率年降幅显著高于非中标药品(P<0.05);中标药品购入金额占总购入金额的百分比逐年提升.结论:南京某医院药品集中招标采购能够有效降低药品价格,在一定程度上提升医院收入.%Objective: To investigate the effect of drug purchase by centralized bidding on drug price and revenue of a hospital in Nanjing . Methods: The information of pharmaceutical administration in computer management system from 2009 to 2015 at one top three hospital was in-quired.Some management indicator including kinds, price, price differences rate and so on were classified, collected and statistically analyzed. Results:From 2009 to 2015, the drug variety constituent ratio showed an increasing trend year by year.The retail price of some drugs represented a certain extent of decrease.Antibiotics possessed a large extent of depreciation, and domestic fluconazole injection was the maximal with 86. 68%.For joint-ventured and imported drugs, the retail price was significantly higher than domestic drugs (P<0.05), and the extent of depre-ciation was significantly lower than domestic drugs (P<0.05).The price differences rate of bidding drugs and unbidding drugs was reducing year by year.The price differences rate of

  19. Low-Carbon Reserve Market Bidding Model and Decision-Making Analysis Incorporating Carbon Capture Power Plant%含碳捕集电厂的低碳备用市场竞价模型与碳捕集水平风险决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施泉生; 李士动

    2014-01-01

    Taking low-carbon electricity as the background, a reserve market bidding model that incarnates the carbon emission reduction factor and a capture level risk decision method for carbon capture power plant under this model are proposed. An elastic demand curve of unit reserve, in which the randomness of capacity faults can be taken into account, is established, and then according to the theory of internalization of externalities the marginal carbon emission cost is built into the bidding of unit reserve and the obtained marginal composite cost is taken as the foundation of bidding, thus the differences among unit carbon emission characteristics are taken into account and distinguished, and the method of supply and demand is utilized to obtain the optimal reserve point. Based on above-mentioned model the superiority of reserve bidding of carbon capture power plant is analyzed and the differences of risk property between its revenue and cost are distinguished and from the perspective to the risk management the carbon capture level decision is optimized. Simulation results show that using the proposed bidding model the reserve can be optimally configured from a social perspective, and as for carbon capture power plant too high or too low capture levels are inappropriate, and there should be an optimal value of the capture level.%以低碳电力为背景,提出了能够体现碳减排因素的备用市场竞价模型及该模型下碳捕集电厂捕集水平风险决策方法。建立了能够计及容量事故随机性的机组备用弹性需求曲线,然后根据外部性内在化理论,将边际碳排放成本内置到机组备用报价中,以得到的边际综合成本作为竞价依据,从而计及和区分机组碳排放特性差异,并采用供给与需求方法获取最优备用点。基于上述模型,分析碳捕集电厂的备用竞价优势,区分其收益与成本的风险性质差别,并从风险管理的角度优化 CO2捕集水平决

  20. 安全化的路径分析——以中海油竞购优尼科案为例%A Path Analysis of Securitization: The Example of CNOOC's Bid for Unocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌

    2011-01-01

    哥本哈根学派为安全研究提供了一种社会建构主义的研究方法。安全化理论的核心概念"言语-行为"表明,安全表达本身造就安全问题;安全的"主体间性"决定了安全化是一个建构对威胁认知的过程。因此一个完整的安全化路径应该包括:(1)安全化启动:拥有相应的话语权或社会资源的安全化主体通过"言语-行为"指涉某物为威胁;(2)安全化传播:媒体通过议程设置和框架效应两大功能说服听众共享安全认知;(3)塑造安全受众,使特定议题安全化。本文通过对中海油竞购优尼科案被安全化的过程分析说明安全化是一个话语实践过程;作为安全化主体的美国国会建构了一个安全化逻辑,媒体作为话语载体则传播了国家安全的框架并塑造了公众认知从而使该案被安全化。%The Copenhagen school of thought offers a research methodol- ogy for security studies rooted in social constructivism. The central concept of securitization theory- " speech-behavior" illustrates that security statements in and of themselves can create security problems; the subjectivity of security means that securitization is a process of constructing recognition of a threat. As such, the complete path that securitization follows includes: (1) Initiation of securitization: a securitizing actor with sufficient voice or social capital uses a statement or act to refer to or point out a threat; (2) Se- curitizing Media: through its structuring of the agenda and framing effects, the media convinces its audience of a shared security awareness; (3) a security audience is constructed, and an issue is securitized. Based on an analysis of CNOOC's bid to purchase Unocal, this article shows that securitization is a discursive process: Congress functioned as a securitizing actor to construct a logic of securitization; the media then framed this logic in terms of national

  1. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne; Radiotherapie bifractionnee et chimiotherapie par cisplatine et 5-fluoro-uracile concomitantes dans les carcinomes epidermoides localement evolues non resecables du pharynx: dix ans d'experience au centre Antoine Lacassagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, N.; Pivot, X.; Marcy, P.Y.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Dassonville, O.; Possonnet, G.; Vallicioni, J.; Ettore, F.; Falewee, M.N.; Milano, G.; Santini, J.; Lagrange, J.L.; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Bensadoun, R.J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    2001-08-01

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m{sup 2} (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 1. course; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3

  2. 机制设计下大型赛事竞标理论分析--以奥运会为例%Theoretical analysis of bidding theory for mega sporting events based on mechanism design-With Olympic Games as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正卿

    2016-01-01

    随着全球化的进程,申办大型体育赛事成为各个国家争相参与的事情。然而,贿赂丑闻与债务危机严重影响了大型赛事的形象。以奥运会的竞标过程为分析对象,引入机制设计理论,从理论层面探究为何当前奥运会的申办机制没有彻底解决腐败与债务问题。在对现有文献资料梳理的基础上,结合逻辑分析的方法,将潜在举办城市(PHCs)的申办时间路径与机制设计理论结合,阐述了申办机制中 IOC、IOC 执委会与 PHCs 之间所具有的层级结构的委托代理关系。认为非对称信息下“IOC -IOC 执委会-PHCs”模式与中央计划经济体制(CPEs)类似,PHCs 为获得赛事举办权而采取的“欺骗”行为导致了在获得举办权之后债务问题不断;另外,IOC 对赛事资源分配权的垄断是贿赂丑闻产生的根源。%With the process of globalization,bidding mega sporting events has become a heated competitive matter for countries in the world.But,the bribery scandal and the debt crisis has seriously effected the image of mega events.this paper analyzed Olympic bidding process based on the mechanism designing theory from the theoretical perspective,and tried to find out the reason why the current bidding mechanism could not solve the issues of corruption and debt thoroughly.Based on the present document and logical analysis methods,it combined the bidding time and route of the potential host cities(PHCs)with mechanism design theory,and elaborated the hierarchical structure and principal -agency relationship between the IOC,the IOC Executive committee and the PHCs.In conclusion,the "IOC -IOC Executive -PHCs"model and the centrally planned economies(CPEs)have some kind of similarity,and the PHCs obtained hosting rights with "cheat"leads to debt problems after gaining the right of host;and the monopoly of the resource allocation right by IOC is the root of bribery scandal.

  3. Research on Effects upon Physical Activity of the Elderly by Successful Bid for the National Games in Shenyang City%全运会成功申办对沈阳市老年人体育活动影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱坤

    2011-01-01

    随着辽宁省成功申办12届全运会,一股体育热潮席卷辽宁省,作为主要承办地点的沈阳,深受全运热潮的影响。本文主要论述了全运会落户沈阳对老年人体育活动的影响,希望为沈阳老年人体育活动的发展提供一些借鉴。%With the successful bid for 12th National Games by Liaoning province,there is a sports craze in Liaoning province.As the main contractor site,Shenyang is also affected.This thesis studies on the effects upon physical activity of the elderly by National Games in Shenyang.We hope to provide some reference to the development of physical activity of the elderly in Shenyang.

  4. “限地价,竞配建”土地出让方式的理论分析与实证研究%Theoretical and Empirical Study on the Land Use Right Transfer Through "Controlling Land Price but Bidding on Providing Public House"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娅

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze the listing rule of "controlling land price but bidding on providing public house",and compares it with current procurement rule of "given fixed public house,bidding on the price of land".By analyzing the equilibrium strategies of developers and local government,the paper shows that combined with suitable initial price and the policy of "all deals with premium rate of more than 50% must be reported to the central government",the listing rule would reduce land prices and guarantee the development of public house at the same time.The listing rule is equivalent to a procurement rule with certain scoring rule,which is different from current procurement rule.With equal development of public house,land price under procurement rule is lower,while with equal land price,the acreage of provided public house under listing rule is higher.%研究目的:对中国土地市场中新兴的"限地价,竞配建"挂牌方式进行研究,并与"定配建,竞地价"招标方式相对比。研究方法:建立有限价的两阶段拍卖和封闭式拍卖模型,分析开发商和地方政府的最优策略。研究结果:(1)在限制拍卖起始价的前提下,结合"溢价率超50%需上报"的规定,"限地价,竞配建"方式可有效控制地价并促进保障房的开发;(2)"限地价,竞配建"挂牌方式可通过相应的招标方式实现,但并不同于"定配建,竞地价"的招标方式。研究结论:"限地价,竞配建"挂牌方式和"定配建,竞地价"招标方式是促进保障房建设的重要手段。地方政府若希望落实保障房建设,挂牌方式更好;若希望降低地价,招标方式更好。

  5. 试析事业单位物资招标采购过程中内部控制的作用%The Analysis of the Effect of Internal Control Mechanism in a Public Institution during the Goods and Supplies Public Bidding Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 许晓莉; 赵静; 李彤

    2012-01-01

    国家要求事业单位在招标采购的整个过程应当严格按照法律法规的程序办理,引入竞争机制,按照公平、公正、公开的原则.在单位物资采购的全过程中,建产建全单位的内部控制机制,是有效监控资金运作的手段,能确保真正采购到质优价廉的物资设备.%According to the demands of the states, a public institution should follow the legislation strictly and lead competitive mechanism during the goods and supplies public bidding procurement which is carried out with the fair, justice, and public guidelines. In order to monitor the operation of funds effectively, it is practical to establish and implement the internal control mechanism. It will make sure that the equipment and materials with both high quality and low price can be purchased.

  6. 纵向结构与投入品竞价合谋的悖论分析--日资配件企业“垄断协议”案的若干思考%Vertical Structure and Paradox Analysis of Input Goods Bidding Collusion:Some Reflections on“Monopoly Agreement” Case of Japanese Auto Parts Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白让让

    2016-01-01

    Price collusion and price discrimination dominated by multinational enter‐prises have been investigated and punished by China’ s antitrust authorities since 2013 . Based on Japanese auto parts companies’ price bidding collusion case ,this paper models the behavior of inputs price collusion and transfer pricing inside these enterprise groups un‐der vertical equity-related structure .Comparative static analysis shows that price bidding collusion between affiliated enterprises does not align with the goal of “profit maximiza‐tion” .Actually ,the collusion just acts as a tool for multinational enterprises as real con‐trollers to transfer profits from dow nstream vehicle joint ventures to their upstream parts companies in the background of asymmetric equity ratio and profitability between down‐stream and upstream firms .This paper confirms the desirability of profit transfer hypothe‐sis from the perspectives of equity ratio and enterprise operation modes ,and also deep ana‐lyzes the real contradictions faced by structure-conspiracy rules by the combination of the relationship between market structure and profits in main market segments .It provides the main policy recommendations that antitrust legislation in Chinese automobile industry should involve from “behavior punishment” to “regulation intervention” ,more evidence supported by industrial organization analysis should increase appropriately to improve the scientific level of law enforcement ,and the principle of reasonable presumption should be more used to avoid inadequate intervention on enterprise behavior .%2013年以来,跨国公司主导的价格合谋和价格歧视受到了中国反垄断机构的调查和处罚。文章以汽车配件行业中“日资企业”的价格垄断案为线索,构建了一个纵向股权关联下投入品价格合谋和集团内转移定价的理论模型,通过静态比较分析发现:关联企业之间的价格投标合谋并不符合“

  7. Reprint of: Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Onderstal; A.J.H.C. Schram; A.R. Soetevent

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  8. Poles plan defense of RKN Orlen from hostile bid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Poola majandusministeerium arendab plaani Leedu naftatöötlustehase Mazeikiu Nafta omaniku PKN Orleni kaitsmiseks võimalike Vene firmade vaenulike ülevõtmispakkumiste eest. Lisa. Divert from Eastern Europe?

  9. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  10. 42 CFR 422.254 - Submission of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (as defined § 422.102). (4) The projected number of enrollees in each MA local area used in... to verify actuarial bases and the projected number of enrollees. (6) A description of deductibles... premium for basic benefits under the original Medicare fee-for-service program option; (3) The amount...

  11. Auctions and Bidding Strategies in the Open Electric Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    SHIKOSKI, Jordan; Rechkoska, Ustijana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Najdenkoski, Krste

    2005-01-01

    Deregulation changed the electrical industry from being a regulated priced structure to a market based pricing one. The deregulation of the market brought with it the concept of auctions and the word auction entered the electrical engineers dictionary for the first time. An auction can be defined as a game of incomplete instructions for determining the cost of a product that has no standard value. It is an institution with explicit rules for pricing and resource allocations based on ...

  12. Bite GSM, Alina bid for new Latvian license

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium teatas, et on saanud mitmeid pakkumisi riigi kolmanda mobiilioperaatori litsentsi ostmiseks. Litsentsi alghind oksjonil on 1,3 miljonit latti ning enampakkumise võitja peab investeerima telekommunikatsiooni infrastruktuuri arendamisse Lätis vähemalt 150 miljonit eurot.

  13. 7 CFR 1435.501 - Bid submission procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sugar cane to the processor and contains the information CCC determines necessary to conduct the program... sugarcane (for first-time producers, the previous 3-year simple average sugar content for all beets or cane... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar...

  14. Evaluaciones intermedias de proyectos del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar de Miguel Arévalo; Alejandro Fernández; Roberto Opazo

    2003-01-01

    Presentación que da a conocer las evaluaciones intermedias realizadas a Solución, calidad y medioambiente; metodología. Así como los resultados de evaluación del Programa PAAM (México), Programa Cadena (Perú), programa 200 Pymes (Uruguay), así como los resultados generales de argentina

  15. Sinopec Wins Bid for Special Asphalt for Racing Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On February 13 Sinopec and Shanghai International Circuit held a signing ceremony in Beijing for the contract to supply special asphalt for racing track use. Mr. Wang Jiming,Vice Board Chairman and President of Sinopec and Mr. Wang Tianpu, Senior Vice President of Sinopec, attended the ceremony.

  16. Stochastic optimal sale bid for a wind power producer

    OpenAIRE

    Sacripante, Simona; Heredia, F.-Javier (Francisco Javier); Corchero García, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Research Report Wind power generation has a key role in Spanish electricity system since it is a native source of energy that could help Spain to reduce its dependency on the exterior for the production of electricity. Apart from the great environmental benefits produced, wind energy reduce considerably spot energy price, reaching to cover 16,6 % of peninsular demand. Although, wind farms show high investment costs and need an efficient incentive scheme to be financed. If on one hand, Spa...

  17. Reprint of : Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  18. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (iv) The requested service or... be sold, resold or transferred in consideration of money or any other thing of value; and (vi) If...

  19. Ontario Hydro's bid to export runs into trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) rejected the application of Ontario Hydro Interconnected Markets (OHIM), the marketing arm of Ontario Hydro, for a power marketer licence, on the grounds that there is still no regulatory oversight of the Corporation, and that its Electricity Exchange is still not separate from day-to-day control by the Corporation. According to the Independent Power Producers of Ontario (IPPSO), FERC in effect, ruled in favor of real competition and against the unfair monopoly practices of Ontario Hydro of selling cheap dirty power to the US at half the price it charges to customers in Ontario, and use its muscle to block out competition on both sides of the border. OHIM's application was opposed by IPPSO, as well as by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and TransAlta Power, arguing that the application did not meet FERC Order No. 888 requirements of reciprocal transmission access to other power suppliers seeking to move power through, out of, and into the affiliated utilities service areas. IPPSO also argued that in doubling its export to the US Ontario Hydro would be using primarily its coal-fired plants, causing Ontarians to suffer major pollution damages, while Hydro exports power at less than half the price paid by Ontario residents

  20. Decomposing the bid-ask spread in multi-dealer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney; Zhiyong Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we modify the Huang and Stoll (1997) spread-decomposing model to fit multi-dealer markets. In a multi-dealer market, individual dealers can rebalance their inventories either by trading with other dealers or changing the quote price. Our modified model captures this feature. Using transaction data from the Reuters D2000-1 system, we find that the order-processing and inventory control components of the spread in the foreign exchange market are relatively small and dealers may t...