WorldWideScience

Sample records for bids

  1. Mergers in Bidding Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the effects of mergers in first-price sealed-bid auctions on bidders' equilibrium bidding functions and on revenue. We also study the incentives of bidders to merge given the private information they have. We develop two models, depending on how after-merger valuations are cre

  2. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  3. The BID`s of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    The aim of this paper is to analyse selected examples of Business Improvement Districts on Manhatten, NYC in order to uncover how this sort of urban interventions shapes the physical urban space as well as the image and representation of that particular space. In the first part of the paper, the ....... In the third part of the paper empirical field data from selected New York BIDs are presented. Finally the paper ends with a section in which concluding remarks will be accompanied by reflections on the comparative similarities and differences to European cities....

  4. Bidding for Concessions Bidding for Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Klein

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Privatization of infrastructure ventures in sectors such as energy, telecommunications, transport and water has become popular over the last decade. Often –for good or bad reasons- private firms are given monopoly franchises under some type of long-term concession agreement, for example "Build-Operate-Transfer" schemes. The article surveys the issues arising in designing concession contracts and in awarding them to private parties. It is crucial to define performance specifications as well as incentive and risk-sharing parameters comprehensively and consistently both to achieve efficient performance by the concessionaire and to minimize post-award re-negotiation. Concession award should as a rule be made competitively, unless special requirements of speed, innovation or excessive transaction costs argue otherwise. Typically, competitive concession award is made by first price sealed bids. There are strong arguments, however, to consider open auctions more seriously in a number of cases. Auctions may also be re-awarded by way of auction. However, somewhat arbitrary bid preferences may have to be set. Auctioneers for complex concession contracts should operate at arms-length for all interested parties, including politicians. It may be sensible to let independent agencies that regulate the concession scheme run the auction. Privatization of infrastructure ventures in sectors such as energy, telecommunications, transport and water has become popular over the last decade. Often –for good or bad reasons- private firms are given monopoly franchises under some type of long-term concession agreement, for example "Build-Operate-Transfer" schemes. The article surveys the issues arising in designing concession contracts and in awarding them to private parties. It is crucial to define performance specifications as well as incentive and risk-sharing parameters comprehensively and consistently both to achieve efficient performance by the concessionaire and

  5. Essays on bid rigging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seres, Gyula

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating prices in auctions raises antitrust concerns. Collusion lowers the revenue of the auctioneer and creates information rents. Bid rigging is a prevalent phenomenon and the affected market is enormous. Public procurement amounts to between 10 and 25 percent of national GDP in industrialize

  6. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  7. Information Feedback and Learning in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lan Oo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Information feedback condition in recurrent construction bidding is an important design variable about optimal procurement design. Contractors tend to optimize their bids in recurrent bidding with positive review of historic bids. Our experiment examines the effects of partial and no information feedback conditions on student (inexperienced bidders’ bidding trends, and the extent to which their bidding trends agree with the behavioural patterns proposed by learning direction theory. The results show that the variations in bids over time for both information feedback conditions are statistically significant. Although the bidders with partial bidding feedback information are more likely to vary their bids as indicated by learning direction theory, their bids are less competitive than those with no bidding feedback information. Construction clients would need to consider the information feedback conditions in their procurement of construction services with the goal to achieve efficiency in construction bidding.

  8. A Model for Contract Bid Markup Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-ping; CHEN Rong-qiu; ZHOU Shao-fu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a bid model which can be readily implemented in a competitive bid environment within the construction industry. Competitive bid situations involve a multiplicity of criteria. In this paper, 31 criteria, which effect optimum estimation, are considered. The model is based on CBR, the database of past completed bids, and information associated with successful bids. CBR is considered the best method because of the complexity of the construction domain and the wealth of information that the contractors possessed on past bids.

  9. 36 CFR 223.231 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Ensure open and fair competition; (b) Ensure that the Federal Government receives minimum rates or... prospectus. The Forest Service shall not accept a bid at oral auction that is less than the bidder's initial sealed bid; and (e) Specify the use of sealed bids or a mix of bidding methods in the affected area...

  10. 24 CFR 291.304 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bidding process. 291.304 Section 291.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Family Mortgage Loans § 291.304 Bidding process. (a) Submission of bids. All bids must be submitted...

  11. 40 CFR 73.71 - Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using the Bid Form for SO2 Allowance Auctions, or some method of electronic transfer if the Administrator, following public notice, so requires or permits at some future time. The bid form shall state: (1... Representative Form must accompany the bid. New account information shall include at a minimum: Name,...

  12. 42 CFR 414.910 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding process. 414.910 Section 414.910 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Under Part B § 414.910 Bidding process. (a) Entities may bid to furnish CAP drugs in all...

  13. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  14. Competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage: effect of benchmark changes on plan bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices that Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006-2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power.

  15. 48 CFR 14.202-1 - Bidding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding time. 14.202-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-1 Bidding time. (a) Policy. A reasonable time for prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids shall be allowed in all invitations,...

  16. Impact of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies on Bid Success in the Nigeria Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Samuel Fawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of researches have been carried out prior to the new millennium on the subject of bidding strategies in the construction industry. Today, organizations are faced with a very complex decision of bid/no-bid because it requires the assessment of large number of highly inter-related variables. The study aims at examining different types of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies (CBS with a view to determining their impact on bid success. In line with the aim, the study objectives include; evaluation of different types of CBS and; assessment of the success rate of contractors’ bid. The method of approach elicits information on the number of projects bided and successes recorded over a period of time. A total of one hundred and seventy-one useable responses were retrieved from questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics, tables and percentages as well as mean item score (MIS were used for data analysis. The study showed that lowest bid, public relations and joint venture bidding strategies have great impact on contractors’ bid success especially on residential, educational and administrative projects in the Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI. Therefore, the study concluded that relationship exists between contractors’ bidding strategies and equivalent successes recorded over a period of time. It is important to also know that lowest bid strategy still remains the most effective bidding strategy for public works contracting in the NCI.

  17. An experimental study of precautionary bidding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Pahlke, J.; Trautmann, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Auctions often involve goods exhibiting a common-knowledge ex-post risk. In such auctions, precautionary bidding predicts that under expected utility, DARA bidders reduce their bids by more than the appropriate risk premium. Because the degree of riskiness of an auctioned good and bidders’ levels of

  18. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  19. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  20. Bid distribution derived from consistent mixed strategy in lowest unique bid auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2014-12-01

    The Lowest Unique Bid Auction (LUBA) booms recently through the Internet. A typical distribution pattern of bid price in this reverse auction has been found and needs to be interpreted. The distribution curve is a decreasing one whose slope has a close relationship with the number of agents participating in the auction. To explain this stylized fact, we develop a model assuming that agents prefer to bid on the price at which the probability of winning is higher. The bid distributions of actual auctions with the number of agents less than 200 can be fitted very well using the parameters for the value of items and the number of bids. When this number becomes larger, however, a deviation occurs between prediction and empirical data, which can be adjusted by introducing cognitive illusion of the bid number.

  1. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected...

  2. Bid Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    for larger rms does not guarantee market prices below that cap. A suffciently high bid floor only for smaller firms destroys some or all pure strategy equilibria despite their prices being above the bid floor. With a general bid floor this happens only with considerably higher bid floors.......This paper examines the effect of bid regulations on the range of potential equilibrium prices in a multi-unit uniform price auction with heterogenous bidders. General bid caps destroy equilibria with prices above the bid cap and create new equilibria with prices way below the cap. A cap only...

  3. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  4. Europe wrestles with ITER site bid

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, T

    2003-01-01

    "The European Union is in a quandary over whether to put forward the French or Spanish site to host ITER, a $5 billion magnetic fusion experiment intended to prove the feasability of fusion energy. The decision is set for 27 November, with the final site selection, between the victorious European bid and bids from Canada and Japan, to follow within a couple of months" (1 page)

  5. Minimizing forced outage risk in generator bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dibyendu

    Competition in power markets has exposed the participating companies to physical and financial uncertainties. Generator companies bid to supply power in a day-ahead market. Once their bids are accepted by the ISO they are bound to supply power. A random outage after acceptance of bids forces a generator to buy power from the expensive real-time hourly spot market and sell to the ISO at the set day-ahead market clearing price, incurring losses. A risk management technique is developed to assess this financial risk associated with forced outages of generators and then minimize it. This work presents a risk assessment module which measures the financial risk of generators bidding in an open market for different bidding scenarios. The day-ahead power market auction is modeled using a Unit Commitment algorithm and a combination of Normal and Cauchy distributions generate the real time hourly spot market. Risk profiles are derived and VaRs are calculated at 98 percent confidence level as a measure of financial risk. Risk Profiles and VaRs help the generators to analyze the forced outage risk and different factors affecting it. The VaRs and the estimated total earning for different bidding scenarios are used to develop a risk minimization module. This module will develop a bidding strategy of the generator company such that its estimated total earning is maximized keeping the VaR below a tolerable limit. This general framework of a risk management technique for the generating companies bidding in competitive day-ahead market can also help them in decisions related to building new generators.

  6. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N., E-mail: bigdeli@ee.sharif.ed [EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, K., E-mail: k_afshar@ee.sharif.ed [EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M., E-mail: fotuhi@sharif.ed [EE Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  7. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  8. A BID on mitochondria with MTCH2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Cogliati; Luca Scorrano

    2010-01-01

    @@ Apoptosis is a key process for tissue homeostasis and renewal. Its dysregulation is implicated in most human diseases, from cancer to neurodegeneration. Apoptosis is triggered by stimuli that damage the internal structures of the cell, or by specialized "death"receptors on its surface. In certain cell types, Bid, a "BH3-only" member of the Bcl-2 family of death regulators integrates these two pathways at the mitochondrial level. Despite years of intense research, the mechanisms by which Bid translocates to mitochondria remain unclear. A recent study by Gross and colleagues sheds new light on this process.

  9. 48 CFR 14.202-8 - Electronic bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart 4.5, contracting officers may authorize use of electronic commerce for submission of bids. If electronic bids are authorized, the solicitation shall specify the electronic commerce method(s) that bidders... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic bids....

  10. 47 CFR 1.2104 - Competitive bidding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive bidding mechanisms. 1.2104 Section 1.2104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2104 Competitive bidding mechanisms. (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 731.771 - Bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) below, bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period of both successful and unsuccessful bids and proposals normally should be treated as indirect costs for allocation to all current activities, and no bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods will be allocable to the current...

  12. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reject the offer simply because it specifies a bid acceptance time that is shorter than that contained in... that the bid as submitted is in such a form that acceptance would create a valid and binding contract... determination that the bid as submitted is in such form that acceptance would not create a valid and...

  13. Synthetic Evaluation on Decision of Public Bidding for Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 颜秋许

    2002-01-01

    Public bidding is the international current practice to contract construction project. But the decision on the bidding often is made according to the qualitative evaluation based on the subjective opinion of specialists. Therefore, the fuzzy mathematics principle was applied and a synthetic evaluation model was established to provide an effective method for the development of quantitative bidding decision in this paper.

  14. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.88 Section 223.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... determines that departures are necessary to protect the public interest. (f) The Chief, Forest Service,...

  15. Bidding Strategies in Brazilian Treasury Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Caputo Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Most empirical work in treasury auctions use aggregate auction results to examine bidding behavior. We investigate the strategies of bidders in Brazilian treasury auctions using both aggregate and bidder level data and find that more detailed information allows great improvements in the understanding of bidding behavior in treasury auctions. Classifying bidders according to characteristics regarding their institutional category and their nationality, we find evidence of distinct bidding behavior across types of bidders. Moreover, in line with previous evidence in auctions of Japanese government securities, we find that foreign bidders seem to obtain higher profits than those of national institutions. These results suggest that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of testes of bidding behavior that do not take differences in bidder’s characteristics into account and (or that assume that treasury securities are pure common-value goods. We find that Brazilian auctions are relatively illiquid as higher competition yields lower bidders’ discounts. Contrary to theoretical predictions of both common- and private-value auctions, we also find that bidders obtain lower profits in auctions with higher dispersion in bidders’ valuations.

  16. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  17. Model for Bidding and Tendering with Bill of Quantities Based on Bid-Winning Estimate at Reasonable Low Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jirong; Zhong Sheng; Guo Yaohuang

    2006-01-01

    The possibility and rationality of introducing an bid-winning estimate based on a reasonable low price into construction bidding mode with bill of quantities were analyzed by setting up a model for bidding and tendering, and the functions of the estimate of reasonable low price in the bidding were revealed. On this basis, a new bidding mode of the project with bill of quantities was proposed. The application of the new mode will be advantageous to the promotion of the bill of quantities in China.

  18. Auctioning Process Innovations when Losers' Bids Determine Royalty Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Elmar G. Wolfstetter

    2009-01-01

    We consider a licensing mechanism for process innovations that combines a license auction with royalty contracts to those who lose the auction. Firms’ bids are dual signals of their cost reductions: the winning bid signals the own cost reduction to rival oligopolists, whereas the losing bid influences the beliefs of the innovator who uses that information to set the royalty rate. We derive conditions for existence of a separating equilibrium, explain why a sufficiently high reserve price is e...

  19. Review of consolidated Edison`s integrated resource bidding program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Baldick, R.; Milne, A.

    1993-07-01

    Competitive bidding has emerged as the dominant method for procuring new resources by US utilities. In New York, the Public Service Commission (NYPSC) ordered the state`s seven investor-owned utilities to develop bidding programs to acquire supply and DSM resource options. Utilities were allowed significant discretion in program design in order to encourage experimentation. Competitive bidding programs pose formidable policy, design, and management challenges for utilities and their regulators. Yet, there have been few detailed case studies of bidding programs, particularly of those utilities that take on the additional challenge of having supply and DSM resources compete head-to-head for a designated block of capacity. To address that need, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy`s Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the bidding programs of two utilities that tested the integrated ``all-sources`` approach. This study focuses primarily on Consolidated Edison Company of New York`s (Con Edison) bidding program; an earlier report discusses our review of Niagara Mohawk`s program (Goldman et al 1992). We reviewed relevant Commission decisions, utility filings and signed contracts, interviewed utility and regulatory staff, surveyed DSM bidders and a selected sample of DSM non-bidders, and analyzed the bid evaluation system used in ranking bids based on detailed scoring information on individual bids provided by Con Edison.

  20. 42 CFR 414.412 - Submission of bids under a competitive bidding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Competitive Bidding for Certain Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies.... Except as provided under § 414.404(b), in order for a supplier to receive payment for items furnished...

  1. The bidding paradox: why rational politicians still want to bid for mega sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses reasons why politicians still favor hosting mega events despite the discouraging evidence regarding their financial benefits: (1) early political enthusiasm, (2) tying side-projects to the bid to raise political support, (3) biased reading of history, (4) the winners curse, (5)

  2. ATTac-2000: An Adaptive Autonomous Bidding Agent

    CERN Document Server

    Kearns, M; Singh, S; Stone, P; 10.1613/jair.865

    2011-01-01

    The First Trading Agent Competition (TAC) was held from June 22nd to July 8th, 2000. TAC was designed to create a benchmark problem in the complex domain of e-marketplaces and to motivate researchers to apply unique approaches to a common task. This article describes ATTac-2000, the first-place finisher in TAC. ATTac-2000 uses a principled bidding strategy that includes several elements of adaptivity. In addition to the success at the competition, isolated empirical results are presented indicating the robustness and effectiveness of ATTac-2000's adaptive strategy.

  3. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  4. 47 CFR 90.903 - Competitive bidding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive bidding mechanisms. 90.903 Section 90.903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Radio Service § 90.903 Competitive bidding mechanisms. (a) Sequencing. The Wireless...

  5. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  6. 48 CFR 2052.214-72 - Bid evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.214-72 Bid evaluation. As... be made to that responsive, responsible bidder within the meaning of FAR Subpart 9.1 whose total bid... the bidder is responsible within the meaning of FAR 9.1, and whether the bidder...

  7. Bidding in sequential electricity markets: The Nordic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Juul, Nina; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2014-01-01

    For electricity market participants trading in sequential markets with differences in price levels and risk exposure, coordinated bidding is highly relevant. We consider a Nordic power producer who engages in the day-ahead spot market and the near real-time balancing market. In both markets......, clearing prices and dispatched volumes are unknown at the time of bidding. However, in the balancing market, the agent faces an additional risk of not being dispatched. Taking into account the sequential clearing of these markets and the gradual realization of market prices, we formulate the bidding...... problem as a multi-stage stochastic program. We investigate whether higher risk exposure can explain the hesitation, often observed in practice, to bid into the balancing market, even in cases of higher expected price levels. Furthermore, we quantify the gain from coordinated bidding, and by deriving...

  8. Determination of the Prosumer's Optimal Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Gabriella; Rossi, Federico; Russo, Angela

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a microgrid connected with a medium-voltage (MV) distribution network. It is assumed that the microgrid, which is managed by a prosumer, operates in a competitive environment and participates in the day-ahead market. Then, as the first step of the short-term management problem, the prosumer must determine the bids to be submitted to the market. The offer strategy is based on the application of an optimization model, which is solved for different hourly price profiles of energy exchanged with the main grid. The proposed procedure is applied to a microgrid and four different its configurations were analyzed. The configurations consider the presence of thermoelectric units that only produce electricity, a boiler or/and cogeneration power plants for the thermal loads, and an electric storage system. The numerical results confirmed the numerous theoretical considerations that have been made.

  9. A Grey Decision Model Used in Bidding for Equipment Purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bidding has long been used as a method for allocating and procuring goods andservices.An acurrate and comprehensive evaluation of bidders is the key to make the bid-ding a successful one for tenderee. Howoever, evaluation of bidders is a tough work and theresult of evaluation is always affected by the evaluator's understanding of the standardsset for evaluation, and the evaluator's expertise, experience and preferrence. We make aneffort to find a method for selecting bidders as accurately as possible. A grey decisionmodel is presented, and an example is illustrated to make the practioners kenow how to usethe model.

  10. ADP Bid Protests: Better Disclosure and Accountability of Settlements Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    but Few A With Mosey S -7 The.Census Bureaus expeice and concern about ossCA’s bid 1rotest procedures prompted.a DN Aft•ment of Commerce official in...GAO/GGD-S-13 ADP Bid Protest Settlements * 4 r 0 @ Appendix I ADP Bid Protests Fil With the GSBCA and£ G O From April to September 30, 18N General...J. Socolar Special Assistant to the Comptroller General General Accounting Office 蚉 G Street, N.V. Vashington, D.C. 20548 Subject: Analysis of

  11. 41 CFR 102-38.210 - What happens when bids have been rejected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have been rejected? 102-38.210 Section 102-38.210 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.210 What happens when bids have been rejected? You may re-offer items for which all bids have been rejected at the same sale, if possible, or...

  12. 48 CFR 14.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions that do not vary from the terms and conditions of the invitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated...

  13. Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz M. Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.

  14. Bid-Ask Spreads with Indirect Competition among Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrig, Thomas; Jackson, Matthew O.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the bid-ask quotes offered by specialists (or dealers) who face indirect competition from other specialists who trade in related assets. In the context of a simple model where investors have mean variance preferences, we characterize the equilibrium bids and asks quoted by K specialists in N assets, where some specialists may control more than one asset. We compare the equilibrium spreads as the number (and factor structure) of the assets each specialist controls is varied. It is s...

  15. Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Wan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Network Management (ANM enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM.

  16. Bidding strategies that minimize risk with options and futures contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research builds on earlier research in developing bidding strategies through the inclusion of options and future contracts. In the competitive environment, electric traders` profits depends on the implementation of a successful bidding strategy. Bidding strategies are studied in an environment in which distribution companies (DISTCOs) and generation companies (GENCOs), buy and sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. The market framework being used was proposed by Kumar and Sheble and allows participants to trade in the spot, future, planning and swap markets, and also gives rise to the use of option contracts. Bid-strategy research previously published by the authors focused on increasing electric generators` profit as they participated in a spot/cash market. Here the authors incorporate techniques such as game theory and decision analysis to minimize the risk to the electric utility or energy trader. The goal is to ensure reliable power system operation while also ensuring that contracts are fulfilled and traders adopting the strategies remain profitable. The developed strategies are tested in the electric market trading simulator which can be used off-line to predict whether bid strategies will be profitable and successful.

  17. Trend arbitrage, bid-ask spread and market dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitsev, N

    2006-01-01

    Microstructure of market dynamics is studied through analysis of tick price data. Linear trend is introduced as a tool for such analysis. Trend arbitrage inequality is developed and tested. The inequality sets limiting relationship between trend, bid-ask spread, market reaction and average update frequency of price information. Average time of market reaction is measured from market data. This parameter is interpreted as a constant value of the stock exchange and is attributed to the latency of exchange reaction to actions of traders. This latency and cost of trade are shown to be the main limit of bid-ask spread. Data analysis also suggests some relationships between trend, bid-ask spread and average frequency of price update process.

  18. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  19. Private Companies Hopeful to Bid on Oil Blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Based on the recent reports from China's news media,China is considering opening oil exploration blocks in its smaller basins to private domestic private companies in what could be the first step toward introducing competition in the country's highly regulated upstream energy market. The Ministry of Land and Resources plans to develop a bidding system for exploration rights in small and mid-sized basins over the next five to 10 years.Trial bidding is expected to start in three to five years, the report said, citing Che Changbo, deputy chief of the Oil and Gas Resources Strategic Research Center under the land ministry.

  20. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  1. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2016-01-01

    in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission......As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed to consider the uncertainty of bidding admission....... The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-18 Independent research and development and bid and proposal..., defined in this subsection. Basic research, (See 2.101). Bid and proposal (B&P) costs means the costs... 9904.420, Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs,...

  3. Script Fading to Promote Unscripted Bids for Joint Attention in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Joy S.; Betz, Alison M.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    We used a script-fading procedure to teach 3 children with autism to initiate bids for joint attention. We examined the effects of (a) scripts, (b) varied adult scripted responses, and (c) multiple-exemplar script training on promoting unscripted language during bids for joint attention. All 3 participants learned to initiate bids for joint…

  4. 42 CFR 422.256 - Review, negotiation, and approval of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. 422.256... Information and Plan Approval § 422.256 Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. (a) Authority. Subject to... submitted under § 422.252 and conduct negotiations with MA organizations regarding these bids (including...

  5. 48 CFR 52.214-25 - Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Step Two of Two-Step... Clauses 52.214-25 Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding. As prescribed in 14.201-6(t), insert the following provision: Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding (APR 1985) (a) This invitation for bids is issued to...

  6. Metalearning to support competitive electricity market players' strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    a dynamic artificial neural network to create its own output, taking advantage on several learning algorithms already implemented in ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System). The proposed metalearner considers different weights for each strategy, based on their individual performance...

  7. 48 CFR 52.214-5 - Submission of Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the solicitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation. (End of provision) ... submitted by electronic means) (1) addressed to the office specified in the solicitation, and (2)...

  8. 27 CFR 72.68 - Sale on sealed, competitive bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale on sealed, competitive bids. 72.68 Section 72.68 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.68 Sale on sealed, competitive...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.504 - Sales price and bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3560.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Management and Disposition of Real Estate Owned (REO) Properties § 3560.504 Sales price and bidding process. (a) The loan documents...

  10. Bidding for Nothing? The Pitfalls of overly Neutral Framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dürsch (Peter); J. Müller (Julia)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Neutral framing is a standard tool of experimental economics. However, overly neutral instructions, which lack any contextual clues, can lead to strange behavior. In a contextless second price auction for a meaningless good, a majority of subjects enter positive bids -

  11. Application of fuzzy mathematics in assessment of mine design bidding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Sen

    1988-12-01

    Assessment of mine design bidding is mainly to evaluate the quality of a mine design. The paper established a 3-stage model to assess quality of mine design using fuzzy criterion. A concept of assessment figures was proposed in the analysis of the results. Finally, a mine design was assessed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Mothers Respond Differently to Infants' Gestural versus Nongestural Communicative Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2013-01-01

    Thirty infants at 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while playing for 18 minutes. Experimental stimuli were presented in three communicative intent contexts--proto-declarative, proto-imperative, and ambiguous--to elicit infant communicative bids that did and did not contain gestures. Mothers' responses were analyzed, and their verbal responses…

  13. Bidding Strategies in Agent-based Continuous Double Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, H.; Leung, H.-F.

    2008-01-01

    Online auctions are a platform to trade goods on the Internet. In this context, negotiation capabilities for software agents in continuous double auctions (CDAs) are a central concern. Agents need to be able to prepare bids for and evaluate offers on behalf of the users they represent with the aim o

  14. Beijing won the bid for hosting the FISM 2009 Convention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆定纲

    2006-01-01

    On August 4th, 2006, the fifth day of the 23rd FISM 2006 Convention in Stockholm. Beijing. after a fierce competition with the other two candidates-Granada and Vienna, finally won the bid for hosting FISM 2009 Convention, gaining 62 percent of the votes in the General Assembly.

  15. CHINA NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION Notice for Third Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)hereby announces the commencement of the Third Round of Bidding for the Exploration of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises. 12 exploration blocks with a total area of 112 739 square kilometers are on offer.

  16. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  17. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  18. The U.S. Agency-Level Bid Protest Mechanism: A Model for Bid Challenge Procedures in Developing Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-31

    35 V. Bid Protest Procedures in the UNCITRAL Model Procurement Law and World Bank Development...Program...................................................................... 39 A. UNCITRAL Model Procurement Law...government procurement,5 and the assistance offered by the United Nations Committee on International Trade Law ( UNCITRAL )6 in the form of its Model Law

  19. Genetic algorithm evolution of utility bidding strategies for the competitive marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes an environment in which distribution companies (discos) and generation companies (gencos), buy and sell power via double auctions implemented in a regional commodity exchange. The electric utilities` profits depend on the implementation of a successful bidding strategy. In this research, a genetic algorithm evolves bidding strategies as gencos and discos trade power. A framework in which bidding strategies may be tested and modified is presented. This simulated electric commodity exchange can be used off-line to predict whether bid strategies will be profitable and successful. It can also be used to experimentally verify how bidding behavior affects the competitive electric marketplace.

  20. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  1. Valuing the Environment Via Bidding Games: A Psychological Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebert, J. A.; Shikiar, R.; Perry, R. W.

    1980-08-01

    How to place a monetary value on the environment and manmade environmental change represents a major methodological problem. The merits of using a monetary scale for valuing environmental goods are that it is familiar to all, can be related to wealth, and, if successfully implemented, can be combined with monetary information from actual costs. Assigning monetary values to "goods" not bought and sold in the marketplace is difficult at best. Several methods are available: direct costing, indirect costing, and bidding games. Direct costs measure the cost of damages associated with environmental change. Indirect costs measure values associated with environmental change (e.g., change in property values). Neither are seen as adequate for measuring net or aggregate social value for public policy decisions. Bidding games are seen as the most appropriate method. Based on the concept of consumer surplus, bidding games are said to measure the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for a good (e.g., environmental change). Four valid games can be played: 1) WTP to get a positive environmental change; 2) WTP to prevent a negative environmental change; 3) minimum willingness to accept (WTA) in compensation to forego a positive environmental change; and 4) WTA to put up with a negative environmental change. Close examination of the assumptions of these games reveals two important considerations: perceived rights and perceived positive or negative nature of the proposed change. For example, if a respondent is asked to state his/her maximum WTP to prevent the construction of a power plant, the game is valid only if 1) the respondent agrees that he/she has no right to the current state and has to "purchase" the right, and 2) that the construction is perceived by the respondent as a negative change. Many environmental changes are, in fact, ambiguous with respect to rights and positive or negative quality. This is often the case across a sample of area residents. Forcing the respondent to

  2. Bay Area Council Announce Bid for 2020 World Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2010-01-01

    @@ During his visit in Shanghai in September, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger joined Bay Area Council President & CEO Jim Wunderman to announce that California will bid to host the 2020 World Expo in Silicon Valley. The announcement was made at the World Expo in Shanghai before the Governor toured the U.S., Austrian and Chinese pavilions. World Expos typically occur every five years and at-tract exhibits from countries around the globe and bring as many as 770 million visitors.

  3. On bid-price controls for network revenue management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariş Ata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a network revenue management problem and advance its dual formulation. The dual formulation reveals that the (optimal shadow price of capacity forms a nonnegative martingale. This result is proved under minimal assumptions on network topology and stochastic nature of demand, allowing an arbitrary statistical dependence structure across time and products. Next, we consider a quadratic perturbation of the network revenue management problem and show that a simple (perturbed bid-price control is optimal for the perturbed problem; and it is ε-optimal for the original network revenue management problem. Finally, we consider a predictable version of this control, where the bid prices used in the current period are last updated in the previous period, and provide an upper bound on its optimality gap in terms of the (quadratic variation of demand. Using this upper bound we show that there exists a near-optimal such control in the usual case when periods are small compared to the planning horizon provided that either demand or the incremental information arriving during each period is small. We establish the martingale property of the (near optimal bid prices in both settings. The martingale property can have important implications in practice as it may offer a tool for monitoring the revenue management systems.

  4. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Analysis of Bid Activation in Living Cells during Ultraviolet-induced Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinyuan WU; Da XING; Lei LIU; Tongsheng CHEN; Wei R. CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a DNA-damaging agent that triggers apoptosis through both the membrane death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways. Bid, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2family member, is important in most cell types to apoptosis in response to DNA damage. In this study, a recombinant plasmid, YFP-Bid-CFP, comprised of yellow and cyan fluorescent protein and a full length Bid,was used as a fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis (FRET) probe. Using the FRET technique based on YFP-Bid-CFP, we found that Bid activation was initiated at 9±1 h after UV irradiation, and the average duration of the activation was 75± 10 min. Bid activation coincided with a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential with an average duration of 50±10 min. When cells were pretreated with Z-IETD-fmk(caspase-8 specific inhibitor) the process of Bid activation was completely inhibited, but the apoptosis was only partially affected. Z-DEVD-fmk (caspase-3 inhibitor) and Z-FA-fmk (non asp specific inhibitor) did not block Bid activation. Furthermore, the endogenous Bid activation with or without Z-IETD-fmk in response to UV irradiation was confirmed by Western blotting. In summary, using the FRET technique, we observed the dynamics of Bid activation during UV-induced apoptosis and found that it was a caspase-8 dependent event.

  5. Bid, a Widely Expressed Proapoptotic Protein of the Bcl-2 Family, Displays Lipid Transfer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposti, Mauro Degli; Erler, Janine T.; Hickman, John A.; Dive, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Bid is an abundant proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is crucial for the induction of death receptor-mediated apoptosis in primary tissues such as liver. Bid action has been proposed to involve the relocation of its truncated form, tBid, to mitochondria to facilitate the release of apoptogenic cytochrome c. The mechanism of Bid relocation to mitochondria was unclear. We report here novel biochemical evidence indicating that Bid has lipid transfer activity between mitochondria and other intracellular membranes, thereby explaining its dynamic relocation to mitochondria. First, physiological concentrations of phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylgycerol induced an accumulation of full-length Bid in mitochondria when incubated with light membranes enriched in endoplasmic reticulum. Secondly, native and recombinant Bid, as well as tBid, displayed lipid transfer activity under the same conditions and at the same nanomolar concentrations leading to mitochondrial relocation and release of cytochrome c. Thus, Bid is likely to be involved in the transport and recycling of mitochondrial phospholipids. We discuss how this new role of Bid may relate to its proapoptotic action. PMID:11585909

  6. Full Length Bid is sufficient to induce apoptosis of cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Manus W

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bcl-2 homology domain (BH 3-only proteins are pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family that couple stress signals to the mitochondrial cell death pathways. The BH3-only protein Bid can be activated in response to death receptor activation via caspase 8-mediated cleavage into a truncated protein (tBid, which subsequently translocates to mitochondria and induces the release of cytochrome-C. Using a single-cell imaging approach of Bid cleavage and translocation during apoptosis, we have recently demonstrated that, in contrast to death receptor-induced apoptosis, caspase-independent excitotoxic apoptosis involves a translocation of full length Bid (FL-Bid from the cytosol to mitochondria. We induced a delayed excitotoxic cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by a 5-min exposure to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 300 μM. Results Western blot experiments confirmed a translocation of FL-Bid to the mitochondria during excitotoxic apoptosis that was associated with the release of cytochrome-C from mitochondria. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis of Bid translocation during excitotoxic cell death using an antibody raised against the amino acids 1–58 of mouse Bid that is not able to detect tBid. Finally, inducible overexpression of FL-Bid or a Bid mutant that can not be cleaved by caspase-8 was sufficient to induce apoptosis in the hippocampal neuron cultures. Conclusion Our data suggest that translocation of FL-Bid is sufficient for the activation of mitochondrial cell death pathways in response to glutamate receptor overactivation.

  7. Auctioning Process Innovations when Losers’ Bids Determine Royalty Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Elmar G. Wolfstetter

    2009-01-01

    We consider a licensing mechanism for process innovations that combines a license auction with royalty contracts to those who lose the auction. Firms’ bids are dual signals of their cost reductions: the winning bid signals the own cost reduction to rival oligopolists, whereas the losing bid influences the beliefs of the innovator who uses that information to set the royalty rate. We derive conditions for existence of a separating equilibrium, explain why a sufficiently high reserve price is...

  8. Research Note--Strategic Bid-Shading and Sequential Auctioning with Learning from Past Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Zeithammer

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes sequential auctioning of single units of an indivisible good to a fluctuating population composed of overlapping generations of unit-demand bidders. Two phenomena emergent in such a market are investigated: forward-looking bidding strategies, and closed-loop selling strategies that involve learning from past prices. The buyers shade their bids down, i.e., bid less than they would in a single isolated auction, whenever they expect the seller to sell another unit of the good...

  9. Expression of Bcl-2 Family Member Bid in Normal and Malignant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Krajewska

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bid is the only known Bcl-2 family member that can function as an agonist of proapoptotic Bcl-2-related proteins such as Bax and Bak. Expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bid was assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical methods in normal murine and human tissues, and in several types of human cancers and tumor cell lines. Bid expression in normal tissues varied widely, with prominent Bid immunostaining occurring in several types of short-lived cells (e.g., germinal center B cells, peripheral blood granulocytes, differentiated keratinocytes and in apoptosissensitive cells (e.g., adult neurons. Analysis of Bid expression by immunostaining of 100 colon, 95 ovarian, and 254 prostate cancers, as well as 59 brain tumors and 50 lymphomas, revealed evidence of altered Bid regulation in sometypes of cancers. Correlations with clinical outcome data revealed association of higher levels of Bid with longer recurrence-free survival in men with locally advanced (T3 stage prostate cancer (P=0.04. Immunoblot analysis of Bid protein levels in the NCI's panel of 60 human tumor cell lines revealed a correlation between higher levels of Bid and sensitivity to ribonucleotide reductase (RR-inhibiting drugs (P<0.0005. Overexpression of Bid in a model tumor cell line by gene transfection resulted in increased sensitivity to apoptosis induction by a RR inhibitor. Taken together, these observations suggest a potential role for Bid in tumor responses to specific chemotherapeutic drugs, and lay a foundation for future investigations of this member of the Bcl-2 family in healthy and diseased tissues.

  10. Preventing conflicts among bid curves used with transactive controllers in a market-based resource allocation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Hauer, Matthew; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-03-07

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. One of the disclosed embodiments is a method for operating a transactive thermostatic controller configured to submit bids to a market-based resource allocation system. According to the exemplary method, a first bid curve is determined, the first bid curve indicating a first set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a cooling mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. A second bid curve is also determined, the second bid curve indicating a second set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a heating mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. In this embodiment, the first bid curve, the second bid curve, or both the first bid curve and the second bid curve are modified to prevent overlap of any portion of the first bid curve and the second bid curve.

  11. On low bidding price in construction project bidding%对建设工程招投标中低价竞标的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司宏卫

    2009-01-01

    根据我国建筑行业招投标的现状,阐述了实行低价竞标的利弊,分析了造成低于成本价竞标的原因,并提出了关于招投标工作的几点建议,从而使建筑企业获取一定的合理利润,促进整个建筑业健康发展.%According to the current situation of Chinese construction industry bidding, the author describes the advantages and disadvantages of carrying out low bidding price, analyzes the causes of bidding with price lower than cost price, and provides some suggestions about bidding work, thus making the construction enterprise get certain reasonable benefit and promoting the healthy development of whole construction industry.

  12. Comprehensive bidding strategies with genetic programming/finite state automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B.; Ashlock, D.

    1999-11-01

    This research is an extension of the authors' previous work in double auctions aimed at developing bidding strategies for electric utilities which trade electricity competitively. The improvements detailed in this paper come from using data structures which combine genetic programming and finite state automata termed GP-Automata. The strategies developed by the method described here are adaptive--reacting to inputs--whereas the previously developed strategies were only suitable in the particular scenario for which they had been designed. The strategies encoded in the GP-Automata are tested in an auction simulator. The simulator pits them against other distribution companies (distcos) and generation companies (gencos), buying and selling power via double auctions implemented in regional commodity exchanges. The GP-Automata are evolved with a genetic algorithm so that they possess certain characteristics. In addition to designing successful bidding strategies (whose usage would result in higher profits) the resulting strategies can also be designed to imitate certain types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be implemented directly in on-line trading, or can be used as realistic competitors in an off-line trading simulator.

  13. Strategic Bidding in Multi-Unit Auctions with Capacity Constrained Bidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a simple model to describe bidding behavior in multi-unit uniform price procurement auctions when firms are capacity constrained. Using data from the New York City procurement auctions for power generating capacity, I find that firms use simple bidding strategies to coordinate...

  14. Bid protects the mouse hematopoietic system following hydroxyurea-induced replicative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Aiello, A; Zinkel, S S

    2012-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess long-term self-renewal capacity and multipotent differentiative capacity, to maintain the hematopoietic system. Long-term hematopoietic homeostasis requires effective control of genotoxic damage to maintain HSC function and prevent propagation of deleterious mutations. Here we investigate the role of the BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bid in the response of murine hematopoietic cells to long-term replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU). The PI3-like serine/threonine kinase, ATR, initiates the DNA damage response (DDR) to replicative stress. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Bid, facilitates this response to replicative stress in hematopoietic cells, but the in vivo role of this DDR function of Bid has not been defined. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that long-term HU treatment expands wild-type myeloid progenitor cells (MPCs) and HSC-enriched Lin(-)Sca1(+)Kit(+) (LSK) cells to maintain bone marrow function as measured by long-term competitive repopulating ability. Bid-/- MPCs demonstrate increased sensitivity to HU and are depleted. Bid-/- LSK cells demonstrate increased mobilization manifest by increased Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Bid-/- MPCs and LSK cells are relatively depleted, however, and bone marrow from Bid-/- mice demonstrates decreased long-term competitive repopulating ability in both primary and secondary transplants. We thus describe a survival function of Bid in hematopoiesis in the setting of chronic replicative stress.

  15. 48 CFR 242.771 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 242.771 Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. 242.771 Section 242.771 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  16. 48 CFR 970.3102-05-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal costs. (c) Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal costs are unallowable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs. 970.3102-05-18 Section 970.3102-05-18 Federal Acquisition...

  17. 47 CFR 1.2105 - Bidding application and certification procedures; prohibition of certain communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (6) Any applicant that makes or receives a communication of bids or bidding strategies prohibited... immediately, and in no case later than five business days after the communication occurs. An applicant's... procedures; prohibition of certain communications. 1.2105 Section 1.2105 Telecommunication...

  18. The degree of rationality in actual bidding of hydropower at Nord Pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Erik Nicholas; Grøndahl, Roger; Fleten, Stein-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's generation in day-ahead auctions. We analyse bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profi...

  19. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands : Chapter 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; van Het Kaar, R.H.; Cremers, Jan; Vitols, Sigurt

    2016-01-01

    Chapter dedicated to the Dutch implementation of EU Takeover Bids Directive. The case is particularly interesting because of the strong position of works councils within Dutch companies, including in restructuring situations. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands did not l

  20. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  1. Existence and computation of equilibria of first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escamocher, Guillaume; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Santillan, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    We consider existence and computation of symmetric Pure Strategy Nash Equilibrium (PSNE) in single-item, sealed-bid, first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids. For the most general case, we show that existence of PSNE is NP-hard. Then, we present algorithmic results for the case of i...

  2. Caspase-8 Binding to Cardiolipin in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Provides a Functional Docking Platform for Bid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalmar, Olivier; Franc¸ois-Moutal, Liberty; García-Sáez, Ana-Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-8 is involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis in type II cells, the proapoptotic programme of which is triggered by truncated Bid. Indeed, caspase-8 and Bid are the known intermediates of this signalling pathway. Cardiolipin has been shown to provide an anchor and an essential activa...

  3. Optimal Demand Side Bidding with Carbon Emission by Using MRS Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new moderate-random-search strategy (MRPSO is used for an optimal bidding strategy of a supplier, considering linear bidding curve model with a precise model and emission as constraints, and who delivered electricity to end users in oligopolistic dynamic electricity is studied. Bidding strategy of a supplier is solved by MRPSO, where mean best position (mbest boosts the diversity and the exploration ability of particle. The MRPSO adopts an attractor pd as the main moving direction of particles, which replaces the velocity update procedure in the particle swarm optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is tested with linear bidding model and the results are compared with the solutions obtained using classical PSO. In this paper, a comparative study has been done by a competitive bidding model tested on IEEE 14- and IEEE 39-bus systems and results motivate the suppliers towards opting green technologies.

  4. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy: Rate equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I.; Kahng, B.

    2006-06-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid k times up to the t th bidding progresses, called the k -frequent bidder, seems to scale as nk(t)˜tk-2.4 . The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the k -frequent bidder is likely to scale as qk(t)˜k-1.4 , independent of t for large t . This theoretical prediction is close to empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction.

  5. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy:rate equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, I

    2006-01-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid $k$ times, called the $k$-frequent bidder, up to the $t$-th bidding progresses as $n_k(t)\\sim tk^{-2.4}$. The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the $k$-frequent bidder is obtained as $q_k(t) \\sim k^{-1.4}$, independent of $t$ for large $t$. This theoretical prediction is in agreement with empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction.

  6. Bid and calpains cooperate to trigger oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguissola, Sergio; Köhler, Barbara; O'Byrne, Robert; Düssmann, Heiko; Cannon, Mary D; Murray, Frank E; Concannon, Caoimhin G; Rehm, Markus; Kögel, Donat; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2009-11-01

    The Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein Bid is an important mediator of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Recent reports and this study suggest that Bid may also mediate genotoxic drug-induced apoptosis of various human cancer cells. Here, we characterized the role of Bid and the mechanism of Bid activation during oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa cervical cancer cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of Bid protected HeLa cells against both death receptor- and oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Expression of a Bid mutant in which caspase-8 cleavage site was mutated (D59A) reactivated oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in Bid-deficient cells but failed to reactivate death receptor-induced apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-8-mediated Bid cleavage did not contribute to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of bcl-2 or treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp-fluoromethylketone abolished caspase-2, -8, -9, and -3 activation as well as Bid cleavage in response to oxaliplatin, suggesting that Bid cleavage occurred downstream of mitochondrial permeabilization and was predominantly mediated by caspases. We also detected an early activation of calpains in response to oxaliplatin. Calpain inhibition reduced Bid cleavage, mitochondrial depolarization, and activation of caspase-9, -3, -2, and -8 in response to oxaliplatin. Further experiments, however, suggested that Bid cleavage by calpains was not a prerequisite for oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis: single-cell imaging experiments using a yellow fluorescent protein-Bid-cyan fluorescent protein probe demonstrated translocation of full-length Bid to mitochondria that was insensitive to calpain or caspase inhibition. Moreover, calpain inhibition showed a potent protective effect in Bid-silenced cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that calpains and Bid act in a cooperative, but mutually independent, manner to mediate oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells.

  7. 48 CFR 603.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 603.104-4... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized to receive contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information...

  8. 48 CFR 1403.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1403.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized access to contractor bid or proposal information and source...

  9. 48 CFR 1303.104-4 - Disclosure, protection and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1303.104-4 Section... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. Contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information must be protected from unauthorized disclosure in accordance...

  10. 31 CFR 356.12 - What are the different types of bids and do they have specific requirements or restrictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE AND ISSUE OF MARKETABLE BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BILLS, NOTES, AND BONDS... missing decimals as zero, for example, a bid of 5.32 will be treated as 5.320. The rate bid may be a... bid, expressed with three decimals, for example, 4.170. We will treat any missing decimals as...

  11. Learning for Dynamic Bidding in Cognitive Radio Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Fangwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we model the various wireless users in a cognitive radio network as a collection of selfish, autonomous agents that strategically interact in order to acquire the dynamically available spectrum opportunities. Our main focus is on developing solutions for wireless users to successfully compete with each other for the limited and time-varying spectrum opportunities, given the experienced dynamics in the wireless network. We categorize these dynamics into two types: one is the disturbance due to the environment (e.g. wireless channel conditions, source traffic characteristics, etc.) and the other is the impact caused by competing users. To analyze the interactions among users given the environment disturbance, we propose a general stochastic framework for modeling how the competition among users for spectrum opportunities evolves over time. At each stage of the dynamic resource allocation, a central spectrum moderator auctions the available resources and the users strategically bid for the require...

  12. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  13. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  14. A Multi-Agent Based Equipment Bidding System on the Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a new framework of multi-agent based equipment bidding system on the Web(MAEBSW). The purpose of the paper is to make the process of enterprise equipment bidding, especially the decisionprocess of enterprise equipment bidding, more intelligent. The system discussed in this paper is an efficient method forthe enterprises doing business electronically. We also present our opinion of the approaches to defining agents. We em-phasize the importance of agent being able to provide explanation about its behavior for the user or other agents. Based onthis opinion we design a new common architecture of most agents in MAEBSW.

  15. Bidding to the Top: VCG and Equilibria of Position-Based Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Gagan; Muthukrishnan, S.; Feldman, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Many popular search engines run an auction to determine the placement of advertisements next to search results. Current auctions at Google and Yahoo! let advertisers specify a single amount as their bid in the auction. This bid is interpreted as the maximum amount the advertiser is willing to pay per click on its ad. When search queries arrive, the bids are used to rank the ads linearly on the search result page. The advertisers pay for each user who clicks on their ad, and the amount charged...

  16. Study of impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on bidding strategies of GENCOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoling Chen [Sichuan Electric Power Company, Chengdu (China); He, Y.; Song, Y.H. [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Power Systems; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Chikashi; Takahashi, Satoru; Sekine, Yoshinori [Fuji Electric Group (Japan)

    2004-11-01

    This paper studies the impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on the bidding strategies of GENCOs, including Physical Bilateral Contracts, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), Call Options and Put Options under discriminatory pricing mechanism. The integrated bidding decision model is applied, which has three main modules - probabilistic local marginal price simulator, market-oriented unit commitment model and multi-criteria decision system. The numerical results show that the GENCO will choose different bidding strategies if it holds different types of contract. The results also suggest that CfDs have the best performance for risk alleviation. (author)

  17. Multi-Objective Bidding Strategy for Genco Using Non-Dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksinchai, Apinat; Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in uniform price spot market using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO). Instead of using a tradeoff technique, NSPSO is introduced to solve the multi-objective strategic bidding problem considering expected profit maximization and risk (profit variation) minimization. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to simulate rivals' bidding behavior. Test results indicate that the proposed approach can provide the efficient non-dominated solution front effectively. In addition, it can be used as a decision making tool for a GenCo compromising between expected profit and price risk in spot market.

  18. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  19. 30 CFR 285.222 - What does MMS do with my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to, insufficiency, illegality, anti-competitive behavior, administrative error, and the presence of... Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.222 What does MMS do with my bid? (a) If...

  20. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    This paper details a practical methodology based on simple statistical calculations for modeling the performance of a single bidder or a group of bidders, constituting a useful resource for analyzing one’s own success while benchmarking potential bidding competitors.

  1. 47 CFR 1.2102 - Eligibility of applications for competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applications filed after July 26, 1993, in the Interactive Video Data Service (see 47 CFR part 95, subpart F... rules that apply to competitive bidding, specific service rules should also be consulted....

  2. 7 CFR 1942.18 - Community facilities-Planning, bidding, contracting, constructing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... International (SBCCI) Standard Building Code. (ii) The date, signature, and seal of a registered architect or..., financial, legal or other services related to planning, bidding, contracting, and constructing community... architectural and engineering reports must conform with customary professional standards. Preliminary...

  3. The Clustering of Bid/Ask Prices and the Spread in the Foreign Exchange Market

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Curcio; Charles Goodhart

    1991-01-01

    Following Lawrence Harris (1989b) study of price clustering in stock prices, we examine the smae phenomenon in the forex market. The pattern of clustering in the final digit of bid/ask prices depends on the desired degree of price resolution. The selection of spreads also involves clustering, but this is driven by a different behavioural pattern, consistent with the pure attraction hypothesis. The combination of the two patterns can explain the differing frequencies of final digits in the bid...

  4. Building and Researching the Bidding Model Based on the Cost of Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春申; 叶春; 赵景峰

    2004-01-01

    A bidding model of neural network was presented to pursue the largest benefit according to the policy of separating power plants from network and bidding transaction. This model bases on the cost of power plant and its research object is a power plant in the market. The market clearing price (MCP) can be predicted and an optimized load curve can be decided in this model. The model may provide technical support for the power plant.

  5. Study on the Winning Probability for a Bid in Procurement Combinational Auction with Tree Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian; HUANG He

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the processes to determine winning probability for the correspondingbidder's deterministic bid are presented. The analysis of the winning probability is Crucial for studying the bidding equilibria and designing the mechanism of procurement combinational auctions (CAs), and it also provides the decision making support for bidders who are in commercial synergies surrounding.Finally, an example is used to illustrate the feasibility and detailed processes of calculating winning probability.

  6. Current Practices to Decrease Subcontractor Bid Shopping in the Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    rarely done because most contractors refuse to accept such a condition (6s15). Those public agencies adhering to the doctrine of promissory estoppel ...also encourage bid shopping. The doctrine of promissory estoppel dictates that a subcontractor must stand by his bid quote if it is used by the prime...Holman was not awarded the subcontract. (3) It is unfair to bind the subcontractor under promissory estoppel without binding the general contractor. (4

  7. Negotiating a demand side bid: City of San Jose case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report emphasizes the transferability of the gathered information to other local municipal governments. The report provides: general background information on demand side bidding; advantages and disadvantages of participation; alternative and ``ideal`` scenarios for bidding; review of potential pitfalls and lessons learned; and a general framework of information based on this particular request for DSB proposals and the City of San Joe`s response experience.

  8. The 2003 proposal for a directive on Takeover Bids - Impact on the regulation in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'.......The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'....

  9. Estimation of block values using a competitive bidding in Brazil: the impact of PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudo do Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The concession process for oil and gas exploration through competitive bidding marks a significant step in the opening of Brazil's petroleum sector. So far, since 1999, five licensing rounds for oil and gas have taken place in Brazil, where 189 blocks have been bid. Approximately US$ 720 million have been collected conceding about 198 thousands of km{sup 2} in area, involving more than 43 oil companies. PETROBRAS, alone or in a joint venture, is the operator of 116 blocks acquired in the bidding process until 2003. The company invested US$ 230 million in the five rounds and acquired approximately 80 thousands of km{sup 2}. PETROBRAS participation is very important in this new Brazilian regulatory setting, due to its performance as oil firm for 50 years in the country. This paper attempts to delineate the behavior of the PETROBRAS in the five rounds, comparing its participation with other companies and its role as a boundary market marker in the bidding process. Considering that the bid value is a fraction of the estimated reserve value, another objective of this paper is to reach a set of proxies of unknown values of the blocks through the successful bids. The blocks are divided considering their geological characteristics and the winners' value is estimated for each group. The estimated value of the blocks is calculated through stochastic simulation of these bid fractions using a compound probability distribution. The East Margin Deep Water is the most attractive area, where is concentrated about 90% of Brazilian oil production. These values can be used as auxiliary decision framework for new investments by oil firms as well as for the regulatory agency to evaluate bid performance. (author)

  10. Forecasting Winning Bid Prices in an Online Auction Market:Data Mining Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hongil; BAEK Seung

    2004-01-01

    To solve information asymmetry problem on online auction, this study suggests and validates a forecasting model of winning bid prices. Especially, it explores the usability of data mining approaches, such as neural network and Bayesian network in building a forecasting model. This research empirically shows that, in forecasting winning bid prices on online auction, data mining techniques have shown better performance than traditional statistical analysis, such as logistic regression and multivariate regression.

  11. One Way to Eliminate Corruption—Educating People——Brief Introduction on Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuShi-feng; YangRu-ping

    2001-01-01

    This article,according to the author's working experience in a hydropower project,briefly introduces some basic knowledge about bidding process and sample contract document.It is aiming at giving a common knowledge to the students who will be involved in work relating to bid after their graduation in the college.It is hoped that this kind of knowledge can help people properly use funds for a project and thus corruption can be minimized.

  12. Role of benzimidazole (Bid) in the delta-opioid agonist pseudopeptide H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid (UFP-502).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Severo; Fiorini, Stella; Trapella, Claudio; Porreca, Frank; Davis, Peg; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Marczak, Ewa D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Balboni, Gianfranco

    2008-03-15

    H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid (UFP-502) was the first delta-opioid agonist prepared from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore. It showed interesting pharmacological properties, such as stimulation of mRNA BDNF expression and antidepression. To evaluate the importance of 1H-benzimidazol-2-yl (Bid) in the induction of delta-agonism, it was substituted by similar heterocycles: The substitution of NH(1) by O or S transforms the reference delta-agonist into delta-antagonists. Phenyl ring of benzimidazole is not important for delta-agonism; in fact 1H-imidazole-2-yl retains delta-agonist activity.

  13. An Examination of Criminalization of Russia’s Anti-Bid Rigging Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proceedings which were designed to contribute to anticartel enforcement.The aim of this research is to determine factors that have caused the very rare use of criminal sanctions for cartel enforcement with the focus on bid rigging. For the purpose of the research, the paper outlines the regulation of tendering in Russia and the system of sanctions for bid rigging, including leniency. Case analysis of the first custodial sentence for anticompetitive agreement on a public tender highlights specific features resulting in successful prosecution. Since this is one of the first attempts to assess criminalization of bid rigging in Russia, original empirical data including interviews with officials from federal competition authorities and regional representatives constitute the basis of the study.Findings of the research determine the influence of social norms on the enforcement as the main challenge for criminalization of bid rigging which is weighed down by the insufficient political influence of competition authorities. The paper’s findings may be of interest for assessing enforcement in other jurisdictions experiencing the same difficulties.

  14. New Sealed-Bid Electronic Auction with Fairness, Security and Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Chi Wu; Chin-Chen Chang; Iuon-Chang Lin

    2008-01-01

    Electronic sealed-bid auction schemes usually have a common drawback, the third party (auction host) can conspire with a malicious bidder to leak all bidding prices before the opening stage. It results in the malicious bidder wining the auction with an optimal bidding price. Recently, Liaw et al. proposed an auction protocol for electronic online bidding in which they designed a deposit deduction certification for government procurement. However, it also has above mentioned flaw. Moreover, we further found that there were some extra security drawbacks in their protocol. First, the bidder can forge a bidding receipt to claim that he/she is a valid auction winner. Second, it may suffer from the third party forging attack. Third, their protocol leaked some bidders' private information to the third party, such as the bidder's bank account number and the authorization code. Thus, it cannot protect the bidder's privacy at all. In this paper, we not only point out the drawbacks from the previous scheme but also propose a new electronic auction scheme to overcome the above mentioned drawbacks. Furthermore, the computational complexity can be decreased in our online sealed-bid auction scheme.

  15. Minority business bidding for local government contracts: the complexity of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Ralph L; Murrell, Audrey; Constance-Huggins, Monique

    2007-01-01

    While minority-business enterprises (MBEs) have gained some access to local government contracts during the last three decades, these firms continue to receive a small share of local government contract spending relative to the number of available firms. Researchers have suggested two general explanations for the low representation of MBEs in contract awards: (1) lack of qualifications and capacity among MBEs, and (2) public and private discrimination against MBEs in contracting processes. This study on prime contract opportunities in a Northern central city and county with a large minority population finds that low bid rates greatly contribute to the low MBE shares of prime contracts and that bidding is reduced by both local government processes and characteristics of the firms. Some implications of these findings are that local governments need to: (1) monitor MBE shares of prime contract bids by size of contract and use share of bids as one measure of program and organizational effectiveness; (2) identify MBEs that are qualified for prime contracts and encourage and help interested firms to submit competitive bids; and (3) ensure that local government policies and practices do not diminish access to information about prime contract opportunities for qualified and interested minority firms. Another implication is that bidders lists should not be a primary basis for determining MBE availability, since many qualified and interested MBEs do not bid because of perceived barriers in local government.

  16. BIDS apps: Improving ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility of neuroimaging data analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Churchill, Nathan W.; Flandin, Guillaume; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Raffelt, David; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Smith, Robert E.; Strother, Stephen C.; Varoquaux, Gaël

    2017-01-01

    The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS). The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps) is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package. BIDS Apps run on all three major operating systems with no need for complex setup and configuration and thanks to the comprehensiveness of the BIDS standard they require little manual user input. Previous containerized data processing solutions were limited to single user environments and not compatible with most multi-tenant High Performance Computing systems. BIDS Apps overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the Singularity container technology. As a proof of concept, this work is accompanied by 22 ready to use BIDS Apps, packaging a diverse set of commonly used neuroimaging algorithms. PMID:28278228

  17. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Badri; Jadid, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (Iran); Rashidinejad, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran); Moghaddam, M.P. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-06-15

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  18. A vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model for bidding purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhou-jing; QIAN Edward Y.

    2007-01-01

    A vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model is developed for evaluating bidding plans in a bidding purchase process. A group of decision-makers (DMs) first independently assess bidding plans according to their experience and preferences, and these assessments may be expressed as linguistic terms, which are then converted to fuzzy numbers. The resulting decision matrices are then transformed to objective membership grade matrices. The lower bound of satisfaction and upper bound of dissatisfaction are used to determine each bidding plan's supporting, opposing, and neutral objective sets, which together determine the vague value of a bidding plan. Finally, a score function is employed to rank all bidding plans. A new score function based on vague sets is introduced in the model and a novel method is presented for calculating the lower bound of satisfaction and upper bound of dissatisfaction. In a vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model, different valuations for upper and lower bounds of satisfaction usually lead to distinct ranking results. Therefore, it is crucial to effectively contain DMs' arbitrariness and subjectivity when these values are determined.

  19. Research on Power Producer’s Bidding Behavior Based on the Best-Response Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s electricity market is facing many problems, the research on power producer’s bidding behavior can promote the healthy and sustainable development of China’s electricity market. As a special commodity, the “electricity” possesses complicated production process. The instable market constraint condition, nonsymmetric information, and a lot of random factors make the producer’s bidding process more complex. Best-response dynamic is one of the classic dynamic mechanisms of the evolutionary game theory, which applies well in the repeated game and strategy evolution that happen among a few bounded rational players with a quick learning capability. The best-response dynamic mechanism is employed to study the power producer’s bidding behavior in this paper, the producer’s best-response dynamic model is constructed, and how the producers would engage in bidding is analyzed in detail. Taking two generating units in South China regional electricity market as the example, the producer’s bidding behavior by following the producer’s best-response dynamic model is verified. The relationships between the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS of power producer’s bidding and the market demand, and ceiling and floor price as well as biding frequency are discussed in detail.

  20. An Experience-Based Evaluation Process for ERP Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Al Bar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems integrate information across an entire organization that automate core activities such as finance/accounting , human resources, manufacturing, production and upply chain management... etc. to facilitate an inte grated centralized system and rapid decision making – resulting in cost reduction, greater planning, and increased control. Many organizations are updating their current management information systems with ERP sys tems. This is not a trivial task. They have to identify the organization’s objectives and satisfy a myriad of stakeholders. They have to understand what business processes they have, how they can be improved, and what particular systems would best suit their needs . They have to understand how an ERP system is built; it involves the modification of an existing system with its own set of business rules. Deciding what to ask for and how to select the best option is a very complex operation and there is limited experience with this type of contractingn organizations. In this paper we discuss a particular experience with contracting out an ERP system, provide some lessons learned, and offer suggestions in how the RFP and bid selection processes could have been improved.

  1. Molecular factors in cell (and tumor) response to photodynamic therapy: the role of Bid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-yan; Lam, Minh; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Zhang, Ping; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-02-01

    The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, including Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis is triggered. We recently prepared analogues of Pc 4 containing two axial ligands, one identical to the single ligand in Pc 4, and the other containing one or two hydroxyl groups on a dimethylsiloxy alkyl chain. Pc 181 is representative of this group of photosensitizers. In MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, the new analogues preferentially localized in lysosomes and were highly efficient in inducing apoptosis and overall cell death. The Bcl-2 family member Bid is required for signaling to mitochondria for apoptosis in response to primary lysosomal photodamage. To further evaluate the role of Bid, we compared the effects of PDT with Pc 4 or Pc 181 in wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts and those knocked out for Bid. We find that the two cell lines are equally sensitive to killing by Pc 4-PDT, but the Bid-/- cells are significantly more resistant to killing and apoptosis induction by Pc 181-PDT than are the Bid+/+ cells. The data show that low levels of lysosomal photodamage are not alone lethal and that a specific defect in a factor required for apoptosis can severely compromise cell response to PDT.

  2. Quantifying fluctuations in market liquidity: analysis of the bid-ask spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    Quantifying the statistical features of the bid-ask spread offers the possibility of understanding some aspects of market liquidity. Using quote data for the 116 most frequently traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange over the two-year period 1994-1995, we analyze the fluctuations of the average bid-ask spread S over a time interval deltat. We find that S is characterized by a distribution that decays as a power law P[S>x] approximately x(-zeta(S) ), with an exponent zeta(S) approximately = 3 for all 116 stocks analyzed. Our analysis of the autocorrelation function of S shows long-range power-law correlations, (S(t)S(t + tau)) approximately tau(-mu(s)), similar to those previously found for the volatility. We next examine the relationship between the bid-ask spread and the volume Q, and find that S approximately ln Q; we find that a similar logarithmic relationship holds between the transaction-level bid-ask spread and the trade size. We then study the relationship between S and other indicators of market liquidity such as the frequency of trades N and the frequency of quote updates U, and find S approximately ln N and S approximately ln U. Lastly, we show that the bid-ask spread and the volatility are also related logarithmically.

  3. Bidding Strategy for Aggregators of Electric Vehicles in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make full use of the flexible charging and discharging capabilities of the growing number of electric vehicles (EVs, a bidding strategy for EV aggregators to participate in a day-ahead electricity energy market is proposed in this work. The proposed bidding strategy is able to reduce the operating cost of the EV aggregators and to handle the uncertainties of day-ahead market prices properly at the same time. Agreements between the EV owners and the aggregators are discussed, and a hierarchical market structure is proposed. While assuming the aggregators as economic rational entities, the bidding strategy is established based on the market prices, extra battery charging/discharging costs and the expected profits. The bidding clearing system will display the current/temporal market clearance results of the day-ahead market before the final clearance, and hence the market participants can revise their bids and mitigate the risks, to some extent, of forecasted market price forecast errors. Numerical results with a modified IEEE 30-bus system have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  4. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  5. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  6. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  7. A Data-Driven Bidding Model for a Cluster of Price-Responsive Consumers of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Gallego, Javier; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    -response of the cluster. The complex market bid is defined as a series of marginal utility functions plus some constraints on demand, such as maximum pick-up and drop-off rates. The proposed modeling approach also leverages information on exogenous factors that may influence the consumption behavior of the cluster, e......This paper deals with the market-bidding problem of a cluster of price-responsive consumers of electricity. We develop an inverse optimization scheme that, recast as a bilevel programming problem, uses price-consumption data to estimate the complex market bid that best captures the price.......g., weather conditions and calendar effects. We test the proposed methodology for a particular application: forecasting the power consumption of a small aggregation of households that took part in the Olympic Peninsula project. Results show that the price-sensitive consumption of the cluster of flexible loads...

  8. BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Maria; Seeger, Jens M; Schüll, Stephan; Coutelle, Oliver; Wagner-Stippich, Diana; Wiegmann, Katja; Wunderlich, Claudia M; Brinkmann, Kerstin; Broxtermann, Pia; Witt, Axel; Fritsch, Melanie; Martinelli, Paola; Bielig, Harald; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rugarli, Elena I; Kaufmann, Thomas; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Villunger, Andreas; Martins, L Miguel; Krönke, Martin; Kufer, Thomas A; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Kashkar, Hamid

    2014-10-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent caspase inhibitor, best known for its anti-apoptotic function in cancer. During apoptosis, XIAP is antagonized by SMAC, which is released from the mitochondria upon caspase-mediated activation of BID. Recent studies suggest that XIAP is involved in immune signaling. Here, we explore XIAP as an important mediator of an immune response against the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Shigella evades the XIAP-mediated immune response by inducing the BID-dependent release of SMAC from the mitochondria. Unlike apoptotic stimuli, Shigella activates the calpain-dependent cleavage of BID to trigger the release of SMAC, which antagonizes the inflammatory action of XIAP without inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate how the cellular death machinery can be subverted by an invasive pathogen to ensure bacterial colonization.

  9. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners....

  10. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners.......Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...

  11. Simulating GenCo bidding strategies in electricity markets with an agent-based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, Audun; Thimmapuram, Prakash R.; Yamakado, Malo

    2005-12-15

    In this paper we use an agent-based simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze market power in electricity markets. We focus on the effect of congestion management on the ability of generating companies (GenCos) to raise prices beyond competitive levels. An 11-node test power system is used to compare a market design based on locational marginal pricing with a market design that uses system marginal pricing and congestion management by counter trading. Bidding strategies based on both physical and economic withholding are compared to a base case with production cost bidding. The results show that unilateral market power is exercised under both pricing mechanisms. However, the largest changes in consumer costs and GenCo profits due to strategic bidding occur under the locational marginal pricing scheme. The analysis also illustrates that agent-based modeling can contribute important insights into the complex interactions between the participants in transmission-constrained electricity markets. (Author)

  12. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city(Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of megaevents.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of megaevents from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  13. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Ongsakul, Weerakorn, E-mail: ongsakul@ait.asi [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  14. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Joo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 665 Naeson2-dong, Uiwang City, Gyeonggi Province 437-808 (Korea); Kim, Balho H. [Hong-Ik University, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, 72-1 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea); Hur, Don [Kwangwoon University, Department of Electrical Engineering, 447-1 Wolgye1-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea)

    2007-04-15

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  15. Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases versus the real world and vice versa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrenz, J.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    From the vantage point of builders and operators of Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases, users are addressed. Users are a polyglot lot of empiricists, mechanists, and theorists. The users' perfect data base would contain all data needed to examine all bidding theories and predict bidders' behavior using the theories. That ideal data base has not been attained. However, even the richly flawed history of these data bases leads one to the not particularly prescient notion that users, with omnipresent complaints about errors in and lack of data, will keep the data bases functioning by using them.

  16. A Dynamic Analysis of Bid-Ask Spreads with Multiple Trade Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Shino Takayama; Han Ozsoylev

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies how the trade size and the historical sequence of trades affect bid-ask spreads, investors’ trading strategies, and the market maker’s learning process in a multi-period economy. First, we show that there is a nonzero cut-off size below which informed traders never buy or sell, and that larger trade sizes have positive bid-ask spreads, while smaller sizes do not. Then, we prove that the cut-off size decreases stochastically . We also derive the functional relationship betwe...

  17. 48 CFR 3.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 3.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Except as... information or source selection information to any person other than a person authorized, in accordance...

  18. 48 CFR 2903.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 2903.104-5... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Government employees serving in the following positions are authorized access to proprietary or source selection information, but...

  19. 48 CFR 203.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 203.104-4....104-4 Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (d)(3) For purposes of FAR 3.104-4(d)(3) only, DoD follows the...

  20. 48 CFR 1503.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1503.104-5 Section... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a)(1) The Chief of.... 2. I agree to use any proposal information only for evaluation purposes. I agree not to copy...

  1. An analytical Study on Dynamics of Public Procurement System and Bidding-Strategy in Local Contractor's Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Nanerikawa, Susumu

    Public procurement system such as Overall-Evaluation dynamically has been changed on local public works in Japan. However some characteristics of Bidding-Strategy and procurement system have not enough clarified. This paper attempt to analysis for a syatem dynamics and mechanisum of Overall-Evaluation by developing new simulation model focused on Bidding-Strategy, to propose some improvement scenario.

  2. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. 9904.420 Section 9904.420 Federal Acquisition... Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs....

  3. 13 CFR 126.601 - What additional requirements must a qualified HUBZone SBC meet to bid on a contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a qualified HUBZone SBC meet to bid on a contract? 126.601 Section 126.601 Business Credit and... requirements must a qualified HUBZone SBC meet to bid on a contract? (a) The Federal Acquisition Regulatory... offer on a specific HUBZone contract, the qualified HUBZone SBC, together with its affiliates, must...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1181 - Authority to prescribe and collect fees for competitive bidding-related services and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... competitive bidding-related services and products. 1.1181 Section 1.1181 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 1.1181 Authority to prescribe and collect fees for competitive bidding-related services and products... prescribe regulations that establish charges for the provision of government services and products....

  5. Discuss the Preparation of Project Bidding and Bidding Strategies Budget%探讨工程投标预算的编制与报价策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥慧

    2014-01-01

    在工程建设市场中,投标企业都希望自己的企业能够中标,并且获得良好的信誉和经济效益。然而,工程投标预算的编制和报价是一项严谨且复杂的工作,要保证预算在编制过程中的质量,就需要在编制预算时选择正确的依据。编制人员要充分了解工程的设计图纸和资料,熟悉工程的实际情况,掌握其中的定额,切合实际地进行编制。针对工程投标预算的编制和报价策略进行分析。%In the construction market, bidding companies want their businesses to bid and get a good reputation and economic benefits. However, budget preparation and tender offer engineering is a rigorous and complex work, to ensure the quality of budget preparation process, you need to select the correct basis in preparing the budget. Staffing levels should fully understand the actual situation of the design drawings and data, familiar engineering, master of them fixed, realistically be compiled. In view of the engineering bidding budget preparation and bidding strategies are analyzed.

  6. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  7. 36 CFR 223.86 - Bid restriction on resale of noncompleted contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of noncompleted contract. 223.86 Section 223.86 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and...

  8. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  9. Bid Optimization for Internet Graphical Ad Auction Systems via Special Ordered Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, Ralphe

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization model for setting bid levels for certain types of advertisements on web pages. This model is non-convex, but we are able to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions rapidly using branch and cut open-source software. The financial benefits obtained using the prototype system have been substantial.

  10. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium...

  12. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  13. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Bid packages for materials (Deliverable No. 28)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Fixed-price supply type bid packages for materials and/or service essentially are comprised of two parts, namely: (1) a technical requisition of the material, equipment, or service to be supplied; and (2) commercial and legal requirements, normally referred to as terms and conditions. Requisitions, providing technical requirements, for all equipment items identified for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant may be found in the 12 volumes of the Demonstration Plant Mechanical Design. The requisitions have been included within separate sections of the design report, sorted by appropriate plant unit. Combined with any General Notes Requisition and the necessary FWEC Job Standards, these various item requisitions provide all technical information for the prospective vendor to furnish his bid. The terms and conditions (boiler plate) to be included in the bid package identify all the contractual requirements which will be imposed upon the bidder. These requirements cover the conditions he must meet to bid on the particular item as well as the clauses to be included within the eventual purchase order/subcontract. A typical package of such terms and conditions is included.

  14. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.

  15. Bid rounds: progress and future prospects; Rodadas de licitacoes: evolucao e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorelli Junior, D.C.; Silva, Paulo Alexandre S.; Campos, Thiago N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP is an institution integrating the indirect Federal Administration, under the special autarchic regime, as an entity regulating the petroleum industry, linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. The Minister of MME is the president of the National Council of Energy Policy - CNPE, which has the attribution of proposing national policies and specific measures to the President of the Republic. The ANP aims at promoting the regulation, contraction and inspection of the economic activities related to the petroleum industry, and shall elaborate the bidding protocols and promote the bidding for the concession of exploration, development and production activities, signing the relevant contracts and inspecting its execution. The Brazilian Bidding Rounds of blocks with exploratory risk, promoted by ANP, included areas from 22 of the 38 main Brazilian sedimentary basins divided into three exploratory models: High Potential Areas, New Frontier Areas and Mature Basins Areas. This work presents the framework evolution obtained in Bid Rounds, analyzing the main results of the auctions, and the future perspectives for management of the exploration and production activities according the national energy policy statements. (author)

  16. The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ellen Saeter

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…

  17. Cooperative Petroleum Contracts of the First Bidding Round are Perfectly Implemented in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengpeng; Zhang Yirong

    1995-01-01

    @@ Tarim Basin is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the world covering an area of 560 000 square kilometers, with a fairly-good petroleum geological conditions and richaccumulated petroleum resources.Therefore, the southeast part of Tarim Basin was selected as the first bidding rotund area that are divided into five blocks. The coverage area is 72 730 square kilometers in total.

  18. New approach for strategic bidding of Gencos in energy and spinning reserve markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleymani, S. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Ranjbar, A.M. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Niroo Research Institute, Tehran (Iran); Shirani, A.R. [Niroo Research Institute, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-07-15

    In restructured and de-regulated power systems, generating companies (Gencos) are responsible for supplying electricity for both energy and reserve markets, which usually operate simultaneously. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate for each market to maximize its profit, so this paper intends to answer to this question. In this paper, first, the combined energy and reserve markets are considered, and the Nash equilibrium points are determined. Then, the bidding strategies for each Genco at these points will be presented. The bids for the energy and 10 min spinning reserve (TMSR) markets are separated in the second stage, and again, the bidding strategies for each Genco for the two separated markets will be demonstrated. Comparison of the results shows that the separated bidding strategies, while being simplified with the algebraic optimization model and reducing the time consumed, give the same results as the combined ones. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) nine bus test system is employed to illustrate and verify the results of the proposed method. (author)

  19. Application of online bid system%在线开标系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄圣强; 汤慧敏; 冯海东; 杨云瑞

    2016-01-01

    Guangdong Grid Co Logistics Service Center to carry out the bidding project bid opening mode by field artificial opening mode,subject to the bid opening room location, quantitative restrictions, supervisors,providers across the country must arrive on time at the Guangzhou opening room scene,pay a lot of travel time and cost, resulting in a huge waste of the power grid company,social resources. According to the laws and regulations and the current Internet technology.Members of the studio put forward the technical scheme of online bid opening on the Internet.%广东电网公司招标项目开标模式采用现场人工开标模式,受到开标室地理位置、数量限制,监察人员、全国各地供应商必须按时到达开标室现场,付出大量差旅和时间成本,造成了电网公司、社会资源的巨大浪费。根据法律法规及现有互联网技术,本文提出了在互联网上进行“在线开标”的技术解决方案。

  20. China National Petroleum Corporation Notice for the Second Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National petroleum Corporation (CNPC) hereby announces the commencement of the Second Round of Bidding for the Exploitation of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises.

  1. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  2. Human herpesvirus 8 interferon regulatory factor-mediated BH3-only protein inhibition via Bid BH3-B mimicry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    Full Text Available Viral replication efficiency is in large part governed by the ability of viruses to counteract pro-apoptotic signals induced by infection of host cells. For HHV-8, viral interferon regulatory factor-1 (vIRF-1 contributes to this process in part via inhibitory interactions with BH3-only protein (BOP Bim, recently identified as an interaction partner of vIRF-1. Here we recognize that the Bim-binding domain (BBD of vIRF-1 resembles a region (BH3-B of Bid, another BOP, which interacts intramolecularly with the functional BH3 domain of Bid to inhibit it pro-apoptotic activity. Indeed, vIRF-1 was found to target Bid in addition to Bim and to interact, via its BBD region, with the BH3 domain of each. In functional assays, BBD could substitute for BH3-B in the context of Bid, to suppress Bid-induced apoptosis in a BH3-binding-dependent manner, and vIRF-1 was able to protect transfected cells from apoptosis induced by Bid. While vIRF-1 can mediate nuclear sequestration of Bim, this was not the case for Bid, and inhibition of Bid and Bim by vIRF-1 could occur independently of nuclear localization of the viral protein. Consistent with this finding, direct BBD-dependent inactivation by vIRF-1 of Bid-induced mitochondrial permeabilization was demonstrable in vitro and isolated BBD sequences were also active in this assay. In addition to Bim and Bid BH3 domains, BH3s of BOPs Bik, Bmf, Hrk, and Noxa also were found to bind BBD, while those of both pro- and anti-apoptotic multi-BH domain Bcl-2 proteins were not. Finally, the significance of Bid to virus replication was demonstrated via Bid-depletion in HHV-8 infected cells, which enhanced virus production. Together, our data demonstrate and characterize BH3 targeting and associated inhibition of BOP pro-apoptotic activity by vIRF-1 via Bid BH3-B mimicry, identifying a novel mechanism of viral evasion from host cell defenses.

  3. 工程投标报价的常用技巧%Commonly Used Skills for Engineering Bidding Price Quotations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪芬; 王雪军

    2014-01-01

    Engineering bidding skills involves the whole process of tender offer. The scientific and reasonable use of bidding skills is the key to the whole project bidding quotation. This article first introduces the bidding skill before bid opening, including pre-qualification stage, research the tender stage, on-site inspection stages. Then several engineering bidding skills and their respective scope of application and matters needing attention are introduced. At last, specific engineering bidding cases are used to analyze the skills.%工程投标技巧所包含的内容涉及投标报价过程的全部过程,能否科学、合理地运用投标技巧,是整个工程投标报价工作的关键所在。为此,文章首先介绍了开标前的投标技巧,资格预审阶段、研究标书阶段、现场考察阶段等阶段的投标技巧。然后介绍了几种工程投标技巧及各自的适用范围和注意事项,最后通过具体的工程投标技巧案例分析来说明。

  4. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Valuation Services. Under the regulations 43 CFR 2711.3-2, the BLM may limit bidding to certain persons when... including the sale procedures and conditions, appraisal, planning and environmental documents, and a...

  5. The BID Domain of Type IV Secretion Substrates Forms a Conserved Four-Helix Bundle Topped with a Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Frédéric V; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Dranow, David M; Schirmer, Tilman; Phan, Isabelle; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-01-03

    The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook. The conserved hydrophobic core provides a rigid scaffold to a surface that, despite a few conserved exposed residues and similarities in charge distribution, displays significant variability. We propose that the genuine function of BID domains as T4S signal may primarily depend on their rigid structure, while the plasticity of their surface may facilitate adaptation to secondary effector functions.

  6. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).

  7. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado State Lands and Bureau of Land Management : Request for Proposal [Bid Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bid proposal proposal from Natural Resource Options, Inc. (a consultation service) is a response to the Browns Park Committee's Request for Proposals on the...

  8. Optimal Bidding Strategies using New Aggregated Demand Model with Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.B.Subramanyam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Particle Swarm optimization(PSO and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithms are used to determine the optimal bidding strategy in competitive auction market implementation. The deregulated power industry meets the challenges of increase their profits and also minimize the associadted risks of the system. Themarket includes generating companies(Gencos and large Consumers. The demand prediction of the system has been determined by the neural network, which is trained by using the previous day demand dataset, the training process is achieved by the back propagation algorithm. The fitness of the system compared with PSO and ABC technique, the maximized fitness is the optimal bidding strategy of the system . The results for two techniques will be analyzed in this paper. The implementation of the two techniques could be implemented in theMATLAB Platform.

  9. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Weng, M.-T. [Chung Yuan Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chung Li (China)

    2001-03-01

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  10. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Department of Power Engineering, Avenida de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  11. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Generation Companies in a Day-Ahead Electricity Market with Risk Management Taken into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a competitive electricity market with limited number of producers, Generation Companies (Gencos is facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition. Under oligopoly market environment, each Genco may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. The objective of a Genco is to maximize its profit and minimize the associated risk. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary and important for the Genco to make optimal bidding strategies with risk management before bidding into spot market to get an expected high profit, since spot prices are substantially volatile. This study propose a method to build optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market with incomplete information and considering both risk management and unit commitment. Approach: The proposed methodology employs the Monte Carlo simulation for modeling a risk management and a strategic behavior of rival. A probability density function (pdf, Value at Risk (VaR and Monte Carlo simulation used to build optimal bidding strategies for a Genco. Results: The result of the proposed method shows that a Genco can build optimal bidding strategies to maximize expected total profit considering unit commitment and risk management. The Genco controls the risk by setting the confidence level. If the Genco increase the confidence level, the expected total VaR of profit decrease. Conclusions/Recommendations: The proposed method for building optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market to maximize expected total profit considering unit commitment and risk management is helpful for a Genco to make a decision to submit bidding to the Independent System Operator (ISO.

  12. Suggestions on the Writing of Speeches Bidding for Votes from the Perspective of Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞娟

    2009-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative functional discourse analysis of Yang Lan's speech bidding for Olympic Games from Interpersonal, Experiential and Textual Metafunctions, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability. By revealing how choices of linguistic items in discourse production and comprehension help to meet Yang Lan's purposes of the speech, the writer hopes to provide some guidance to make better speeches bidding for votes. The research shows that,(1) In the Interpersonal Metafunction, positive declarative clauses are dominant in Yang Lan's speech; items about culture are constantly used to be the Subject;"will" appears at a high rate.(2) In the Experiential Metafunction, Material Processes are adopted most frequently in the speech; Mental Processes are in the second position. (3)In the Textual Metafunction, items about culture dominate the Theme; and a "you--we--you" thematic pattern turns up occasionally in the speech. This study has promising implications for speeches bidding for votes as foilows:(1)Positive declarative clauses are recommended to convey information and convince the prospective voters with fact.(2)The focus of the speech should be chosen as the Subject to call the attention of the audience; and the high modal commitment of modal verbal operators can show the addresser's firm determination to finish tasks.(3) Material Processes can emphasize the addresser's getting true action, instead of just stopping in a "slogan"; while a few Mental Processes are always helpful in moving the prospective voters with emotion.(4) The focus of the speech should be frequently chosen to be the Theme; a"you--we--you" thematic pattern helps to create an intimate dialogic style, which can further persuade the audience to share the same proposal of the addresser.[KeyWords] Functional Discourse Analysis; Three Metafunctions; Speeches bidding for votes

  13. To Bid or to Buy?: Online Shoppers’ Preferences for Online Purchasing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Fan-Chen Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Online retailing is a rapidly expanding business. There are three major purchasing channels for online shoppers to choose when they conduct online purchasing: (1) shopping in online stores, (2) bidding in online auctions, and (3) direct purchasing in online auctions. Each channel has its strengths and weaknesses, and suits different kinds of online shoppers. This article explores the relationships between online shoppers’ lifestyles and their preferences for online purchasing channels. Know...

  14. Eesti tüübid : meie siin maal / Maris Rosenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenthal, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ja fotograaf Alar Madissoni projekti "Eesti tüübid" raames valminud fotonäitus "Meie siin maal" Tartus Raadi mõisapargis. Kaasaega dokumenteeriva projekti eesmärgiks oli jäädvustada kõigis Eesti maakondades elavaid eri generatsioonide ja sotsiaalsete rühmade esindajaid ERMi fotokogu täiendamiseks. Meenutusi pildistamistelt 2008. aasta suvel

  15. Cooperation and Competition when Bidding for Complex Projects: Centralized and Decentralized Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Skowron, Piotr; Rzadca, Krzysztof; Datta, Anwitaman

    2014-01-01

    To successfully complete a complex project, be it a construction of an airport or of a backbone IT system, agents (companies or individuals) must form a team having required competences and resources. A team can be formed either by the project issuer based on individual agents' offers (centralized formation); or by the agents themselves (decentralized formation) bidding for a project as a consortium---in that case many feasible teams compete for the contract. We investigate rational strategie...

  16. Tax contributes apoptosis resistance to HTLV-1-infected T cells via suppression of Bid and Bim expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, A; Giaisi, M; Köhler, R; Krammer, P H; Li-Weber, M

    2014-12-18

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 Tax has been shown to have a prosurvival role in infected T cells by enhancing expression of the Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins. In this study, we show that the expression of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bid (BH3-interacting domain death agonist) is diminished in HTLV-1-infected leukemic cells. Using a Tax-inducible system and a transient overexpression approach, we demonstrate that Tax downregulates Bid and Bim expression at the transcriptional level. We show that reinforced expression of Bim and Bid in HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines sensitizes CD95/TRAIL- and anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that Tax suppresses Bid and Bim expression by enhancing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein expression. siRNA knockdown of HIF-1α or chemical inhibition of the transactivation activity of HIF-1α resulted in an increase in Bid and Bim expression and, consequently, in an increase in CD95/TRAIL- and anticancer drug-induced apoptosis in HTLV-1-infected leukemic T-cell lines. Our study provides evidence that besides upregulation of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins, Tax may also confer apoptosis resistance to HTLV-1-infected T cells by suppressing the expression of the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Bim and Bid.

  17. Estimation of Bid Curves in Power Exchanges using Time-varying Simultaneous-Equations Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuji, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    Simultaneous-equations model (SEM) is generally used in economics to estimate interdependent endogenous variables such as price and quantity in a competitive, equilibrium market. In this paper, we have attempted to apply SEM to JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange) spot market, a single-price auction market, using the publicly available data of selling and buying bid volumes, system price and traded quantity. The aim of this analysis is to understand the magnitude of influences to the auctioned prices and quantity from the selling and buying bids, than to forecast prices and quantity for risk management purposes. In comparison with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation where the estimation results represent average values that are independent of time, we employ a time-varying simultaneous-equations model (TV-SEM) to capture structural changes inherent in those influences, using State Space models with Kalman filter stepwise estimation. The results showed that the buying bid volumes has that highest magnitude of influences among the factors considered, exhibiting time-dependent changes, ranging as broad as about 240% of its average. The slope of the supply curve also varies across time, implying the elastic property of the supply commodity, while the demand curve remains comparatively inelastic and stable over time.

  18. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  19. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city (Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of mega-events.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of mega-events from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  20. PACS-2 controls endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria communication and Bid-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Thomas; Aslan, Joseph E; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastassia D; Thomas, Laurel; Wan, Lei; Xiang, Yang; Feliciangeli, Sylvain F; Hung, Chien-Hui; Crump, Colin M; Thomas, Gary

    2005-02-23

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria form contacts that support communication between these two organelles, including synthesis and transfer of lipids, and the exchange of calcium, which regulates ER chaperones, mitochondrial ATP production, and apoptosis. Despite the fundamental roles for ER-mitochondria contacts, little is known about the molecules that regulate them. Here we report the identification of a multifunctional sorting protein, PACS-2, that integrates ER-mitochondria communication, ER homeostasis, and apoptosis. PACS-2 controls the apposition of mitochondria with the ER, as depletion of PACS-2 causes BAP31-dependent mitochondria fragmentation and uncoupling from the ER. PACS-2 also controls formation of ER lipid-synthesizing centers found on mitochondria-associated membranes and ER homeostasis. However, in response to apoptotic inducers, PACS-2 translocates Bid to mitochondria, which initiates a sequence of events including the formation of mitochondrial truncated Bid, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-3, thereby causing cell death. Together, our results identify PACS-2 as a novel sorting protein that links the ER-mitochondria axis to ER homeostasis and the control of cell fate, and provide new insights into Bid action.

  1. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  2. 医疗设备招投标过程中常见问题与对策%Problems and Countermeasures of Medical Equipment Tendering and Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖勇

    2014-01-01

    本文从招标文件编制、评标专家、招标代理机构、供应商投标文件编制等过程分析医疗设备招投标过程中存在的常见问题与对策,以提高招投标的规范化管理。%In order to improve the standardization of the bidding management, this paper analyzes the problems existed in the medical equipment bidding process including bidding document compilation, the bid evaluation experts, bidding agency, supplier document for bidding and so on, then presents corresponding countermeasures.

  3. Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Aron

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from centralised, controlled systems to decentralised interbank markets. This paper characterises the rules, regime shifts and auction outcomes in Ethiopia. It is emphasised that institutional micro-design and operation of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during liberalisation. Models for the Central Bank’s supply rules for pre-announced supply of dollars in fortnightly can later weekly auctions, confirm the objective was to stabilise the exchange rate (the marginal auction price in a thin market around depreciating trends. Bidders were able to learn the supply rules, clustering their bids around predicted target rates. Using a method novel in auction empirical literature, bidders’ learning in repeated auctions is examined via the adjustment to equilibrium in error correction equations for the bid spread. Robust models for a similar learning process were found across both frequency regimes; but learning was faster where the exchange rate target was more transparent and uncertainty lower. Thus, a fairly stable depreciation was achieved over four years, despite considerable regime shifts from trade liberalisation, the progressive lifting of auction entry barriers, increased frequency of auctions, fiscal and other seasonality in demand, and temporary price shocks in coffee export earnings. Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from

  4. Hypoxia-mediated down-regulation of Bid and Bax in tumors occurs via hypoxia-inducible factor 1-dependent and -independent mechanisms and contributes to drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Cawthorne, Christopher J; Williams, Kaye J;

    2004-01-01

    of the Bcl-2 protein family. Oxygen deprivation of human colon cancer cells in vitro provoked decreased mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic Bid and Bad. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) was dispensable for the down-regulation of Bad but required for that of Bid, consistent with the binding of HIF-1......alpha to a hypoxia-responsive element (positions -8484 to -8475) in the bid promoter. Oxygen deprivation resulted in proteosome-independent decreased expression of Bax in vitro, consistent with a reduction in global translation efficiency. The physiological relevance of Bid and Bax down...

  5. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Taddia; Elena de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Presentación de Elena de la Peña de la Asociación Española de la Carretera y Alejandro Taddia, especialista de Transporte del BID donde se muestra esta Guía interactiva para preparación de proyectos de seguridad vial en el contexto latinoamericano. Se realizó durante el Congreso Iberoamericano de Seguridad Vial (CISEV) III de Bogotá DC. Para acceder al recurso mencionado en la presentación, consulte el campo "Related URL" más abajo.

  6. Robust optimisation for self-scheduling and bidding strategies of hybrid CSP-fossil power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pousinho, H.M.I.; Contreras, J.; Pinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    -schedule under the worst-case realisation of uncertainties due to the electricity market prices and the thermal production from the solar field (SF). These uncertainties are modelled by asymmetric prediction intervals around average values. Additionally, a budget parameter is used to parameterise the degree...... of conservatism of the decision. The decision provides the optimal bidding strategies consisting in supply functions built not only for different budget parameter values, but also for different emission allowance levels. Finally, a realistic case study is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed...

  7. The System of Public Acquisitions by Means of Electronic Bids in the Light of European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce can lead in many different ways to cost reduction in case of a supplier and can subsequently increase the competition potential of a company. As for the competition mechanism, such changes produce significant modifications within a market economy. The Internet renders the possibility of creating business contacts in a rapid and geographically independent manner, as well as possibilities of obtaining data and realizing transactions within the world’s economy. Public acquisitions by means of dynamic systems and electronic bids are currently one of the significant areas of electronic commerce.

  8. Inquiry on capital construction bidding of universities%高校基本建设招标工作探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李发国

    2015-01-01

    结合高校建设工程管理的现状,分析了高校基本建设项目的优缺点,并对高校建设工程招标的原则和方式进行了论述,提出了招标中的问题与不足,促使高校基本建设招标工作的健康发展。%Combining with university construction engineering management status,the paper analyzes merits and defects of capital university con-struction project. It describes engineering bidding principles and methods,and points out bidding problems and defects,so as to promote healthy development of capital university bidding.

  9. On bidding and pricing strategies and skills%投标报价策略与技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彬兴

    2011-01-01

    According to the bidding and pricing status of the current engineering bill model, the paper explores the bidding strategies and skills, illustrates the main bidding strategies, including the low-price strategy, the reasonable optimization strategy and the future strategy, and indicates the unbalanced unit cost method and the sudden price adjustment method, so as to direct the practice.%针对目前工程量清单报价模式下招标现状,探讨了投标报价策略及技巧,分别阐述了低价策略,合理优化策略及未来策略等几种主要的投标策略,并着重阐述了不平衡单价法和突然调价法两种技巧,以期指导实践。

  10. 施工企业投标报价的技巧%Skills of Bidding and Quotation for Construction Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪川

    2015-01-01

    投标策略和报价技巧在企业最终获得利润多少的问题上,起着举足轻重的作用。本文通过对报价策略的分析,投标技巧的介绍,施工企业只有结合自身实际情况才能在激烈市场竞争中立于不败之地。%The bidding strategies and quotation skills have important significance for the final profit of enterprises. Through the analysis of bidding strategy and the introduction of quotation skill, this paper puts forward that in order to be in an unassailable position in the fierce market competition, construction enterprises must be based on their actual situation in bidding.

  11. Matrine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis via BID-mediated mitochondrial pathway in esophageal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Du, Haoxin; Geng, Guojun; Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-05-01

    Matrine, as a member of Sophora family, is an alkaloid found in plants, and produces plethora pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer effects. However, the mechanism involved remains largely unknown. This study is conducted to investigate the anti-cancer mechanisms of matrine in human esophageal cancer in vitro and in vivo. In human esophageal cancer cell Eca-109, matrine significantly decreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and induced apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by up-regulation of P53 and P21. The expression of several apoptosis-related proteins in cells and tumor tissues were evaluated by Western blot analysis. We found that matrine induced cell apoptosis by down-regulation of the ratio of BCL-2/BID and increasing activation of caspase-9. Further studies indicated that matrine induced apoptosis of Eca-109 was through the mitochondria-mediated internal pathway, but not by death receptor-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by the fact that Bid translocated from the nucleus to mitochondria during the process of the apoptosis induced by matrine. In vivo study found that matrine effectively inhibited the tumor formation of Eca-109 cells in nude mice. Our study suggests that matrine could serve as a potential novel agent from natural products to treat esophageal cancer.

  12. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghibi-Sistani, M.B.; Akbarzadeh-Tootoonchi, M.R.; Javidi-Dashte Bayaz, M.H.; Rajabi-Mashhadi, H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran)

    2006-07-15

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  13. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  14. BID-ASK SPREAD DAN PERIODE KEPEMILIKAN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN LQ-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus Maulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis gives quite big impact to the Indonesian Stock Exchange and also changes the investor behavior as well. Fundamental exchange which is considered fragile becomes instability threat and reflects uncertain condition. This research aims to analyze and explain empirically the impact of variance return, trading volume, stock prices and return shares toward bid-ask spread which is the measurement of asymmetrical information cost, also the impact of variance return, market value, bid-ask spread and dividend pay out towards common shares holding periods in Indonesia Stock Exchange and some dominant variable that affect them.The findings of this research strengthen the presumption that in conducting the investment, investors in Indonesian Stock Exchange is more oriented to short term investment by expecting more on common shares than dividend. Most investors keep their ownership in common shares in Indonesian Stock Exchange for two years. Besides, the efficient investment strategy which optimizes profit is “switching strategy”, following the market movement every time exactly, using technical information to active shares by moving from the shares that the price is predicted to decline to the increased ones. Moreover, the researcher also got the evidence that the investors in Indonesian capital market conduct their investment irrationally, investor’s analysis is getting technical and gives less attention to the fundamental factors. The decision of selling and buying which is conducted by the investors on common shares is based on the trading activity, that is actually a measurement of the scale of asymmetry information.

  15. New approach to bidding strategies of generating companies in day ahead energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Niroo Research Institute, Tehran (Iran); Shirani, A.R. [Niroo Research Institute, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-06-15

    In the restructured power systems, generating companies (Genco) are responsible for selling their product in the energy market. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate to maximize its profit. Therefore, this paper intends to propose a rational method to answer this question. In the proposed methodology, the hourly forecasted market clearing price (FMCP) is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. The forecasted price is the basis of the bidding strategies of each Genco, which can be achieved by solving a bi-level optimization problem using GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language. The first level, called upper sub-problem is used to maximize the individual Genco's payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, hereafter called the lower sub-problem uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer's payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. Similar to the other game problems, the Nash equilibrium strategies are the optimum bidding strategies of Gencos. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities. (author)

  16. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in public bidding processes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Andrade Longaray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil (IFES play an important role in the country’s social and scientific development. Focused mainly on teaching, research and extension activities, the IFES are backed by support foundations aimed to the management of financial, human and material resources. Characterized as public bodies, the support foundations are governed by Law no 8.666/93 in what concerns the procurement of goods and services. Therefore, the present study is aimed to develop a model to assist the managers of such foundations in the selection of suppliers to participate in bidding processes that use invitation for bids. Therefore, we conducted a case study in one of the 55 foundations that support Brazilian federal universities. The intervention tool used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Firstly, we established the hierarchy of criteria for problem-solving. Then, a paired comparison was made between criteria for the same level. Subsequently, the consistency analysis of comparison matrices was verified. Finally, the relative priorities of each criterion were obtained and the objective function of the model was constructed. The model was tested through the assessment of the performance of three potential suppliers of IT equipment, and the result was legitimized by decision makers who found the instrument a valid tool to aid in making decisions on supplier selection for the foundation.

  17. 48 CFR 931.205-18 - Independent research and development (IR&D) and bid and proposal (B&P) costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... development (IR&D) and bid and proposal (B&P) costs. 931.205-18 Section 931.205-18 Federal Acquisition... bid and proposal (B&P) costs. (c)(2) IR&D costs are recoverable under DOE contracts to the extent they... the DOE program. The term “DOE program” encompasses the DOE total mission and its objectives....

  18. 13 CFR 126.613 - How does a price evaluation preference affect the bid of a qualified HUBZone SBC in full and open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preference affect the bid of a qualified HUBZone SBC in full and open competition? 126.613 Section 126.613....613 How does a price evaluation preference affect the bid of a qualified HUBZone SBC in full and open... deem the price offered by a qualified HUBZone SBC to be lower than the price offered by another...

  19. 工程建设招投标环节职务犯罪的法律规制研究%Research on Legal Regulation of Duty-related Crime during Bid and Bidding of Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鹏; 许少朋

    2011-01-01

    Recently,the field of engineering construction has became seriously corrupted in duty-related crime The amount of these subject matters is huge,and then will result in great losses for our state and the people.Specifically speaking,misfeasance and rule violation in bid and bidding stage of engineering construction are more serious.Therefore,a precise recognition on the essence and regular pattern of crimes by taking advantage of duty in bid and bidding stage of engineering construction,and effective prevention and restraint on these crimes are our predominant projects to be researched continuously.%现阶段工程建设领域业已成为职务犯罪的高发领域,涉案金额大,后果严重,给国家和人民利益造成了巨大损失,其中工程建设招投标环节违法违规问题尤为突出。正确认识工程建设招投标环节职务犯罪的特点,分析招投标职务犯罪的根源,加强工程建设招投标环节职务犯罪的法律规制研究,是预防和遏制工程建设领域职务犯罪的有效措施。

  20. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID ...

  1. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale battery storage will become an essential part of the future smart grid. This paper investigates the optimal bidding strategy for battery storage in power markets. Battery storage could increase its profitability by providing fast regulation service under a performance-based regulation...

  2. 33 CFR 116.45 - Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the Truman-Hobbs... SECURITY BRIDGES ALTERATION OF UNREASONABLY OBSTRUCTIVE BRIDGES § 116.45 Submission of bids, approval of award, guaranty of cost, and partial payments for bridges eligible for funding under the...

  3. Bidding for Brains: Intellectual Property Rights and the International Migration of Knowledge Workers. NBER Working Paper No. 15486

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAusland, Carol; Kuhn, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce international mobility of knowledge workers into a model of Nash equilibrium IPR policy choice among countries. We show that governments have incentives to use IPRs in a bidding war for global talent, resulting in Nash equilibrium IPRs that can be too high, rather than too low, from a global welfare perspective. These incentives…

  4. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  5. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY... approximately 9.27 acres in Santa Clara County, California, for not less than the appraised fair market value of..., more or less, in Santa Clara County. The public land was originally identified as suitable for...

  6. Influence of feasibility constrains on the bidding strategy selection in a day-ahead electricity market session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, Alberto [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Massucco, Stefano; Silvestro, Federico [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Genova, via all' Opera Pia 11a, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Large part of liberalized electricity markets, including the Italian one, features an auction mechanism, called day-ahead energy market, which matches producers' and buyers' simple bids, consisting of energy quantity and price pairs. The match is achieved by a merit-order economic dispatch procedure independently applied for each of the hours of the following day. Power plants operation should, however, take into account several technical constraints, such as maximum and minimum production bounds, ramp constraints and minimum up and downs times, as well as no-load and startup costs. The presence of these constraints forces to adjust the scheduling provided by the market in order to obtain a feasible scheduling. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility and the limits of taking into account the power plants technical constraints in the bidding strategy selection procedure of generating companies (Gencos). The analysis is carried out by using a computer procedure based both on a simple static game-theory approach and on a cost-minimization unit-commitment algorithm. For illustrative purposes, we present the results obtained for a system with three Gencos, each owning several power plants, trying to model the bidding behaviour of every generator in the system. This approach, although complex from the computational point of view, allows an analysis of both price and quantity bidding strategies and appears to be applicable to markets having different rules and features. (author)

  7. 42 CFR 423.272 - Review and negotiation of bid and approval of plans submitted by potential Part D sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations. (1) Application of revenue requirements standard. CMS approves a bid submitted under § 423.265... revenue requirements (as used for purposes of section 1302(8)(C) of the Public Health Service Act) for... within a formulary is consistent with the model guidelines (if any) established by the United...

  8. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... proposed sale of public land and the Competitive Sealed Bid Sale, June 1, 2011 Environmental Assessment (EA... Disposal Boundary Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), approved by Record of Decision on December 23, 2004... instrumentality, or political subdivision authorized to hold real property. United States citizenship is...

  9. Chaotic behavior of price in the power markets with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N. [Linear Systems Control Lab., EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: bigdeli@ee.sharif.edu; Afshar, K. [Electrical Machinery Lab., EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: k_afshar@ee.sharif.edu

    2009-11-30

    Price forecasting in the current deregulated power markets is an important requirement for deriving proper bidding strategy and profit maximization of producers. On the other hand, the energy price in the power market experiences lots of fluctuations which may affect the accuracy of the price forecasting seriously. Seeking for predictability, in this paper, the characteristics of these fluctuations are investigated through time series analysis methods. The results of analyses are representative of the existence of a deterministic chaos in the system with a mimic predictability. Besides, it is observed that because of existing the seasonality and non-stationarity in the system dynamics, a fixed model cannot perform properly even in case of normalized input data, but the developed models should be updated regularly.

  10. Combined hydro-wind generation bids in a pool-based electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angarita, Jorge L. [INDRA S.A., Parque Empresarial LA FINCA, edif. 4 y 5 P del Club Deportivo 1, 28223-Pozuelo de Alarcon, Madrid (Spain); Usaola, Julio; Martinez-Crespo, Jorge [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911-Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    Present regulatory trends are promoting the direct participation of wind energy in electricity markets. The final result of these markets sets the production scheduling for the operation time, including a power commitment from the wind generators. However, wind resources are uncertain, and the final power delivered usually differs from the initial power committed. This imbalance produces an overcost in the system, which must be paid by those who produce it, e.g., wind generators among others. As a result, wind farm revenue decreases, but it could increase by allowing wind farms to submit their bids to the markets together with a hydro generating unit, which may easily modify its production according to the expected imbalance. This paper presents a stochastic optimization technique that maximizes the joint profit of hydro and wind generators in a pool-based electricity market, taking into account the uncertainty of wind power prediction. (author)

  11. Financing long term care under Medicaid: competitive bidding, vouchers and expenditure matching in an HMO framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, A J

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a Long Term Care--HMO, a series of innovative financing mechanisms are proposed to encourage efficiency, reduce cost increases and promote the quality of long term care. Competitive bidding is used to set prices for long term care. Based upon these competitively set prices, HMO enrollees are given long term care vouchers with which to purchase care. Cost savings, arising from choices of care less expensive than the value of the voucher, are shared with the enrollee and the case management team. Incentive payments to this team are made only after a quality of care review. A portion of the payment to the long term care provider is set aside as a quality assurance withhold. If quality of care is inadequate, the withhold is forfeit.

  12. A Sealed-Bid Two-Attribute Yardstick AuctionWithout Prior Scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Hougaard, Jens; Nielsen, Kurt; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    that following this type of equilibrium behavior often leads to winner’s curse. The simulations show that in auctions with more than 12 participants the chance of facing winner’s curse is around 95%. Truthful reporting, on the other hand, does not constitute a Nash equilibrium but it is ex post individually......We analyze a two-attribute single item procurement auction that uses yardstick competition to settle prices. The auction simplifies the procurement process by reducing the principal’s articulation of preferences to simply choosing the most preferred offer as if it was a market with posted prices...... rational. Using a simulation study we demonstrate that truthful bidding may indeed represent some kind of focal point....

  13. Neural correlates of reinforcement learning and social preferences in competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Talwar, Arjun; McClure, Samuel M

    2013-01-30

    In competitive social environments, people often deviate from what rational choice theory prescribes, resulting in losses or suboptimal monetary gains. We investigate how competition affects learning and decision-making in a common value auction task. During the experiment, groups of five human participants were simultaneously scanned using MRI while playing the auction task. We first demonstrate that bidding is well characterized by reinforcement learning with biased reward representations dependent on social preferences. Indicative of reinforcement learning, we found that estimated trial-by-trial prediction errors correlated with activity in the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we found that individual differences in social preferences were related to activity in the temporal-parietal junction and anterior insula. Connectivity analyses suggest that monetary and social value signals are integrated in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum. Based on these results, we argue for a novel mechanistic account for the integration of reinforcement history and social preferences in competitive decision-making.

  14. Power Pool中发电公司的竞价策略%BIDDING STRATEGIES OF GENERATION COMPANIES IN POWER POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿; 龚乐年; 宋燕敏; 曹荣章; 朱为民

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the bidding strategies of generation companiesin Power Pool. In an imperfect competition Power Pool, some generation companies (GenComs) may have market power. A GenCom can bid as a price acceptor or as a price changer. A price acceptor will bid according to its marginal cost curve, but the minimum bid price must be decided by dynamic programming based on price forecasting. A price changer will bid according to the strategy of restricting output and forcing up price. The Power Pool will be inefficient when market power of GenComs are strong.%研究了电力联营体(PowerPool)中发电公司的报价策略。在非完全竞争的PowerPool中,发电公司可以作为一个价格接受者,也可利用其市场势力操纵市场价格。发电公司作为价格接受者时将基于边际成本曲线报价,但其最低报价必须根据市场行情而变化;具有市场势力的发电公司可以采取限制产量、抬高电价的策略。PowerPool中市场势力的存在不利于资源的优化配置和利用。

  15. Struktur Nalar Arab-Islam menurut ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faishol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The project of ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî’s thoughts has become epistemological critic to traditional frame of Islam-Arab knowledge through analyzing socio-political background on the logic of Arab formulation. According to Al-Jâbirî, the logic of Arabic thought could be devised into three methods: bayâni, ‘irfâni and burhâni. Therefore, the structure of Islam-Arab culture has occurred based on: (1 authoritative texts—because the logic of Arab is exceedingly based on religious texts, (2 authoritative salaf, that is, focused on ‘ulama’s considerations, and (3 authoritative permissivism along with anti-causality (sult}ah at-tajwîz al-lâsababiyyah. Hence, Arabic culture becomes unproductive, poor of concept and theory. As a solution, Al-Jâbirî invites to contextualize the spirit of critic such as rational-empiricism of Ibn H{azm and al-Shât}ibî on fiqh, Ibn Rushd on philosophy, Ibn Khaldûn on sociology, etc. This article will probe specifically about ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî’s reform thought. Al-Jâbirî’s thinking distinctiveness lies in the epistemological critique conducted on the science that develops in the Arab-Islamic civilization. The epistemological critique becomes a realm of science that not much attention, especially by Muslim thinkers. Al-Jâbirî’s epistemological critique offers to the Muslim world an attempt to reconstruct the building of reason-epistemic knowledge to keep pace and change its Islamic world towards the progress of civilization.

  16. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  17. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun FENG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  18. Hypoxia-Mediated Down-Regulation of Bid and Bax in Tumors Occurs via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms and Contributes to Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Janine T.; Cawthorne, Christopher J.; Williams, Kaye J.; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradley G.; Wilson, Clare; Miller, Crispin; Demonacos, Costas; Stratford, Ian J.; Dive, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    Solid tumors with disorganized, insufficient blood supply contain hypoxic cells that are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Drug resistance, an obstacle to curative treatment of solid tumors, can occur via suppression of apoptosis, a process controlled by pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family. Oxygen deprivation of human colon cancer cells in vitro provoked decreased mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic Bid and Bad. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) was dispensable for the down-regulation of Bad but required for that of Bid, consistent with the binding of HIF-1α to a hypoxia-responsive element (positions −8484 to −8475) in the bid promoter. Oxygen deprivation resulted in proteosome-independent decreased expression of Bax in vitro, consistent with a reduction in global translation efficiency. The physiological relevance of Bid and Bax down-regulation was confirmed in tumors in vivo. Oxygen deprivation resulted in decreased drug-induced apoptosis and clonogenic resistance to agents with different mechanisms of action. The contribution of Bid and/or Bax down-regulation to drug responsiveness was demonstrated by the relative resistance of normoxic cells that had no or reduced expression of Bid and/or Bax and by the finding that forced expression of Bid in hypoxic cells resulted in increased sensitivity to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide. PMID:15024076

  19. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  20. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C Truttmann

    Full Text Available The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  1. Notification: Hotline Complaint – Region 7 Compliance with Bid, Payment, and Performance Bond Requirements Outlined in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    June 1, 2012. In response to an anonymous hotline complaint, the OIG plans to conduct a review of Region 7’s compliance with bid, payment, and performance bond requirements outlined in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 28.

  2. Common problems and their countermeasures of the tendering and bidding%招投标常见问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志飞

    2016-01-01

    结合实践工作经验,从组织机构、招投标流程、招标文件编制、定标原则、资格预审等方面,分析了工程建设招投标工作中常见的问题,并提出了具体的解决措施,从而促进招投标市场的良性发展。%Combining with the practical work experience,from the organization,bidding process,bidding document compilation,scale principle, prequalification and other aspects,this paper analyzed the common problems in engineering construction bidding work,and put forward some spe-cific solutions,so as to promote the benign development of bidding market.

  3. The reflection on consummating the bid evaluation expert bank of library book-purchase bidding%关于完善高校图书采购招标评标专家库的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟萍

    2012-01-01

      This paper expounds the characteristic of book-purchase and the importance of the public bidding of book-purchasing, emphasizes, as the crux of quality control, the expert’s principal role during the process of the public bidding. Aiming at the analysis of the existing problems turning up in the practical work,the author discusses how to chose the experts in a scientific, standard way and how to consummate the construction of the bid evaluation expert bank so as to guarantee the work of book-purchasing to develop towards a healthy, standard, order way.%  论述了图书采购招标的重要意义及图书采购的特点,强调了作为质量控制关键的评标专家在评标活动中的主体作用。结合近年来评标专家在评标工作中出现的问题,就如何科学化、规范化地建设评标专家队伍,完善高校评标专家库建设进行了探讨,从而保证图书采购工作朝着健康、规范、有序的方向发展

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bao-guang [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong (China); Liu, Li-ping [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, George G., E-mail: gchen@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong); Ye, Cai Guo; Leung, Kevin K.C.; Ho, Rocky L.K.; Lin, Marie C.; Lai, Paul B.S. [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong)

    2014-06-10

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

  5. 推行合理低价法的意义%Meaning of promoting reasonable low bidding price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卫亭

    2011-01-01

    从现阶段合理低价法的现状入手,总结了合理低价法在实际操作中存在的问题,重点论述了实施合理低价法的必要性及意义,并给出了实施合理低价法必须坚持的原则,从而最终实现最低价中标。%Starting from the status of reasonable low price, the essay summarizes the problems existing in actual low price bidding, mainly discusses the necessity and meaning of implementing reasonable low price, and shows principles which should be held in implementing reasonable low price, so as to realize the lowest bidding price.

  6. Seguridad Vial - BID: Una estrategia para la región de América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Roa

    2012-01-01

    Presentación del Jefe de la División de Transporte del Banco, Nestor Roa, durante el principal evento regional de Seguridad Vial de América Latina y el Caribe, CISEV III que se realizó en Bogotá DC entre el 12 y el 14 de junio de 2012. El documento muestra el trabajo de la estrategia de Seguridad Vial del BID.

  7. Joint bidding restriction policy for selective E and P firms in the US Gulf of Mexico OCS: How persuasive is its effectiveness?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iledare, Omowumi O.; Pulsipher, Allan G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    2007-06-15

    The principal Minerals Management Service (MMS) policy or regulation intended to promote competition (or inhibit collusion) in the lease market is the Restricted Joint Bidders List. It is compiled and published twice a year and applies to all lease sales held during the subsequent six-month period or until the next list is issued. This paper applies descriptive and econometric analyses to data on lease sales in the US Gulf of Mexico OCS region to evaluate the effectiveness of this policy. In the aggregate, empirical analyses suggest that the imposition of joint bid restrictions on some E and P firms reduces bidding effectiveness for petroleum leases on the OCS. The patterns of bidding for leases on the OCS by E and P firms restricted from bidding jointly do not seem to indicate anticompetitive behavior. Further, joint bidding is found to be consistently associated with higher average high bids and this seems to be consistent with, and perhaps enhances competition in the lease market. (author)

  8. DNA Damage-Induced HSPC Malfunction Depends on ROS Accumulation Downstream of IFN-1 Signaling and Bid Mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdogan, Alpaslan; Kumar, Suresh; Allies, Gabriele; Bausinger, Julia; Beckel, Franziska; Hofemeister, Helmut; Mulaw, Medhanie; Madan, Vikas; Scharfetter-Kochanek, Karin; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Doehner, Konstanze; Speit, Günter; Stewart, A Francis; Fehling, Hans Joerg

    2016-12-01

    Mouse mutants with an impaired DNA damage response frequently exhibit a set of remarkably similar defects in the HSPC compartment that are of largely unknown molecular basis. Using Mixed-Lineage-Leukemia-5 (Mll5)-deficient mice as prototypical examples, we have identified a mechanistic pathway linking DNA damage and HSPC malfunction. We show that Mll5 deficiency results in accumulation of DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HSPCs. Reduction of ROS efficiently reverses hematopoietic defects, establishing ROS as a major cause of impaired HSPC function. The Ink4a/Arf locus also contributes to HSPC phenotypes, at least in part via promotion of ROS. Strikingly, toxic ROS levels in Mll5(-/-) mice are critically dependent on type 1 interferon (IFN-1) signaling, which triggers mitochondrial accumulation of full-length Bid. Genetic inactivation of Bid diminishes ROS levels and reverses HSPC defects in Mll5(-/-) mice. Overall, therefore, our findings highlight an unexpected IFN-1 > Bid > ROS pathway underlying DNA damage-associated HSPC malfunction.

  9. 浅谈工程施工投标技巧%Discussion on Project Construction Bidding Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震宇

    2012-01-01

    With the development of economic conditions, market competition becomes increasingly intense. In project tendering process, a prerequisite for the successful bidding of bidding companies is a reasonable budget and investment quotes. Therefore, the tender offer is the key to the construction tender, and the accurate or not tender offer is directly related to the economic interests of construction units. So, the bid quotation must be effectively and reasonably controlled. The paper discussed the issue and talked about awareness and use of the budget and tender offer skills.%目前,随着经济条件的发展,市场竞争日趋白热化.在工程招标的过程中,投标企业能否取胜的先决条件来自于能否合理进行预算和投资报价.因此,投标报价是工程施工投标的关键,准确与否直接关系建设单位及施工单位的经济利益,所以,就必须对工程投标报价工作进行有效合理的控制,本文就这一问题展开论述,谈谈预算和投标报价技巧的认知和运用.

  10. BSEA: A Blind Sealed-Bid E-Auction Scheme for E-Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Das

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the number of internet users, electronic commerce has grown significantly during the last decade. Electronic auction (e-auction is one of the famous e-commerce applications. Even so, security and robustness of e-auction schemes still remain a challenge. Requirements like anonymity and privacy of the b i d value are under threat from the attackers. Any auction protocol must not leak the anonymity and the privacy of the b i d value of an honest Bidder. Keeping these requirements in mind, we have firstly proposed a controlled traceable blind signature scheme (CTBSS because e-auction schemes should be able to trace the Bidders. Using CTBSS, a blind sealed-bid electronic auction scheme is proposed (BSEA. We have incorporated the notion of blind signature to e-auction schemes. Moreover, both the schemes are based upon elliptic curve cryptography (ECC, which provides a similar level of security with a comparatively smaller key size than the discrete logarithm problem (DLP based e-auction protocols. The analysis shows that BSEA fulfills all the requirements of e-auction protocol, and the total computation overhead is lower than the existing schemes.

  11. Meeting the Northwest's Energy Needs Through Competitive Bidding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1990-07-01

    Utilities have traditionally met load growth requirements through building projects (self-build), purchasing power from other utilities, or from running conservation programs. During the 1980s, alternative capacity expansion approaches were developed. Resources are now also obtained through PURPA-based or competitive bidding acquisition programs. Self-build programs typically involve large-scale hydropower; coal-, natural gas-, and oil-fired projects; and nuclear thermal electric generating projects. Characteristics of these projects, in addition to size, include long lead times, capital intensiveness, substantial environmental impacts, and a significant risk of cost overruns. The risk element became immediately apparent to those investor-owned utilities that, because of decreased load growth, had thermal project investments disallowed in rate cases or were forced to terminate projects. Phrases such as prudent investment,'' used and useful,'' and least-cost planning'' became familiar to the utility industry. Many utilities, once burned, subsequently adopted a policy of never again constructing a base-loaded generating plant. 2 figs.

  12. Use of Markov Chains to Design an Agent Bidding Strategy for Continuous Double Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Birmingham, W P; Park, S; 10.1613/jair.1466

    2011-01-01

    As computational agents are developed for increasingly complicated e-commerce applications, the complexity of the decisions they face demands advances in artificial intelligence techniques. For example, an agent representing a seller in an auction should try to maximize the seller?s profit by reasoning about a variety of possibly uncertain pieces of information, such as the maximum prices various buyers might be willing to pay, the possible prices being offered by competing sellers, the rules by which the auction operates, the dynamic arrival and matching of offers to buy and sell, and so on. A naive application of multiagent reasoning techniques would require the seller?s agent to explicitly model all of the other agents through an extended time horizon, rendering the problem intractable for many realistically-sized problems. We have instead devised a new strategy that an agent can use to determine its bid price based on a more tractable Markov chain model of the auction process. We have experimentally ident...

  13. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image.

  14. Optimal Bidding of a Microgrid Based on Probabilistic Analysis of Island Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyoung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Island operation of a microgrid increases operation survivability and reliability when there is a large accident in a main grid. However, because a microgrid typically has limited generation capability, a microgrid operator (MGO has to take the risk of island operation into account in its market participation and generation scheduling to ensure efficient operation. In this paper, a microgrid islanding event is interpreted as a trade suspension of a contract, and a set of islanding rules is presented in the form of a market rule. The risk of island operation is evaluated by modeling the microgrid islanding stochastically using an islanding probability function, which is defined in the form of a conditional probability to reflect the influence of outside conditions. An optimal bidding strategy is obtained for the MGO by formulating and solving an optimization problem to minimize the expected operating cost. The effectiveness of the proposed method was investigated by numerical simulations in which the proposed method and two other methods were applied to the same microgrid. Numerical sensitivity analyses of the coefficients of the islanding probability function were conducted to determine how an MGO copes with changes in outside conditions.

  15. Del MERCOSUR al ALCA: críticas al modelo liberal de nuevo regionalismo del BID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Saludjian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera sección se discute un modelo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en favor del ALCA, sobre la base de la aplicación de la teoría de economía geográfica al proceso de integración económica del Cono Sur de América Latina (MERCOSUR. En la segunda sección, abordamos los límites de este modelo, insistiendo en la ausencia de ciertas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las economías de estas regiones. Por cierto, los aspectos de las economías industrial internacional, del desarrollo y de la inserción de estos países de la periferia en la economía mundial, son esenciales para analizar el régimen de acumulación dominado por el espacio financiero que la mayoría de las naciones latinoamericanas experimentan, así como el proceso de integración de América.

  16. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Bidding-Based Multi-Agent Scheduling Algorithms for Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gordillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have being applied to many problems in manufacturing systems in recent years. In the specific field of manufacturing scheduling many studies have been published trying to cope with the complexity of the manufacturing environment. One of the most utilized approaches is (multi agent-based scheduling. Nevertheless, despite the large list of studies reported in this field, there is no resource or scientific study on the performance measure of this type of approach under very common and critical execution situations. This paper focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS based algorithms for task allocation, particularly in manufacturing applications. The goal is to provide a mechanism to measure the performance of agent-based scheduling approaches for manufacturing systems under key critical situations such as: dynamic environment, rescheduling, and priority change. With this mechanism it will be possible to simulate critical situations and to stress the system in order to measure the performance of a given agent-based scheduling method. The proposed mechanism is a pioneering approach for performance evaluation of bidding-based MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling. The proposed method and evaluation methodology can be used to run tests in different manufacturing floors since it is independent of the workshop configuration. Moreover, the evaluation results presented in this paper show the key factors and scenarios that most affect the market-like MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling.

  18. Does the Lowest Bid Price Evaluation Criterion Make for a More Efficient Public Procurement Selection Criterion? (Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochrana František

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the institute of public procurement a considerable volume of financial resources is allocated. It is therefore in the interest of contracting entities to seek ways of how to achieve an efficient allocation of resources. Some public contract-awarding entities, along with some public-administration authorities in the Czech Republic, believe that the use of a single evaluation criterion (the lowest bid price results in a more efficient tender for a public contract. It was found that contracting entities in the Czech Republic strongly prefer to use the lowest bid price criterion. Within the examined sample, 86.5 % of public procurements were evaluated this way. The analysis of the examined sample of public contracts proved that the choice of an evaluation criterion, even the preference of the lowest bid price criterion, does not have any obvious impact on the final cost of a public contract. The study concludes that it is inappropriate to prefer the criterion of the lowest bid price within the evaluation of public contracts that are characterised by their complexity (including public contracts for construction works and public service contracts. The findings of the Supreme Audit Office related to the inspection of public contracts indicate that when using the lowest bid price as an evaluation criterion, a public contract may indeed be tendered with the lowest bid price, but not necessarily the best offer in terms of supplied quality. It is therefore not appropriate to use the lowest bid price evaluation criterion to such an extent for the purpose of evaluating work and services. Any improvement to this situation requires a corresponding amendment to the Law on Public Contracts and mainly a radical change in the attitude of the Office for the Protection of Competition towards proposed changes, as indicated within the conclusions and recommendations proposed by this study.

  19. Importance of International Project Bidding Management and Planning%国际工程投标管理规划的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传海

    2012-01-01

    In the fierce competition in the international construction market, the construction enterprise how to face the complicated and volatile international situation and environment influence factors to compile and sub- mit a bidding documents with advanced technology, reasonable economy and competitiveness bidding is a key research content of management unit or departments in project bidding, is also an important compre- hensive subject of keeping sustainable development. This combination combines the international engi- neering bidding practice and related engineering experience in recent years to discuss the control meas- ures of compiling bidding documents in the project bidding management and eonstruction management ac- cording to the importance of making international project bidding management and planning.%在国际建筑市场的激烈竞争中,施工企业如何面对复杂多变的国际形势和环境影响因素,针对招标项目编制提交一份完全符合招标文件要求,且技术先进、经济合理又富有竞争力的投标文件,是经营管理单位或部门在工程投标阶段需要研究的重点工作内容,也是企业保持可持续发展的一个重要综合性课题。此文结合近年来国际工程投标实践及相关工程经验,从制订国际工程投标管理规划的重要性入手,论述工程投标管理与施工管理有效结合编制投标文件和报价应采取的控制措施。

  20. Optimal Bidding Strategies for a Small Generation Company in a Day-Ahead Electricity Market with Bilateral Contracts Taken into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Deregulation power systems have been force to change their structures, from vertically integrated to open market systems. Each generation company (Genco is required to compete with rivals through bidding in a pool market and making a bilateral contract with a distribution company (Disco or consumers to maximize its own profits. A unit commitment becomes responsible for each Genco and difficult for Genco that have one generation plant or small generation capacity. The objective of a Genco is to maximize its profits with makes a decision submit bidding price function to the Independent System Operator (ISO. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary and important for a small Genco to build optimal bidding strategies considering a bilateral contract and a unit commitment with constraints in time periods for possibilities to get a discontinuous dispatch that could reduce total profits. Approach: The proposed methodology employs an optimization method like Lagrange Relaxation to solve the optimal bidding problem. The solution procedure is applied in the study case and change the market condition to show the effect of bilateral contract to marginal clearing price (MCP, generation output and total profit for a small Genco. Result: The result of the proposed method shows that a Genco can build optimal bidding strategies to maximize total profit considering unit commitment and bilateral contract. Simulation results of a numerical example have demonstrated the bilateral contract reduced the hourly MCP. The bilateral contract will guarantee the Genco getting continuous dispatch during time periods. Conclusions/Recommendations: The proposed method for building optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market to maximize total profit considering unit commitment and bilateral contract is helpful for a Genco to make decision in submit bidding to an ISO.

  1. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  2. Arte de las Américas: Selecciones de la colección de arte del BID

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2001-01-01

    Como ocasión especial, el Centro Cultural presentó en Washington, D.C. una variedad de obras compuestas por una selección de 25 piezas que relevan el talento artístico y la creatividad de las Américas. Las obras fueron escogidas de la Colección de Arte del BID y representaron a Argentina, Bahamas, Canadá, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Perú, Suriname, Estados Unidos, y Uruguay mostrando el trabajo de 23 artistas, entre los que sobresalen Robert Rauschenberg (E...

  3. Optimal Bidding Strategy of Generation Companies (GenCos) in Energy and Spinning Reserve Markets Using Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Barati; Ali Habibzadeh; Afshin Lashkarara; Jamshid Aghaei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new bidding strategy become modeling to day-ahead markets. The proposed algorithm is related to the point of view of a generation company (Genco) that its end is maximized its benefit as a participant in sale markets of active power and spinning reserve. In this method, hourly forecasted energy price (FEP) and forecasted reserve price (FRP) is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. A bi-level optimization problem That first level, is...

  4. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and

  5. Discussion on Book Purchasing and Bidding Work in College and University Libraries%高校图书馆图书采购招标工作探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维秋

    2012-01-01

    结合中国医科大学图书馆图书采购招标工作实践,介绍如何通过标书制定、评分标准制定、招标流程控制来选择合适的图书供应商,并指出招标流程中需要注意的问题,包括对书商的考察与筛选、合理选择招标的专家评委等方面。%Combined with the book purchasing and bidding work practices of China Medical University Library, the paper introduces how to choose proper book suppliers through bidding documents formulation, assessment criteria formulation and bidding process control. It also points out the issues concerned including inspecting book suppliers, selecting experts and judges reasonably, etc.

  6. The importance of analyzing the bidding in building economic management%招投标在建筑经济管理中的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓓

    2016-01-01

    In the construction industry, bidding management can effectively control project costs and improve project quality, promote fair trade and carry out construction, the development of the construction industry has an important role. Construction units to pay attention to bidding, through scientific methods and reasonable means, thus promoting the development of bidding.%在建筑行业中,招投标管理工作能够有效的控制工程成本,提高工程质量,推动建筑交易公平进行,对建筑行业的发展具有重要作用。建筑单位要对招投标工作引起重视,通过科学的方法和合理的手段,推动招投标工作的发展。

  7. 工程建设项目招投标中的博弈量化分析%Game Quantitative Analysis on Tendering and Bidding of Construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭梅; 蔡光程; 甄晓云

    2014-01-01

    工程建设项目施工招投标中的竞标者、评标者之间存在一定的关联度和博弈关系。本文在目前招投标评标办法的基础上提出一种基于博弈的多方量化方法,利用竞标者报价、评标者以性能参数作为影响因子作评标估计,获得多竞标者参与竞标的最佳价格性能下的最优竞标价,以使评标过程更科学。实证数据实验结果显示通过该方法有利于鼓励竞争和保护质优价廉的竞标单位。%There exists a correlation and game relationship between users and bidders on tendering and bid-ding of a construction project.This paper presents a novel quantitative algorithm based on game theory for the user and the bidding corporations.This method uses the performance parameter to make an estimation for the bidding price.Optimum bidding value is obtained by the best performance values for all competition corpora-tions.It has more scientific decision for the process of bidding evaluation.Experimental results show that this method can embolden and protect the bedding enterprise of super quality and competitive price.

  8. Study on genco' optimal bidding strategies in reserve market%发电商最优备用报价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢恺; 宋依群; 唐佳晖

    2011-01-01

    The reform of East China electricity market aims to establish the Ancillary Service Market(ASM). The Generate company (Genco) needs to choose its reserve bid to maximize its profits after the market is built. A market with two Gencos is divided into five sections by the concept of opportunity cost. The Genco decides his situation by the information it gets from the market. It looks for his optimal bidding strategy to maximize the profit through bi-level optimization model. In the end, the validity of this method is proved, and the effects of energy bid on reserve bid are analyzed. The result shows the profits are maximized when the reserve bid follows the changing energy bid.%华东电力市场下一步改革的目标是实现辅助服务市场化.市场化以后,发电商需要选择自己的备用报价实现利润最大.利用机会成本的概念,将包含两发电商的市场分为五类.发电商根据掌握的市场信息,判断自身所属的类别.通过建立双层优化模型,寻找最优报价策略实现自身利润最大.最后对所用方法的有效性进行了验证,并分析了主能量报价对备用报价的影响.结果表明发电商的备用报价跟随主能量报价变化时,利润最大.

  9. The Intraday Behaviour of Bid-Ask Spreads Across Auction and Specialist Market Structures: Evidence From The Italian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed liquidity across a trading day, and have documented that bid-ask spreads exhibita U-shaped pattern, with spreads wider at the start and end of the trading day, whilst spreads are tighter in themiddle of the day. This pattern has been attributed to inventory holding costs, the specialist’s market powerand adverse selection risk. On the 2nd April, 2001, several stocks on the Italian Bourse switched from anauction market to a specialist market. This provides a natural experiment where intraday spreads acrossdifferent market structures can be compared. Results indicate that volume, volatility and bid-ask spreadsexhibit the U-shaped intraday pattern both before and after the structural change. While time-weightedspreads are consistently higher throughout the trading day under the specialist structure, the specialists abilityto offer price improvement with the best quotes results in the ‘real’ cost of trading being lower under aspecialist system. These results are robust to the size of the firm, the event window around the structuralchange, as well as overall market-wide changes.

  10. The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) lowers the threshold at which the Bcl-2-interacting domain death agonist (BID) triggers mitochondria disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Christopher C; Baumann, William T; Samuels, David C; Finkielstein, Carla V

    2011-02-21

    The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein, like many other BH3-only proteins, is known to promote apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Unlike the BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID) protein, BAD cannot directly trigger apoptosis but, instead, lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced. In many mathematical models of apoptosis, BAD is neglected or abstracted. The work presented here considers the incorporation of BAD and its various modifications in a model of the tBID-induction of BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer) or the tBID-induction of BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein). Steady state equations are used to develop an explicit formula describing the total concentration level of tBID, guaranteed to trigger apoptosis, as a bilinear function of the total BAD concentration level and the total anti-apoptotic protein concentration level (usually Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL). In particular, the formula explains how the pro-apoptotic protein BAD lowers the threshold at which tBID induces BAK/BAX activation-reducing the level of total Bcl-2/Bcl-xL available to inhibit tBID signaling in the mitochondria. Attention is then turned to the experimental data surrounding BAD phosphorylation, a process known to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effects of BAD. To address this data, the phosphorylation process is modeled following two separate kinetics in which either free unbound BAD is the assumed substrate or Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-bound BAD is the assumed substrate. Bifurcation analysis and further analysis of the bilinear equation validate experiments, which suggest that BAD phosphorylation prevents irreversible BAK/BAX-mediated apoptosis, even when phosphorylation-induced dissociation of Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-bound BAD is blocked. It is also shown that a cooperative, even synergistic, removal of mitochondrial BAD is seen when both types of phosphorylation are assumed possible. The presented work, however, reveals that the balance between BAD phosphorylation and

  11. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.

  12. Elementos para fortalecer la cooperación entre la GTZ y el BID en desarrollo rural y manejo de recursos naturales: Lecciones de tres estudios de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Piñeiro; Helmut Eger; Rubén Echeverría; Nayra Bello O'Shanahan

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la colaboración interinstitucional entre la Agencia Alemana de Cooperación Técnica (GTZ) y el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo en el área de desarrollo rural y manejo de recursos naturales. La GTZ es una de las agencias bilaterales de cooperación técnica de mayor actividad en América Latina y el Caribe. Para identificar el potencial de la cooperación entre la GTZ y el BID es conveniente destacar la tipología de operaciones del BID, según sean pequeños proyectos, proyect...

  13. On the Problem of University Equipment Bidding Procurement%高校设备招标采购问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉

    2012-01-01

    Bidding is to save money, improve the efficiency of a procurement method, standardization of the actual work of the col- leges and universities bidding procurement is an important work of the university management. This paper analyzes the equip- ment bidding procurement problems and put forward some measures to better implement the sun procurement, to improve the effi- ciency of bidding.%招投标是节约资金、提高效益的一种采购方法,如何使高校招投标采购的实际工作得到规范化,是高校管理的重要工作。文章分析了高校在设备招投标采购方面存在的问题并有针对性地提出几点措施,就更好地实施阳光采购工作,提高招投标的实效进行了探讨。

  14. BI-D1870 is a specific inhibitor of the p90 RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) isoforms in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Gopal P; Cummings, Lorna; Newell, Felicity S;

    2007-01-01

    ), which then mediate many of the physiological processes that are regulated by these extracellular agonists. It can be difficult to assess the individual functions of each AGC kinase because their substrate specificities are similar. Here we describe the small molecule BI-D1870, which inhibits RSK1, RSK2......, RSK3 and RSK4 in vitro with an IC(50) of 10-30 nM, but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher concentrations. BI-D1870 is cell permeant and prevents the RSK-mediated phorbol ester- and EGF (epidermal growth factor......)-induced phosphoryl-ation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and LKB1 in human embry-onic kidney 293 cells and Rat-2 cells. In contrast, BI-D1870 does not affect the agonist-triggered phosphorylation of substrates for six other AGC kinases. Moreover, BI-D1870 does not suppress the phorbol ester- or EGF...

  15. Environmental aspects to be considered on public bids and concession agreements; A variavel ambiental na licitacao e no contrato de concessao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Maria Alice; Bezerra, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros, Maria Angelica [Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados Associados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present article is to discuss the controversies and propose solutions in order to manage environmental aspects aiming at minimizing excessive and unnecessary risks and costs for bid participants and concessionaires of the Brazilian oil and gas E and P activities. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 1942.9 - Planning, bidding, contracting, and constructing. [See §§ 1942.17(p) and 1942.18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Planning, bidding, contracting, and constructing. 1942.9 Section 1942.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  17. 海外工程项目投标风险分析%Analysis on bidding risk of overseas engineering project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏桂清

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes overseas engineering project bidding risk for domestic enterprise,classifies bidding risk into environmental risk,quotation risk,technological identification risk at bidding phase,and project implementation risk,and then specifically describes contents of various risks,with a view to guide domestic construction enterprises to be familiar with overseas market bidding business and to enhance their risk prevention consciousness.%针对国内企业在海外的工程项目投标风险进行了分析,将投标风险分为环境风险、投标报价风险、投标阶段技术判断风险以及项目实施风险,并对各风险所含内容进行了详细的阐述,以指导国内施工企业熟悉海外市场投标业务,加强风险防范意识。

  18. Research on method of the lowest evaluated bid price%经评审的最低投标价法评审研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    可淑玲

    2016-01-01

    The conditions for the method of the lowest evaluated bid price were analyzed systematically. The review system and content of the lowest evaluated bid price method were expounded on the three aspects including qualification examination, technical bid review and commercial bid review. The definition method of individual cost of enterprise was put forward for further promotion of the reviewing methods.%为推动企业提高管理水平,准确掌握经评审的最低价评标方法,文章系统分析了经评审的最低投标价法评标应满足的条件,并从资格审查、技术标评审、商务标评审三方面系统阐述了经评审的最低投标价法的评价体系、评审内容,提出了企业个别成本的界定方法,为该种评标方法的进一步推广起到了良好的引领作用。

  19. 浅析公路工程施工招标资格审查标准%Brief Analysis on Bidding Qualification Examination Standard of Highway Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新

    2012-01-01

    通过招标实例,对公路工程施工资格审查标准中各评分因素进行详细分析解释。%Through the practical bidding cases,all evaluation factors in the qualification examination standard of highway engineering construction are analyzed and explained in detail.

  20. 31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351.10...

  1. Price Differences Reasons and Determination Skills of Project Bidding%工程项目投标价格差异原因与确定技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蕾

    2014-01-01

    The determination and control of project price in the bidding stage should be based on the management level of construction enterprises and the market price under normal circumstances, but for successful bidder, in addition to their own strength and project circumstances, bidding skills are extra important in market contract. On the basis of introducing the difference reasons of bidding offer, this paper elaborates budgeting and bidding decision-making skills, which can play a guiding role in future project contract.%在投标阶段工程项目价格的确定与控制,通常情况下应根据施工企业自身的管理水平及市场价格情况确定,但要成功中标除了自身实力和工程项目情况外,投标技巧也在市场承揽中额外重要,本文在介绍投标报价形成差异原因的基础上,详细阐述了预算编制和投标报价决策技巧,可对今后工程承揽起到一定指导作用。

  2. 公路投标预算编制技巧与报价策略%Technique of Budget Estimate Compilation and Tactics of Quotation for Highway Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宗文

    2001-01-01

    在公路建设市场中,投标的施工企业都期望中标并获得利润和信誉。通过对各种资料和信息的准确了解,认真分析招标办法和竞争对手投标报价水平,编制出的投标价尽可能接近业主预算价,使最终报价成为最佳标价,提高中标率。%In the highway construction market, all the construction enterprises hope to win the bid and gain profit & reputation. Based on the accurate grasp of all kinds of data and information and through analyzing carefully the bidding method and the bid quotation level of the competitors to compile a budget estimate price which is close as possible to the budget price of the client, so as to work out the best quotation price and thus to increase the chance of winning the bid.

  3. Research on the Project Bidding Based on Game Analysis%基于博弈分析的工程招投标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小明

    2011-01-01

    The bidding is a kind of non-cooperation and incomplete static game. And its also "a closed and top price auction. Put the game theory into the construction project bidding, with the specific biddi -ng rules and set up a model of the game bidding mechanism, it will make the two sides of the bidding satisfied with "the incentive and compatibility constraints", avoid of "the risk of moral hazard" and "the adverse selection, "arrive at the greatest degree of balance and win-win condiction, to achieve the largest profit.%招投标是一种非合作不完全静态博弈,也是“密封式一级价格拍卖”。将博弈论引入到建设工程的招投标中,结合招投标特定规则,建立招投标博弈机制模型,使招投标双方满足“激励相容约束”,防止“道德风险”和“逆向选择”,达到最大程度的均衡和双赢,从而达到获利最大的目的。

  4. Optimal bidding strategy of wind farms for joint operation with other ‎renewable resources in power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein parastegari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and bidding strategy of renewable units are two important problems of the restructured power market. In this paper, a new method for the joint operation of wind, photovoltaic and pump-storage units in day ahead power market is studied to increase the profit of joint units. In this study, artificial neural network is used to predict the wind power generation of wind farms. Since, there are uncertainties in energy and reserve prices, wind and photovoltaic power generation, the optimal operation of joint units can be modeled as a stochastic optimization problem. For this purpose, uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario tree method. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the renewable energy resources (wind farms, photovoltaic and pump-storage units of the modified IEEE 118 bus test system. Results of the proposed joint operation of renewable resources confirm that the value of expected profit increases in comparison with uncoordinated operation (UO of units.

  5. On the Optimization of Procurement Bidding Based on Value Engineering%基于价值工程对采购招标的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英斌; 余游; 比明智

    2015-01-01

    It is feasible and necessary to use value engineering theory in the enterprises' production and engineering construction to reduce the materials procurement cost of procurement bidding in purchasing management of enterprises' production and engineering construction. It needs to strengthen the values in the procurement bidding process of material for the enterprises' production and engineering construction and improve all the work of procurement bidding by value engineering theory. Based on value engineering theory, this paper studies the relationship between value engineering and procurement bidding. The studies of the paper are helpful to reduce the procurement cost and improve enterprises' revenue by value engineering for the material procurement bidding of enterprises' production and engineering construction.%在企业生产和工程建设中应用价值工程理论,降低采购招标材料购置成本,在企业生产和工程建设的采购管理中不仅可行而且是必要的。企业生产和工程建设在材料的招标采购过程中,需要强化价值观念,通过价值工程原理进行采购招标各项工作的改进。本文基于价值工程原理,研究了价值工程与采购招标的关系。本文的研究有助于在企业生产及工程建设进行材料招标采购时,通过价值工程管理降低采购成本,提高企业效益。

  6. Construction project bidding stage cost control research%建筑工程招投标阶段造价控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of socialist market economy system,the construction projects have gradually realized the market economy,and construction projects has increased the project cost control becomes more and more important.The current cost control for construction projects still in the construction process and the settlement process,ignoring the cost control in the bidding stage.Based on this,the in the construction project bidding and cost control on the basis of on,analysis of the impact of bidding cost control of the main reasons and the bidding tendering cost control problems,and on the basis of bidding for the tender stage cost control effective measures are discussed.%随着社会主义市场经济体系的不断完善,建筑项目也逐渐的实现了市场经济化,而建设项目的不断增多使得工程项目的造价控制显得愈发重要。当前对于建筑工程的造价控制仍旧以施工过程和结算过程为主,忽视了招投标阶段的造价控制。基于此,文章在对建筑工程招投标以及造价控制阐述的基础上,分析了影响招投标造价控制的主要原因以及当前招投标造价控制存在的问题,并在此基础上对招投标阶段造价控制的有效措施进行了探讨。

  7. Cardiovascular safety of exenatide BID: an integrated analysis from controlled clinical trials in participants with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushmanova Irina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is important for patients that treatments for diabetes not increase cardiovascular (CV risk. The objective of this analysis was to examine retrospectively the CV safety of exenatide BID, a GLP-1 receptor agonist approved for treating hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes not adequately controlled with diet and exercise. Individual participant data was pooled to assess the relative risk (RR of CV events with exenatide BID versus a pooled comparator (PC group treated with either placebo or insulin from 12 controlled, randomized, clinical trials ranging from 12-52 weeks. Mean baseline values for HbA1c (8.33-8.38%, BMI (31.3-31.5 kg/m2, and duration of diabetes (8 y were similar between groups. Trials included patients with histories of microvascular and/or macrovascular disease. Customized primary major adverse CV events (MACE included stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiac mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and revascularization procedures. The Primary MACE RR (0.7; 95% CI 0.38, 1.31, calculated by the Mantel-Haenszel method (stratified by study, suggested that exenatide use (vs. PC did not increase CV risk; this result was consistent across multiple analytic methods. Because the trials were not designed to assess CV outcomes, events were identified retrospectively from a list of preferred terms by physicians blinded to treatment. Other limitations included the low number of CV events, the short duration of trials (≤1 y, and a single active comparator (insulin. The results of these analyses are consistent with those of a recent retrospective analysis of a large insurance database that found that patients treated with exenatide twice daily were less likely to have a CV event than were patients treated with other glucose-lowering therapies. Keywords: GLP-1 receptor agonist, diabetes, cardiovascular safety

  8. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI. Summary report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-10

    This report provides a summary of the Air Force CALS Test Network (AFCTN) Test Report Transfer of Air Force Technical Procurement Bid Set Data to Small Businesses, Using CALS and EDI (AFCTN Test Report 94-034, UCRL-ID-118619). It represents a synthesis of the results, conclusions, and recommendations, as well as a more concise presentation of the issues and strategies as viewed from AFCTN`s perspective. This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s {open_quote}Blue Ribbon{close_quote} contractors, located throughout the United States. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote.

  9. Bid Responsiveness and the Acceptable Nonconforming Bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    t iaon )t . v. Atlanti ( County .eraue Authori ty, t ’.,. 101, 1 1 , 31 41 A.2d 32/, 131-33? 64 Construction to., Inc. v. Lincoln I1ark, 161 t.J. ,uper...ec. B-133680, 75-1 CPD 41 393 (1975). 284 ,E._. , Porter Contracting Co., 55 Comp. Gun. 615 (1576)(Davis- Bacon wage rate determination); Columbus...190311,77-2 CPD 316 (1977)(Davis- Bacon %,age determination). 2,5. Comp. Gen. [Jec. b-177747, April II, 1973, Unpub. 2 ,6. iAqua-Tril Corp., Comp. Gen

  10. El financiamiento de las competencias profesionales del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en la educación superior tecnológica (EST de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez Padilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación que tiene lugar entre el gobierno mexicano con organismos internacionales como el Banco Mundial (BM y, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID para el financiamiento de las competencias profesionales en las Instituciones de Educación Superior Tecnológicas (IEST. Desde la perspectiva teórica de la Nueva Gestión Pública (NGP se argumenta que el BID, a través de sus programas de competencias profesionales, tiene una gran influencia en las funciones y atribuciones de las Universidades Politécnicas (UUPP y, que dichos programas responden más a una lógica de compromisos institucionales que a una evaluación efectiva de resultados

  11. Signal transduction mediated by Bid, a pro-death Bcl-2 family proteins, connects the death receptor and mitochondria apoptosis pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two major apoptosis pathways have been defined in mammalian cells, the Fas/TNF-R1 death receptor pathway and the mitochondria pathway. The Bcl-2 family proteins consist of both anti-apoptosis and pro- apoptosis members that regulate apoptosis, mainly by controlling the release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, death signals mediated by Fas/TNF-R1 receptors can usually activate caspases directly, bypassing the need for mitochondria and escaping the regulation by Bcl-2 family proteins. Bid is a novel pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family protein that is activated by caspase 8 in response to Fas/TNF-R1 death receptor signals. Activated Bid is translocated to mitochondria and induces cytochrome c release, which in turn activates downstream caspases. Such a connection between the two apoptosis pathways could be important for induction of apoptosis in certain types of cells and responsible for the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases.

  12. 政府投资代建制项目招标博弈研究%Research on the Bidding Game of Government Investment Agent-construction Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志达; 姚尧

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic connotation,character of government investment agent-construction projects. Then,analyzes the bidding process and gains of the projects based on the game matrix. Finally,proposes several strategy suggestions against the risk of adverse selection of agent units in the bidding stages.%分析政府投资代建制项目基本内涵及其特点,基于博弈矩阵,对政府投资代建制项目的招标过程及收益进行分析,提出招标阶段防范代建单位逆向选择风险的监管策略。

  13. 桩基工程投标决策方法研究%Research on Decision-Making Method of Bidding for a Pile Foundation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽文

    2001-01-01

    以定量分析为基础,从风险和收益两方面入手,根据风险与收益均衡原则进行了决策过程的计算、分析, 并建立了投标方案的决策准则.在总结投标实践经验的基础上,构建了报价方案程序,初步研究了中标概率的确定方法,并结合工程实例验证了所提方法的正确性.同时,将决策树法应用于决策判断,使决策更为准确、快速.为桩基施工企业选择出风险小、收益大的投标决策方案提供了科学依据.%Based on the factors of quantitative analysis, risk and profit, the decision-making process was calculated and analyzed, and the decision-making principle for a bidding scheme was established according to the equilibrium principle of risk and profit. Based on the experience of bidding practice, the author established a bidding offer procedure and put out a method for determining the bid winning probability. The example shows that the method is correct and practical. Meanwhile, the method of decision-making tree can be used to form a quick and accurate decision-making judgment, providing a scientific basis for those pile foundation enterprises to select a scheme with minimized risk and maximized profit.

  14. Research on internal control construction of bidding and procurement in colleges and universities%高校招标采购内部控制建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延召; 祝光英

    2016-01-01

    该文分析了高校招标采购涉及的内部控制具体要素及存在的问题和风险,研究了高校招标采购在风险评估、内部环境、控制活动、信息与沟通、内部监督等方面的建设和完善措施,提出了设置独立统一的招标采购部门、加强事前事中与事后控制、建立决策论证和审批制度、采用信息管理系统和电子化招投标平台、建立回访和后评价制度、建立风险评估机制等对策和方法,使招标采购更加符合内部控制理念,更好地实现服务学校发展的目标。%This article analyzes the internal control elements involved in bidding and procurement ,and analyzes the problems and risks of bidding and procurement in internal environment ,control activities ,information and communication ,internal supervision ,etc .To solve the problems and risks ,this article studies the measures of internal control construction ,such as setting up an independent unified bidding and procurement management department ,establishing decision argumentation and approval system ,using information management systems and electronic bidding and procurement platform ,establishing a post‐evaluation system and a risk assessment mechanism ,in order to better serve the development of colleges and universities .

  15. 浅谈招标的前期策划与风控管理%Talk about bidding planning and wind control management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘扬

    2015-01-01

    Basedon the "Bidding Law", "government procurement law","construction project bidding for goods approach","international bidding of mechanical and electrical products implementation approach"and other laws and regulations as the basis, to planning the tender and the risk control work. In order to regulate the operation of the tender procedures as a means to tender process risk node control as the focus, in order to optimize the bidding business process for the purpose ofenterprises, closely around the core interests, and take effective measures to reduce the possibilities of risk events, reduce or control the risk event occurs caused by the loss of.%基于《招标投标法》、《政府采购法》、《工程建设项目货物招标投标办法》、《机电产品国际招标投标实施办法》等法律、法规为依据,做好招标的前期策划以及风险控制工作。以规范招标操作程序为手段,以招标流程风险节点控制为重点,以优化招标业务流程为目的,紧紧围绕企业核心利益,采取有效措施,降低风险事件发生的各种可能性,有效减少或控制风险事件发生时造成的损失。

  16. 浅谈国内公路施工投标与报价规律研究%Brief Discussion on Research of Laws for Domestic Highway Construction Bidding and Offer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾娜

    2015-01-01

    在我国国内公路工程的投标过程中,要分析公路工程报价规律和原则,结合工程的实际情况并以招标文件为基础,在符合报价规律的基础上,详细、认真地对投标进行组织,严格按照招投标流程和规则进行投标.基于此,本文结合宁都至安远高速公路A1标对国内公路施工投标与报价规律进行探讨.%In the bidding process of domestic highway engineering, it is necessary to analyze the laws and principles in of-fer of highway project combining the reality of the project and taking bidding documents as the foundation.On basis of con-forming to the laws of offer, in detail carry on the organization of bidding carefully, and then proceed the bidding in strict accordance with bidding flow and regulations. Based on this, and combining with the example of Highway A1 from Ningdu to Anyuan, the article develops discussions on the laws for domestic highway construction bidding and offer.

  17. Matrine induces caspase-independent program cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma through bid-mediated nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Gao, Ya; Deng, Zhigang; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Zhan, Yanyan; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-03-16

    Matrine, a clinical drug in China, has been used to treat viral hepatitis, cardiac arrhythmia and skin inflammations. Matrine also exhibits chemotherapeutic potential through its ability to trigger cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the major determinant for the cell death induced by matrine in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We use human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in nude mice as models to study the action of matrine in hepatocellular cancers. We found that caspase-dependent and -independent Program Cell Death (PCD) occurred in matrine-treated HepG2 cells, accompanied by the decreasing of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the increasing ROS production. Further studies showed that AIF released from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and silencing of AIF reduced the caspase-independent PCD induced by matrine. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation, and the subsequent cell death as well, was prevented by Bid inhibitor BI-6C9, Bid-targeted siRNA and ROS scavenger Tiron. In the in vivo study, matrine significantly attenuated tumor growth with AIF release from mitochondria into nucleus in nude mice. These data imply that matrine potently induce caspase-independent PCD in HepG2 cells through Bid-mediated AIF translocation.

  18. 论远程电子评标的风险规避与防范%Risk Avoidance and Prevention of Remote Electronic Bid Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪宇

    2012-01-01

    远程电子评标具有评标电子化、评委异地化、平台虚拟化、组织远程化、监管网络化等特点,是电子招投标的发展方向。但在实践中存在缺乏法规支持、身份容易被冒用、网络环境复杂、难以组织协调、监管不到位等风险。通过健全立法、完善认证管理、加强预案演练、推行评标标准化建设、创新监管机制等措施能够进行有效的风险规避与防范。%Remote electronic bid evaluation has the features of evaluation electronically,off-site judges,virtual platform,remote organization and net work supervision,it is the development trend of electronic bidding.But there are some risks in practice,such as lacking of legislation support,identity easy to counterfeit,the complexity of the network environment,hard to organization,absence of regulation.Through strengthening legislation,perfecting certification management,reinforcing plans to drill,implementing bid evaluation standardization,innovating regulatory mechanism,the risks can be avoid and prevent.

  19. Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Projects Bidding Purchase%项目建设招标采购存在的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林波

    2011-01-01

    Bidding purchasing has been widely used in many industry fields,domestic and international,all kinds of projects.But this system in the process of implementation also exist some problems to solve.The project construction bidding purchasing management status quo and existing problems are discussed in this paper.And suggestions was presented for the project construction bidding purchasing management improvement,to realize purification construction market,to promote the construction market order of standardization and legalization,and to promote the project construction smoothly.%招标采购已经被广泛地应用于多行业、多领域、国际国内的各类项目中。但这一制度在实施的过程中也存在着一些亟待解决的问题。文章就项目建设招标采购管理现状及存在问题进行了论述,并针对项目建设招标采购管理改进提出建议,实现净化建筑市场,促进建筑市场秩序规范化、法制化,促进项目建设顺利进行。

  20. 谈火电总承包工程招标采购管理%On bidding and purchasing management of thermal power primary contractor engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战爱倩

    2012-01-01

    结合多年参与建设工程招标采购管理的实践,阐述了工程招标采购工作的要点及注意事项,通过规范火电工程总承包管理秩序,以提高招标采购质量,为工程合同管理奠定基础,确保工程有序进行,实现总承包工程建设目标。%Combining with the many-year practice of the bidding and purchasing management of the project, the paper illustrates the points and precautions for the bidding and purchasing in the projects, and indicates the improvement of the quality of the bidding and purchasing by regula- ting the primary contractor management order of the thermal power projects, so as to lay the foundation for the engineering contract management, ensure the orderlv engineering, and realize the constnmtion nim~ of the nrimarv t~antrnetnr an~rinaarin~r

  1. PPP项目招投标阶段风险分担研究%Research on the PPP Project Risk Sharing in the Bidding Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟清; 史丽娜

    2016-01-01

    Based on the identification of main risk factors in the bidding phase of PPP projects,according to the principle of equity in risk-sharing,the principle of minimum risk cost,the principle of equal venture and income, and the principle of negligence,gets the result of bidding phase risk-sharing in PPP model:the political risk is borne by the public sector,the moral hazard is borne by responsible party,the engineering bid risk is borne by social investors;economic risk is borne by both parties.%在对PPP项目招投标阶段主要风险因素识别的基础上,依据风险分担的公平原则、风险成本最小原则、风险收益对等原则、过失原则,得出PPP模式项目招投标阶段风险分担结果:政治风险由公共部门承担,道德风险由导致者承担,工程投标风险由社会投资者承担,经济风险由双方共同承担。

  2. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data. Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G.-F.; Chen, W.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2007-05-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhibits evident intraday patterns consisting of a big L-shape in morning transactions and a small L-shape in the afternoon. The distributions of the spread with different definitions decay as power laws. The tail exponents of spreads at transaction level are well within the interval (2,3) and that of average spreads are well in line with the inverse cubic law for different time intervals. Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis, we found the evidence of long memory in the bid-ask spread time series for all three definitions, even after the removal of the intraday pattern. Using the classical box-counting approach for multifractal analysis, we show that the time series of bid-ask spread do not possess multifractal nature.

  3. Analysis of Construction Project Bidding Management Problems and Countermeasures%建设工程招投标管理工作问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶晶

    2015-01-01

    为保障建筑工程市场公平竞争,我国逐步完善了招标投标制度,但目前招投标市场仍存在一些问题,不仅破坏了市场竞争的公平性,同时也严重侵害了其它市场主体的合法权益,为社会发展和经济市场带来负面效应。本文主要阐述了当前我国工程建设领域的招投标过程中存在的一些问题,分析问题存在的原因,并提出相应的防范策略。%In order to guarantee fair competition in the building construction market , China has gradually improved the bidding system .But the current bidding market still have some problems , not only undermined the fairness of market competition , but also seriously infringed upon the legitimate rights and interests of other market players , give negative effect to social development and economic markets .This pa-per describes some currently existing problems of the construction field bidding process , and analyzes the reasons of problems and proposes appropriate preventive strategies .

  4. Analysis on the Problems in Water Conservancy Project Bidding Budget%水利工程招标预算编制应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2015-01-01

    In public bidding processes of water conservancy , one of the most significant parts is the preparation of bidding budget . To ensure the bidding budget could estimate the project cost and its market price accurately , cost engineers should 1) be familiar with the budget preparation methods; 2 ) have a good understanding of the technical terms in the contract and a comprehensive investigation in the construction site;3) seriously select and use the relevant quota .%招标预算编制是工程招投标过程的重要环节,要求承担招标预算编制工作的造价专业人员,除必须熟练掌握招标预算基本编制方法外,还必须认真阅读合同技术条款,认真查勘现场,正确选择并使用相关定额,使招标预算真实体现工程成本,准确反映工程真实的市场价格。

  5. Involvement of BID translocation in glycyrrhetinic acid and 11-deoxy glycyrrhetinic acid-induced attenuation of gastric cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dejian; Zhong, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main chemical constituents of licorice, has shown remarkable anticancer activity. However, the side effects limit its widespread use. 11-DOGA is produced through reduction of GA 11-carbonyl to 11-hydroxyl to reduce its side effects, although its anticancer activities are largely unknown. Here, we report that the functional mechanisms of GA and 11-DOGA in gastric cancers, as well as the comparison between these two drugs' pharmacological potential. Firstly, we found that GA and 11-DOGA significantly inhibits the viabilities of gastric cancer cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Both GA and 11-DOGA induce gastric cancer cells apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2 phase by upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cdc2 and cyclin B1. Further studies show that GA and 11-DOGA-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells is associated with BID translocation from nucleus to mitochondria. Moreover, GA and 11-DOGA could effectively inhibit tumor formation of gastric cancer cells in nude mice. Comparing with 11-DOGA, GA presents higher toxicity toward gastric cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, the elucidation of the functional mechanisms of GA and 11-DOGA-induced attenuation of gastric cancer growth suggests a possible therapeutic role of GA and its derivatives.

  6. Optimal Bidding Strategy of Generation Companies (GenCos in Energy and Spinning Reserve Markets Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bidding strategy become modeling to day-ahead markets. The proposed algorithm is related to the point of view of a generation company (Genco that its end is maximized its benefit as a participant in sale markets of active power and spinning reserve. In this method, hourly forecasted energy price (FEP and forecasted reserve price (FRP is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. A bi-level optimization problem That first level, is used to maximize the individual Genco’s payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer’s payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. In this paper use of the game theory in exist optimization model. The paper proposes a linear programming approach. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities.

  7. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with relative household income, diet and inflammation in the pSoBid cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Shiels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences. METHODS: A total of 382 blood samples from the pSoBid study were available for telomere analysis. For each participant, data was available for socio-economic status factors, biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Statistical analyses were undertaken to investigate the association between telomere lengths and these aforementioned parameters. RESULTS: The rate of age-related telomere attrition was significantly associated with low relative income, housing tenure and poor diet. Notably, telomere length was positively associated with LDL and total cholesterol levels, but inversely correlated to circulating IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest lower socio-economic status and poor diet are relevant to accelerated biological ageing. They also suggest potential associations between elevated circulating IL-6, a measure known to predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes with biological ageing. These observations require further study to tease out potential mechanistic links.

  8. Applying Fuzzy Matter-Element Model Based on AHP to Evaluating Bids of Water Saving Irrigation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Feng; FU Qiang; LIANG Chuan; LIU Dong

    2003-01-01

    Owing to overcoming the characteristics that there are many economic and technical indexes which are fuzzy and incompatibility to each other in evaluating investment project,a new method is proposed.The method is based on the matter-element analysis and combined with the concepts of fuzzy mathematics,which is called the method of fuzzy matter-element analysis.It constructs the compound fuzzy matter element with the investment projects,evaluation factors and their fuzzy value.Through establishing the best subjection degree (fuzzy value),complex fuzzy matter element of relational coefficient and weight aggregation of fuzzy matter-element model,the writer achieves on optimum order of the investment projects according to the calculated relational degree and finds the best project.In this paper,the calculation of weight adopts the analytical hierarchy process method(AHP).Through the actual example,it shows that the model is simple and its calculation is reliable.It is very significant for the engineering evaluated bid and investment decision.

  9. On China's Bidding System in the Perspective of Justice Theory%正义理论视角下的中国招标投标制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢远玉

    2016-01-01

    The bidding practice in China has fallen into a dilemma of anti -corruption,one way out of which is to re -examine the legislative principles of the bidding system from the justice perspective.This paper believes that the decision -making power of the tender and the bidder should fully embody the principle of equality and freedom;the formulation of the rules in the bidding system should be in accordance with the justice spirit of the “scene of ignorance”;opportunity of equality and fairness be reflec-ted in the competition access of market subjects;difference principle be adopted with the emerging small competitors;the effi-ciency principle of “maximum of minimum value”be applied in the game where the tender and the bidder are free to choose the lowest winning.Therefore,China's bidding system should be reformed in the following two legislation principles:first,the bid decision -making power should be exercised by the tenders instead of the social evaluation experts committee;second,the win-ning should go with the lowest bid rather than by a comprehensive assessment of the highest bid.%中国的招标投标实践已陷入反腐败的困境,需要重新用正义理论的视角来对中国招标投标制度的立法原理进行审视。本研究认为,对招标人和投标人的决策权力应充分体现平等自由原则,招标投标制度中各项规则的制定应按照“无知之幕”的公正精神进行,对市场主体竞争准入应体现机会的平等公正原则,对新兴弱小竞争者应体现差别原则,招标人和投标人在自由选择的最低价中标规则的博弈能体现“最大的最小值”规则的效率原则等等。所以,中国招标投标制度中应该改革两大立法原理:第一,由招标人而不是社会评标专家委员会行使中标决策权;第二,最低价中标而不是综合评审最高分中标。

  10. Status Quo and Countermeasures of Essential Drug Bidding Policy in China%我国基本药物招投标政策的实施现状和完善对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玮; 伍林生

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status quo and countermeasure of essential drug bidding policy. METHODS: Through understanding national essential drug bidding policy, based on the status quo of essential drug bidding policy, the problems about essential drug bidding were analyzed. RESULTS: Cost and price are not in balance during the implementation of national essential drug bidding policy, so that some enterprises had to withdraw from competitive bidding and the public were prevent from benefit. CONCLUSION: In the process of essential drugs bidding, the medical problems of "Difficulty and High Cost of Getting Medical Service" can really be resolved by balancing the relationship of quality and price, providing good quality and reasonable price drugs.%目的:探讨基本药物招投标政策的实施现状和完善对策.方法:通过解读国家基本药物招投标政策,着眼于基本药物招投标的实施现状,分析当前基本药物招投标实际操作中存在的问题.结果:国家基本药物招投标政策在推行过程中成本与价格倒挂的尴尬局面,使得一部分企业不得不退出竞标,百姓无法得到真正的实惠.结论:在基本药物招投标实施的过程中,平衡质量与价格的关系,为百姓提供质量优先、价格合理的药物,才有可能真正缓解百姓“看病难,看病贵”的问题.

  11. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  12. 基于B/S模式的高校招标采购管理信息系统建设%Based on B/S mode universities bidding management information system construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺锦

    2013-01-01

      针对传统招标采购管理存在资金来源多、工作效率低、档案管理难等问题,根据高校招标采购工作的需求,基于B/S模式,开发出一套招标采购管理系统,规范工作流程,提高工作效率,调动工作积极性。同时,系统可以及时查询采购工作的状态,统计采购信息,为领导决策和群众监督提供方便快捷的信息服务。%Aiming at the problems of the management mode of the traditional bidding procurement work, such as existing funding sources, low efficiency, the difficulty of file management, according to the needs of universities bidding procurement work, based on B/S model. People can develop a set of bidding procurement management system to standardize work processes, improve work efficiency, and mobilize the work enthusiasm. The same time, the system can query the status of the bidding procurement work, count the information of the bidding procurement work, and provide convenient information for leadership decision-making.

  13. 评标过程中自由裁量权的存在空间及控制路径%Existential Space of Discretion in Bid Evaluation Committee and Its Control Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯洪; 李英一

    2012-01-01

    针对评标委员会运用手中的自由裁量权违规评标的社会现象,借鉴行政法学中关于行政自由裁量权的相关理论,界定评标过程中自由裁量权的内涵和特征,考察其存在合理性和滥用可能性,从立法、程序、监督层面和评标委员会的主观原因分析运行失控的原因并对其控制路径作出选择研析.%There is abuse of discretionary power in the bidding process by the Bid Evaluation Committee. In accordance with the theory of discretionary power of the bid process in line of the science of administrative law,the identifications and features of bid discretionary power were defined. Its rationality and the possibility of being abuse were analyzed. Then the reasons of power out of control were investigated from legalization,procedure,monitoring and subjective reasons of the Bid Evaluation Committee. And opinions on its control path were proposed.

  14. 房地产项目最低价中标法的投标报价合理性研究%On Rationality of the Tender Offer in the Lowest Bid Price Method in Real Estate Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳琳

    2012-01-01

    最低价中标法是国际上通用的建筑工程招投标方法,投标报价是招标文件中最精密的部分,对建设工程至关重要。目前我国建筑市场主要采用最低价中标法。本文通过研究招标文件中关键指标即工程量清单计价标底,招标控制价、投标单位履约能力,以更好的促进房地产项目投标合理报价。%The lowest bid price method, as internationally practiced architecture engineering bidding method, requires an essential and sophisticated part in the tender documents: the tender offer. This article probes into the rationality of tender offer in the bid documents by analyzing following aspects : BOQ basic bidding price, bidding price control, bidder~ performance capabilities, so that rational tender offers can be delivered in real estate pro- jects.

  15. An Analysis and Control of the Unbalanced Bidding Based on the Game Theory%基于博弈论的不平衡报价分析及控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晶; 刘星宇

    2014-01-01

    在建设工程招投标过程中,不平衡报价是投标人获取超额利润的一种常见报价策略。招标人可以基于不平衡报价产生原因、超额利润模型和不平衡报价中的博弈分析,将风险适度转移给博弈的隐性参与主体——设计公司及咨询公司;通过细化评标方法中对不平衡报价的评审规则、采用招投标新模式等可减小不平衡报价给招标人带来的利益损失,降低风险。%The unbalanced bidding is a strategy of getting excess profits for a bidder in the process of the construc⁃tion project bidding. Based on the analysis of the reason, the profits model of the unbalanced bidding and the game theory, the tenderee could transform the risk to the designing or consulting company. At the same time the tender⁃ee can refine the evaluation methods of the unbalanced bidding, adopt a new mode of bidding to reduce the loss of interest and risk.

  16. 药品招标采购活动中相关质量术语解读%Interpretation of the Quality Related Terminology in Pharmaceutical Bidding Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 付加雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a monographic study and analysis on the issues of varied interpretations of the related terminology of drug quality in the pharmaceutical bidding schemes of various provinces and cities . Methods:The drug-related quality terminology used in each provincial pharmaceutical bidding scheme was summarized and ana-lyzed . Results:The new interpretations of the quality terms were worked out with more scientific explanations and sug-gestions as well . Conclusion: The standardization and unification of quality related terminology are not only conducive to the country ’ s pharmaceutical bidding activities , but also benefit to the level classification of pharmaceutical quality .%目的:针对目前各省市药品招标采购方案中药品相关的质量术语的解释存在不同的问题,进行专题研究和分析。方法:对各省药品招标采购方案中药品相关的质量术语进行总结、归纳与分析。结果:对各术语进行了新的解读,并给出了更为科学的解释和建议。结论:各个质量术语的规范与统一,不仅有利于全国的药品招标采购活动,更有利于药品的质量层次划分。

  17. Design of the Bidding Evaluation Expert System Based on B/S%基于B/S结构的评标专家系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃奕

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]In order to strengthen management and construction of the evaluation ex-perts, standardized evaluation management, reduce the possibility of divulgence, a bidding evalua-tion expert system is designed.[Method]We design the bidding evaluation expert system by choo-sing experts using a random mechanism of uniform distribution and automatically notifying experts through voice telephone card, TTS, multithreading.[Result]System realizes experts management, choosing experts, notification, SMS, behavior analysis etc.[Conclusion]The high automation de-gree of the system can avoid irregularities phenomenon caused by manual intervention and ensure the impartiality of the bidding activity.%[目的]为加强评标专家队伍的管理和建设,规范项目评标,降低评标专家信息泄漏的可能性,设计一种评标专家系统。[方法]采用均匀分布概率机制进行专家抽取,使用语音卡、TTS、多线程等技术实现自动通知。[结果]系统实现了包括专家库管理、专家抽取、语音通知、短信发送、专家行为统计分析等功能。[结论]系统自动程度高,可以有效避免人为因素的影响导致的各种违规现象,保证招投标工作的公平、公正性。

  18. Manual de uso: Ficha de evaluación del BID para la sostenibilidad de proyectos turísticos del sector privado

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2011-01-01

    Esta encuesta de autoevaluación - la Ficha de Evaluación o "Scorecard" - tiene el propósito de guiar al proponente de un proyecto de turismo para que (a) comprende tanto las mejores prácticas como las prácticas indeseables en el diseño, construcción y operación de un proyecto turístico, así como (b) ayudar al Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) a comprender los aspectos del proyecto que sean excelentes, aceptables o no aceptables, antes de considerarla para la evaluación financiera. Un p...

  19. 招投标有形市场市场活跃度研究--以某市招投标交易中心交易情况为例%Explore the Market Activity of Bidding Tangible Market--Takes the Transactions of Bidding Trade Center in A City as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a city bidding trade center as an example to explore the bidding tangible market activity. The author first carries on the definition from the four dimensions on the bidding tangible market activity, then uses the reference method and analyzes the fol owed four dimens-ions of market activity to obtain the market activity market of each month.%本文以某市招投标交易中心为例,对招投标有形市场活跃度开展了研究。首先,从四个维度对招投标有形市场活跃度进行了定义。然后利用基准法,依次从四个维度对市场活跃度进行了分析,得出了市场各个月份的市场活跃度。

  20. 建设项目投标阶段的工程造价风险规避%Risk Aversion of Engineering Cost in the Bidding Stage in Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚红

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the risk of engineering cost in bidding stage, the paper systematic-al y studied the factors causing bidding risk and response mea-sures, which is of great practical significance to avoid the risk of bidding of construction projects.%本文在分析工程造价投标阶段风险的特点上,系统地研究了投标风险产生的因素和应对措施,对建设项目规避投标报价风险具有重大的实践指导意义。

  1. Analysis on the Features and Operation Modes of Bid and Tender in Urban and Rural Planning%城乡规划招投标特点及运行模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代瑞刚

    2015-01-01

    阐述了城乡规划组织编制现状及存在问题,论述了实施城乡规划招投标的重要意义,比较了城乡规划招投标特点,分析了城乡规划招投标运行模式。%ABSTRACT:This paper expounds the current situation of and existing problems in the organization and compilation of urban and rural planning, discusses the important significance of implementing the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, compares the features of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning, and analyzes the operation modes of the bid and tender in urban and rural planning.

  2. A Mixed Bidding Mode and Its Clearing Algorithm for Electricity Market Applications%电力市场混合竞价模式及其出清算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建学; 张成刚; 王秀丽; 陈虹静

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种电力市场混合竞价模式.该模式将负荷曲线分为基础负荷与波动负荷两部分,基础负荷采用分段竞价进行出清,波动负荷部分采用分时竞价进行出清.对此建立了电力市场混合竞价的数学模型,解决了分段竟价模式处理分时段约束的困难,提高了市场出清结果的可行性.分析了市场分界线讨出清结果的影响,提出分段市场与分时市场的划分要根据系统约束的满足情况来动态优化调整.对现有的2种结算方式进行了分析比较,确定了在混合竞价机制下基础负荷部分的分段竞价市场采用全网边际电价进行统一结算,波动负荷部分的分时竞价市场则按各个机组报价分别进行结算.IEEE 30节点算例验证了所提竞价模式和算法的有效性和可行性.%A new mixed bidding mode for electricity market is proposed. In this mode, the load curve is divided into two parts including basic load part and fluctuating load part. The basic load part adopts the block bidding mode, and the fluctuating load part adopts the hourly bidding mode, so that not only a series of advantages of block bidding are preserved, but also the difficulties of dealing with constraints related to time periods of the block bidding are overcome. The optimization model of the mixed bidding mode is established to increase the feasibility of market clearing results. The boundary of block bidding market and hourly bidding market is determined by dynamic optimization adjustment according to system constraints, as well as minimizing the power purchasing cost. By comparing and analyzing the current two settlement methods, the unified marginal price clearing mechanism is adopted in the basic load part of the block bidding market for settlement, and the pay as bid mechanism is adopted in the hourly bidding market for settlement. An example of IEEE 30-bus system validates that the bidding mode and algorithm proposed are certainly feasible

  3. EXPO BIDS ADIEU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 184-day 2010 World Expo in Shanghai came to an end with a spectacular closing ceremony on the evening of October 31,which was attended by a host of world leaders. The first Expo staged in a developing country in the event's 159-year history,the Expo in Shanghai attracted 246 participating countries and international organizations and 73 million visitors.Both figures are Expo records.

  4. Bidding for Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    . The function of this amenity is to ensure a critical mass of bidders at the seller’s location. For example, if a firm is attempting to assemble a team to utilize a club good at its location, it will also choose to advertise commitment to an additional amenity, such as a set of free health club memberships......This paper studies the mechanism by which club memberships, activities, and rules are chosen in a decentralized economy. For this purpose, we develop a model of competing auctions for club goods. This is a dynamic game where each seller first chooses an auction format; next, each buyer chooses...... the anonymity of buyer strategies implies coordination frictions - the sellers generally choose negative reserve prices and the equilibrium is constrained efficient. The advertisement of a negative reserve price is equivalent to the advertisement of an amenity that augments the value of the club good...

  5. The Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins Bim and bid are functionally active and restrained by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in healthy liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takahiro; Hikita, Hayato; Kawaguchi, Tsukasa; Saito, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Shigekawa, Minoru; Shimizu, Satoshi; Li, Wei; Miyagi, Takuya; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-10-18

    An intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is regulated by the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family proteins. We previously reported that a fine rheostatic balance between the anti- and pro-apoptotic multidomain Bcl-2 family proteins controls hepatocyte apoptosis in the healthy liver. The Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins set this rheostatic balance toward apoptosis upon activation in the diseased liver. However, their involvement in healthy Bcl-2 rheostasis remains unknown. In the present study, we focused on two BH3-only proteins, Bim and Bid, and we clarified the Bcl-2 network that governs hepatocyte life and death in the healthy liver. We generated hepatocyte-specific Bcl-xL- or Mcl-1-knock-out mice, with or without disrupting Bim and/or Bid, and we examined hepatocyte apoptosis under physiological conditions. We also examined the effect of both Bid and Bim disruption on the hepatocyte apoptosis caused by the inhibition of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Spontaneous hepatocyte apoptosis in Bcl-xL- or Mcl-1-knock-out mice was significantly ameliorated by Bim deletion. The disruption of both Bim and Bid completely prevented hepatocyte apoptosis in Bcl-xL-knock-out mice and weakened massive hepatocyte apoptosis via the additional in vivo knockdown of mcl-1 in these mice. Finally, the hepatocyte apoptosis caused by ABT-737, which is a Bcl-xL/Bcl-2/Bcl-w inhibitor, was completely prevented in Bim/Bid double knock-out mice. The BH3-only proteins Bim and Bid are functionally active but are restrained by the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins under physiological conditions. Hepatocyte integrity is maintained by the dynamic and well orchestrated Bcl-2 network in the healthy liver.

  6. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data: Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, G F; Zhou, W X; Chen, Wei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhibits evident intraday patterns consisting of a big L-shape in the morning and a small L-shape in the afternoon. The distributions of the spread with different definitions decay as power laws. The tail exponents of spreads at transaction level are well within the interval $(2,3)$ and that of average spreads are well in line with the inverse cubic law for different time intervals. Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis, we find evidence of long memory in the bid-ask spread time series for all three definitions, even aft...

  7. Oil and gas bidding rounds: judgement criteria in Brazil and abroad; Licitacoes no setor de petroleo e gas natural: criterios de julgamento no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrete, Bernardo do Amaral; Valois, Danielle Gomes de Almeida; Tavares, Henrique Campos Laborne; Gomes, Julia Medina da Costa [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the main rules governing the bidding process for the granting of exploration and production rights of hydrocarbons in Brazil, with emphasis to the criteria for judging competing applications. From a comparative law analysis it is possible to note that, despite the fact that the system adopted in Brazil may be seen as objective and transparent, there is still room for improvement, especially with regard to assessing the performance of bidders in acreage already previously granted. In major European oil-producing countries, such as the UK and Norway, the efficiency and responsibility with which the applicant conducts its ongoing operations in those jurisdictions are also taken into account as a criterion for judging competing applications. Brazil could benefit from this experience and adopt criteria similar to Europe, ensuring another legal tool able to require that companies operating in the country to adopt safer standards and stricter controls, under penalty of entering in disadvantage in the next bidding rounds. (author)

  8. OWA&CWAA Model of Construction Engineering Bid Evaluation and Its Application%建设工程评标的OWA&CWAA模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋良海; 魏雄伟; 黄河; 陈丽

    2011-01-01

    针对建设工程评标中存在主观性因素影响的问题,提出了运用有序加权平均(OWA)算子和组合加权算术平均(CWAA)算子的多属性群决策的评价模型,对各评价指标的分值进行纵向和横向集结.实例结果表明,该方法合理、科学,消除了决策者主观因素的影响,同时利用中间值合理过渡,可对各投标单位的综合得分进行排序,增强了评标的客观性.%Bid evaluation of construction engineering may be influenced by subjective factors. This paper proposes a multi-attribute group decision-making evaluation model by combination of ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and combined weighted arithmetic averaging (CWAA). Scores of each evaluation indicator will be processed from horizontal and vertical directions. And then the influence caused by subjective factors of the decision maker is eliminated and the medial magnitude is used to make reasonable transition. At the same time, the objectivity of bid evaluation is enhanced by sequencing the composite score of the bidders. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the rationality and scientifical-ness of the method.

  9. 建筑工程施工招投标预算分析%Analysis of the Bidding Budget of Building Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周侠

    2014-01-01

    The main effect of engineering budget is to provide the main basis for the investment, appropriation of state construction project or carry out the final accounts, at the same time also can help the project builder to determine the bid and the project cost. This paper discusses how to prepare the construction engineering bidding budget according to the market situation to make the enterprise impregnable in the fierce competition.%工程概算的主要作用在于为国家建设工程时的投资、拨款或者甲乙双方开展决算时提供主要依据,同时还能够帮助工程建设方确定招投标报价与工程造价。本文探讨了如何根据市场情况编制建筑工程施工招投标预算,使企业在激烈的竞标中立于不败之地。

  10. 基于交易费用理论的土地整治招投标制度分析%Analysis of the Bidding System of Land Consolidation Based on the Theory of Transaction Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑世刚

    2014-01-01

    As an important transactional institution of land consolidation,bid results in transaction cost.According to institutional economics,the bidding system of land consolidation can be analyzed by transaction cost from four dimensions:Information symmetry,principal-agent relationship,the game equilibrium,externality.There are some various questions involved in the bidding system of land consolidation,including out of control of surround -bidding and forging bid,discredited bidder, unethical agency,absence of government sector.Based on the theory of transaction cost,it is necessary to achieve the measurement below:reducing the influence of Information asymmetry to the bidding system of land consolidation by designing Information display mechanism;implementing the survival of the fittest among the participant of the bidding system of land consolidation;establishing the constraints of public interest objectives and enhancing the power of collective choices;strengthening the government functions of system construction and increasing the process of market and socialization of the bidding system of land consolidation.%招投标作为土地整治交易的重要制度,将引致交易费用,按照制度经济学理论,可以从信息对称性、委托-代理关系、博弈、外部性四个维度对土地整治招投标进行交易费用分析。在土地整治招投标中,存在围标串标失控、投标人失信、代理机构失德、政府部门失位等问题。基于交易费用理论,应当设计信息显示机制,降低信息不对称对土地整治招投标的影响;建立信用长效约束机制,对土地整治招投标参与者实行优胜劣汰;树立公共利益目标约束,增强集体选择力量;强化政府制度建设职能,促进土地整治招投标的市场化和社会化进程。

  11. Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Coverage and Payment for Renal Dialysis Services Furnished to Individuals With Acute Kidney Injury, End-Stage Renal Disease Quality Incentive Program, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program Bid Surety Bonds, State Licensure and Appeals Process for Breach of Contract Actions, Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies Competitive Bidding Program and Fee Schedule Adjustments, Access to Care Issues for Durable Medical Equipment; and the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    This rule updates and makes revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System (PPS) for calendar year 2017. It also finalizes policies for coverage and payment for renal dialysis services furnished by an ESRD facility to individuals with acute kidney injury. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD Quality Incentive Program, including the inclusion of new quality measures beginning with payment year (PY) 2020 and provides updates to programmatic policies for the PY 2018 and PY 2019 ESRD QIP. This rule also implements statutory requirements for bid surety bonds and state licensure for the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) Competitive Bidding Program (CBP). This rule also expands suppliers' appeal rights in the event of a breach of contract action taken by CMS, by revising the appeals regulation to extend the appeals process to all types of actions taken by CMS for a supplier's breach of contract, rather than limit an appeal for the termination of a competitive bidding contract. The rule also finalizes changes to the methodologies for adjusting fee schedule amounts for DMEPOS using information from CBPs and for submitting bids and establishing single payment amounts under the CBPs for certain groupings of similar items with different features to address price inversions. Final changes also are made to the method for establishing bid limits for items under the DMEPOS CBPs. In addition, this rule summarizes comments on the impacts of coordinating Medicare and Medicaid Durable Medical Equipment for dually eligible beneficiaries. Finally, this rule also summarizes comments received in response to a request for information related to the Comprehensive ESRD Care Model and future payment models affecting renal care.

  12. ANALISIS REAKSI INVESTOR TERHADAP PENGUMUMAN RIGHT ISSUE DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA (Suatu Pengamatan pada Return, Abnormal Return, Aktivitas Volume Perdagangan dan Bid-Ask Spread Saham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI DEWI YUSUF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Development of stock market activity, which grows very fast lead to significant changes on the demand of information quality. To make the rational investor decision making, it is needed a relevant information in order to identify any work of the company. Event study is a study which analyze any market reactions toward an event which the information is published as announcement. Right issue announcement can affect market, it is depent on the existence of the content of the information in the right issue announcement above. If the right issue announcement contains some information so the market will react and the market won’t react if no information. The research sample is determined by a purposive sampling method, and there are 17 companies which announce right issue between 2000-2003. Statistical experiment used is T-test experiment (paired two samples for means. The Observation period which is done in 11 day, consist of 5 day before, 1 day in the moment, and 5 day after the announce right issue. Results show that there is a significant difference between return and abnormal return in the period of between at the moment, and after the announce right issue. The result in the before-after announce right issue period shows that there is no significant difference. The result in the variable activity of stock’s trade volume shows that there is signification difference in the before-at the moment and after period, but in the result of before-after period show that there is no significant difference there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is no significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of announce right issue, but in the before-after period the result shows that there is no significant different there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is no significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of announce right issue, but in the before-after period

  13. 我国申办冬奥会的宣传策略%Publicity Strategy of Chinese Bidding for the Winter Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 田郁玫

    2014-01-01

    冬奥会是奥林匹克运动的重要组成部分,通过申办冬奥会传播体育文化,是体育服务人类文明发展的重要内容。向人民积极宣传申办冬奥会对于我国的重要政治、经济、文化意义,提倡公众以实际行动来支持申办冬奥会,具有重要的文化建设意义。以文化为先导的申奥宣传策略,内聚人心,外塑形象,往往能达到很好的宣传效果。论述了从提升我国体育及冬季体育软实力、推动冰雪运动大众化、促进志愿者深入发挥作用等角度进行申奥宣传,并整合宣传方式,采用多元化、体验式、阶段性等宣传手段,增强宣传效应。用高品味的文化宣传,探索文化的冬奥会宣传策略,提升国民体育文化素质,塑造我国体育文化形象。%Winter Olympics is an important part of Olympic Games,and bidding for the Winter Olympics can disseminate the sports culture as a service content for human civilization development. It's significant for the cultural construction to publicize the effect of bidding for the Winter Olympics on Chinese politics,economy and culture,to encourage the public to support it with concrete actions. With the public cohesion and the image-building,the culture-oriented strategy of bidding for the Winter Olympics can get a good effect of publicity. The paper discusses how to take the publicity from improving Chinese sports and winter sports soft power,advancing the popularization of ice-snow sports,enhancing the volunteers, role,how to reinforce the advertising effect from integrating the means of diversified experience in different stages. It suggests taking high-quality culture promotion to look for the publicity strategy,to improve the national quality of sports culture,to build the cultural image of Chinese sports.

  14. 应用BIM技术制定装饰工程投标方案的方法研究%Research on the Bidding Scheme Methods with the Application of BIM in Decoration Engineering Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗兰; 彭中要

    2016-01-01

    Taking one decoration engineering that win the bidding by applying BIM as a typical case,the paper first makes an analysis on the current situation of BIM application in the decoration engineering projects and the difficulties existed in the application of BIM at the bidding stage. Then,explains the importance of the requirements and conditions of the bidding documents,points out that should analyze the bidding party application requirements of the BIM and engineering characteristics,make BIM application plan from all directions. Moreover,summarizes the methods to apply BIM in the whole construction process.%以某建筑装饰工程应用BIM中标为典型案例,通过梳理当前装饰工程BIM应用的现状和投标阶段应用BIM技术的障碍,说明招标文件要求和条件的重要性,指出应分析招标方的BIM应用需求及工程特点,制定全方位的BIM应用方案,并总结装饰工程全程应用BIM技术的投标方法.

  15. Thinking on the Tender Response to the Divergences of Bidders in Bidding Process%招标人应对招投标过程中投标人异议问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国民

    2016-01-01

    Through the analysis of the divergent problems in tendering and bidding of engineering materials procurement,the paper elaborates the thinking to resolve these divergences of bidders,including investigating the conformity of project performance,preventing the bid in the name of others,clearing the bid qualification, increasingthe judges of economic class. Then,proposes exploratory thoughts to improve the bidding work of engineering materials procurement. This research can be helpful and referential to the further standardization and scientificity of tendering work on infrastructure engineering materials procurement in the university system.%通过总结工程货物采购招投标过程中常见的异议问题,阐述应对相关问题的对策思考,包括审查业绩符合度、防范以他人名义投标、明晰投标资格设定、增加经济类评委。然后,提出改进工程货物采购招标工作的探索思路,为高校系统基建工程货物采购招标工作进一步规范化、科学化推进提供了借鉴。

  16. 工程招标过程中业主方风险分析与对策研究%Countermeasures Study and Risk Analysis of the Tenderee in Project Bidding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党济深

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically summarized the typical risks faced by the tenderee during the project bidding process, re-vealing the hidden risk issues comprehensively. On this basis, the causes of these risks were analyzed from all respects, then a systematic study of risk control in bidding process was carried out. In order to regulate the bidding behavior, perfect the inter-nal control, prevent fraud and provide reference for improving the quality and effectiveness of bidding.%针对工程招标过程中业主面临的常见风险进行了全面、系统的梳理,将较为隐蔽的风险事项全面揭示出来,在此基础上,对各类风险的成因进行了分析,从澄清对招标活动的认识、完善内部控制、优化管理机制的角度,提出对策和措施,以期对业主进一步完善招标活动的内部控制,改进招标工作质量与效果,提供参考。

  17. The cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily (BID) vs insulin lispro three times daily (TID) as add-on therapy to titrated insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, J.; McEwan, P.; Sabale, U.; Kartman, B.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily (BID) vs bolus insulin lispro three times daily (TID) as add-on therapy when glycemic control is sub-optimal with titrated basal insulin glargine and metformin. Methods: The analysis was based on the recent 4B Study, which compar

  18. 建设工程招标文件不公平的表现形式及对策研究%Research on the Unfair Form and Countermeasure of Construction Project Bidding Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚

    2016-01-01

    The unfair phenomenon in the bidding document has seriously affected the normal development of the bidding activities. In this paper,analyzes the unfair form in the bidding documents,including sit in the right seat, tailor-made and so on seven forms. Then,clarifies the connotation of the principle of fairness,and puts forward the measures and ways to avoid unfair appearance,in order to safeguard the fairness of the bidding market order and truly safeguard the interests of the bidder.%招标文件中出现的不公平现象,严重影响建设工程招投标活动的正常开展。分析招标文件中的对号入座、量身订做等七种不公平的表现形式,厘清公平原则的内涵,提出避免不公平出现的措施和办法,以维护公平公正的招投标市场秩序,真正维护投标人利益。

  19. Practice and Analysis on 2nd-time Bidding and Purchasing of Examination Reagents%检验试剂二次招标采购实践与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高毅; 陈岚; 邵缀芬; 蒋刚华

    2012-01-01

    The actual significance of 2nd-time bidding and purchasing of examination reagents is explored. The features and advantages of standard examination reagents bidding and purchasing are analyzed. The 2nd -time bidding and purchasing is one kind of innovations and practices for recuperations in a new era, and the importance is discussed on rectifying the current situation that examination reagents are used and purchased by the same departments, whose responsibilities are related to interests, on establishing scientific bidding and purchasing mechanism, on preventing unethical practices in drug and pharmaceutical purchasing and sale, and on improving economic effects and saving purchase costs of sanatoriums.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2012,33(6):97-98]%探讨了检验试剂二次招标采购的实际意义,分析了规范检验试剂招标采购的特点、优势,指出了检验试剂二次招标采购是新时期疗养工作的一种创新与实践,在纠正检验试剂使用与采购责权混淆状况、建立科学的招标采购机制、防范医药购销领域的不正之风、提高经济效益以及节约采购成本方面具有重要作用.

  20. Study on construction project bidding risk management%建设项目招投标风险管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 张晓天; 韩方元

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at the risk of project management in the organization may encounter in the process of risk identification,estimation,evaluation and control are expounded and summarized,and the engineering construction project bidding risk identification and estimation,and puts forward some management measures,control and management of the implementation of the construction project is of great significance.%针对项目管理组织中存在的风险,从风险识别、估计、评价以及控制过程等方面进行了阐述,通过对工程建设项目招投标风险的识别和估计,提出了风险的控制和管理措施,对建设项目的实施具有一定意义。

  1. Some Problems in Garden Engineering Construction Project Bidding%园林工程建设项目招投标若干问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔思成

    2014-01-01

    Construction project bidding system not only promotes the implementation of the preparatory work before construction, it also strengthens the construction management of engineering projects to a certain extent, and enhances the quality consciousness of construction unit which is of great significance in shortening construction period, standardizing the order of construction site and control ing material price, and so on.%招投标制度不仅推动了施工项目在开工前各项准备工作的落实,在一定程度上也加强了对工程项目的施工管理,增强了施工单位的质量意识,对缩短工程工期、规范施工现场秩序、控制材料价格等方面有非常重要的意义。

  2. 建筑工程招投标阶段造价控制分析%Analysis of Cost Control in the Construction Project Bidding Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海英

    2014-01-01

    本文分析了建筑工程招投标造价控制的现状,阐述了造价控制的内容和特点,揭示了招投标阶段造价控制方面存在的一些问题,并提出了改善建筑工程招投标阶段造价控制的措施,以供读者参考。%This article expounds the content and character of cost control through analyzes the current situation of cost control in the construction project bidding stage, and pointes out some problems existing in the cost control and puts forward some improvement measures for reference.

  3. My Humble Opinion Based on the Construction Project Bidding Problem from the Owner%基于业主角度的建筑项目招投标问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓霞; 靖海如; 童如娟

    2012-01-01

      随着我国经济水平及综合国力的不断提高市场经济也在不断的发展,建筑工程项目逐渐发展成了我国的支柱产业之一。然而建筑项目并不是那么简单的,建筑项目投招标问题就是一种激烈的竞争方式。经常会在经济上出现一些纠纷问题。在建筑项目中实施投招标其目的主要是要营造一种公平、公正、公开的市场竞争环境,可以使我国建筑市场的秩序得以有效进行,本文就站在业主的角度来分析投招标问题,并采取一些管理措施及建议。%  along with our country economy level and the comprehensive national strength continuously improving and market economy also in constant development, construction engineering projects gradual y developed into one of the pil ar industry in China. However construction project is not so sim-ple, and construction project bid/bidding documents problem is a kind of competition mode. Some dispute problems often app-ear on the economy. In construction project implementation, the goal of bid/bidding documents is to create a fair, just and open market competition environment, which can make the or-der of China's construction market is effectively, this paper wi-l stand in the perspective of the owner, analyze the bid/bidd-ing documents problems, and take some management measu-res and Suggestions.

  4. Sevoflurane Post-conditioning Protects Primary Rat Cortical Neurons Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Resuscitation: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Bid, Bim, Puma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Xiaochun; Jiang, Xiaojing

    2015-08-01

    Temporal post-conditioning to induce neuroprotection against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury insult is considered to be an effective intervention, but the exact mechanisms of sevoflurane post-conditioning are poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in the cell growth and proliferation. The essential axis of activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s) and BAX, BAK in activating the mitochondrial death program might offer common ground for cell death signal. We hypothesized that, sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit the expression of Bid, Bim and Puma and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to reduce neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1 h and resuscitation for 24 h (OGD/R). The assays of MTT, propidium iodide uptake, JC-1 fluorescence and western blot demonstrated that OGD/R exposure reduced cell viability, increased cell death, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the expressions of Bid, Bim, and Puma. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation could partially attenuate 2 % of sevoflurane post-conditioning mediated increase in neuronal viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, and also a decrease in cell death and expression of Bid, Bim and Puma after OGD/R treatment. The results demonstrated that, the protection of sevoflurane post-conditioning markedly reducing death of cortical neurons exposed to OGD/R could be correlated with down-regulation of Bid, Bim and Puma expression mediated by phosphorylation/activation of Erk1/2.

  5. Analysis bidding agency Situation and Development Strategy%浅析招标代理机构发展现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁圆

    2012-01-01

    随着我国经济社会发展以及《中国招标投标法》等法律法规的实施,招标代理机构如雨后春笋般在全国各地开展招标代理活动,一方面为我国经济发展做出了一定的贡献,另一方面招标代理机构在发展过程中也产生了诸多问题,这些问题将直接影响招标代理机构的可持续发展,本文将分析招标代理行业发展的现状,并对其可持续发展提出相应对策与建议。%With the development of China's economic and social as well as the implementation of "China Bidding Law" and other related laws and regulations, the tendering agency mushroomed across the country with the tender agent, on the one hand, to make a certain contribution to China's economic development, on the other tender agencies produced many problems in the development process. These problems will directly affect the sustainable development of the bidding agency; the paper will analyze the development status of the tender agent industry, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable development of the tendering agency.

  6. Analysis of Information Disclosure Impact on Bidding Strategies for Generation Companies%信息披露对发电商竞价策略影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩强; 刘琰; 丁乐群; 王宇拓; 徐越

    2012-01-01

    信息对每一个市场都有触发交易、引导竞争的基础性作用。在电力市场建设的过程中,信息的充分程度、准确性、时效性、获得信息的成本、利用信息的能力以及公平程度都会对市场参与者产生较大的影响。为此,从信息经济学基本理论入手,运用博弈论的方法对电力交易中发电侧成员在不同的信息充分度下所采取的竞价策略进行分析,研究了信息对电力交易发电侧竞价策略的影响。%Information plays a basic role of triggering transactions and competition guide in each market. In the process of building the electricity market, information adequacy, accuracy, timeliness, cost of access to information, the ability to use information and the fairness will have great impact on the market participants. Therefore, from the basic theory of information economics, this paper applies the game theory to analyze bidding strategies adopted by generation side members in different degrees of information in electricity trading, and studies the impact of information on the bidding strategy for generation side of electricity trading.

  7. Dynamic fall ratio consecutive batch bidding model of non-cooperative mode%非合作模式下动态下浮比例连续批次投标报价模型二

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯卫兵

    2015-01-01

    为研究企业在非合作模式下、动态下浮比例时相邻两批货物的投标报价问题,并且提高企业投标的中标率,提出了理想基准价及最优报价比的概念,通过马尔科夫分析得到历史数据中各包每类货物平均报价,以此为基础建立了非合作模式下、不同时间连续批次货物、动态下浮比例时相邻两批货物最优报价值的比关系模型,并对最优报价比公式进行改进。以此模型为基础开发了投标报价软件,将其应用于某国有大型企业的项目招标中。使用本模型进行投标的公司在2014年6批次报价中每批次平均中标率从原来的6.02%提高到26.5%,全年6批次报价中标率均稳定,取得了理想的结果。结果表明:报价模型较好的解决了传统静态报价模型预测精度底,没有考虑到不同批次报价延续性等问题,同时模型提高了中标率,而且有很强的稳健性。%This paper studied the bidding model on the basis of interval average downward float bilateral curve bidding algorithm. The concept of the ideal benchmark price and optimal bidding was first pro-posed and then the historical data in each packet of each kind of commodity prices were obtained through Markov average. Based on that,the paper established the optimal bidding values proportion mod-els of non cooperative mode between successive batches of goods at different times and between two goods of dynamic fall ratio. The bidding software taking the model as the foundation was developed and applied in a certain project bid invitation of a state-owned large enterprise. The enterprise’s average bid quotation rate of each batch among the 6 batches in 2014 was increased from 6 . 02% to 26 . 5%,and the bid acceptance rates of 6 batches in the whole year were stable. The bidding model gives a better solu-tion to the problems of the traditional static model,such as low accuracy and without taking into account

  8. The Research of the Optimization of Bid Quotation Scheme Based on Entropy Weight and Multi-objective Optimization Model%基于熵权和多目标优化的投标报价方案优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南铁雷

    2016-01-01

    随着招标投标制的推行以及工程量清单计价方式的实施,我国水利工程建设市场面临着越来越激烈的竞争,投标人为了在尽可能中标的同时实现利益的最大化,往往采用不平衡报价法进行投标。这不仅对发包人的经济利益造成损害,还扰乱了招投标的正常秩序,因此发包人在评标阶段要对各投标方案进行优选。本文将熵权理论引入多目标优化的数学模型中,利用熵权法较为客观地确定各指标权重,并通过分析计算各投标方案与理想点间的相对海明距离,确定各投标方案的不平衡度,从而达到优选投标方案的目的。案例分析表明,该方法准确有效,能够为招标人评标提供参考和依据。%With the implementation of the bidding system and the implementation of the bill of quantities, the competition in the construction market of water conservancy projects is becoming increasingly fierce, the bidder in order to achieve the best possible bidder and achieve the maximum benefits, often using unbalanced bidding method. This not only damages the interests of the employer, but also disrupts the normal order of the bidding. Therefore, the employer in the bid evaluation stage to optimize the tender scheme. In this paper, the author introduced the theory of entropy weight into the mathematical model of multi-objective optimization, and used it to determine the index weight objectively. Then the author analysed and calculated the Relative Hamming Distance of each bidding scheme and the ideal point, and determined the degree of imbalance in the tender. Thereby we can select the best winner. The case analysis shows that the method is accurate and effective, and can provide reference and basis for the bid evaluation.

  9. 考虑碳排放成本的备用市场竞价模型%A reserve market bidding model considering carbon emission costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施泉生; 李士动; 张涛

    2014-01-01

    以电力低碳化发展趋势为背景,以备用资源优化配置为目的,提出了能够体现碳减排因素的备用市场竞价模型。该模型建立机组备用需求曲线,以考虑容量事故随机性特性和实现多种备用资源的协调配置;应用外部性内在化理论,将边际碳排放成本内置到机组备用报价中,以得到的边际综合成本作为竞价依据,从而反映机组碳排放特性的影响。最后采用供给与需求理论方法获得备用决策最优点。对该竞价方法与传统竞价方法进行了比较,比较结果证明该方法可以找到最优的备用配置点,同时具有碳减排激励作用。该方法兼顾了备用服务的市场化运营与碳减排要求,算例结果也验证了这一点。%On the background of low carbon trends of electric power sector, a reserve market bidding model considering carbon emission reduction is presented. A reserve demand curve is built firstly, which can consider the uncertainty of contingencies and coordinate the allocation of multiple reserve resources. Internalization of externalities theory is applied and according to which the marginal carbon emissions cost is internalized into the bids to get the marginal overall cost to reflect the affects of carbon emission. Last, supply and demand theory is used to obtain the decision point. The differences of the presented method is compared with the traditional method, results show that the former can realize optimal allocation of reserve resources, and also has incentives to the reduction of carbon emission. Case study demonstrates the presented method can balance both marketing operation of reserve service and carbon emission reduction requirements.

  10. 采购投标文件中的非实质性响应异议问题解析%Analysis of Non-substantive Responses Matters in Purchasing Bidding Document

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国民

    2011-01-01

    分析投标文件中资格条件、商务要求、技术标准部分所出现的非实质性响应招标文件条件要求的几个异议问题,并提出相应建议,为招标人科学编制招标文件,同时也为投标人改善投标提供借鉴.%Analyzes the non-substantive responses matters which often occurs in the bidding documents for bidders'qualification, business requirements and technical standard and so on, and puts forward corresponding suggestions.These suggestions can be used for reference for tenders to compile the scientific tendering documents and for bidders to improve their bidding documents as well.

  11. Comparison and Choice of Commodity Purchase Bid Evaluation Method for Construction Installation Engineering%建筑安装工程中货物采购评标方法的比较与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永萍

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the equity of commodity purchase bidding of construction installation engineering,aiming at the features of commodity purchase of construction installation engineering, the paper researches the applied scope, features of commodity purchase bid evaluation method, as well as the key points which should be pay attention to in construction installation engineering.%为了提高建筑安装工程中货物采购招投标活动的公平性和公正性,针对建筑安装工程中货物采购的特点,就建筑安装工程中货物采购评标方法的适用范围、特点以及评标时的注意要点等方面进行探讨.

  12. Analysis on bidding parts preparation of curtain wall project tender documents%幕墙工程招标文件的投标报价部分编制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明娟

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzed the setting ways of comprehensive unit price analysis table in outer decorative curtain wall engineering ten-dering and bidding documents,and discussed in detail the shall be clearly quote part of other aspects bidding documents,in order to reasonably and effectively control the project cost.%主要分析了外装饰幕墙工程招标文件中综合单价分析表设置方式,并对招标文件中投标报价部分应明确的其他方面内容进行了详细说明,以合理有效的控制工程造价。

  13. Discussion on unbalanced bid and coping strategy under bill pricing mode%清单计价模式下不平衡报价及应对策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新杰; 侯庆德

    2011-01-01

    从建设单位角度,介绍了不平衡报价的常见做法,分析了存在的原因及后果,结合实践提出了几点实用的不平衡报价应对策略,以维护建设方正常利益和市场秩序,促进建筑业健康发展。%From the perspective of construction unit, this paper introduced the common method of unbalanced bid, analysed the existed reasons and consequences, combining with the practice put forward a few practical unbalanced bid coping strategies, so as to maintenance the normal profit of construction party and market order, promoted the healthy development of construction industry.

  14. 浅析环卫设备检测在招标采购中的重要作用%Important Role of Environmental Sanitation Equipment Inspection in Bidding Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华旸; 王晓燕

    2011-01-01

    According to introducing test items for common environmental sanitation equipments, such as plastic bins, road sweeper, and waste compressing equipment, and analyzing typical cases of bidding procurement of plastic bins for the Olympic Games and renovation project of environmental sanitation vehicles for Chaoyang district, the important role of inspection work in bidding procurement of environmental sanitation equipments was illuminated.%通过对常见环卫设备(塑料垃圾桶、扫路机、垃圾压缩设备)检测项目的介绍,以及奥运招标采购塑料垃圾桶、朝阳环卫黄标车改造项目的典型案例分析,说明了检测工作在环卫设备招标采购中的重要作用.

  15. 基于核心竞争力的招标代理机构发展策略探讨%Based on the Core Competitiveness of the Bidding Agency Development Strategy to Discuss (PENG Ying)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭莹

    2011-01-01

    Bidding agency in the fierce competition to obtain sustainable competitive advantage, root end lies in the cultivation of their own core competitiveness. In this paper, the bidding agency the connotation of core competence on the basis of the analysis, discusses the influence factors and imnrovement strategy.%招标代理机构要在激烈的竞争中获得持续的竞争优势,归根到底在于培育自己的核心竞争力。本文在对招标代理机构核心竞争力的内涵进行分析的基础上,着重论述了其影响因素和提升策略。

  16. 医院招投标管理服务系统的开发与应用%Development and application of the bidding service system for hospital management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design the application software of hospital material bidding pro-curement and management , for realization systematization and standardization in hospital bidding management .Methods Based on the microsoft .Net Framework 4.0 as development platform ,with Windows 7 operating system as the default platform , the function module and flow logic were set combining with the characteristics of hospital procurement management process according to the re -quirement and regulation of purchasing management .Results The bidding procurement in a series of preparation works gets standardized , the scene in implementation of the tender assessment gets specified , and management of hospital supplies procurement gets intelligent .Conclusion The effi-ciency and degree of standardization in the hospital material bidding procurement process are greatly improved .%目的:设计开发医院物资招标采购管理应用软件,实现医院招标采购管理的智能化、规范化。方法以Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0作为开发平台,以Windows 7操作系统为默认平台,按照采购管理法规监管的要求,结合医院采购管理流程特点设置功能模块和流转逻辑,开发医院招投标管理服务系统。结果系统应用实现了招标采购系列准备工作标准化、招标现场的评审实施规范化、采购资料管理智能化。结论系统应用提高了医院物资招标采购管理的工作效率和正规化程度。

  17. Analysis on Preventing Collusion in Project Bidding and Tendering Based on Prisoner's Dilemma Game%基于“囚徒困境”博弈的防范工程招投标合谋研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先甲; 肖露

    2013-01-01

    提出一种防范工程招投标中招标代理与投标人合谋的新策略,即同时派出两个招标代理审查投标人,使两个招标代理陷入“囚徒困境”博弈中以保证其报告真实.进而针对该策略成本太高的缺点,通过使两者处于不对称信息环境下,进一步改进了该“囚徒困境”博弈.据此,只要招标人设定适当的奖励和惩罚机制,就能在一定程度上阻止招标代理与投标人合谋.%This paper proposes a new strategy to prevent the collusion between the bidding agent and the tenderer in project bidding and tendering,namely sends two bidding agents to review the tenderer at the same time,and lets them fall into prisoner's dilemma game in order to make sure that they report truly.Furthermore,according to the disadvantage of high cost of this strategy,it improves this prisoner's dilemma game through making them be in asymmetric information environment.In this case,as long as the bidder sets proper reward and punishment mechanism,the problem of the collusion between the bidding agent and the tenderer to a certain extent could be solved.

  18. Sevoflurane post-conditioning protects primary rat cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/resuscitation via down-regulation in mitochondrial apoptosis axis of Bid, Bim, Puma-Bax and Bak mediated by Erk1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Sun, Wen-Bo; Li, Rui; Jiang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-10-15

    Temporal post-conditioning helps provide neuroprotection against brain injury secondary to ischemia-reperfusion and is considered an effective intervention, but the exact mechanism of sevoflurane post-conditioning is unclear. The essential axis involves activator Bid, Bim, Puma (BH3s), Bax, and Bak; activates the mitochondrial death program; and might be involved in a cell death signal. Extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) play a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. We hypothesized that sevoflurane post-conditioning might inhibit Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression and is activated by phosphor-Erk1/2 to decrease neuronal death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cortical neuron cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1h, along with resuscitation for 24h (OGD/R). MTT assays, propidium iodide uptake (PI), JC-1 fluorescence, and Western blot indicated the following: decreased cell viability (PPuma, Bax, and Bak expression with OGD/R exposure. Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation could attenuate sevoflurane post-conditioning that mediated an increase in neuronal viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as a decrease in cell death and Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak expression after OGD/R treatment. The results demonstrated that sevoflurane post-conditioning caused a marked decrease in cortical neuronal death secondary to OGD/R exposure through the downregulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis axis involving Bid, Bim, Puma, Bax, and Bak that was mediated by the phosphorylation/activation of Erk1/2.

  19. On tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model%工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度发展的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2009-01-01

    介绍了工程量清单计价的含义和工程量清单的分类,阐述了工程量清单计价模式下招投标活动遵循的原则及其对招投标机制的促进作用,并对工程量清单招标的相关问题进行了探讨并提出建议,以期完善工程量清单计价模式下招投标制度.%The paper introduces definition of quantity pricing and classification of quantity list, it states rules that must be follow under quantity pricing modal and it' s pushing effects to completion of tendering and bidding system, it also discusses about problems of tendering and bidding system development under quantity pricing model and proposes relative suggestion, so as to consummate tendering and bidding system under quantity pricing model.

  20. 工程保险无标底招标报价基准研究%The Study on Project Insurance the Non-price Bottom Bidding Quotation Benchmark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志刚; 郑伟; 白荣霞

    2012-01-01

    在工程项目保险招投标时,标底在评标过程中对业主项目预算管理和中标者的利益有着荭接影响。目前为止,保险招标中,站在第三方立场上:,既考虑客观的市场反应又考虑投标人投标报价的整体水平的报价基准研究较少,研究保险招标中具有切实可行、易操作、较客观的报价基准确定方法成为在项目操作过程中亟待解决的问题。%In the large scale project insurance bidding, pricing benchmark will directly affect the owners' budges managemen and the interests of the winning bidder. So far, during the insurance bid, there is less study on pricing benchmark which considers bc,th objective market response and the bids price overall level standing in the third party position, How to solve this problem both practical ,easy to operate and more objective in the process of insurance project will be Concerned.

  1. 浅析工程量清单计价模式下标后预算的编制%Analysis of Preparation of Budget after Bidding under the Bill of Quantities Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗皓

    2011-01-01

    标后预算是企业确定项目责任成本目标和项目经理部编制成本控制计划的依据,对企业降低施工过程中的各种生产消耗,提高经济效益起着十分重要的作用.文章阐述了标后预算的概念和费用构成,分析了标后预算的作用和编制原则,提出了标后预算编制中应注意的问题.%Budget after bidding, which is the basis for project responsibility cost targets and cost control plan, plays an extremely important role in reducing various production consumption in construction process of various production cost and improving the economic benefit of enterprise. This paper expounds the concept and expenses constitute of budget after bidding, analyzes the role of budget after bidding and staffing principle, and puts forward the problem that should notice.

  2. The Intentionality Bidding Practicing in Medical Apparatus and Instruments Purchasing%医疗器械采购实行意向性招标的管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丹华

    2012-01-01

      The medical apparatus and instruments coming into the hospital are unceasingly upgraded along with the medical techniques unceasingly advancement, purchasing the medical apparatus and instruments is very important to reduce the price and ensure quality , enhance the medical institution , reduce the medical costs, relieve the disorders medical burden, improve the medical quality of service and so on. So our hospital suggests carrying out the intentionality bidding in purchasing the medical apparatus and instruments.%  随着医疗技术的不断进步,进入医院的医疗器械也不断更新换代,医疗器械的采购管理很重要,既要降低采购价格又要保障质量。因此,我院在医疗器械采购管理方面提出要实行院内意向性招标的方案。

  3. Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in the Iran electricity market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K. [EE Department, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran); Amjady, N. [EE Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran)

    2009-06-15

    Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in Iran electricity market as a market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism has been considered in this paper. The data analysis procedure includes both correlation and predictability analysis of the most important load and price indices. The employed data are the experimental time series from Iran electricity market in its real size and is long enough to make it possible to take properties such as non-stationarity of market into account. For predictability analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and recurrence plots of the data have been investigated. The results of these analyses indicate existence of deterministic chaos in addition to non-stationarity property of the system which implies short-term predictability. In the next step, two artificial neural networks have been developed for forecasting the two price indices in Iran's electricity market. The models' input sets are selected regarding four aspects: the correlation properties of the available data, the critiques of Iran's electricity market, a proper convergence rate in case of sudden variations in the market price behavior, and the omission of cumulative forecasting errors. The simulation results based on experimental data from Iran electricity market are representative of good performance of the developed neural networks in coping with and forecasting of the market behavior, even in the case of severe volatility in the market price indices. (author)

  4. 关于施工企业投标报价几个问题的探讨%Discussion on Several Problems of Construction Enterprises Bidding Quotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小群

    2013-01-01

      随着我国经济体制转轨步伐的加快,工程造价改革成效显著,实现了由定额计价模式转向工程量清单计价模式的转变。本文对我国目前施工企业投标报价与企业成本价的界定作了阐述,强调施工企业投标报价不能低于成本价以及低于成本价报价的严重后果,使企业走向规范的、良性发展的道路。%Along with the pace of China's economic system tr-ansition is speeding up, the effectiveness of the reform of engi-neering cost is significant, achieved by the quota valuation mode to change the mode of valuation with bill of quantities. This thesis expounds the definition of China's current tender of er of construction enterprise and enterprise cost, emphasi-zing the bidding in construction enterprises should not be lo-wer than the cost price and the serious consequences of a price lower than the cost price, to enable enterprises went standa-rdize road and benign development.

  5. Granzyme H induces cell death primarily via a Bcl-2-sensitive mitochondrial cell death pathway that does not require direct Bid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Catherine L; Kane, Kevin P; Bleackley, R Chris

    2013-07-01

    Natural killer and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is important for the elimination of viruses and transformed cells. The granule lytic pathway utilizes perforin and granzymes to induce cell death, while receptor-mediated lytic pathways rely on molecules such as FasL. Pro-apoptotic activities of Granzyme B (GrB) and Fas are well-established, and many of their cellular targets have been identified. However, humans express additional related granzymes - GrA, GrM, GrK, and GrH. Neither the cytotoxic potential of GrH, nor the mechanism by which GrH may induce target cell death is currently understood. We proposed that GrH would have pro-apoptotic activity that would be distinct from that of GrB and FasL, which could be relevant when Fas/FasL or GrB activity or death pathways were impaired. Our results, using a purified recombinant form of GrH, revealed that GrH induced cell death via a Bcl-2-sensitive mitochondrial pathway without direct processing of Bid. Additionally, neither the apoptosome nor caspase-3 was essential to the induction of GrH-mediated cell death. However, GrH did directly process DFF45, potentially leading to DNA damage. Our findings support the idea that multiple, non-redundant death pathways may be initiated by cytotoxic cells to counteract various immune evasion strategies.

  6. Could what that ESCO sales rep said really be true? Savings realization rates in ESPC versus bid-to-spec projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Philip; Earni, Shankar; Williams, Charles

    2014-08-11

    Claims that savings realization is greater in energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are rampant at least among energy service company representatives and other ESPC cheerleaders. But hard supporting evidence for these claims has been virtually non-existent. The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program uses its Compliance Tracking System (CTS) database to document the performance of federal buildings and projects towards meeting various federal energy-saving goals. This paper focuses on preliminary analysis from CTS to understand and compare the performance of federal ESPCs with projects that have been implemented with more conventional government appropriations funding. The authors have found preliminary evidence using CTS that shows markedly higher savings realization rates among ESPC projects than appropriations-funded ones. There are numerous caveats to the data comparison that clamor for further study, but the difference is still intriguing. If borne out, this finding will provide concrete support to the idea that ESPCs guarantees and measurement and verification, long touted by energy service companies (ESCOs) as offering savings assurance, may truly yield substantial benefits. If ESPCs actually do perform better (i.e., have higher realization rates and savings persistence) than conventional bid-to-spec projects, the perceived premium for conducting them may look like a very good deal after all.

  7. 强制要约收购中的中小股东利益保护研究%Minority Shareholders′ Protection in Mandatory Bid Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳璐

    2011-01-01

    With the introduction of Mandatory Bid Rule in China,the situation of the acquirer and its minority shareholders are becoming worse while the minority shareholders of the target company are becoming better.This paper analyzes the shortage of the system and tries to provide some solutions,such as establishing the exemption system in tender offer,regulating the agreement of shareholders′ meeting and so on.%强制要约收购制度引入我国后,在保护目标公司中小股东利益的同时,也在一定程度上损害了收购方及其中小股东的利益,阻碍了收购的进行。因此,在肯定该制度价值的同时,需要对其予以完善,主要是通过对收购方要约收购的豁免制度以及须经股东会同意通过的制度安排等,来平衡收购方与被收购方之间利益的平衡。

  8. 电动汽车代理在电力市场的最优竞标策略%Optimal Bidding Strategy of a Electric Vehicle Aggregator in Electricity Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫鑫; 林涛; 苏秉华

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Withrapid development of electricity market and electric vehicle (EV),EVaggregator can help EV usersto decrease charging costs by bidding in electricity market. Bidding model of an aggregatorparticipating in day-ahead and real-time electricity market was proposed with objective of minimizing charging costs while satisfying EVs' flexible demand.The aggregator was assumed to potentially influence pricesinday-ahead and real-time market.Bidding strategy of the aggregator was formulated as a bi-level model,withthe upper level model representingcharging cost minimization of the aggregator, whereas the lower level model representing market clearing providingmarket price and energy for the upper level model.Bids of other market participants and EV driving pattern werenotknown to the aggregator in advance. They were seen as fuzzy variables and random variables. Uncertainty theory was used to solve thisrandom-fuzzy programming problem. A numerical example was used to illustrate feasibility of the proposed method.The results indicate that the bidding strategycandecrease EVs’charging costs effectively.%电力市场的发展以及电动汽车的大规模应用,使得电动汽车代理能够通过参与市场竞标减少电动汽车用户的充电成本。在此背景下,以电动汽车代理竞标行为会影响市场电价为前提,将其他竞标者的报价参数作为模糊变量,电动汽车行为视为随机变量,构造了电动汽车代理参与日前和实时电能市场的二层竞标策略模型,上层以充电成本最低为目标决策最优竞标策略,下层为日前和实时电能市场的出清模型。该竞标策略模型包含了随机和模糊两类不确定变量,属于随机模糊规划问题,采用基于不确定理论的方法求解。算例分析说明了模型及求解算法的有效性,其结果表明所提竞标策略能够有效降低电动汽车充电成本。

  9. 集中招标采购对西药基本药物临床应用的影响%Effect of Centralized Purchasing by Invitation to Bid on Clinical Use of Essential Western Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政; 高佳莹; 杜瑜

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical use of essential western medicines in a hospital before and after the imple-mentation of centralized purchasing by invitation to bid for references of carrying out the system of centralized purchasing by invita-tion to bid and the essential drug system. METHODS:The clinical use of essential western medicines in a hospital in Fujian prov-ince before and after centralized purchasing of the 7th batch of drugs by invitation to bid was analyzed statistically with regard to the consumption sum,DDDs,DDC,etc. RESULTS:The implementation of centralized purchasing by invitation to bid resulted in reduction of the average cost of essential drugs by about 40% and decrease of the proportion of the consumption sum by about 50% but increase of DDDs by about 10%. CONCLUSIONS:Centralized purchasing by invitation to bid can promote clinical use of the essential drugs,however,it has problems. It is advisable to improve the system of the centralized purchasing by invitation to bid,further improve the cost-limitation mechanism,standardize the bidding mode,guarantee drug supply,strengthen supervision on drug dispensing and delivery meanwhile attaching importance to the management on the essential drugs,the implementation of the essential drug system and the promotion of clinical use of the essential drugs.%目的:了解集中招标采购前后某医院西药基本药物的应用情况,为集中招标采购制度和基本药物制度的实施提供参考。方法:调查该院在福建省第7批药品集中招标采购前后的用药情况,对西药基本药物的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行统计分析。结果:集中招标采购使基本药物平均价格下降约40%,销售金额占比下降约50%,但DDDs以10%左右的幅度持续增加。结论:集中招标采购对基本药物临床应用有促进作用,但也存在一些问题。建议完善集中招标采购制度,进一步完

  10. Deregulated expression of A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins and Bid, Bad, and Bax proapoptotic genes in polycythemia vera patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Patricia Lino Gasparotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis deregulation might have a role in the pathophysiology of polycythemia vera (PV. This study evaluated Bcl-2 molecule expression in CD34+ cells and leukocytes in 12 PV patients. Gene expression was investigated by real time PCR using SybrGreen Quantitect kit and protein expression was evaluated by western-blotting. JAK2 V617F mutation was detected according to Baxter et al (2005. CD34+ cells from PV patients presented higher levels of A1 and Mcl-1 expression (median: 22.6 and 5.2, respectively in comparison with controls (0.9 and 0.5, p=0.004 and p=0.020; while Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression decreased in PV patients (0.18 and 1.19 compared with controls (1.39 and 2.01, p=0.006 and p=0.020. CD34+ cells in PV patients showed an elevated Bid expression (14.4 in comparison with healthy subjects (1.0; p=0.002. Patients' leukocytes showed an A1 augmentation (7.41, p=0.001 and a reduced expression of Bax (0.19; p=0.040 and Bad (0.2; p=0.030. There was no correlation between JAK2 V617F allele burden and molecular expression. PV patients showed alterations in Bcl-2 members' expression, which may interfere with control of apoptotic machinery and contribute to disease pathogenesis.A desregulação da apoptose parece participar da fisiopatologia da policitemia vera (PV. Este estudo avaliou a expressão das moléculas da família Bcl-2 em células hematopoéticas CD34 + e leucócitos de 12 pacientes com PV. Foram realizados: a quantificação da expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real utilizando kit Sybrgreen Quantitect, avaliação da expressão de proteínas por western-blot e detecção da mutação JAK2 V617F segundo Baxter et al. (2005. Células CD34 + dos pacientes com PV apresentaram maior expressão de A1 e Mcl-1 (mediana: 22,6 e 5,2, respectivamente em comparação com controles (0,9 e 0,5, p = 0,004 e p = 0,020 e expressão de Bcl-2 e Bcl-xL diminuída nestes pacientes (0,18 e 1,19 em relação aos controles (1,39 e 2,01, p = 0,006 e p = 0

  11. 申奥背景下冬奥会世界竞争格局分析%Structure of Winter Olympics under Background of Olympics Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙

    2015-01-01

    运用数理统计、巴雷托分析等研究方法对冬奥会奖牌分布、竞技强国的优势潜优势项目、优势项目消长率、项目贡献率等进行了统计分析,并着重分析了我国近阶段的冬奥实力,建立了我国冬奥发展基本框架。得出结论:冬奥奖牌分布呈现出地域差异性和两极分化性;冬奥竞技强国优势明显;我国“冰强雪弱”,短道速滑是优势项目。在我国申办2022年冬奥会的大背景下,深入了解冬奥会世界竞技格局,为更有针对性的备战冬奥、发展冰雪运动提供理论依据和数据支撑。%Using methods of mathematical statistics and activity based classification,it analyzed the medal distribution,noticeable and potential advantage projects of power nations,the change of advantage projects and the contributions,upon that the power of China in Winter Olympics recently were discussed to establish the basic framework. The research got a conclusion that the games medal distribution presents the regional difference and polarization; the superiority of powerful sports countries is obvious; short track speed skating is an advantage project in China. In the context of China bid the 2022 Winter Olympics, it will be beneficial to prepare the Winter Olympics to insight the competition pattern and develop the ice and snow sports.

  12. 采用可拓方法的竞价采购模式匹配研究%Research of model matching on bidding procurement based on the extension method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩; 楼志斌; 余文兵; 武平; 熊峰

    2013-01-01

    近几年来,随着B2 B电子采购的发展,竞价采购已成为采购寻源的关键性环节。针对网上竞价采购模式的匹配问题,首先,对竞价成功实施的关键条件进行了分析,并由此确立了竞价采购模式匹配的衡量指标。其次,采用可拓量化方法,建立了可拓物元模型;通过引入关联函数并结合层次分析法确定指标权重,输出了最佳匹配模式和模式识别度。最后,通过某钢铁电商公司的实例,验证了可拓方法的可行性和有效性。%In recent years,with the development of B2B e-procurement,bidding procurement has become a critical part of sour-cing.To solve the problem of model matching for online bidding procurement ,firstly analyzes the key features of the successful bidding implementation ,and thereby establishes the measures for model matching .Secondly it sets up the extension element model by using the quantitative analysis .Followed by the introduction of the correlation function ,and combination with the Analytic Hi-erarchy Process ( AHP) to determine the weight coefficient ,it outputs the best matching model and the degree of model recogni-tion.Finally,through the instance of a steel business company ,it verifies the practicability and effectiveness of the way .

  13. 探索高校招标采购视域下构建制度笼子的路径%Analysis of construction of system cage on college bidding and purchasing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亮; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    Xi Jinping stressed:“We must strengthen the restriction and supervision to exercise of power;put power in the system cage;form the punishment mechanism that not dare to corrupt, prevention mechanism that cannot corrupt, and safeguard mechanism that is not easy to corrupt.”Thus it can be seen that we must pay high attention to institutional construction when deepening construction of a clean and honest government and the anticorruption campaign. This essay, with a view to college bidding and purchasing, analyzes the link of corruption that is easy to cause in the exercise of power and the construction of bidding system in current situation;proposes the countermeasure through perfecting system foundation, environment, structure, etc and the execution of rigidity system;provides a useful reference in order to realize the Scientiifc of system effect and supervision, and effective control integrity risk in the ifeld of bidding and purchasing.%从高校招标采购领域着眼,通过分析权力运行中易引发腐败环节及招标制度建设的现状,提出通过完善制度根基、环境、结构等对策,刚性化制度的执行,为实现制度管用及监督的科学化,为有效防控招标采购领域中的廉政风险提供有益借鉴。

  14. Application of Primavera P6 Software in the International Project Bidding%P6软件在国际工程项目投标中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵胜; 宋丹举

    2013-01-01

    With the vigorously implement of the country“going out”strategy,many domestic construction enterprises begin to go abroad to participate in international competition. Currently physical method was commonly used to quote for the international project bidding. Therefore,accurate determination of the construction strength,number of personnel,machinery and equipment configuration has become the key for accurately measuring construction costs of physical method quotation,thereby leading a successful bidding. This paper describes the planning and determination of the construction strength by using Primavera P6 software in the bidding process of international project,and combined with this software to provide the number of personnel,machinery and equipment for physical method quotation.%随着国家“走出去”战略的大力实施,国内众多建筑施工企业开始走出国门参与国际项目的竞争。目前国际工程项目投标普遍采用实物法进行报价,而准确确定施工强度及人员、机械设备配置数量成为实物法报价准确测算施工成本,进而竞标成功的关键。讲述P6软件在国际工程项目投标过程中计划的编制、施工强度的确定以及结合P6软件为实物法报价提供人员、机械设备数量的应用。

  15. BQ计价模式下工程项目投标报价博弈模型研究%Study of Game-Based Bidding Quotation Model under the Bill of Quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈起俊; 梁宝栋

    2012-01-01

    In improving the accuracy of the analysis of competitors' bidding strategies to improve the successful rate. Project game-based bidding quotation models face with some constraints due to the limitations of assumptions about the rationality and the risk attitudes of the bidders. Because of such considerations, this study relaxes the basic assumption of "risk-neutral" ton the background of the implementation of the new list price model,introduces the bidder's risk attitude factors,establishes the game-based bidding quotation model of the comprehensive evaluation method,and simulates with some real data looking forward to the scientific guidance to the bidders.%工程项目投标报价博弈模型一方面能够提高对竞争对手报价策略分析的准确度和投标中标率,另一方面由于对投标人理性程度、风险态度等假设的局限性,其在投标报价实际应用中也面临着一些约束.基于这种考虑,以清单计价模式的实施为背景,将放松风险中性这一基本假设引入工程项目投标人的风险态度因子,在综合评估法基础上,构建BQ计价模式下的投标报价博弈模型,并通过案例进行模拟分析,以期能科学地指导投标报价.

  16. The Settlement Cost Method under the Bidding Mode of Bill Quantities%工程量清单招投标模式下的结算造价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢翔军

    2014-01-01

    院工程量清单招投标模式下的结算造价一般包括以下五方面的造价:①招投标清单项目内的结算造价;②重新进行清单组价的结算造价;③价差调整造价,即招投标清单项目内的工料机价格变化超过合同约定的风险变化幅度时引起的价格调整造价;④综合单价调整引起的造价,即招投标清单项目内的清单工程量变化超过合同约定的风险变化幅度时综合单价引起的造价;⑤措施费调整造价。本文在介绍相关理论的基础上,结合实际案例论述了相关清单计价软件和电子表格软件的实战操作。%The settlement cost under the bidding mode of bill quantities includes the following five aspects of the cost:①the settlement cost within the bidding listing project; ②the settlement cost of renewed listing; ③the settlement cost for price adjustment, which is caused by the more machine price change within the bidding listing than the change variations in contract risk; ④the settlement cost for comprehensive unit price adjustment, which is induced by the more list of quantities within the bidding listing than the change variations in contract risk; ⑤the settlement cost for measures costs adjustment. In the current study, on the basis of the introduction of the relative theory, the actual practice of the related list valuation and spreadsheet software is discussed combined with the case.

  17. An efficient electronic marketplace bidding auction protocol with bid privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-bo; Hyeong Seon Yoo

    2007-01-01

    The multi-agent negotiation test-bed proposed by Collins was modified. It utilizes publish/subscribe system, time-release cryptography and anonymous communication. The proposed protocol reduces DOS attack and avoids replay data attack by providing ticket token and deal sequence number to the supplier. And it is proved that generating random number to the supplier by market is better than the supplier doing it by him in guaranteeing anonymity. Market publishes an interpolating polynomial for sharing the determination process data. It avoids collusion between a customer and a certain supplier. According to the comparison and analysis with other protocols, the proposed protocol shows good security and better efficiency.

  18. 建筑招投标价格博弈与市场均衡%Bidding price game and market equilibrium of construction products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张镇森; 王孟钧; 陆洋; 刘慧

    2012-01-01

    Price distortion seriously hinders the healthy development of the construction market. The construction bidding price game model was studied to solve this problem. The game theory was used to set up a double price used car model between the owner and the contractor which belongs to incomplete information dynamic non - cooperative game. The game process and the equilibrium price were analyzed on the price game between owners and contractors. The construction market was divided into three kinds,i. e. the completely successful market, the completely unsuccessful market and the partial successful market, and the existence conditions were discussed. It will be useful for the market regulator to use economic incentive means to control the market, and to safeguard the healthy development of the market.%建筑市场价格扭曲带来了一系列质量和安全问题,严重制约建筑市场的健康发展.为解决这一问题,应首先对建筑招投标价格的博弈模型进行分析.运用博弈论原理,构建建筑招投标过程中业主与承包商不完全信息动态非合作的双价二手车交易博弈模型.探讨业主与承包商就建筑产品价格所展开的博弈过程以及最终的市场均衡成交价格.将建筑招投标的价格均衡划分为市场完全成功、市场完全失败和市场部分成功,分别讨论3种市场类型存在的条件.对建筑招投标价格博弈模型及市场均衡的分析,有助于市场管理者运用经济激励手段调控市场,保障市场的健康发展.

  19. Unbalanced Bidding in Government Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-19

    Id. at 71213 167. Id. 168. Id. at 71218 169. Nager Electric Co., Inc. v. United States, 194 Ct. Cl. 835 (1971) 170. J. W. Bateson Co. v. United...BCA 13402 (1978) 176. Gregory & Reilley Associates, Inc., FAACAP No. 65-30, 65-2 BCA 4918 (1965) 177. ASBCA no. 18348, 74-2 BCA 10781 (1974) 178. Id. at

  20. Watchdog Barks At Big Bids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Turmoil caused by major refinancing plans of listed companies in the mainland stock market leads regulators to vow stricter approval processes On March 5,shareholders of Ping An Insurance(Group)Co.of China Ltd. (Ping An)passed a refinancing plan of 120 billion yuan($17 billion)at its first interim meeting of the year with an overwhelming 92 percent in favor.

  1. The Directive on Takeover Bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Lau

    2012-01-01

    En kritik af direktivet om overtagelsestilbud med anbefaling af, at direktivet under den forestående revision ændres, så de dele, der angår corporate governance, udtages, hvorved direktivet alene kommer til at angå reguleringen af overtagelsestilbud, deres indhold og procedure......En kritik af direktivet om overtagelsestilbud med anbefaling af, at direktivet under den forestående revision ændres, så de dele, der angår corporate governance, udtages, hvorved direktivet alene kommer til at angå reguleringen af overtagelsestilbud, deres indhold og procedure...

  2. Problems Existed in the Bidding Work of Special Steel Enterprise and the Corresponding Countermeasures%浅析特钢企业招标工作中常见问题及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家云

    2013-01-01

    Like other enterprises, some works in the special steel enterprises such as procurement of goods and technological transformation project and services, bidding work play an important role for increasing the eco⁃nomic benefit, but there are still some problems existed in these works. This paper discussed and analyzed the prob⁃lems existed in the bidding works of special steel enterprises, and put forward the corresponding countermeasures.%  特钢企业和其他企业一样,货物采购、技改工程及服务招标工作在降低企业成本,提高经济效益等方面发挥了重要作用,但也存在着一些问题。本文对特钢企业招标工作中存在的部分常见问题进行了阐述和分析,并提出了相应的对策。

  3. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias.

  4. 关于双航段收益管理网络上投标价格法的分析%Analysis of Bid-Price Control for a Two-Leg Airline Revenue Management Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺洪智

    2015-01-01

    本文提出了双航段网络上投标价格法的三种性质:经济互补性、原始-对偶模型解之间的关系和系统的单调性。这些性质可以很好地帮助收益管理人员理解所操作的收益管理系统,从而提升人机互动的效果。%The bid-price method is the most commonly used revenue management method in today’ s airlines. The revenue management staff on the front desk usually doesn ’ t know the internal principle of revenue management systems.This paper puts forward three characteristics of bid-price method of the two-leg revenue management sys-tem:economic complementarity , relationship between the primal-dual solutions , and the monotonicity of the sys-tem.These properties can well enhance the revenue management staff ’ s understanding toward the revenue manage-ment system they operate .

  5. Value of Quality System Certification for Medical Equipment Bidding%如何把握质量体系认证在医疗设备招标中的实用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓坤; 宋晓英; 杨晓亚

    2013-01-01

    目的:针对政府集中招标出现的各种现象,剖析深层次的原因,找出应对的方法和改进措施,澄清对质量管理体系认证的含混知识.方法:采用对比、层层递进的方式明确指出了质量管理体系认证的必充性.结果:科学、客观地论证了质量管理体系的可靠性、实用性,准确、详实地阐明了IS0 13485发展的历史进程.结论:使评委在评标过程做到心中有数、赋分有据,进一步提升了政府集中采购的公信力,体现了质量管理体系的价值.%Objective To make clear the quality system certification to improve medical equipment bidding. Methods The non-essential nature of the quality system certification was discussed by comparison and recursion. Results The reliability and practicality of the quality system certification were demonstrated, with the history of ISO 13485 described. Conclusion The bidding of medical equipment is facilitated by the understanding of the quality system certification, with the enhanced credibility of the government centralized procurement.

  6. 多部件采购外包的两阶段均衡投标策略%A Two-stage Equilibrium Bidding Strategy in Outsourcing Procurement of Multiple Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青

    2012-01-01

    本文考虑一个由单个制造商和多个供应商群体组成的供应链——该制造商需要采购多个部件,对于每个部件在市场上均存在多个供应商.不同于传统的从各供应商群体分别采购各个部件,制造商考虑将所有部件的采购整体外包给某个供应商.在第一阶段,制造商使用一级价格密封投标的逆向拍卖来确定赢得整体采购合约的供应商.接下来,第一阶段投标的获胜者生产其所能供应的部件,并使用逆向拍卖向第一阶段中未获胜的其他竞标者采购其余部件.我们分析了供应商在两个阶段的均衡竞价策略,并比较了制造商在亲自逐件采购和外包整体采购两种情况下的期望采购成本.我们证明了在两种机制下制造商的总的期望采购成本相等.%Procurement and outsourcing are two important topics for many firms. An increased number of companies outsource some of their internal functions to the third party in order to focus on their core competencies and improve their competitive advantage in the market. The popularity of outsourcing is growing, as both successes and failures have been observed in practice. It remains unclear about how the outsourcing decision influences each party's behavior and strategic decisions under different procurement mechanisms. In this paper we model a supply chain system in which a manufacturer purchases multiple components. For each component, there are multiple suppliers capable of providing it. The manufacturer considers outsourcing the procurement of all components to one of his suppliers, rather than purchasing them by himself. Since the production costs are not publicly known, auctions are used to reward the contract. In the first stage, the manufacturer uses the first-price sealed-bid reverse auction to determine which supplier wins the outsourcing contract. Then, the winner of the first auction produces the component that the company is able to provide, and uses

  7. About the Bidding Process Analysis Elevator Selection and Constructive Suggestions%关于招标过程中电梯选型及建设性建议分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟

    2014-01-01

    电梯是一种机电一体化的高技术商品,有很多不同的规格。一个电梯不但有通用设备,而且也有很多非标设备。虽然是一些通用设备,但由于来自不同的生产厂家,其生产工艺和管理质量均有所不同,所生产出的通用设备也不同。结合多年的电梯招标采购作业经验,就如何做好电梯的招标作业谈几点看法。%The high-tech goods lift is an electromechanical integration, there are many different specifications. An elevator is not only common equipment, but also a lot of non-standard equipment. Although some general equipment, but because from different manufacturers, the quality of its production technology and management are different, the production of generic devices are also different. Combined with years of experience in elevator bidding procurement operations, few opinions on how to be bidding of the elevator.

  8. 基于实时竞价的网络广告投放流程设计%Design of Internet advertising process based on real-time bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸿江; 孙国华

    2013-01-01

    Real-time bidding is a new procurement and delivery of online advertising technology.This paper analyzes the traditional advertising network paths,based on Internet,computer technology and auction theory,finds out the shortcomings,designs a Intemet advertising process based on real-time bidding.This can match the best advertising resources and goals,improve the utilization efficiency,save the costs,and achieve maximum benefit for the participants.%实时竞价是一种新兴的网络广告采购与投放技术,拥有着巨大的应用前景,本论文基于网络技术、计算机技术和拍卖机制理论,在分析传统网络广告投放路径的基础上,找出其不足,有针对性的设计了基于实时竞价的网络广告投放流程,该网络广告投放流程可以匹配最佳的广告资源与广告目标,提高广告资源利用效率,节约网络广告投放成本,实现网络广告的各个参与方效益最大化.

  9. 探讨“案例模拟教学”在《建设工程招投标》课程中的应用%Application of Case Simulation Teaching in Course of Construction Project Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦锋

    2012-01-01

    在《健设工程招投标》这门课程中,模拟案例教学法不仅可以形象的向学生们讲述如何在实践中更好的运用所学知识,也可以帮助学生毕业后走进工作岗位提前进入状态.文章从几个方面详细的阐述了《建设工程招投标》这一课程中如何引入案例模拟教学手法,并且提出了作者自己相对独到的意见.%When teaching the course of Construction Project Bidding, case-simulation teaching not only makes the teaching vivid, but also helps students smoothly adapt to the work environment after graduation. The article demonstrates how to use case-simulation teaching method when teaching the course of Construction Project Bidding from several aspects. At last, it gives the author's suggestion.

  10. 冷链物流采购第一评分密封招投标研究%Procurement of Cold-Chain Logistics Based on the First-Score Sealed Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐欣; 王先甲; 吕凡

    2012-01-01

    The primary goals of cold-chain logistics for food refrigeration are food safety and quality. Cold-chain logistics also needs to consider the importance of timeliness, cost, and so on. Thus, procurement of cold-chain logistics is a multi-objective problem. To construct modern and efficient logistics procurement market, the design of specific bidding rules is necessary. This paper integrates multiple objects into the score function of the procurement side, and uses the first-score sealed bidding rule to remove the limitation of considering only the price. The findings of this paper have practical contributions to promoting the efficient procurement of cold cold-chain logistics.First, this paper discusses the classic auction theory assuming that auction items and item price are known variables. However, in reality a single-price auction does not have properties required in many logistics service transactions. Different from the traditional logistics, cold chain logistics not only considers cost minimization but also optimizes logistics properties, including safety, freshness, timely and cost, etc. Food safety attribute is particularly important for cold-chain logistics. Products involved in cold chain logistics range from agricultural products, such as vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry and eggs, to aquatic products, such as frozen food, packaging cooked food. Optimally integrated properties are essential to the logistics of the food industry. These properties can encourage logistics enterprises to achieve technological innovations and effective incentive mechanisms.Second, we transfer the traditional reverse one-price sealed-bid auction model into the first-score sealed bidding model. However, the model tries to optimize multiple factors, including cost and quality, rather than minimize the single factor of cost. The allocation rules and payment rules of the multi-attribute score auction model are evolved from the traditional one-price sealed auction. However, the

  11. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Pneumologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-09-23

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for < 2.5 cm, 79.2 Gy for 2.5-4.5 cm, 84.6 Gy for 4.5-6 cm, 90 Gy for > 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [German] Die Standardbehandlung fuer nichtkleinzellige Bronchialkarzinome (NSCLC) im Stadium I/II ist die Operation, wobei Radiotherapie fuer Patienten, die nicht operabel sind oder die Operation ablehnen, als Alternative

  12. Based on the Current Bidding Situation, General Situation of The Drug Prices in Our Analysis%基于当前招标形势下医院的药品价格概况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄好武; 林伟杰; 孟茜

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解在当前招标形式下医院药品价格的波动情况,为指导药事管理人员及药学人员掌握当前医院药品价格情况提供参考。方法以启动新招标模式前后医院的药品价格做比较,比较时间从2013年1月至2015年12月,从竞价品种的价格、议价品种的价格以及基本用药及非基本用药进入低价目录后的价格等进行统计分析。结果药品价格下降品种有107个,价格上升品种有82个,价格无变化品种520个,厂家/通用名/规格完全一致的药品总费用下降了211.85万元。结论从目前该院药品价格统计信息可以看出,启动新的招标模式后,纳入低价目录及采购困难品种的大部分药品价格上涨,参与竞价采购模式的药品价格下降,药品总费用也在下降。%Objective In order to understand the fluctuation of prices in our hospital in the form of the current bidding and offer some reference of the hospital drug price at present to pharmacy management personnel and pharmacists.Methods Compare the hospital drug price before and after the new bidding mode from January 2013 to December 2015,analyze the statistic from multiple aspects such as the price of the bidding varieties,the price of the bargaining varieties,the price of the basic medicine and non essential drugs in the low-cost directory.Results There were reduction in drug price of 107 varieties and price rise of 82 varieties,there were 520 varieties without price fluctuation.The overal cost decreased about 211.85 milion yuan.Conclusion As can be seen from the current drug prices in our statistical information, start a new bidding mode,in low price catalog and procurement difficulties most varieties of drug prices,participate in the bidding model drug prices fal, drugs total cost is faling.

  13. Research on the Social-cost-based Model for Bid Evaluation of BOT Project Concession Candidates%考虑社会成本的BOT项目特许经营者评标模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路浩; 何德文

    2014-01-01

    对于BOT项目委托方而言,项目的价值在于社会效益的实现程度而不仅仅是考虑项目的建设成本。提出了一套考虑社会成本的BOT项目特许经营者评标属性集,当特许经营者评标属性的权重已知,评标委员会对各属性的评价以及业主对特许经营者的偏好不确定的情况下,运用区间数和灰色关联分析来构建特许经营者评标模型,通过引入区间数距离,求得区间数的灰色关联度,最终对各候选特许经营者进行排序。由于该模型考虑了社会成本因素,对促使特许经营者更加合理地规划项目方案,减少社会成本的形成具有一定的作用。此外,引入区间数来处理社会成本等模糊评价信息,提高了评标结果的科学性。%For BOT project clients,the project value is to realize social benefit,rather than merely to consider the construction cost of the project. This paper presents a set of social-cost-based attributes for bid evaluation of BOT project concession candidates. The bid evaluation committee can develop a model for bid evaluation of concession candidates based on interval numbers and grey relational analysis,if they understand weighted attributes and face uncertainties concerning the attributes evaluation and the owner’s preference for concession candidates. The ranking of concession candidates can be done by obtaining grey correlation for interval numbers through the distance between interval numbers. This social-cost-based model is established to contribute to less social costs by forcing a concession candidate to work out a more reasonable operational scheme. Meanwhile,uncertain information for decision making is offset by interval numbers,yielding more practical evaluation results.

  14. A Bidding Model for Electric Vehicles to Provide Regulation Services Based on Intelligent Distribution System%智能配电系统环境下的电动汽车调频竞标模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨; 葛少云; 刘洪; 唐翀

    2016-01-01

    智能配电系统的发展使电动汽车得以为电力系统提供频率调节等辅助服务,提出的调频竞标模型建立在电动汽车车主、运营商以及电网调度三方信息交互的基础之上,首先利用车主提供的电动汽车状态参数确定每辆电动汽车在调频时刻的调频潜力,加和所聚集电动汽车的调频潜力得到电动汽车运营商的调频容量及竞标曲线,进而通过调频市场的竞标机制满足电网的调频需求,最后根据中标结果控制相应的电动汽车提供调频服务。仿真结果表明,除了部分出行高峰时期的向上调频信号,电动汽车可以很好地满足调频需求,平抑新能源和负荷波动,并且经济性分析显示电动汽车可以通过为电网主动提供调频服务而获得一定的经济收益。%1The intelligent power distribution system makes it possible for electric vehicles to provide ancillary services, such as frequency regulation. The regulation bidding model proposed in this paper is based on the two-way information interaction among vehicle owners, aggregator, and grid operator. Firstly, the regulation potential of electric vehicle is determined according to the state parameters from vehicle owner. Based on the regulation potential, the aggregator offers its regulation capacity and bidding curves, and then bids in regulation market to meet the regulation demand. Finally, the aggregator controls the dispatched vehicles to provide regulation services. The simulation results show that electric vehicles can satisfy the regulation command signal to mitigate the fluctuation of distributed generations and loads, except several regulation-up signals during travel peak period. And the economic analysis indicates that electric vehicles can obtain economic profits by active provision of regulation services.

  15. 多商业型虚拟发电厂联合竞标及分配策略%Joint Bidding and Distribution Strategies for Multiple Commercial Virtual Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡殿刚; 刘毅然; 王坤宇; 韩旭杉; 智勇; 何欣; 艾欣

    2016-01-01

    Multiple virtual power plants (VPP) can work together to participate in electricity market and get earnings through joint bidding. A scheduling-allocation cycle can be divided into scheduling day, execution day and allocation day. Uncertainty of market price and intermittent power generation can be dealt with multi-scenarios method in scheduling day. Goal of joint bidding is to maximize sum of bidding earnings in day-ahead market and rewards in balance market. The alliance must bear certain rewards/punishments because of deviation of actual output from forecast expectations of intermittent power generation in execution day. VPP can be divided into VPPs with controllable and intermittent generations. To study whether multiple VPP joint scheduling is beneficial to individuality, an approach of earnings and reward/punishment allocation based on their different characteristics is raised and an evaluation method based on reward/punishment allocation expectation is put forward. Finally, feasibility and rationality of the proposed allocation and evaluation method is verified with different actual examples of VPP combination.%多个虚拟发电厂(virtual power plant,VPP)可以合作参与电力市场,通过联合竞标获得收益。将 VPP 的一个调度-分配周期分为调度日、执行日和分配日,调度日中采用多场景法处理日前市场电价和间歇性电源的不确定性,以VPP 联盟在日前市场的竞标收益和平衡市场受到的奖惩之和最大为目标进行联合竞标;执行日中由于间歇性电源实际出力与预测期望之间存在偏差,联盟需承担一定的奖惩。将VPP划分为纯可控类VPP和含间歇性电源类VPP,为研究各类VPP联合调度对VPP个体是否有利,提出了基于各自不同特点的收益及奖惩的分摊方法和基于奖惩分摊期望的利害评判方法,并通过不同 VPP 组合的实际算例,验证了所提分摊方法和评判方法的可行性和合理性。

  16. Guarantee-bond: main concepts and overview of its application within the bidding process involving inactive areas with marginal accumulations of petroleum and natural gas; Seguro-garantia: conceituacao e panorama de sua aplicacao no processo licitatorio envolvendo areas inativas com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Antonio Sergio; Herrmann, Hildebrando [Universidade ERstadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Petroleum Agency has been working on the adoption of an efficient financial guarantee system in order to ensure the fulfillment of contractual obligations in upstream-related activities. This process is aimed at: creating incentives for responsible behavior in the industry; attending current demands from society for efficiency and transparency; attending to industries demands for the maintenance of investment flows within the sector; safeguarding the government against financial liabilities caused by irresponsible or insolvent concessionaires; and keeping the sector attractive and competitive for small and medium companies. Within the bidding process for the concession of inactive areas with marginal accumulations, ANP requires two kinds of guarantees: a bidding guarantee, and a PTI guarantee (for obligations under the Initial Work Program-PTI). In both cases, the ANP allows two kinds of financial instruments: 'Seguros-Garantia' and 'Letters of Credit'. According to bidding rules, guarantees must be presented before the bidding process. This instrument ensures that the winner will sign the concession contract. The PTI guarantee ensures performance in a timely fashion. This paper describes and analyzes the instrument 'Seguro-Garantia', its evolution, existing categories, and applicability. (author)

  17. Value of Drug Centralized Bid Procurement——Based on the Theory of New Institutional Economics%药品集中招标采购价值的思考——基于新制度经济学理论的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏涛; 崔佳

    2011-01-01

    集中招标采购是药品分散采购市场出现问题后的制度选择.在我国,药品集中招标采购仅仅被视为一种采购的手段,而忽略了其作为特殊市场的替代机制的本质.因此,从新制度经济学的角度去剖析药品集中招标采购制度,认识其制度内涵,对认清药品集中招标采购制度完善的方向具有一定的指导意义.%Centralized bid procurement is an institutional option as problems occurred in the decentralized procurement system of market. In China, the drug centralized biddings only viewed as a means of procurement, while the ignored is its nature as an alternative mechanism for the special market.Therefore, using the perspective of new institutional economics to analyze the pharmaceutical procurement bidding system and understand its institutional meaning will be certain guidance, to recognize the direction perfecting the centralized drug bid procurement system.

  18. 物资设备招标采购“最低投标价法”存在的问题及风险防范%Problems and Risk Precaution in "Lowest Bid Price Method" of the Material Equipment Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡顺根

    2012-01-01

    Based on expounding the advantages of"the lowest bid price method"of the material equipment bid procurement,the problems of whether the "lowest bid price" is lower than cost in the tender and bid is hard to determine,"bad money out good money"frequently occurs which easily cause contract execution rate low and influence project construction are analyzed.Through the analysis and discussion,"the lowest bid price method"is at risk in procurement is put forward.We can take actions to enhance admittance threshold and execute pre-qualification.According to the design documents and requirements,we carefully prepare the tender documents and technical specifications and establish margin system to ensure that the renderers' legitimate rights and interests.If preventive measures are good,the"lowest bid price method"can make the bidding work run smoothly and effectively to realize the purposes of reducing the cost and controlling the project cost.%在阐述物资设备采购采用"最低投标价法"优点的基础上,对"最低投标价法"在招投标中存在的"最低投标价"是否低于成本难以界定,"劣币驱逐良币"现象时有发生,易造成合同履约率低,影响工程建设等主要问题进行分析。通过分析与探讨,提出招标采购采用"最低投标价法"存在的风险,可采取提高准入门槛,进行资格预审;根据设计文件及要求,认真编制招标文件和技术规格书;建立保证金制度,保证招标人的合法权益等措施进行防范。如果防范措施采取得好,采用"最低投标价法"可使招投标工作顺利进行,从而达到有效降低采购成本,控制工程造价的目的。

  19. CALIDAD DE LA EDUCACIÓN BÁSICA EN EL USO DE LAS TECNOLOGÍAS PARA LA EDUCACIÓN: UNA PROPUESTA DEL BID PARA MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alan Acuña Gamboa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La implementación de las Tecnologías para la Educación (TEd en la mejora de la calidad educativa es un eje primordial para los sistemas educativos latinoamericanos. Por ello; organismos como el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo realizan investigaciones en torno al tema y, con base en los resultados, emiten sugerencias a los países en desarrollo de esta región. México ha diseñado y ejecutado acciones en relación a la tecnología y la educación; sin embargo, en los últimos quince años, los malos resultados han obligado a eliminar los programas nacionales previstos para esta tarea. La presente investigación se realizó tomando como base tres publicaciones del BID que fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo a las categorías “publicaciones relacionadas con la calidad de la educación básica” e “investigaciones publicadas durante el período 2011-2015”, así como dos documentos rectores del Sistema Educativo Mexicano (Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y Programa Sectorial de Educación 2013-2018, publicaciones sometidas a los instrumentos relacionados con la perspectiva del análisis político del discurso. De esta manera, se puede concluir que para elevar la calidad de la educación básica es necesario relacionar los óptimos resultados de las TEd, con el esfuerzo y compromiso de cada uno de los agentes intervinientes en los procesos educativos nacionales; de lo contrario, las políticas públicas actuales seguirán el mismo patrón de sus antecesores: el irremediable fracaso. PALABRAS CLAVE: tecnología; educación básica; calidad de la educación.   QUALITY IN BASIC EUCATION ABOUT THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION: A PROPOSAL FROM THE BID TO MEXICO ABSTRACTThe implementation of the Technologies in Education (TEd for the improvement of the quality in education is a main concern of the Latin American education systems. For that reason; organizations like the Inter-American Development Bank (Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo-BID

  20. Research and Design of Bidding Decision System Based on Taobao Train%基于淘宝直通车的竞价决策系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周润博; 张忠能

    2014-01-01

    电子商务蓬勃发展的大环境下,广告主具有强烈的电商广告投放意愿,显然他们并未达到电商广告的核心业务SEM (搜索引擎营销优化)的专业要求。所以广告主希望借助第三方工具来进行搜索引擎广告投放的一站式服务来满足其业务需求。基于此,本文将提供一整套的竞价词托管式服务的解决方案。以淘宝直通车这一全新的搜索竞价模式作为研究对象,从语义抽取、关键词扩展、竞价词生成、模型化出价、广告效果正向反馈监控模型几方面进行分析和统计,为直通车广告主提供最优投放策略整体解决方案。第一阶段针对商品信息进行数据挖掘,实现关键词推荐引擎。第二阶段实现投放优化模块,实施定价策略,建立的点击量与PPC(“平均点击花费”)模型,实现在预算资金的约束下对不同竞价组合进行ROI(投入产出比)最大化的投资决策。以实际效果改善直通车竞价搜索用户体验。%Under the booming development of e-commerce, however, they neither know nor understand SEM business well, which has both high professional requirements and threshold of SEM (Search engine marketing and optimization). Advertisers are keen to use third-party tools to supply the one-stop service of search engine advertising to meet their business needs. Based on this, this ar-ticle will provide a complete set of bidding word hosted service solutions. Taobao trains as a new search auction model as my subject of academic studies .After analyzing and collecting statistics of semantic extraction, keywords expansion, bid word generation, mod-eling bids, advertising effect positive feedback monitoring model, this thesis offers the optimal solution of placing advertising, I want to provide train advertisers the best overall solution delivery strategy. The first phase focuses on product information for data mining, to achieve keyword recommendation

  1. Research on the Application of Access in the Construction of Overseas Bidding Data Information Database%Access在海外投标数据信息库建设中应用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 邢宏宇

    2016-01-01

    Large data has brought changes to all walks of life, there is no exception for the work of tender offer for overseas projects. With the powerful data processing technology of Access, this article introduces a kind of method to build bidding information database for overseas projects, with a view to inspire such work or similar work.%大数据给各行各业带来了剧变,对于海外项目投标报价工作来说也不例外。借助Access对数据的强大处理技术,本文介绍了一种海外投标信息库的建设的方法,以期能对此类工作或类似工作有所启发。

  2. The study of college basic construction project non-bidding procurement management risk%高校基建工程非招标采购管理廉政风险刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽霞

    2011-01-01

    通过对高校基建工程零星项目非招标采购现实状态的分析,指出了其潜在风险。并进行了相应的风险防范措施探讨,为高校基建工程采购非招标管理决策提供了参考依据。%Through the analysis non-bidding procurement of college basic construction project practical condition, this paper studies nonbidding procurement of potential risks and measures to prevent risks. The study provides reference basis for college basic construction nonbidding management decision.

  3. Research on Charging and Discharging Dispatch of Electric Vehicles Based on Demand Side Discharge Bidding%基于需求侧放电竞价的电动汽车充放电调度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘樟惠; 高赐威; 刘顺桂

    2016-01-01

    1In order to promote electric vehicle development coordinated with power grid, this paper proposed a charging and discharging dispatch model of electric vehicles based on demand side discharge bidding. In day-ahead scheduling, electric company published time periods need to curtail load. According to prediction of electric vehicle users’ behavior characteristics, load aggregator took maximum discharging capacity as goal to predict controllable capacity, and then participated in demand side discharge bidding. Electric company devoted to minimize load dispatching cost based on outputs and biddings of load aggregators. In real-time scheduling, load aggregator was aimed at maximizing its benefit through optimizing charging and discharging dispatch of electric vehicles. It could not only meet electric vehicle charging demand, but also reduce charging cost and dispatching deviation. Simulation result showed that the proposed dispatch model could play a role in peak load shifting. Prediction accuracy analysis could provide guidance for bidding decision of load aggregator.%为促进电动汽车与电网协调发展,提出了一种基于需求侧放电竞价的电动汽车充放电调度模型。在日前调度中,负荷聚合商根据电力公司公布的次日需要削减负荷时段。通过对电动汽车用户行为特性的预测,以最大化电动汽车放电量为目标对可控容量进行预测,并参与需求侧放电竞价。电力公司根据负荷聚合商在各时段的出力和报价,以最小化负荷调度成本为目标优化调度计划。在实时调度中,负荷聚合商以最大化其利益为目标对电动汽车进行充放电调度,使得在满足电动汽车用户充电需求的同时,降低充电成本和调度偏差。算例分析表明,电动汽车通过负荷聚合商参与需求侧放电竞价可以起到削峰填谷的作用,对预测精度的分析可以为负荷聚合商的投标决策提供指导。

  4. 工程量清单模式下招标控制价存在的问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures in the Bidding Controlling Price under the mode of BOQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉玲

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of problems existing in the bidding controlling price under the mode of BOQ (bill of quantity). After analyzing the causes of the problems like inaccurate calculation of quantities and wrong aggregative unit price, countermeasures to solve these problems were suggested.%工程量清单模式下编制的招标控制价,存在的问题很多.本文通过工程案例对招标控制价出现工程量计算不准确、综合单价不对的问题,进行分析其原因;并提出解决问题对策.

  5. 招投标和预结算中清单与定额计价的应用分析%The application analysis on list and quota valuation in bidding and pre-settlement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范永红

    2016-01-01

    介绍了建筑工程领域定额与清单计价的适用条件及优缺点,阐述了在招投标和工程预结算过程中,利用定额和清单计价的有效方法,实现企业经济社会效益的最大化。%This paper introduced the applied conditions and advantages and disadvantages of list and quota valuation in construction engineering field,elaborated the effective methods using list and quota valuation in bidding and engineering pre-settlement process,to achieve the maximiza-tion of enterprise’s economic and social benefits.

  6. Límites legales del concubinato: normas y tabúes en la esclavitud sexual según la Bidāya de Ibn Rušd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Puente, Cristina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Concubinage is a kind of relationship between a man and a woman whose legal implications have been discussed and regulated by all Islamic legal schools. Norms of both religious and juridical nature regulate the relationship between a man and his concubine, in relation to several factors: sexual and family taboos, the slave condition of the concubine, the man’s obligations in regard to the individuals under his surveillance, etc. The goal of this paper is to investigate which are the limits of concubinage according to Mālikī legal doctrine, with special focus on cases in which marriage and concubinage show parallels. The basis for this study is the treatise on comparative law Bidāyat al-mujtahid, by Ibn Rushd (Averroes.

    El concubinato es una relación con consecuencias legales discutidas y reguladas por todas las escuelas jurídicas islámicas. Las relaciones entre un hombre y su concubina están limitadas por distintas normas de carácter jurídico-religioso, que tienen que ver con diferentes factores: tabúes sexuales y familiares, el estatus de esclava de la concubina, las obligaciones del hombre respecto a los individuos que hay bajo su guarda, etc. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar cuáles son los límites del concubinato según los establece la doctrina legal mālikí, prestando especial atención a los casos en que las relaciones de matrimonio o concubinato se asemejan o difuminan. El estudio se lleva a cabo a través del tratado de derecho comparado de Ibn Rušd (Averroes, Bidāyat al-muŷtahid.

  7. Impact of the Bidding for Winter Olympics on Zhangjiakou’s Tourism Industry and Corresponding Countermeasures%申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业的影响及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永莉; 王建红

    2015-01-01

    在当今世界,冬奥会是影响力仅次于夏奥会的综合性体育赛事,它对举办地的旅游业乃至经济会产生重大影响。在分析京张联合申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业产生影响的各种因素的基础上,从打造形象品牌、加强市场开发和创建旅游环境等方面提出一些建议与对策,希望能引起业界对奥运旅游的重视,采取积极主动的措施,实现奥运旅游效应的最大化。%Among the sport games in the modern world,the influence of the Winter Olympic Games is only second to that of the Summer Olympic Games,which tends to have a significant impact on the tourism industry and economy of the host city.Aiming at the Beijing-Zhangjiakou co-bidding for the Winter Olym-pics of 2022,the paper analyzes some impacts which the bidding brings about on Zhangjiakou,and offers some suggestions in forging image brand,strengthening market development and establishing tourist envi-ronment,hoping that the tourism industry can pay more attention to Olympic tourism,take initiative meas-ures and realize the maximization of Olympic tourist effect.

  8. A Study of the Contractors Unbalanced Bidding Strategies Based on Expected Variations%承包商基于变更预期的不平衡报价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹贻林; 钱坤

    2013-01-01

    Contractors can usually find the errors such as project characteristics do not matching the description,the lack of the item, quantities deviation error and so on through the research on tender Bill of quantities or through the site survey. Then they forecast the possible state change during the contract fulfillment stage and build SEDA model to analyze the possibility of high settlement based on priced bill of quantities by setting the bidding scheme and construct intermediate state. Once a change occurs, contractors would use unbalanced bidding to achieve revenue through the pre-set intermediate state changes and be exempt from any risk. Finally,an actual case will be used to analyze the operational processes of SEDA model.%承包商通过研究招标工程量清单,发现其中如项目特征不符、缺项、工程量偏差等错误,或者通过现场踏勘,预测合同履行阶段可能出现的状态改变,构建SEDA模型,分析在已标价的工程量清单的基础上实现高价结算的可能性,设置报价方案,构建中间状态,待未来该变化发生时,通过预先设置好的中间状态借助变更提高承包商的收益,承包商可以免于任何风险从而利用不平衡报价实现创收。并通过实际案例分析了SEDA模型的操作流程。

  9. Research on bidding strategy and modeling of equity auction based on stochastic differential equations%基于随机微分方程的股权拍卖报价策略及模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑君君; 张平; 胡晓诗; 蒋伟良

    2013-01-01

    Auction is a realizable way of venture capital equity exit. The problems of information asymmetry and the indefinite nature of external environment in venture capital equity auction make it difficult for the outside investors to accurately price the risk corporate equity. Given this, the equity bidding system can be considered as an open system, thus the changing state of outside investors' bidding strategies can be described by stochastic differential equations. On this basis, this paper constructs a venture capital exit equity auction model, then discusses the formation mechanism of the corporate equity clearing price and its influence factors such as the degree of information disclosure, bidder's susceptible extent and so on, and finally analyses the expected revenue of venture capitalist by means of calculus of variations.%拍卖是实现风险投资股权退出的方式之一.在风险投资股权拍卖交易中存在的信息不对称以及外部环境的不确定性使得外部投资者难以对风险企业股权准确地定价,鉴于此,将股权竞买系统视为一个开放系统,运用随机微分方程来描述外部投资者的报价策略状态演变过程,在此基础之上构建风险投资退出股权拍卖模型,并探讨市场出清价格的形成机理及其信息公布程度、竞买人易受影响程度等因素的影响,最后运用变分法对风险投资家的期望收益进行了分析.

  10. 政府工程建设项目代建招投标中波特五力分析%Analysis of government construction projects construction agent bidding Potter five forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周圣瑜

    2015-01-01

    近来几年,中国经济极速发展,中国的建设性的投资项目在逐年的扩展规划,工程的复杂性和难度都大幅度的提升。工程建设项目的代建招投标机制是中国建筑业和固定资产投资管理体系改革的主要内容之一,也是中国建筑市场走向标准化、完善化的重要行动之一。《招标投标法》的颁布实施,使中国的招标投标工作不断步入正轨,它对建筑市场产生了积极的效果。政府项目代建制,是指政府投资项目交由专业从事投资项目建设管理单位负责项目从可行性论证到建设实施的管理,项目建成后交付项目法人或使用单位的建设管理代理制度。政府工程项目经过招标的办法,目的即是挑选一个能担任该项目施工工作的承建商并与其签订一份公正反映市场水平的合同报价、合理分配风险、清晰分配工作和工作职责的合同;要完结好项目的代建招投标工作,有必要对这一进程的每一环节加以注重,标准操作,才能真正使代建招投标工作取得实效。公共管理范畴公共制度履行问题越来越受到世界各国的重视,政府管理形式变成大家重视的焦点,一种新的管理办法在西方各国公共部门日益盛行,各国的政府都纷繁将原因由自己承当的公共服务很多托付出去,交由公司和非盈利组织承当。这篇文章就有关影响要素联系波特五力模型进行研究。%In recent years, the Chinese economy fast development, China's constructive investment projects in the extension of the year by year planning, engineering complexity and difficulty have substantial improvement. Engineering construction project's construction bidding mechanism is China's construction industry and one of the main content of the investment in fixed assets management system reform, China's construction market toward standardization, one of the important action . The

  11. Evaluation Model for Bidding Risk of BOT Project of Passenger Dedicated Line%铁路客运专线BOT项目投标方案风险评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亚敏; 肖朝乾

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes: With the shortage of construction funds and inadequate infrastructure being increasingly prominent in China, to speed up the construction of railways and other infrastructure with the commonly - used BOT mode in the world is inevitable of the development of the era. The bidding scheme quality is crucial to the success bidding. As the BOT project has the features of long construction period, large construction investment, needing complex technology, many changeable factors and big project risk, the bidder will take the big risk when drawing up the bidding scheme.Research conclusions: Staring with the system theory, the decision - making evaluation index system is established for the bidding scheme for the BOT project of passenger dedicated line and the evaluation is made with grey situation decision - making model. In the railway BOT project, there are lots of factors to influence the project risks and it is difficult to determine the relations among the influence factors. Now the commonly - used evaluation methods include thecomprehensive fuzzy evaluation model, ANN model and so on. These methods have their own advantages, but also they have disadvantages. With these methods, the differences of the comprehensive optimization index values are not obvious of various schemes and the model results are affected by the objective factors. Especially, with these methods, the high risks of railway BOT project can not be considered. The result of the model presented in this paper can not be affected by the objective factors, so this model is more accurate and effective in revealing the differences of the comprehensive optimization index values of various bidding schemes. This model has universal property, so it can be available for BOT projects of the highway and power supply.%研究目的:随着我国建设资金短缺和基础设施不足的矛盾日益突出,采用国际上流行的BOT方式加快铁路等基础设施的建设已是时代发展的必

  12. Bidding Wave for Mega Event Abroad:Interpretation from the Political Perspective%国外大型事件申办热潮:政治视角的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳文敏

    2013-01-01

      对大型事件影响力共识的缺乏与其申办热情成为悖论,一方面其影响效应尚模糊不清,并引起学界的质疑和争议;另一方面城市的申办和举办热情有增无减,因而隐藏在经济目标之下的非经济动机值得关注。文章从已有文献中厘清国外大型事件的申办动机、申办过程及事件后所表征的政治效应,从政治视角解释当前国外大型事件的申办热潮。主要结论如下:1)超越“事件”本身来看,大型事件作为政府政策工具的角色突显;2)大型事件的时效性使得城市得以完成正常情况下难以在短时间内实施的城市空间改造、城市建设,以及将一些重要的政策尽早提上日程,城市采纳事件战略具有复杂的政治动机;3)大型事件的推动者往往是城市商业和政治精英结成的联盟,一方面他们共同致力于推动举办地的经济发展;另一方面他们也借此谋求政治及商业领域的社会资本;4)大型事件被用来作为合法化工具:是展示国家认同的合法化途径;获得公众支持的合法性;获得上一级政府支持,特别是资金支持的合法性;5)发展中国家,特别是非洲国家的申办更体现出其改善国际不平等关系及成为“非洲门户”的意愿。%It’s a paradox that there’s little consensus about mega-events’ impacts but there’s great enthusiasm to bid for it. On one hand, its impacts are still unclear that causes the academic challenge and controversy. On the other hand, the enthusiasm of bidding for mega-event is unabated, and spreads from developed to developing countries. Thus, the non-economic motives hidden under the economic objectives are of concern. This article explains the phenomenon from non-economic perspective by clarifying the motivations and its political effects during the bidding process and after the event. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Globalization

  13. Deviation Management of Wind Power Prediction and Decision-Making of Wind Power Bidding%风电功率预测偏差管理与申报出力决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴政球; 王韬

    2011-01-01

    The deviation of wind power prediction lead to a lot of adjustment cost for AGC, so how to utilize the incentive policy to improve the prediction accuracy of wind power is significant for secure and economic operation of power grid. The examination and management of prediction accuracy of wind power participated in market transaction and the optimal bidding of wind farm output are researched. Referring to present method to exam the generated power of conventional power plants by grid dispatch cooperation, a method to exam the uncertainty of wind power prediction is given; according to the probability density of wind power prediction and taking the maximum revenue expectation of wind farm as objective, a optimal decision-making strategy for the bidding of wind power is proposed. Case study results show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of wind power prediction.%风电功率的预测偏差会产生大量的自动发电控制(automatic generation control,AGC)调节费用。如何采用政策激励来提高风电预测准确性对电网安全与经济运行具有重大意义。研究了上网风电预测准确性考核管理与风电场最佳功率申报问题。借鉴当前电网调度公司对常规电源发电功率考核的方法,提出了考核风电功率预测不准确性的方法,并根据风电场风电功率预测概率密度,以风电场收益期望值最大为目标,提出了风电场申报出力的最佳决策方案。算例结果表明,该方法可提高风电预测的准确性。

  14. Research on bidding strategy of electricity market for electric vehicle aggregators%电动汽车代理商电力市场竞价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚雄; 杨洪明; 张俊

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread using of electric vehicles,Electric Vehicle Aggregators (EVAs) participate in the electricity market bidding through managing geographically distributed EVAs. It can guide the charging and discharging of the electric vehicles in order and offer the opportunity of participating in the competitive electricity market.Based on the flexible bidding of EVAs,a Bi-level optimization model for participating in the electricity market was proposed in this paper. The Upper-lever model was to maximize the social benefit,the lower-lever model was to maxi-mize the charging and discharging efficiency of electric vehicles.The mixed-integer Bi-level pro-gramming formulation was transformed into an equivalent single-level mixed-integer program by the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimal conditions.Using the nonlinear complementary function,the multi-layer optimization model was transformed into a set of semi-smooth nonlinear algebraic equations,and the model was solved through the primal-dual interior point algorithm.Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model was verified by numerical simulation analy-sis.%随着电动汽车的广泛投入使用,电动汽车代理商通过代理系统中数量庞大而分散的电动汽车参与电力市场竞价,不但有利于电动汽车的有序充放电,同时也给电动汽车提供了参与电力市场竞价的机会。基于电动汽车代理商的灵活报价,提出参与电力市场竞价的双层优化模型,上层以社会效益最大化为目标,下层以电动汽车充放电效益最大化为目标;通过 KKT 条件将双层优化模型转化为单层优化模型,采用非线性互补函数将非线性不等式约束转化为等式约束,并通过原对偶内点算法求解模型;最后,通过算例仿真分析,验证了所提模型的有效性和可行性。

  15. Regulating Tender-invitation in the Purchasing of Books for Library and Strengthening the Control of Bidding Procedures%规范图书招标采购行为 加强招标采购程序控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹迅

    2012-01-01

    In order to further regulate the tender-invitation process in the purchasing of books for library, the control of the bidding procedures should be strengthened. In this paper, various types of tender-invitation in the purchasing of books for library were introduced and the bidding and purchasing procedures of library were also analyzed.%为进一步规范图书馆文献采购招标行为,必须加强文献招标采购过程中的程序控制。介绍了我国各类型图书馆文献招标采购的招标方式,同时对图书馆文献招标采购程序进行了分析和研究。

  16. Application of electronic medical records, hand-holding mobile terminals, bid data collection and analysis, and data security in medical quality control%电子病历、手持移动终端、大数据采集与分析、数据安全在医疗质控中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定珠; 周凡漪

    2015-01-01

    介绍了电子病历、手持移动终端、大数据采集与分析、数据安全在医疗质控中的应用.%Described in this paper is the application of electronic medical records, hand-holding mobile terminals,bid data collection and analysis, and data security in medical quality control.

  17. A View of “Horizon Fusion” From Translation of “Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi”%从《送元二使安西》的译文看视野融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a brief account of the concept of “horizon fusion”, the main idea of reception aesthetics and modern hermeneutics, pointing out the important role of readers in literary activities, in fusion of horizon especially. The writer specifies that translator is both the reader and the author and translation is both the process of comprehension and innovation. Through the comparison among four translation versions of the poem entitled“Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi” by Wangwei, illustrates the writer from the perspective of horizon fusion the preferable features of the one translated by Sun Dayu.%本文简述了视野融合的概念、接受关学和现代阐释学的主要观点,说明了读者的能动性在文学活动尤其在视野融合中的重要性,指出翻译者既是读者同时也是作者,翻译过程既是理解过程同时也是创造过程。作者通过对王维《送元二使安西》四个译文比较,从视野融合的角度说明了孙大雨译文的可取之处。

  18. 北京市办公用地投标租金空间分异与影响因素%Spatial Heterogeneity and Locational Determinants of Bid-rent of Office Land in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓平; 封强; 李媛芳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the bid-rent theory and spatial econometric models, this paper examined spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity of bid-rent of office land in Beijing. By collecting the transaction dataset of office land from 1992 to 2012 in the downtown Beijing, we reported the kernel density estimation maps of the transacted office land. The maps show that office lands in Beijing, in general, have evident agglomeration characteristics. In general, the bid rent of office land in Beijing decreases gradually from city center to periphery. However, it also presents an evident spatial variation. The bid rent reaches the peak at CBD, financial street, Zhongguancun and Olympic Park area, etc. In the same period, the emergence of several hotspots of office space reflects the polycentric development trend of spatial structure in Beijing. By employing mono-centric and poly-centric regression models, and geographical weighted regression model, we evaluated the main determinants that have significantly affected the spatial pattern of office land rent in Beijing. It concluded that agglomeration economy is the most important factor for the explanation of urban spatial variation of office rent. There is significant spatial dependence and spatial cumulative effect in the distribution of office location, that is, the existing office clusters will affect the location of new office space. As China's urban land market develops mature and the impact of the market mechanism on land development mode is strengthened, it's important to study the relationship between land price and spatial location. It can help to enrich and improve the spatial structure theory of urban land use, and provide references for land use and planning practice as well.%基于投标租金理论,运用GIS空间分析和计量统计方法,以北京市1992-2012年城市办公用地交易数据为实证基础,重点分析北京市办公用地区位变动规律及投标租金空间不均衡

  19. Research on the Unbalanced Bidding of the Pumped Storage Power Station Project Based on the Contract State Theory%基于合同状态理论对抽水蓄能电站工程不平衡报价的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖程宸

    2016-01-01

    在工程量清单计价模式下,不平衡报价策略是投标人在招投标阶段常采用的实现创收的有效手段。本文从不平衡报价的合法性分析入手,基于各地对于不平衡报价合法性的争议,确立不平衡报价是合法的基础上,从合同状态视角,立足于合同状态理论,选择了某抽水蓄能电站主体工程为研究对象进行案例研究,从合同状态的变化分析承包商是如何通过不平衡报价策略来转嫁风险,获取利润的。并建议招标人应通过编写科学严密的招标文件,评标方法,以及合同条款等有效措施将不平衡报价规范在一个合理的幅度以规避将来可能出现的风险。%Under the bil of quantities,the unbalanced bidding strategy is an effective method for the bidder to realize the income generation in the bidding period. This paper starts with the analysis of the legitimacy of the balance,and based on the disputed legal status of the unbalanced bidding and the contract state theory,choose a main body of pumped storage power station as an example,analyse how the contractor passes on the risk through the unbalanced bidding strategy to obtain the profit.And suggest that the tenderer should be prepared by the preparation of scientific and strict tender documents,bid evaluation method,and the effective measures of the contract terms to balance the price in a reasonable range in order to avoid possible risks in the future.

  20. Practice of the First Time Online Bidding for Drug Purchase in a Large-scale Hospital in Anhui Province:Investigation and Analysis%安徽省某大型医院首次药品网上招标采购执行情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维恒

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation and the outcome of the first time online bidding for drug purchase so as to provide reference of further standardizing the online bidding for drug purchase. METHODS: The data of the first time online bidding for drug purchase of a large grade three class A comprehensive hospital were subjected to a retro-spective statistical analysis with the use of Shanghai Jinshida Weining THIS4.0 system and Excel software. RESULTS: 86.06% of the drug varieties in this hospital underwent online bidding for drug purchase. The mean drug cost, per capita drug cost of outpatients and inpatients were reduced by 6.95% , 10.61% , and 1.10%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The online bidding for drug purchase contributes to the standardization of hospital drug purchase behavior and relieving of the problem of "high cost in medication" . However, which is far from perfect and thus remains to be improved further.%目的:考查安徽省首次药品网上招标采购的执行情况及其效果,为进一步规范药品网上招标采购提供参考.方法:采用上海金仕达卫宁THIS4.0系统和Excel软件,对某三级甲等大型综合性医院首次药品网上招标采购的执行数据进行回顾性统计分析.结果:医院执行品种比例达86.06%,药品零售价平均降幅6.95%,门诊和住院患者人均药品费用分别下降10.61%和1.10%.结论:药品网上招标采购对规范医院药品购销行为、解决百姓"看病贵"问题有积极作用,但与预期效果还有较大差距.需进一步完善.

  1. Bidding Strategies for Generation Company Considering Randomness and Correlation Relationship of Electricity and Carbon Prices%考虑电价碳价随机性及其相关性的发电商投标决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周任军; 刘照; 陈彦秀; 张浩; 李莹莹; 范龙; 尹权

    2016-01-01

    Carbon price and electricity price are bound together under the influence of external factors. Thus,the price randomness of carbon and electricity along with their correlation should be taken into consideration to form the bidding model for generation compa-nies. The difference between actual profit and the expectation is defined as the risk and measured by multi-stochastic conditional risk method in this paper. Then,a CVaR-based bidding model which considers the price randomness of electricity and carbon along with their correlation is proposed. The Linear method is used to sample of the random variables concerning the correlation and to solve the conditional value at risk. Cases considering the correlation between electricity price and carbon price,carbon price cost,carbon price randomness and other risk measurement methods are tested respectively to evaluate their influences on the investment decision risk of generation companies. The results show that considering the price randomness of both electricity and carbon as well as their correlation is more in accordance with the generation companies’requirement of increasing revenue and reducing risk,and conditional risk method is able to describe the risk more accurately.%电价、碳价在外界因素的影响下具有某种相依关系,因此需要在发电商投标模型中考虑电价、碳价的随机性及其相关性对其决策的影响。本文将低于发电商预期收益部分的期望值定义为风险,采用多随机变量的条件风险方法对其进行度量,建立了考虑电价碳价随机性及其相关性影响的发电商投标决策模型,利用线性变换方法对相关性随机变量进行抽样并求解条件风险值。对电价碳价相关性、碳价成本、碳价随机性和不同风险度量方法对发电商投资决策风险的影响进行了仿真对比,结果表明考虑电价和碳价随机性及其相关性影响的投标模型更符合发电商提高收益降低

  2. Stimulating Effect on the Development of Chinese Winter Sports from "Bidding for the Olympics "%"申奥"对我国冰雪运动发展的刺激效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马旭

    2015-01-01

    发挥申办冬奥会所产生的刺激与影响,全面开发与有机整合我国冰雪运动资源,对推动我国冰雪运动的发展具有极其重要的现实意义.我国冰雪运动的发展现状表现为自然资源较为丰富,但开发程度亟待提高;普及面较为狭窄,整体化发展布局有待重新调整与规划;个别项目成绩突出,整体运动水平较为低下.借申办2022年冬季奥运会这一大好的发展契机,坚持新常态理论的引导,制定适合中国国情的发展规划;注重对大众化特征的凸显,用以推动我国群众性冰雪运动的发展;促进冰雪运动基础设施建设的充实与完善,推动我国冰雪运动实现可持续的发展,有效拓展我国冰雪运动受众群体的规模,促进冰雪运动的整体水平提高.%The stimulation and influence produced by bidding for the Winter Olympics,the comprehensive development and the organic integration of ice and snow sports resources has an extremely important practical significance to promote the development of ice and snow sports in our country. The development of Chinese ice and snow sports shows that natural resources in China is relatively abundant, but needs to be a higher level of development.Popularization rate is relatively narrow,the whole developing layout need to be readjusted and planned.The achievement of some individual projects is outstanding,the overall level is relatively low.Taking this good developing opportunity of bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games,insist on the new normal theory,make a developing plan which is suitable for the development of Chinese conditions.Pay attention to the highlight of the popular characteristics to promote the development of Chinese ice and snow sports in mass.Promote the enrichment and improvement of the baisc facilities for ice and snow sports,promote the sustainable development of ice and snow sports in our country,efficiently expand the audience, which helps to raise the overall

  3. First price bidding with employment constraint in the SOE auction in China%附加职工安置约束的国企产权拍卖机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海; 张卫东

    2008-01-01

    The transfer of SOE's property right involves benefits readjustment of its stakeholders; therefore the design of the trading mechanism is not only to sell the SOE with a high price but also to realize other non-price objectives such as rearrangement of original employees, further development of the enterprise etc. This paper constructs a bidding mechanism with the constraint of accommo- dating employees to analyze the tradeoff between maximizing SOE-auction revenue and minimizing induced unemployment. By adding that the winner is required to settle down a certain quantity of former SOE employees in the new enterprise, this mechanism brings on the competition among prospective inve- stors in both the price and the quantity of employment, which can help the go- vernment to balance the different objectives more efficiently. However, the constraint will only work under the condition that the government has stressed sufficiently on the employees' rearrangement and set the best constraint thre- shold. Moreover, the government should set an explicit compensation standard for the induced lay-offsto eliminate the investors' accommodating cost disper- sion and introduce more strategic investors with considerable heterogeneity to participate in the bidding.%国企产权转让牵涉到国有企业利益相关者利益的重新调整,因此其交易机制的设计不仅要使国有企业以尽可能高的价格出售,还要充分考虑其他非价格因素,如国企职工的安置、企业未来的发展等.通过提出一种附加职工安置约束的国企产权拍卖机制,在价格投标中增加职工安置人数的约束,实现了潜在投资者在国企产权转让价格和安置职工人数两个维度上的竞争,从而使政府能够很好地兼顾不同的目标.职工安置约束要发挥预期的效果需要政府对职工安置问题显示出足够的重视程度,同时设置最优的职工安置人数最低标准.如果政府能够根据当地经济的发展

  4. Study on Application of Credit Evaluation in Tendering and Bidding of Architectural Engineering%诚信评价在建设工程招投标中的运用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶胜

    2016-01-01

    Because of the imperfect credit system, problems like the deterioration of credit environment, widespread dishonesty acts, lack of strict punish-ment for dishonesty and delayed credit legal system construction emerge in construction industry. How to build a complete credit system for the construc-tion industry and to apply it to bidding to regulate the construction market and promote the healthy and sustainable development of the construction indus-try has become the urgent problem to be studied. This paper analyses and summarizes the basic frame, management mode and preliminary effects of the credit system in Chongqing for reference.%我国建筑市场信用制度不健全,建筑业中存在的信用环境恶化、失信行为普遍、失信惩罚不力、信用法制建设滞后等诸多问题开始凸现.如何构建完善的建筑业诚信体系,并将诚信体系评价应用到招投标中,以规范建筑市场并促进建筑行业的健康持续发展,已成为当前亟需研究的问题. 论文对重庆市诚信体系的基本框架、管理模式和初步效应进行了分析和总结,对建立有效的诚信激励和失信惩戒机制有参考价值.

  5. Dynamic Power Market and its Chaos Control Based on Bidding Decisions with Different Expectations%基于不同预期报价决策的电力市场动态演化及其混沌控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪明; 谭韬; 赖明勇

    2012-01-01

    Market economy system is essentially a dynamic system. For general commodities, a number of economics models have been proposed to capture market dynamics, such as stable Nash equilibrium, period and chaos. To have a deeper understanding of power market dynamics, it is necessary to reformulate these models by considering the inherent properties of complex networks and the special characteristics of market transactions. Cournot and Stackelberg game, using the differential model of electric power producers in perfect competition, has been established to analyze the stability of market equilibrium. However, these models and methods do not consider the impact of transmission network constraints on market dynamics. In addition, most studies focus on stability analysis of market equilibriums. Studies on the dynamics of unstable market dynamics seem to lag behind. Therefore, we propose a novel dynamic model to study complex dynamics and chaos control of power market.In the first part, based on bidding decisions of market participants with different expectations, a dynamic model of power market considering power network constraints is proposed by a discrete difference equations embedded with the optimization problem of market clearing. The model describes different decision-making processes that accurately reflect the market clearing process by the ISO and considers the complex market constraints embedded in the inherent physical characteristics of power network.In the second part, this model is represented by a set of discrete difference equations embedded with the constraint of equal and unequal optimization problem. Considering this complicated mathematical structure, the nonlinear complementary function method is employed to obtain the solution of the dynamic model of power market. The model enables us to understand the stability of market equilibrium, and the periodic and chaotic market behaviors after the loss of equilibrium.In the third part, according to market

  6. Spatio-temporal Variation of Residential Land Bid-rent Curves in Transitional Beijing City%转型期北京住宅用地投标租金曲线的空间形态与演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文杰; 张文忠; 董冠鹏; 刘睿

    2011-01-01

    Transitions in the socio-economic environment have significant influences on reshaping the cities.While the western countries are undergoing post-urbanization changes, the transforming in Chinese urban land market can better reflect the trend of urban spatial reconstruction. In fact, dramatic socio-economic reforms in China are affecting the most Chinese cities' urban form since 1978. After that, the new approaches to land marketization widely spread to most Chinese cities, and ever since the late 1980s, Beijing municipal government has attempted to rationalize the previously planned urban land use distribution system by the way of economic reform measures. As the market economy has been established, Beijing's residential land market has been booming during the periods with different land reform policy. While the Chinese urban land market reform has been the subject of much research in recent decades, recent literatures have paid attention to spatial features of land price in transitional Chinese cities, and in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless,research on this issue has been limited by the lack of systematic data, especially spatial data, on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. This paper gives first attempt to add our understanding of the spatial variations of the residential land bid-rent function curve of the residential land market of a rapidly developing Chinese metropolis, Beijing--China' s capital city, based on the Beijing Land Leasing Parcel Database. By employing about 3 400 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2009 within the 6th ring road of Beijing metropolitan area, the period when the land leasing market has largely been established, a mono-centric city' s land bid-rent function model was established to quantitatively explore the spatio-temporal evolution of urban residential land development mode and its mechanism. Based on the empirical analysis, it can be observed that in

  7. Analysis of Bidder Collusion in First-Price Sealed-Bid Auction---based on“Strong” Cartel Mechanism of First-Price Pre-auction Knockout%密封第一价格拍卖中的竞拍者串谋分析--基于“强”卡特尔的第一价格预拍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菡密; 孙绍荣

    2015-01-01

    已有密封一价拍卖竞拍者串谋均衡研究中存在不符合现实的诸多约束,鉴于此,在串谋只包含部分竞拍者、串谋成员与非串谋尔成员间形成独立、非对称以及连续的价值分布并同时存在竞价策略互动的假设下,建立串谋方和非串谋方互动的竞价优化模型以及拍卖方的保留价格优化模型,得到串谋方和非串谋方的最优竞拍出价以及竞拍方的最优保留价格。结果表明串谋方和非串谋方的出价策略不仅与自身的估价、竞标人数、串谋人数相关,也与对方的估价存在关联性;拍卖方的最优保留价格设定与非串谋方和串谋方的价值分布存在关联。%The existing researches of bidder collusion in first-price sealed-bid auction have many constraints that do not conform to the reality.In view of this, by the assumption that cartels include only a partial of the bidders, collusive and non-collusive members whose value are independent,continuous and asymmetric will respond strate-gically to each other on bidding, this paper gets the optimal bidding price of collusive members and non-collusive members and the optimal reserve price of the auctioneer.As a result, bidding strategy of collusive and non-collu-sive members is not only decided by their own valuations, the numbers of bidders, the number of collusive mem-bers, but also the valuations of the other side.Optimal reserve price is related to valuation distribution of collu-sive and non-collusive members.

  8. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  9. 灰色关联模型在投标前期决策中的应用——基于层次熵值组合赋权的研究%Application of grey relational model in pre-bid decision-making:based on hierarchy-entropy combined weight-assigning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东红; 尚思彤

    2012-01-01

    In the face of multiple projects in construction market,it is the practical requirement of the construction contracting market that scientific,rational and easily-implementing bidding decision-making methods are applied by the contractors.Based on it,the improved analytic hierarchy process(IAHP),entropy method and gray relational theory and their application are introduced in bidding decision-making of construction engineering project.According to the actual situation of engineering,the pre-bid decision-making indicator system is established,the weights are determined by hierarchy-entropy combined assigning method,and multiple projects are evaluated by improved grey relational model based on it.This method is validated by engineering examples,which proves that it can better overcome the limitation of single method,choose the best project,and make the bidding decision-making more fair and scientific.%面对建设市场上的多个项目,承包商采用科学、合理、易于实施的投标决策方法是建设承包市场的现实要求。基于此,介绍改进的层次分析法、熵值法、灰色关联原理及其在建设工程项目投标决策中的运用。根据工程实际,建立投标前期决策指标体系,并用层次熵值组合赋权法确定权重,在此基础上利用改进后的灰色关联分析模型对多个项目进行评价,并通过工程算例验证该方法,证明其能够很好地克服单一方法的局限性,选择出最优的项目,使投标决策更加公正、科学。

  10. Rationale and design of ATHENA: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in PatiENts with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, S.H.; Connolly, S.J.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.;

    2008-01-01

    . Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic compound currently being developed for treatment of AF. Methods: The ATHENA trial (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in pati...... hospitalization or death from any cause. The study has completed patient enrollment in December 2006 and is expected to end follow-up 1 year later. Conclusion: ATHENA will be the largest efficacy and safety trial of dronedarone, a multichannel blocker compound with properties from class I, II, III, and IV...

  11. The Special FSE of the World Cup and its Enlightenment to China’s Bidding%世界杯的特殊节事经济及对中国申办的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏正清

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theory of FSE and the method of documentary research ,this paper first discussed the economic effects resul‐ted from sports festivals ,then ,investigated the mass protests before and after the opening of the World Cup in Brazil .The World Cup ,as special FSE ,has some peculiarities ,which brings about not only positive influence but also an extreme pressure to the host country .So ,while China bids for the World Cup ,the economic effects resulted from the World Cup should be evaluated comprehen‐sively .In particular ,the factor that FIFA will grab most of the profits should be involved into the evaluation system .In order to host a World Cup that will win the whole world’s praise and bring benefit to our nation ,the economic benefit and the spreading of Chinese culture shall be taken into consideration .%以节事经济理论为指导,文献资料法为研究方法,探讨了节事特别是体育节事带来的经济效应,然后考察了巴西民众在巴西世界杯开幕前后的抗议风波。以此为基础,指出了世界杯作为特殊节事经济所具有的独特性:不仅有积极一面,而且会给主办国带来极大的压力。因此,建议中国申办世界杯时,要全面评估世界杯带来的各种效应,特别要将国际足联会攫取大部分利润的因素纳入到评判体系中来,在注重经济收益的同时,注重文化层面的传播,这样才能办好一次令全世界赞叹、令本国人民受益的世界杯。

  12. Research on Early- warning System for Fraudulent Risk of Construction Engineering Tender and Bid%工程建设招投标舞弊风险预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宏灵; 薛香梅

    2014-01-01

    Risk-oriented audit in modern times emphasizes on applying up-to-down method to the audit, which has turns from control test to risk appraisal. Analysis on origin and risk of material misstatement is put forward to auditors,which not only enhances the risk assessment procedures, but also gives more attention to the assessment of fraud risk and its assessment, so that the auditor can determine whether the internal control of financial statements, business system or a particular account of fraud risk can be reduced to the acceptable level as an important stage for risk-oriented audit. However, while risk assessment of fraudulence is conducted, it is necessary to appropriately establish the early-warning matrix. This paper is of how to establish risk assessment and early warning of matrix with the risk in fraud during bidding activity as an example.%现代风险导向审计更强调运用自上而下的审计思路,其重心由控制测试向风险评估转移,提出了审计人员从源头分析和发现重大错报的观念,不仅强化了风险评估程序,而且更为关注对舞弊风险进行评估,舞弊风险评估使得审计师可以确定内部控制是否将财务报表、业务体系或特定账户中的舞弊风险降到了可接受的水平,这在风险导向审计下是重要的环节,而在对舞弊进行风险评估中,建立适当的风险预警矩阵就显得尤为必要。本文就以对招投标过程舞弊风险评估为例浅谈如何建立风险评估预警矩阵。

  13. 不对称信息下应用服务外包招标机制设计%The Mechanism Design for Application Service Outsourcing Bidding under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国锋; 但斌; 宋寒

    2011-01-01

    服务能力及经济成本是客户企业选择应用服务提供商(Application Service Provider,ASP)的重要指标.针对服务能力信息不对称下客户企业选择ASP的逆向选择问题,建立了应用服务外包的委托—代理模型,通过模型求解得到了应用服务外包最优招标机制的合约菜单,并对该机制的相关性质进行了分析.研究表明,不对称信息下客户企业主要根据服务能力、经济成本选择ASP,而与服务报价无关;客户企业向ASP支付的服务报酬主要由服务成本及信息租金两部分组成;ASP中标的服务能力较完全信息下中标的服务能力低.%Capability and cost of service are two important indeices for an enterprise to choose Application Service Provider (ASP). For the adverse selection problem under asymmetric on information service capability between the customer enterprise and the ASP, the principle-agent model of application service outsourcing is developed. Based on this model, the contract menu of optimal bidding mechanism is obtained. Additionally, the properties of the proposed mechansim are analyzed. It is shown that the customer enterprise chooses an appropriate ASP mainly based on its capability and cost of service, and the service price has no impact on the decision; the service price is mainly composed of service costs and information rent; and the service capabilities for an ASP to be a successful bidder under incomplete information is lower than that under complete information.

  14. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.;

    2016-01-01

    to maximize its profit, while the market operator aims at maximizing the social welfare. In this case, the storage facility adapts its strategic behavior to take advantage of market conditions. To model the imperfectly competitive market, a bi-level optimization model is implemented to present...

  15. Primer taller cluster RSE FOMIN-BID

    OpenAIRE

    DERES Responsabilidad Social Empresarial

    2006-01-01

    Presentación sobre el proyecto denominado ¿Implementación de acciones de responsabilidad social empresarial en Pymes de la cadena de valor de grandes empresas". Da a conocer los objetivos, la metodología y las actividades a desarrollar.

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Federal Bid Protests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Technology, and BA with majors in Spanish and anthropology from Washington University in St. Louis. Prior to his academic career, he spent 12 years as...relationship between contracting officer authority and contractor performance. The relationships posited above are visually depicted in Figure 1. Fear of

  17. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields.

  18. A New Paradigm to Address Bid Protests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    is unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 NPS-CM-10-159 ^`nrfpfqflk=obpb^o`e= pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp...Investigator Dr. Melese earned his BA in economics at the University of California , Berkeley, and his PhD at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium...GAO and CFC statistics from Schaengold, Guiffré, & Gill, 2009, p. 255). 4 For example, in GTSI Corp. v. Wildflower International, Inc., Case No. 1

  19. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2013-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  20. What to Bid and When to Stop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation is an important activity in human society, and is studied by various disciplines, ranging from economics and game theory, to electronic commerce, social psychology, and artificial intelligence. Traditionally, negotiation is a necessary, but also time-consuming and expensive activity. Th

  1. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements.

  2. A Generation Pricing Method with Capacity Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Due to historic reasons China encounters some special difficulties in ESI (electricity system industry) restructuring. An easy and simple electricity value equivalent (es-EVE) method for day-ahead pool purchase pricing of China is therefore presented in this paper. The es-EVE method is different from two-part and one-part tariffs. It is more like the UK's method in form, but revised for China with some new concepts and procedure. The main contributions of it include: (1) Find two kinds of eigenvalue, namely EVEs, in an optimization model, (2) Define new concepts of virtual units and feasible region, (3) Twice merit orderings are employed successively to find marginal price. They are simple maximum and minimum comparison procedures and so on. The special economic significance of the method for China is discussed, and some suggestion for ESI restructuring based on es-EVE method are provided. A case study is offered at the end of the paper.

  3. 省级集中招标采购降低药价和减轻药费负担的效果研究%Study on the Provincial Drug Centralized Bidding and Purchasing to Reduce Drtug Prices and the Burden on Drugs of Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂林

    2012-01-01

    省级药品集中招标采购政策已实施两年多,为对该政策效果进行评估,选择该政策目标中的降低药价和减轻群众药费负担作用为评估指标,收集相关统计数据,从实证的角度对省级药品集中招标采购政策效果进行评价.研究发现该政策实施后并没有显著降低药价,也无法控制群众药费负担的增长.%The policy of Provincial drug bidding and purchasing has been implemented more than two years. In the article, statistical data has been collected, then the policy goals of reducing drug prices and Burden on Mass medication as Index is selected to assess its effect of this policy. It is found that the policy of provincial drug bidding and purchasing did not significantly reduce the drug prices, and the increase Burden on Drugs of Mass cannot be controlled loo. Finally, the reasons for the poor results of the policy have been analyzed.

  4. Low-Carbon Reserve Market Bidding Model and Decision-Making Analysis Incorporating Carbon Capture Power Plant%含碳捕集电厂的低碳备用市场竞价模型与碳捕集水平风险决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施泉生; 李士动

    2014-01-01

    Taking low-carbon electricity as the background, a reserve market bidding model that incarnates the carbon emission reduction factor and a capture level risk decision method for carbon capture power plant under this model are proposed. An elastic demand curve of unit reserve, in which the randomness of capacity faults can be taken into account, is established, and then according to the theory of internalization of externalities the marginal carbon emission cost is built into the bidding of unit reserve and the obtained marginal composite cost is taken as the foundation of bidding, thus the differences among unit carbon emission characteristics are taken into account and distinguished, and the method of supply and demand is utilized to obtain the optimal reserve point. Based on above-mentioned model the superiority of reserve bidding of carbon capture power plant is analyzed and the differences of risk property between its revenue and cost are distinguished and from the perspective to the risk management the carbon capture level decision is optimized. Simulation results show that using the proposed bidding model the reserve can be optimally configured from a social perspective, and as for carbon capture power plant too high or too low capture levels are inappropriate, and there should be an optimal value of the capture level.%以低碳电力为背景,提出了能够体现碳减排因素的备用市场竞价模型及该模型下碳捕集电厂捕集水平风险决策方法。建立了能够计及容量事故随机性的机组备用弹性需求曲线,然后根据外部性内在化理论,将边际碳排放成本内置到机组备用报价中,以得到的边际综合成本作为竞价依据,从而计及和区分机组碳排放特性差异,并采用供给与需求方法获取最优备用点。基于上述模型,分析碳捕集电厂的备用竞价优势,区分其收益与成本的风险性质差别,并从风险管理的角度优化 CO2捕集水平决

  5. 南京市某医院药品集中招标采购对药品价格和医院收入的影响%The Effect of Drug Purchase by Centralized Bidding on Drug Price and Revenue of a Hospital,Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 陈玉文

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨南京市某三甲医院药品集中招标采购对药品价格和医院收入的影响.方法:查询南京市某三甲医院西药库计算机管理系统2009-2015年全部药品管理信息,分类汇总并统计分析中标药品种数、价格、差价率等管理指标数据.结果:2009-2015年采购中标药品品种构成比呈逐年上升趋势;部分药品零售价在招标采购的情况下有一定程度降低,抗生素类具有较大的降价幅度;其中国产氟康唑注射液具有最大的降价幅度,达到了86.68%;合资或进口药品零售价显著高于国产药品(P<0.05),同时其降价幅度显著低于国产药品(P<0.05);中标药品和非中标药品的差价率均逐年降低,中标药品差价率年降幅显著高于非中标药品(P<0.05);中标药品购入金额占总购入金额的百分比逐年提升.结论:南京某医院药品集中招标采购能够有效降低药品价格,在一定程度上提升医院收入.%Objective: To investigate the effect of drug purchase by centralized bidding on drug price and revenue of a hospital in Nanjing . Methods: The information of pharmaceutical administration in computer management system from 2009 to 2015 at one top three hospital was in-quired.Some management indicator including kinds, price, price differences rate and so on were classified, collected and statistically analyzed. Results:From 2009 to 2015, the drug variety constituent ratio showed an increasing trend year by year.The retail price of some drugs represented a certain extent of decrease.Antibiotics possessed a large extent of depreciation, and domestic fluconazole injection was the maximal with 86. 68%.For joint-ventured and imported drugs, the retail price was significantly higher than domestic drugs (P<0.05), and the extent of depre-ciation was significantly lower than domestic drugs (P<0.05).The price differences rate of bidding drugs and unbidding drugs was reducing year by year.The price differences rate of

  6. 安全化的路径分析——以中海油竞购优尼科案为例%A Path Analysis of Securitization: The Example of CNOOC's Bid for Unocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌

    2011-01-01

    哥本哈根学派为安全研究提供了一种社会建构主义的研究方法。安全化理论的核心概念"言语-行为"表明,安全表达本身造就安全问题;安全的"主体间性"决定了安全化是一个建构对威胁认知的过程。因此一个完整的安全化路径应该包括:(1)安全化启动:拥有相应的话语权或社会资源的安全化主体通过"言语-行为"指涉某物为威胁;(2)安全化传播:媒体通过议程设置和框架效应两大功能说服听众共享安全认知;(3)塑造安全受众,使特定议题安全化。本文通过对中海油竞购优尼科案被安全化的过程分析说明安全化是一个话语实践过程;作为安全化主体的美国国会建构了一个安全化逻辑,媒体作为话语载体则传播了国家安全的框架并塑造了公众认知从而使该案被安全化。%The Copenhagen school of thought offers a research methodol- ogy for security studies rooted in social constructivism. The central concept of securitization theory- " speech-behavior" illustrates that security statements in and of themselves can create security problems; the subjectivity of security means that securitization is a process of constructing recognition of a threat. As such, the complete path that securitization follows includes: (1) Initiation of securitization: a securitizing actor with sufficient voice or social capital uses a statement or act to refer to or point out a threat; (2) Se- curitizing Media: through its structuring of the agenda and framing effects, the media convinces its audience of a shared security awareness; (3) a security audience is constructed, and an issue is securitized. Based on an analysis of CNOOC's bid to purchase Unocal, this article shows that securitization is a discursive process: Congress functioned as a securitizing actor to construct a logic of securitization; the media then framed this logic in terms of national

  7. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne; Radiotherapie bifractionnee et chimiotherapie par cisplatine et 5-fluoro-uracile concomitantes dans les carcinomes epidermoides localement evolues non resecables du pharynx: dix ans d'experience au centre Antoine Lacassagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, N.; Pivot, X.; Marcy, P.Y.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Dassonville, O.; Possonnet, G.; Vallicioni, J.; Ettore, F.; Falewee, M.N.; Milano, G.; Santini, J.; Lagrange, J.L.; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Bensadoun, R.J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    2001-08-01

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m{sup 2} (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 1. course; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3

  8. 机制设计下大型赛事竞标理论分析--以奥运会为例%Theoretical analysis of bidding theory for mega sporting events based on mechanism design-With Olympic Games as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正卿

    2016-01-01

    随着全球化的进程,申办大型体育赛事成为各个国家争相参与的事情。然而,贿赂丑闻与债务危机严重影响了大型赛事的形象。以奥运会的竞标过程为分析对象,引入机制设计理论,从理论层面探究为何当前奥运会的申办机制没有彻底解决腐败与债务问题。在对现有文献资料梳理的基础上,结合逻辑分析的方法,将潜在举办城市(PHCs)的申办时间路径与机制设计理论结合,阐述了申办机制中 IOC、IOC 执委会与 PHCs 之间所具有的层级结构的委托代理关系。认为非对称信息下“IOC -IOC 执委会-PHCs”模式与中央计划经济体制(CPEs)类似,PHCs 为获得赛事举办权而采取的“欺骗”行为导致了在获得举办权之后债务问题不断;另外,IOC 对赛事资源分配权的垄断是贿赂丑闻产生的根源。%With the process of globalization,bidding mega sporting events has become a heated competitive matter for countries in the world.But,the bribery scandal and the debt crisis has seriously effected the image of mega events.this paper analyzed Olympic bidding process based on the mechanism designing theory from the theoretical perspective,and tried to find out the reason why the current bidding mechanism could not solve the issues of corruption and debt thoroughly.Based on the present document and logical analysis methods,it combined the bidding time and route of the potential host cities(PHCs)with mechanism design theory,and elaborated the hierarchical structure and principal -agency relationship between the IOC,the IOC Executive committee and the PHCs.In conclusion,the "IOC -IOC Executive -PHCs"model and the centrally planned economies(CPEs)have some kind of similarity,and the PHCs obtained hosting rights with "cheat"leads to debt problems after gaining the right of host;and the monopoly of the resource allocation right by IOC is the root of bribery scandal.

  9. Research on Effects upon Physical Activity of the Elderly by Successful Bid for the National Games in Shenyang City%全运会成功申办对沈阳市老年人体育活动影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱坤

    2011-01-01

    随着辽宁省成功申办12届全运会,一股体育热潮席卷辽宁省,作为主要承办地点的沈阳,深受全运热潮的影响。本文主要论述了全运会落户沈阳对老年人体育活动的影响,希望为沈阳老年人体育活动的发展提供一些借鉴。%With the successful bid for 12th National Games by Liaoning province,there is a sports craze in Liaoning province.As the main contractor site,Shenyang is also affected.This thesis studies on the effects upon physical activity of the elderly by National Games in Shenyang.We hope to provide some reference to the development of physical activity of the elderly in Shenyang.

  10. 南水北调渠道衬砌过程控制要点--以邯石段元氏Ñ标段为例%Control Points of Channel Lining Process in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project- A Case Study on the Project in the First Bid Section at Yuanshi County from Handan to Shijiazhang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奕杰

    2013-01-01

    选取南水北调邯石段元氏Ñ标段为考察对象,着重从原材料进场质量控制、混凝土配合比以及混凝土施工过程中的细节控制3个方面探讨了南水北调渠道衬砌过程的控制要点。这不仅为当前的工程建设提供了技术保障,而且为以后工程建设提供经验和借鉴。%Based on the practice of engineering construction of the first bid section at Yuanshi County from Handan to Shijiazhang in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, from the aspects of quality control of raw materials, the proportion of concrete mix and the details control in concrete construction process, the paper illustrates the control points on the channel lining process. T his not only provides technical support for the engineering construction, but also provides experience and reference for the future engineering construction.

  11. “申奥”背景下张家口大众英语移动学习模式研究%Research on English Mobile-learning Mode for the Public in Zhangjiakou City under the Background of Winter Olympic Games Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢振军

    2014-01-01

    Based on public English mobile-learning network resources and modern mobile ICT,public English mobile learning mode can be built to guide the public to learn English by mobile devices represented by smart phone anytime and anywhere. It will be of important theoretical and practical significance to autonomous learning,lifelong learning of the public as well as the“Winter Olympic”bid.%在建设面向张家口社会大众的英语移动学习网络资源的基础上,充分利用现代移动通信和网络技术构建大众英语移动学习模式,能够引导社会大众通过以智能手机为代表的移动终端设备随时随地学习英语,提高英语学习者听、说、读、写、译水平。大众英语移动学习模式对于自主学习、终身学习、全民学习以及助力“申奥”都具有重要的理论和实践意义。

  12. 论角色扮演教学法在工程招投标与合同管理课程上的应用%On the Application of Role-playing Technique in the Course of Project Bidding and Contract Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of role-playing teaching technique is to cultivate students' practical ability through the instruction of mu-tual interaction and close-to-reality teaching. Its emphasis is on the real participation of students. It is quite proper for Project Bidding and Contract Management, for it can offer an opportunity for students to put their theoretical knowledge into their actual work. Teachers can encourage students to actively participate in their teaching through role-playing technique, to guide students to deal with different problems unexpected in their work. There-fore, students can have a consolidated mastery of their profes-sional knowledge. The thesis mainly deals with the significance and the application of role-playing technique and problems to be paid attention to.%角色扮演教学法通过互动式教学、实景教学,其目标是培养学生的实践能力,重点在于学生的真实参与,是非常适合于工程招投标与合同管理课程的教学方法,它能很好地将学生学习的理论应用到实际工作之中。教师可以通过角色扮演引导学生参与教学活动,去处理实践活动中出现的各种问题和矛盾,以此来提高对专业理论知识的理解。文章就角色扮演教学法的意义、教学过程的实施及注意的问题等内容进行了论述。

  13. 母爱的经典--比较孟郊《游子吟》和黄仲则《别老母》%Expressing Classics about Mother’s Love Comparison between Meng Jiao’s“Song of the Roaming Son”and Huang Zhongze’s“To Bid Mother Farewell ”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婉

    2015-01-01

    孟郊《游子吟》和黄仲则《别老母》都是抒写别母情结的经典。两首经典诗歌通过离别时的真实情景展现母子情,同时抒发久别在外的游子对母爱无法回报的赤子之心。二者的个人遭遇具有一致性,但抒情方式别有天地;结合二者所处的时代背景,可以发现其中的差距。在比较的过程中,探究当代中华民族对传统孝文化的继承和弘扬。%Meng Jiao’s“Song of the Roaming Son”and Huang Zhongze“To Bid Mother Farewell ”are classics of leaving mother’s complex. Both classic poems through the real parting scene show love between mother and son,at the same time express the pure heart of mother’s love and the wanderer’s inability to after such a long separation. Two personal encounters have consis-tency but the lyric means are different. Combining both the age backgrounds,the gap can be found. In the process of compari-son,the Chinese ethnic people’s inheriting and carrying forward the traditional filial piety culture is explored.

  14. bid & kännud / Ilona Talumets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talumets, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    Vanemate ja laste sarnasusest. Teiste seas fotod president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesest, tema esimesest abikaasast Merry Bullockist, proua Evelin Ilvesest ja lastest Kadri Keiust, Luukas Kristjanist ja Juulia Kristiinest

  15. Poles plan defense of RKN Orlen from hostile bid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Poola majandusministeerium arendab plaani Leedu naftatöötlustehase Mazeikiu Nafta omaniku PKN Orleni kaitsmiseks võimalike Vene firmade vaenulike ülevõtmispakkumiste eest. Lisa. Divert from Eastern Europe?

  16. Sinopec Wins Bid for Special Asphalt for Racing Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On February 13 Sinopec and Shanghai International Circuit held a signing ceremony in Beijing for the contract to supply special asphalt for racing track use. Mr. Wang Jiming,Vice Board Chairman and President of Sinopec and Mr. Wang Tianpu, Senior Vice President of Sinopec, attended the ceremony.

  17. Losing Turkey? Implications of a Failed Turkish EU Bid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    2010, German Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed her preference for a privileged partnership for Turkey, but also identified the Cyprus dispute as the...only 21 percent throughout the EU.25 These statements from the senior leadership of both sides are clearly indicative of a relationship that is...Turkey.‖ Under Erdogan‘s leadership , Turkey has vastly improved its relations 15 with Syria, Iran, and Russia. This has largely been accomplished

  18. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  19. 7 CFR 1942.126 - Planning, bidding, contracting, constructing, procuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Preconstruction conference. Prior to beginning construction the owner will schedule a preconstruction conference... with the construction schedule established for the period. The partial payment estimate may be used for... engineering report conforming with customary professional standards is required for all construction,...

  20. Bite GSM, Alina bid for new Latvian license

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium teatas, et on saanud mitmeid pakkumisi riigi kolmanda mobiilioperaatori litsentsi ostmiseks. Litsentsi alghind oksjonil on 1,3 miljonit latti ning enampakkumise võitja peab investeerima telekommunikatsiooni infrastruktuuri arendamisse Lätis vähemalt 150 miljonit eurot.

  1. Man Used Bath in Bid to Kill Wife

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祖媚

    2004-01-01

    [提示]这个欲置夫人于死地的"温柔杀手",姓Wolfe,乃真Wolf也!为何设计了杀妻之毒局,为钱也。Wolfe在动手之前的数月前,为妻子购买了巨额的lifeinsurance policy(人寿保险单)!天下多少凶杀案件发端于此!

  2. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... categories set forth in the definition of health care provider, listed in § 54.601(a); (ii) The requester is... requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (iv) The requested service or... be sold, resold or transferred in consideration of money or any other thing of value; and (vi) If...

  3. Reprint of: Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  4. Reprint of : Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  5. 48 CFR 52.219-2 - Equal Low Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) This provision applies to small business concerns only. (b) The bidder's status as a labor surplus area...) amount to more than 50 percent of the contract price. (c) Failure to identify the labor surplus areas...

  6. The physicochemical properties of hair in the BIDS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, H P; Jackson, C E; Weiss, L; Jimbow, K; Lee, L; Kubilus, J; Gold, R J

    1976-09-01

    The physicochemical properties of hair from a new recessive syndrome associated with brittle hair, intellectual impairment, decreased fertility, and short stature have been studied. Electrophoresis of the SCM-structural proteins showed that the alpha polypeptides appeared normal, but the matrix component was markedly reduced. This was confirmed by finding a normal alpha X-ray diffraction pattern but a reduced 1/2 cystine content of hair and an abnormal stress-strain curve. Electron-microscopic studies revealed extreme disorganization of the filaments which most likely resulted from the absence of normal cross-linking. Nails, which contain structural proteins similar to hair, also showed the abnormality. Since the matrix component seen by electrophoresis consists of more than one component the defect cannot be explained as a single structural gene abnormality.

  7. Geology, potential of Argentina's international bidding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, J.C. (Pucci (Juan Carlos), Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1994-06-13

    Argentina, in terms of the exploration/production potential involved, has opened three types of areas to the international industry: (1) areas of secondary interest (marginal fields); (2) Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales SA's (YPF) central fields; and (3) exploitation and exploration association contract areas. The areas differ by the oil and gas potential included in each, the resultant contract terms, and the difference in risk involved in exploitation versus exploration targets. In this article, specific areas and fields are discussed, especially the oil and gas potential as expressed by past production, remaining reserves, and future potential.

  8. Bread or games?: A social cost-benefit analysis of the World Cup bid of the Netherlands and the winning Russian bid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.; Koopmans, C.

    2013-01-01

    Many countries compete fiercely for the right to host mega-events like the World Cup. Proponents of hosting mega-events claim that yields economic gains. Many available studies focus on partial effects of hosting or concern ex post analyses. The authors utilize the existing literature to perform a d

  9. Comparison of Design-Build to Design-Bid-Build as a Project Delivery Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Design Activities Develop RFP Issue RFP and Receive Proposals Evaluate Proposals and Award Contract Administer Contract Post Occupancy Evaluation...Award Contract Administer Contract Post Occupancy Evaluation and Lessons Learned Fragmented Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6

  10. Comparison of Design-Build to Design-Bid Build as a Project Delivery Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    RFP Issue RFP and Receive Proposals Evaluate Proposals and Award Contract Administer Contract Post Occupancy Evaluation and Lessons...Contract Post Occupancy Evaluation and Lessons Learned Fragmented Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5

  11. 48 CFR 231.205-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for a fixed-price contract without cost incentives. The term also includes a subcontract for an amount exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold, except for a fixed-price subcontract without cost incentives... promotion of efficient and effective applications of dual-use technologies. (7) Provide efficient...

  12. The advantage of higher-order theory of mind in the game of limited bidding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerd, H.; Verheij, B.; van Eijck, J.; Verbrugge, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Higher-order theory of mind is the ability to recursively model mental states of other agents. It is known that adults in general can reason adequately at the second order (covering attributions like "Alice knows that Bob knows that she wrote a novel under pseudonym"), but there are cognitive limits

  13. Online Vertex-Weighted Bipartite Matching and Single-bid Budgeted Allocations

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Gagan; Karande, Chinmay; Mehta, Aranyak

    2010-01-01

    We study the following vertex-weighted online bipartite matching problem: $G(U, V, E)$ is a bipartite graph. The vertices in $U$ have weights and are known ahead of time, while the vertices in $V$ arrive online in an arbitrary order and have to be matched upon arrival. The goal is to maximize the sum of weights of the matched vertices in $U$. When all the weights are equal, this reduces to the classic \\emph{online bipartite matching} problem for which Karp, Vazirani and Vazirani gave an optimal $\\left(1-\\frac{1}{e}\\right)$-competitive algorithm in their seminal work~\\cite{KVV90}. Our main result is an optimal $\\left(1-\\frac{1}{e}\\right)$-competitive randomized algorithm for general vertex weights. We use \\emph{random perturbations} of weights by appropriately chosen multiplicative factors. Our solution constitutes the first known generalization of the algorithm in~\\cite{KVV90} in this model and provides new insights into the role of randomization in online allocation problems. It also effectively solves the p...

  14. 48 CFR 14.304 - Submission, modification, and withdrawal of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...., regular mail, electronic commerce, or facsimile). If no time is specified in the IFB, the time for receipt... unduly delay the acquisition; and— (i) If it was transmitted through an electronic commerce...

  15. Summary of Second Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Bids on the North Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Columbina passerina ), Gull-billed Tern (S. nilotica), Little Blue Heron (E. caerulea), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and Glossy Ibis (Plegadis...falcinellus), plus several terrestrial species of regional concern including the Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Painted Bunting ( Passerina ciris

  16. Bid for Fermilab an effort to keep U.S. a leader in particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Van, Jon

    2006-01-01

    During 20 years, the world's most powerful accelerator, the Tevatron, was in Fermilab, Batavia, Ill.; but next year, Fermilab will lose that title, as in CERN, a new machine will be brought into service. (1,5 pages)

  17. An Empirical Comparison of Design/Build and Design/Bid/Build Project Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    buildings were referred to as master builders. Some of the famous master builders are Abbe Suger who built the Gothic Royal Abbey Church of Saint...delivery method (Songer and Molenaar 1996, Konchar and Sanvido 1998 and Molenaar et al. 1999). Songer and Molenaar (1996) used literature and...used to obtain the final data sample. Figure 8 gives a flowchart outlining the methodology steps. After conducting the literature review (outlined

  18. 拍卖行中老手新弹——DoveBid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    脱尘

    2004-01-01

    你能否告诉我,你认识的拍卖行名字吗?你可能听说过苏富比(Sotheby),它专门拍卖珠宝、油画、古董等等,也可能听说过eBay这间专门做网上拍卖而成功的公司。但是如果说到拍卖公司资产,其实DoveBid比较苏富比做过的还多。DoveBid所经手拍卖的资产,最为人所熟知的,是拍卖破产能源公司安隆(Enron)的资产,原来DoveBid经营

  19. 拍卖行中老手新弹-DoveBid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    脱尘

    2004-01-01

    @@ 你能否告诉我,你认识的拍卖行名字吗?你可能听说过苏富比(Sotheby),它专门拍卖珠宝、油画、古董等等,也可能听说过eBay这间专门做网上拍卖而成功的公司.但是如果说到拍卖公司资产,其实DoveBid比较苏富比做过的还多.DoveBid所经手拍卖的资产,最为人所熟知的,是拍卖破产能源公司安隆(Enron)的资产,原来DoveBid经营拍卖的资历也真不短.

  20. Look at this: the neural correlates of initiating and responding to bids for joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eRedcay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When engaging in joint attention, one person directs another person’s attention to an object (Initiating Joint Attention, IJA, and the second person’s attention follows (Responding to Joint Attention, RJA. As such, joint attention must occur within the context of a social interaction. This ability is critical to language and social development; yet the neural bases for this pivotal skill remain understudied. This paucity of research is likely due to the challenge in acquiring functional MRI data during a naturalistic, contingent social interaction. To examine the neural bases of both IJA and RJA we implemented a dual-video set-up that allowed for a face-to-face interaction between subject and experimenter via video during fMRI data collection. In each trial, participants either followed the experimenter’s gaze to a target (RJA or cued the experimenter to look at the target (IJA. A control condition, solo attention (SA, was included in which the subject shifted gaze to a target while the experimenter closed her eyes. Block and event-related analyses were conducted and revealed common and distinct regions for IJA and RJA. Distinct regions included the ventromedial prefrontal cortex for RJA and intraparietal sulcus and middle frontal gyrus for IJA (as compared to SA. Conjunction analyses revealed overlap in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS for IJA and RJA (as compared to SA for the event analyses. Functional connectivity analyses during a resting baseline suggest joint attention processes recruit distinct but interacting networks, including social-cognitive, voluntary attention orienting, and visual networks. This novel experimental set-up allowed for the identification of the neural bases of joint attention during a real-time interaction and findings suggest that whether one is the initiator or responder, the dMPFC and right pSTS, are selectively recruited during periods of joint attention.

  1. Optimal Bidding Strategy in Power Market before and after Congestion Management Using Invasive Weed Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khalilpour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Power companies world-wide have been restructuring their electric power systems from a vertically integrated entity to a deregulated, open-market environment. Previously, electric utilities usually sought to maximize the social welfare of the system with distributional equity as its main operational criterion. The operating paradigm was based on achieving the least-cost system solution while meeting reliability and security margins. This often resulted in investments in generating capacity operating at very low capacity factors. Decommissioning of this type of generating capacity was a natural outcome when the vertically integrated utilities moved over to deregulated market operations. This study proposes an optimizing base and load demand relative binding strategy for generating power apprises of different units in the investigated system. Afterwards, congestion effect in this biding strategy is investigated. The described systems analysis is implemented on 5 and 9 bus systems and optimizing technique in this issue is the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm; the results are then compared by GA. Finally, examined systems is simulated by using the Power World software; experimental results show that the proposed technique (Invasive Weed Optimization is a high performance by compared GA for the congestion management purposes.

  2. 75 FR 28859 - Agency Information Collection (Caution to Bidders-Bid Envelopes) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... burden; it includes the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or...

  3. 78 FR 42820 - Agency Information Collection (Caution to Bidders-Bid Envelopes) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... burden; it includes the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or...

  4. Currency-based Iterative Multi-Agent Bidding Mechanism Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; K; LIM; Z; ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-agent system which i nt egrates process planning and production scheduling, in order to increase the fle xibility of manufacturing systems in coping with rapid changes in dynamic market and dealing with internal uncertainties such as machine breakdown or resources shortage. This system consists of various autonomous agents, each of which has t he capability of communicating with one another and making decisions based on it s knowledge and if necessary on information provided ...

  5. Coping with Costly Bid Evaluation in Online Reverse Auctions for IT Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); O.R. Koppius (Otto)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline markets have dramatically decreased costs of search and communication for buyers. By contrast, costs of evaluating purchasing alternatives have become critical due to an overwhelming range of available options. When high, evaluation costs can offset potential gains from transactio

  6. 76 FR 20571 - Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... operations, is used to perform transactions that an affiliate or parent could not, or is acting as an ``alter ego'' of an affiliate or parent. The independent business reason criterion ensures that bidders...

  7. 76 FR 72301 - Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... an ``alter ego'' of an affiliate or parent. \\19\\ Id. P 11. \\20\\ Id. P 13. \\21\\ ``For example, a... parent could not, or is acting as an ``alter ego'' of an affiliate or parent. \\22\\ NGSA at 4; PGC at...

  8. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  9. Support Vector Machines for decision support in electricity markets׳ strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Praça, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    . The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from the market context. This paper presents the application of a Support Vector Machines (SVM) based approach to provide decision support to electricity market players. This strategy is tested and validated...... – Iberian market operator....

  10. Cargo Revenue Management: Bid-Prices for a 0-1 Multi Knapsack Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRevenue management is the practice of selecting those customers that generate the maximum revenue from a fixed and perishable capacity. Cargo revenue management differs from the well-known passenger revenue management problem by the fact that its capacity constraint is 2-dimensional, i.e

  11. A frontotemporoparietal network common to initiating and responding to joint attention bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Brock, Jon; Woolgar, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    Joint attention is a fundamental cognitive ability that supports daily interpersonal relationships and communication. The Parallel Distributed Processing model (PDPM) postulates that responding to (RJA) and initiating (IJA) joint attention are predominantly supported by posterior-parietal and frontal regions respectively. It also argues that these neural networks integrate during development, supporting the parallel processes of self- and other-attention representation during interactions. However, direct evidence for the PDPM is limited due to a lack of ecologically valid experimental paradigms that can capture both RJA and IJA. Building on existing interactive approaches, we developed a virtual reality paradigm where participants engaged in an online interaction to complete a cooperative task. By including tightly controlled baseline conditions to remove activity associated with non-social task demands, we were able to directly contrast the neural correlates of RJA and IJA to determine whether these processes are supported by common brain regions. Both RJA and IJA activated broad frontotemporoparietal networks. Critically, a conjunction analysis identified that a subset of these regions were common to both RJA and IJA. This right-lateralised network included the dorsal portion of the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), precentral gyrus, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and precuneus. Additional activation was observed in this network for IJA relative to RJA at MFG, IFG, TPJ and precuneus. This is the first imaging study to directly investigate the neural correlates common to RJA and IJA engagement, and thus support the assumption that a broad integrated network underlies the parallel aspects of both initiating and responding to joint attention.

  12. THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF MICROBUSINESS AND SMALL ENTERPRISES BY PROVIDING SPECIAL TREATMENT ON PUBLIC BIDDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonelle Wivian Nascimento

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the different treatment by the Government towards micro and small enterprises. The study is based on an analysis of data from electronic auctions conducted by the Instituto Federal e Ciência e Tecnologia – Campus Recife contained in COMPRASNET (site where the electronic trading sessions of the Federal Government are performed. The study showed that in the timeline analyzed the public policies to encourage micro and small enterprises have been effective as to its purpose.

  13. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros-Pérez, Pablo; del Campo-Hitschfeld, Maria Luisa; Mora-Melià, Daniel; Domínguez, David

    2015-01-01

    Currently, multi-attribute auctions are becoming widespread awarding mechanisms for contracts in construction, and in these auctions, criteria other than price are taken into account for ranking bidder proposals. Therefore, being the lowest-price bidder is no longer a guarantee of being awarded, thus increasing the importance of measuring any bidder’s performance when not only the first position (lowest price) matters.\\ud \\ud Modeling position performance allows a tender manager to calculate ...

  14. 42 CFR 422.308 - Adjustments to capitation rates, benchmarks, bids, and payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sections 1886(b)(3)(B)(ix) and (n) of the Act. (b) Adjustment for over or under projection of national per... beneficiary elects a group health plan (as defined in § 411.1010) offered by an MA organization, and ends when the beneficiary is enrolled in an MA plan offered by the MA organization. (ii) CMS does not make...

  15. Government Accountability Office Bid Protests in Air Force Source Selections: Evidence and Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    AFB ; and, before 2001, Sacramento ALC (SM-ALC), McClellan AFB ; San Antonio ALC (SA-ALC), Kelly AFB ; and the Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center...and Training Command AFB Air Force Base AFMC Air Force Materiel Command AFLOA Air Force Legal Operations Agency AGMC Aerospace Guidance and...Selection Improvements,” briefi ng, Wright-Patterson AFB , Ohio: ASC Acquisition Center of Excellence, April 10, 2007; and Edward C. Martin and Daniel

  16. Bid Protests in the Defense Department: An Analysis of Recent Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    HCN, TCN, and ExPat Labor Distribution. .................................................... 32 Figure 14. HRsolutions Proposal Evaluation...requirements for the use and mix of host country nationals (HCNs), third country nationals (TCNs), and/or U.S. nationals ( ExPats ) in the offerors responses...break down of HCN, TCN and ExPat labor to be used in the offerors response. As indicated in the Figure 13 below, offerors provided a range of varying

  17. Strategic Bidding for Electri city Markets Negotiation Using Support Vector Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Rafael; Sousa, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    . The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from the market context. This paper presents the application of a Support Vector Machines (SVM) based approach to provide decision support to electricity market players. This strategy is tested and validated...

  18. Eesti kultuuritarbija tüübid : kultuuriaktiivsus ja majanduslik heaolu / Malle Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Malle

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Rahvusvaheliste Sotsiaaluuringute Instituudi poolt 1998. a. läbi viidud 18-70-aastase elanikkonna esinduslikust küsitlusest "Eesti 98" kultuuritarbimise kohta. Tabelid: Tüpoloogia aluseks olevad näitajad kultuuritarbija tüüpide lõikes; Kultuuritarbija tüübistik erinevates elanikkonna rühmades (%); Kultuuriaktiivsuse indeks erinevates rahvarühmades; Kultuuritarbimusliku ilmajäetuse jaotus erinevates kultuuriaktiivsuse ja sissetuleku tüüpides 1998 (%)

  19. Eesti kultuuritarbija tüübid : kultuuriaktiivsus ja majanduslik heaolu / Malle Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Malle

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli Rahvusvaheliste Sotsiaaluuringute Instituudi poolt 1998. a. läbi viidud 18-70-aastase elanikkonna küsitlusest "Eesti 98" kultuuritarbimise kohta. Tabelid: Tüpoloogia aluseks olevad näitajad kultuuritarbija tüüpide lõikes; Kultuuritarbija tüübistik erinevates elanikkonna rühmades (%); Kultuuriaktiivsuse indeks erinevates rahvarühmades; Kultuuritarbimusliku ilmajäetuse jaotus erinevates kultuuriaktiivsuse ja sissetuleku tüüpides 1998 (%)

  20. Strategic bidding in electricity markets: An agent-based simulator with game theory for scenario analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Praca, Isabel; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    the behavior that better fits their objectives. This model includes forecasts of competitor players’ actions, to build models of their behavior, in order to define the most probable expected scenarios. Once the scenarios are defined, game theory is applied to support the choice of the ac-tion to be performed......Electricity markets are complex environments, involving a large number of different entities, with specific charac-teristics and objectives, making their decisions and interacting in a dynamic scene. Game-theory has been widely used to sup-port decisions in competitive environments; therefore its...... application in electricity markets can prove to be a high potential tool. This paper proposes a new scenario analysis algorithm, which includes the application of game-theory, to evaluate and preview different scenarios and provide players with the ability to strategically react in order to exhibit...