WorldWideScience

Sample records for bids

  1. More on phantom bidding

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqu Wang; Parimal Kanti Bag; Emim Murat Dinlersoz

    2000-01-01

    A phantom bidding model is analyzed for a sale auction. The following questions are addressed: the effects of phantom bidding on overall social welfare and buyers' profits. It is shown that social welfare may increase or decrease as the auctioneer switches from the fixed reserve price policy to phantom bidding. The buyers' profits will increase whenever social welfare increases.

  2. A Bluff-Bidding Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, J. Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Consider an auction in which one potential buyer wishes to participate, but the other potential buyer would rather the bidding not start. However, once bidding starts, the reluctant firm participates (submits "bluff bids") simply to make the eventual winner pay more. This incentive exists when the marginal effect of the winning bid is to increase…

  3. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The...

  4. Bidding for Concessions Bidding for Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Klein

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Privatization of infrastructure ventures in sectors such as energy, telecommunications, transport and water has become popular over the last decade. Often –for good or bad reasons- private firms are given monopoly franchises under some type of long-term concession agreement, for example "Build-Operate-Transfer" schemes. The article surveys the issues arising in designing concession contracts and in awarding them to private parties. It is crucial to define performance specifications as well as incentive and risk-sharing parameters comprehensively and consistently both to achieve efficient performance by the concessionaire and to minimize post-award re-negotiation. Concession award should as a rule be made competitively, unless special requirements of speed, innovation or excessive transaction costs argue otherwise. Typically, competitive concession award is made by first price sealed bids. There are strong arguments, however, to consider open auctions more seriously in a number of cases. Auctions may also be re-awarded by way of auction. However, somewhat arbitrary bid preferences may have to be set. Auctioneers for complex concession contracts should operate at arms-length for all interested parties, including politicians. It may be sensible to let independent agencies that regulate the concession scheme run the auction. Privatization of infrastructure ventures in sectors such as energy, telecommunications, transport and water has become popular over the last decade. Often –for good or bad reasons- private firms are given monopoly franchises under some type of long-term concession agreement, for example "Build-Operate-Transfer" schemes. The article surveys the issues arising in designing concession contracts and in awarding them to private parties. It is crucial to define performance specifications as well as incentive and risk-sharing parameters comprehensively and consistently both to achieve efficient performance by the concessionaire and

  5. ROK Corporation Won Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)completed the bidding for the platform project of Pinghu Oilfield in East China Sea on July 2, 1996. The Pinghu project was started at the beginning of this year. Among the nine firms from seven countries participating in the competitive bidding, Korean Heavy Industrial Corporation, with its good credit and technical strength, won the bid for construction of the drilling and oil-producing platform. It is a fixed offshore platform in a steel and iron structure with a total weight of 15 000 tons. It is also the largest production and processing platform in the offshore oilfields being operated by China itself. The platform is designed to produce 800 000 tons of crude and 530million cubic meters of natural gas each year.

  6. 48 CFR 14.101 - Elements of sealed bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Use of Sealed Bidding 14.101 Elements of sealed bidding... bids. Bids shall be evaluated without discussions. (e) Contract award. After bids are publicly...

  7. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  8. Bidding for Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanism by which club memberships, activities, and rules are chosen in a decentralized economy. For this purpose, we develop a model of competing auctions for club goods. This is a dynamic game where each seller first chooses an auction format; next, each buyer chooses a seller; and, finally, each buyer bids for membership. If sellers are restricted to simple auctions without reserve prices, then the decentralized equilibrium is generally inefficient across a multitud...

  9. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Nazarian, H. [Shahrood Univ. of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moham Shargh Engineering Co., Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Electricity markets around the world can be classified as pool-based electricity markets; pure bilateral contract markets; and hybrid markets. The bidding strategy has emerged as an important issue for producers in pool-based electricity markets. Power producers can use several approaches to develop bidding strategies that determine the optimal bid to maximize profit. The various approaches fall into 2 categories, notably forecasting market clearing prices, and estimating the behaviour of other competitors. This paper presented a simple and efficient approach for developing a bidding strategy in pay-as-bid electricity markets. It used the multiple step bid to estimate the optimal bid. One step was allocated to revenue earning while the other steps were allocated to information acquiring. Information acquiring steps obtain information from the market for estimating the optimal bid of the next day. The proposed method was used at a specified power generating unit operating in the Iranian electricity market. The study showed that the proposed bidding strategy can increase the total revenue of the unit by thirty nine per cent. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Information Feedback and Learning in Construction Bidding

    OpenAIRE

    Bee Lan Oo; Abdul-Rashid Abdul-Aziz; Yoke Mui Lim

    2011-01-01

    Information feedback condition in recurrent construction bidding is an important design variable about optimal procurement design. Contractors tend to optimize their bids in recurrent bidding with positive review of historic bids. Our experiment examines the effects of partial and no information feedback conditions on student (inexperienced) bidders’ bidding trends, and the extent to which their bidding trends agree with the behavioural patterns proposed by learning direction theory. Th...

  11. A Model for Contract Bid Markup Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-ping; CHEN Rong-qiu; ZHOU Shao-fu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a bid model which can be readily implemented in a competitive bid environment within the construction industry. Competitive bid situations involve a multiplicity of criteria. In this paper, 31 criteria, which effect optimum estimation, are considered. The model is based on CBR, the database of past completed bids, and information associated with successful bids. CBR is considered the best method because of the complexity of the construction domain and the wealth of information that the contractors possessed on past bids.

  12. 24 CFR 291.304 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bidding process. 291.304 Section 291.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Family Mortgage Loans § 291.304 Bidding process. (a) Submission of bids. All bids must be submitted...

  13. Bid invitations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Types of bid invitations, basic requirements on bid invitation documents, basic content of a turnkey bid invitation (bid invitation letter, instructions to the bidders, terms and conditions of the draft contract, technical specifications, site data and information), nuclear fuel procurement, differences turnkey - non-turnkey, legal, commerical, and technical matters concerning the contract document. (HP)

  14. Bidding wind energy under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Usaola, Julio; Angarita, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The integration of wind energy into electricity markets implies that the wind energy must commit their production for a given time period. This requires the use of short term wind power prediction tools to prepare the bids for the spot market. The output of these tools have a limited accuracy, and, therefore, these predictions are uncertain. Optimal bids must take into account this uncertainty in order to get the maximum revenue from the sell of energy, minimizing losses due to imbal...

  15. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal of... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not...

  16. On Auctions with Withdrawable Winning Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Michael H. Rothkopf

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers sealed bidding in which bidders may submit two or more bids and after the bids are opened may, perhaps at a cost, withdraw bids that are more aggressive than would be necessary to win. Such withdrawal strategies are sometimes followed, but currently are surreptitious. However, legitimization of them would create potentially useful market mechanisms of potential interest to government agencies. These market mechanisms are also of theoretical interest since they are interme...

  17. 36 CFR 223.231 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.231... methods. The Contracting Officer or designated forest officer shall offer advertised sales of special forest products through sealed bid or sealed bid followed by oral auction. The method selected shall:...

  18. 42 CFR 414.910 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding process. 414.910 Section 414.910 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Under Part B § 414.910 Bidding process. (a) Entities may bid to furnish CAP drugs in all...

  19. 47 CFR 90.910 - Bidding credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding credits. 90.910 Section 90.910....910 Bidding credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as a very small business, as defined in § 90.912(b)(2), or a consortium of very small businesses may use a bidding credit of 35 percent to lower...

  20. ELEMENTS OF GOOD BIDDING PRACTICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, CLEM

    EMPLOYMENT OF AN ARCHITECT WHO WILL DRAW UP PLANS AND SUBMIT PRELIMINARY SKETCHES IS THE FIRST STEP IN THE BIDDING PROCEDURE. THE ARCHITECT USUALLY WORKS WITH A CONSULTING ENGINEER. AFTER APPROVAL OF PRELIMINARY PLANS, THE ENGINEER WILL ESTABLISH SPECIFICATIONS FOR MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND DRAW PLANS ACCORDINGLY WHEN THIS PHASE IS COMPLETED THE…

  1. Emerging behavior in online bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I.; Kahng, B.

    2007-06-01

    With the advancement in the information age, people are using electronic media more frequently for commercial transactions. Online auction is a prototypical example. In online auctions, bidders or agents can easily participate into many different transactions simultaneously and the number of bidders participating in a given transaction is not bounded. Owing to such benefits, distinct features emerge compared with the traditional auctions, which are reviewed here. There form a number of bidders who are responsible for a significant fraction of the total bidding activities due to the online characteristics. We show that they exert strong influence on the final prices in distinct auctions. This domination of online auctions by such a unusually active minority may be a generic feature of all online mercantile processes. On the other hand, the bidding process in the auction systems is described by using a master equation with the transition probability determined with empirical data. We show that the bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction. Finally, the bidding pattern emerging from the interactions between individual bidders or items is analyzed in the perspective of the graph theory.

  2. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  3. Bidding Markets with Financial Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Beker, Pablo; Hernando-Veciana, Angel

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of bidding markets with financial constraints a la Che and Gale (1998b) in which two firms optimally choose their budgets. First, we provide an alternative explanation for the dispersion of markups and “money left on the table” across procurement auctions. Interestingly, this explanation does not hinge on significant private information but on di?erences, both endogenous and exogenous, in the availability of financial resources. Second, we explain why the empirical analysis...

  4. The impacts of different bidding segment numbers on bidding strategies of generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a competitive electricity market, generation companies design bidding strategies to maximize their individual profits subject to the constraints imposed by bidding rules. For a generation company, obviously, the optimal bidding strategy and hence the potential of exercising market power may be different if different bidding rules are employed. Hence, a well-designed bidding protocol is vital to the effective and efficient operation of an electricity market. Based on the widely used stepwise bidding rules, the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the bidding strategies of generation companies are investigated. This study is focused on a price-taker generation company in an electricity market. A probabilisic model is used to simulate electricity price in the competitive market environment. With a given number of bidding segments, the optimal bidding strategy for a price-taker generation company is then developed. The effects of risk preferences as well as information asymmetry on the optimal bidding strategy are also examined. With particular references to the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the optimal bidding strategy, a numerical example is employed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and methodology. (author)

  5. 48 CFR 14.202-1 - Bidding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding time. 14.202-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-1 Bidding time. (a) Policy. A reasonable time for prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids shall be allowed in all invitations,...

  6. Bidding Agents That Perpetrate Auction Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Jarrod; McCabe, Alan; Read, Wayne

    This paper presents a software bidding agent that inserts fake bids on the seller's behalf to inflate an auction's price. This behaviour is referred to as shill bidding. Shill bidding is strictly prohibited by online auctioneers, as it defrauds unsuspecting buyers by forcing them to pay more for the item. The malicious bidding agent was constructed to aid in developing shill detection techniques. We have previously documented a simple shill bidding agent that incrementally increases the auction price until it reaches the desired profit target, or it becomes too risky to continue bidding. This paper presents an adaptive shill bidding agent which when used over a series of auctions with substitutable items, can revise its strategy based on bidding behaviour in past auctions. The adaptive agent applies a novel prediction technique referred to as the Extremum Consistency (EC) algorithm, to determine the optimal price to aspire for. The EC algorithm has successfully been used in handwritten signature verification for determining the maximum and minimum values in an input stream. The agent's ability to inflate the price has been tested in a simulated marketplace and experimental results are presented.

  7. tBid and cardiolipin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya;

    2007-01-01

    The abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefore...... a general CL induced instability and kick the system into a favourite curvature conformation. The presence of CL seems to make membranes more expandable at essentially constant limiting tension. As the protein adsorbs to the interface, the expansion modulus is apparently increased, both in the...

  8. Competitive Bidding Behavior in Uniform-Price Auction Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton

    2003-01-01

    Profit-maximizing bidding in uniform price auction markets involves bidding above marginal cost. It therefore is not surprising that such behavior is observed in electricity markets. Common bidding behavior such as "hockey stick" bids easily are explained by suppliers determining their supply offers to maximize profits. This incentive to bid above marginal cost is not the result of coordinated action among the bidders. Rather, each bidder is independently selecting its bid to maximize profits...

  9. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.88... methods. (a) Competitive sales of National Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for each sale will: (1) Insure open and fair competition, (2)...

  10. The Effect of Information Feedback in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Soo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.

  11. Bidding with Securities: Auctions and Security Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Ilan Kremer; Andrzej Skrzypacz

    2005-01-01

    We study security-bid auctions in which bidders compete by bidding with securities whose payments are contingent on the realized value of the asset being sold. Such auctions are commonly used, both formally and informally. In formal auctions, the seller restricts bids to an ordered set, such as an equity share or royalty rate, and commits to a format, such as first or second-price. In informal settings with competing buyers, the seller does not commit to a mechanism upfront. Rather, bidders o...

  12. 48 CFR 2052.214-72 - Bid evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bid evaluation. 2052.214-72... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.214-72 Bid evaluation. As... invitations for bids (paragraph “(f)” of this provision is optional): Bid Evaluation (JAN 1993) (a) Award...

  13. 48 CFR 14.202-8 - Electronic bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic bids. 14.202-8 Section 14.202-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-8 Electronic bids. In accordance with subpart 4.5, contracting officers...

  14. 48 CFR 814.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsiveness of bids. 814.301 Section 814.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 814.301 Responsiveness of bids....

  15. Bimodal Bidding in Experimental All-Pay Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Ernst; Christian Thöni

    2013-01-01

    We report results from experimental first-price, sealed-bid, all-pay auctions for a good with a common and known value. We observe bidding strategies in groups of two and three bidders and under two extreme information conditions. As predicted by the Nash equilibrium, subjects use mixed strategies. In contrast to the prediction under standard assumptions, bids are drawn from a bimodal distribution: very high and very low bids are much more frequent than intermediate bids. Standard risk prefer...

  16. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, P

    2009-01-01

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Mana...

  17. The commitee system for competitve bids in local government

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bolton

    2009-01-01

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Mana...

  18. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. We believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries - for governments and companies alike. The means of combating 'tactical overbidding' rests largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasising that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations. (author)

  19. Proapoptotic Bid is required for pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Budinger, G.R. Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Eisenbart, James; Fuller, Alyson C.; Bellmeyer, Amy A.; Baker, Christina M.; Wilson, Mindy; Ridge, Karen; Terrence A. Barrett; Lee, Vivian Y.; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis are poorly understood. Previous reports indicate that activation of TGF-β1 is essential for the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report that the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bid is required for the development of pulmonary fibrosis after the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Mice lacking Bid exhibited significantly less pulmonary fibrosis in response to bleomycin compared with WT mice. The attenuation in pulmonary fibrosis w...

  20. Minimizing forced outage risk in generator bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dibyendu

    Competition in power markets has exposed the participating companies to physical and financial uncertainties. Generator companies bid to supply power in a day-ahead market. Once their bids are accepted by the ISO they are bound to supply power. A random outage after acceptance of bids forces a generator to buy power from the expensive real-time hourly spot market and sell to the ISO at the set day-ahead market clearing price, incurring losses. A risk management technique is developed to assess this financial risk associated with forced outages of generators and then minimize it. This work presents a risk assessment module which measures the financial risk of generators bidding in an open market for different bidding scenarios. The day-ahead power market auction is modeled using a Unit Commitment algorithm and a combination of Normal and Cauchy distributions generate the real time hourly spot market. Risk profiles are derived and VaRs are calculated at 98 percent confidence level as a measure of financial risk. Risk Profiles and VaRs help the generators to analyze the forced outage risk and different factors affecting it. The VaRs and the estimated total earning for different bidding scenarios are used to develop a risk minimization module. This module will develop a bidding strategy of the generator company such that its estimated total earning is maximized keeping the VaR below a tolerable limit. This general framework of a risk management technique for the generating companies bidding in competitive day-ahead market can also help them in decisions related to building new generators.

  1. Europe wrestles with ITER site bid

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, T

    2003-01-01

    "The European Union is in a quandary over whether to put forward the French or Spanish site to host ITER, a $5 billion magnetic fusion experiment intended to prove the feasability of fusion energy. The decision is set for 27 November, with the final site selection, between the victorious European bid and bids from Canada and Japan, to follow within a couple of months" (1 page)

  2. 42 CFR 414.412 - Submission of bids under a competitive bidding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of bids under a competitive bidding program. 414.412 Section 414.412 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER...

  3. Competitive bidding for Medicare Part B clinical laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C

    2014-06-01

    The traditional Medicare fee-for-service program may be able to purchase clinical laboratory test services at a lower cost through competitive bidding. Demonstrations of competitive bidding for clinical laboratory tests have been twice mandated or authorized by Congress but never implemented. This article provides a summary and review of the final design of the laboratory competitive bidding demonstration mandated by the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003. The design was analogous to a sealed bid (first price), clearing price auction. Design elements presented include covered laboratory tests and beneficiaries, laboratory bidding and payment status under the demonstration, composite bids, determining bidding winners and the demonstration fee schedule, and quality under the demonstration. Expanded use of competitive bidding in Medicare, including specifically for clinical laboratory tests, has been recommended in some proposals for Medicare reform. The presented design may be a useful point of departure if Medicare clinical laboratory competitive bidding is revived in the future. PMID:24366366

  4. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  5. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N., E-mail: bigdeli@ee.sharif.ed [EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, K., E-mail: k_afshar@ee.sharif.ed [EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M., E-mail: fotuhi@sharif.ed [EE Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  6. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. Companies are faced with a trade off between profitability of potential discoveries and probability of winning the bid. The authors believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. This tactic is hard to recognize and may have a good chance of success, due to the strength of the oil company's bargaining position upon discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries --- for governments and companies alike. This paper reports that the means of combating tactical underbidding rest largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasizing that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations

  7. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  8. Bid invitation specifications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guidebook on Bid Invitation Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants is primarily directed to the managers and senior professional staff of plant owner organizations intending to launch a call for bids for a first nuclear power plant. However, the Guidebook should also be of some value for experienced owners who are about to acquire a follow-up unit. The purpose of this Guidebook is to give advice on the kind of information to be provided by the prospective plant owner to the prospective suppliers. This information should enable them to have a clear conception of the owner's wishes, of his requirements and preferences, the conditions and circumstances under which the tasks should be performed, and the detailed data and information requested of them. The presentation of this information should be such that bid evaluation and contract negotiations are facilitated

  9. Secure quantum sealed-bid auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2009-05-01

    A new experimentally feasible and secure quantum sealed-bid auction protocol using quantum secure direct communication based on GHZ states is proposed. In this scheme all bidders Bob, Charlie, … , and Zach use M groups n-particle GHZ states to represent their bids. Here, an auctioneer gives the auction outcome by performing a sequence of n-particle GHZ-basis measurements on the final quantum states. It has been shown that using this method guarantees the honesty of the protocol, and malicious bidders can not collude with the auctioneers.

  10. A BID on mitochondria with MTCH2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Cogliati; Luca Scorrano

    2010-01-01

    @@ Apoptosis is a key process for tissue homeostasis and renewal. Its dysregulation is implicated in most human diseases, from cancer to neurodegeneration. Apoptosis is triggered by stimuli that damage the internal structures of the cell, or by specialized "death"receptors on its surface. In certain cell types, Bid, a "BH3-only" member of the Bcl-2 family of death regulators integrates these two pathways at the mitochondrial level. Despite years of intense research, the mechanisms by which Bid translocates to mitochondria remain unclear. A recent study by Gross and colleagues sheds new light on this process.

  11. Optimal bid disclosure in license auctions with downstream interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Wolfstetter, Elmar G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on license auctions for process innovations in oligopoly assumed that the auctioneer reveals the winning bid and stressed that this gives firms an incentive to signal strength through their bids, to the benefit of the innovator. In the present paper we examine whether revealing the winning bid is optimal. We consider three disclosure rules: full, partial, and no disclosure of bids, which correspond to standard auctions. We show that more information disclosure increases the tot...

  12. On the Merit of the Legacy of Failed Olympic Bid

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2012-01-01

    Olympic legacy has become a dominant theme within the Olympic Movement. For decades, legacy concerns were confined to the hosting of the Olympic Games. However, these concerns have been recently extended to the bidding process itself. Cities bidding for the Olympic Games are now required to identify their legacy regardless of the outcome of their bids. This paper explores the merits of extending legacy discourse in case bids failed. It contends that the extension of legacy discourse into fail...

  13. 48 CFR 14.408-6 - Equal low bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respects: (1) Small business concerns that are also labor surplus area concerns. (2) Other small business concerns. (3) Other business concerns. (b) If two or more bidders still remain equally eligible after... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-6 Equal low bids....

  14. Synthetic Evaluation on Decision of Public Bidding for Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 颜秋许

    2002-01-01

    Public bidding is the international current practice to contract construction project. But the decision on the bidding often is made according to the qualitative evaluation based on the subjective opinion of specialists. Therefore, the fuzzy mathematics principle was applied and a synthetic evaluation model was established to provide an effective method for the development of quantitative bidding decision in this paper.

  15. 7 CFR 1955.147 - Sealed bid sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property has been in inventory, previous marketing efforts, the type property involved, and potential... file. (b) Successful bids. The highest complying bid meeting the minimum established price will be... close. If a successful bidder fails to perform under the terms of the offer, the bid deposit will...

  16. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  17. Unstable Individual Bids and Stable Market Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Alfnes, Frode; Rickertsen, Kyrre; Shogren, Jason F.

    2011-01-01

    We explore preference stability at the individual and market level. We examine individual bidding behavior among 116 French consumers who participated in experimental auctions conducted seven months apart for five types of fish. We reject preference stability at the individual level, but not at the aggregate market level.

  18. Bidding strategies in Brazilian electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double bilateral contract auctions for electric energy purchase and sale occur in Brazil. These auctions present incomplete information and possess some subjectivity in relation to the future scenario of the Brazilian electric system, inserted in the agent's bids. In this work, a model using Bayes' rule and the game theory is proposed to aid the agent in its bid definition. Through the existing relations between the Conditional probabilities of Bayes' Rule, the model transforms beliefs into information. In this way, the absence of information is supplied and the problem is transformed into a game with complete information. The present study has no worries in terms of transmission constraints, since they are not usually considered in the bilateral contract auctions in Brazil. At the end, Nash equilibrium (NE) can be found through the expected payoff matrix of each agent. (author)

  19. Securities Lending Strategies, Exclusive Auction Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The objective is either to design an appropriate securities lending auction mechanism or to come up with a strategy for placing bids, depending on which side of the fence a participant sits. There are two pieces to this puzzle. One is the valuation of the portfolio being auctioned subject to the available information set. The other piece would be to come up with the best strategy from an auction perspective once a valuation has been obtained. We derive valuations under different assumptions a...

  20. Charitable Motives and Bidding in Charity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Peter T. L. Popkowski Leszczyc; Michael H. Rothkopf

    2010-01-01

    Research on bidding in auctions has generally relied on the assumption of self-interested bidders. This work relaxes that assumption in the context of charity auctions. Because understanding charitable motives has important implications for auction design and charities' fundraising strategies, this study investigates bidders' specific types of charitable motives and the strength of these motives. We carry out three controlled field experiments consisting of real-life auctions conducted on a l...

  1. Information in T-bill Auction Bid Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Csajbók

    1999-01-01

    In this paper UK data is used to compare two potential sources of information regarding market uncertainty about future short interest rates. One is the so-called risk-neutral density function (RND) derived from interest rate option prices, the other is the distribution of bids submitted to an auction of short-term Treasury bills. More specifically, time series of RND standard deviations and auction bid standard deviations are compared. The results suggest that in some periods the auction bid...

  2. Takeover Bidding with Toeholds: The Case of the Owner's Curse.

    OpenAIRE

    Rajdeep Singh

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that winning a takeover bidding contest can be `bad news' and, consequently, losing can be `good news.' This is true even when all bidders act rationally in their own best interests with perfect information on their valuations. Bidders with toeholds rationally bid above their valuations and possibly suffer losses in equilibrium. This equilibrium strategy of `bidding to lose' played by partial owners leads to the `owner's curse.' The paper provides an explanation for ac...

  3. An Advanced Bidding Agent for Advertisement Selection on Public Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Alex; David, Esther; Payne, Terry R.; Jennings, N. R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an advanced bidding agent that participates in first-price sealed bid auctions to allocate advertising space on BluScreen -- an experimental public advertisement system that detects users through the presence of their Bluetooth enabled devices. Our bidding agent is able to build probabilistic models of both the behaviour of users who view the adverts, and the auctions that it participates within. It then uses these models to maximise the exposure that its adverts rece...

  4. Arbitrage in markets with bid-ask spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Przemys{\\l}aw Rola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a finite discrete time market with an arbitrary state space and bid-ask spreads is considered. The notion of an equivalent bid-ask martingale measure (EBAMM) is introduced and the fundamental theorem of asset pricing is proved using (EBAMM) as an equivalent condition for no-arbitrage. The Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model with bid-ask spreads is presented as an application of our results.

  5. Strategic Bidding in Hybrid CPC/CPM Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhu; Kenneth C. Wilbur

    2008-01-01

    Websites increasingly allow advertisers to choose whether to bid for advertising on a per-impression or per-click basis. We present the first analysis of this new hybrid auction market. The conventional wisdom in this industry is that brand advertisers (e.g., Coca-Cola) will bid for impressions, while direct response advertisers (e.g., Amazon.com) will bid for clicks. We find that in an auction setting similar to that used by Facebook and Google, brand advertisers may have an incentive to bid...

  6. Characterizing bid ask prices in the Brazilian equity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of long-range dependence in bid-ask prices for individual equity prices in the Brazilian stock market. Moreover, using the Hurst exponent calculated by the Local Whittle method as a measure of long-range dependence, we find evidence supporting that bid-ask prices shows a stronger long-range dependence than the one usually found in closing and opening prices. Finally, we show that bid-ask prices may be characterized by a distribution that decays as a power law reinforcing the results of Plerou et al. [Quantifying fluctuations in market liquidity: analysis of the bid-ask spread, Phys. Rev. E 71 (2005) 046131].

  7. Review of consolidated Edison`s integrated resource bidding program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Baldick, R.; Milne, A.

    1993-07-01

    Competitive bidding has emerged as the dominant method for procuring new resources by US utilities. In New York, the Public Service Commission (NYPSC) ordered the state`s seven investor-owned utilities to develop bidding programs to acquire supply and DSM resource options. Utilities were allowed significant discretion in program design in order to encourage experimentation. Competitive bidding programs pose formidable policy, design, and management challenges for utilities and their regulators. Yet, there have been few detailed case studies of bidding programs, particularly of those utilities that take on the additional challenge of having supply and DSM resources compete head-to-head for a designated block of capacity. To address that need, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy`s Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the bidding programs of two utilities that tested the integrated ``all-sources`` approach. This study focuses primarily on Consolidated Edison Company of New York`s (Con Edison) bidding program; an earlier report discusses our review of Niagara Mohawk`s program (Goldman et al 1992). We reviewed relevant Commission decisions, utility filings and signed contracts, interviewed utility and regulatory staff, surveyed DSM bidders and a selected sample of DSM non-bidders, and analyzed the bid evaluation system used in ranking bids based on detailed scoring information on individual bids provided by Con Edison.

  8. The bidding paradox: why rational politicians still want to bid for mega sports events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; van den Berg, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses reasons why politicians still favor hosting mega events despite the discouraging evidence regarding their financial benefits: (1) early political enthusiasm, (2) tying side-projects to the bid to raise political support, (3) biased reading of history, (4) the winners curse, (5)

  9. Pla d'empresa BidMarket

    OpenAIRE

    Momblona Selles, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    En aquest treball, es confecciona el pla d'empresa de BidMarket, un projecte empresarial que ofereix solucions de negociació electrònica als departaments de compres corporatius, simplificant els processos de sourcing i reduint els costos totals d'aprovisionament. Aquest servei està basat en una aplicació web de disseny i desenvolupament propi. Aquesta aplicació està essent implementada amb les últimes tecnologies de desenvolupament web (html5, javascript, Node.js, angular.js ). La princ...

  10. Review of US utility demand-side bidding programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we review utility experiences with demand-side management (DSM) bidding programs. Since 1987, about 35 US utilities have signed long-term contracts with developers of DSM resources (ie energy service companies and customers) to provide a quantity of demand and energy savings at specified prices. Total resource costs range between 5.4 and 8 cents/kWh for DSM bidding programs where complete information on program costs is available. Almost all DSM bidding programs have been cost-effective compared with the utility's own supply-side alternatives, although there is substantial disagreement regarding the value of these programs compared with the utility's own DSM programs. In most bidding programs, payments to bidders account for between 70 and 90% of total program costs. Variation in winning bid prices is influenced primarily by DSM bid ceiling prices, differences in the mix of measures and markets targeted by developers, and the degree of performance risk borne by the DSM developer. Bids targeting residential customers averaged 6.2 cents/kWh compared with about 5.0 cents/kWh for commercial/industrial bids. We also compared the costs of acquiring lighting savings in DSM bidding contracts with a sample of 20 utility sponsored commercial/industrial lighting programs. We found that, on average total resource costs were slightly higher in bidding programs (6.1 vs 5.6 cents/kWh), although ratepayers bear significantly less performance risk in bidding programs compared with traditional utility-sponsored DSM programs. (author)

  11. 48 CFR 814.201 - Preparation of invitations for bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assigned by the national system or VA's Electronic Contract Management System (eCMS). VHA shall use eCMS... AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 814.201 Preparation of... accepted, and will become a contract in the same fiscal year but, because of procurement lead time,...

  12. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.502 - Bid selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section will be further reviewed by CCC and ranked in order of the greatest reduction in sugar program... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind... acreage of sugar beets or sugarcane from production, CCC will rank bids on the basis of the bid amount...

  14. Construction Procurement: Modelling Bidders’ Learning in Recurrent Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lan Oo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Construction remains a significant area of public expenditure. An understanding of the process of changes in construction pricing, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information is vital, in order to best design clients’ procurement policies. This paper aims to statistically model inexperienced individual bidders’ learning in recurrent bidding under partial and full information feedback conditions. Using an experimental dataset, the developed linear mixed model contains three predictor variables, namely: time factor, information feedback conditions, and bidding success rate in the preceding round. The results show nonlinearity and curvature in the bidders’ learning curves. They are generally less competitive in time periods after a winning bid with lower average bids submitted by those subjected to full information feedback condition. In addition, the model has captured the existence of heterogeneity across bidders with individual-specific parameter estimates that demonstrate the uniqueness of individual bidders’ learning curves in recurrent bidding. The findings advocate for adequate bidding feedback information in clients’ procurement design to facilitate learning among contractors, which may in turn lead to increased competitiveness in their bids.

  15. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Arpita; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of participants in the exchange grows, the price of an impressions becomes a signal of its value. This correlation between price and value means that a seller implementing the contract through bidding should offer the contract buyer a range of prices, and not just the cheapest impressions necessary to fulfill its demand. Implementing a contract using a range of prices, is akin to creating a mutual fund of advertising impressions, and requires {\\em randomized bidding}. We characterize what allocations can be implemented with rando...

  16. Bidding price analysis for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new method to analyze the bidding price of each participant (power suppliers and large consumers) in a pay-as-bid market. The bidding price will be decomposed into a variety of components corresponding to five factors, such as the incremental values of the subject bidder's generation on the system operational costs, on the income or payment of other bidders, and on the binding tradable constraints, and the first-order approximation of the subjective participant's bidding price. From an economic viewpoint, each component provides useful information for participants to design the strategic planning. The advantages of the method include that the decomposition is well defined without assumptions and that each decomposition term has its own economical and/or engineering meaning. The proposed method is numerically verified through computer simulations on a three-bus example system and a modified IEEE 30-bus power system with both generator and large consumer bidding. (author)

  17. Bid Preparation and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plant Project Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bid preparation and evaluation is one of the main activities in Nuclear Power Plant Project management. International Atomic Energy Agency guide and Korean experience was studied for Malaysian requirement in realization of first Nuclear Power Plant. Several aspects shall be taken into consideration such as political scenario, financial capabilities, sitting, human resource, technologies, fuel supplies and decommissioning for long term exceeded hundred years. Bidding process and activities is proposed for our country requirement. The main activities included but unlimited to Bid Invitation Specification, Bid Evaluation Process, Technical Evaluation, Economic Bid Evaluation and Contracting. On the end of day, Malaysia need safe and reliable Nuclear Power Plant. Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme also get benefit from spin-off localization products and services as well as Technology Transfer Programme. (author)

  18. Bidding in sequential electricity markets: The Nordic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Juul, Nina; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2014-01-01

    For electricity market participants trading in sequential markets with differences in price levels and risk exposure, coordinated bidding is highly relevant. We consider a Nordic power producer who engages in the day-ahead spot market and the near real-time balancing market. In both markets......, clearing prices and dispatched volumes are unknown at the time of bidding. However, in the balancing market, the agent faces an additional risk of not being dispatched. Taking into account the sequential clearing of these markets and the gradual realization of market prices, we formulate the bidding...... problem as a multi-stage stochastic program. We investigate whether higher risk exposure can explain the hesitation, often observed in practice, to bid into the balancing market, even in cases of higher expected price levels. Furthermore, we quantify the gain from coordinated bidding, and by deriving...

  19. Strategic bidding for load serving entity in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Hashim A.

    The objective of this thesis is to study different options of load serving entities (LSEs) in electricity markets. Two models of pool-based electricity market have been studied. The difference between them is in the effect of transmission constraints. Transmission Constraints are neglected in the first model. Various bidding scenarios are presented in the first model to study the effect of retail, interruptible, and bidding prices on the profit of single LSE utilizing Monte Carlo simulation method. Genetic algorithm optimization tool is used to get the optimal bidding. In the second model, a new approach is presented to study the impact of transmission constraints (TCs) on the profit of LSE and its bidding strategy utilizing IEEE 30 bus system. Different pricing settlements then tested the effects of TCs to investigate the best pricing option. It has been shown that the first rejected bid settlement is the best selection for load serving entity.

  20. Investors flock to Venezuelan bidding rounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Venezuelan government has disproved the long-cherished oil industry mantra that low tax rates attract private sector investors. At a time when most company managements feel they need to collect balance sheet assets at any price. Venezuela is ensuring that it remains the upmarket not the bargain basement investor target. Despite offering some of the most punitive and complicated fiscal terms worldwide, a near certainty that taxes will rise in the future and state oil company control of the join ventures' operating committees, oil investors of all sizes cannot keep away. The third marginal field reactivation round, launched late last year attracted a staggering 259 companies, both foreign and local, which prequalified to bid. (Author)

  1. Determination of the Prosumer's Optimal Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Gabriella; Rossi, Federico; Russo, Angela

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a microgrid connected with a medium-voltage (MV) distribution network. It is assumed that the microgrid, which is managed by a prosumer, operates in a competitive environment and participates in the day-ahead market. Then, as the first step of the short-term management problem, the prosumer must determine the bids to be submitted to the market. The offer strategy is based on the application of an optimization model, which is solved for different hourly price profiles of energy exchanged with the main grid. The proposed procedure is applied to a microgrid and four different its configurations were analyzed. The configurations consider the presence of thermoelectric units that only produce electricity, a boiler or/and cogeneration power plants for the thermal loads, and an electric storage system. The numerical results confirmed the numerous theoretical considerations that have been made.

  2. Understanding the unbundled utility conservation bidding proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years regulatory advisers have been engaged in controversy about the propriety of integrating energy conservation measures into the total resource planning processes of electric utilities, and of proposed methods of doing so in the competitive supply procurement programs which have been initiated by some utilities. Two prominent economists conceived a method for doing this in competitive bidding programs and at the same time overcoming objections to previous proposals which were based on perceived violations of basic economic principles. They explained their concept and its operation in an article published here in June of last year. In this article another economist subjects the concept to further analysis, identifying its essential elements, and point to inevitable results of their application

  3. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants. 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in a country is a major undertaking for all entities involved. The necessary planning work and co-ordination of the different fields of interest, from the point of view of governments, authorities, industries, universities and of the general public, must be done on a long term basis. This IAEA report may help support the work of the utility in the bidding process, especially in the economic bid evaluation. The different methods, aspects and parameters described should be regarded as a guide. The report's target criterion of lowest levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) is a very useful and practical way of ranking bids. In view of the huge investment needed, the owner's country must be fully committed to a nuclear programme. A nuclear programme also requires a guarantee of long term financing, which implies the provision of local and foreign contributions. The necessary staff for all of the various areas of a nuclear programme must be recruited and trained. Within the planning phase, the bid invitation specification (BIS) has to be prepared and sent out in order to receive bids for the scope of supply and services desired by the owner. The evaluation of the bids received from the suppliers in response to the BIS is a huge and long-term task. The evaluation process should lead to the selection of the best bidder and at least to the final decision on the partners constructing the NPP. The responsibility for the entire bidding process lies with the plant owner. For technology transfer, two requirements need to be satisfied: the owner needs a well established and experienced engineering capability, and the supplier must be ready to transfer the agreed technology in such a way as to support the project goals. During the bid evaluation process, all aspects of the technical, financial and contractual approaches must be considered. Nowadays, political, socioeconomic and public acceptance aspects play a

  4. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Management Policy to provide for a committee system to oversee the different stages. Such committee system must, moreover, consist of at least a bid specification committee, a bid evaluation committee and a bid adjudication committee. Until recently, little attention has been given by the courts to the roles and composition of the different committees in the committee system. It is only after government, and in particular, municipalities have begun to implement the committee system in their procurement processes that it is evident that problems are arising. In recent months, the courts have increasingly had to deal with issues pertaining to the implementation of the committee system.In this article, the relevant legislative provisions on the committee system for competitive bids in local government are discussed. The functions of each committee are explained and all the cases that have thus far involved the implementation of the committee system are critically analysed. Much attention is given to the cases since they serve as a warning to municipalities to uphold and comply with the rules relating to the roles and composition of the different committees. The cases illustrate how important it is for municipalities to ensure that the different committees are properly constituted and that decisions at meetings are properly taken. They also highlight the importance of the supervisory role of the municipal manager over the different committees. In light of the

  5. Secure quantum sealed-bid auction with post-confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwen; Naseri, Mosayeb; Zheng, Yuanqing

    2010-08-01

    A new secure quantum auction with post-confirmation is proposed, which is a direct application of the multi-particle super dense coding scheme to the auction problem. In this scheme all bidders use M groups n-particle GHZ states to represent their bids. Different from classical auction protocols and the previous secure quantum sealed-bid auction protocols, in the present scheme, by introducing a post-confirmation mechanism the honesty of the quantum sealed-bid auction is guaranteed, i.e., malicious bidders cannot collude with auctioneers. Also by sharing secret keys with the bidders the auctioneer could insure the anonymity of the bidders.

  6. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the guidebook is to assist an organisation responsible for a nuclear power project in evaluating and establishing an economic order of merit among competing bids. An approximate overall time schedule for a first nuclear power plant project is provided. A schematic outline of technical bid evaluation is given. The basic procedure of economic bid evaluation is outlined, e.g. evaluation of the present worth of all cost items of plant capital investment, of the nuclear cycle, of O and M costs (operation and maintenance costs), and of economic corrections. All these cost items are evaluated for the economic life of the plant and corrected for escalation where applicable

  7. Supporting contractors' bidding decision: RBF neural networks application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    A bidding decision, despite its being important for the contractor, often needs to be made quickly and within a limited timeframe. To facilitate the contractor's reasoning by limiting randomness that may lead to mistakes decision support models are frequently applied. This paper presents possible applications of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to support bidding decisions. The proposed model involving networks with radial basis functions (RBF) was to perform a classification task. On the basis of a set of input data, the network was to suggest either participation in the bid or resignation from it. The results, 93% of correctly classified cases, confirmed the usability of RBF network in solving the problem.

  8. 48 CFR 14.406 - Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid. 14.406 Section 14.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.406 Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid....

  9. 48 CFR 1814.302 - Bid submission. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Bid submission. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1814.302 Section 1814.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 1814.302 Bid submission. (NASA...

  10. A sealed-bid two-attribute yardstick auction without prior scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    . This is done simply by replacing the submitted sealed bids by yardstick bids, computed by a linear weighting of the other participants’ bids. We show that there is only one type of Nash equilibria where some agents may win the auction by submitting a zero price-bid. Using a simulation study we...

  11. Strategic bidding in electricity markets using particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profit maximization for power companies is highly related to the bidding strategies used. In order to sell electricity at high prices and maximize profit, power companies need suitable bidding models that consider power operating constraints and price uncertainty within the market. In this paper, we present two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to determine bid prices and quantities under the rules of a competitive power market. The first method uses a conventional PSO technique to find solutions. The second method uses a decomposition technique in conjunction with the PSO approach. This new decomposition-based PSO dramatically outperforms the conventional form of PSO. We show that for nonlinear cost functions PSO solutions provide higher expected profits than marginal cost-based bidding. (author)

  12. 48 CFR 14.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions that do not vary from the terms and conditions of the invitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated...

  13. Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz M. Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.

  14. Strategic bidding in electricity markets using particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yucekaya, Ahmet D.; Valenzuela, Jorge [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 207 Dunstan Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5347 (United States); Dozier, Gerry [Applied Computational Intelligence Lab., Computer Science and Software Engineering, 109 Dunstan Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5347 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Profit maximization for power companies is highly related to the bidding strategies used. In order to sell electricity at high prices and maximize profit, power companies need suitable bidding models that consider power operating constraints and price uncertainty within the market. In this paper, we present two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to determine bid prices and quantities under the rules of a competitive power market. The first method uses a conventional PSO technique to find solutions. The second method uses a decomposition technique in conjunction with the PSO approach. This new decomposition-based PSO dramatically outperforms the conventional form of PSO. We show that for nonlinear cost functions PSO solutions provide higher expected profits than marginal cost-based bidding. (author)

  15. Bidding Behavior in Treasury Bill Auctions; Evidence From Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    Behavior in the first three years of auctions for Pakistani treasury bills is studied. Bidding strategies rapidly converged to a consistent pattern after the auctions started in 1991. Factors are identified that influenced the expected profitability of auction participation, which was on average low and did not differ between types of bidders. Prices bid are found to reflected both ‘buy and sell’ and ‘buy and hold’ strategies, and were affected by risk considerations and bidder-specific varia...

  16. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  17. Common Agency and Coordinated Bids in Sponsored Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Decarolis; Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta

    2012-01-01

    As auctions are becoming the main mechanism for selling advertisement space on the web, marketing agencies specialized in bidding in online auctions are proliferating. We analyze theoretically how bidding delegation to a common marketing agency can undermine both revenues and efficiency of the generalized second price auction, the format used by Google and Microsoft-Yahoo!. Our characterization allows us to quantify the revenue losses relative to both the case of full competition and the case...

  18. Takeover Bids below the Expected Value of Minority Shares

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk

    1988-01-01

    Focusing on takeover bids whose outcome can be predicted in advance with certainty, Grossman and Hart established the proposition, which subsequent work accepted, that successful bids must be made at or above the expected value of minority shares. This proposition provided the basis for Grossman and Hart's identification of a free-rider problem and became a major premise for the analysis of takeovers This paper shows that this important proposition does not always hold once we drop the assump...

  19. Competitive Bidding for a Long-term Electricity Distribution Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Littlechild, Stephen C

    2001-01-01

    Demsetz (1968) advocated competitive bidding as a replacement for natural monopoly regulation. Williamson (1976) and Goldberg (1976) argued that these problems of natural monopoly regulation are inherent in long-term investment under uncertainty, and that both long- and short-term franchising contracts may be more problematic than regulation. Williams illustrated this argument with the problems experienced in bidding to provide cable TV in Oakland. London Underground recently put out top...

  20. Fiscal Competition for FDI when Bidding is Costly

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ferrett; Ian Wooton

    2013-01-01

    We introduce bidding costs into a standard model of tax/subsidy competition between two potential host countries to attract the plant of a monopoly firm. Such a bidding cost, even if it is infinitesimal, qualitatively alters the resulting equilibrium. At most one country offers fiscal inducements to the firm, and this attenuates the familiar "race to the bottom" in corporate taxes. In general, the successful host country benefits from the resulting absence of active tax/subsidy competition, a...

  1. Fuzzy Comprehensive Judgment on the Mechanical Equipment Bid Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reasonable model of fuzzy comprehensive judgment is found by means of thetheory and method of multi-level fuzzy judgment on the basis of the judging index systemof mechanical equipment bid sheets. The scientific method is supplied for the judgingbids, the key chain of the judging process of the mechanical equipment bid sheet. All factors are considered, especially quantitative factors or qualitative factors in the process ofjudgment.

  2. Effective Bid-Ask Spreads in Futures versus Futures Options

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Samarth; Brorsen, B. Wade; Anderson, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    While considerable research has estimated liquidity costs of futures trading, little comparable research is available about options markets. This study determines effective bid-ask spreads in options and futures markets for Kansas City Board of Trade (KCBT) wheat. Effective bid-ask spreads are estimates of the actual liquidity cost of a round-trip order. Option liquidity costs are estimated using a new measure of effective spreads developed for options markets. Futures effective spreads are e...

  3. Strategic bidding for wind power producers in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Game theoretic bidding strategy approach developed to optimize wind power producers bids. • Rival behavior modeled through Stochastic Cournot model. • Location based dual imbalance price mechanism proposed to obtain imbalance charges. • Proposed approach evaluated using two realistic case studies. • Proposed approach increases profit of strategic wind power producers significantly. - Abstract: In evolving electricity markets, wind power producers (WPPs) would increase their profit through strategic bidding. However, generated power by WPPs is highly random, which may result into heavy imbalance charges. In markets dominated by wind generators, they would optimize their offered bids, considering rival behavior. In oligopolistic day-ahead electricity markets, this strategic behavior can be represented as a Stochastic Cournot model. Wind uncertainty is represented by scenarios generated using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. With a consideration of wind power uncertainty and imbalance charges, strategic WPPs can maximize their expected payoff or profit through the proposed Nash equilibrium based bidding strategy. Nash equilibrium is obtained using payoff matrix approach. Proposed approach is evaluated on two realistic case studies considering different technical constraints. Obtained results shows that proposed bidding strategy mechanism offers quantum increase in profit for WPPs, when their behavior is modeled in a game theoretic framework. Flexibility of approach offers opportunities for its extension to associated challenges

  4. Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Wan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Network Management (ANM enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM.

  5. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  6. Day-ahead bidding on energy markets - a basic model and its extension to bidding curve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Branda, Martin

    Ostrava: VŠB-Technická univerzita Ostrava, 2015, s. 124-128. ISBN 978-80-248-3865-6. [International Scientific Conference Financial management of firms and financial institutions Ostrava 2015 /10./. Ostrava (CZ), 07.09.2015-08.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : energy markets * wind energy * day-ahead bidding * uncertainty * two-stage stochastic programming Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/branda-0457024.pdf

  7. Winning FIFA World Cup Bids: Country Image Analysis as a Tool to Understand and Secure Bids. A Moroccan Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamelin Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to apply country image analysis to understanding and securing a successful host country FIFA bid with Morocco as a case study. Country image was conceptualized as having cognitive and personality dimensions. The findings revealed the most salient elements upon which Morocco’s country image is built and provide a strong foundation for any future world cup bidding committee to promote or reposition perceptual aspects of Morocco’s country image.

  8. Bidding Strategies for Carrier in Combinatorial Transportation Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittawat Ueasangkomsate

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In combinatorial auction for truckload transportation service procurement, we introduce thebidding strategy for carrier facing the hard valuation problem to all possible routes. The modeluses a bid-to-cost ratio of carriers surveyed in Thailand to represent the bidding behavior incombinatorial freight procurement. This model facilitates carrier to value the bid price forinterested packages that involve with pattern of transportation service under different competitiveenvironment. The results of analysis with hypotheses in regression model reveal significantly thata pattern of transportation service, a number of competitors, and a pre-empty backhaul to newlane distance ratio with number of competitors do impact negatively on a bid-to-cost ratio ofcarrier, whereas a pre-empty backhaul to new lane distance ratio does impact positively on a bidto-cost ratio of carrier in combinatorial transportation auction. To find optimal bid price forinterested packages in the incomplete information game, the empirical study in stochasticoptimization problem with Monte Carlo method can provide the best solution for carrier in order toacquire the maximum expected profit in the auction. The results present that the expected profitwith optimal solution of bidder is more than the average benefit in the competition marketobviously. While in turn the results also show that shipper could potentially reduce the cost oftransportation service procurement regarding our solution algorithm considerably.

  9. Optimal bidding strategies for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists the potential for gaming such as strategic bidding by participants (power suppliers and large consumers) in a deregulated power market, which is more an oligopoly than a laissez-faire market. Each participant can increase his or her own profit through strategic bidding but this has a negative effect on maximising social welfare. A method to build bidding strategies for both power suppliers and large consumers in a poolco-type electricity market is presented in this paper. It is assumed that each supplier/large consumer bids a linear supply/demand function, and the system is dispatched to maximise social welfare. Each supplier/large consumer chooses the coefficients in the linear supply/demand function to maximise benefits, subject to expectations about how rival participants will bid. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimisation problem, and solved by a Monte Carlo approach. A numerical example with six suppliers and two large consumers serves to illustrate the essential features of the method. (author)

  10. Issues in bidding for contracts for occupational therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, S; Law, M

    2001-06-01

    There is an increasing number of occupational therapists in Canada who are involved in bidding for contracts to deliver occupational therapy services. Occupational therapists working in an institutional or community-based setting may not have had the responsibility of developing a proposal or a marketing plan for bidding purposes. However, the responsibility of developing a bid to compete for a service delivery contract often rests on occupational therapists who are sole practitioners in a private practice setting. The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues in the literature such as service delivery plans, marketing strategies and costing of services that can assist the occupational therapist in the development of a contractual bid. A specific clinical example, school therapy services, has been used to illustrate how these strategies can be applied to practice. Success in contractual bids appears to be primarily influenced by cost of the service, the expertise of the service provider, ability to provide coordinated care, ease of access for clients, and inclusion of methods to measure client outcome. PMID:11433914

  11. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way. PMID:15460809

  12. Competitive bidding for OCS leases and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, the role of environment has become increasingly contentious in the process of competitive bidding for exploration and development rights of offshore petroleum leases in the outer continental shelf (OCS). Although an extensive literature exists on OCS leasing per se, relatively little work focuses on the role of environmental factors. This paper examines the effect on environmental risk on the number of firms (or joint ventures) entering bids for a given tract, which relates to the effective competition for the tracts. The next section outlines a theoretical model of bidding behavior under environmental risk. The third section presents the data used to estimate the model. The fourth section gives empirical results of an analysis of Sale No. 42, conducted in 1979 for Georges Bank in the North Atlantic. The last section provides concluding remarks

  13. Review of integrated resource bidding at Niagara Mohawk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.S.; Cohen, S.

    1992-05-01

    In June 1988, the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) ordered the state's investor-owned utilities to develop competitive bidding programs that included both supply and demandside resource options. The New York State Energy Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy's Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the integrated bidding processes of two New York utilities, Niagara Mohawk and Consolidated Edison. This interim report focuses on Niagara Mohawk (NMPC). In terms of overall approach, our analysis is intended as a critical review of a large-scale experiment in competitive resource acquisition implemented by New York utilities at the direction of their state regulators. The study is not a formal impact or process evaluation. Based on priorities established jointly with project sponsors, the report focuses on selected topics: analysis of the two-stage scoring system used by NMPC, ways that the scoring system can be improved, an in-depth review of the DSM bidding component of the solicitation including surveys of DSM bidders, relationship between DSM bidding and other utility-sponsored DSM programs, and major policy issues that arise in the design and implementation of competitive resource procurements. The major findings of this report are: NMPC's solicitation elicited an impressive response from private power developers and energy service companies. In the initial ranking of bids, DSM projects were awarded significantly more points on price and environmental factors compared to supply-side bids. NMPC's scoring system gave approximately twice as much weight nominally to price as to non-price factors (850 vs. 460 points).

  14. Review of integrated resource bidding at Niagara Mohawk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.S.; Cohen, S.

    1992-05-01

    In June 1988, the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) ordered the state`s investor-owned utilities to develop competitive bidding programs that included both supply and demandside resource options. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy`s Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the integrated bidding processes of two New York utilities, Niagara Mohawk and Consolidated Edison. This interim report focuses on Niagara Mohawk (NMPC). In terms of overall approach, our analysis is intended as a critical review of a large-scale experiment in competitive resource acquisition implemented by New York utilities at the direction of their state regulators. The study is not a formal impact or process evaluation. Based on priorities established jointly with project sponsors, the report focuses on selected topics: analysis of the two-stage scoring system used by NMPC, ways that the scoring system can be improved, an in-depth review of the DSM bidding component of the solicitation including surveys of DSM bidders, relationship between DSM bidding and other utility-sponsored DSM programs, and major policy issues that arise in the design and implementation of competitive resource procurements. The major findings of this report are: NMPC`s solicitation elicited an impressive response from private power developers and energy service companies. In the initial ranking of bids, DSM projects were awarded significantly more points on price and environmental factors compared to supply-side bids. NMPC`s scoring system gave approximately twice as much weight nominally to price as to non-price factors (850 vs. 460 points).

  15. Anomalous bidding in short-term Treasury bill auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Fleming; Garbade, Kenneth D.; Keane, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We show that Treasury bill auction procedures create classes of price-equivalent discount rates for bills with fewer than seventy-two days to maturity. We argue that it is inefficient for market participants to bid at a discount rate that is not the minimum rate in its class. The inefficiency of bidding at a rate other than the minimum is related to a quantity shortfall rather than an unexploited profit opportunity. Auction results for weekly offerings of four-week bills and occasional offeri...

  16. ALAS BID premios al desarrollo infantil temprano: 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Näslund-Hadley

    2012-01-01

    Los Premios ALAS-BID nacen de la necesidad de reconocer el compromiso de tantas personas que trabajan por el desarrollo infantil temprano en América Latina y el Caribe. Los premios son otorgados por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) y la fundación ALAS, dirigida por la artista internacional Shakira. Existen cuatro categorías que distinguen a aquellos educadores, centros, publicaciones e innovaciones de desarrollo infantil temprano que se destacan como líderes en la región.

  17. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  18. Bid process and contracting for remediation in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to provide cost effective and timely reclamation services to high priority leaking underground storage tank sites the New Mexico Environment Department has implemented a reclamation bidding process for qualified state contractors. The bid process was implemented in an attempt to make reclamation contractors more competitive and to encourage innovative technologies and contracting mechanisms. Overall the Bureau has received positive feedback from contractors participating in the process, especially regarding innovative technology and contracting. In addition, the process has provided excellent training for project managers and has allowed a critical review of the reclamation process for UST sites in general

  19. Real-Time Bidding Benchmarking with iPinYou Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weinan; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Jun; Shen, Xuehua

    2014-01-01

    Being an emerging paradigm for display advertising, Real-Time Bidding (RTB) drives the focus of the bidding strategy from context to users' interest by computing a bid for each impression in real time. The data mining work and particularly the bidding strategy development becomes crucial in this performance-driven business. However, researchers in computational advertising area have been suffering from lack of publicly available benchmark datasets, which are essential to compare different alg...

  20. An analysis of competitive bidding by providers for indigent medical care contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkman-Liff, B L; Christianson, J B; Hillman, D G

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a model of behavior in bidding for indigent medical care contracts in which bidders set bid prices to maximize their expected utility, conditional on estimates of variables which affect the payoff associated with winning or losing a contract. The hypotheses generated by this model are tested empirically using data from the first round of bidding in the Arizona indigent health care experiment. The behavior of bidding organizations in Arizona is found to be consistent in m...

  1. The empirics of key factors in the success of bids for olympic games

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Feddersen; Wolfgang Maennig; Philipp Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the probability of the success of city bid campaigns on the basis of quantified determinants for a total of 48 bids for the Summer Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012. Using a model comprising the distance of sporting venues from the Olympic Village, local temperatures and unemployment rates, we can correctly predict the decision for 100% of failed bids and 50% of successful bids.

  2. How to win the Olympic Games: the empirics of key success factors of Olympic bids

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the probability of the success of city bid campaigns on the basis of the quantified factors of a total of 43 bids for the Summer Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012. By using a model with the distance of the sporting venues to the Olympic Village, the local temperatures and unemployment rates, we can correctly predict the decision in 97 % of failed bids and in 60 % of successful bids.

  3. Bid, a widely expressed proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, displays lipid transfer activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposti, M D; Erler, Janine Terra; Hickman, J A;

    2001-01-01

    Bid is an abundant proapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is crucial for the induction of death receptor-mediated apoptosis in primary tissues such as liver. Bid action has been proposed to involve the relocation of its truncated form, tBid, to mitochondria to facilitate the release of apo...

  4. 48 CFR 814.404-70 - Questions involving the responsiveness of a bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsiveness of a bid. 814.404-70 Section 814.404-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Contract 814.404-70 Questions involving the responsiveness of a bid. If a contracting officer cannot resolve a question involving the responsiveness of a bid, the contracting officer may submit the...

  5. Script Fading to Promote Unscripted Bids for Joint Attention in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Joy S.; Betz, Alison M.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    We used a script-fading procedure to teach 3 children with autism to initiate bids for joint attention. We examined the effects of (a) scripts, (b) varied adult scripted responses, and (c) multiple-exemplar script training on promoting unscripted language during bids for joint attention. All 3 participants learned to initiate bids for joint…

  6. Bidding for Nothing? The Pitfalls of overly Neutral Framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dürsch (Peter); J. Müller (Julia)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Neutral framing is a standard tool of experimental economics. However, overly neutral instructions, which lack any contextual clues, can lead to strange behavior. In a contextless second price auction for a meaningless good, a majority of subjects enter positive bids -

  7. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved bids submitted under § 423.265 in order to calculate the base beneficiary premium, as provided in... number of Part D eligible individuals enrolled in the plan in the reference month (as defined in § 422.258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  8. International Engineering Bidding and Quoting Statics and Quotation Compilation Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li

    2009-01-01

    By learning from foreign advanced ideas, this paper summarizes and compares the engineering cost management modes and theories in America, England, and Europe, and advances suggestions for the international bidding and quoting tactics and quotation compilation skills of China’s construction industry.

  9. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.603 Competitive bid requirements... services eligible for universal service support to it under this subpart, each eligible health care...) Posting of FCC Form 465. (1) An eligible health care provider seeking to receive...

  10. Mothers Respond Differently to Infants' Gestural versus Nongestural Communicative Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Janet; Masur, Elise Frank

    2013-01-01

    Thirty infants at 1;1 and their mothers were videotaped while playing for 18 minutes. Experimental stimuli were presented in three communicative intent contexts--proto-declarative, proto-imperative, and ambiguous--to elicit infant communicative bids that did and did not contain gestures. Mothers' responses were analyzed, and their verbal responses…

  11. Beijing won the bid for hosting the FISM 2009 Convention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆定纲

    2006-01-01

    On August 4th, 2006, the fifth day of the 23rd FISM 2006 Convention in Stockholm. Beijing. after a fierce competition with the other two candidates-Granada and Vienna, finally won the bid for hosting FISM 2009 Convention, gaining 62 percent of the votes in the General Assembly.

  12. CHINA NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION Notice for Third Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC)hereby announces the commencement of the Third Round of Bidding for the Exploration of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises. 12 exploration blocks with a total area of 112 739 square kilometers are on offer.

  13. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  14. 48 CFR 52.214-5 - Submission of Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the solicitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation. (End of provision) ... submitted by electronic means) (1) addressed to the office specified in the solicitation, and (2)...

  15. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun;

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  16. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  17. Dynamic Interaction of cBid with Detergents, Liposomes and Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicken, Stephanie; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Conte, Elena; Bordignon, Enrica

    2012-01-01

    The BH3-only protein Bid plays a key role in the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis, but its mechanism of action is still not completely understood. Here we studied the two main activation events of Bid: Caspase-8 cleavage and interaction with the membrane bilayer. We found a striking reversible behaviour of the dissociation-association events between the Bid fragments p15 and p7. Caspase-8 cleavage does not induce per se separation of the two Bid fragments, which remain in a stable complex resembling the full length Bid. Detergents trigger a complete dissociation, which can be fully reversed by detergent removal in a range of protein concentrations from 100 µM down to 500 nM. Incubation of cBid with cardiolipin-containing liposomes leads to partial dissociation of the complex. Only p15 (tBid) fragments are found at the membrane, while p7 shows no tendency to interact with the bilayer, but complete removal of p7 strongly increases the propensity of tBid to become membrane-associated. Despite the striking structural similarities of inactive Bid and Bax, Bid does not form oligomers and reacts differently in the presence of detergents and membranes, highlighting clear differences in the modes of action of the two proteins. The partial dissociation of cBid triggered by the membrane is suggested to depend on the strong and specific interaction between p15 and p7. The reversible disassembly and re-assembly of the cBid molecules at the membrane was as well proven by EPR using spin labeled cBid in the presence of isolated mitochondria. The observed dynamic dissociation of the two Bid fragments could allow the assistance to the pore-forming Bax to occur repeatedly and may explain the proposed “hit-and-run" mode of action of Bid at the bilayer. PMID:22540011

  18. Cleavage by Caspase 8 and Mitochondrial Membrane Association Activate the BH3-only Protein Bid during TRAIL-induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Zhang, Jingjing; O'Neill, Katelyn L; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Quadros, Rolen M; Tu, Yaping; Luo, Xu

    2016-05-27

    The BH3-only protein Bid is known as a critical mediator of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis following death receptor activation. However, since full-length Bid possesses potent apoptotic activity, the role of a caspase-mediated Bid cleavage is not established in vivo In addition, due to the fact that multiple caspases cleave Bid at the same site in vitro, the identity of the Bid-cleaving caspase during death receptor signaling remains uncertain. Moreover, as Bid maintains its overall structure following its cleavage by caspase 8, it remains unclear how Bid is activated upon cleavage. Here, Bid-deficient (Bid KO) colon cancer cells were generated by gene editing, and were reconstituted with wild-type or mutants of Bid. While the loss of Bid blocked apoptosis following treatment by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), this blockade was relieved by re-introduction of the wild-type Bid. In contrast, the caspase-resistant mutant Bid(D60E) and a BH3 defective mutant Bid(G94E) failed to restore TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By generating Bid/Bax/Bak-deficient (TKO) cells, we demonstrated that Bid is primarily cleaved by caspase 8, not by effector caspases, to give rise to truncated Bid (tBid) upon TRAIL treatment. Importantly, despite the presence of an intact BH3 domain, a tBid mutant lacking the mitochondrial targeting helices (α6 and α7) showed diminished apoptotic activity. Together, these results for the first time establish that cleavage by caspase 8 and the subsequent association with the outer mitochondrial membrane are two critical events that activate Bid during death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27053107

  19. Process Document for the Conservation Competitive Bidding Pilot Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is proposing to test competitive bidding for Conservation Resources to expand its existing resource acquisition capabilities. Competitive bidding may target specific types of electric end-uses or end-use sectors. It is a new acquisition approach through which Bonneville seeks to acquire resources that are not acquired through other existing or planned conservation programs. This proposal describes the conservation component of the all-source competitive acquisition approach that will be developed. It is expected that the combined resource acquisition effort will target about 100 average megawatts (aMW) as proposed in the 1990 Resource Program, although the exact amount has not yet been determined. Increasing the acquisition target will, to some extent, depend on whether the proposed pilot program is large enough to establish confidence in the approach.

  20. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A., E-mail: Rabiee@iust.ac.i [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  1. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  2. Cost-sensitive Learning for Bidding in Online Advertising Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile, Flavian; Lefortier, Damien

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in computational advertising is the prediction of ad click and conversion rates for bidding in online advertising auctions. State-of- the-art prediction methods include using the maximum entropy framework (also known as logistic regression) and log linear models. However, one unaddressed problem in the previous approaches is the existence of highly non-uniform misprediction costs. In this paper, we present our approach for making cost-sensitive predictions...

  3. Sealed-Bid Auction of Dutch Mussels : Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analy- sis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an individual purchase manager. Be- sides a case-study, the article is a general study on the role of auctions in supply chains and hedonic price factors.

  4. A REPRESENTATIVE MARKET MODEL OF FARMLAND BID PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, Glenn D.

    1982-01-01

    A land bid-price model is formulated which integrates asset pricing models form prior studies to illustrate the singular and joint effects of ordinary and capital gains taxes, growth of returns, diseconomies of size, and risk behavior on farmland prices. An application of the model to primary data from cash grains farms illustrates that the ceteris paribus effect of increased marginal tax rates on a perpetual, growing income stream is to increase its present value. Larger farms in higher marg...

  5. Wild bids. Gambling for resurrection in procurement contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Calveras, Aleix; Ganuza, Juan-Jos??; Hauk, Esther

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the problem of abnormally low tenders in the procurement process. Limited liability causes firms in a bad financial situation to bid more aggressively than financially healthy firms in the procurement auction. Therefore, it is likely that the winning firm is a firm in financial difficulties with a high risk of bankruptcy. The paper focuses on the regulatory practice of surety bonds to face this problem. We show that the use of surety bonds reduces and sometimes eliminates ...

  6. Technical evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In continuation of its efforts to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need to introduce nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency is issuing this guidebook as part of a series of guidebooks and codes of practice and, in particular, as a necessary supplement to 'Economic Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants: A Guidebook', published by the IAEA in 1976 as Technical Reports Series No.175. The present publication is intended for project managers and senior engineers of electric utilities who are concerned with the evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It assumes that the reader has a good knowledge of the technical characteristics of nuclear power plants and of nuclear power project implementation. Its purpose is to provide the information necessary to organize, guide and supervise the technical evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It goes without saying that the technical staff carrying out the evaluation must have prior technical experience which cannot be provided by a guidebook

  7. Hedging Winner's Curse with Multiple Bids: Evidence from the Portuguese Treasury Bill Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Michael B. Gordy

    1997-01-01

    Auctions of government securities typically permit bidders to enter multiple price-quantity bids. Despite the widespread adoption of this institutional feature and its use by bidders, the motivations behind its use and its effects on auction outcomes are not well understood theoretically and have been little explored empirically. Using bidding data from treasury bill auctions in Portugal, this paper examines how bidders use multiple bids to hedge against winner's curse. The data show that, ce...

  8. Neural network decision support system for effective decision making in the decision to bid process

    OpenAIRE

    Parvar, Jamshid; Lowe, David; Emsley, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Important factors in the decision to bid process are identified. A rational and optimal model of decision making for the decision to bid process, which depicts the relationships between these factors and the decision to bid options, is developed. Regression models and neural networks approach are employed to automate the rational and optimal model. Prototyping system development methodology is used as the neural networks system development. The neural networks approach in addition to the abil...

  9. A rational and optimal model of decision making for the decision to bid process

    OpenAIRE

    Parvar, Jamshid; Lowe, David J.; Emsley, Margaret W

    2001-01-01

    Important factors in the decision to bid process are identified. A rational and optimal model of decision making for the decision to bid process, which depicts the relationships between these factors and the decision to bid options, is developed. Regression models and neural networks approach are employed to automate the rational and optimal model. Prototyping system development methodology is used as the neural networks system development. The neural networks approach in addition to the abil...

  10. ELECTRONIC SEALED-BID AUCTION WITH THE EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION COMPLEXITY USING TOURNAMENT OPENING-METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Her, Yong-Sork; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Sakurai, Kouichi

    2004-01-01

    Recently, an electronic sealed-bid auction using cryptography techniques has been proposed. An electronic sealed-bid auction is a type of electronic auctions. The aim of an auction including an electronic sealed-bid auction is to decide the price of goods fairly. So, the decision method of the price on goods in an electronic auction is very important scheme. In this paper, we propose the electronic sealed-bid auction with efficient communication complexity using a tournament opening-method. A...

  11. Influence of Number of Bidders and StandardMinimum Price for Investigation to Bid Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    Recently, several issues are pointed out, such as dangou and extremely low bidding price that may cause the insufficient quality of infrastructures. First, counter measures taken by MLIT(Ministry of Land, Infrastructures, Transport and Tourism) were analyzed. Then, supposing that the minimum bid price will be taken as winner, bidding model was constructed to find out the influence of number of bidders to bid rate in public works. The model was calibrated and validated using the tender data of Kanto Regional Development Bureau, MLIT. Using the model, it was applied to the analysis of the influence of Standard MinimumPrice for Investigation. The constructed model shows good performance.

  12. A Sealed-Bid Two-Attribute Yardstick AuctionWithout Prior Scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Hougaard, Jens; Nielsen, Kurt; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    . This is done simply by replacing the submitted sealed bids by yardstick bids, computed by a linear weighting of the other participants’ bids.We show that there is only one type of Nash equilibria where some agents may win the auction by submitting a zero price-bid. Using a simulation study we...... demonstrate that following this type of equilibrium behavior often leads to winner’s curse. The simulations show that in auctions with more than 12 participants the chance of facing winner’s curse is around 95%. Truthful reporting, on the other hand, does not constitute a Nash equilibrium but it is ex post...

  13. The dynamics of bidding markets with financial constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo F. Beker; Hernando-Veciana, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of bidding markets with financial constraints `a la Che and Gale (1998b) in which two firms choose their budgets optimally and we extend it to a dynamic setting over an infinite horizon. We provide three main results for the case in which the exogenous cash-flow is not too large and the opportunity cost of budgets is positive but arbitrarily low. First, firms keep small budgets and markups are high most of the time. Second, the dispersion of markups and “money left on the table”...

  14. Coordination of bidding strategies in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the problem of building optimally coordinated bidding strategies for competitive suppliers in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets is addressed. It is assumed that each supplier bids 24 linear energy supply functions and 24 linear spinning reserve supply functions, one for each hour, into the energy and spinning reserve markets, respectively, and each market is cleared separately and simultaneously for all the 24 delivery hours. Each supplier makes decisions on unit commitment and chooses the coefficients in the linear energy and spinning reserve supply functions to maximise total benefits, subject to expectations about how rival suppliers will bid in both markets. Two different bidding schemes have been suggested for each hour, and based on them an overall coordinated bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is then developed. Stochastic optimisation models are first developed to describe these two different bidding schemes and a genetic algorithm (GA) is then used to build the optimally coordinated bidding strategies for each scheme and to develop an overall bidding strategy for the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets. A numerical example is utilised to illustrate the essential features of the method. (Author)

  15. 76 FR 20571 - Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...\\ \\4\\ Promotion of a More Efficient Capacity Release Market, 72 FR 65916 (November 26, 2007), FERC... Commission that some entities have developed and applied a strategy of bidding with multiple affiliates in... competition and permits entities that apply a multiple affiliate bidding strategy inappropriately to gain...

  16. Strategic Bidding in Multi-Unit Auctions with Capacity Constrained Bidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a simple model to describe bidding behavior in multi-unit uniform price procurement auctions when firms are capacity constrained. Using data from the New York City procurement auctions for power generating capacity, I find that firms use simple bidding strategies to coordinate...

  17. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... opening or commencement of work. 22.1014 Section 22.1014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a wage determination was obtained through the e98 process, and bid opening, or commencement of work...

  18. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  19. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding....

  20. The degree of rationality in actual bidding of hydropower at Nord Pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Erik Nicholas; Grøndahl, Roger; Fleten, Stein-Erik; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's generation in day-ahead auctions. We analyse bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profits...

  1. Analysis of variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Yuichiro; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    The aim of this study is to analyze the variation factors of successful bid rate in public works tender using data on MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism), Kanto Regional Development Bureau. It was revealed that number of bidder and level of minimum price affect variation of successful bid rate based on multiple linear regression analysis.

  2. Power in Dreams? The Spatial Effects of Chicago's Failed Olympic Bid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Terry van; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Plans change the world in subtle ways, through persuasive power with reframing effects, that precede their actual execution. We empirically tested this persuasive power, taking a failed Olympic bid as a case. Bidding entails making very detailed plans for sites and infrastructure that are n

  3. 76 FR 72301 - Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... help to avoid the appearance of multiple affiliate bidding behavior. Similarly, if state public service... Statement 35 VI. Environmental Analysis 36 VII. Regulatory Flexibility Act 37 VIII. Document Availability 39... use of the allowed capacity. \\1\\ Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity, 76...

  4. Existence and computation of equilibria of first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escamocher, Guillaume; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Santillan, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    We consider existence and computation of symmetric Pure Strategy Nash Equilibrium (PSNE) in single-item, sealed-bid, first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids. For the most general case, we show that existence of PSNE is NP-hard. Then, we present algorithmic results for the case of i...

  5. 77 FR 56742 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Bid Protest and Appeal Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Bid Protest and Appeal Authorities AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation (FAR) to address bid protest and appeal authorities. DATES: Effective Date: September 13, 2012.... Background Protests are addressed at FAR subpart 33.1, and contract disputes are addressed at FAR subpart...

  6. Comprehensive bidding strategies with genetic programming/finite state automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is an extension of the authors' previous work in double auctions aimed at developing bidding strategies for electric utilities which trade electricity competitively. The improvements detailed in this paper come from using data structures which combine genetic programming and finite state automata termed GP-Automata. The strategies developed by the method described here are adaptive--reacting to inputs--whereas the previously developed strategies were only suitable in the particular scenario for which they had been designed. The strategies encoded in the GP-Automata are tested in an auction simulator. The simulator pits them against other distribution companies (distcos) and generation companies (gencos), buying and selling power via double auctions implemented in regional commodity exchanges. The GP-Automata are evolved with a genetic algorithm so that they possess certain characteristics. In addition to designing successful bidding strategies (whose usage would result in higher profits) the resulting strategies can also be designed to imitate certain types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be implemented directly in on-line trading, or can be used as realistic competitors in an off-line trading simulator

  7. Knowledge Management in BID Preparation for Global Engineering and Manufacturing Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingwei; Mo, John; Nemes, Laszlo; Hall, William

    The core competence of a global engineering and manufacturing enterprise increasingly depends on the quality of its intellectual resources and how these resources are used in critical missions such as bid preparation. This paper discusses the knowledge management issues in the development of VIEWBID, a web-based system for supporting online bidding document preparation for global engineering and manufacturing projects. The VIEWBID system aims to supports inter-enterprise collaboration for compiling accurate bids. The enterprise engineering architectures and methodologies, such as VERA and iRoadmap, have been used to analyze the bidding process to capture different levels of procedural knowledge. A set of component-based technologies has been developed using XML and Java to capture, configure and compose the bidding documents.

  8. Sequential bidding in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a novel approach for sequential bidding on day-ahead auction markets for spot energy and power systems reserve is presented. For the spot market a relatively simple method is considered as a competitive market is assumed. For the reserve market one bidder is assumed to behave strategically and the behavior of the competitors is summarized in a probability distribution of the market price. This results in a method for sequential bidding, where the bidding prices and capacities on the spot and reserve markets are calculated by maximizing a stochastic non-linear objective function of expected profit. With an exemplary application is shown that the trading sequence leads to increasing bidding capacities and prices in the reverse rank number of the markets. Hence, the consideration of a defined trading sequence greatly influences the mathematical representation of the optimal bidding behavior under price uncertainty in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve. (Author)

  9. Bidding process in online auctions and winning strategy:rate equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, I

    2006-01-01

    Online auctions have expanded rapidly over the last decade and have become a fascinating new type of business or commercial transaction in this digital era. Here we introduce a master equation for the bidding process that takes place in online auctions. We find that the number of distinct bidders who bid $k$ times, called the $k$-frequent bidder, up to the $t$-th bidding progresses as $n_k(t)\\sim tk^{-2.4}$. The successfully transmitted bidding rate by the $k$-frequent bidder is obtained as $q_k(t) \\sim k^{-1.4}$, independent of $t$ for large $t$. This theoretical prediction is in agreement with empirical data. These results imply that bidding at the last moment is a rational and effective strategy to win in an eBay auction.

  10. 48 CFR 603.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 603.104-4... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized to receive contractor bid or proposal information or source selection information...

  11. 48 CFR 1303.104-4 - Disclosure, protection and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1303.104-4 Section... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. Contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information must be protected from unauthorized disclosure in accordance...

  12. 48 CFR 1403.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1403.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) The following classes of persons may be authorized access to contractor bid or proposal information and source...

  13. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  14. Lowest Unique Bid Auctions over the Internet: Ability, Lottery or Scam?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gallice

    2008-01-01

    A lowest unique bid auction allocates a good to the agent who submits the lowest bid that is not matched by any other bid. This peculiar auction format is getting increasingly popular over the internet. We show that such a selling mechanism is unprofitable if bidders are rational but can become highly lucrative if bidders are myopic. In this second case, we analyze the key role played by the existence of some private signals that the seller sends to the bidders. Data about actual auctions con...

  15. Bidding Strategy with Forecast Technology Based on Support Vector Machine in Electrcity Market

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, C; Napoli, R; Wan, Q

    2007-01-01

    The participants of the electricity market concern very much the market price evolution. Various technologies have been developed for price forecast. SVM (Support Vector Machine) has shown its good performance in market price forecast. Two approaches for forming the market bidding strategies based on SVM are proposed. One is based on the price forecast accuracy, with which the being rejected risk is defined. The other takes into account the impact of the producer's own bid. The risks associated with the bidding are controlled by the parameters setting. The proposed approaches have been tested on a numerical example.

  16. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  17. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2016-01-01

    the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission. The...... market. The results demonstrate that wind farm owners change their bid shading behavior in a PAB Auction. However, the expected revenue of the wind farm will also decrease in a PAB auction. As a result, it is not recommended to make an obligation for the wind farms to participate in a PAB auction as a...

  18. A race beyond the bottom: The nature of bidding for a firm

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, Taiji; Hori, Kazumi; Wooton, Ian

    2010-01-01

    We examine how the bidding environment may affect the outcome of tax competition between two countries (or two regions) in attracting a firm’s foreign direct investment (FDI).We compare the equilibrium location choice and payoffs from an English auction, with both complete and incomplete information, relative to those in the traditional setting of a sealed-bid first-price auction. We find that an English auction leads to more aggressive bidding in “race beyond the bottom,” where the nations m...

  19. PENGARUH HARGA SAHAM, VOLUME PERDAGANGAN SAHAM, DAN VOLATILITAS RETURN SAHAM PADA BID-ASK SPREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Wahyuliantini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analize the effect of stock price, stock trading volume, and volatility of stock returns on bid-ask spread. The population of this study is 20 companies incorporated in LQ45 index that appear successively during the observation period of 2011-2013. Sampling method used was saturated sampling technique, so all companies used as sample. Hipotheses were examined by implementing multiple linear regression analysis. The results show that stock price negatively affect bid-ask spread, while stock trading volume and volatility of stock returns has no significant effect on bid-ask spread.

  20. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    This paper details a practical methodology based on simple statistical calculations for modeling the performance of a single bidder or a group of bidders, constituting a useful resource for analyzing one’s own success while benchmarking potential bidding competitors.

  1. Strategic bidding of generating units in competitive electricity market with considering their reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the restructured power systems, they are typically scheduled based on the offers and bids to buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) subject to operational and security constraints. Generally, no account is taken of unit reliability when scheduling it. Therefore generating units have no incentive to improve their reliability. This paper proposes a new method to obtain the equilibrium points for reliability and price bidding strategy of units when the unit reliability is considered in the scheduling problem. The proposed methodology employs the supply function equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a unit's bidding strategy. Units change their bidding strategies and improve their reliability until Nash equilibrium points are obtained. GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language has been used to solve the market scheduling problem using DICOPT optimization software with mixed integer non-linear programming. (author)

  2. Easing the bottom-line impact of staffing shortages: a case study in shift bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulma, Maria; Springer, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    Among the potential financial advantages of online shift scheduling and bidding are: Decreased agency use; Improved employee recruitment and retention; Reduced administrative time spent scheduling; Improved staffing practices to leverage existing workforce. PMID:16610434

  3. Supplier's optimal bidding strategy in electricity pay-as-bid auction: Comparison of the Q-learning and a model-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bidding decision making problem in electricity pay-as-bid auction is studied from a supplier's point of view. The bidding problem is a complicated task, because of suppliers' uncertain behaviors and demand fluctuation. In a specific case, in which, the market clearing price (MCP) is considered as a continuous random variable with a known probability distribution function (PDF), an analytic solution is proposed. The suggested solution is generalized to consider the effect of supplier market power due to transmission congestion. As a result, an algebraic equation is developed to compute optimal offering price. The basic assumption in this approach is to take the known probabilistic model for the MCP. The above-mentioned method, called model-based approach, is not more applicable in a realistic situation. In order to overcome the drawback of this method, which needs information about the MCP and its PDF, the supplier learns from past experiences using the Q-learning algorithm to find out the optimal bid price. The simulation results of the model-based and Q-learning methods are compared on a studied system. It is shown that a supplier using the Q-learning algorithm is able to find the optimal bidding strategy similar to one obtained by the model-based approach. Furthermore, to analyze a more realistic situation, the suppliers' behaviors are modeled using a multi-agent system. Simulation results illustrate that the studied supplier finds the optimal bidding strategy in power market using the Q-learning algorithm. (author)

  4. Supplier's optimal bidding strategy in electricity pay-as-bid auction: Comparison of the Q-learning and a model-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib [Electrical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, the bidding decision making problem in electricity pay-as-bid auction is studied from a supplier's point of view. The bidding problem is a complicated task, because of suppliers' uncertain behaviors and demand fluctuation. In a specific case, in which, the market clearing price (MCP) is considered as a continuous random variable with a known probability distribution function (PDF), an analytic solution is proposed. The suggested solution is generalized to consider the effect of supplier market power due to transmission congestion. As a result, an algebraic equation is developed to compute optimal offering price. The basic assumption in this approach is to take the known probabilistic model for the MCP. The above-mentioned method, called model-based approach, is not more applicable in a realistic situation. In order to overcome the drawback of this method, which needs information about the MCP and its PDF, the supplier learns from past experiences using the Q-learning algorithm to find out the optimal bid price. The simulation results of the model-based and Q-learning methods are compared on a studied system. It is shown that a supplier using the Q-learning algorithm is able to find the optimal bidding strategy similar to one obtained by the model-based approach. Furthermore, to analyze a more realistic situation, the suppliers' behaviors are modeled using a multi-agent system. Simulation results illustrate that the studied supplier finds the optimal bidding strategy in power market using the Q-learning algorithm. (author)

  5. Bid-Ask Dynamic Pricing in Financial Markets with Transaction Costs and Liquidity Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyne Bion-Nadal

    2007-01-01

    We introduce, in continuous time, an axiomatic approach to assign to any financial position a dynamic ask (resp. bid) price process. Taking into account both transaction costs and liquidity risk this leads to the convexity (resp. concavity) of the ask (resp. bid) price. Time consistency is a crucial property for dynamic pricing. Generalizing the result of Jouini and Kallal, we prove that the No Free Lunch condition for a time consistent dynamic pricing procedure (TCPP) is equivalent to the ex...

  6. High and Volatile Treasury Yields in Tanzania; The Role of Strategic Bidding and Auction Microstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Vladimirovich Sobolev; S. M. Ali Abbas

    2008-01-01

    The observed increase in the level and volatility of Tanzania's Treasury yields in recent years against an otherwise benign macroeconomic backdrop presented a puzzle for policymakers, while raising concerns about the fiscal burden of rising debt interest payments and diversion of bank credit away from the private sector. Using evidence from bid-level data and supported by theoretical models, this paper argues that oligopolistic bidding through 2005 may have been partly responsible for the ris...

  7. What About Invitations For Bids Tell? How Content Analysis Could Be Used In Industrial Marketing Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Mandják, T

    1996-01-01

    Literature could be summarised as one of the most important goal of the selling company's marketing efforts is to know and understand the preferences of the Buying Centre. Market and network investments have become perhaps the most important strategic marketing elements. A good network could give the possibility for a creative offer and perhaps get a command without tendering. The paper try to give a research idea how bidding behaviour, bidding practice and even preferences of the Buying Cent...

  8. An examination of criminalization of Russia’s anti-bid rigging policy

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proce...

  9. Profitability of a Hydro Power Producer Bidding in Multiple Power Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Caroline; Hansen, Jakob Boye; Korpås, Magnus; Fodstad, Marte

    2016-01-01

    The production scheduling of a hydro power producer exposed to the day-ahead, balancing and capacity market is examined to find what profit the producer may achieve by strategically bid in the above mentioned markets. Optimizing the bidding in multiple markets is expected to be increasingly important in the coming years as the share of renewable energy in the power system grows. A multi-stage, multi-scenario, short-term deterministic prototype model undertakes this task. The producer is assum...

  10. Building and Researching the Bidding Model Based on the Cost of Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春申; 叶春; 赵景峰

    2004-01-01

    A bidding model of neural network was presented to pursue the largest benefit according to the policy of separating power plants from network and bidding transaction. This model bases on the cost of power plant and its research object is a power plant in the market. The market clearing price (MCP) can be predicted and an optimized load curve can be decided in this model. The model may provide technical support for the power plant.

  11. Forecasting Winning Bid Prices in an Online Auction Market:Data Mining Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hongil; BAEK Seung

    2004-01-01

    To solve information asymmetry problem on online auction, this study suggests and validates a forecasting model of winning bid prices. Especially, it explores the usability of data mining approaches, such as neural network and Bayesian network in building a forecasting model. This research empirically shows that, in forecasting winning bid prices on online auction, data mining techniques have shown better performance than traditional statistical analysis, such as logistic regression and multivariate regression.

  12. Cost Control Method and Software in Bidding Process Based on Gray System Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Liu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of social economy, the competition between enterprises in construction projects becomes more and more serious. The cost control method is proposed to the bidding process of enterprises based on the gray system forecast. At the same time, the cost control software is also constructed to the bidding process of enterprises. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach is feasible and correct.

  13. An empirical study of reserve price optimisation in real-time bidding

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Jun; Chen, Bowei; Mason, Peter; Seljan, Sam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first empirical study and live test of the reserve price optimisation problem in the context of Real-Time Bidding (RTB) display advertising from an operational environment. A reserve price is the minimum that the auctioneer would accept from bidders in auctions, and in a second price auction it could potentially uplift the auctioneer's revenue by charging winners the reserve price instead of the second highest bids. As such it has been used for sponsored search an...

  14. Letter from 167 Concerned Auction Experts on Medicare Competitive Bidding Program

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cramton

    2012-01-01

    We are economists, computer scientists, and operation researchers with expertise in the theory and practice of auctions. We write to express our concerns with the Medicare Competitive Bidding Program for Durable Medical Equipment operated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We believe that competitive bidding can be an effective method of controlling Medicare costs without sacrificing quality. However, the current auction program has flaws that need to be fixed before it can ...

  15. Cost Control Method and Software in Bidding Process Based on Gray System Forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Xi-Liu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    With the fast development of social economy, the competition between enterprises in construction projects becomes more and more serious. The cost control method is proposed to the bidding process of enterprises based on the gray system forecast. At the same time, the cost control software is also constructed to the bidding process of enterprises. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach is feasible and correct.

  16. A matrix game model for analyzing FTR bidding strategies in deregulated electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppliers in deregulated electric power markets compete for financial transmission rights (FTRs) to hedge against congestion charges. The system operator receives the bids for FTRs submitted by the suppliers and develops an allocation strategy by solving an optimization model. Each FTR bid is defined by a path, a quantity indicating the amount of FTRs the supplier is bidding for in that path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR. The FTR revenue is calculated only after the electricity market has been cleared by computing the differences in the LMPs at the pair of nodes that connect each path. Thus, suppliers rely on forecasts of locational marginal prices (LMPs) to develop their FTR bids. In this paper, we present a game theoretic modeling approach to develop FTR bidding strategies for power suppliers assuming that they have forecasts of LMPs. The game theoretic model considers multiple participants as well as network contingencies. We apply the game theoretic model on a sample network to assess impacts of variations of bid and network parameters on the FTR market outcome. (author)

  17. An Examination of Criminalization of Russia’s Anti-Bid Rigging Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Mosunova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates enforcement of criminal sanctions in anti-bid rigging policy in Russia. Although cartels were criminalized in 1997, parties of numerous anticompetitive agreements on tenders are punished by corporate or individual fines, or disqualified. Statistics on sentences for bid rigging are highly controversial although legislative conditions for efficient criminalization are presented not only by criminal norms but also by leniency programmes in administrative and criminal proceedings which were designed to contribute to anticartel enforcement.The aim of this research is to determine factors that have caused the very rare use of criminal sanctions for cartel enforcement with the focus on bid rigging. For the purpose of the research, the paper outlines the regulation of tendering in Russia and the system of sanctions for bid rigging, including leniency. Case analysis of the first custodial sentence for anticompetitive agreement on a public tender highlights specific features resulting in successful prosecution. Since this is one of the first attempts to assess criminalization of bid rigging in Russia, original empirical data including interviews with officials from federal competition authorities and regional representatives constitute the basis of the study.Findings of the research determine the influence of social norms on the enforcement as the main challenge for criminalization of bid rigging which is weighed down by the insufficient political influence of competition authorities. The paper’s findings may be of interest for assessing enforcement in other jurisdictions experiencing the same difficulties.

  18. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Badri; Jadid, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (Iran); Rashidinejad, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran); Moghaddam, M.P. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-06-15

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  19. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  20. A vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model for bidding purchase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhou-jing; QIAN Edward Y.

    2007-01-01

    A vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model is developed for evaluating bidding plans in a bidding purchase process. A group of decision-makers (DMs) first independently assess bidding plans according to their experience and preferences, and these assessments may be expressed as linguistic terms, which are then converted to fuzzy numbers. The resulting decision matrices are then transformed to objective membership grade matrices. The lower bound of satisfaction and upper bound of dissatisfaction are used to determine each bidding plan's supporting, opposing, and neutral objective sets, which together determine the vague value of a bidding plan. Finally, a score function is employed to rank all bidding plans. A new score function based on vague sets is introduced in the model and a novel method is presented for calculating the lower bound of satisfaction and upper bound of dissatisfaction. In a vague-set-based fuzzy multi-objective decision making model, different valuations for upper and lower bounds of satisfaction usually lead to distinct ranking results. Therefore, it is crucial to effectively contain DMs' arbitrariness and subjectivity when these values are determined.

  1. Cardiolipin or MTCH2 can serve as tBID receptors during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemy, E; Montessuit, S; Pierredon, S; van Kampen, A H; Vaz, F M; Martinou, J-C

    2016-07-01

    During apoptosis, proapoptotic BAX and BAK trigger mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. BH3-only proteins such as tBID, together with lipids of the MOM, are thought to play a key role in BAX and BAK activation. In particular, cardiolipin (CL) has been shown to stimulate tBID-induced BAX activation in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether this process also relies on CL in the cell, or whether it is more dependent on MTCH2, a proposed receptor for tBID present in the MOM. To address this issue, we deleted both alleles of cardiolipin synthase in human HCT116 cells by homologous recombination, which resulted in a complete absence of CL. The CL-deficient cells were fully viable in glucose but displayed impaired oxidative phosphorylation and an inability to grow in galactose. Using these cells, we found that CL was not required for either tBID-induced BAX activation, or for apoptosis in response to treatment with TRAIL. Downregulation of MTCH2 in HCT116 cells also failed to prevent recruitment of tBID to mitochondria in apoptotic conditions. However, when both CL and MTCH2 were depleted, a significant reduction in tBID recruitment was observed, suggesting that in HCT116 cells, CL and MTCH2 can have redundant functions in this process. PMID:26794447

  2. Aussie LNG players target NE Asia in expansion bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's natural gas players, keen to increase their presence in world liquefied natural gas trade, see Asia as their major LNG market in the decades to come. That's despite the fact that two spot cargoes of Australian Northwest Shelf LNG were shipped to Europe during the last 12 months and more are likely in 1994. Opportunities for growth are foreseen within the confines of the existing Northwest Shelf gas project for the rest of the 1990s. But the main focus for potential new grassroots project developers and expansions of the existing LNG plant in Australia is the expected shortfall in contract volumes of LNG to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan during 2000--2010. Traditionally the price of crude oil has been used as a basis for calculating LNG prices. This means the economics of any new 21st century supply arrangements are delicately poised because of the current low world oil prices, a trend the market believes is likely to continue. In a bid to lessen the effect of high initial capital outlays and still meet projected demand using LNG from new projects and expansion of the existing plant, Australia's gas producers are working toward greater cooperation with prospective Asian buyers

  3. An Experience-Based Evaluation Process for ERP Bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Al Bar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems integrate information across an entire organization that automate core activities such as finance/accounting , human resources, manufacturing, production and upply chain management... etc. to facilitate an inte grated centralized system and rapid decision making – resulting in cost reduction, greater planning, and increased control. Many organizations are updating their current management information systems with ERP sys tems. This is not a trivial task. They have to identify the organization’s objectives and satisfy a myriad of stakeholders. They have to understand what business processes they have, how they can be improved, and what particular systems would best suit their needs . They have to understand how an ERP system is built; it involves the modification of an existing system with its own set of business rules. Deciding what to ask for and how to select the best option is a very complex operation and there is limited experience with this type of contractingn organizations. In this paper we discuss a particular experience with contracting out an ERP system, provide some lessons learned, and offer suggestions in how the RFP and bid selection processes could have been improved.

  4. Construction bidding cost of KSC's space shuttle facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph Andrew

    1977-01-01

    The bidding cost of the major Space Transportation System facilities constructed under the responsibility of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is described and listed. These facilities and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) are necessary for the receiving, assembly, testing, and checkout of the Space Shuttle for launch and landing missions at KSC. The Shuttle launch configuration consists of the Orbiter, the External Tank, and the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB). The reusable Orbiter and SRB's is the major factor in the program that will result in lowering space travel costs. The new facilities are the Landing Facility; Orbiter Processing Facility; Orbiter Approach and Landing Test Facility (Dryden Test Center, California); Orbiter Mating Devices; Sound Suppression Water System; and Emergency Power System for LC-39. Also, a major factor was to use as much Apollo facilities and hardware as possible to reduce the facilities cost. The alterations to existing Apollo facilities are the VAB modifications; Mobile Launcher Platforms; Launch Complex 39 Pads A and B (which includes a new concept - the Rotary Service Structure), which was featured in ENR, 3 Feb. 1977, 'Hinged Space Truss will Support Shuttle Cargo Room'; Launch Control Center mods; External Tank and SRB Processing and Storage; Fluid Test Complex mods; O&C Spacelab mods; Shuttle mods for Parachute Facility; SRB Recovery and Disassembly Facility at Hangar 'AF'; and an interesting GSE item - the SRB Dewatering Nozzle Plug Sets (Remote Controlled Submarine System) used to inspect and acquire for reuse of SRB's.

  5. Individual Behavior of First-Price Sealed-Bid Auctions: The Importance of Information Feedback in Experimental Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Tibor; Selten, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    This article reports the results of a first-price sealed-bid auction experiment, which has been designed to test the Nash equilibrium predictions of individual bidding behavior. Subjects faced in 100 auctions always the same resale value and competed with computerized bids. Three treatments were considered which varied with the conditions of information feedback. In earlier experimental work an overbidding above the risk neutral Nash equilibrium has been frequently reported. Our data provide ...

  6. Optimal bidding of a profit-maximizing hydropowerproducer in day-ahead and real-time markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vardanyan, Yelena; Hesamzadeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a price-driven optimal bidding strategy to day-ahead and real-time markets for a profit maximizer hydro power producer. The electricity prices in different market places are unknown when the bidding takes place. The optimal bidding problem is modeled as a multi-stage stochastic program considering the market prices continuously clearing nature. Specifically for that purpose rolling planning is applied, which allow re-forecasting and re-dispatching according to the arrival ...

  7. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  8. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  9. Robust Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Makoto; Sakurai, Yuko; Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper presents a new multi-unit auction protocol (IR protocol) that is robust against false-name bids. Internet auctions have become an integral part of Electronic Commerce and a promising field for applying agent and Artificial Intelligence technologies. Although the Internet provides an excellent infrastructure for executing auctions, the possibility of a new type of cheating called false-name bids has been pointed out. A false-name bid is a bid submitted under a fictitious name. A protocol called LDS has been developed for combinatorial auctions of multiple different items and has proven to be robust against false-name bids. Although we can modify the LDS protocol to handle multi-unit auctions, in which multiple units of an identical item are auctioned, the protocol is complicated and requires the auctioneer to carefully pre-determine the combination of bundles to obtain a high social surplus or revenue. For the auctioneer, our newly developed IR protocol is easier to use than the LDS, since the combination of bundles is automatically determined in a flexible manner according to the declared evaluation values of agents. The evaluation results show that the IR protocol can obtain a better social surplus than that obtained by the LDS protocol.

  10. Caspase-10 triggers Bid cleavage and caspase cascade activation in FasL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhas, Delphine; Cuvillier, Olivier; Therville, Nicole; Clavé, Patricia; Thomsen, Mogens; Levade, Thierry; Benoist, Hervé; Ségui, Bruno

    2005-05-20

    In contrast to caspase-8, controversy exists as to the ability of caspase-10 to mediate apoptosis in response to FasL. Herein, we have shown activation of caspase-10, -3, and -7 as well as B cell lymphoma-2-interacting domain (Bid) cleavage and cytochrome c release in caspase-8-deficient Jurkat (I9-2) cells treated with FasL. Apoptosis was clearly induced as illustrated by nuclear and DNA fragmentation. These events were inhibited by benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor, indicating that caspases were functionally and actively involved. Benzyloxycarbonyl-AEVD-fluoromethyl ketone, a caspase-10 inhibitor, had a comparable effect. FasL-induced cell death was not completely abolished by caspase inhibitors in agreement with the existence of a cytotoxic caspase-independent pathway. In subpopulations of I9-2 cells displaying distinct caspase-10 expression levels, cell sensitivity to FasL correlated with caspase-10 expression. A robust caspase activation, Bid cleavage, and DNA fragmentation were observed in cells with high caspase-10 levels but not in those with low levels. In vitro, caspase-10, as well as caspase-8, could cleave Bid to generate active truncated Bid (p15). Altogether, our data strongly suggest that caspase-10 can serve as an initiator caspase in Fas signaling leading to Bid processing, caspase cascade activation, and apoptosis. PMID:15772077

  11. Simulating GenCo bidding strategies in electricity markets with an agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we use an agent-based simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze market power in electricity markets. We focus on the effect of congestion management on the ability of generating companies (GenCos) to raise prices beyond competitive levels. An 11-node test power system is used to compare a market design based on locational marginal pricing with a market design that uses system marginal pricing and congestion management by counter trading. Bidding strategies based on both physical and economic withholding are compared to a base case with production cost bidding. The results show that unilateral market power is exercised under both pricing mechanisms. However, the largest changes in consumer costs and GenCo profits due to strategic bidding occur under the locational marginal pricing scheme. The analysis also illustrates that agent-based modeling can contribute important insights into the complex interactions between the participants in transmission-constrained electricity markets. (Author)

  12. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  13. The strategy curve. A method for representing and interpreting generator bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pool is the novel trading arrangement at the heart of the privatized electricity market in England and Wales. This central role in the new system makes it crucial that it is seen to function efficiently. Unfortunately, it is governed by a set of complex rules, which leads to a lack of transparency, and this makes monitoring of its operation difficult. This paper seeks to provide a method for illuminating one aspect of the pool, that of generator bidding behaviour. We introduce the concept of a strategy curve, which is a concise device for representing generator bidding strategies. This curve has the appealing characteristic of directly revealing any deviation in the bid price of a genset from the costs of generating electricity. After a brief discussion about what constitutes price and cost in this context we present a number of strategy curves for different days and provide some interpretation of their form, based in part on our earlier work with game theory. (author)

  14. Conjectural variation based learning model of strategic bidding in spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In actual electricity market, which operates repeatedly on the basis of one hour or half hour, each firm might learn or estimate other competitors' strategic behaviors from available historical market operation data, and rationally aims at its maximum profit in the repeated biddings. A conjectural variation based learning method is proposed in this paper for generation firm to improve its strategic bidding performance. In the method, each firm learns and dynamically regulates its conjecture upon the reactions of its rivals to its bidding according to available information published in the electricity market, and then makes its optimal generation decision based on the updated conjectural variation of its rivals. Through such learning process, the equilibrium reached in the market is proven a Nash equilibrium. Motivation of generation firm to learn in the changing market environment and consequence of learning behavior in the market are also discussed through computer tests. (author)

  15. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Ongsakul, Weerakorn, E-mail: ongsakul@ait.asi [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  16. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  17. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city(Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of megaevents.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of megaevents from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  18. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here....... Simulation results show that the stochastic optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market is an effective measure to maximize the revenue of the wind power owners....

  19. Attacks and Improvement of Quantum Sealed-Bid Auction with EPR Pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, an experimentally feasible three-party quantum sealed-bid auction protocol based on EPR pairs [Z.Y. Wang, Commun. Theor. Phys. 54 (2010) 997] was proposed. However, this study points out Wang's protocol cannot resist some internal bidders' attacks, such as the Twice-CNOT attack, the collusion attack. A malicious bidder can launch the Twice-CNOT attack to obtain the other's bid, or the dishonest auctioneer may collude with one bidder and help him/her win the action by changing his/her bid. For preventing against these attacks, a simple solution by using the QKD-based message encryption and a post-confirmation mechanism by adopting the hash function are proposed. (general)

  20. Bid-based dynamic economic dispatch with an efficient interior point algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient interior point algorithm for solving the bid-based dynamic economic dispatch (BBDED) problem is proposed in this paper. This algorithm is an extension of interior point quadratic programming (IPQP), and is called the predictor-corrector interior point quadratic programming (PCIPQP) algorithm. In a competitive electricity market, the dynamic economic dispatch has evolved to become bid-based framework to maximize the profits and achieve the resource scheduling. To generate a physically feasible dispatch and market spot prices, we form BBDED problem of dealing with various constraints such as ramp rates, transmission line capacity and emission constraints. In this paper, BBDED allows both supply-side and demand-side bids in the spot market, which includes multi-player, multi-period and a large number of constraints. Compared with the pure IPQP algorithm, PCIPQP is more attractive in performance, robustness, and the property of convergence. Many numerical tests reconfirmed the advantages of the predictor-corrector method. (Author)

  1. Decision-Theoretic Bidding Based on Learned Density Models in Simultaneous, Interacting Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Csirik, J A; McAllester, D; Schapire, R E; Stone, P; 10.1613/jair.1200

    2011-01-01

    Auctions are becoming an increasingly popular method for transacting business, especially over the Internet. This article presents a general approach to building autonomous bidding agents to bid in multiple simultaneous auctions for interacting goods. A core component of our approach learns a model of the empirical price dynamics based on past data and uses the model to analytically calculate, to the greatest extent possible, optimal bids. We introduce a new and general boosting-based algorithm for conditional density estimation problems of this kind, i.e., supervised learning problems in which the goal is to estimate the entire conditional distribution of the real-valued label. This approach is fully implemented as ATTac-2001, a top-scoring agent in the second Trading Agent Competition (TAC-01). We present experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of our boosting-based price predictor relative to several reasonable alternatives.

  2. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Joo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 665 Naeson2-dong, Uiwang City, Gyeonggi Province 437-808 (Korea); Kim, Balho H. [Hong-Ik University, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, 72-1 Sangsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-791 (Korea); Hur, Don [Kwangwoon University, Department of Electrical Engineering, 447-1 Wolgye1-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea)

    2007-04-15

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  3. Bax/Bak activation in the absence of Bid, Bim, Puma, and p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Huang, K; O'Neill, K L; Pang, X; Luo, X

    2016-01-01

    How BH3-only proteins activate Bax/Bak, the two gateway proteins of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway, remains incompletely understood. Although all pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins are known to bind/neutralize the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, the three most potent ones, Bid (tBid), Bim, and Puma, possess an additional activity of directly activating Bax/Bak in vitro. This latter activity has been proposed to be responsible for triggering Bax/Bak activation following apoptotic stimulation. To test this hypothesis, we generated Bid(-/)(-)Bim(-/)(-)Puma(-/)(-) (TKO), TKO/Bax(-/)(-)/Bak(-/)(-) (PentaKO), and PentaKO/Mcl-1(-/-) (HexaKO) HCT116 cells through gene editing. Surprisingly, although the TKO cells were resistant to several apoptotic stimuli, robust apoptosis was induced upon the simultaneous inactivation of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, two anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins known to suppress Bax/Bak activation and activity. Importantly, such apoptotic activity was completely abolished in the PentaKO cells. In addition, ABT-737, a BH3 mimetic that inhibits Bcl-xL/Bcl-w/Bcl-2, induced Bax activation in HexaKO cells reconstituted with endogenous level of GFP-Bax. Further, by generating TKO/p53(-/-) (QKO) cells, we demonstrated that p53, a tumor suppressor postulated to directly activate Bax, is not required for Bid/Bim/Puma-independent Bax/Bak activation. Together, these results strongly suggest that the direct activation activities of Bid (tBid), Bim, Puma, and p53 are not essential for activating Bax/Bak once the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins are neutralized. PMID:27310874

  4. 48 CFR 1503.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 1503.104-5 Section... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a)(1) The Chief of... with FAR 3.104-5, 15.207, and Agency procedures at 40 CFR part 2....

  5. 48 CFR 203.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 203.104-4....104-4 Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (d)(3) For purposes of FAR 3.104-4(d)(3) only, DoD follows the...

  6. 48 CFR 2903.104-5 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 2903.104-5... contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Government employees serving in the following positions are authorized access to proprietary or source selection information, but...

  7. 48 CFR 3.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 3.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Except as... information or source selection information to any person other than a person authorized, in accordance...

  8. 78 FR 28583 - Utility Bid USA, LLC: Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Utility Bid USA, LLC: Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Utility Bid USA, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an..., please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov . or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202)...

  9. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV... Management (BLM) proposes to offer by modified competitive, sealed-bid sale, one parcel of public land... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339...

  10. 78 FR 59055 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...: 14X5260] Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte... action. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer by modified competitive sealed-bid... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  11. An analytical Study on Dynamics of Public Procurement System and Bidding-Strategy in Local Contractor's Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Nanerikawa, Susumu

    Public procurement system such as Overall-Evaluation dynamically has been changed on local public works in Japan. However some characteristics of Bidding-Strategy and procurement system have not enough clarified. This paper attempt to analysis for a syatem dynamics and mechanisum of Overall-Evaluation by developing new simulation model focused on Bidding-Strategy, to propose some improvement scenario.

  12. 30 CFR 285.223 - What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid? 285.223 Section 285.223 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... is a tie for the highest bid? (a) Unless otherwise specified in the Final Sale Notice, except in...

  13. Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases versus the real world and vice versa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrenz, J.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    From the vantage point of builders and operators of Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases, users are addressed. Users are a polyglot lot of empiricists, mechanists, and theorists. The users' perfect data base would contain all data needed to examine all bidding theories and predict bidders' behavior using the theories. That ideal data base has not been attained. However, even the richly flawed history of these data bases leads one to the not particularly prescient notion that users, with omnipresent complaints about errors in and lack of data, will keep the data bases functioning by using them.

  14. Techniques and Programs Used in Bidding and Playing phases of Imperfect Information Game – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M DHARMALINGAM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bridge is an international imperfect information game played with similar rules all over the world and it is played by millions of players. It is an intelligent game; it increases creativity and knowledge of human mind. Many of the researchers analyses the Bridge bidding and playing phases, and they developed many programs for getting better results. The programs were performing well and it is also matter of time before the computer beats most human bridge players. As such, the researchers mainly focused on the techniques and computer programs which were used in bridge bidding and playing phases

  15. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial Title: Guia BID de apoio a projetos de segurança rodoviária

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2012-01-01

    Para fortalecer la asistencia técnica a los países de la región, el BID comisionó en 2010 la elaboración de una guía interactiva que apoye a los responsables de implementar programas de seguridad vial en el desarrollo y la planificación de estrategias y proyectos específicos. La "Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial" es el primer producto de ayuda técnica en línea que incorpora un planteamiento integral, cuya consulta facilita la identificación de deficiencias y la aplicación de so...

  16. Normal boundary intersection method for suppliers' strategic bidding in electricity markets: An environmental/economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.

  17. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Driak, D.; Dvorská, M.; Bolehovská, P.; Švandová, Iva; Novotný, J.; Halaška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 411-415. ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Bad * Bid * cancerogenesis * human endometrium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  18. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  19. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  20. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public... specified road construction. For each sale described in § 223.82(b), the bid form must include provision for a small business concern: (a) To elect road construction by the Forest Service and where...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium...

  2. Informed trading and the bid-ask spread: evidence from an emerging market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Podpiera, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 275-296. ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : market microstructure * bid-ask spread * informed trading Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  3. BID estima flujos de remesas a América Latina y el Caribe para 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Meins; Gregory Watson; Natasha Bajuk

    2008-01-01

    Da a conocer la estimación del flujo de remesas a América y el Caribe por parte del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID). Asimismo, señala las perspectivas para las remesas desde los EEUU y España.

  4. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Bid packages for materials (Deliverable No. 28)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Fixed-price supply type bid packages for materials and/or service essentially are comprised of two parts, namely: (1) a technical requisition of the material, equipment, or service to be supplied; and (2) commercial and legal requirements, normally referred to as terms and conditions. Requisitions, providing technical requirements, for all equipment items identified for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant may be found in the 12 volumes of the Demonstration Plant Mechanical Design. The requisitions have been included within separate sections of the design report, sorted by appropriate plant unit. Combined with any General Notes Requisition and the necessary FWEC Job Standards, these various item requisitions provide all technical information for the prospective vendor to furnish his bid. The terms and conditions (boiler plate) to be included in the bid package identify all the contractual requirements which will be imposed upon the bidder. These requirements cover the conditions he must meet to bid on the particular item as well as the clauses to be included within the eventual purchase order/subcontract. A typical package of such terms and conditions is included.

  5. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  6. Tools for constructive assessment of bids to a call for tender--some experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jytte; McNair, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the experiences from a full-scale case study applying a number of novel assessment techniques for selecting among income bids at a call for tender, based on a User Requirements Document that comprises non-prescriptive, goal-oriented requirements. PMID:15460750

  7. 47 CFR 22.969 - Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.969 Section 22.969 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.969 Cellular RSA...

  8. Bid Optimization for Internet Graphical Ad Auction Systems via Special Ordered Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, Ralphe

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization model for setting bid levels for certain types of advertisements on web pages. This model is non-convex, but we are able to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions rapidly using branch and cut open-source software. The financial benefits obtained using the prototype system have been substantial.

  9. 42 CFR 414.416 - Determination of competitive bidding payment amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of competitive bidding payment amounts. 414.416 Section 414.416 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER...

  10. 42 CFR 414.410 - Phased-in implementation of competitive bidding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Phased-in implementation of competitive bidding programs. 414.410 Section 414.410 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER...

  11. Effects of securities transaction taxes on depth and bid-ask spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, Dominique Y.; Lee, Gabriel S.

    2007-01-01

    This note investigates the effects of introducing a transaction tax on depth and bid-ask spread using a static model where a competitive market maker faces informed and liquidity traders. When the degree of information asymmetry is low, an increase in the transaction tax can result into a smaller ri

  12. Using a Real Life Contract Bid for Students to Learn Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamar, Maria McDonald

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a project where students in a low-performing suburban school learned about profit and area by forming their own companies and creating bids to re-surface of their school's floors. They learned by measuring floor area, calculating costs, performing cost analysis, determining desired profit, making a payment schedule and…

  13. Cooperative Petroleum Contracts of the First Bidding Round are Perfectly Implemented in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengpeng; Zhang Yirong

    1995-01-01

    @@ Tarim Basin is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the world covering an area of 560 000 square kilometers, with a fairly-good petroleum geological conditions and richaccumulated petroleum resources.Therefore, the southeast part of Tarim Basin was selected as the first bidding rotund area that are divided into five blocks. The coverage area is 72 730 square kilometers in total.

  14. China National Petroleum Corporation Notice for the Second Round of Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    @@ Authorized by the Government of the People's Republic of China, China National petroleum Corporation (CNPC) hereby announces the commencement of the Second Round of Bidding for the Exploitation of Land Petroleum Resources of P.R. China in Cooperation with Foreign Enterprises.

  15. Multi-objective optimal strategy for generating and bidding in the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model is established. ► A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm is designed. ► Fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract the general best solution. ► The proposed approach of generating and bidding is efficient for maximizing profit and minimizing both risk and emissions. - Abstract: Based on the coordinated interaction between units output and electricity market prices, the benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model with objectives of maximal profit and minimal bidding risk and emissions is established. A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm, which successfully integrates Pareto non-dominated sorting with differential evolution algorithm and improves individual crowding distance mechanism and mutation strategy to avoid premature and unevenly search, is designed to achieve Pareto optimal set of this model. Moreover, fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract one of the Pareto optimal solutions as the general best solution. Several optimization runs have been carried out on different cases of generation bidding and scheduling. The results confirm the potential and effectiveness of the proposed approach in solving the multi-objective optimization problem of generation bidding and scheduling. In addition, the comparison with the classical optimization algorithms demonstrates the superiorities of the proposed algorithm such as integrality of Pareto front, well-distributed Pareto-optimal solutions, high search speed.

  16. 42 CFR 423.265 - Submission of bids and related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....329(b)) for all projected enrollees for purposes of risk adjusting any supplemental premium. (6... offers. Each bid must reflect a uniform benefit package, including premium (except as provided for the...) for a Part D eligible individual with a national average risk profile for the factors described...

  17. 32 CFR 644.545 - Form of invitation for bids and contract of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and contract of sale. Sale contract forms will be prepared by the DE conducting the sale. ENG Form 571... sales of bare land or improved land and related personal property. ENG Form 1038-R, Invitation for Bids... provisions and conditions for use in the sale of standing timber are contained in ENG Form 2140-R,...

  18. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado State Lands and Bureau of Land Management : Request for Proposal [Bid Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bid proposal proposal from Natural Resource Options, Inc. a consultation service is a response to the Browns Park Committees Request for Proposals on the...

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site)

  20. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).

  1. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Generation Companies in a Day-Ahead Electricity Market with Risk Management Taken into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a competitive electricity market with limited number of producers, Generation Companies (Gencos is facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition. Under oligopoly market environment, each Genco may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. The objective of a Genco is to maximize its profit and minimize the associated risk. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary and important for the Genco to make optimal bidding strategies with risk management before bidding into spot market to get an expected high profit, since spot prices are substantially volatile. This study propose a method to build optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market with incomplete information and considering both risk management and unit commitment. Approach: The proposed methodology employs the Monte Carlo simulation for modeling a risk management and a strategic behavior of rival. A probability density function (pdf, Value at Risk (VaR and Monte Carlo simulation used to build optimal bidding strategies for a Genco. Results: The result of the proposed method shows that a Genco can build optimal bidding strategies to maximize expected total profit considering unit commitment and risk management. The Genco controls the risk by setting the confidence level. If the Genco increase the confidence level, the expected total VaR of profit decrease. Conclusions/Recommendations: The proposed method for building optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market to maximize expected total profit considering unit commitment and risk management is helpful for a Genco to make a decision to submit bidding to the Independent System Operator (ISO.

  2. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  3. Optimal Bidding Strategies using New Aggregated Demand Model with Particle Swarm Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.B.Subramanyam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Particle Swarm optimization(PSO and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithms are used to determine the optimal bidding strategy in competitive auction market implementation. The deregulated power industry meets the challenges of increase their profits and also minimize the associadted risks of the system. Themarket includes generating companies(Gencos and large Consumers. The demand prediction of the system has been determined by the neural network, which is trained by using the previous day demand dataset, the training process is achieved by the back propagation algorithm. The fitness of the system compared with PSO and ABC technique, the maximized fitness is the optimal bidding strategy of the system . The results for two techniques will be analyzed in this paper. The implementation of the two techniques could be implemented in theMATLAB Platform.

  4. Conceptual Approach to Effect of Information Asymmetry on Auction and Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Sowunmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the theoretical effect of information asymmetry on auction and bidding. The study indicates the significant impact of information asymmetry on the price the winner pays in an auction process. The impact varies from one form of auction to the other. In sealed-bid auction, the more informed party has a much higher marginal expected return than the uninformed competitors. The probability of loser’s curse is markedly higher than the probability of winner’s curse among uninformed participants that have high private value in English auction. Since bidders are more affected by information asymmetry, it is recommended that bidder should seek for information on goods of interest and also ensure that inspection is carried out on prospective purchases before the auction commences in order to reduce the negative effect of information asymmetry on bidder.

  5. Paying Medicare Advantage plans by competitive bidding: how much competition is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Private health plans that enroll Medicare beneficiaries--known as Medicare Advantage (MA) plans--are being paid $11 billion more in 2009 than it would cost to cover these beneficiaries in regular fee-for-service Medicare. To generate Medicare savings for offsetting the costs of health reform, the Obama Administration has proposed eliminating these extra payments to private insurers and instituting a competitive bidding system that pays MA plans based on the bids they submit. This study examines the concentration of enrollment among MA plans and the degree to which firms offering MA plans actually face competition. The results show that in the large majority of U.S. counties, MA plan enrollment is highly concentrated in a small number of firms. Given the relative lack of competition in many markets as well as the potential impact on traditional Medicare, the authors call for careful consideration of a new system for setting MA plan payments. PMID:19685587

  6. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Department of Power Engineering, Avenida de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  7. Corwin-Schultz Bid-ask Spread Estimator in the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the validity of the Corwin-Schultz bid-ask spread estimator in the Brazilian stock market. The Corwin-Schultz estimator arises as an easy way to compute asymmetric information throughout daily high and low stock prices for estimating overnight and non-negative adjusted spreads. The sample consisted of Ibovespa firms from 1986 to 2014 and was analysed with time series econometrics. The findings show that the measures of spread have stationarity properties, allowing for forecasting in a period of lagged variables, besides having the property of time-varying cointegration with market-to-book ratio, debt on equity, size and return and also presenting sensibility to different periods, industries and listing segments. Thus, the Corwin-Schultz bid-ask spread estimator seems to be a valid and reliable measure for forecasting aggregate-data variables through the weighted average of firm-level variables.

  8. To Bid or to Buy?: Online Shoppers’ Preferences for Online Purchasing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Fan-Chen Tseng

    2010-01-01

    Online retailing is a rapidly expanding business. There are three major purchasing channels for online shoppers to choose when they conduct online purchasing: (1) shopping in online stores, (2) bidding in online auctions, and (3) direct purchasing in online auctions. Each channel has its strengths and weaknesses, and suits different kinds of online shoppers. This article explores the relationships between online shoppers’ lifestyles and their preferences for online purchasing channels. Know...

  9. Analysis of bidding behaviors in non-monetary incentivized, real-time uniform auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tiley, Joshua H.

    2010-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The Navy continually fights economic surge and recession, budget constraints, and natural personnel turnover to maintain personnel levels at desired "end-strength." Forecasting retention bonus levels based on these socio-economic factors is extremely difficult. Current forecasting techniques are less precise than retention auctions because auctions provide the market clearing price to retain the desired end strength. This research examines bidding strategies ad...

  10. Suggestions on the Writing of Speeches Bidding for Votes from the Perspective of Functional Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞娟

    2009-01-01

    This paper carries on a tentative functional discourse analysis of Yang Lan's speech bidding for Olympic Games from Interpersonal, Experiential and Textual Metafunctions, which aims to help readers understand and evaluate the speech regarding its suitability. By revealing how choices of linguistic items in discourse production and comprehension help to meet Yang Lan's purposes of the speech, the writer hopes to provide some guidance to make better speeches bidding for votes. The research shows that,(1) In the Interpersonal Metafunction, positive declarative clauses are dominant in Yang Lan's speech; items about culture are constantly used to be the Subject;"will" appears at a high rate.(2) In the Experiential Metafunction, Material Processes are adopted most frequently in the speech; Mental Processes are in the second position. (3)In the Textual Metafunction, items about culture dominate the Theme; and a "you--we--you" thematic pattern turns up occasionally in the speech. This study has promising implications for speeches bidding for votes as foilows:(1)Positive declarative clauses are recommended to convey information and convince the prospective voters with fact.(2)The focus of the speech should be chosen as the Subject to call the attention of the audience; and the high modal commitment of modal verbal operators can show the addresser's firm determination to finish tasks.(3) Material Processes can emphasize the addresser's getting true action, instead of just stopping in a "slogan"; while a few Mental Processes are always helpful in moving the prospective voters with emotion.(4) The focus of the speech should be frequently chosen to be the Theme; a"you--we--you" thematic pattern helps to create an intimate dialogic style, which can further persuade the audience to share the same proposal of the addresser.[KeyWords] Functional Discourse Analysis; Three Metafunctions; Speeches bidding for votes

  11. Consumer Panelist Behavior in Experimental Auctions: What Do We Learn From Their Bids?

    OpenAIRE

    Umberger, Wendy J.; Feuz, Dillon M.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental economics procedures such as laboratory experimental auctions are increasingly being used to measure consumers' willingness-to-pay. A sealed-bid, fourth-price Vickrey-style auction was used to measure consumers' willingness-to-pay for flavor in beef steaks. Two hundred and forty-eight consumers from Chicago and San Francisco participated in the experimental auctions. The data gathered from these experimental auctions was then used to examine individual demand or utility in an exp...

  12. A laboratory stress-test of bid, double and offer auctions

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: This paper reports on the empirical properties of the bid auction (buyers propose prices), offer auction (sellers suggest prices) and double auction (both buyers and seller initiate price quotes). These trading institutions are stress-tested using a nonstationary monopolistic market environment in which the buyers' demand schedule and the single seller's supply curve shift unpredictably between trading periods. The principal result is threefold. First, double-auction ...

  13. Examining the Effect of Earnings Management on Bid-Ask Spread and Market Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sougné, Danielle; Ajina, Aymen

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to argue the extent that earnings management lowers liquidity. It should increase information asymmetry and impair trading liquidity. Using a sample of French firms from 2008 to 2011, we find that firms that manage earnings have wider bid-ask spreads. Our results are robust for both of two well established measures of market liquidity. Therefore the empirical results indicate that firms that exhibit greater earnings management are associated with lower market...

  14. Eesti tüübid : meie siin maal / Maris Rosenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenthal, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ja fotograaf Alar Madissoni projekti "Eesti tüübid" raames valminud fotonäitus "Meie siin maal" Tartus Raadi mõisapargis. Kaasaega dokumenteeriva projekti eesmärgiks oli jäädvustada kõigis Eesti maakondades elavaid eri generatsioonide ja sotsiaalsete rühmade esindajaid ERMi fotokogu täiendamiseks. Meenutusi pildistamistelt 2008. aasta suvel

  15. PENGARUH HARGA SAHAM, VOLUME PERDAGANGAN SAHAM, DAN VOLATILITAS RETURN SAHAM PADA BID-ASK SPREAD

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Made Wahyuliantini; Anak Agung Gede Suarjaya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analize the effect of stock price, stock trading volume, and volatility of stock returns on bid-ask spread. The population of this study is 20 companies incorporated in LQ45 index that appear successively during the observation period of 2011-2013. Sampling method used was saturated sampling technique, so all companies used as sample. Hipotheses were examined by implementing multiple linear regression analysis. The results show that stock price negatively affec...

  16. Bid and Ask Prices Tailored to Traders' Risk Aversion and Gain Propension: a Normative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cardin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Risky asset bid and ask prices “tailored” to the risk-aversion and the gain-propension of the traders are set up. They are calculated through the principle of the Extended Gini premium, a standard method used in non-life insurance. Explicit formulae for the most common stochastic distributions of risky returns, are calculated. Sufficient and necessary conditions for successful trading are also discussed.

  17. Corwin-Schultz Bid-ask Spread Estimator in the Brazilian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Ripamonti

    2016-01-01

    This paper tests the validity of the Corwin-Schultz bid-ask spread estimator in the Brazilian stock market. The Corwin-Schultz estimator arises as an easy way to compute asymmetric information throughout daily high and low stock prices for estimating overnight and non-negative adjusted spreads. The sample consisted of Ibovespa firms from 1986 to 2014 and was analysed with time series econometrics. The findings show that the measures of spread have stationarity properties, allowing...

  18. Identify the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of a mega-event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑一

    2014-01-01

    A mega-event which attracts attention from all over the world might have both positive and negative effect on the hosting city (Syme et al.1989).The aim of this paper is to evaluate the costs and benefits of bidding for the hosting of mega-events.It identified legacies of bidding for the hosting of mega-events from following four aspects,which are economics,public life,infrastructure,and image of the hosting city,with the methods of literature review,logic analysis,examples,and contrast analysis.The result of this study unveiled that when a city bids for hosting a mega-event for the purpose of stimulating its local economic,improving civic pride,developing basic public infrastructures,and enhance its city image to the worldwide,it also needs to pay attention to potential drawbacks of hosting the event,such as debt crisis,interfering the daily life of the public.

  19. Estimation of Bid Curves in Power Exchanges using Time-varying Simultaneous-Equations Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuji, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    Simultaneous-equations model (SEM) is generally used in economics to estimate interdependent endogenous variables such as price and quantity in a competitive, equilibrium market. In this paper, we have attempted to apply SEM to JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange) spot market, a single-price auction market, using the publicly available data of selling and buying bid volumes, system price and traded quantity. The aim of this analysis is to understand the magnitude of influences to the auctioned prices and quantity from the selling and buying bids, than to forecast prices and quantity for risk management purposes. In comparison with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation where the estimation results represent average values that are independent of time, we employ a time-varying simultaneous-equations model (TV-SEM) to capture structural changes inherent in those influences, using State Space models with Kalman filter stepwise estimation. The results showed that the buying bid volumes has that highest magnitude of influences among the factors considered, exhibiting time-dependent changes, ranging as broad as about 240% of its average. The slope of the supply curve also varies across time, implying the elastic property of the supply commodity, while the demand curve remains comparatively inelastic and stable over time.

  20. cBid, Bax and Bcl-xL exhibit opposite membrane remodeling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicken, S; Hofhaus, G; Ugarte-Uribe, B; Schröder, R; García-Sáez, A J

    2016-01-01

    The proteins of the Bcl-2 family have a crucial role in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization during apoptosis and in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Current models consider that Bax forms toroidal pores at mitochondria that are responsible for the release of cytochrome c, whereas Bcl-xL inhibits pore formation. However, how Bcl-2 proteins regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion remains poorly understood. By using a systematic analysis at the single vesicle level, we found that cBid, Bax and Bcl-xL are able to remodel membranes in different ways. cBid and Bax induced a reduction in vesicle size likely related to membrane tethering, budding and fission, besides membrane permeabilization. Moreover, they are preferentially located at highly curved membranes. In contrast, Bcl-xL not only counterbalanced pore formation but also membrane budding and fission. Our findings support a mechanism of action by which cBid and Bax induce or stabilize highly curved membranes including non-lamellar structures. This molecular activity reduces the energy for membrane remodeling, which is a necessary step in toroidal pore formation, as well as membrane fission and fusion, and provides a common mechanism that links the two main functions of Bcl-2 proteins. PMID:26913610

  1. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  2. Identity Research on Bidding Below Cost Price under Lowest Bidding Price Evaluated%经评审的最低投标价法下投标报价低于成本价的识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铁男; 高海超

    2015-01-01

    经评审的最低投标价法是我国常用的一种评标办法。本文主要采用文献综述和图表分析的方法,在研究经评审的最低投标价法下评审标准和投标策略相关性的基础上,根据相关学者现有的研究观点,进一步对经评审的最低投标价法下评审标准和投标策略进行分析研究,提出自己的见解,以期为业主在经评审的最低投标价法下识别承包商的投标报价是否低于成本价提供一些借鉴。%Lowest bidding price evaluated is a common bid evaluation method in our country. Mainly adopting methods of literature review and chart analysis, and based on study of the review standard under lowest bidding price evaluated and the correlation between bidding strategies, then according to the existing research viewpoints from relevant scholars, the article develops further analytical investigation on the review standard and bidding strategy under the lowest bidding price evaluated, then puts forward its own views, in order to provide some reference for the owner to identify whether the con⁃tractor's tender offer is below the cost under the lowest bidding price evaluated.

  3. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiiskinen U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urpo Kiiskinen,1 Stephan Matthaei,2 Matthew Reaney,3 Chantal Mathieu,4 Claes-Göran Östenson,5 Thure Krarup,6 Michael Theodorakis,7,* Jacek Kiljanski,8 Carole Salaun-Martin,9 Hélène Sapin,9 Bruno Guerci10 1Eli Lilly, Helsinki, Finland; 2Quakenbrück Diabetes Center, Quakenbrück, Germany; 3Eli Lilly, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; 8Eli Lilly, Warsaw, Poland; 9Eli Lilly, Neuilly Cedex, France; 10Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, and Nutrition, Hôpital Brabois, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France *Michael Theodorakis was affiliated with the institution shown above at the time of the study, but has since left this institution Purpose: CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. Methods: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. Results: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for both, but mean weight was reduced in the exenatide bid cohort (P < 0

  4. A Requirement for Bid for Induction of Apoptosis by Photodynamic Therapy with a Lysosome- but not a Mitochondrion-Targeted Photosensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-Yan; Lam, Minh; Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Zhang, Ping; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with lysosome-targeted photosensitizers induces the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis via the cleavage and activation of the BH3-only protein Bid by proteolytic enzymes released from photo-disrupted lysosomes. To investigate the role of Bid in apoptosis induction and the role of damaged lysosomes on cell killing by lysosome-targeted PDT, we compared the responses of wild type and Bid-knock-out murine embryonic fibroblasts toward a mitochondrion/endoplasmic reticulum-bi...

  5. Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction Policy Rules and Bidding Behaviour in the Ethiopian Foreign Exchange Auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Aron

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from centralised, controlled systems to decentralised interbank markets. This paper characterises the rules, regime shifts and auction outcomes in Ethiopia. It is emphasised that institutional micro-design and operation of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during of an auction can have important macroeconomic consequences during liberalisation. Models for the Central Bank’s supply rules for pre-announced supply of dollars in fortnightly can later weekly auctions, confirm the objective was to stabilise the exchange rate (the marginal auction price in a thin market around depreciating trends. Bidders were able to learn the supply rules, clustering their bids around predicted target rates. Using a method novel in auction empirical literature, bidders’ learning in repeated auctions is examined via the adjustment to equilibrium in error correction equations for the bid spread. Robust models for a similar learning process were found across both frequency regimes; but learning was faster where the exchange rate target was more transparent and uncertainty lower. Thus, a fairly stable depreciation was achieved over four years, despite considerable regime shifts from trade liberalisation, the progressive lifting of auction entry barriers, increased frequency of auctions, fiscal and other seasonality in demand, and temporary price shocks in coffee export earnings. Ethiopia adopted a repeated Dutch auction for foreign exchange in May, 1993, for dedicated imports by the private and the state sectors. Various African countries with rudimentary financial systems and thin foreign exchange markets have successfully employed auctions in transition from

  6. Study of Purchaser's Bidding Strategy in Bilateral Bidding Transaction by Fuzzy Neural Network%基于模糊神经网络的购电商双边竞价策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向婷; 赖晓丰

    2013-01-01

      以往针对双边竞价市场中购电商竞价策略的研究多以购电商在市场中的报价曲线参数的确定为主,给出的策略多是购电商应该以何种曲线决策其报价,而利用电力市场中的历史及实时数据信息对购电商报价策略进行研究的还不多见。文章从未来电力市场双边竞价交易原理入手,提出了利用模糊神经网络预测市场最低成交价格的购电商报价,从而为购电商制定其竞价策略提供依据。%The studies of purchaser's bidding strategy in bilateral bidding transaction are mostly on determining the curve parameters. But considering the purchaser's bidding strategy according to historical and real-time data of power market are rarely. This paper studies from the future principles of bilateral bidding transaction, proposes the method of forecasting the purchaser's price which corresponding the minimum transaction price based on fuzzy neural network. This method could show a reference for the purchasers to make its bidding strategies.

  7. Involvement of mitochondria in acetaminophen-induced apoptosis and hepatic injury Roles of cytochrome c, Bax, Bid, and caspases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of apoptosis in acetaminophen (AAP)-induced hepatic injury was investigated. Six hours after AAP administration to BALB/c mice, a significant loss of hepatic mitochondrial cytochrome c was observed that was similar in extent to the loss observed after in vivo activation of CD95 by antibody treatment. AAP-induced loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c coincided with the appearance in the cytosol of a fragment corresponding to truncated Bid (tBid). At the same time, tBid became detectable in the mitochondrial fraction, and concomitantly, Bax was found translocated to mitochondria. However, AAP failed to activate the execution caspases 3 and 7 as evidenced by a lack of procaspase processing and the absence of an increase in caspase-3-like activity. In contrast, the administration of the pan-inhibitor of caspases, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-DL-Asp-fluoromethylketone (but not its analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone) prevented the development of liver injury by AAP and the appearance of apoptotic parenchymal cells. This correlated with the inhibition of the processing of Bid to tBid. The caspase inhibitor failed to prevent both the redistribution of Bax to the mitochondria and the loss of cytochrome c. In conclusion, apoptosis is an important causal event in the initiation of the hepatic injury inflicted by AAP. However, as suggested by the lack of activation of the main execution caspases, apoptosis is not properly executed and degenerates into necrosis

  8. Comments on alternative bid variables as instruments of OCS leasing policy, by Mead, Moseidjord and Muraoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothkopf, M.H.

    1983-07-01

    The paper by Mead, Moseridjord and Muraoka first defines a set of criteria for evaluating leasing systems. The bulk of the paper is then devoted to evaluating the effect of cash bonus, royalty, profit share and work commitment bidding against these criteria. Finally, the paper offers two paragraphs of conclusions and policy recommendations. This comment begins by discussing and analyzing these conclusions and recommendations. After that, it makes a number of observations and raises a number of quibbles about the bulk of the paper that do not have a major effect on the conclusions.

  9. El turismo en América Latina y el Caribe y la experiencia del BID

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Altés

    2006-01-01

    El presente informe destaca la relevancia adquirida por el turismo en el debate internacional sobre desarrollo sostenible, presenta datos sobre la demanda turística y la contribución del turismo a la economía de los países prestatarios del Banco e incluye un breve diagnóstico del sector a nivel regional. Asimismo, por primera vez, se publican datos agregados sobre las actividades del grupo BID en turismo en el periodo 1969-2005, incluyendo lecciones aprendidas. El documento no pretende ser ex...

  10. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...... selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias....

  11. Segundo informe: Propuesta de implementación del proyecto PRAF/BID: Fase 2

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); Programa de Asignación Familiar (PRAF); Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones sobre Políticas Alimentarias (IFPRI)

    2000-01-01

    Este informe es el producto de la primera fase de colaboración directa entre el equipo del Instituto Internacional de Investigación en Políticas Alimentarias (IFPRI) y la Unidad Coordinadora (UCP) del Programa de Asignación Familiar, Fase II del proyecto PRAF/BID II. El informe cubre los siguientes aspectos relacionados con la operacionalización del proyecto: objetivos revisados y líneas generales del marco lógico; base teórica para aumentar la demanda de servicios de educación y salud a trav...

  12. Equilibrium Bid-Ask Spread of European Derivatives in Dry Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Joao Amaro de; Lacerda, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of incomplete markets, due to the non-existence of trade at some points in time, and using a partial equilibrium analysis, we show how the bid-ask spread of an European derivative is generated. We also ¯nd conditons for the existence of the spread. These conditions concern the market structure of the maret-makers, which can be a oligolopoly with price competition or a monopoly, as well as the riskaversion of the demand and supply of the market.

  13. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Taddia; Elena de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Presentación de Elena de la Peña de la Asociación Española de la Carretera y Alejandro Taddia, especialista de Transporte del BID donde se muestra esta Guía interactiva para preparación de proyectos de seguridad vial en el contexto latinoamericano. Se realizó durante el Congreso Iberoamericano de Seguridad Vial (CISEV) III de Bogotá DC. Para acceder al recurso mencionado en la presentación, consulte el campo "Related URL" más abajo.

  14. G-Doob-Meyer Decomposition and Its Applications in Bid-Ask Pricing for Derivatives under Knightian Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to establish the bid-ask pricing framework for the American contingent claims against risky assets with G-asset price systems on the financial market under Knightian uncertainty. First, we prove G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition for G-supermartingale. Furthermore, we consider bid-ask pricing American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty, by using G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition; we construct dynamic superhedge strategies for the optimal stopping problem and prove that the value functions of the optimal stopping problems are the bid and ask prices of the American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty. Finally, we consider a free boundary problem, prove the strong solution existence of the free boundary problem, and derive that the value function of the optimal stopping problem is equivalent to the strong solution to the free boundary problem.

  15. The effect of electric transmission constraints on how power generation companies bid in the Colombian electrical power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gallego Vega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the effect of transmission constraints on both expected electrical energy to be dispatched and power generation companies’ bidding strategies in the Colombian electrical power market. The proposed model simulates the national transmission grid and economic dispatch by means of optimal power flows. The proposed methodology allows structural problems in the power market to be analyzed due to the exclusive effect of trans- mission constraints and the mixed effect of bidding strategies and transmission networks. A new set of variables is proposed for quantifying the impact of each generation company on system operating costs and the change in expected dispatched energy. A correlation analysis of these new variables is presented, revealing some interesting linearities in some generation companies’ bidding patterns.

  16. On bidding and pricing strategies and skills%投标报价策略与技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彬兴

    2011-01-01

    According to the bidding and pricing status of the current engineering bill model, the paper explores the bidding strategies and skills, illustrates the main bidding strategies, including the low-price strategy, the reasonable optimization strategy and the future strategy, and indicates the unbalanced unit cost method and the sudden price adjustment method, so as to direct the practice.%针对目前工程量清单报价模式下招标现状,探讨了投标报价策略及技巧,分别阐述了低价策略,合理优化策略及未来策略等几种主要的投标策略,并着重阐述了不平衡单价法和突然调价法两种技巧,以期指导实践。

  17. 31 CFR 351.10 - What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I need to know about market yields, or market bid yields, to understand redemption value calculations in this subpart? 351.10 Section... redemption value calculations in this subpart? We use market yields, or market bid yields, derived...

  18. Mother-Child and Father-Child Dyadic Interaction: Parental and Child Bids and Responsiveness to Each Other during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C. Emily

    2013-01-01

    In accord with the now prevailing ecological view that both parent and child play an active role in shaping their interactions, the present study assessed the number of bids by parents and children for social engagement, compliance, and emotion regulation, and the quality of each partner's responsiveness to these bids, in a sample of mothers…

  19. The tourist project of the SETAP Group for the International Bid of Ideas for Maspalomas Costa Canaria

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez León, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The city of Maspalomas began building in 1961, year of the celebration of the International Bid of ideas for Maspalomas Costa Canaria. This event was sponsored by the owner of the lands Mr. Alejandro de Castillo y Bravo de Laguna, the Count of Vega Grande. The group of French architects and city planners ATEA and SETAP where awarded first place in the bid. The project stood out due to its high quality details, the respectful distribution with the landscape and the majesty of its urban f...

  20. Generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a statistical and econometric model to analyze the generators' bidding behavior in the NYISO day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The generator level bidding data show very strong persistence in generators' grouping choices over time. Using dynamic random effect ordered probit model, we find that persistence is characterized by positive state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence is more important than unobserved heterogeneity. The finding of true state dependence suggests a scope for economic policy intervention. If NYISO can implement an effective policy to switch generators from higher price groups to lower price groups, the effect is likely to be lasting. As a result, the market price can be lowered in the long-run. Generators' offered capacity is estimated by a two-stage sample selection model. The estimated results show that generators in higher-priced groups tend to withhold their capacity strategically to push up market prices. It further confirms the importance of an effective policy to turn generators into lower price groups in order to mitigate unexpected price spikes. The simulated market prices based on our estimated aggregate supply curve can replicate most volatility of actual DA market prices. Applying our models to different demand assumptions, we find that demand conditions can affect market prices significantly. It validates the importance of introducing demand side management during the restructure of electricity industry. (author)

  1. BID-ASK SPREAD DAN PERIODE KEPEMILIKAN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN LQ-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus Maulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis gives quite big impact to the Indonesian Stock Exchange and also changes the investor behavior as well. Fundamental exchange which is considered fragile becomes instability threat and reflects uncertain condition. This research aims to analyze and explain empirically the impact of variance return, trading volume, stock prices and return shares toward bid-ask spread which is the measurement of asymmetrical information cost, also the impact of variance return, market value, bid-ask spread and dividend pay out towards common shares holding periods in Indonesia Stock Exchange and some dominant variable that affect them.The findings of this research strengthen the presumption that in conducting the investment, investors in Indonesian Stock Exchange is more oriented to short term investment by expecting more on common shares than dividend. Most investors keep their ownership in common shares in Indonesian Stock Exchange for two years. Besides, the efficient investment strategy which optimizes profit is “switching strategy”, following the market movement every time exactly, using technical information to active shares by moving from the shares that the price is predicted to decline to the increased ones. Moreover, the researcher also got the evidence that the investors in Indonesian capital market conduct their investment irrationally, investor’s analysis is getting technical and gives less attention to the fundamental factors. The decision of selling and buying which is conducted by the investors on common shares is based on the trading activity, that is actually a measurement of the scale of asymmetry information.

  2. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium

  3. Application of Q-learning with temperature variation for bidding strategies in market based power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power industry is confronted with restructuring in which the operation scheduling is going to be decided based on a competitive market. In this new arrangement, bidding strategy has become a major issue. Participants in this deregulated energy market place may be able to compete better by choosing a suitable bidding strategy for trading electricity. Different classical methods for decision making in the uncertain environment of the market can be applied to select a suitable strategy. Most of these methods, such as game theory, that insure reaching the best solution for all market participants, require a lot of information about the other market players and the market. However, in the real market place only a little information, such as the spot price, is available for all participants. In this paper, a modified reinforcement learning based on temperature variation has been first proposed and then applied to determine the optimal strategy for a power supplier in the electricity market. A Pool-Co model has been considered here, and the simulation results are shown to be the same as those of standard game theory. Adaptation of the method in the presence of parameter variation has been verified as well. The main advantage of the proposed method is that no information about other participants is required. Furthermore, our investigation shows that even if all participants use this method, they will stay in Nash equilibrium. (author)

  4. New approach to bidding strategies of generating companies in day ahead energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the restructured power systems, generating companies (Genco) are responsible for selling their product in the energy market. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate to maximize its profit. Therefore, this paper intends to propose a rational method to answer this question. In the proposed methodology, the hourly forecasted market clearing price (FMCP) is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. The forecasted price is the basis of the bidding strategies of each Genco, which can be achieved by solving a bi-level optimization problem using GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language. The first level, called upper sub-problem is used to maximize the individual Genco's payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, hereafter called the lower sub-problem uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer's payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. Similar to the other game problems, the Nash equilibrium strategies are the optimum bidding strategies of Gencos. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities. (author)

  5. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in public bidding processes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Andrade Longaray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil (IFES play an important role in the country’s social and scientific development. Focused mainly on teaching, research and extension activities, the IFES are backed by support foundations aimed to the management of financial, human and material resources. Characterized as public bodies, the support foundations are governed by Law no 8.666/93 in what concerns the procurement of goods and services. Therefore, the present study is aimed to develop a model to assist the managers of such foundations in the selection of suppliers to participate in bidding processes that use invitation for bids. Therefore, we conducted a case study in one of the 55 foundations that support Brazilian federal universities. The intervention tool used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Firstly, we established the hierarchy of criteria for problem-solving. Then, a paired comparison was made between criteria for the same level. Subsequently, the consistency analysis of comparison matrices was verified. Finally, the relative priorities of each criterion were obtained and the objective function of the model was constructed. The model was tested through the assessment of the performance of three potential suppliers of IT equipment, and the result was legitimized by decision makers who found the instrument a valid tool to aid in making decisions on supplier selection for the foundation.

  6. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  7. Self-scheduling and bidding strategies of thermal units with stochastic emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The management of thermal power plants is considered for different emission allowance levels. • The uncertainty on electricity price is considered by a set of scenarios. • A stochastic MILP approach allows devising the bidding strategies and hedging against price uncertainty and emission allowances. - Abstract: This paper is on the self-scheduling problem for a thermal power producer taking part in a pool-based electricity market as a price-taker, having bilateral contracts and emission-constrained. An approach based on stochastic mixed-integer linear programming approach is proposed for solving the self-scheduling problem. Uncertainty regarding electricity price is considered through a set of scenarios computed by simulation and scenario-reduction. Thermal units are modelled by variable costs, start-up costs and technical operating constraints, such as: forbidden operating zones, ramp up/down limits and minimum up/down time limits. A requirement on emission allowances to mitigate carbon footprint is modelled by a stochastic constraint. Supply functions for different emission allowance levels are accessed in order to establish the optimal bidding strategy. A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness and the proficiency of the proposed approach in supporting biding strategies

  8. 工程量清单计价模式下投标报价策略探讨%Inquiry on bidding strategy undert the BOQ mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金峰

    2011-01-01

    从微观角度分析了工程量清单计价模式下投标报价需要考虑的四个因素,即招标条件因素、市场因素、投标方自身因素和竞争对手因素,并探讨了投标报价应遵循的原则、报价策略以及报价技巧,以期指导实践。%From micro aspect,it analyzes the four factors needing considering under BOQ mode including bidding factors,market factors,bidding self factors and competitor's factors,and explores principles,bidding strategies and bidding skills followed in bidding,so as to guide practice.

  9. 7 CFR 1726.253 - Prior approved contract modification related to alternative bid provision for payment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Modifications to RUS Standard Contract Forms § 1726.253 Prior approved contract modification related to alternative bid provision for payment to... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approved contract modification related...

  10. Bidding behavior when one bidder and the auctioneer are vertically integrated: implications for the partial deregulation of EU electricity markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester

    -, č. 313 (2006), s. 1-35. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : asymmetric auctions * bidding behavior * electricity markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp313.pdf

  11. 42 CFR 423.272 - Review and negotiation of bid and approval of plans submitted by potential Part D sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... risk plans. There is no limit on the number of full risk plans that CMS approves under paragraph (b) of... financial risk. (3) Limited exercise of authority. CMS approves only the minimum number of limited risk... sufficiently below the national average monthly bid to result in a negative premium. In the event of a...

  12. Influence of feasibility constrains on the bidding strategy selection in a day-ahead electricity market session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large part of liberalized electricity markets, including the Italian one, features an auction mechanism, called day-ahead energy market, which matches producers' and buyers' simple bids, consisting of energy quantity and price pairs. The match is achieved by a merit-order economic dispatch procedure independently applied for each of the hours of the following day. Power plants operation should, however, take into account several technical constraints, such as maximum and minimum production bounds, ramp constraints and minimum up and downs times, as well as no-load and startup costs. The presence of these constraints forces to adjust the scheduling provided by the market in order to obtain a feasible scheduling. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility and the limits of taking into account the power plants technical constraints in the bidding strategy selection procedure of generating companies (Gencos). The analysis is carried out by using a computer procedure based both on a simple static game-theory approach and on a cost-minimization unit-commitment algorithm. For illustrative purposes, we present the results obtained for a system with three Gencos, each owning several power plants, trying to model the bidding behaviour of every generator in the system. This approach, although complex from the computational point of view, allows an analysis of both price and quantity bidding strategies and appears to be applicable to markets having different rules and features. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  14. Preliminary Study on Bidding Strategy for Electricity Market%电力市场竞价策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建平; 周浩

    2001-01-01

    通过对电力市场交易中的电力负荷和机组报价2者的历史数据曲线的分析和讨论,制定一些初步竞价原则,以帮助电厂获取更大利润;同时引入利润曲线概念,以较清楚地对机组竞价的赢利情况作出快速评价。%In this paper the strategies of bidding for generation unit supplying energy in the electricity market are discussed. A set of preliminary principle of bidding based on the electricity trade curve of historied data about load and bidding has been provided which can be used in helping generation unit to get more profit. It is also provided a new concept-the profit curve which can conveniently estimate whether the generation unit profited by bidding rapidly.

  15. MS-BID: a Java package for label-free LC-MS-based comparative proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Daehee; Zhang, Ning; Lee, Hookeun; Yi, Eugene; Zhang, Hui; Lee, Inyoul Y.; Hood, Leroy; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2008-01-01

    Summary: MS-BID (MS Biomarker Discovery Platform) is an integrative computational pipeline for biomarker discovery using LC-MS-based comparative proteomic analysis. This platform consists of several computational tools for: (i) detecting peptides in the collected patterns; (ii) matching detected peptides across a number of LC-MS datasets and (iii) selecting discriminatory peptides between classes of samples.

  16. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. 9904.420 Section 9904.420 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT...

  17. Power Pool中发电公司的竞价策略%BIDDING STRATEGIES OF GENERATION COMPANIES IN POWER POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灿; 龚乐年; 宋燕敏; 曹荣章; 朱为民

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the bidding strategies of generation companiesin Power Pool. In an imperfect competition Power Pool, some generation companies (GenComs) may have market power. A GenCom can bid as a price acceptor or as a price changer. A price acceptor will bid according to its marginal cost curve, but the minimum bid price must be decided by dynamic programming based on price forecasting. A price changer will bid according to the strategy of restricting output and forcing up price. The Power Pool will be inefficient when market power of GenComs are strong.%研究了电力联营体(PowerPool)中发电公司的报价策略。在非完全竞争的PowerPool中,发电公司可以作为一个价格接受者,也可利用其市场势力操纵市场价格。发电公司作为价格接受者时将基于边际成本曲线报价,但其最低报价必须根据市场行情而变化;具有市场势力的发电公司可以采取限制产量、抬高电价的策略。PowerPool中市场势力的存在不利于资源的优化配置和利用。

  18. Bidding strategies for virtual power plants considering CHPs and intermittent renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A stochastic optimization evaluates the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP. • Three different strategies were assessed: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. • The ‘flexible RT’ attains the largest profits. It adapts the VPP output in real-time. - Abstract: Energy efficiency and renewable-energy sources (RES) are fundamental parts of the European energy policy. For this reason, efficient distributed generation technologies such as combined heat and power coupled to district heating (CHP–DH) and RES based electricity are largely promoted. Additionally, the flexibility that CHP–DH offers to the power system is seen as an option to balance the intermittent output of RES-based generation. This could be done by aggregating RES based electricity generation and CHP DH in a virtual power plant (VPP). In this framework, the present work presents a methodology to evaluate the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP composed of a CHP–DH and RES based generators. The objective is to investigate the optimal bidding strategy for a VPP that uses CHP DH to compensate for the uncertainties regarding RES-based electricity generation and market prices. The VPP operator nominates its energy to the day ahead market the day before the actual delivery (D-1). In real time, any deviation from the day-ahead schedule is settled in the imbalance market. The uncertainties are modeled using a two stage stochastic programming approach. Three different bidding strategies are studied: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. The major difference between the studied strategies lies in the dispatch decisions. The ‘static’ strategy does not adjust the scheduled output of the CHP. Whereas, the ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’ strategies differ from each other in terms of the information available at the moment of performing the reschedule (second stage decision). The ‘flexible DA’ reschedules the CHP output for the whole day assuming

  19. Chaotic behavior of price in the power markets with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price forecasting in the current deregulated power markets is an important requirement for deriving proper bidding strategy and profit maximization of producers. On the other hand, the energy price in the power market experiences lots of fluctuations which may affect the accuracy of the price forecasting seriously. Seeking for predictability, in this paper, the characteristics of these fluctuations are investigated through time series analysis methods. The results of analyses are representative of the existence of a deterministic chaos in the system with a mimic predictability. Besides, it is observed that because of existing the seasonality and non-stationarity in the system dynamics, a fixed model cannot perform properly even in case of normalized input data, but the developed models should be updated regularly.

  20. Chaotic behavior of price in the power markets with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N. [Linear Systems Control Lab., EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: bigdeli@ee.sharif.edu; Afshar, K. [Electrical Machinery Lab., EE Department, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: k_afshar@ee.sharif.edu

    2009-11-30

    Price forecasting in the current deregulated power markets is an important requirement for deriving proper bidding strategy and profit maximization of producers. On the other hand, the energy price in the power market experiences lots of fluctuations which may affect the accuracy of the price forecasting seriously. Seeking for predictability, in this paper, the characteristics of these fluctuations are investigated through time series analysis methods. The results of analyses are representative of the existence of a deterministic chaos in the system with a mimic predictability. Besides, it is observed that because of existing the seasonality and non-stationarity in the system dynamics, a fixed model cannot perform properly even in case of normalized input data, but the developed models should be updated regularly.

  1. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun FENG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  2. Discussion on base bid price controlling strategies in engineering tendering%谈工程招标中的标底控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学兵

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the definition and functions of base bid price, the paper comprehensively explores base bid price control- ling strategies from aspects of determining engineering project, compiling basic principles of base bid price, common compiling base bid price methods, improving rationality of base bid price, and common methods and points of determining base bid price and so on, with a view to guar- antee smooth operation of bidding and tendering work.%在介绍了标底的定义和分析了标底作用的基础上,从工程项目确定和编制标底的基本原则、编制工程项目标底的常用方法、提高工程项目标底合理性、确定工程项目标底的常用方法和要点等几个方面,全面探讨了工程招标中的标底控制策略,以期保障招投标工作的顺利进行。

  3. PENGARUH HARGA SAHAM, TRADING VOLUME ACTIVITY DAN RISIKO SAHAM TERHADAP BID-ASK SPREAD (Studi pada Perusahaan LQ-45 di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Nurul Istanti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of stock price, shares of Tradimg volume activity and the risk of bid-ask spread. And test them with statistical tools. This study argued that share price, TVA and risk affect the stock bid-ask spread partially or together. For this purpose, we used multiple regression analysis. Samples taken are the LQ-45 firms listed on the JSE the period February 2002 until July 2005. The results showed that the Trading volume activity and risk affect the stock bid-ask spread, while stock prices are not. And jointly share price, Ttading volume activity and risk affect the stock bid-ask spread

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo

  5. Therapeutic efficacy of improved α-fetoprotein promoter-mediated tBid delivered by folate-PEI600-cyclodextrin nanopolymer vector in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bao-guang [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou, Shandong (China); Liu, Li-ping [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People' s Hospital), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, George G., E-mail: gchen@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong); Ye, Cai Guo; Leung, Kevin K.C.; Ho, Rocky L.K.; Lin, Marie C.; Lai, Paul B.S. [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong)

    2014-06-10

    SNPs in human AFP promoter are associated with serum AFP levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that AFP promoter variants may generate better transcriptional activities while retaining high specificity to AFP-producing cells. We sequenced human AFP promoters, cloned 15 different genotype promoters and tested their reporter activities in AFP-producing and non-producing cells. Among various AFP variant fragments tested, EA4D exhibited the highest reporter activity and thus was selected for the further study. EA4D was fused with tBid and coupled with nano-particle vector (H1) to form pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1. pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could express a high level of tBid while retain the specificity to AFP-producing cells. In a HCC tumor model, application of pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 significantly inhibited the growth of AFP-producing-implanted tumors with minimal side-effects, but had no effect on non-AFP-producing tumors. Furthermore, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 could significantly sensitize HCC cells to sorafenib, an approved anti-HCC agent. Collectively, pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D and the novel H1 delivery system, can specifically target and effectively suppress the AFP-producing HCC. This new therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo and it should thus be safe for further clinical tests. - Highlights: • The nano-particle vector H1 has advantages in mediating gene therapy construct pGL3-EA4D-tBid for HCC treatment. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1, a construct with the AFP promoter EA4D, can specifically target the AFP-producing HCC. • pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1effectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of AFP-producing HCC. • This novel pGL3-EA4D-tBid/H1 therapeutic tool shows little toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

  6. DSM bidding - what field are we leveling, anyway? Or how do you level the field without killing the crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first regulated monopoly was established, there has been regulatory concern over the open-quotes level playing fieldclose quotes issue. This concern can be valid, but its character is relatively nebulous, and situational. Most recently, regulators have expressed their concern over the level playing field issue relative to demand side bidding, and demand side management (DSM) incentives regulation which provides utility shareholder returns for DSM initiatives. The playing field issues relative to DSM can be extensive. Utility ESCO subsidiaries are being formed, utility service contracts for HVAC equipment exist, and utilities have special access to customers and customer energy information. At the same time, all source bidding processes are required in some states allowing DSM projects to effectively displace supply side projects, customers must choose between utility DSM programs and ESCO offerings, and the list goes on

  7. REST: Regional Environmentally Sustainable Transport: Iniciativa BID para afrontar los desafíos del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael M. Acevedo-Daunas

    2010-01-01

    Esta presentación expone la participación del BID en el sector transporte en 2010 y su apoyo para el transporte urbano sostenible, a saber el Plan de Acción de Transporte Sustentable (REST, por sus siglas en ingles). El programa forma parte del Plan de Acción del BID para Cambio Climático, el cual involucra mitigación del cambio climático y también reducción de vulnerabilidades, o adaptación al cambio climático. Discute el papel de REST en el nuevo paradigma Avoid-Shift-Improve (Evitar-Cambia...

  8. Bidding behavior when one bidder and the auctioneer are vertically integrated: illustrated by the partial deregulation of EU electricity markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Koten, Silvester

    Praha : Česká společnost ekonomická, 2006, s. 1-37. [Výroční konference České společnosti ekonomické /4./. Praha (CZ), 25.11.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : asymmetric auctions * bidding behavior * electricity markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  9. The Cost of New Information – ECB Macro Announcement Impacts on Bid-Ask Spreads of European Blue Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Rühl, Tobias R.; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bid-ask spreads using intraday data reveal significant sensitivity to European Central Bank (ECB) macro announcements. Effects are strongest for announcements that comprise unexpected information or a change in interest rates, and spreads rise sharply during the minutes surrounding interest rate or other important macroeconomic announcements by the ECB. Both Euro area stocks (of German DAX 30 and French CAC 40) and non-Euro stocks (of FTSE 100) have been used for comparative reasons. All resu...

  10. Brand Equity Effects on Bidding Strategies in an Online Environment: Evidence from eBay Coin Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Carl S. Bozman; Matthew Q. McPherson; Daniel Friesner; Ching-I Teng

    2014-01-01

    Internet auction bidders seldom have all the information resources upon which they have learned to comfortably rely. This raises the possibility that internet auction participants depend more on brand related knowledge and employ bidding strategies consistent with heightened valuations of brand related information. This study empirically examines how differences in brand equity affect consumer online auction behavior on eBay. Branded products with objective values (certified coins) are examin...

  11. From English to First-Price Sealed Bid: An Empirical Assessment of the Change in Auction Type on Experienced Bidders

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimate the differential impact of first-price sealed-bid (first-price) auctions relative to English auctions on auction revenue. While there is a theoretical literature on the potential outcomes of first-price relative to English auction, there is a paucity of articles that empirically estimate this relationship. The answer to this question is important not only to economists but also those designing auction for practical application. Using a unique dataset from tax lien auctions...

  12. Optimal bidding strategy for demand response aggregator in day-ahead markets via stochastic programming and robust optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, M.; Zhong, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the optimal bidding strategy for demand response (DR) aggregator in day-ahead (DA) markets. Because of constraint of minimum power quantity requirement, small-sized customers have to become indirect participants of electricity markets via the DR aggregator, who could offer various contracts accessing customers' demand reduction capacity in advance. In day-ahead markets, DR aggregator schedules those contracts and submits accumulated DR offers to the system operator. The o...

  13. Seguridad Vial - BID: Una estrategia para la región de América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Roa

    2012-01-01

    Presentación del Jefe de la División de Transporte del Banco, Nestor Roa, durante el principal evento regional de Seguridad Vial de América Latina y el Caribe, CISEV III que se realizó en Bogotá DC entre el 12 y el 14 de junio de 2012. El documento muestra el trabajo de la estrategia de Seguridad Vial del BID.

  14. Fatal Hepatitis Mediated by TNFα Requires Caspase-8 and Involves the BH3-only Proteins Bid and Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Thomas; Jost, Philipp J; Pellegrini, Marc; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Gugasyan, Raffi; Gerondakis, Steve; Cretney, Erika; Smyth, Mark J; Silke, John; Hakem, Razq; Bouillet, Philippe; Mak, Tak W; Dixit, Vishva M; Strasser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Apoptotic death of hepatocytes, a feature and contributing factor of many chronic and acute liver diseases, can be a consequence of over-activation of the immune system. Injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus the transcriptional inhibitor D(+)-galactosamine (GalN) or mitogenic T cell activation cause fatal hepatocyte apoptosis in mice. In both settings hepatocyte killing is mediated by TNFα/TNF-R signaling but the effector mechanisms remain unclear. Our analysis of gene-targeted mice showed that caspase-8 is essential for hepatocyte killing in both settings. Loss of Bid, the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein activated by caspase-8, and essential for Fas ligand-induced hepatocyte killing, resulted only in a minor reduction of liver damage. However, combined loss of Bid and another BH3-only protein, Bim, activated by JNK, protected mice from LPS+GalN-induced hepatitis. These observations identify caspase-8 and the BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of inflammatory liver diseases. PMID:19119023

  15. African electricity market liberalization, competition and structuring: Should double bid markets be set up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyse the possibility of using double auction mechanisms in the organization of the electricity markets in African countries. Today's electricity markets around the world are de-regulated and going through a restructuring process. In a context marked by the opening up to competition, a double auction for electricity supply is henceforth used to set prices in wholesale and retail electricity markets. Game theory analysis useful for studying the double auction prices proprieties. The double auction is a non-cooperative game, which is strategically equivalent to the auctions theory. The price formed, depending on the buyers and sellers' strategies, is a competitive price, which tends to the ideal price when competition operates intensely on both sides of market. For Africa, the presence of congestion costs and a chronic lack of capacity require the search for other solutions. We investigate optimal strategic behaviour when buyers and sellers are separated by a possibly constrained transmission line and show that bidders' strategies converge to truth-telling behaviour as the number of market participants increases. In the congestion case, this fails to occur. We also investigate how participants in wholesale electricity markets modify their bidding strategies as a function of the influence and behaviour of a transmission line owner. (author)

  16. The bid to lose weight: impact of social media on weight perceptions, weight control and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Leah; Mohan, Ranjini; Makaya, Tafadzwa

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade the internet has come to permeate every aspect of our lives. With huge leaps in accessibility of the internet via mobile personal devices such as smart cellular phones and tablets, individuals are connected to the internet virtually all the time. It is no surprise therefore that social media now dominates the lives of many people within society. The authors take a look at how social media is influencing diabetes with particular focus on weight perception, weight management and eating behaviours. The authors explore the concept of how the advertising of Size 0 models and photo-shopping of images which are easily available on line and via social media is causing an increase in the number of young people with distorted body images. This has led to an increased number of people resorting to sometimes drastic weight loss programmes. We focus on the bid for 'low-fat' consumption and highlight how this could actually be leading to an increased risk for developing diabetes or worsening the complications of diabetes. We also discuss the increase of eating disorder in diabetes related to this distorted body image. PMID:25311196

  17. Competitive bidding for health insurance contracts: lessons from the online HMO auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok; Parente, Stephen T; Sanyal, Pallab

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare is an important social and economic component of modern society, and the effective use of information technology in this industry is critical to its success. As health insurance premiums continue to rise, competitive bidding may be useful in generating stronger price competition and lower premium costs for employers and possibly, government agencies. In this paper, we assess an endeavor by several Fortune 500 companies to reduce healthcare procurement costs for their employees by having HMOs compete in open electronic auctions. Although the auctions were successful in generating significant cost savings for the companies in the first year, i.e., 1999, they failed to replicate the success and were eventually discontinued after two more years. Over the past decade since the failed auction experiment, effective utilization of information technologies have led to significant advances in the design of complex electronic markets. Using this knowledge, and data from the auctions, we point out several shortcomings of the auction design that, we believe, led to the discontinuation of the market after three years. Based on our analysis, we propose several actionable recommendations that policy makers can use to design a sustainable electronic market for procuring health insurance. PMID:23224233

  18. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  19. Del MERCOSUR al ALCA: críticas al modelo liberal de nuevo regionalismo del BID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Saludjian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera sección se discute un modelo del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en favor del ALCA, sobre la base de la aplicación de la teoría de economía geográfica al proceso de integración económica del Cono Sur de América Latina (MERCOSUR. En la segunda sección, abordamos los límites de este modelo, insistiendo en la ausencia de ciertas variables fundamentales para el estudio de las economías de estas regiones. Por cierto, los aspectos de las economías industrial internacional, del desarrollo y de la inserción de estos países de la periferia en la economía mundial, son esenciales para analizar el régimen de acumulación dominado por el espacio financiero que la mayoría de las naciones latinoamericanas experimentan, así como el proceso de integración de América.

  20. Use of Markov Chains to Design an Agent Bidding Strategy for Continuous Double Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Birmingham, W P; Park, S; 10.1613/jair.1466

    2011-01-01

    As computational agents are developed for increasingly complicated e-commerce applications, the complexity of the decisions they face demands advances in artificial intelligence techniques. For example, an agent representing a seller in an auction should try to maximize the seller?s profit by reasoning about a variety of possibly uncertain pieces of information, such as the maximum prices various buyers might be willing to pay, the possible prices being offered by competing sellers, the rules by which the auction operates, the dynamic arrival and matching of offers to buy and sell, and so on. A naive application of multiagent reasoning techniques would require the seller?s agent to explicitly model all of the other agents through an extended time horizon, rendering the problem intractable for many realistically-sized problems. We have instead devised a new strategy that an agent can use to determine its bid price based on a more tractable Markov chain model of the auction process. We have experimentally ident...

  1. Performance Evaluation of Bidding-Based Multi-Agent Scheduling Algorithms for Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gordillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have being applied to many problems in manufacturing systems in recent years. In the specific field of manufacturing scheduling many studies have been published trying to cope with the complexity of the manufacturing environment. One of the most utilized approaches is (multi agent-based scheduling. Nevertheless, despite the large list of studies reported in this field, there is no resource or scientific study on the performance measure of this type of approach under very common and critical execution situations. This paper focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS based algorithms for task allocation, particularly in manufacturing applications. The goal is to provide a mechanism to measure the performance of agent-based scheduling approaches for manufacturing systems under key critical situations such as: dynamic environment, rescheduling, and priority change. With this mechanism it will be possible to simulate critical situations and to stress the system in order to measure the performance of a given agent-based scheduling method. The proposed mechanism is a pioneering approach for performance evaluation of bidding-based MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling. The proposed method and evaluation methodology can be used to run tests in different manufacturing floors since it is independent of the workshop configuration. Moreover, the evaluation results presented in this paper show the key factors and scenarios that most affect the market-like MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling.

  2. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  3. 竞价处置资产法律实务初探%On Legal Practices of Bidding Sales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章文霞

    2011-01-01

    Idle or abandoned assets disposal is a common procedure in a company's production and operation. Assets disposal should conform to laws and legislations as well as company rules. It primarily consists of three ways of disposal, namely sales on agreements, legal auction and bidding sales and each method has its own pros and cons. For example, bidding sales organized by company itself is widely used due to its simple and flexible procedure, low costs and high efficiency; however the potential risks cannot be neglected. This paper analyzed the procedures and major risks in designing and carrying out bidding sales and also proposed precautions to avoid the risks.%企业生产经营过程中不可避免地会有闲置或废弃资产需要处置,资产处置行为必须符合法律、法规、相关政策及企业规章制度规定。现实中资产处置方式大致分为协议出售、正规拍卖、竞价出售三种。三种方式各有利弊,企业自行组织的竞价处置方式因程序便捷、方式灵活、经济高效得到广泛应用,但也存在一定的风险。分析了竞价处置资产过程中方案设置、方案实施两个方面的程序及重要风险点,并提出了规避风险的建议。

  4. The Cost of New Information – ECB Macro Announcement Impacts on Bid-Ask Spreads of European Blue Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Rühl, Tobias R.; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden die Auswirkungen makroökonomisch relevanter EZB-Ankündigungen auf die Transaktionskosten europäischer Aktienmärkte, gemessen über Bid-Ask Spreads, untersucht. Unter Verwendung von hochfrequenten Daten zeigt sich, dass die Spreads in den Minuten um eine EZB-Ankündigung deutlich höher liegen als am restlichen Handelstag. Dies gilt vor allem für unerwartet ausfallende Ankündigungen und solche, über die vorher hohe Unsicherheit bestand. Auch die Relevanz der Ankündigung f...

  5. Strategy And Problems Of Road Engineering Bid%公路工程投标策略及投标注意问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 丁怀玉

    2011-01-01

    本文详细阐述了在投标过程中,各个阶段的注意事项及策略,并且详细研究招标文件和招标所在地的地理环境、人、机、料的价格、风土人情和地方的法律法规,使之更加科学合理的投标。%This paper states the proceeding and strategy of every phases in bid process,studies the inviting public bidding file,geography environment,human,machine and material price,climate and feeling,regional law and regulation of biding location to ensure science and reasonable bid.

  6. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and

  7. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.

  8. Marketing in e-Commerce through the Implementation of the Service Perspective : A Case Study of the Start-Up Firm - EarnBidWin.com

    OpenAIRE

    Beik, Nima; Bergqvist, Kim; Karam, Jihane

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis will begin by highlighting the significance of social media networks and e-Commerce in today’s business environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop an external marketing strategy that can be employed by start-up firms operating in the e-Commerce of reverse auction sites.   The paper will particularly focus on the company EarnBidWin.com and the marketing strategy will be based on the Service Perspective. EarnBidWin.com is an online reverse auction site that is new and uniq...

  9. Modelling the transition from cost-based to bid-based pricing in a deregulated electricity-market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta is a province in western Canada with a deregulated electricity-market. Market clearing prices for most hours reflect the cost of either coal-fired or gas-fired thermal generation. Whenever there is a chronic shortage of generation or even a temporary one due to an outage, prices can be bid much higher than fuel costs would suggest. The province of British Columbia borders Alberta to the west and its electric utility, BC Hydro, has a history of trade with the utilities in Alberta. BC Hydro has predominantly hydroelectric resources and large storage reservoirs. Prior to Alberta's deregulation in 1996, BC Hydro was able to enter into mutually beneficial load-factoring contracts with the Alberta utilities. Now, as long as the transmission is available, BC Hydro can buy low priced off-peak coal-fired energy and sell into the high priced periods without having to share the benefits. BC Hydro uses a combination of econometric and Monte Carlo modelling to simulate hourly price-duration curves for Alberta that capture both cost-based and bid-based characteristics. This approach provides a good fit with the stochastic dynamic programming model that BC Hydro has developed for its mid-term hydro scheduling

  10. Guaranteed prices, competitive bids or green certificates. What are the instruments to encourage the development of renewable energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration of the risk of a climatic change and the European States' obvious wish to seek high performance goals as regards the production of renewable electricity in order to meet it invite us to wonder about the relative efficiency of the inducement instruments used. The choice is between quantities - national objective-setting and competitive bids, or quota imposition and green certificate exchange - and prices - administered sales tariffs. This article examines the efficiency to these various inducement frameworks, from a theoretical point of view by opposing the price and quantity approaches, and also from a practical point of view, by referring to the concrete implementation experiences of the instruments. The article concludes that the administered price system is the most efficient compared with that of the bid system, but highlights the theoretical qualities of the approach with green certificates, which are to be confirmed by practice, given the influence of the market rules and structures on the performances of that type of approach. (authors)

  11. The Intraday Behaviour of Bid-Ask Spreads Across Auction and Specialist Market Structures: Evidence From The Italian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have analysed liquidity across a trading day, and have documented that bid-ask spreads exhibita U-shaped pattern, with spreads wider at the start and end of the trading day, whilst spreads are tighter in themiddle of the day. This pattern has been attributed to inventory holding costs, the specialist’s market powerand adverse selection risk. On the 2nd April, 2001, several stocks on the Italian Bourse switched from anauction market to a specialist market. This provides a natural experiment where intraday spreads acrossdifferent market structures can be compared. Results indicate that volume, volatility and bid-ask spreadsexhibit the U-shaped intraday pattern both before and after the structural change. While time-weightedspreads are consistently higher throughout the trading day under the specialist structure, the specialists abilityto offer price improvement with the best quotes results in the ‘real’ cost of trading being lower under aspecialist system. These results are robust to the size of the firm, the event window around the structuralchange, as well as overall market-wide changes.

  12. Modeling methods for GenCo bidding strategy optimization in the liberalized electricity spot market-A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity market has since 1980s been gradually evolving from a monopoly market into a liberalized one for encouraging competition and improving efficiency. This brings the opportunity for generation companies (GenCos) to make more profits while embracing more risks of not being dispatched. Therefore, it has become a core interest for the GenCos to develop optimal bidding strategies to maximize the profits and minimize the risks while participating in such a competitive market. The literature pertaining to this issue has grown rapidly in recent years, and many different modeling approaches, such as mathematical programming, game theory, and agent-based models, have been investigated under the liberalized market environment. Meanwhile, along with the increasing penetration of renewable energy, the electricity market is facing more complexity and stochasticity from both uncertain generation and dynamic demands. The intermittent and unsteady nature of these renewable power sources motivates the GenCos to further optimize their bidding strategy by considering the new constraints. This paper presents a comprehensive literature analysis on the state-of-the-art research of bidding strategy modeling methods. -- Highlights: → Publications on bidding in electricity spot markets are comprehensively reviewed. → Insights on the evolution of solution methodologies of recent 10 years are provided. → The pros and cons of these solution approaches are also discussed. → Future research directions, with renewable energy participations, are pointed out.

  13. BI-D1870 is a specific inhibitor of the p90 RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) isoforms in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Gopal P; Cummings, Lorna; Newell, Felicity S;

    2007-01-01

    ), which then mediate many of the physiological processes that are regulated by these extracellular agonists. It can be difficult to assess the individual functions of each AGC kinase because their substrate specificities are similar. Here we describe the small molecule BI-D1870, which inhibits RSK1, RSK2......, RSK3 and RSK4 in vitro with an IC(50) of 10-30 nM, but does not signi-ficantly inhibit ten other AGC kinase members and over 40 other protein kinases tested at 100-fold higher concentrations. BI-D1870 is cell permeant and prevents the RSK-mediated phorbol ester- and EGF (epidermal growth factor......)-induced phosphoryl-ation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and LKB1 in human embry-onic kidney 293 cells and Rat-2 cells. In contrast, BI-D1870 does not affect the agonist-triggered phosphorylation of substrates for six other AGC kinases. Moreover, BI-D1870 does not suppress the phorbol ester- or EGF...

  14. Environmental aspects to be considered on public bids and concession agreements; A variavel ambiental na licitacao e no contrato de concessao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Maria Alice; Bezerra, Luiz Gustavo; Medeiros, Maria Angelica [Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados Associados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present article is to discuss the controversies and propose solutions in order to manage environmental aspects aiming at minimizing excessive and unnecessary risks and costs for bid participants and concessionaires of the Brazilian oil and gas E and P activities. (author)

  15. The Evasion of Legal Risk in Library Bids Purchasing%图书馆招标采购中的法律风险与规避

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆媛媛

    2012-01-01

    The library can carry on invitation to bid when buying electronics resources, modem equipments, and book etc. The library may undertake a law responsibility because of the law forbidding contents in the tender doc- ument ; breaching the law requirements to modify on a materiality negotiation; illegally signing the the tender document; illegal procedure of bid opening; carrying contract of the acceptance of the bid; and spilling the beans. The law risk of the inviting bids can be evaded through a certain measure. The article carries on a detailed dis- cussion about the law risk and its solutions of the purchasing bids of the library.%图书馆采购电子资源、现代化设备、图书等可以进行招标。招标采购过程中,图书馆可因招标文件包含法律规定的禁止性内容、违反法律规定修改招标文件、开标程序不合法、进行实质性谈判、违法签订中标合同,以及泄露秘密等而承担法律责任。招标采购中的法律风险可以通过一定措施予以规避。文章对图书馆招标采购过程中遇到的法律风险和应对措施进行了详细讨论。

  16. Electricity market auction settings in a future Danish electricity system with a high penetration of renewable energy sources - A comparison of marginal pricing and pay-as-bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term goal for Danish energy policy is to be free of fossil fuels through the increasing use of renewable energy sources (RES) including fluctuating renewable electricity (FRE). The Danish electricity market is part of the Nordic power exchange, which uses a Marginal Price auction system (MPS) for the day-ahead auctions. The market price is thus equal to the bidding price of the most expensive auction winning unit. In the MPS, the FRE bid at prices of or close to zero resulting in reduced market prices during hours of FRE production. In turn, this reduces the FRE sources' income from market sales. As more FRE is implemented, this effect will only become greater, thereby reducing the income for FRE producers. Other auction settings could potentially help to reduce this problem. One candidate is the pay-as-bid auction setting (PAB), where winning units are paid their own bidding price. This article investigates the two auction settings, to find whether a change of auction setting would provide a more suitable frame for large shares of FRE. This has been done with two energy system scenarios with different shares of FRE. From the analysis, it is found that MPS is generally better for the FRE sources. The result is, however, very sensitive to the base assumptions used for the calculations. -- Highlights: → In this study two different auction settings for the Danish electricity market are compared. → Two scenarios are used in the analyses, one representing the present system and one representing a future 100% renewable energy system. → We find that marginal price auction system is most suitable for supporting fluctuating renewable energy in both scenarios. → The results are very sensitive to the assumptions about bidding prices for each technology.

  17. From English to First-Price Sealed Bid: An Empirical Assessment of the Change in Auction Type on Experienced Bidders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Joshua J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimate the differential impact of first-price sealed-bid (first-price auctions relative to English auctions on auction revenue. While there is a theoretical literature on the potential outcomes of first-price relative to English auction, there is a paucity of articles that empirically estimate this relationship. The answer to this question is important not only to economists but also those designing auction for practical application. Using a unique dataset from tax lien auctions in Illinois, I empirically test the effect of a switch in auction type from English to first-price. I find auction revenue is greatly increased, by as much as 22 percent, under the first-price auction. The results are supported by a within county difference-in-difference model specification and are robust when restricting the sample across various specifications

  18. Optimal bidding strategy of wind farms for joint operation with other ‎renewable resources in power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein parastegari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and bidding strategy of renewable units are two important problems of the restructured power market. In this paper, a new method for the joint operation of wind, photovoltaic and pump-storage units in day ahead power market is studied to increase the profit of joint units. In this study, artificial neural network is used to predict the wind power generation of wind farms. Since, there are uncertainties in energy and reserve prices, wind and photovoltaic power generation, the optimal operation of joint units can be modeled as a stochastic optimization problem. For this purpose, uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario tree method. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the renewable energy resources (wind farms, photovoltaic and pump-storage units of the modified IEEE 118 bus test system. Results of the proposed joint operation of renewable resources confirm that the value of expected profit increases in comparison with uncoordinated operation (UO of units.

  19. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  20. 浅谈铁路施工图招标模式下的变更索赔应对策略%Coping Strategy for Modification Claim under the Mode of Railway Construction Drawing Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛惊天

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly expounds the difference between railway project preliminary design bidding and construction drawing bidding, analyzes the characteristics of construction drawing bidding, and proposes the coping strategy for modification claim of construction drawing bidding projects, which is of referential value.%本文主要阐述了铁路项目初步设计招标与施工图招标之间差异,分析了施工图招标项目的特点,并提出了施工图招标项目变更索赔应对策略,进而为铁路工程施工图招标项目变更索赔提供参考依据。

  1. El financiamiento de las competencias profesionales del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID en la educación superior tecnológica (EST de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martínez Padilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación que tiene lugar entre el gobierno mexicano con organismos internacionales como el Banco Mundial (BM y, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID para el financiamiento de las competencias profesionales en las Instituciones de Educación Superior Tecnológicas (IEST. Desde la perspectiva teórica de la Nueva Gestión Pública (NGP se argumenta que el BID, a través de sus programas de competencias profesionales, tiene una gran influencia en las funciones y atribuciones de las Universidades Politécnicas (UUPP y, que dichos programas responden más a una lógica de compromisos institucionales que a una evaluación efectiva de resultados

  2. 采供血机构设备招标采购模式的探讨%Discussion on Bidding Procurement Model of Devices in Blood Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃鱼; 郑拉让

    2013-01-01

    本文探讨了采供血机构公开招标、邀请招标、竞争性谈判、单一来源采购、询价采购等多种采购方式及注意事项,旨在建立血站设备的采购模式,提高设备采购的时效和资金的使用效率,建立起规范的血站设备管理机制.%This paper discusses the main methods of public bidding, invitational bidding, competitive negotiation, single source purchase, enquiry purchase and attentions of establishing device procurement mode in blood stations, in order to improve the efficiency of device procurement and the use of funds, and build a standardized device management mechanism in the blood center.

  3. Signal transduction mediated by Bid, a pro-death Bcl-2 family proteins, connects the death receptor and mitochondria apoptosis pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two major apoptosis pathways have been defined in mammalian cells, the Fas/TNF-R1 death receptor pathway and the mitochondria pathway. The Bcl-2 family proteins consist of both anti-apoptosis and pro- apoptosis members that regulate apoptosis, mainly by controlling the release of cytochrome c and other mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, death signals mediated by Fas/TNF-R1 receptors can usually activate caspases directly, bypassing the need for mitochondria and escaping the regulation by Bcl-2 family proteins. Bid is a novel pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family protein that is activated by caspase 8 in response to Fas/TNF-R1 death receptor signals. Activated Bid is translocated to mitochondria and induces cytochrome c release, which in turn activates downstream caspases. Such a connection between the two apoptosis pathways could be important for induction of apoptosis in certain types of cells and responsible for the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases.

  4. The arguments of corporate directors in takeover bids: Comparing argumentative strategies in the context of friendly and hostile offers in the UK takeover market

    OpenAIRE

    Palmieri, Rudi; Rigotti, Eddo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes argumentative interactions in the context of corporate takeover bids, representing thus a first systematic study of financial communication from the perspective of argumentation theory. In general, the importance of financial communication is justified by the relevance of information for making sound investment decisions (cf. Healy & Palepu 2001; Williams 2008). But, information is a crucial factor insofar as it is an essential component of the argumentative...

  5. A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20-O-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponin formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. IH901 led to an early activation of procaspase-3 (12 h posttreatment), and the activation of caspase-8 became evident only later (18 h posttreatment). Caspase activation was a necessary requirement for apoptosis because caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited cell death by IH901. Treatment of HepG2 cells with IH901 also induced the cleavage of cytosolic factors such as Bid and Bax and translocation of truncated Bid (tBid) to mitochondria. A time-dependent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was observed, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-9. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), and a specific inhibitor for caspase-8, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zIETD-fmk), abrogated Bid processing and translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Cytochrome c release was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, however, the inhibition by zIETD-fmk was not complete. The activation of caspase-8 was inhibited not only by zIETD-fmk but also by zVAD-fmk. The results, together with the kinetic change of caspase activation, indicate that activation of caspase-8 occurred downstream of caspase-3 and -9. Our data suggest that the activation of caspase-8 after early caspase-3 activation might act as an amplification loop necessary for successful apoptosis. Primary hepatocytes isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were not affected by IH901 (0-60 μM). The very low toxicity in normal hepatocytes and high activity in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells suggest that IH901 is a promising experimental cancer chemopreventive agent

  6. Turkey and the Issue of European Identity: An Analysis of the Media Representation of Turkey's EU Bid within the Framework of Religion and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Alaaddin F. Paksoy

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to explore how religion and culture were used as an indicator of European identity in the media representation of Turkey-EU relations in the British media. The study focuses on religious and cultural discussions in the news rather than on the overall tone of the coverage. The research sample comprises six different political events happening when discussions concerning Turkey-EU relations reached their peak during 1999 to 2006. Thenews about Turkey's EU bid published in fiv...

  7. Bidding Type to Select Government-invested Projects Construction Agency%政府投资项目代建单位招标方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严玲; 高海超; 杨苓刚

    2011-01-01

    针对代建单位招标中存在操作上不规范的问题,明确了代建单位招标是一种咨询服务采购,借鉴国外成熟的工程咨询服务招标方法改进我国政府投资项目代建单位招标.考虑到国内代建制的实际情况,引入声誉机制建立基于代建名录的代建单位招标程序,对规模小的全过程代建项目可以利用代建名录实行基于资质一阶段招标;提出了代建单位招标中的项目管理技术方案评审标准,以保证代建单位的代建能力.该方法对规模大、技术要求高的代建项目比较适用.%The non - standard operations in the bid of selecting construction agency were discussed; it is clear that selecting construction agency from bidding is a project consulting service procurement. In order to improve the bidding type to select construction agency,it's better to draw lessons from foreign countries. There are two key issues to solve the problem. One is using reputation mechanism to build construction agent list to solve the issues of qualification. The other is building the technical scheme for project management in bidding to select capable construction agency. The method is suitable to those projects in great scale and in high technical requirements.

  8. Stage-specific expression of TNFα regulates bad/bid-mediated apoptosis and RIP1/ROS-mediated secondary necrosis in Birnavirus-infected fish cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Wang

    Full Text Available Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV can induce Bad-mediated apoptosis followed by secondary necrosis in fish cells, but it is not known how these two types of cell death are regulated by IPNV. We found that IPNV infection can regulate Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic death pathways via the up-regulation of TNFα in zebrafish ZF4 cells. Using a DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, two major subsets of differentially expressed genes were characterized, including the innate immune response gene TNFα and the pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bid. In the early replication stage (0-6 h post-infection, or p.i., we observed that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα underwent a rapid six-fold induction. Then, during the early-middle replication stages (6-12 h p.i., TNFα level was eight-fold induction and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bad and Bid were up-regulated. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of TNFα expression (AG-126 or TNFα-specific siRNA were used to block apoptotic and necrotic death signaling during the early or early-middle stages of IPNV infection. Inhibition of TNFα expression dramatically reduced the Bad/Bid-mediated apoptotic and Rip1/ROS-mediated necrotic cell death pathways and rescued host cell viability. Moreover, we used Rip1-specific inhibitors (Nec-1 and Rip1-specific siRNA to block Rip1 expression. The Rip1/ROS-mediated secondary necrotic pathway appeared to be reduced in IPNV-infected fish cells during the middle-late stage of infection (12-18 h p.i.. Taken together, our results indicate that IPNV triggers two death pathways via up-stream induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, and these results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RNA viruses.

  9. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data: Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Feng Gu; Wei Chen; Wei-Xing Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhib...

  10. Nuclear translocation of annexin 1 following oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion induces apoptosis by regulating Bid expression via p53 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Zhao, Yin; Xia, Qian; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Baoming; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Previous data have suggested that the nuclear translocation of annexin 1 (ANXA1) is involved in neuronal apoptosis after ischemic stroke. As the mechanism and function of ANXA1 nuclear migration remain unclear, it is important to clarify how ANXA1 performs its role as an apoptosis 'regulator' in the nucleus. Here we report that importazole (IPZ), an importin β (Impβ)-specific inhibitor, decreased ANXA1 nuclear accumulation and reduced the rate of neuronal death induced by nuclear ANXA1 migration after oxygen-glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R). Notably, ANXA1 interacted with the Bid (BH3-interacting-domain death agonist) promoter directly; however; this interaction could be partially blocked by the p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Accordingly, ANXA1 was shown to interact with p53 in the nucleus and this interaction was enhanced following OGD/R. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANXA1 was involved in the regulation of p53-mediated transcriptional activation after OGD/R. Consistent with this finding, the nuclear translocation of ANXA1 after OGD/R upregulated the expression of Bid, which was impeded by IPZ, ANXA1 shRNA, or PFT-α. Finally, cell-survival testing demonstrated that silencing ANXA1 could improve the rate of cell survival and decrease the expression of both cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. These data suggested that Impβ-dependent nuclear ANXA1 migration participates in the OGD/R-dependent induction of neuronal apoptosis. ANXA1 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 transcriptional activity, which in turn regulates Bid expression. Silencing ANXA1 decreases the expression of Bid and suppresses caspase-3 pathway activation, thus improving cell survival after OGD/R. This study provides a novel mechanism whereby ANXA1 regulates apoptosis, suggesting the potential for a previously unidentified treatment strategy in minimizing apoptosis after OGD/R. PMID:27584794

  11. 47 CFR 27.501 - 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz bands subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz bands... Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.501 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz, and 805-806 MHz bands subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for licenses in the 746-763 MHz, 775-793 MHz,...

  12. 在线拍卖中托投标的监管博弈模型研究%Supervision game of shill bidding in online auctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕绪华; 陈莉莉; 邹明田

    2013-01-01

    针对在线拍卖中卖方实施托投标拍卖出现的欺诈行为,在考虑成本因素的条件下采用非合作博弈理论和方法建立了托投标监管博弈模型,并定量分析监管部门与拍卖方之间互相依存下的决策以及混合纳什均衡问题。通过该模型对拍卖网站监管方和拍卖方决策行为的研究,得出网站监管部门对卖者托投标的最优罚款系数解析式。%In light of the shill bidding fraud by the seller in online auctions ,this paper builds a supervi-sion game model for the shill bidding on the basis of non-cooperation game theory and method with the cost factors considered .It analyzes the possible strategies and the mixed Nash equilibrium w hen the supervision department and sellers are interdependent .With the research into the strategies by the regulatory authorities and the sellers ,it has obtained the optimal penalty factor analytic formula that can be used as a guidance by the regulatory authorities in their punishment of the sellers w ho have cheated by shill bidding .

  13. 政府电子采购招标的过程和科学方法%Process and scientific method of government procurement bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会财

    2015-01-01

    当前情况下,我国政府采购最主要的方式就是招投标,公开、公平、公正是该采购方式的主要优势.评标作为政府采购招标的过程的关键,使能够最大效益化的采购形式.在我国近年来市场经济的框架下,政府开始日趋完善采购政策,而且逐步扩大采购的规模,如此就使得采购评标过程成为了多目标评价的复杂系统.%At present, our country government procurement the most important way is to recruit, open, fair and just is the main advantage of the procurement mode. Bid evaluation as the key to the process of government procurement bidding, so that the maximum benefit of the purchase form. In the framework of market economy in China in recent years, the government began to increasingly improve the procurement policy, and gradually expand the purchasing scale, so it makes the bidding process has become a multi objective evaluation of complex systems.

  14. Optimal Bidding Strategy of Generation Companies (GenCos in Energy and Spinning Reserve Markets Using Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bidding strategy become modeling to day-ahead markets. The proposed algorithm is related to the point of view of a generation company (Genco that its end is maximized its benefit as a participant in sale markets of active power and spinning reserve. In this method, hourly forecasted energy price (FEP and forecasted reserve price (FRP is used as a reference to model the possible and probable price strategies of Gencos. A bi-level optimization problem That first level, is used to maximize the individual Genco’s payoffs for obtaining the optimal offered quantity of Gencos. The second one, uses the results of the upper sub-problem and minimizes the consumer’s payment with regard to the technical and network constraints, which leads to the awarded generation of the Gencos. In this paper use of the game theory in exist optimization model. The paper proposes a linear programming approach. A six bus system is employed to illustrate the application of the proposed method and to show its high precision and capabilities.

  15. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with relative household income, diet and inflammation in the pSoBid cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Shiels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences. METHODS: A total of 382 blood samples from the pSoBid study were available for telomere analysis. For each participant, data was available for socio-economic status factors, biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Statistical analyses were undertaken to investigate the association between telomere lengths and these aforementioned parameters. RESULTS: The rate of age-related telomere attrition was significantly associated with low relative income, housing tenure and poor diet. Notably, telomere length was positively associated with LDL and total cholesterol levels, but inversely correlated to circulating IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest lower socio-economic status and poor diet are relevant to accelerated biological ageing. They also suggest potential associations between elevated circulating IL-6, a measure known to predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes with biological ageing. These observations require further study to tease out potential mechanistic links.

  16. A phase 1 study of the sachet formulation of the oral dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 given twice daily (BID) in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Johanna C; Kurkjian, Carla; Infante, Jeffrey R; Bauer, Todd M; Burris, Howard A; Greco, F Anthony; Shih, Kent C; Thompson, Dana S; Lane, Cassie M; Finney, Lindsey H; Jones, Suzanne F

    2015-04-01

    Introduction The PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is a commonly dysregulated pathway in cancers and is an attractive target for antitumor therapy. BEZ235 is a potent, highly specific and selective dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor. Methods Patients were enrolled in a 3 + 3 dose escalation design to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicities, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of BEZ235 when administered twice-daily as an oral sachet. For intrapatient PK comparison, patients were to receive a lead in of the total daily dose in a QD schedule for the first 8 days of the initial 28 day cycle. Patients continued treatment until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression occurred. Results Thirty-three patients received BEZ235. Initial dose levels of 200 and 400 mg BID had no DLTs. At the 600 mg BID dose level with 1200 mg QD lead in dose two DLTs of grade 3 mucositis occurred early in the first treatment cycle, the lead-in QD dosing was eliminated. Fatigue and mucositis limited dosing at 600 mg BID in subsequent patients. The 400 mg BID dose level was re-explored, with DLTs of grade 3 hyperglycemia, dehydration, fatigue, and grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Twelve patients were enrolled at an intermediate dose of 300 mg BID; a grade 3 mucositis DLT was reported in 1 patient, and this dose was declared the MTD. Preliminary PK data demonstrate a consistent increase in PK parameters (Cmax and AUC) with dose level compared to QD dosing. Fifteen patients experienced stable disease as their best response, including 10 (colorectal [4 patients], endometrial [3 patients], carcinoid NOS, pancreas, and melanoma) who had disease control for ≥16 weeks. Conclusions The recommended dose of BEZ235 administered BID as an oral sachet formulation is 300 mg BID. Toxicities seen have been reported for other dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. PMID:25707361

  17. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-15

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  18. A Procurement-bidding Method of Consigned Goods for a Grid Company%电网寄售物资的采购招标方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝泽军; 汪曲

    2015-01-01

    以电网公司采购需求量事先不能完全确定的寄售物资为对象,结合拍卖和谈判理论探讨了一种基于价格list 的物资采购招标方法。根据采购商和供应商的效用函数,给出了价格 list 模型和采购招标机制,设计和分析了供应商的得分规则和投标规则,进而以采购商效用最大化为目标建立了一个供应商选择模型,并增加了采购商和入围供应商谈判议价的环节,旨在进一步改善招标采购的效率。%Combined with the auction and negotiation theory,a bidding method based on price list is investigated,whose research object is a grid company purchasing some uncertain amount of consigned goods.Concretely,based on the buyer's utility function and the suppliers'profit utility function,we give the definition and assumption of the price list model and the mechanism of procurement-bidding,and the scoring rules and bidding rules are also designed and analyzed.Moreover,aiming at maximizing the buyer's expected utility,an optimization model of selecting the suppliers is established.And a process of negotiation between the buyer and the candidate supplier is added to improve the biding efficiency.

  19. A New Method for Construction Engineering Bidding Evaluation%基于改进数据包络分析的建设工程评标模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双晴; 袁永博; 双凯

    2012-01-01

    Bidding evaluation is a complex but important decision making process for buyer to ensure the project accomplish smoothly. This paper seeks to build a new bidding evaluation model by introducing a DEA cross-efficiency method with alternative secondary functions. The basic idea is to impose commercial standard as target and technical data as constrained condition. An illustrative example of a practice example is given to test and verity, and compare with the traditional DEA model. The result shows the new model produce a unique rank which is suitable for the construction engineering bidding evaluation.%建设工程评标是一项复杂的系统工程.为建立合理的评标决策支持系统,根据实际评标建立以商务标为目标函数,以技术标为约束条件的评标模型.引入数据包络分析(DEA)方法,建立第二目标函数为决策单元非效率值总和最小模型,进行交叉评价,解决了CCR模型在实际应用中不能完全确定中标顺序的问题.通过实际案例分析,交叉评价模型能够产生独立效率值并进行有效排序,证明了评标模型的可操作性与适用性.

  20. 经平审的最低投标价评标办法研究%Research on the Lowest Bid Evaluation Method after Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀亭

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the application scope of the lowest bid evaluation method after appraisal and the reason of award price lower than cost price, puts forward some countermeasures to ensure the award price is rational low price.%通过对经评审的最低投标价评标办法的适用范围和中标价低于成本价成因的分析,提出确保合理低价中标应采取的措施.

  1. ANALISIS RETURN, ABNORMAL RETURN, AKTIVITAS VOLUME PERDAGANGAN DAN BID-ASK SPREAD SAHAM DI SEPUTAR PENGUMUMAN STOCK SPLIT (Studi pada Perusahaan Manufaktur di BEJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TAUFIQ NOOR ROKHMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Event study is a study which analyze any market reactions to an event which its information is published as announcement. The stock split can influence the market depend on the existence of the content of the information in the stock split phenomenon or not. If the stock split contains information then the market will react and vice versa. The objective of this research is to find out the difference of return, abnormal return, trade volume activity, and stock’s bid-ask spread before, in the moment, after the stock split announcement. The research sample is done by purposive sampling method, and there are 24 manufacturing companies which announce stock split between 1999-2001. Statistical experiment used is T-test experiment (paired two samples for means. The Observation period which is done in 11 day, consist of 5 day before, 1 day in the moment, and 5 day after the stock split. The result of this research shows that there is a significant difference between return and abnormal return in the period of between at the moment, and after the stock split. The result in the before-after stock split period shows that there is no significant difference. The result in the variable activity of stock’s trade volume shows that there is no signification difference in the before-at the moment and after period, but in the result of before-after period show that there is significant difference there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of stock split, but in the before-after period the result shows that there is no significant different there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of stock split, but in the before-after period the result shows that there is no significant different there. Cumulatively, this research gives a conclusion that stock split have no

  2. Profitability of a Hydro Power Producer Bidding in Multiple Markets - An Analysis of the Specific Case of Tokke-Vinje Hydro Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jakob Boye Ørbæk; Rasmussen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of this project has been to study the production scheduling of a hydro power producer exposed to the day-ahead, balancing and capacity market. The objective was to find what profit the producer may achieve by strategically bid in the above mentioned markets. A prototype model that undertakes this task has been developed by SINTEF Energy Research as a part of their project "Integrating Balancing Markets in Hydro Power Scheduling Methods". It is a multi-stage, multi-scenario...

  3. 招投标有形市场市场活跃度研究--以某市招投标交易中心交易情况为例%Explore the Market Activity of Bidding Tangible Market--Takes the Transactions of Bidding Trade Center in A City as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author takes a city bidding trade center as an example to explore the bidding tangible market activity. The author first carries on the definition from the four dimensions on the bidding tangible market activity, then uses the reference method and analyzes the fol owed four dimens-ions of market activity to obtain the market activity market of each month.%本文以某市招投标交易中心为例,对招投标有形市场活跃度开展了研究。首先,从四个维度对招投标有形市场活跃度进行了定义。然后利用基准法,依次从四个维度对市场活跃度进行了分析,得出了市场各个月份的市场活跃度。

  4. Enhanced Biological Trace Organic Contaminant Removal: A Lab-Scale Demonstration with Bisphenol A-Degrading Bacteria Sphingobium sp. BiD32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nicolette A; Gough, Heidi L

    2016-08-01

    Discharge of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may contribute to deleterious effects on aquatic life. Release to the environment occurs both through WWTP effluent discharge and runoff following land applications of biosolids. This study introduces Enhanced Biological TOrC Removal (EBTCR), which involves continuous bioaugmentation of TOrC-degrading bacteria for improved removal in WWTPs. Influence of bioaugmentation on enhanced degradation was investigated in two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), using bisphenol A (BPA) as the TOrC. The reactors were operated with 8 cycles per day and at two solids retention times (SRTs). Once each day, the test reactor was bioaugmented with Sphingobium sp. BiD32, a documented BPA-degrading culture. After bioaugmentation, BPA degradation (including both the dissolved and sorbed fractions) was 2-4 times higher in the test reactor than in a control reactor. Improved removal persisted for >5 cycles following bioaugmentation. By the last cycle of the day, enhanced BPA removal was lost, although it returned with the next bioaugmentation. A net loss of Sphingobium sp. BiD32 was observed in the reactors, supporting the original hypothesis that continuous bioaugmentation (rather than single-dose bioaugmentation) would be required to improve TOrCs removal during wastewater treatment. This study represents a first demonstration of a biologically based approach for enhanced TOrCs removal that both reduces concentrations in wastewater effluent and prevents transfer to biosolids. PMID:27338240

  5. Oil and gas bidding rounds: judgement criteria in Brazil and abroad; Licitacoes no setor de petroleo e gas natural: criterios de julgamento no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrete, Bernardo do Amaral; Valois, Danielle Gomes de Almeida; Tavares, Henrique Campos Laborne; Gomes, Julia Medina da Costa [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the main rules governing the bidding process for the granting of exploration and production rights of hydrocarbons in Brazil, with emphasis to the criteria for judging competing applications. From a comparative law analysis it is possible to note that, despite the fact that the system adopted in Brazil may be seen as objective and transparent, there is still room for improvement, especially with regard to assessing the performance of bidders in acreage already previously granted. In major European oil-producing countries, such as the UK and Norway, the efficiency and responsibility with which the applicant conducts its ongoing operations in those jurisdictions are also taken into account as a criterion for judging competing applications. Brazil could benefit from this experience and adopt criteria similar to Europe, ensuring another legal tool able to require that companies operating in the country to adopt safer standards and stricter controls, under penalty of entering in disadvantage in the next bidding rounds. (author)

  6. DRP1-dependent apoptotic mitochondrial fission occurs independently of BAX, BAK and APAF1 to amplify cell death by BID and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettinghaus, Björn; D'Alonzo, Donato; Barbieri, Elisa; Restelli, Lisa Michelle; Savoia, Claudia; Licci, Maria; Tolnay, Markus; Frank, Stephan; Scorrano, Luca

    2016-08-01

    During apoptosis mitochondria undergo cristae remodeling and fragmentation, but how the latter relates to outer membrane permeabilization and downstream caspase activation is unclear. Here we show that the mitochondrial fission protein Dynamin Related Protein (Drp) 1 participates in cytochrome c release by selected intrinsic death stimuli. While Bax, Bak double deficient (DKO) and Apaf1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were less susceptible to apoptosis by Bcl-2 family member BID, H2O2, staurosporine and thapsigargin, Drp1(-/-) MEFs were protected only from BID and H2O2. Resistance to cell death of Drp1(-/-) and DKO MEFs correlated with blunted cytochrome c release, whereas mitochondrial fragmentation occurred in all cell lines in response to all tested stimuli, indicating that other mechanisms accounted for the reduced cytochrome c release. Indeed, cristae remodeling was reduced in Drp1(-/-) cells, potentially explaining their resistance to apoptosis. Our results indicate that caspase-independent mitochondrial fission and Drp1-dependent cristae remodeling amplify apoptosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26997499

  7. Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data: Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, G F; Zhou, W X; Chen, Wei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    The statistical properties of the bid-ask spread of a frequently traded Chinese stock listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange are investigated using the limit-order book data. Three different definitions of spread are considered based on the time right before transactions, the time whenever the highest buying price or the lowest selling price changes, and a fixed time interval. The results are qualitatively similar no matter linear prices or logarithmic prices are used. The average spread exhibits evident intraday patterns consisting of a big L-shape in the morning and a small L-shape in the afternoon. The distributions of the spread with different definitions decay as power laws. The tail exponents of spreads at transaction level are well within the interval $(2,3)$ and that of average spreads are well in line with the inverse cubic law for different time intervals. Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis, we find evidence of long memory in the bid-ask spread time series for all three definitions, even aft...

  8. Naïve Bayesian Classifier for Selecting Good/Bad Projects during the Early Stage of International Construction Bidding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, revenues generated by Korean contractors in international construction have increased rapidly, exceeding USD 70 billion per year in recent years. However, Korean contractors face significant risks from market uncertainty and sensitivity to economic volatility and technical difficulties. As the volatility of these risks threatens project profitability, approximately 15% of bad projects were found to account for 74% of losses from the same international construction sector. Anticipating bad projects via preemptive risk management can better prevent losses so that contractors can enhance the efficiency of bidding decisions during the early stages of a project cycle. In line with these objectives, this paper examines the effect of such factors on the degree of project profitability. The Naïve Bayesian classifier is applied to identify a good project screening tool, which increases practical applicability using binomial variables with limited information that is obtainable in the early stages. The proposed model produced superior classification results that adequately reflect contractor views of risk. It is anticipated that when users apply the proposed model based on their own knowledge and expertise, overall firm profit rates will increase as a result of early abandonment of bad projects as well as the prioritization of good projects before final bidding decisions are made.

  9. Bidding for Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoit; Kennes, John; Ritter, Moritz

    . The function of this amenity is to ensure a critical mass of bidders at the seller’s location. For example, if a firm is attempting to assemble a team to utilize a club good at its location, it will also choose to advertise commitment to an additional amenity, such as a set of free health club...... the anonymity of buyer strategies implies coordination frictions - the sellers generally choose negative reserve prices and the equilibrium is constrained efficient. The advertisement of a negative reserve price is equivalent to the advertisement of an amenity that augments the value of the club good...

  10. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  11. ANALISIS REAKSI INVESTOR TERHADAP PENGUMUMAN RIGHT ISSUE DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA (Suatu Pengamatan pada Return, Abnormal Return, Aktivitas Volume Perdagangan dan Bid-Ask Spread Saham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI DEWI YUSUF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Development of stock market activity, which grows very fast lead to significant changes on the demand of information quality. To make the rational investor decision making, it is needed a relevant information in order to identify any work of the company. Event study is a study which analyze any market reactions toward an event which the information is published as announcement. Right issue announcement can affect market, it is depent on the existence of the content of the information in the right issue announcement above. If the right issue announcement contains some information so the market will react and the market won’t react if no information. The research sample is determined by a purposive sampling method, and there are 17 companies which announce right issue between 2000-2003. Statistical experiment used is T-test experiment (paired two samples for means. The Observation period which is done in 11 day, consist of 5 day before, 1 day in the moment, and 5 day after the announce right issue. Results show that there is a significant difference between return and abnormal return in the period of between at the moment, and after the announce right issue. The result in the before-after announce right issue period shows that there is no significant difference. The result in the variable activity of stock’s trade volume shows that there is signification difference in the before-at the moment and after period, but in the result of before-after period show that there is no significant difference there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is no significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of announce right issue, but in the before-after period the result shows that there is no significant different there. And the result of bid-ask spread variable shows that there is no significant different in the before-at the moment and after period of announce right issue, but in the before-after period

  12. 河道采砂作业招标控制价研究%Bidding Control Price of Competitive Tender in River Bed Sand Excavating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧敏; 王卓甫; 周建春; 丁继勇

    2011-01-01

    为确保通航安全和生态环境不受破坏的条件下合理利用河道砂石资源,基于一级密封拍卖独立私人价值模型探讨了采砂作业招标中最高控制价设置模型,并对比了不设控制价、设置但不公开控制价、公开控制价三种情况对投标人报价、招标人支付的影响.结果表明,不设控制价时,投标人的报价和招标人支付均最高;招标人公开控制价不仅降低了投标人的报价,且降低了招标人的支付.当招标人数确定时,招标人的支付随控制价的增高而增高;当控制价确定时,投标人数的增加将减少招标人的支付.最后提出了基于个人成本系数的招标最低控制价设置方法.%The sand mined in river is valuable materials in civil construction. It is an important issue for river course management agency to make sure navigation safety and protect ecological environment while mining the sand. In this stud y, the announced and secret highest control prices for bidding are discussed based on independent private values model in first sealed bid auction. This study shows that if control price is not concerned in the model, the quoted prices of the bid ders and the payment of the buyers would be at the highest level; if the control price had been announced, the quoted prices of the bidders and the payment of the buyers would be reduced. When number of bidders is given, the payment of buyers would increase with control price. When the control price is give, the payment of buyers would reduce with num ber of bidders. Finally, the method of designing the lowest control price is proposed based on the cost index of individual bidders.

  13. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m2 (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m2/day at 1. course; 430 mg/m2/day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3 years for patients with a

  14. Analysis of Questions of Successful Bid with Ultra Low-cost in Building Engineering%浅析建筑工程中超低价中标问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章勇; 肖稀; 胡高峰

    2012-01-01

    In today's profit-maximizing, the construction companies blindly pursue successful bid, blindly prices down, even successfully bid with unreasonable tender offer that is lower than the cost of business, take"after the first loss to obtain profits" strategy. However, unreasonably ultra-low bid often brings high claims, low-cost, low quality, a serious impediment to the healthy development of China's construction industry. This paper analyzes the harm caused by ultra-low bid, and recommends ways to prevent this abnormal forms of competition measures.%在追求利益最大化的今天,施工企业一味地追求中标,盲目压价,甚至以低于企业成本的不合理投标报价中标,采取“先亏后盈”的策略,往往导致的是低价中标高价索赔,低价低质,严重阻碍我国建筑行业的健康发展.文章分析了超低价中标带来的危害,并提出如何预防这种不正常竞争方式的措施.

  15. My Humble Opinion Based on the Construction Project Bidding Problem from the Owner%基于业主角度的建筑项目招投标问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓霞; 靖海如; 童如娟

    2012-01-01

      随着我国经济水平及综合国力的不断提高市场经济也在不断的发展,建筑工程项目逐渐发展成了我国的支柱产业之一。然而建筑项目并不是那么简单的,建筑项目投招标问题就是一种激烈的竞争方式。经常会在经济上出现一些纠纷问题。在建筑项目中实施投招标其目的主要是要营造一种公平、公正、公开的市场竞争环境,可以使我国建筑市场的秩序得以有效进行,本文就站在业主的角度来分析投招标问题,并采取一些管理措施及建议。%  along with our country economy level and the comprehensive national strength continuously improving and market economy also in constant development, construction engineering projects gradual y developed into one of the pil ar industry in China. However construction project is not so sim-ple, and construction project bid/bidding documents problem is a kind of competition mode. Some dispute problems often app-ear on the economy. In construction project implementation, the goal of bid/bidding documents is to create a fair, just and open market competition environment, which can make the or-der of China's construction market is effectively, this paper wi-l stand in the perspective of the owner, analyze the bid/bidd-ing documents problems, and take some management measu-res and Suggestions.

  16. Construction of electronic tendering and bidding system of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group%中国煤炭科工集团有限公司电子招投标系统建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海鹰

    2016-01-01

    通过对中国煤炭科工集团企业内部招标采购市场现状和电子招投标系统建设的需求分析,对集团建设企业采购电子招投标系统互联网平台的框架功能设置以及性能进行了探讨。指出,依据国家电子招投标政策的支持,在集团内建设电子招投标系统,可有效克服招投标过程中各种不规范行为,增加透明度,提高竞争力,减少干扰因素,为集团集约化招投标采购提供绿色、高效、安全、可行的管理方案,从而达到降低项目成本提高效益的目的。%Through the analysis on internal procurement market situation of China Coal Technology and Engineering Group, and the demand of electronic tendering and bidding system construction, the paper discusses the framework feature set and the performance of enterprise electronic tendering and bidding system internet platform, and points out, according to the national electronic tendering and bidding policy, the system can effectively overcome the irregularities in the bidding process, increase transparency, improve competitiveness, reduce interference factors, and provide green, efficient, safe and feasible management scheme for the intensive bidding procurement of the group, so as to reduce the project cost and increase the benefit.

  17. Plan de acción del BID para la integración de género: Marzo 2003-junio 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie Urban

    2003-01-01

    Este Plan de Acción del BID para la Integración de Género busca renovar energías y dar un nuevo impulso a los avances logrados desde la aprobación de la política sobre Mujer en el Desarrollo en 1987 hasta ahora. El Plan parte de la experiencia acumulada que indica que apoyar la igualdad entre los géneros e invertir en las capacidades de las mujeres son fundamentales para mejorar el impacto de la inversión en el desarrollo de América Latina y el Caribe. Invertir en la mujer, en su acceso a la ...

  18. Analysis on the Bidding Drug Prices and Its Sale-permission in the Centralized Bidding of Essential Drug in Sichuan Province in 2011%2011年四川省基本药物集中招标中标价格与挂网情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 李里; 黄尧州; 胡明; 李玉民; 徐珽

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide reference and suggestions for the improvement of essential drug bidding. METHODS: The centralized bidding of essential drugs and their sale-permission were explored by Sichuan province drugs & appliance purchase and supervision platform. The decrease of bidding price and the number of manufacturers who got the sale-permission in Sichuan province were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The price of bidding chemical drugs in only one manufacturer which got the sale-permission decreased by 5.2% and in more than 2 manufacturers which got the sale-permission decreased by 35.1%. The price of Chinese patent drugs in only one manufacturer which got the sale-permission decreased by 10.7% and in more than 2 manufacturers which got the sale-permission decreased by 20.7%. Only one manufacturer got the sale-permission for 69.23% drugs whose prices didn't cut, and two or more manufacturers for 30.77%. CONCLUSION: If we want great price cut in centralized bidding of drug purchase, we should purchase the specification and dosage form which are produced by many manufacturers.%目的:为完善基本药物招标提供参考与建议.方法:通过四川省药械采购与监管平台收集四川省2011年度基本药物集中招标结果及该品种在四川省的挂网情况,将药品中标价格降幅与挂网厂家数进行对比统计分析.结果:中标化学药品中,只有1家挂网的品规中标价降幅为5.20%,2家及以上挂网品规的平均降价幅度为35.10%.中成药中,只有1家挂网的品规中标价降幅为10.70%,2家及以上挂网品规的平均降价幅度为20.70%.在价格未下降品规中,69.23%的品规只有1家厂家挂网,30.77%有2家及以上厂家挂网.结论:在集中招标制定招标目录时,为了更好的降低药价,应结合临床选择厂家较多的规格/剂型.

  19. 浅析环卫设备检测在招标采购中的重要作用%Important Role of Environmental Sanitation Equipment Inspection in Bidding Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华旸; 王晓燕

    2011-01-01

    According to introducing test items for common environmental sanitation equipments, such as plastic bins, road sweeper, and waste compressing equipment, and analyzing typical cases of bidding procurement of plastic bins for the Olympic Games and renovation project of environmental sanitation vehicles for Chaoyang district, the important role of inspection work in bidding procurement of environmental sanitation equipments was illuminated.%通过对常见环卫设备(塑料垃圾桶、扫路机、垃圾压缩设备)检测项目的介绍,以及奥运招标采购塑料垃圾桶、朝阳环卫黄标车改造项目的典型案例分析,说明了检测工作在环卫设备招标采购中的重要作用.

  20. Discussion on unbalanced bid and coping strategy under bill pricing mode%清单计价模式下不平衡报价及应对策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新杰; 侯庆德

    2011-01-01

    从建设单位角度,介绍了不平衡报价的常见做法,分析了存在的原因及后果,结合实践提出了几点实用的不平衡报价应对策略,以维护建设方正常利益和市场秩序,促进建筑业健康发展。%From the perspective of construction unit, this paper introduced the common method of unbalanced bid, analysed the existed reasons and consequences, combining with the practice put forward a few practical unbalanced bid coping strategies, so as to maintenance the normal profit of construction party and market order, promoted the healthy development of construction industry.

  1. Development and application of the bidding service system for hospital management%医院招投标管理服务系统的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design the application software of hospital material bidding pro-curement and management , for realization systematization and standardization in hospital bidding management .Methods Based on the microsoft .Net Framework 4.0 as development platform ,with Windows 7 operating system as the default platform , the function module and flow logic were set combining with the characteristics of hospital procurement management process according to the re -quirement and regulation of purchasing management .Results The bidding procurement in a series of preparation works gets standardized , the scene in implementation of the tender assessment gets specified , and management of hospital supplies procurement gets intelligent .Conclusion The effi-ciency and degree of standardization in the hospital material bidding procurement process are greatly improved .%目的:设计开发医院物资招标采购管理应用软件,实现医院招标采购管理的智能化、规范化。方法以Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0作为开发平台,以Windows 7操作系统为默认平台,按照采购管理法规监管的要求,结合医院采购管理流程特点设置功能模块和流转逻辑,开发医院招投标管理服务系统。结果系统应用实现了招标采购系列准备工作标准化、招标现场的评审实施规范化、采购资料管理智能化。结论系统应用提高了医院物资招标采购管理的工作效率和正规化程度。

  2. Reinforcement of Judgment and Supervision on Abnormal Score by Bidding Evaluation Experts%加强对评标专家异常性评分的判定与监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晶

    2013-01-01

    Based on the definition of abnormal score by bidding evaluation experts, constructs the judging methods for that from the perspectives of system variance, nonconsensual variance, peer variance and causal variance. And then, the paper puts forward some suggestions about how to strengthen the supervision management on the behavior of bidding evaluation expert from the perspectives of discipline management in bidding locale, the examination system of working quality and accountability mechanism to expert.%在对评标专家异常性评分定义的基础上,从系统偏差、非共识偏差、同行偏差和偶然偏差四个方面构建评标专家异常性评分的判定方法,并从评标现场纪律管理、工作质量考核制度、专家责任追究机制等三个方面,就加强评标专家评标行为的监督管理提出建议与措施.

  3. 试论如何做好园林绿化工程投标报价中的成本控制工作%Discussion on How to Do the Bidding in Garden Greening Project Cost Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪鹃

    2014-01-01

    In garden greening engineering bid, cost control determines the operation of construction market, is an impor-tant link in the project bidding. This paper through introducing contents of greening engineering bidding and landscape engin-eering cost control, analyzing the existing issues of landsca-ping quotation, puts forward measures to the reasonable co-ntrol the landscaping quotation cost.%在园林绿化的工程投标中,成本控制决定了整个建筑市场的运行,是工程投标中的重要环节。本文通过介绍园林绿化工程投标报价和园林绿化工程成本控制的内容,对园林绿化报价中存在的问题进行分析,提出对园林绿化报价成本合理控制的措施。

  4. Could what that ESCO sales rep said really be true? Savings realization rates in ESPC versus bid-to-spec projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Philip; Earni, Shankar; Williams, Charles

    2014-08-11

    Claims that savings realization is greater in energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are rampant at least among energy service company representatives and other ESPC cheerleaders. But hard supporting evidence for these claims has been virtually non-existent. The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program uses its Compliance Tracking System (CTS) database to document the performance of federal buildings and projects towards meeting various federal energy-saving goals. This paper focuses on preliminary analysis from CTS to understand and compare the performance of federal ESPCs with projects that have been implemented with more conventional government appropriations funding. The authors have found preliminary evidence using CTS that shows markedly higher savings realization rates among ESPC projects than appropriations-funded ones. There are numerous caveats to the data comparison that clamor for further study, but the difference is still intriguing. If borne out, this finding will provide concrete support to the idea that ESPCs guarantees and measurement and verification, long touted by energy service companies (ESCOs) as offering savings assurance, may truly yield substantial benefits. If ESPCs actually do perform better (i.e., have higher realization rates and savings persistence) than conventional bid-to-spec projects, the perceived premium for conducting them may look like a very good deal after all.

  5. 如何完善政府采购招标管理流程%Analyses how to perfect government procurement bidding management process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海洋

    2015-01-01

    In the contemporary reform and opening up and economic development at the same time,the domestic government procurement situation is changed accordingly,it is under constant summary and improvement,has made no small achievement. However,along with the advancement of government procurement form the situation of the domestic government procurement has appeared a series of problems,and cause the obstacles to development and progress.So,in the form of government procurement specification and procurement of scale factor,to the state capital economy is of vital significance.For the present stage our country government procurement bidding management process detailed and thorough discussed this topic,is a very far-reaching significance.%伴随着政府采购形式的不断推进,国内政府采购的形势也出现了一连串问题,并对发展与进步造成了阻碍。政府采购形式的规范度与采购的规模扩大等因素,对国家资金的节约有着至关重要的的意义。对现阶段我国政府采购应对招标管理流程这一话题进行详尽而深入的探讨,具有非常深远的时代意义。

  6. Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in the Iran electricity market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K. [EE Department, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran); Amjady, N. [EE Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran)

    2009-06-15

    Market data analysis and short-term price forecasting in Iran electricity market as a market with pay-as-bid payment mechanism has been considered in this paper. The data analysis procedure includes both correlation and predictability analysis of the most important load and price indices. The employed data are the experimental time series from Iran electricity market in its real size and is long enough to make it possible to take properties such as non-stationarity of market into account. For predictability analysis, the bifurcation diagrams and recurrence plots of the data have been investigated. The results of these analyses indicate existence of deterministic chaos in addition to non-stationarity property of the system which implies short-term predictability. In the next step, two artificial neural networks have been developed for forecasting the two price indices in Iran's electricity market. The models' input sets are selected regarding four aspects: the correlation properties of the available data, the critiques of Iran's electricity market, a proper convergence rate in case of sudden variations in the market price behavior, and the omission of cumulative forecasting errors. The simulation results based on experimental data from Iran electricity market are representative of good performance of the developed neural networks in coping with and forecasting of the market behavior, even in the case of severe volatility in the market price indices. (author)

  7. 基于二级密封拍卖招标的工程成本概率判断模型%Probability judgment model of project cost based on the second-price sealed auction bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕炜; 贺昌政; 高静

    2013-01-01

    One of the key factors to assess reasonable low bid is that how to judge whether a tender's offer is lower than its cost or not. In this paper, firstly, to analyze the optimal bidding strategy of bidder and find that the most optimal strategy is making bidding price equal to its cost by using the game theory. Then to build the probability judgment model of project cost based on bidder sample size by using hypothesis testing theory and bidder sample number under the second-price-sealed auction bidding. So at confidence level, whether one bidder is lower than its cost or not can be judged according to its position in accept region or rejection region. This model not only is used to solve problem that whether an offer is lower its cost, but also enriches bidding evaluation theory.%如何评判一个投标人的报价是否低于其成本是合理低价评标的关键因素之一.论文首先运用博弈理论思想分析了二级密封拍卖招标模式投标人的最优竞标策略是按其成本报价.然后针对投标人在二级密封拍卖招标模式下的最优竞标策略是按其真实成本报价这一特点,利用假设检验理论结合竞标人报价数的样本容量,建立了基于竞标人报价样本容量的工程成本概率判断模型.在α置信水平下,竞标人报价是落在拒绝域还是接受域以判断投标人的投标报价是否低于其成本.该模型既解决了如何判断施工企业投标报价是否低于成本的难题,又丰富和充实了工程评标理论.

  8. Deregulated expression of A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins and Bid, Bad, and Bax proapoptotic genes in polycythemia vera patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Patricia Lino Gasparotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis deregulation might have a role in the pathophysiology of polycythemia vera (PV. This study evaluated Bcl-2 molecule expression in CD34+ cells and leukocytes in 12 PV patients. Gene expression was investigated by real time PCR using SybrGreen Quantitect kit and protein expression was evaluated by western-blotting. JAK2 V617F mutation was detected according to Baxter et al (2005. CD34+ cells from PV patients presented higher levels of A1 and Mcl-1 expression (median: 22.6 and 5.2, respectively in comparison with controls (0.9 and 0.5, p=0.004 and p=0.020; while Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression decreased in PV patients (0.18 and 1.19 compared with controls (1.39 and 2.01, p=0.006 and p=0.020. CD34+ cells in PV patients showed an elevated Bid expression (14.4 in comparison with healthy subjects (1.0; p=0.002. Patients' leukocytes showed an A1 augmentation (7.41, p=0.001 and a reduced expression of Bax (0.19; p=0.040 and Bad (0.2; p=0.030. There was no correlation between JAK2 V617F allele burden and molecular expression. PV patients showed alterations in Bcl-2 members' expression, which may interfere with control of apoptotic machinery and contribute to disease pathogenesis.A desregulação da apoptose parece participar da fisiopatologia da policitemia vera (PV. Este estudo avaliou a expressão das moléculas da família Bcl-2 em células hematopoéticas CD34 + e leucócitos de 12 pacientes com PV. Foram realizados: a quantificação da expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real utilizando kit Sybrgreen Quantitect, avaliação da expressão de proteínas por western-blot e detecção da mutação JAK2 V617F segundo Baxter et al. (2005. Células CD34 + dos pacientes com PV apresentaram maior expressão de A1 e Mcl-1 (mediana: 22,6 e 5,2, respectivamente em comparação com controles (0,9 e 0,5, p = 0,004 e p = 0,020 e expressão de Bcl-2 e Bcl-xL diminuída nestes pacientes (0,18 e 1,19 em relação aos controles (1,39 e 2,01, p = 0,006 e p = 0

  9. 申奥背景下冬奥会世界竞争格局分析%Structure of Winter Olympics under Background of Olympics Bid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建龙

    2015-01-01

    运用数理统计、巴雷托分析等研究方法对冬奥会奖牌分布、竞技强国的优势潜优势项目、优势项目消长率、项目贡献率等进行了统计分析,并着重分析了我国近阶段的冬奥实力,建立了我国冬奥发展基本框架。得出结论:冬奥奖牌分布呈现出地域差异性和两极分化性;冬奥竞技强国优势明显;我国“冰强雪弱”,短道速滑是优势项目。在我国申办2022年冬奥会的大背景下,深入了解冬奥会世界竞技格局,为更有针对性的备战冬奥、发展冰雪运动提供理论依据和数据支撑。%Using methods of mathematical statistics and activity based classification,it analyzed the medal distribution,noticeable and potential advantage projects of power nations,the change of advantage projects and the contributions,upon that the power of China in Winter Olympics recently were discussed to establish the basic framework. The research got a conclusion that the games medal distribution presents the regional difference and polarization; the superiority of powerful sports countries is obvious; short track speed skating is an advantage project in China. In the context of China bid the 2022 Winter Olympics, it will be beneficial to prepare the Winter Olympics to insight the competition pattern and develop the ice and snow sports.

  10. Social Value of Harbin City Bidding for Winter Olympics%哈尔滨申办冬奥会的社会价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭时萍

    2011-01-01

    As a best opportunity, Harbin city bidding for winter Olympics can introduce itself all over the world with its cultural history, economic development and urban charm. On the occasion, there will are many reporters from all the bidding cities and countries participating in the Winter Olympics, who paying at tention to Harbin city which welcoming the world with beautiful appearance, confluens of European style, Chinese style and modern style, elegant and civilized gesture. By showing the style and quality of Harbin cit y, it will wittingly or unwittingly publicize and shape the urban well image, heighten the urban brand reputa tion, which intangible publicity of organically combining with Olympics will outmatch a designing descrip tion. Whether Harbin winning the host city of winter Olympics, it~ in fact successful for Harbin city to en large the urban popularity, which best success is to introduce this charming city all over the world, advance Harbin~ influence in the world. But considering the serious shortage of infrastructure hardware which impor tant causation resulting in Harbin's fail of bidding for winter Olympics, it must be for enhancing Harbin's competitiveness to firstly improve the infrastructure construction by exerting the governmental macro policy guidance and long term scientific planning, to finance and use the construction fund by developing various investments and management systems with the leading role of government finance and the main part of social, civilian and business capitals.%哈尔滨申办冬奥会是向世界推荐哈尔滨,是向全世界展示哈尔滨城市的文化历史、经济发展和城市魅力的最佳机遇,届时所有申办冬奥会的城市,以及参加冬奥会的国家都会有媒体记者采访哈尔滨,哈尔滨以靓丽的市容、市貌,欧式、中式、现代相互交融的城市风格,优雅、大方和文明的姿态迎接五湖四海的宾朋,在展示城市风格、城市品位和城市容貌

  11. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.)

  12. The Advantages and Disadvantages Analysis of Public Bidding and Competitive Negotiation in College Procurements%高校公开招标与竞争性谈判采购方式的优劣势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾

    2015-01-01

    Public bidding and competitive negotiation are two of the most common ways in government procurement. On the basis of advantages and disadvantages analysis, this paper encourage colleges to make feasible purchasing plan legally according to actual situation.%公开招标和竞争性谈判是高校常用的两种政府采购方式。在分析二者优劣势的基础上,鼓励高校在遵照法律法规执行的基础上结合实际情况制定切实可行的采购方式。

  13. Ciencia tecnología e innovación en Uruguay: Avances, desafíos, y posibles áreas de cooperación con el BID

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Angelelli

    2009-01-01

    Analiza las principales características, reformas recientes y desafíos del sistema nacional de innovación uruguayo. Este documento forma parte de un conjunto de estudios realizados por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) para respaldar la definición de la estrategia con el Uruguay para el periodo 2010-2014. Se presenta como marco analítico el enfoque de sistema nacional de innovación, evaluando sus funciones principales, la evolución e interacción de sus componentes y las políticas e ...

  14. An efficient electronic marketplace bidding auction protocol with bid privacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wen-bo; Hyeong Seon Yoo

    2007-01-01

    The multi-agent negotiation test-bed proposed by Collins was modified. It utilizes publish/subscribe system, time-release cryptography and anonymous communication. The proposed protocol reduces DOS attack and avoids replay data attack by providing ticket token and deal sequence number to the supplier. And it is proved that generating random number to the supplier by market is better than the supplier doing it by him in guaranteeing anonymity. Market publishes an interpolating polynomial for sharing the determination process data. It avoids collusion between a customer and a certain supplier. According to the comparison and analysis with other protocols, the proposed protocol shows good security and better efficiency.

  15. Normal tissue complication models for clinically relevant acute esophagitis (≥ grade 2) in patients treated with dose differentiated accelerated radiotherapy (DART-bid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the primary dose-limiting toxicities during thoracic irradiation is acute esophagitis (AE). The aim of this study is to investigate dosimetric and clinical predictors for AE grade ≥ 2 in patients treated with accelerated radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 66 NSCLC patients were included in the present analysis: 4 stage II, 44 stage IIIA and 18 stage IIIB. All patients received induction chemotherapy followed by dose differentiated accelerated radiotherapy (DART-bid). Depending on size (mean of three perpendicular diameters) tumors were binned in four dose groups: <2.5 cm 73.8 Gy, 2.5–4.5 cm 79.2 Gy, 4.5–6 cm 84.6 Gy, >6 cm 90 Gy. Patients were treated in 3D target splitting technique. In order to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), two Lyman models and the cutoff-logistic regression model were fitted to the data with AE ≥ grade 2 as statistical endpoint. Inter-model comparison was performed with the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc), which calculates the model’s quality of fit (likelihood value) in relation to its complexity (i.e. number of variables in the model) corrected by the number of patients in the dataset. Toxicity was documented prospectively according to RTOG. The median follow up was 686 days (range 84–2921 days), 23/66 patients (35 %) experienced AE ≥ grade 2. The actuarial local control rates were 72.6 % and 59.4 % at 2 and 3 years, regional control was 91 % at both time points. The Lyman-MED model (D50 = 32.8 Gy, m = 0.48) and the cutoff dose model (Dc = 38 Gy) provide the most efficient fit to the current dataset. On multivariate analysis V38 (volume of the esophagus that receives 38 Gy or above, 95 %-CI 28.2–57.3) was the most significant predictor of AE ≥ grade 2 (HR = 1.05, CI 1.01–1.09, p = 0.007). Following high-dose accelerated radiotherapy the rate of AE ≥ grade 2 is slightly lower than reported for concomitant radio-chemotherapy with the

  16. 多部件采购外包的两阶段均衡投标策略%A Two-stage Equilibrium Bidding Strategy in Outsourcing Procurement of Multiple Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青

    2012-01-01

    本文考虑一个由单个制造商和多个供应商群体组成的供应链——该制造商需要采购多个部件,对于每个部件在市场上均存在多个供应商.不同于传统的从各供应商群体分别采购各个部件,制造商考虑将所有部件的采购整体外包给某个供应商.在第一阶段,制造商使用一级价格密封投标的逆向拍卖来确定赢得整体采购合约的供应商.接下来,第一阶段投标的获胜者生产其所能供应的部件,并使用逆向拍卖向第一阶段中未获胜的其他竞标者采购其余部件.我们分析了供应商在两个阶段的均衡竞价策略,并比较了制造商在亲自逐件采购和外包整体采购两种情况下的期望采购成本.我们证明了在两种机制下制造商的总的期望采购成本相等.%Procurement and outsourcing are two important topics for many firms. An increased number of companies outsource some of their internal functions to the third party in order to focus on their core competencies and improve their competitive advantage in the market. The popularity of outsourcing is growing, as both successes and failures have been observed in practice. It remains unclear about how the outsourcing decision influences each party's behavior and strategic decisions under different procurement mechanisms. In this paper we model a supply chain system in which a manufacturer purchases multiple components. For each component, there are multiple suppliers capable of providing it. The manufacturer considers outsourcing the procurement of all components to one of his suppliers, rather than purchasing them by himself. Since the production costs are not publicly known, auctions are used to reward the contract. In the first stage, the manufacturer uses the first-price sealed-bid reverse auction to determine which supplier wins the outsourcing contract. Then, the winner of the first auction produces the component that the company is able to provide, and uses

  17. 基于实时竞价的网络广告投放流程设计%Design of Internet advertising process based on real-time bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鸿江; 孙国华

    2013-01-01

    Real-time bidding is a new procurement and delivery of online advertising technology.This paper analyzes the traditional advertising network paths,based on Internet,computer technology and auction theory,finds out the shortcomings,designs a Intemet advertising process based on real-time bidding.This can match the best advertising resources and goals,improve the utilization efficiency,save the costs,and achieve maximum benefit for the participants.%实时竞价是一种新兴的网络广告采购与投放技术,拥有着巨大的应用前景,本论文基于网络技术、计算机技术和拍卖机制理论,在分析传统网络广告投放路径的基础上,找出其不足,有针对性的设计了基于实时竞价的网络广告投放流程,该网络广告投放流程可以匹配最佳的广告资源与广告目标,提高广告资源利用效率,节约网络广告投放成本,实现网络广告的各个参与方效益最大化.

  18. The Directive on Takeover Bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Lau

    2012-01-01

    En kritik af direktivet om overtagelsestilbud med anbefaling af, at direktivet under den forestående revision ændres, så de dele, der angår corporate governance, udtages, hvorved direktivet alene kommer til at angå reguleringen af overtagelsestilbud, deres indhold og procedure...

  19. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  20. Watchdog Barks At Big Bids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Turmoil caused by major refinancing plans of listed companies in the mainland stock market leads regulators to vow stricter approval processes On March 5,shareholders of Ping An Insurance(Group)Co.of China Ltd. (Ping An)passed a refinancing plan of 120 billion yuan($17 billion)at its first interim meeting of the year with an overwhelming 92 percent in favor.

  1. 冷链物流采购第一评分密封招投标研究%Procurement of Cold-Chain Logistics Based on the First-Score Sealed Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐欣; 王先甲; 吕凡

    2012-01-01

    The primary goals of cold-chain logistics for food refrigeration are food safety and quality. Cold-chain logistics also needs to consider the importance of timeliness, cost, and so on. Thus, procurement of cold-chain logistics is a multi-objective problem. To construct modern and efficient logistics procurement market, the design of specific bidding rules is necessary. This paper integrates multiple objects into the score function of the procurement side, and uses the first-score sealed bidding rule to remove the limitation of considering only the price. The findings of this paper have practical contributions to promoting the efficient procurement of cold cold-chain logistics.First, this paper discusses the classic auction theory assuming that auction items and item price are known variables. However, in reality a single-price auction does not have properties required in many logistics service transactions. Different from the traditional logistics, cold chain logistics not only considers cost minimization but also optimizes logistics properties, including safety, freshness, timely and cost, etc. Food safety attribute is particularly important for cold-chain logistics. Products involved in cold chain logistics range from agricultural products, such as vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry and eggs, to aquatic products, such as frozen food, packaging cooked food. Optimally integrated properties are essential to the logistics of the food industry. These properties can encourage logistics enterprises to achieve technological innovations and effective incentive mechanisms.Second, we transfer the traditional reverse one-price sealed-bid auction model into the first-score sealed bidding model. However, the model tries to optimize multiple factors, including cost and quality, rather than minimize the single factor of cost. The allocation rules and payment rules of the multi-attribute score auction model are evolved from the traditional one-price sealed auction. However, the

  2. DART-bid: dose-differentiated accelerated radiation therapy, 1.8 Gy twice daily. High local control in early stage (I/II) non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehentmayr, Franz; Wurstbauer, Karl; Deutschmann, Heinz; Sedlmayer, Felix [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversitaet, Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies (radART), Salzburg (Austria); Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Dagn, Karin; Fastner, Gerd [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiotherapie und Radio-Onkologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria); Porsch, Peter; Studnicka, Michael [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Univ.-Klinik fuer Pneumologie, Univ.-Klinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniversitaet, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-09-23

    While surgery is considered standard of care for early stage (I/II), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radiotherapy is a widely accepted alternative for medically unfit patients or those who refuse surgery. International guidelines recommend several treatment options, comprising stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for small tumors, conventional radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy for larger sized especially centrally located lesions or continuous hyperfractionated accelerated RT (CHART). This study presents clinical outcome and toxicity for patients treated with a dose-differentiated accelerated schedule using 1.8 Gy bid (DART-bid). Between April 2002 and December 2010, 54 patients (median age 71 years, median Karnofsky performance score 70 %) were treated for early stage NSCLC. Total doses were applied according to tumor diameter: 73.8 Gy for < 2.5 cm, 79.2 Gy for 2.5-4.5 cm, 84.6 Gy for 4.5-6 cm, 90 Gy for > 6 cm. The median follow-up was 28.5 months (range 2-108 months); actuarial local control (LC) at 2 and 3 years was 88 %, while regional control was 100 %. There were 10 patients (19 %) who died of the tumor, and 18 patients (33 %) died due to cardiovascular or pulmonary causes. A total of 11 patients (20 %) died intercurrently without evidence of progression or treatment-related toxicity at the last follow-up, while 15 patients (28 %) are alive. Acute esophagitis ≤ grade 2 occurred in 7 cases, 2 patients developed grade 2 chronic pulmonary fibrosis. DART-bid yields high LC without significant toxicity. For centrally located and/or large (> 5 cm) early stage tumors, where SBRT is not feasible, this method might serve as radiotherapeutic alternative to present treatment recommendations, with the need of confirmation in larger cohorts. (orig.) [German] Die Standardbehandlung fuer nichtkleinzellige Bronchialkarzinome (NSCLC) im Stadium I/II ist die Operation, wobei Radiotherapie fuer Patienten, die nicht operabel sind oder die Operation ablehnen, als Alternative

  3. 附加资源与环境保护约束的矿业权招标出让机制设计%A Bidding Transfer Mechanism Imposed on a Constraint of Resource and Environment Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段涛

    2013-01-01

    In the process of mining right auction, the goals of government are not only achieving high transferring fees, but also some non-price factors such as efficient utilization of resources and effective protection of environment.However, mining right transfer in China is always a kind of one-dimensional bid competition.It lacks a bidding transfer mechanism available for environmental protection and efficient utilization of resource.This paper designs a bidding transfer mechanism imposed on a constraint of resource and environment protection, analyses the equilibrium strategies of government and investors by game analysis.The researches of this paper show that increase of investment on resource and environment protection leads to reduction of the transferring fee.Therefore government will balance the two goals and determine the optimal level of investment on resource and environment protection by boundary conditions.%在矿业权拍卖出让过程中,政府不仅要使矿业权以尽可能高的价格出让,还要充分考虑资源高效利用与环境保护等非价格因素.然而,迄今我国的矿业权出让多为一维的价格竞争,缺乏能够实现地质环境保护与资源高效利用的出让机制.为此,文章设计了一种附加资源与环境保护约束的矿业权招标出让机制,并通过建立博弈模型来分析政府与投资者的均衡策略.研究表明,要求投资者增加资源与环境保护投入会导致矿业权出让收益减少,因此政府要在这两方面目标之间进行权衡,政府将根据边际条件确定最优的资源与环境保护投入.

  4. Replica Creation Strategy Based on Bid Pattern and Accession Heat%基于竞标模式和访问热度的副本创建策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞璐璐; 曹耀钦

    2013-01-01

    研究典型数据副本创建策略,提出一种以节点在线率和节点存储能力作为价格的竞标模型副本创建策略。根据对基于访问热度的典型副本创建策略和基于竞标模型的典型副本创建策略的具体分析,改进典型副本创建策略对节点性能考虑的单一性,综合考虑节点的访问热度和负载等性能,实现基于竞标模式和访问热度相结合的副本创建策略。并通过基于网络带宽利用率和系统响应时间的实验,将该副本创建策略与两种典型副本创建策略进行实验对比,验证提出的基于竞标模式和访问热度的副本创建策略具有较好的性能。%Discusses typical strategy proposes of data replica creation, delivers a replication creation strategy that takes online rate and storage abili-ty of the node as “price”. Based on a detailed analysis of traditional creation strategy on visitation frequency and typical replica strategy on bid creation, improves the unity of consideration on node performance, considers the performance of node visitation frequency and load, and achieves data creation strategy on a combination of bid pattern and visitation frequency. Through experiments on web bandwidth utilization and system response time, article replica creation strategy and experimentaly compares two typical replica creation strategies to verify better performance of replica creation strategy on bid pattern and visitation frequency proposed.

  5. Guarantee-bond: main concepts and overview of its application within the bidding process involving inactive areas with marginal accumulations of petroleum and natural gas; Seguro-garantia: conceituacao e panorama de sua aplicacao no processo licitatorio envolvendo areas inativas com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Antonio Sergio; Herrmann, Hildebrando [Universidade ERstadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Petroleum Agency has been working on the adoption of an efficient financial guarantee system in order to ensure the fulfillment of contractual obligations in upstream-related activities. This process is aimed at: creating incentives for responsible behavior in the industry; attending current demands from society for efficiency and transparency; attending to industries demands for the maintenance of investment flows within the sector; safeguarding the government against financial liabilities caused by irresponsible or insolvent concessionaires; and keeping the sector attractive and competitive for small and medium companies. Within the bidding process for the concession of inactive areas with marginal accumulations, ANP requires two kinds of guarantees: a bidding guarantee, and a PTI guarantee (for obligations under the Initial Work Program-PTI). In both cases, the ANP allows two kinds of financial instruments: 'Seguros-Garantia' and 'Letters of Credit'. According to bidding rules, guarantees must be presented before the bidding process. This instrument ensures that the winner will sign the concession contract. The PTI guarantee ensures performance in a timely fashion. This paper describes and analyzes the instrument 'Seguro-Garantia', its evolution, existing categories, and applicability. (author)

  6. Research and Design of Bidding Decision System Based on Taobao Train%基于淘宝直通车的竞价决策系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周润博; 张忠能

    2014-01-01

    电子商务蓬勃发展的大环境下,广告主具有强烈的电商广告投放意愿,显然他们并未达到电商广告的核心业务SEM (搜索引擎营销优化)的专业要求。所以广告主希望借助第三方工具来进行搜索引擎广告投放的一站式服务来满足其业务需求。基于此,本文将提供一整套的竞价词托管式服务的解决方案。以淘宝直通车这一全新的搜索竞价模式作为研究对象,从语义抽取、关键词扩展、竞价词生成、模型化出价、广告效果正向反馈监控模型几方面进行分析和统计,为直通车广告主提供最优投放策略整体解决方案。第一阶段针对商品信息进行数据挖掘,实现关键词推荐引擎。第二阶段实现投放优化模块,实施定价策略,建立的点击量与PPC(“平均点击花费”)模型,实现在预算资金的约束下对不同竞价组合进行ROI(投入产出比)最大化的投资决策。以实际效果改善直通车竞价搜索用户体验。%Under the booming development of e-commerce, however, they neither know nor understand SEM business well, which has both high professional requirements and threshold of SEM (Search engine marketing and optimization). Advertisers are keen to use third-party tools to supply the one-stop service of search engine advertising to meet their business needs. Based on this, this ar-ticle will provide a complete set of bidding word hosted service solutions. Taobao trains as a new search auction model as my subject of academic studies .After analyzing and collecting statistics of semantic extraction, keywords expansion, bid word generation, mod-eling bids, advertising effect positive feedback monitoring model, this thesis offers the optimal solution of placing advertising, I want to provide train advertisers the best overall solution delivery strategy. The first phase focuses on product information for data mining, to achieve keyword recommendation

  7. Research on bidding strategy and modeling of equity auction based on stochastic differential equations%基于随机微分方程的股权拍卖报价策略及模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑君君; 张平; 胡晓诗; 蒋伟良

    2013-01-01

    Auction is a realizable way of venture capital equity exit. The problems of information asymmetry and the indefinite nature of external environment in venture capital equity auction make it difficult for the outside investors to accurately price the risk corporate equity. Given this, the equity bidding system can be considered as an open system, thus the changing state of outside investors' bidding strategies can be described by stochastic differential equations. On this basis, this paper constructs a venture capital exit equity auction model, then discusses the formation mechanism of the corporate equity clearing price and its influence factors such as the degree of information disclosure, bidder's susceptible extent and so on, and finally analyses the expected revenue of venture capitalist by means of calculus of variations.%拍卖是实现风险投资股权退出的方式之一.在风险投资股权拍卖交易中存在的信息不对称以及外部环境的不确定性使得外部投资者难以对风险企业股权准确地定价,鉴于此,将股权竞买系统视为一个开放系统,运用随机微分方程来描述外部投资者的报价策略状态演变过程,在此基础之上构建风险投资退出股权拍卖模型,并探讨市场出清价格的形成机理及其信息公布程度、竞买人易受影响程度等因素的影响,最后运用变分法对风险投资家的期望收益进行了分析.

  8. A Study of the Contractors Unbalanced Bidding Strategies Based on Expected Variations%承包商基于变更预期的不平衡报价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹贻林; 钱坤

    2013-01-01

    Contractors can usually find the errors such as project characteristics do not matching the description,the lack of the item, quantities deviation error and so on through the research on tender Bill of quantities or through the site survey. Then they forecast the possible state change during the contract fulfillment stage and build SEDA model to analyze the possibility of high settlement based on priced bill of quantities by setting the bidding scheme and construct intermediate state. Once a change occurs, contractors would use unbalanced bidding to achieve revenue through the pre-set intermediate state changes and be exempt from any risk. Finally,an actual case will be used to analyze the operational processes of SEDA model.%承包商通过研究招标工程量清单,发现其中如项目特征不符、缺项、工程量偏差等错误,或者通过现场踏勘,预测合同履行阶段可能出现的状态改变,构建SEDA模型,分析在已标价的工程量清单的基础上实现高价结算的可能性,设置报价方案,构建中间状态,待未来该变化发生时,通过预先设置好的中间状态借助变更提高承包商的收益,承包商可以免于任何风险从而利用不平衡报价实现创收。并通过实际案例分析了SEDA模型的操作流程。

  9. Impact of the Bidding for Winter Olympics on Zhangjiakou’s Tourism Industry and Corresponding Countermeasures%申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业的影响及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永莉; 王建红

    2015-01-01

    在当今世界,冬奥会是影响力仅次于夏奥会的综合性体育赛事,它对举办地的旅游业乃至经济会产生重大影响。在分析京张联合申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业产生影响的各种因素的基础上,从打造形象品牌、加强市场开发和创建旅游环境等方面提出一些建议与对策,希望能引起业界对奥运旅游的重视,采取积极主动的措施,实现奥运旅游效应的最大化。%Among the sport games in the modern world,the influence of the Winter Olympic Games is only second to that of the Summer Olympic Games,which tends to have a significant impact on the tourism industry and economy of the host city.Aiming at the Beijing-Zhangjiakou co-bidding for the Winter Olym-pics of 2022,the paper analyzes some impacts which the bidding brings about on Zhangjiakou,and offers some suggestions in forging image brand,strengthening market development and establishing tourist envi-ronment,hoping that the tourism industry can pay more attention to Olympic tourism,take initiative meas-ures and realize the maximization of Olympic tourist effect.

  10. Bidding Wave for Mega Event Abroad:Interpretation from the Political Perspective%国外大型事件申办热潮:政治视角的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳文敏

    2013-01-01

      对大型事件影响力共识的缺乏与其申办热情成为悖论,一方面其影响效应尚模糊不清,并引起学界的质疑和争议;另一方面城市的申办和举办热情有增无减,因而隐藏在经济目标之下的非经济动机值得关注。文章从已有文献中厘清国外大型事件的申办动机、申办过程及事件后所表征的政治效应,从政治视角解释当前国外大型事件的申办热潮。主要结论如下:1)超越“事件”本身来看,大型事件作为政府政策工具的角色突显;2)大型事件的时效性使得城市得以完成正常情况下难以在短时间内实施的城市空间改造、城市建设,以及将一些重要的政策尽早提上日程,城市采纳事件战略具有复杂的政治动机;3)大型事件的推动者往往是城市商业和政治精英结成的联盟,一方面他们共同致力于推动举办地的经济发展;另一方面他们也借此谋求政治及商业领域的社会资本;4)大型事件被用来作为合法化工具:是展示国家认同的合法化途径;获得公众支持的合法性;获得上一级政府支持,特别是资金支持的合法性;5)发展中国家,特别是非洲国家的申办更体现出其改善国际不平等关系及成为“非洲门户”的意愿。%It’s a paradox that there’s little consensus about mega-events’ impacts but there’s great enthusiasm to bid for it. On one hand, its impacts are still unclear that causes the academic challenge and controversy. On the other hand, the enthusiasm of bidding for mega-event is unabated, and spreads from developed to developing countries. Thus, the non-economic motives hidden under the economic objectives are of concern. This article explains the phenomenon from non-economic perspective by clarifying the motivations and its political effects during the bidding process and after the event. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Globalization

  11. Analysis of stroke in ATHENA: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Stuart J; Crijns, Harry J G M; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    stroke has been evaluated in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, ATHENA (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg BID for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in patiENts with Atrial fibrillation......BACKGROUND: Many patients with atrial fibrillation are at high risk for stroke and require antithrombotic therapy. Antiarrhythmic drugs have not previously been shown to reduce the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. The effect of dronedarone, a new multichannel-blocking antiarrhythmic drug, on....../atrial flutter). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with persistent or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and at least 1 risk factor for cardiovascular hospitalization were randomized to receive dronedarone (400 mg BID) or double-blind matching placebo and followed up for a minimum of 1 year to a common termination at 30...

  12. Rationale and design of ATHENA: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalization or death from any cause in PatiENts with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, S.H.; Connolly, S.J.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.;

    2008-01-01

    Rationale and Design of ATHENA. Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered clinical arrhythmia, predominantly affecting elderly patients. There is a continued need for new antiarrhythmic drugs to treat the ever-increasing number of patients with this arrhythmia......ENts with Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter) is the largest single antiarrhythmic drug trial ever conducted. More than 4,600 patients with a history of AF or atrial flutter (AFL) have been randomized to receive dronedarone 400 mg bid or matching placebo. The primary study endpoint is time to first....... Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic compound currently being developed for treatment of AF. Methods: The ATHENA trial (A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel arm Trial to assess the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg bid for the prevention of cardiovascular Hospitalization or death from any cause in pati...

  13. Inclusion Complex of Zerumbone with Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Induces Apoptosis in Liver Hepatocellular HepG2 Cells via Caspase 8/BID Cleavage Switch and Modulating Bcl2/Bax Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilah Muhammad Nadzri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone (ZER isolated from Zingiber zerumbet was previously encapsulated with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD to enhance ZER’s solubility in water, thus making it highly tolerable in the human body. The anticancer effects of this new ZER-HPβCD inclusion complex via apoptosis cell death were assessed in this study for the first time in liver hepatocellular cells, HepG2. Apoptosis was ascertained by morphological study, nuclear stain, and sub-G1 cell population accumulation with G2/M arrest. Further investigations showed the release of cytochrome c and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, proving mitochondrial dysfunction upon the ZER-HPβCD treatment as well as modulating proapoptotic and anti-apototic Bcl-2 family members. A significant increase in caspase 3/7, caspase 9, and caspase 8 was detected with the depletion of BID cleaved by caspase 8. Collectively, these results prove that a highly soluble inclusion complex of ZER-HPβCD could be a promising anticancer agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans.

  14. A View of “Horizon Fusion” From Translation of “Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi”%从《送元二使安西》的译文看视野融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a brief account of the concept of “horizon fusion”, the main idea of reception aesthetics and modern hermeneutics, pointing out the important role of readers in literary activities, in fusion of horizon especially. The writer specifies that translator is both the reader and the author and translation is both the process of comprehension and innovation. Through the comparison among four translation versions of the poem entitled“Bidding Adieu to Yuan Junior in His Mission to Anxi” by Wangwei, illustrates the writer from the perspective of horizon fusion the preferable features of the one translated by Sun Dayu.%本文简述了视野融合的概念、接受关学和现代阐释学的主要观点,说明了读者的能动性在文学活动尤其在视野融合中的重要性,指出翻译者既是读者同时也是作者,翻译过程既是理解过程同时也是创造过程。作者通过对王维《送元二使安西》四个译文比较,从视野融合的角度说明了孙大雨译文的可取之处。

  15. The Inspiration of"Wrestling "Fading Out the Olympic Games to Wushu Bid%“摔跤”淡出奥运对武术申奥的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚红军; 姜传银; 刘为坤

    2013-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee voted to take Wrestling out of the 2020 Summer Olympics at February 2013. Wushu is also one of the sports to impact the 2020 Summer Olympics. This time, Wrestling fading out of the Olympic Games has brought many aspects of the experiences and lessons . This study suggests that the development policies of the International Wushu Federation ,the competition rules of the martial arts and the popularity of martial arts are the key factors of Wushu bid.%  2013年2月,国际奥委会通过投票决定,摔跤将淡出2020年夏季奥运会,而武术则是冲击2020年夏季奥运会的体育项目之一。此次,摔跤淡出奥运给武术带来了诸多方面的经验和教训。文章认为,国际武术联合会的发展政策、武术的比赛规则、武术的普及度、武术赛事的运作是左右武术入奥的关键性因素。

  16. Practice of the First Time Online Bidding for Drug Purchase in a Large-scale Hospital in Anhui Province:Investigation and Analysis%安徽省某大型医院首次药品网上招标采购执行情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维恒

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the implementation and the outcome of the first time online bidding for drug purchase so as to provide reference of further standardizing the online bidding for drug purchase. METHODS: The data of the first time online bidding for drug purchase of a large grade three class A comprehensive hospital were subjected to a retro-spective statistical analysis with the use of Shanghai Jinshida Weining THIS4.0 system and Excel software. RESULTS: 86.06% of the drug varieties in this hospital underwent online bidding for drug purchase. The mean drug cost, per capita drug cost of outpatients and inpatients were reduced by 6.95% , 10.61% , and 1.10%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The online bidding for drug purchase contributes to the standardization of hospital drug purchase behavior and relieving of the problem of "high cost in medication" . However, which is far from perfect and thus remains to be improved further.%目的:考查安徽省首次药品网上招标采购的执行情况及其效果,为进一步规范药品网上招标采购提供参考.方法:采用上海金仕达卫宁THIS4.0系统和Excel软件,对某三级甲等大型综合性医院首次药品网上招标采购的执行数据进行回顾性统计分析.结果:医院执行品种比例达86.06%,药品零售价平均降幅6.95%,门诊和住院患者人均药品费用分别下降10.61%和1.10%.结论:药品网上招标采购对规范医院药品购销行为、解决百姓"看病贵"问题有积极作用,但与预期效果还有较大差距.需进一步完善.

  17. Desenho ideológico do BID: modelo de gestão no Promaben em Belém, Pará Ideological design of the IADB: administrative model for the Promaben project in Belém, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Valente Santana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o modelo de gestão de cidades difundido pelo Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID para a América Latina e o Caribe, tendo como exemplo o Programa de Saneamento da Bacia da Estrada Nova (Promaben, no município de Belém, no estado do Pará. Com base no referencial da teoria social marxiana, foram pesquisados, em documentos do BID, disponíveis on-line, os projetos aprovados pelo banco em 26 países da América Latina e do Caribe, entre 1960 e 2011. Aponta a construção do desenho ideológico do BID, interligado às questões de financiamento, pobreza e meio ambiente. Recupera estudos sobre ideologia e modelo de gestão de cidades e compara analiticamente os objetivos do BID com os projetos aprovados na América Latina e no Caribe. Analisa os recursos destinados ao Promaben e reflete, que sob a aparência da diminuição da pobreza e atenção ao tema do meio ambiente, o BID prioriza os setores de projetos de infraestrutura física da cidade e projetos econômicos.This article discusses the administrative model for cities promoted by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB for Latin America and the Caribbean, using as an example the Sanitation Program for the Estrada Nova watershed (Promaben, in the municipality of Belém, in Pará State. Based on Marxist social theory, IADB documents available on line related to projects approved by the bank in 26 Latin American and Caribbean countries from 1960 - 2011 were studied. The paper indicates the construction of an ideological design by IADB, related to the issues of financing, poverty and the environment. It reviews studies about ideology and the administrative model for cities and compares the IADB's stated objectives with the projects approved in Latin America and the Caribbean. It analyzes the resources destined to Promaben and reflects that under the appearance of decreasing poverty and attention to the environment, the IADB gives priority to physical

  18. Bidding Strategies for Generation Company Considering Randomness and Correlation Relationship of Electricity and Carbon Prices%考虑电价碳价随机性及其相关性的发电商投标决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周任军; 刘照; 陈彦秀; 张浩; 李莹莹; 范龙; 尹权

    2016-01-01

    Carbon price and electricity price are bound together under the influence of external factors. Thus,the price randomness of carbon and electricity along with their correlation should be taken into consideration to form the bidding model for generation compa-nies. The difference between actual profit and the expectation is defined as the risk and measured by multi-stochastic conditional risk method in this paper. Then,a CVaR-based bidding model which considers the price randomness of electricity and carbon along with their correlation is proposed. The Linear method is used to sample of the random variables concerning the correlation and to solve the conditional value at risk. Cases considering the correlation between electricity price and carbon price,carbon price cost,carbon price randomness and other risk measurement methods are tested respectively to evaluate their influences on the investment decision risk of generation companies. The results show that considering the price randomness of both electricity and carbon as well as their correlation is more in accordance with the generation companies’requirement of increasing revenue and reducing risk,and conditional risk method is able to describe the risk more accurately.%电价、碳价在外界因素的影响下具有某种相依关系,因此需要在发电商投标模型中考虑电价、碳价的随机性及其相关性对其决策的影响。本文将低于发电商预期收益部分的期望值定义为风险,采用多随机变量的条件风险方法对其进行度量,建立了考虑电价碳价随机性及其相关性影响的发电商投标决策模型,利用线性变换方法对相关性随机变量进行抽样并求解条件风险值。对电价碳价相关性、碳价成本、碳价随机性和不同风险度量方法对发电商投资决策风险的影响进行了仿真对比,结果表明考虑电价和碳价随机性及其相关性影响的投标模型更符合发电商提高收益降低

  19. Spatio-temporal Variation of Residential Land Bid-rent Curves in Transitional Beijing City%转型期北京住宅用地投标租金曲线的空间形态与演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文杰; 张文忠; 董冠鹏; 刘睿

    2011-01-01

    Transitions in the socio-economic environment have significant influences on reshaping the cities.While the western countries are undergoing post-urbanization changes, the transforming in Chinese urban land market can better reflect the trend of urban spatial reconstruction. In fact, dramatic socio-economic reforms in China are affecting the most Chinese cities' urban form since 1978. After that, the new approaches to land marketization widely spread to most Chinese cities, and ever since the late 1980s, Beijing municipal government has attempted to rationalize the previously planned urban land use distribution system by the way of economic reform measures. As the market economy has been established, Beijing's residential land market has been booming during the periods with different land reform policy. While the Chinese urban land market reform has been the subject of much research in recent decades, recent literatures have paid attention to spatial features of land price in transitional Chinese cities, and in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless,research on this issue has been limited by the lack of systematic data, especially spatial data, on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. This paper gives first attempt to add our understanding of the spatial variations of the residential land bid-rent function curve of the residential land market of a rapidly developing Chinese metropolis, Beijing--China' s capital city, based on the Beijing Land Leasing Parcel Database. By employing about 3 400 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2009 within the 6th ring road of Beijing metropolitan area, the period when the land leasing market has largely been established, a mono-centric city' s land bid-rent function model was established to quantitatively explore the spatio-temporal evolution of urban residential land development mode and its mechanism. Based on the empirical analysis, it can be observed that in

  20. 浅谈广州城市绿化工程招投标市场竞争存在的问题及解决途径%Analysis on the Problems and Solutions of Greening Projects Bidding Market Competition in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘款星; 黎宝莹

    2013-01-01

    文章从广州地区城市绿化工程投标工作的实践经验出发,简要总结回顾了广州地区城市绿化工程招投标历程,分析了目前招投标市场竞争中存在问题的主要表现形式及原因,提出了规范市场机制、加强职能部门监管、相关参与者依法依规、行业维护自律和企业内部强化管理等相应的解决途径,并提出了实施企业备案市场准入制度、严格审查资格条件、强调企业综合实力和加强招投标对工程造价的控制作用等建议。%According to the practice experience of bidding work in Guangzhou greening project ,the article briefly reviews the bidding process,analyses the forms and reasons of the main problems,it puts forward the solutions as corresponding regulation of market mechanism,strengthen the funtion of supervision,participants comply with the regulations,industry self-discipline and strengthen internal management,it proposes to inplement the record companies market access system,strictly examine the qualifications,emphasize the comprehensive strength and strengthen the bidding control to the construction cost.

  1. 基于J2EE的大型煤炭集团公司招标采购管理信息系统设计与实现%J2EE-Based Group of Companies Bidding Large Coal Management Information System Design and Implementafion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2013-01-01

    The current large coal groups bidding network, but also large coal company development the only way open and transparent. The tender procurement management information systems released bidding information through Internet technology to break the traditional information published on the geographical and time limitations, and to obtain more conducive to the advantage. This paper outlines the meaning of J2EE technology, and then from the demand and structural design, data analysis, software design and testing, to discuss the the large Coal Group companies bidding management information system based on J2EE Design and Implementation.%当前大型煤炭集团公司的招标采购越来越网络化,同时也是大型煤炭集团公司发展公开化与透明化的必经之路。招标采购管理信息系统通过互联网技术发布招标采购信息,打破了传统信息发布的地域和时间上的局限性,从而取得更加有利于的优势。文章首先概述了J2EE技术的含义,然后从需求与结构设计、数据分析、软件设计与测试方面,共同探讨了基于J2EE的大型煤炭集团公司招标采购管理信息系统设计与实现。

  2. Thinking of Relevant Problems about Budget Clearance in the Project Using Preliminary Design Documents Bidding%采用初步设计文件施工招投标的工程概算清理有关问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金海

    2012-01-01

    采用初步设计文件进行施工招投标的铁路建设项目,目前大部分正处于概算清理阶段。概算清理是针对采用初步设计文件进行施工招投标特别增加的一项投资管理措施,他涉及到施工图投资检算、变更设计、征地拆迁及价差调整、其他政策性费用调整等,政策性强、工作量大。此文针对施工总价承包招标文件范本的有关条款,就概算清理原则、施工图投资检算的编制、价差调整等进行论述与分析,并提出建议与计算方法,为实际工程概算清理提供借鉴。%The railway construction project using the preliminary design documents bidding are most in the clear stage of budget estimates. Clearing budget estimates for the preliminary design documents bidding is a special increase investment management measures. It related to construction drawing investment checking, design change, land demolition and price adjustment, and other policy cost adjustment, which has strong policy and big workload. Aiming at the relevant clauses of the construction contract price bidding documents sample, clearing principle, compiling of construction drawing budget investment and price adjustment are discussed and analyzed, and some suggestions and calculation methods is put forward to provide reference for the actual engineering clearing budget.

  3. 华东跨省集中交易中发电企业结盟报价实证研究%An empirical study on the power producers’ collusion bidding in the trans-provincial electric power market of East China Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小君; 李晓刚; 杨立兵; 邹斌

    2013-01-01

    To accrue more profits in market competitions, the power producers sometimes would adopt the collusion bidding strategy to force up prices. The paper discusses the collusion bidding behavior of the power producers, which is based on the actual running data of trans-provincial electric power market of the East China Power Grid. Firstly, the probability analysis based on the bidding data of the monthly producers is used to confirm whether it is a collusion one. On this foundation, based on the basic principles of the cooperative game, we analyze the internal mechanisms of the collusion bidding, and show the relationship between market rules and this behavior. Furthermore, several possible strategies are proposed to inhibit it. Both the theoretical analysis and the market practice show the effectiveness of the proposed strategies.%  发电厂商为获取更多收益,在市场竞争中有时会采取类似“串谋”的结盟报价行为抬高市场报价。以我国实际运营的华东电网跨省集中交易的实际数据为例研究了发电厂商结盟报价行为。首先对部分月份发电厂商的报价数据进行概率分析,确认其为结盟报价。在此基础上,基于合作博弈的基本原理分析了发电厂商结盟报价的内在机理,给出了市场规则与结盟报价之间的关系,进而提出了抑制发电厂商结盟报价的建议措施。理论分析以及市场实践均验证了所提措施的有效性。

  4. 浅谈资源估算在境外矿业项目投标决策中的重要作用%Discussion on the Importance of Cost Estimate in Bidding in Decision-making of Overseas Mining Proj ects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽艳

    2014-01-01

    With the example of a copper mine abroad and by means of the geologic modeling and resources estimate in respect with the deposit,it’s found out that resources and metals in the deposit show a negative variation in contrast with that shown in international tender document.Based on the tech-economic evaluation conducted,Chinese companies which intend to participate in the bidding resolutely determine to withdraw themselves from the proj ect bidding and thus avoiding losses on investment.Therefore,it shows that cost estimate plays an important role in investment and decision-making of mining proj ects.%以国外某铜矿为例,通过对矿床进行地质建模和资源估算,发现与国际招标文件相比,矿床资源量、金属量有很大程度的负变。在进行技术经济评价的基础上,参与投标的国内公司果断决策,选择退出项目招标,避免了投资损失,从而说明在矿业项目投资及决策方面,资源估算具有非常重要的作用。

  5. What to bid and when to stop

    OpenAIRE

    Baarslag, T.

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation is an important activity in human society, and is studied by various disciplines, ranging from economics and game theory, to electronic commerce, social psychology, and artificial intelligence. Traditionally, negotiation is a necessary, but also time-consuming and expensive activity. Therefore, in the last decades there has been a large interest in the automation of negotiation, for example in the setting of e-commerce. This interest is fueled by the promise of automated agents ev...

  6. What to Bid and When to Stop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation is an important activity in human society, and is studied by various disciplines, ranging from economics and game theory, to electronic commerce, social psychology, and artificial intelligence. Traditionally, negotiation is a necessary, but also time-consuming and expensive activity. Th

  7. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields

  8. ITER workshops demonstrate details of Canada's bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 5 and 6 November a series of five Workshops were held in Canada that provided thirty international ITER participants with significant background on various aspects of the Canadian offer. The public-private sector partnership basis for the Canadian offer is unique, and the Workshops provided an opportunity for participants from the EU, Japan and the Russian Federation to broaden their understanding of the offer and to share and discuss issues that may be relevant in the preparation of other site offers

  9. 50 CFR 600.1009 - Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract under which: (i) Each bidder makes an irrevocable offer to the United States of fishing capacity for reduction, and (ii) NMFS accepts or rejects, on behalf of the United States, each bidder's offer... revocation, by NMFS, of any reduction permit, and (ii) Where the program also involves the withdrawal...

  10. Designing Bidding Strategies for Autonomous Trading Agents

    OpenAIRE

    He, Minghua

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly many systems are being conceptualised, designed and implemented as marketplaces in which autonomous software entities (agents) trade services. These services can be commodities in e-commerce applications or data and knowledge services in information economies. In such systems, dynamic pricing through some form of negotiation or auction protocol is becoming the norm for many goods and customers. Thus, negotiation capabilities for software agents are a central concern. Specifically...

  11. Bidding strategy for an energy storage facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies operation decisions of energy storage facilities in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets. In a perfectly competitive market, the storage facility is operated to maximize the social welfare. However, in a imperfectly competitive market, the storage facility operates to...... maximize its profit, while the market operator aims at maximizing the social welfare. In this case, the storage facility adapts its strategic behavior to take advantage of market conditions. To model the imperfectly competitive market, a bi-level optimization model is implemented to present the...... interactions between the storage facility and the market operator. In an illustrative test system, operation of the storage facility in these two market structures is compared and discussed....

  12. The evolution of the competitive bidding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 1920s to the early 1970s, the structure of the electric utility industry remained fairly constant. Up until this time, the generation, transportation and distribution of electricity was provided by local electric utility companies. The dominant pricing method was cost-of-service based rates, which relies on the premise that generation of electricity is not a competitive market, but a natural monopoly. This environment included close scrutiny by state and federal regulatory bodies to ensure that electric utility companies were making prudent management decisions. This stable environment changed with the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978. The primary intent of PURPA was to encourage the use of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency measures, and cogeneration and small power production. The act guaranteed firms and developers Interconnection with the host utility company and administrated avoided costs for the basis of payment for sales of power by qualifying facilities to the host utility. By the early 1980s, the primary change that PURPA brought to the structure of the electric utility industry was the introduction of the small power producer (SPP). Since then, however, the emergence of new suppliers has challenged the basic infrastructure of the electric generation industry. Along the way, the concept that electric generation is a natural monopoly has been called into question

  13. Bids requested for Genesis Mission analytical facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2000-01-01

    The Genesis Discovery mission, to be launched in January 2001, will expose ultrapure materials to the solar wind for about 2 years and then return this sample to Earth for isotopic and chemical analysis in terrestrial laboratories. Sample return missions use the best available instrumentation to achieve mission science goals. To complete the Genesis science objectives, advanced instrumentation that surpasses present laboratory sample analysis capabilities is required. Advanced Analytical ...

  14. A Generation Pricing Method with Capacity Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Due to historic reasons China encounters some special difficulties in ESI (electricity system industry) restructuring. An easy and simple electricity value equivalent (es-EVE) method for day-ahead pool purchase pricing of China is therefore presented in this paper. The es-EVE method is different from two-part and one-part tariffs. It is more like the UK's method in form, but revised for China with some new concepts and procedure. The main contributions of it include: (1) Find two kinds of eigenvalue, namely EVEs, in an optimization model, (2) Define new concepts of virtual units and feasible region, (3) Twice merit orderings are employed successively to find marginal price. They are simple maximum and minimum comparison procedures and so on. The special economic significance of the method for China is discussed, and some suggestion for ESI restructuring based on es-EVE method are provided. A case study is offered at the end of the paper.

  15. Supporting SMEs in public sector bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Edward James, workstream lead, Estates, Facilities and Professional Services Workstream, at NHS London Procurement Partnership (pictured), looks at the workings and benefits of Dynamic Purchasing Systems--electronic systems used by a public bodies to purchase commonly used goods, works, or services. One of the major benefits, he explains, is that under a 'DPS'--an 'open market' system revised in 2015--smaller businesses have a greater opportunity to win business than in traditional ('closed') framework agreements. PMID:27132302

  16. Low-Carbon Reserve Market Bidding Model and Decision-Making Analysis Incorporating Carbon Capture Power Plant%含碳捕集电厂的低碳备用市场竞价模型与碳捕集水平风险决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施泉生; 李士动

    2014-01-01

    Taking low-carbon electricity as the background, a reserve market bidding model that incarnates the carbon emission reduction factor and a capture level risk decision method for carbon capture power plant under this model are proposed. An elastic demand curve of unit reserve, in which the randomness of capacity faults can be taken into account, is established, and then according to the theory of internalization of externalities the marginal carbon emission cost is built into the bidding of unit reserve and the obtained marginal composite cost is taken as the foundation of bidding, thus the differences among unit carbon emission characteristics are taken into account and distinguished, and the method of supply and demand is utilized to obtain the optimal reserve point. Based on above-mentioned model the superiority of reserve bidding of carbon capture power plant is analyzed and the differences of risk property between its revenue and cost are distinguished and from the perspective to the risk management the carbon capture level decision is optimized. Simulation results show that using the proposed bidding model the reserve can be optimally configured from a social perspective, and as for carbon capture power plant too high or too low capture levels are inappropriate, and there should be an optimal value of the capture level.%以低碳电力为背景,提出了能够体现碳减排因素的备用市场竞价模型及该模型下碳捕集电厂捕集水平风险决策方法。建立了能够计及容量事故随机性的机组备用弹性需求曲线,然后根据外部性内在化理论,将边际碳排放成本内置到机组备用报价中,以得到的边际综合成本作为竞价依据,从而计及和区分机组碳排放特性差异,并采用供给与需求方法获取最优备用点。基于上述模型,分析碳捕集电厂的备用竞价优势,区分其收益与成本的风险性质差别,并从风险管理的角度优化 CO2捕集水平决

  17. 安全化的路径分析——以中海油竞购优尼科案为例%A Path Analysis of Securitization: The Example of CNOOC's Bid for Unocal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌

    2011-01-01

    哥本哈根学派为安全研究提供了一种社会建构主义的研究方法。安全化理论的核心概念"言语-行为"表明,安全表达本身造就安全问题;安全的"主体间性"决定了安全化是一个建构对威胁认知的过程。因此一个完整的安全化路径应该包括:(1)安全化启动:拥有相应的话语权或社会资源的安全化主体通过"言语-行为"指涉某物为威胁;(2)安全化传播:媒体通过议程设置和框架效应两大功能说服听众共享安全认知;(3)塑造安全受众,使特定议题安全化。本文通过对中海油竞购优尼科案被安全化的过程分析说明安全化是一个话语实践过程;作为安全化主体的美国国会建构了一个安全化逻辑,媒体作为话语载体则传播了国家安全的框架并塑造了公众认知从而使该案被安全化。%The Copenhagen school of thought offers a research methodol- ogy for security studies rooted in social constructivism. The central concept of securitization theory- " speech-behavior" illustrates that security statements in and of themselves can create security problems; the subjectivity of security means that securitization is a process of constructing recognition of a threat. As such, the complete path that securitization follows includes: (1) Initiation of securitization: a securitizing actor with sufficient voice or social capital uses a statement or act to refer to or point out a threat; (2) Se- curitizing Media: through its structuring of the agenda and framing effects, the media convinces its audience of a shared security awareness; (3) a security audience is constructed, and an issue is securitized. Based on an analysis of CNOOC's bid to purchase Unocal, this article shows that securitization is a discursive process: Congress functioned as a securitizing actor to construct a logic of securitization; the media then framed this logic in terms of national

  18. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne; Radiotherapie bifractionnee et chimiotherapie par cisplatine et 5-fluoro-uracile concomitantes dans les carcinomes epidermoides localement evolues non resecables du pharynx: dix ans d'experience au centre Antoine Lacassagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, N.; Pivot, X.; Marcy, P.Y.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Dassonville, O.; Possonnet, G.; Vallicioni, J.; Ettore, F.; Falewee, M.N.; Milano, G.; Santini, J.; Lagrange, J.L.; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Bensadoun, R.J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    2001-08-01

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m{sup 2} (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 1. course; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3

  19. 机制设计下大型赛事竞标理论分析--以奥运会为例%Theoretical analysis of bidding theory for mega sporting events based on mechanism design-With Olympic Games as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正卿

    2016-01-01

    随着全球化的进程,申办大型体育赛事成为各个国家争相参与的事情。然而,贿赂丑闻与债务危机严重影响了大型赛事的形象。以奥运会的竞标过程为分析对象,引入机制设计理论,从理论层面探究为何当前奥运会的申办机制没有彻底解决腐败与债务问题。在对现有文献资料梳理的基础上,结合逻辑分析的方法,将潜在举办城市(PHCs)的申办时间路径与机制设计理论结合,阐述了申办机制中 IOC、IOC 执委会与 PHCs 之间所具有的层级结构的委托代理关系。认为非对称信息下“IOC -IOC 执委会-PHCs”模式与中央计划经济体制(CPEs)类似,PHCs 为获得赛事举办权而采取的“欺骗”行为导致了在获得举办权之后债务问题不断;另外,IOC 对赛事资源分配权的垄断是贿赂丑闻产生的根源。%With the process of globalization,bidding mega sporting events has become a heated competitive matter for countries in the world.But,the bribery scandal and the debt crisis has seriously effected the image of mega events.this paper analyzed Olympic bidding process based on the mechanism designing theory from the theoretical perspective,and tried to find out the reason why the current bidding mechanism could not solve the issues of corruption and debt thoroughly.Based on the present document and logical analysis methods,it combined the bidding time and route of the potential host cities(PHCs)with mechanism design theory,and elaborated the hierarchical structure and principal -agency relationship between the IOC,the IOC Executive committee and the PHCs.In conclusion,the "IOC -IOC Executive -PHCs"model and the centrally planned economies(CPEs)have some kind of similarity,and the PHCs obtained hosting rights with "cheat"leads to debt problems after gaining the right of host;and the monopoly of the resource allocation right by IOC is the root of bribery scandal.

  20. “限地价,竞配建”土地出让方式的理论分析与实证研究%Theoretical and Empirical Study on the Land Use Right Transfer Through "Controlling Land Price but Bidding on Providing Public House"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娅

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze the listing rule of "controlling land price but bidding on providing public house",and compares it with current procurement rule of "given fixed public house,bidding on the price of land".By analyzing the equilibrium strategies of developers and local government,the paper shows that combined with suitable initial price and the policy of "all deals with premium rate of more than 50% must be reported to the central government",the listing rule would reduce land prices and guarantee the development of public house at the same time.The listing rule is equivalent to a procurement rule with certain scoring rule,which is different from current procurement rule.With equal development of public house,land price under procurement rule is lower,while with equal land price,the acreage of provided public house under listing rule is higher.%研究目的:对中国土地市场中新兴的"限地价,竞配建"挂牌方式进行研究,并与"定配建,竞地价"招标方式相对比。研究方法:建立有限价的两阶段拍卖和封闭式拍卖模型,分析开发商和地方政府的最优策略。研究结果:(1)在限制拍卖起始价的前提下,结合"溢价率超50%需上报"的规定,"限地价,竞配建"方式可有效控制地价并促进保障房的开发;(2)"限地价,竞配建"挂牌方式可通过相应的招标方式实现,但并不同于"定配建,竞地价"的招标方式。研究结论:"限地价,竞配建"挂牌方式和"定配建,竞地价"招标方式是促进保障房建设的重要手段。地方政府若希望落实保障房建设,挂牌方式更好;若希望降低地价,招标方式更好。

  1. 试析事业单位物资招标采购过程中内部控制的作用%The Analysis of the Effect of Internal Control Mechanism in a Public Institution during the Goods and Supplies Public Bidding Procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 许晓莉; 赵静; 李彤

    2012-01-01

    国家要求事业单位在招标采购的整个过程应当严格按照法律法规的程序办理,引入竞争机制,按照公平、公正、公开的原则.在单位物资采购的全过程中,建产建全单位的内部控制机制,是有效监控资金运作的手段,能确保真正采购到质优价廉的物资设备.%According to the demands of the states, a public institution should follow the legislation strictly and lead competitive mechanism during the goods and supplies public bidding procurement which is carried out with the fair, justice, and public guidelines. In order to monitor the operation of funds effectively, it is practical to establish and implement the internal control mechanism. It will make sure that the equipment and materials with both high quality and low price can be purchased.

  2. 42 CFR 422.254 - Submission of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (as defined § 422.102). (4) The projected number of enrollees in each MA local area used in... to verify actuarial bases and the projected number of enrollees. (6) A description of deductibles... premium for basic benefits under the original Medicare fee-for-service program option; (3) The amount...

  3. Auctions and Bidding Strategies in the Open Electric Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    SHIKOSKI, Jordan; Rechkoska, Ustijana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Najdenkoski, Krste

    2005-01-01

    Deregulation changed the electrical industry from being a regulated priced structure to a market based pricing one. The deregulation of the market brought with it the concept of auctions and the word auction entered the electrical engineers dictionary for the first time. An auction can be defined as a game of incomplete instructions for determining the cost of a product that has no standard value. It is an institution with explicit rules for pricing and resource allocations based on ...

  4. Evaluaciones intermedias de proyectos del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar de Miguel Arévalo; Alejandro Fernández; Roberto Opazo

    2003-01-01

    Presentación que da a conocer las evaluaciones intermedias realizadas a Solución, calidad y medioambiente; metodología. Así como los resultados de evaluación del Programa PAAM (México), Programa Cadena (Perú), programa 200 Pymes (Uruguay), así como los resultados generales de argentina

  5. Sinopec Wins Bid for Special Asphalt for Racing Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On February 13 Sinopec and Shanghai International Circuit held a signing ceremony in Beijing for the contract to supply special asphalt for racing track use. Mr. Wang Jiming,Vice Board Chairman and President of Sinopec and Mr. Wang Tianpu, Senior Vice President of Sinopec, attended the ceremony.

  6. Call for bids: last step for the Finnish nuclear candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-three years after the start-up of its last nuclear power plants, Finland would order a new reactor in December 2003 to supply the power needs of the three main paper companies of Finland which control the PVO power group. Three candidates are in the competition: Framatome ANP (France-Germany), Atomstroyexport (Minatom, Russia) and General Electric (US). Helsinki has also approved in May 2001 the construction of a waste disposal site for low- and medium-level radioactive wastes in a granitic cavity at a 800 m depth. Short paper. (J.S.)

  7. Stochastic optimal sale bid for a wind power producer

    OpenAIRE

    Sacripante, Simona; Heredia, F.-Javier (Francisco Javier); Corchero García, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Research Report Wind power generation has a key role in Spanish electricity system since it is a native source of energy that could help Spain to reduce its dependency on the exterior for the production of electricity. Apart from the great environmental benefits produced, wind energy reduce considerably spot energy price, reaching to cover 16,6 % of peninsular demand. Although, wind farms show high investment costs and need an efficient incentive scheme to be financed. If on one hand, Spa...

  8. Vetoes, Ethnic Bidding, Decentralisation: Post-Conflict Education in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvete Koneska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on political elites in post-conflict Macedonia and investigates how political elites interact - to accomodate or resist each other - across ethnic lines. Theoretically, the analysis draws upon institutionalist literature, in particular literature on power-sharing institutions and ethnic outbidding among ethnic political parties. Building on this framework, the article proceeds to develop three arguments relating to power-sharing and ethnic outbidding: one on the effects of ethnic outbidding on elite accomodation, and two on the impact of power-sharing structures (veto mechanisms and territoriality on ethnic elite accomodation. Although the main emphasis is placed on domestic factors, the article also briefly considers and examines the impact of external actors, the EU, and the OSCE, on the policy process in post-conflict Macedonia, and how political elites cooperate when external actors get involved in the policy process. This article focuses in greater detail upon education policy in Macedonia, which was one of the most controversial policy issues straining relations between the ethnic Albanian minority and the Macedonian state since independence. The article compares elite cooperation before and after the conflict in 2001 and demonstrates that the dynamics of political elites' interaction have changed to empower ethnic Albanian political elites thanks to the institutional and constitutional system adopted after 2001. However, despite increased accomodation at the central level, ethnic divisions remain at the local level.

  9. Poles plan defense of RKN Orlen from hostile bid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Poola majandusministeerium arendab plaani Leedu naftatöötlustehase Mazeikiu Nafta omaniku PKN Orleni kaitsmiseks võimalike Vene firmade vaenulike ülevõtmispakkumiste eest. Lisa. Divert from Eastern Europe?

  10. AirTicket Sales as Bids from Airline Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Marc; Petrova, Milena; Urdanoz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the higher price sensitivity and service homogenisation in the airline industry in recent years, we propose a new methodology to deal with transaction prices and to estimate the effect of alliances in the US domestic market. The assumption that airlines compete on price allows us to take advantage of the observational equivalence between Bertrand competition and the reverse English auction. We then apply an MLE method, developed by Paarsch (1997) for esti- mating auctions, to rec...

  11. Air Ticket Sales as Bids from Airline Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Marc; Petrova, Milena; Urdanoz, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the higher price sensitivity and service homogenisation in the airline industry in recent years, we propose a new methodology to deal with transaction prices and to estimate the effect of alliances in the US domestic market. The assumption that airlines compete on price allows us to take advantage of the observational equivalence between Bertrand competition and the reverse English auction. We then apply an MLE method, developed by Paarsch (1997) for estimating auctions, to recov...

  12. Bite GSM, Alina bid for new Latvian license

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium teatas, et on saanud mitmeid pakkumisi riigi kolmanda mobiilioperaatori litsentsi ostmiseks. Litsentsi alghind oksjonil on 1,3 miljonit latti ning enampakkumise võitja peab investeerima telekommunikatsiooni infrastruktuuri arendamisse Lätis vähemalt 150 miljonit eurot.

  13. 7 CFR 1435.501 - Bid submission procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sugar cane to the processor and contains the information CCC determines necessary to conduct the program... sugarcane (for first-time producers, the previous 3-year simple average sugar content for all beets or cane... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar...

  14. Mars orbiter redirected in bid to find Beagle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Mission controllers in Darmstadt, Germany, have successfully redirected Europe's Mars Express orbiter into a polar orbit, putting it on course for a last-ditch attempt to contact Beagle 2, the lander that has been missing since Christmas day when it should have touched down on the red planet" (1/2 page).

  15. Ontario Hydro's bid to export runs into trouble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) rejected the application of Ontario Hydro Interconnected Markets (OHIM), the marketing arm of Ontario Hydro, for a power marketer licence, on the grounds that there is still no regulatory oversight of the Corporation, and that its Electricity Exchange is still not separate from day-to-day control by the Corporation. According to the Independent Power Producers of Ontario (IPPSO), FERC in effect, ruled in favor of real competition and against the unfair monopoly practices of Ontario Hydro of selling cheap dirty power to the US at half the price it charges to customers in Ontario, and use its muscle to block out competition on both sides of the border. OHIM's application was opposed by IPPSO, as well as by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and TransAlta Power, arguing that the application did not meet FERC Order No. 888 requirements of reciprocal transmission access to other power suppliers seeking to move power through, out of, and into the affiliated utilities service areas. IPPSO also argued that in doubling its export to the US Ontario Hydro would be using primarily its coal-fired plants, causing Ontarians to suffer major pollution damages, while Hydro exports power at less than half the price paid by Ontario residents

  16. 7 CFR 1942.18 - Community facilities-Planning, bidding, contracting, constructing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Instruction 426.2). (ii) Coastal Zone Management. Facilities shall be designed and constructed in a manner consistent with approved State management programs, under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92... guidelines for water, sanitary sewer, solid waste, storm sewer, and other essential community facilities...

  17. Decomposing the bid-ask spread in multi-dealer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bleaney; Zhiyong Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we modify the Huang and Stoll (1997) spread-decomposing model to fit multi-dealer markets. In a multi-dealer market, individual dealers can rebalance their inventories either by trading with other dealers or changing the quote price. Our modified model captures this feature. Using transaction data from the Reuters D2000-1 system, we find that the order-processing and inventory control components of the spread in the foreign exchange market are relatively small and dealers may t...

  18. Economic and ecologic considerations for bidding procedures and contracting for bio-waste fermentation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the energetic and mass potentials of biological wastes in an integrated fermentation and composting plant needs extensive conceptual and planning activities. The call for tenders for the construction of plants is an EU-wide open procedure. Public waste management organizations are interested to receive profitable solutions with reliable operation and minimized ecological impacts. The minimum requirements and technical aspects are defined by the public waste management organizations.

  19. IDB-9: Corporate Results Framework Title: IDB-9: Marco de resultados corporativos del BID

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Velarde; Tatiana Fontes; Alejandro Soriano; John Eriksson

    2013-01-01

    In IDB-9 the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB or Bank) mandated implementation of a corporate results framework (CRF), leading to greater emphasis on results throughout the Bank. This background paper responds to the Governors' request that the Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) evaluate the completeness and effectiveness of CRF implementation at the IDB-9 midpoint. The findings of this paper are based on a review of relevant Board and Bank strategic and op...

  20. Contract process based on bid preparation for NSSS design and related services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system design of the Nuclear Steam Supply Systems is performed through the contract between buyer and contractor. Accordingly, the success or failure of the projects may be decided by the contents of these contracts. Main processes for a Nuclear Power Plant contract are issuance of RFP (ITB) by buyer, submittal of proposal by bidder, evaluation of bidder's proposal by buyer, contract negotiation between buyer and bidder and contract between buyer and bidder. It is important that the proposal shall be prepared faithfully according to the RFP. For this, the bidder needs to review and to analyze in depth the buyer's RFP, with consideration of its capability and previous contracts documents. It is important that the negotiation process provide profit incentive to the both buyer and bidder for the contract to be a success. 8 tabs., 11 refs. (Author)

  1. Why can't a woman bid more like a man?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2013), s. 181-213. ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gender * menstrual cycle * contraceptive pills * auction Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.025, year: 2013

  2. Why can't a woman bid more like a man?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2013), s. 181-213. ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : gender * menstrual cycle * contraceptive pills * auction Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.025, year: 2013

  3. Support Vector Machines for decision support in electricity markets׳ strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Praça, Isabel;

    2015-01-01

    . The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from the market context. This paper presents the application of a Support Vector Machines (SVM) based approach to provide decision support to electricity market players. This strategy is tested and...

  4. Strategic Bidding for Electri city Markets Negotiation Using Support Vector Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Rafael; Sousa, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago;

    2014-01-01

    . The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from the market context. This paper presents the application of a Support Vector Machines (SVM) based approach to provide decision support to electricity market players. This strategy is tested and...

  5. Proceedings of 2016 conference on Big Data from Space (BiDS'16)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Big Data from Space refers to Earth and Space observation data collected by space-borne and ground-based sensors. Whether for Earth or Space observation, they qualify being called 'big data' given the sheer volume of sensed data (archived data reaching the exabyte scale), their high velocity (new data is acquired almost on a continuous basis and with an increasing rate), their variety (data is delivered by sensors acting over various frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum in passive and ...

  6. The advantage of higher-order theory of mind in the game of limited bidding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerd, H.; Verheij, B.; van Eijck, J.; Verbrugge, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Higher-order theory of mind is the ability to recursively model mental states of other agents. It is known that adults in general can reason adequately at the second order (covering attributions like "Alice knows that Bob knows that she wrote a novel under pseudonym"), but there are cognitive limits

  7. Employer loses bid to force insurer to pay in bias suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-30

    Educational Testing Services (ETS) tried to force its insurer, Liberty Mutual Fire Insurance Company, to reimburse it for money paid to settle a lawsuit brought by [name removed], a California man fired in 1990. A U.S. District judge ruled that because [name removed] claimed he was fired due to his HIV status, Liberty Mutual was not liable. The discriminatory conduct alleged by [name removed] fell outside the scope of the insurance that ETS had purchased. In 1991, shortly after [name removed] sued, ETS made the first of three written requests to Liberty Mutual for defense and indemnity. The insurer refused or did not respond and in 1996, ETS sued Liberty Mutual, alleging breach of contract and bad faith. The judge ruled that Liberty Mutual owed no duty to defend against a lawsuit based on discriminatory acts and failure to accommodate an HIV-positive employee. PMID:11364346

  8. 48 CFR 231.205-18 - Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and life-cycle costs of military systems. (3) Strengthen the defense industrial and technology base of... under such a prime contract. (ii) Covered segment means a product division of the contractor that... product divisions, the term means that contractor as a whole. A product division of the contractor...

  9. Equilibria in a multi-object uniform price sealed bid auction with multi-unit demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Noussair (Charles)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn many existing markets demanders wish to buy more than one unit from a group of identical units of a commodity. Often, the units are sold simultaneously by auction. The vast majority of literature pertaining to the economics of auctions, however, considers environments in which demande

  10. Nonredundant Role of Bax and Bak in Bid-Mediated Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cartron, Pierre-François; Juin, Philippe; Oliver, Lisa; Martin, Stéphane; Meflah, Khaled; Vallette, François M.

    2003-01-01

    Animal models suggest that Bax and Bak play an essential role in the implementation of apoptosis and as a result can hinder tumorigenesis. We analyzed the expression of these proteins in 50 human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. We found that all the tumors expressed Bak, while three did not express Bax. In vitro, Bax-deficient GBM (BdGBM) exhibited an important resistance to various apoptogenic stimuli (e.g., UV, staurosporine, and doxorubicin) compared to the Bax-expressing GBM (BeGBM)...

  11. Conditions of bids relative to the electric power installations from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions concern the energy and technical characteristics of the installations (primary energy, implementation region, part of the renewable energy, techniques of the electric power production, energy efficiency), the economical and financial conditions (connection, prices, involvement of the candidate), delay and industrial commissioning, weighting and prioritization principles, the nature of the resource, the environmental impact and the weighting criteria. (A.L.B.)

  12. 76 FR 46808 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Sealed Bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected. DATES: Submit... per Respondent: 1. Hours per Response: .5. Total Burden Hours: 5. Obtaining Copies of Proposals... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Sealed...

  13. 76 FR 21743 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Sealed Bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected. DATES: Submit... Respondent: 1. Hours per Response: .5. Total Burden Hours: 5. Obtaining Copies of Proposals: Requesters may... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Sealed...

  14. Bidding Farewell to Burnout, Walking to Happiness%告别倦怠走向幸福

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Long time of a single job, especially the teacher post, is prone to generate job burnout. But we should adjust our mentali-ty, and find happiness in the work. In this way, we can sure walk out the haze of job burnout and live wonderfully.%  长时间干某一项工作,人容易产生厌烦倦怠的心理,特别是日复一日干重复工作的教师。但是只要我们调整好心态,从工作中寻找快乐,就一定能走出职业倦怠的阴霾,活出自己的精彩。

  15. The Effects of Induced Mood on Bidding in Random N-th Price Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Monica Capra; Shireen Meer; Kelli Lanier

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study whether mood affects: 1) Willingness to pay (WTP); and 2) The effectiveness of the demand revealing mechanism. We study decisions using a random nth price auction with induced values and homegrown values. Our data show no clear support for negative mood effects on WTP and, under some conditions, they show weak support for positive mood effects on WTP. However, mood does affect the effectiveness of the value elicitation mechanism in revealing value. Under a good mood, su...

  16. Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Big Data from Space (BiDS'14)

    OpenAIRE

    Soille, Pierre; MARCHETTI Pier Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 conference on Big Data from Space (BiDS’14), 12th–14th of November 2014) co-organised by the European Space Agency (ESA), the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, and the European Union Satellite Centre (SatCen) is bringing together researchers, engineers, users in the area of Big Data in the Space sector. The focus is on the whole data life cycle, ranging from data acquisition by space borne and ground-based sensors to data management, analysis and exp...

  17. Bid to recreate the Big Bang and unlock the secrets of life hits a

    CERN Multimedia

    Morgan, James

    2007-01-01

    "It was not the kind of "big band" they were hopint for - but the explosion at the new £6.81 bn particle accelerator in Switzerland on Saturday, was "not a major setback", says a British scientist who is leading the project." (1 page)

  18. 47 CFR 22.960 - Cellular unserved area radiotelephone licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular unserved area radiotelephone licenses... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.960 Cellular... applications for cellular unserved area Phase I and Phase II licenses filed after July 26, 1993 are subject...

  19. Strategic bidding in electricity markets: An agent-based simulator with game theory for scenario analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Praca, Isabel; Morais, Hugo;

    2013-01-01

    . MASCEM (Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets) is a multi-agent electricity market simulator that models market players and simulates their operation in the market. The scenario analysis algorithm has been tested within MASCEM and our experimental findings with a case study based on real...... the behavior that better fits their objectives. This model includes forecasts of competitor players’ actions, to build models of their behavior, in order to define the most probable expected scenarios. Once the scenarios are defined, game theory is applied to support the choice of the ac-tion to be performed...

  20. 78 FR 18527 - Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Federal Register of Friday, September 11, 1998, 63 FR 48615. Paragraph 17 of the Federal Register summary... 63 FR 48615-48629 (Sept. 11, 1998). Need for Correction In Paragraph 164 of the First R&O, the... CONTACT: Office of Managing Director, Financial Operations: call Thomas Buckley at (202)...