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Sample records for bidirectionality facilitates maintenance

  1. A global analysis of bidirectional interactions in alpine plant communities shows facilitators experiencing strong reciprocal fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöb, Christian; Michalet, Richard; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Pugnaire, Francisco I; Brooker, Rob W; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cook, Bradley J; Kikvidze, Zaal; Lortie, Christopher J; Xiao, Sa; Al Hayek, Patrick; Anthelme, Fabien; Cranston, Brittany H; García, Mary-Carolina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Reid, Anya M; le Roux, Peter C; Lingua, Emanuele; Nyakatya, Mawethu J; Touzard, Blaise; Zhao, Liang; Callaway, Ragan M

    2014-04-01

    Facilitative interactions are defined as positive effects of one species on another, but bidirectional feedbacks may be positive, neutral, or negative. Understanding the bidirectional nature of these interactions is a fundamental prerequisite for the assessment of the potential evolutionary consequences of facilitation. In a global study combining observational and experimental approaches, we quantified the impact of the cover and richness of species associated with alpine cushion plants on reproductive traits of the benefactor cushions. We found a decline in cushion seed production with increasing cover of cushion-associated species, indicating that being a benefactor came at an overall cost. The effect of cushion-associated species was negative for flower density and seed set of cushions, but not for fruit set and seed quality. Richness of cushion-associated species had positive effects on seed density and modulated the effects of their abundance on flower density and fruit set, indicating that the costs and benefits of harboring associated species depend on the composition of the plant assemblage. Our study demonstrates 'parasitic' interactions among plants over a wide range of species and environments in alpine systems, and we consider their implications for the possible selective effects of interactions between benefactor and beneficiary species. PMID:24329871

  2. FACILITATION OF BI-DIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIPS IN PIGEONS USING A TRANSFER TASK AFTER TRAINING IN DISCRIMINATION OF OWN BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉS GARCÍA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in which 10 pigeons were trained in a task of conditional discrimination of their ownbehavior. The birds learned that when the sample had consisted on responding to the left (right with two white keys,they should choose the red (green comparison to be reinforced. Once the animals had learned this task, they werepassed to a test phase. In short, 5 pigeons were trained in a positive transfer, where the sample was now the red (greenkey they had to choose the left (right comparison to obtain the reinforcer. On the contrary, the other 5 pigeons receiveda training of negative transfer, where the task consisted in that with a red (green sample they should choose the right(left comparison to be reinforced. The obtained data indicate that the performance of those subjects of the group inwhich there was coherence among the phases went superior to that of those subjects of the group where there was notthis coherence. The results are interpreted in connection with the importance that the discrimination of the ownbehavior has in the derivation of bidirectional relationships.

  3. Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Leightner, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance and production interact. The ideal way of accounting for this interaction, when estimating production functions, is by picking the temporal length of observations so that they embed integer multiples of the production—maintenance cycles for all inputs. In contrast to labor and land, the production—maintenance cycles of capital sometimes vary tremendously in temporal length, which can make it impossible to implement the ideal method of accounting for the interaction between mainten...

  4. Skin grafting facilitates the maintenance of head recording chambers for neurophysiological recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong Ho; Dai, Chenkai; Della Santina, Charles C

    2013-05-15

    Maintaining a clean, quiescent tissue surface that is free of granulation and infection in the floor of a head-mounted chamber used for intracranial single-unit recording studies typically requires frequent cleaning. Considering the favourable outcomes of ontological surgical techniques that have long been used to create a dry, skin-lined mastoid cavity in patients with chronic otitis media, skin should be an ideal biological dressing to cover otherwise exposed dura mater in recording chambers. In chambers that required frequent cleaning, we harvested a thin layer of skin without hair follicles from the medial surface of the upper arms of two Rhesus monkeys and grafted the skin on the exposed dura surface. Each case resulted in a clean, dry, insensate, self-healing, easily maintained tissue surface that remained healthy despite the reduced frequency of chamber maintenance. We recommend this technique to reduce the potential for infection, to prevent cerebral spinal fluid leakage or bleeding in experiment and to minimise animal anxiety that might otherwise result from frequent chamber cleanings. PMID:23411123

  5. Formation and maintenance of ventilatory long-term facilitation require NMDA but not non-NMDA receptors in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ying; Ling, Liming

    2008-09-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism in the phrenic motonucleus area eliminates phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF; a persistent augmentation of phrenic nerve activity after episodic hypoxia) in anesthetized rats. However, whether NMDA antagonism can eliminate ventilatory LTF (vLTF) in awake rats is unclear. The role of non-NMDA receptors in LTF is also unknown. Serotonin receptor antagonism before, but not after, episodic hypoxia eliminates pLTF, suggesting that serotonin receptors are required for induction, but not maintenance, of pLTF. However, because NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors are directly involved in mediating the inspiratory drive to phrenic, hypoglossal, and intercostal motoneurons, we hypothesized that these receptors are required for both formation and maintenance of vLTF. vLTF, induced by five episodes of 5-min poikilocapnic hypoxia (10% O(2)) with 5-min normoxia intervals, was measured with plethysmography in conscious adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Either (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV; NMDA antagonist, 1.5 mg/kg) or 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; non-NMDA antagonist, 10 mg/kg) was systemically (ip) injected approximately 30 min before hypoxia. APV was also injected immediately after or 20 min after episodic hypoxia in additional groups. As control, vehicle was similarly injected in each rat 1-2 days before. Regardless of being injected before or after episodic hypoxia, vehicle did not alter vLTF ( approximately 23%), whereas APV eliminated vLTF while having little effect on baseline ventilation or hypoxic ventilatory response. In contrast, CNQX enhanced vLTF ( approximately 34%) while decreasing baseline ventilation. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of NMDA but not non-NMDA receptors is necessary for formation and maintenance of vLTF in awake rats. PMID:18583381

  6. Interferon-γ facilitates hepatic antiviral T cell retention for the maintenance of liver-induced systemic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhutian; Li, Lu; Chen, Yongyan; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-05-30

    Persistent exposure to liver pathogens leads to systemic antigen-specific tolerance, a major cause of chronicity during hepatotropic infection. The mechanism regarding how this systemic tolerance is maintained remains poorly elucidated. In a well established mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence-induced systemic tolerance, we observed that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) deficiency led to complete loss of tolerance, resulting in robust anti-HBV responses upon peripheral vaccination. The recovery of vaccine-induced anti-HBV responses was mainly caused by the retained antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells rather than decreased functional inhibitory cells in the periphery. Mechanistically, HBV persistence induced sustained hepatic CD4(+) T cell-derived IFN-γ production. IFN-γ was found to promote CXCL9 secretion from liver-resident macrophages. This T cell chemokine facilitated the retention of antiviral CD4(+) T cells in the liver in a CXCR3-dependent manner. Hepatic sequestrated antiviral CD4(+) T cells subsequently underwent local apoptotic elimination partially via cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 ligation. These findings reveal an unexpected tolerogenic role for IFN-γ during viral persistence in the liver, providing new mechanistic insights regarding the maintenance of systemic antigen-specific tolerance during HBV persistence. PMID:27139489

  7. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  8. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...

  9. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  10. Formation and maintenance of ventilatory long-term facilitation require NMDA but not non-NMDA receptors in awake rats

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Michelle; Liu, Chun; Cao, Ying; Ling, Liming

    2008-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism in the phrenic motonucleus area eliminates phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF; a persistent augmentation of phrenic nerve activity after episodic hypoxia) in anesthetized rats. However, whether NMDA antagonism can eliminate ventilatory LTF (vLTF) in awake rats is unclear. The role of non-NMDA receptors in LTF is also unknown. Serotonin receptor antagonism before, but not after, episodic hypoxia eliminates pLTF, suggesting that serotonin recept...

  11. Maintenance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations

  12. Bidirectional grating compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Zhaoyang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Yanqi; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin

    2016-07-01

    A bidirectional grating compressor for chirped pulse amplifiers is presented. It compresses a laser beam simultaneously in two opposite directions. The pulse compressor is shown to promote chirped pulse amplifiers' output energy without grating damages. To verify the practicability, an experiment is carried out. In addition, a crosscorrelation instrument is designed and set up to test the time synchronization between these two femtosecond pulses.

  13. ac bidirectional motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  14. Improved Bidirectional Exact Pattern Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Iftikhar; Hassan Kazmi, Syed Zaki; Ali Khan, Israr; Mehmood, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    In this research, we present an improved version of Bidirectional (BD) exact pattern matching (EPM) algorithm to solve the problem of exact pattern matching. Improved-Bidirectional (IBD) exact pattern matching algorithm introduced a new idea of scanning partial text window (PTW) as well with the pattern to take decision of moving pattern to the right of partial text window. IBD algorithm compares the characters of pattern to selected text window (STW) from both sides simultaneously as BD....

  15. Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.

  16. A Chronic Generalized Bi-directional Brain-Machine Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Adam; Stanslaski, Scott; Cong, Peng; Jensen, Randy; Afshar, Pedram; Ullestad, Dave; Moran, Dan; Denison, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and built by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercially approved neural stimulator. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from a market-approved neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing approved therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic clinical research, such as four channel...

  17. EPR design for maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventive maintenance is very important in achieving high plant availability. For the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) preventive maintenance has been carefully addressed in the design stage. This is particularly necessary because of the traditionally different maintenance strategies employed in France and Germany. This paper emphasizes the following features introduced in the ERP design to minimize the duration of the refueling outage: (1) containment accessibility during power operation; (2) overall plant layout to facilitate inspections and maintenances within the containment; and (3) safety system design for enabling preventive maintenance during power operation. (author)

  18. The Long Non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS2 Facilitates the Maintenance of Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells in Hypoxic Niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mineo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have an undefined role in the pathobiology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. These tumors are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous with transcriptome subtype-specific GBM stem-like cells (GSCs that adapt to the brain tumor microenvironment, including hypoxic niches. We identified hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha-antisense RNA 2 (HIF1A-AS2 as a subtype-specific hypoxia-inducible lncRNA, upregulated in mesenchymal GSCs. Its deregulation affects GSC growth, self-renewal, and hypoxia-dependent molecular reprogramming. Among the HIF1A-AS2 interactome, IGF2BP2 and DHX9 were identified as direct partners. This association was needed for maintenance of expression of their target gene, HMGA1. Downregulation of HIF1A-AS2 led to delayed growth of mesenchymal GSC tumors, survival benefits, and impaired expression of HMGA1 in vivo. Our data demonstrate that HIF1A-AS2 contributes to GSCs’ speciation and adaptation to hypoxia within the tumor microenvironment, acting directly through its interactome and targets and indirectly by modulating responses to hypoxic stress depending on the subtype-specific genetic context.

  19. Bidirectional power converter control electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this program was to design, build, test, and deliver a set of control electronics suitable for control of bidirectional resonant power processing equipment of the direct output type. The program is described, including the technical background, and results discussed. Even though the initial program tested only the logic outputs, the hardware was subsequently tested with high-power breadboard equipment, and in the testbed of NASA contract NAS3-24399. The completed equipment is now operating as part of the Space Station Power System Test Facility at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  20. Bidirectional lexical-gustatory synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, François; Beaufils, Guillaume-Alexandre; Poirier, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    In developmental lexical-gustatory synesthesia, specific words (inducers) can trigger taste perceptions (concurrents) and these synesthetic associations are generally stable. We describe a case of multilingual lexical-gustatory synesthesia for whom some synesthesias were bidirectional as some tastes also triggered auditory word associations. Evoked concurrents could be gustatory but also tactile sensations. In addition to words and pseudowords, many voices were effective inducers, suggesting increased connections between cortical taste areas and both voice-selective and language-selective areas. Lasting changes in some evoked tastes occurred during childhood suggesting that some plasticity can be present after the initial learning of associations. Inducers were often linked to taste concurrents phonologically or semantically, but also through identifiable childhood episodes (persons or events). Several inducers were phonologically linked to episodic inducers suggesting a process of secondary acquisition for many inducers. Implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:21296005

  1. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing

  2. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  3. Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujiie, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    The issue of trade facilitation has been increasingly highlighted among business and trading communities as they would like to reduce the costs of international transactions of goods and services. Trade facilitation is a broad term: there are a number of international agreements relating to trade facilitation, and a number of international organizations involved in this area. Recognizing the importance of trade facilitation and after several years of exploratory work on government trade facil...

  4. Bidirectional reflection effects in practical integrating spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J R; Walker, J A; Stancil, M M

    2015-10-20

    Integrating spheres play a central role in radiometric instrument calibration, surface optical property measurement, and radiant source characterization. Our work involves a simulation, based on the Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) of bidirectional reflections within a practical integrating sphere pierced with two viewing ports. We used data from the literature to create an empirical model for the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRF) of Spectralon suitable for use in the MCRT environment. The ratio of power escaping through the two openings is shown to vary linearly with wall absorptivity for both diffuse and bidirectional reflections. The sensitivity of this ratio to absorptivity is shown to be less when reflections are weakly bidirectional. PMID:26560384

  5. Image Captioning with Deep Bidirectional LSTMs

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Haojin; Bartz, Christian; Meinel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an end-to-end trainable deep bidirectional LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory) model for image captioning. Our model builds on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and two separate LSTM networks. It is capable of learning long term visual-language interactions by making use of history and future context information at high level semantic space. Two novel deep bidirectional variant models, in which we increase the depth of nonlinearity transition in different way, are propose...

  6. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Paik, Jamie; Wood, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso-and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys-high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity-their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180 degrees motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the foldin...

  7. The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ibarra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is considered an important modulator of the immune response. Thus, a lack of sleep can weaken immunity, increasing organism susceptibility to infection. For instance, shorter sleep durations are associated with a rise in suffering from the common cold. The function of sleep in altering immune responses must be determined to understand how sleep deprivation increases the susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. There are several explanations for greater susceptibility to infections after reduced sleep, such as impaired mitogenic proliferation of lymphocytes, decreased HLA-DR expression, the upregulation of CD14+, and variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which have been observed during partial sleep deprivation. Also, steroid hormones, in addition to regulating sexual behavior, influence sleep. Thus, we hypothesize that sleep and the immune-endocrine system have a bidirectional relationship in governing various physiological processes, including immunity to infections. This review discusses the evidence on the bidirectional effects of the immune response against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections on sleep patterns and how the lack of sleep affects the immune response against such agents. Because sleep is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, these situations must be adapted to elicit changes in sleep patterns and other physiological parameters during the immune response to infections to which the organism is continuously exposed.

  8. Bidirectional Microglia-Neuron Communication in the Healthy Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpong B. Eyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  9. A Multiscale Bidirectional Coupling Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Hlastala, Michael P.; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    The lung is geometrically articulated across multiple scales from the trachea to the alveoli. A major computational challenge is to tightly link ODEs that describe lower scales to 3D finite element or finite volume models of airway mechanics using iterative communication between scales. In this study, we developed a novel multiscale computational framework for bidirectionally coupling 3D CFD models and systems of lower order ODEs. To validate the coupling framework, a four and eight generation Weibel lung model was constructed. For the coupled CFD-ODE simulations, the lung models were truncated at different generations and a RL circuit represented the truncated portion. The flow characteristics from the coupled models were compared to untruncated full 3D CFD models at peak inhalation and peak exhalation. Results showed that at no time or simulation was the difference in mass flux and/or pressure at a given location between uncoupled and coupled models was greater than 2.43%. The flow characteristics at prime locations for the coupled models showed good agreement to uncoupled models. Remarkably, due to reuse of the Krylov subspace, the cost of the ODE coupling is not much greater than uncoupled full 3D-CFD computations with simple prescribed pressure values at the outlets.

  10. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso- and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys—high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity—their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180° motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the folding sections. The actuator has a thin ( < 1 mm) profile, making it appropriate for use in robotic origami. Various design parameters and fabrication variants are described and experimentally explored in the actuator prototype. (paper)

  11. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiu, Henry [Research Engineer; van Dam, Cornelis P. [Professor

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn

  12. Secure Bidirectional Communication Protocol without Quantum Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. J.; Man, Z. X.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter we propose a theoretical deterministic secure direct bidirectional quantum communication protocol by using swapping quantum entanglement and local unitary operations, in which the quantum channel for photon transmission can be discarded, hence any attack with or without eavesdropping or even the destructive attack without scruple is impossible.

  13. Image fusion using bi-directional similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Infrared images are widely used in the practical applications to capture abundant information. However, it is still challenging to enhance the infrared image by the visual image. In this paper, we propose an effective method using bidirectional similarity. In the proposed method, we aim to find an optimal solution from many feasible solutions without introducing intermediate image. We employ some priori constraints to meet the requirements of image fusion which can be detailed to preserve both good characteristics in the infrared image and spatial information in the visual image. In the iterative step, we use the matrix with the square of the difference between images to integrate the image holding most information. We call this matrix the bidirectional similarity distance. By the bidirectional similarity distance, we can get the transitive images. Then, we fuse the images according to the weight. Experimental results show that, compared to the traditional image fusion algorithm, fusion images from bidirectional similarity fusion algorithm have greatly improved in the subjective vision, entropy, structural similarity index measurement. We believe that the proposed scheme can have a wide applications.

  14. Optical bidirectional beacon based visible light communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Sewaiwar, Atul; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2015-10-01

    In an indoor bidirectional visible light communications (VLC), a line-of-sight (LOS) transmission plays a major role in obtaining adequate performance of a VLC system. Signals are often obstructed in the LOS transmission path, causing an effect called optical shadowing. In the absence of LOS, the performance of the VLC system degrades significantly and, in particular, at uplink transmission this degradation becomes severe due to design constraints and limited power at uplink devices. In this paper, a novel concept and design of an optical bidirectional beacon (OBB) is presented as an efficient model to counter the performance degradation in a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) VLC system. OBB is an independent operating bidirectional transceiver unit installed on walls, composed of red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors (PDs) and color filters. OBB improves the coverage area in the form of providing additional or alternate paths for transmission and enhances the performance of the VLC system in terms of bit error rate (BER). To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, simulations were carried out under optical shadowing conditions at various locations in an indoor environment. The simulation results and analysis show that the implementation of OBB improves the performance of the VLC system significantly, especially when the LOS bidirectional transmission paths are completely or partially obstructed. PMID:26480168

  15. Diffusion stabilizes cavity solitons in bidirectional lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Arjona, Isabel; Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor; Redondo, Javier; Staliunas, Kestutis; Roldan, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    We study the influence of field diffusion on the spatial localized structures (cavity solitons) recently predicted in bidirectional lasers. We find twofold positive role of the diffusion: 1) it increases the stability range of the individual (isolated) solitons; 2) it reduces the long-range interaction between the cavity solitons. Latter allows the independent manipulation (writing and erasing) of individual cavity solitons.

  16. Intergenerational Transmission in a Bidirectional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Mol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the study of parent-child relationships view intergenerational transmission as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transfer their values, beliefs, and practices to their children. Furthermore, the focus of these unidirectional approaches regarding children's internalisation processes is on continuity or the transmission of similar values, beliefs, and practices from parents to children. Analogous unidirectional perspectives have also influenced the domain of family therapy. In this paper a cognitive-bidirectional and dialectical model of dynamics in parent-child relationships is discussed in which the focus is on continual creation of novel meanings and not just reproduction of old ones in the bidirectional transmission processes between parents and children. Parents and children are addressed as full and equally agents in their interdependent relationship, while these relational dynamics are embedded within culture. This cultural context complicates bidirectional transmission influences in the parent-child relationship as both parents and children are influenced by many other contexts. Further, current research in the domain of parent-child relationships and current concepts of intergenerational transmission in family therapy are reviewed from a bidirectional cognitive-dialectical perspective.

  17. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement.

  18. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold;

    2014-01-01

    using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  19. Maintenance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance program of nuclear power plant (NPP) was decided by safety and economics. Safety was not always compatible with economics. Management of NPP's maintenance was to adjust and promote maintenance action taking into account of economics and safety. From securities report from 2000 to 2002 fiscal year, generation cost of NPP was calculated 8.3 Yen/kWh (capacity factor=78%) compared with 10.0 Yen/kWh (capacity factor=41%) of thermal power. Reduction or suppression of generation cost requested to reduce fuel and operation and maintenance cost or to increase power generation capacity. Increase of operating years and upgrade of capacity factor contributed to reduce generation cost and then aging measures for lifecycle extension of NPP was important as well as securing high capacity factor without failures or troubles of NPP with adequate maintenance action. Maintenance program was arranged to decide scope of inspection and repair and measures based on evaluated data. Use of risk information was recommended for reliable maintenance. Safety, quality assurance and schedule of maintenance work were supervised as well as radiation protection and occupational safety. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  1. Maintenance Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. McCree

    Three methods for the preparation of maintenance budgets are discussed--(1) a traditional method, inconclusive and obsolete, based on gross square footage, (2) the formula approach method based on building classification (wood-frame, masonry-wood, masonry-concrete) with maintenance cost factors for each type plus custodial service rates by type of…

  2. Bidirectional Texture Function Simultaneous Autoregressive Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Michal

    Berlin: Springer, 2012, s. 149-159. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7252). ISBN 978-3-642-32435-2. ISSN 0302-9743. [MUSCLE. Pisa (IT), 13.12.2011-15.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture analysis * texture synthesis * data compression * virtual reality Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/haindl-bidirectional texture function simultaneous autoregressive model.pdf

  3. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  4. Robust bidirectional links for photonic quantum networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Shi; Yung, Man-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibers are widely used as one of the main tools for transmitting not only classical but also quantum information. We propose and report an experimental realization of a promising method for creating robust bidirectional quantum communication links through paired optical polarization-maintaining fibers. Many limitations of existing protocols can be avoided with the proposed method. In particular, the path and polarization degrees of freedom are combined to deterministically create a photonic decoherence-free subspace without the need for any ancillary photon. This method is input state-independent, robust against dephasing noise, postselection-free, and applicable bidirectionally. To rigorously quantify the amount of quantum information transferred, the optical fibers are analyzed with the tools developed in quantum communication theory. These results not only suggest a practical means for protecting quantum information sent through optical quantum networks but also potentially provide a new physical platform for enriching the structure of the quantum communication theory. PMID:26824069

  5. Design and Implementation of Bidirectional Dijkstra Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付梦印; 李杰; 周培德

    2003-01-01

    Bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm whose time complexity is (1)/(8)O(n2) is proposed. The theory foundation is that the classical Dijkstra algorithm has not any directional feature during searching the shortest path. The algorithm takes advantage of the adjacent link and the mechanism of bidirectional search, that is, the algorithm processes the positive search from start point to destination point and the negative search from destination point to start point at the same time. Finally, combining with the practical application of route-planning algorithm in embedded real-time vehicle navigation system (ERTVNS), one example of its practical applications is given, analysis in theory and the experimental results show that compared with the Dijkstra algorithm, the new algorithm can reduce time complexity, and guarantee the searching precision, it satisfies the needs of ERTVNS.

  6. Extended Bidirectional Texture Function Moving Average Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Michal

    Praha: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, 2015 - (Ambrož, P.; Masáková, Z.), s. 1-7 [Doktorandské dny 2015. Praha (CZ), 20.11.2015,27.11.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bidirectional texture function * moving average random field model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/havlicek-0455325.pdf

  7. Preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information contained in this paper should be used in conjunction with the maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer of each valve. When there is any question or conflict between the procedure described and the manufacturer's, the author suggests determining the best method for the applications. A good long range preventative maintenance program for valves will eliminate costly repairs or replacement of valves long before their time. A little flush, lube, and what was once called elbow grease will also go a long way in reducing your downtime and maintenance budget. This paper will discuss one of the most misunderstood theories concerning valve maintenance, i.e., that periodic maintenance of valves includes the injection of sealants. Sealants are injected into valves as a secondary seal for most valves. Under normal conditions, valves do not require sealant injection. Solid fillers in sealants tend to plug the system making it virtually impossible to inject either sealant or a lubricant, requiring the injection of flush or cleaners to dislodge the solids. Topics covered in this paper will range from general maintenance requirements to valve flushing, cleaning and lubrication

  8. Bidirectional pumped high power Raman fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Q; Yan, P; Li, D; Sun, J; Wang, X; Huang, Y; Gong, M

    2016-03-21

    This paper presents a 3.89 kW 1123 nm Raman all-fiber laser with an overall optical-to-optical efficiency of 70.9%. The system consists of a single-wavelength (1070nm) seed and one-stage bidirectional 976 nm non-wavelength-stabilized laser diodes (LDs) pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The unique part of this system is the application of non-wavelength-stabilized LDs in high power bidirectional pumping configuration fiber amplifier via refractive index valley fiber combiners. This approach not only increases the pump power, but also shortens the length of fiber by avoiding the usage of multi-stage amplifier. Through both theoretical research and experiment, the bidirectional pumping configuration presented in this paper proves to be able to convert 976 nm pump laser to 1070 nm laser via Yb3+ transfer, which is then converted into 1123 nm Raman laser via the first-order Raman effect without the appearance of any higher-order Raman laser. PMID:27136862

  9. Bidirectional Conversion between CAD Model and TRIPOLI Model: An Extending Function of MCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Lia, Y.; Ding, A.; Wua, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Chang, H. [Institute of nuclear and new energy technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    TRIPOLI is a Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport code which can be applied to nuclear analysis of complex nuclear devices; however, modeling of a complex geometry for TRIPOLI computation is a time-consuming and error-prone task. MCAM (Monte Carlo automatic modeling system) is an interface code that can facilitate MC modeling by employing Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology. An extended function of MCAM was developed to implement the bidirectional conversion between CAD model and TRIPOLI model. Different geometry representations of CAD model and TRIPOLI model, as well as the process of bidirectional conversion between the two representations were introduced. ITER benchmark model, a complex fusion system, was converted into TRIPOLI model for validation, On the basis of the converted model, actual calculation of neutron flux on inboard blanket was performed, and the results were compared with that of MCNP calculation, which showed a good agreement. (authors)

  10. CANDU plant maintenance: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU units have long been recognized for their exceptional safety and reliability. Continuing development in the maintenance area has played a key role in achieving this performance level. For over two decades, safety system availability has been monitored closely and system maintenance programs adjusted accordingly to maintain high levels of performance. But as the plants approach mid life in a more competitive environment and component aging becomes a concern, new methods and techniques are necessary. As a result, recent developments are moving the maintenance program largely from a corrective and preventive approach to predictive and condition based maintenance. The application of these techniques is also being extended to safety related systems. These recent developments include use of reliability centred methods to define system maintenance requirements and strategies. This approach has been implemented on a number of systems at Canadian CANDU plants with positive results. The pilot projects demonstrated that the overall maintenance effort remained relatively constant while the system performance improved. It was also possible to schedule some of the redundant component maintenance during plant operation without adverse impact on system availability. The probabilistic safety assessment was found to be useful in determining the safety implications of component outages. These new maintenance strategies are now making use of predictive and condition based maintenance techniques to anticipate equipment breakdown and schedule preventive maintenance as the need arises rather than time based. Some of these techniques include valve diagnostics, vibration monitoring, oil analysis, thermography. Of course, these tools and techniques must form part of an overall maintenance management system to ensure that maintenance becomes a living program. To facilitate this process and contain costs, new information technology tools are being introduced to provide system engineers

  11. Recent Advances in Bidirectional Modeling and Structural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Satyam; Yu, Wen; Li, Xiaoou

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of building structure modeling and control under bidirectional seismic waves. It focuses on different types of bidirectional control devices, control strategies, and bidirectional sensors used in structural control systems. This paper also highlights the various issues like system identification techniques, the time-delay in the system, estimation of velocity and position from acceleration signals, and optimal placement of the sensors and control devices. The i...

  12. Recent Advances in Bidirectional Modeling and Structural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Satyam Paul; Wen Yu; Xiaoou Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of building structure modeling and control under bidirectional seismic waves. It focuses on different types of bidirectional control devices, control strategies, and bidirectional sensors used in structural control systems. This paper also highlights the various issues like system identification techniques, the time-delay in the system, estimation of velocity and position from acceleration signals, and optimal placement of the sensors and control devices. Th...

  13. Improved Approach for Exact Pattern Matching (Bidirectional Exact Pattern Matching)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Iftikhar; Kausar, Samina; Hussain, Liaqat; Asif Khan, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In this research we present Bidirectional exact pattern matching algorithm [20] in detail. Bidirectional (BD) exact pattern matching (EPM) introduced a new idea to compare pattern with Selected Text Window (STW) of text string by using two pointers (right and left) simultaneously in searching phase. In preprocessing phase Bidirectional EPM algorithm improved the shift decision by comparing rightmost and mismatched character of Partial Text Window (PTW) to the left of pattern at sa...

  14. Bidirectional A*: comparing balanced and symmetric heuristic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Henk; Pijls, Wim

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA widely known algorithm for ¯nding the shortest path in a network is Bidirectional A*. The version of bidirectional A* that is considered the most appropriate hitherto, uses so-called balanced heuristic estimates. In this paper, we focus on symmetric heuristic estimates. First, we show that bidirectional A* using the symmetric heuristic estimate provides us with a feasible approximation. Next a framework is introduced for solving the shortest path problem exactly. It turns out th...

  15. Emulating Realistic Bidirectional Spatial Channels for MIMO OTA Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2015-01-01

    downlink channel models, whereas uplink channel is often modeled as free space line-of-sight channel without fading. Modeling realistic bidirectional (i.e., both uplink and downlink) propagation environments is essential to evaluate any bidirectional communication systems. There have been works stressing...... configurations) in the uplink and downlink. The simulation results are further supported by measurements in a practical MPAC setup. The proposed algorithm is shown to be a valid method to emulate bidirectional spatial channel models....

  16. Design of Bi-Directional Hydrofoils for Tidal Current Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Tidal Current Turbines operate in flows which reverse direction. Bi-directional hydrofoils have rotational symmetry and allow such turbines to operate without the need for pitch or yaw control, decreasing the initial and maintenance costs. A numerical test-bed was developed to automate the simulations of hydrofoils in OpenFOAM and was utilized to simulate the flow over eleven classes of hydrofoils comprising a total of 700 foil shapes at different angles of attack. For promising candidate foil shapes physical models of 75 mm chord and 150 mm span were fabricated and tested in the University of New Hampshire High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HiCaT). The experimental results were compared to the simulations for model validation. The numerical test-bed successfully generated simulations for a wide range of foil shapes, although, as expected, the k - ω - SST turbulence model employed here was not adequate for some of the foils and for large angles of attack at which separation occurred. An optimization algorithm is currently being coupled with the numerical test-bed and additional turbulence models will be implemented in the future.

  17. Research on Remote Network Bidirectional Detect and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Ju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote network bidirectional detect and control technologies are the key factors to solve local network allopatry expansibility and management. With studying gateway integration technology, bidirectional VPN technology, identity authentication technology and dynamic host management technology can be integrated into gateway. Thus, bidirectional connect and control among allopatry local networks based on Internet can be solved. Whole area expansibility of local network is realized. With experiment, the model is proved to finish remote bidirectional interconnection of local network automatically and to obtain allopatry local users authority. The equipment detecting and controlling in remote local networks are realized.  

  18. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  19. Component maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A component maintenance system having a network linked to a data acquisition system, a data analysis system, a historical file of component design and inspection information, and a diagnostic system having the capability to perform structural analysis of discontinuities identified by the data acquisition system. The network nodes may be located apart from each other, for example in the maintenance of a nuclear power plant steam generator, the data acquisition system may be located in a high radiation area while the data analysis system is safely located away from the radiation areas. Furthermore, the diagnostic system and the file of component design and inspection history information may be centrally located and sheared to support component evaluations being conducted in numerous geographic locations. Network communication facilitates the rapid evaluation of discontinuities, thereby permitting the inspection plan to be modified as the inspection results are obtained. (author) figs

  20. Secure Computation in a Bidirectional Relay

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, Navin; Thangaraj, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional relaying, where a relay helps two user nodes to exchange equal length binary messages, has been an active area of recent research. A popular strategy involves a modified Gaussian MAC, where the relay decodes the XOR of the two messages using the naturally-occurring sum of symbols simultaneously transmitted by user nodes. In this work, we consider the Gaussian MAC in bidirectional relaying with an additional secrecy constraint for protection against a honest but curious relay. The constraint is that, while the relay should decode the XOR, it should be fully ignorant of the individual messages of the users. We exploit the symbol addition that occurs in a Gaussian MAC to design explicit strategies that achieve perfect independence between the received symbols and individual transmitted messages. Our results actually hold for a more general scenario where the messages at the two user nodes come from a finite Abelian group, and the relay must decode the sum within the group of the two messages. We pr...

  1. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells. PMID:21790010

  2. Personalized recommendation based on heat bidirectional transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo

    2016-02-01

    Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests based on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm based on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach based on heat bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches based on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.

  3. Synchronization of bidirectionally coupled chaotic Chen's system with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents synchronization scheme for time-delayed linearly bidirectionally coupled chaotic Chen's system. The method is based on linear stability analysis of hyperbolic fixed point. Here we derive a generic condition of global chaos synchronization for time-delayed chaotic Chen's system with linearly bidirectional coupling. The behavior of the system with and without coupling are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  4. Effects of Noise on Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yi-you; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation via a six-qubit cluster state in noisy environments, which includes the phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels. We analytically derive the fidelities of the asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation process in these two noise channels. We show that the fidelities only depend on the initial state and the noisy rate.

  5. The Maintenance and Reliability Initiative at Teck Focusing on the Mine Maintenance Department At Highland Valley Copper Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Adema

    2011-01-01

    There is significant opportunity to drive value by improving maintenance in mining. Maintenance represents approximately 20% of a mine’s operating costs, and influences production and capital spend. Teck has begun a coordinated Maintenance and Reliability Initiative (MRI) across seven mines. The MRI was begun at each mine with a year of accelerated change to maintenance processes and systems facilitated by a consultant. This paper focuses on Mine Maintenance at the Highland Valley Copper (HVC...

  6. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A. G.; Stanslaski, S. R.; Cong, P.; Jensen, R. M.; Afshar, P.; Ullestad, D.; Gupta, R.; Molnar, G. F.; Moran, D. W.; Denison, T. J.

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy.

  7. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A G; Stanslaski, S R; Cong, P; Jensen, R M; Afshar, P; Ullestad, D; Gupta, R; Molnar, G F; Moran, D W; Denison, T J

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy. PMID:21543839

  8. Opportune maintenance and predictive maintenance decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Edouard; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoît; Cocheteux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Conventional maintenance strategies on a single component are being phased out in favour of more predictive maintenance actions. These new kinds of actions are performed in order to control the global performances of the whole industrial system. They are anticipative in nature, which allows a maintenance expert to consider non-already-planned maintenance actions. Two questions naturally emerge: when to perform a predictive maintenance action; how a maintenance expert can take advantage of a g...

  9. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  10. Development of divertor remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER divertor is categorized as a scheduled maintenance component because of extreme heat and particle loads it is exposed to by plasma. It is also highly activated by 14 MeV neutrons. Reliable remote handling equipment and tools are required for divertor maintenance under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, the divertor is segmented into 60 cassettes, and each cassette weighing about 25 tons and maintained and replaced through four maintenance ports each 90 degrees. Divertor cassettes must be transported toroidally and radially for replacement through maintenance ports. Remote handling involving cassette movers and carriers for toroidal and radial transport has been developed. Under the ITER R and D program, technology critical to divertor cassette maintenance is being developed jointly by Japan, E.U., and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes divertor remote maintenance design and the status of technology development by the Japan Home Team. (author)

  11. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  12. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  13. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    ISEE 3 plasma and magnetic field data are used here to document the general characteristics of bidirectional electron heat flux events (BEHFEs). Significant field rotations often occur at the beginning and/or end of such events and, at times, the large-field rotations characteristic of 'magnetic clouds' are present. Approximately half of all BEHFEs are associated with and follow interplanetary shocks, while the other events have no obvious shock associations. When shock-associated, the delay from shock passage typically is about 13 hours, corresponding to a radial separation of about 0.16 AU. When independent of any shock association, BEHFEs typically are about 0.13 AU thick in the radial direction. It is suggested that BEHFEs are one of the more prominent signatures of coronal mass ejection events in the solar wind at 1 AU.

  14. A Moving Average Bidirectional Texture Function Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Michal; Haindl, Michal

    Vol. II. Heidelberg: Springer, 2013 - (Wilson, R.; Bors, A.; Hancock, E.; Smith, W.), s. 338-345. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8048). ISBN 978-3-642-40245-6. ISSN 0302-9743. [International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP 2013) /15./. York (GB), 27.08.2013-29.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BTF * texture analysis * texture synthesis * data compression Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/havlicek-a moving average bidirectional texture function model.pdf

  15. Model for bidirectional movement of cytoplasmic dynein

    CERN Document Server

    Sumathy, S

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein exhibits a directional processive movement on microtubule filaments and is known to move in steps of varying length based on the number of ATP molecules bound to it and the load that it carries. It is experimentally observed that dynein takes occasional backward steps and the frequency of such backward steps increases as the load approaches the stall force. Using a stochastic process model, we investigate the bidirectional movement of single head of a dynein motor. The probability for backward step is implemented based on Crook's fluctuation theorem of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We find that the movement of dynein motor is characterized with negative velocity implying backward motion beyond stall force. We observe that the motor moves backward for super stall forces by hydrolyzing the ATP exactly the same way as it does while moving forward for sub stall forces.

  16. Bidirectional LSTM-CRF Models for Sequence Tagging

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhiheng; Xu, Wei; Yu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a variety of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based models for sequence tagging. These models include LSTM networks, bidirectional LSTM (BI-LSTM) networks, LSTM with a Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer (LSTM-CRF) and bidirectional LSTM with a CRF layer (BI-LSTM-CRF). Our work is the first to apply a bidirectional LSTM CRF (denoted as BI-LSTM-CRF) model to NLP benchmark sequence tagging data sets. We show that the BI-LSTM-CRF model can efficiently use both past and fu...

  17. Effect of particle nonsphericity on bidirectional reflectance of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, M.I.; Rossow, W.B.; Macke, A.; Lacis, A.A. [Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the fractal ice particle method to study the differences in bidirectional reflectance caused by the differences in the single scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets and nonspherical ice crystals.

  18. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  19. Organisational challenges of maintenance work at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper working of the machinery is critical to NPP safety and productivity. Because maintenance routines and plant modifications are the activities that intervene most with the machinery, they are also the dominant sources of faults. Most of the human factor studies have relied on this fact. Due to the diversity, the temporal and spatial separation of the maintenance tasks, and the numerous competence requirements, focusing on a single task, special situation or a single psychological problem can only partially explain the requirements of maintenance work and the organisational challenges of effective maintenance. We have applied a cultural approach to maintenance work. Our aim has been to model the maintenance task and its psychological requirements and to characterise the features of organisational cultures in three NPP maintenance units. Results imply similarities and differences in the cultures and in the emphasis on the maintenance task. Maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives. These changes have been experienced as stressful among the personnel. The effect of changes on the reliability of maintenance should be considered. A challenge for maintenance is to be able to build organisational structures and practices that would facilitate the fulfilment of the psychological work characteristics. (orig.)

  20. Projective synchronization of chaotic systems with bidirectional nonlinear coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammada Ali Khan; Swarup Poria

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new scheme for constructing bidirectional nonlinear coupled chaotic systems which synchronize projectively. Conditions necessary for projective synchronization (PS) of two bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems are derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed PS scheme is discussed by taking as examples the so-called unified chaotic model, the Lorenz–Stenflo system and the nonautonomous chaotic Van der Pol oscillator. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  1. Bidirectional soft-switching converter-fed DC motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, TW; Chan, CC; Chau, KT

    1998-01-01

    Two new soft-switching DC-DC power converters, with the capabilities of bidirectional power flow and soft-switching (either zero-voltage transition or zero-current transition) are developed for DC motor drives. The proposed bidirectional zero-voltage-transition power converter possesses the definite advantages that both main transistors and rectifiers can switch with zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and unity device stresses during both motoring and regenerating modes of operation, while both the...

  2. An epistemic interpretation of bidirectional optimality based on signaling games

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To some, the relation between bidirectional optimality theory and game theory seems obvious: strong bidirectional optimality corresponds to Nash equilibrium in a strategic game (Dekker and van Rooij 2000). But in the domain of pragmatics this formally sound parallel is conceptually inadequate: the sequence of utterance and its interpretation cannot be modelled reasonably as a strategic game, because this would mean that speakers choose formulations independently of a meaning that they want to...

  3. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output volta...

  4. Evaluation of maintenance strategies of technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the maintenance strategies of technical systems in operating plants. The method combines an analysis of the historical data on faults and repairs with an analysis of the history of preventive action programs. The application of maintenance analysis in the reliability centred maintenance R and D project for the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant is referred here from the methodological point of view. In order to limit the analysis resources, a decision analytic method for screening of significant objects for maintenance analysis is needed. For the selected analysis significant objects, indicators on operability, and maintenance and testing effectiveness, are calculated. The maintenance history and planning data in the plant maintenance information system is used as input for the calculations. Selection of the items for detailed maintenance analysis from the analysis significant objects is based on deviating signals from the maintenance indicators. Their underlying data on failures and maintenance is studied in a systematic and detailed way. Justified changes in the maintenance action programs are then proposed to improve the operability of the maintenance critical items or the effectiveness in the use of resources. To facilitate generation of the maintenance indicators, and make the maintenance analysis more efficient, powerful and suitable data treatment and presentation tools are needed for analysis of the work order history. In a number of maintenance decisions, additional and conflicting criteria and even non-measurable objectives must be taken into account. Then a more formal decision analysis is useful for selection of the best solution. A tailored decision support procedure helps to clarify and justify the difficult decisions on e.g. replacement of components, investments in condition monitoring, or changes in designs or operability testing programs (author) (ml)

  5. Passive Resonant Bidirectional Converter with Galvanic Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblad, Nathan S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A passive resonant bidirectional converter system that transports energy across a galvanic barrier includes a converter using at least first and second converter sections, each section including a pair of transfer terminals, a center tapped winding; a chopper circuit interconnected between the center tapped winding and one of the transfer terminals; an inductance feed winding interconnected between the other of the transfer terminals and the center tap and a resonant tank circuit including at least the inductance of the center tap winding and the parasitic capacitance of the chopper circuit for operating the converter section at resonance; the center tapped windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a first common winding core and the inductance feed windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a second common winding core for automatically synchronizing the resonant oscillation of the first and second converter sections and transferring energy between the converter sections until the voltage across the pairs of transfer terminals achieves the turns ratio of the center tapped windings.

  6. Dynamic feature analysis in bidirectional pedestrian flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Winnie, Daamen; Serge, Paul Hoogendoorn; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of dynamic features of pedestrian flows is one of the most exciting topics in pedestrian dynamics. This paper focuses on the effect of homogeneity and heterogeneity in three parameters of the social force model, namely desired velocity, reaction time, and body size, on the moving dynamics of bidirectional pedestrian flows in the corridors. The speed and its deviation in free flows are investigated. Simulation results show that the homogeneous higher desired speed which is less than a critical threshold, shorter reaction time or smaller body size results in higher speed of flows. The free dynamics is more sensitive to the heterogeneity in desired speed than that in reaction time or in body size. In particular, an inner lane formation is observed in normal lanes. Furthermore, the breakdown probability and the start time of breakdown are focused on. This study reveals that the sizes of homogeneous desired speed, reaction time or body size play more important roles in affecting the breakdown than the heterogeneities in these three parameters do. Project supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61233001) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  7. Remote maintenance monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G. (Inventor); Owens, Richard C. (Inventor); Rochette, Donn A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A remote maintenance monitoring system retrofits to a given hardware device with a sensor implant which gathers and captures failure data from the hardware device, without interfering with its operation. Failure data is continuously obtained from predetermined critical points within the hardware device, and is analyzed with a diagnostic expert system, which isolates failure origin to a particular component within the hardware device. For example, monitoring of a computer-based device may include monitoring of parity error data therefrom, as well as monitoring power supply fluctuations therein, so that parity error and power supply anomaly data may be used to trace the failure origin to a particular plane or power supply within the computer-based device. A plurality of sensor implants may be rerofit to corresponding plural devices comprising a distributed large-scale system. Transparent interface of the sensors to the devices precludes operative interference with the distributed network. Retrofit capability of the sensors permits monitoring of even older devices having no built-in testing technology. Continuous real time monitoring of a distributed network of such devices, coupled with diagnostic expert system analysis thereof, permits capture and analysis of even intermittent failures, thereby facilitating maintenance of the monitored large-scale system.

  8. The Zen of Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen P.; Simmons, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes between training and facilitation, examines the belief system of a facilitator, and shares a process for moving from the familiar mind-set of the trainer to the zen (the practice of seeking the truth) of facilitation. (GLR)

  9. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  10. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3 has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements in the Southeastern US, NH3 concentrations decrease throughout the globe, up to 17 ppb in India and Southeastern China, with corresponding decreases in aerosol nitrate by up to 7 μg m−3. The ammonium (NH4+ soil pool in the bi-directional exchange model largely extends the NH3 lifetime in the atmosphere. Including bi-directional exchange generally increases NH3 gross emissions (7.1% and surface concentrations (up to 3.9 ppb throughout the globe in July, except in India and Southeastern China. In April and October, it decreases NH3 gross emissions in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., 43.6% in April in China and increases NH3 gross emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. Bi-directional exchange does not largely impact NH4+ wet deposition overall. While bi-directional exchange is fundamentally a better representation of NH3 emissions from fertilizers, emissions from primary sources are still underestimated and thus significant model biases remain when compared to in situ measurements in the US. The adjoint of bi-directional exchange has also been developed for the GEOS-Chem model and is used to investigate the sensitivity of NH3 concentrations with respect to soil pH and fertilizer application rate. This study thus lays the groundwork for future inverse modeling studies to more directly constrain these physical processes rather than tuning bulk uni-directional NH3 emissions.

  11. TPX remote maintenance and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment machine design incorporates comprehensive planning for efficient and safe component maintenance. Three programmatic decisions have been made to insure the successful implementation of this objective. First, the tokamak incorporates radiation shielding to reduce activation of components and limit the dose rate to personnel working on the outside of the machine. This allows most of the ex-vessel equipment to be maintained through conventional ''hands-on'' procedures. Second, to the maximum extent possible, low activation materials will be used inside the shielding volume. This resulted in the selection of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) for the vacuum vessel and PFC structures. The third decision stipulated that the primary in-vessel components will be replaced or repaired via remote maintenance tools specifically provided for the task. The component designers have been given the responsibility of incorporating maintenance design and for proving the maintainability of the design concepts in full-scale mockup tests prior to the initiation of final fabrication. Remote maintenance of the TPX machine is facilitated by general purpose tools provided by a special purpose design team. Major tools will include an in-vessel transporter, a vessel transfer system and a large component transfer container. In addition, tools such as manipulators and remotely operable impact wrenches will be made available to the component designers by this group. Maintenance systems will also provide the necessary controls for this equipment

  12. TPX remote maintenance and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) machine design incorporates comprehensive planning for efficient and safe component maintenance. Three programmatic decisions have been made to insure the successful implementation of this objective. First, the tokamak incorporates radiation shielding to reduce activation of components and limit the dose rate to personnel working on the outside of the machine. This allows most of the ex-vessel equipment to be maintained through conventional open-quotes hands-onclose quotes procedures. Second, to the maximum extent possible, low activation materials will be used inside the shielding volume. This resulted in the selection of Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) for the vacuum vessel and Plasma Facing Components (PFC) structures. The third decision stipulated that the primary in-vessel components will be replaced or repaired via remote maintenance tools specifically provided for the task. The component designers have been given the responsibility of incorporating maintenance design and for proving the maintainability of the design concepts in full-scale mockup tests prior to the initiation of final fabrication. Remote maintenance of the TPX machine is facilitated by general purpose tools provided by a special purpose design team. Major tools will include an in-vessel transporter, a vessel transfer system and a large component transfer container. In addition, tools such as manipulators and remotely operable impact wrenches will be made available to the component designers by this group. Maintenance systems will also provide the necessary controls for this equipment

  13. Activation and Inhibition of Posterior Parietal Cortex Have Bi-Directional Effects on Spatial Errors Following Interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Khan Foroughi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interruptions to ongoing mental activities are omnipresent in our modern digital world, but the brain networks involved in interrupted performance are not known, nor have the activation of those networks been modulated. Errors following interruptions reflect failures in spatial memory, whose maintenance is supported by a brain network including the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The present study therefore used bi-directional transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS of right PPC to examine the neuromodulation of spatial errors following interruptions, as well as performance on another PPC-dependent task, mental rotation. Anodal stimulation significantly reduced the number of interruption-based errors and increased mental rotation accuracy whereas cathodal stimulation significantly increased errors and reduced mental rotation accuracy. The results provide evidence for a causal role of the PPC in the maintenance of spatial representations during interrupted task performance.

  14. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  15. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  16. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  17. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly modulated semiconductor lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bindu M Krishna; Manu P John; V M Nandakumaran

    2010-02-01

    Chaotic synchronization of two directly modulated semiconductor lasers with negative delayed optoelectronic feedback is investigated and this scheme is found to be useful for efficient bidirectional communication between the lasers. A symmetric bidirectional coupling is identified as a suitable method for isochronal synchronization of such lasers. The optimum values of coupling and feedback strength that can provide maximum quality of synchronization are identified. This method is successfully employed for encoding/decoding both analog and digital messages. The importance of a symmetric coupling is demonstrated by studying the variation of decoding efficiency with respect to asymmetric coupling.

  18. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru; Miyauchi; Yanjun; Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirm low optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  19. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru Miyauchi; Yanjun Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirmlow optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  20. Maintenance and Condition-Based Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jin-hua; WANG Xue-Jun; ZHOU Rong; LIN Min; Olsson Erland

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of maintenance management is briefly introduced in this paper, from corrective maintenance to preventive maintenance. First, a range of condition monitoring and fault diagnosis techniques developed in different industries are surveyed; Second, many methods of condition monitoring are presented; Third, mathematical methods used in condition monitoring are given; Then the merits and shortcomings are discussed.Efficient maintenance policies are of fundamental importance in system engineering because of their fallbacks into the safety and economics of plant operation. Applying condition-based maintenance to a system can reduce the cost and extend the availability of facilities. With the advent of personal computers as fast and cost effective machines for data acquisition and processing of multiple signals some shortcomings mentioned in condition monitoring could be solved or reduced to some extent. These PCs can be a solution as a condition monitoring based maintenance system.

  1. Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Direct Communication by Using a GHZ State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Zhong-Xiao; XIA Yun-Jie

    2006-01-01

    @@ A controlled bidirectional quantum secret direct communication scheme is proposed by using a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. In the scheme, two users can exchange their secret messages simultaneously with a set of devices under the control of a third party. The security of the scheme is analysed and confirmed.

  2. Quantum Bidirectional Secure Direct Communication via Entanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; MAN Zhong-Xiao; XIA Yun-Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ In light of a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme using entanglement swapping [Chin. Phys.Lett. 22 (2005)18], by introducing additional local operations for encoding, we propose a bidirectional QSDC (BQSDC) protocol, in which two legitimate users can simultaneously exchange their respective messages.

  3. Bidirectional Quantum Teleportation by Using Five-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-03-01

    We propose a scheme for bidirectional quantum teleportation by using a five-qubit cluster state. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice.

  4. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and...

  5. Parenting and children's externalizing behavior: Bidirectionality during toddlerhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reporte

  6. Bidirectional Associations among Sensitive Parenting, Language Development, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36?months in a community sample of 174 families. In…

  7. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  8. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... mass at the end of the dialysis (54 +/- 19 mumol, P

  9. Isolated Boost Converter with Bidirectional Operation for Supercapacitor Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gökhan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an isolated bidirectional dc/dc converter based on primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). This topology is an efficient solution in low voltage high power applications due to its ability to handle high currents in the low voltage side. In this paper, the converter...

  10. Test, Control and Monitor System maintenance plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, David P.; Lougheed, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The maintenance requirements for Test, Control, and Monitor System (TCMS) and the method for satisfying these requirements prior to First Need Date (FND) of the last TCMS set are described. The method for satisfying maintenance requirements following FND of the last TCMS set will be addressed by a revision to this plan. This maintenance plan serves as the basic planning document for maintenance of this equipment by the NASA Payloads Directorate (CM) and the Payload Ground Operations Contractor (PGOC) at KSC. The terms TCMS Operations and Maintenance (O&M), Payloads Logistics, TCMS Sustaining Engineering, Payload Communications, and Integrated Network Services refer to the appropriate NASA and PGOC organization. For the duration of their contract, the Core Electronic Contractor (CEC) will provide a Set Support Team (SST). One of the primary purposes of this team is to help NASA and PGOC operate and maintain TCMS. It is assumed that SST is an integral part of TCMS O&M. The purpose of this plan is to describe the maintenance concept for TCMS hardware and system software in order to facilitate activation, transition planning, and continuing operation. When software maintenance is mentioned in this plan, it refers to maintenance of TCMS system software.

  11. Energy efficient maintenance. Project report; Energioptimerende vedligehold. Projektrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerg, J. (Center for Drift og Vedligehold, Frederici (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Skjershede Nielsen, P.; Holt, J. (NRGi Raadgivning A/S, Aarhus (Denmark)); Dam, M. (Energi Horsens, Horsens (Denmark)); Holk Lauridsen, V. (Teknologisk Institut, Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Together with four case companies, the project developed and tested a model for energy-efficient maintenance. In each of the companies, the model was adjusted through a cooperation process aiming at combining energy optimisation and maintenance as part of specific production optimisation. When correctly planned, energy-efficient maintenance is interesting for all companies. An overall solution was made, which can facilitate major energy savings and production efficiency improvement. (LN)

  12. A value-centric decision making framework for maintenance services outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Toossi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    The shift in mindset of decision makers, from maintenance being a “necessary evil” and “cost centre” to a “profit contributor” in manufacturing companies has driven outsourced maintenance suppliers to employ value-centric approaches in order to design more effective maintenance programs. A value assessment for maintenance outsourcing must facilitate the trade-off between cost-centric and value-centric approaches to enable the maintenance service providers to design more effe...

  13. Maintenance Free Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Muzakkir & Harish Hirani

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work the need of a Maintenance Free Bearings (MFB) is established. The paper presents preliminary friction calculations to highlight the ways to achieve maintenance free bearings. The existing technologies of well established maintenance free bearings are described. The hybridization of bearing technologies to achieve low cost maintenance free bearings has been exemplified. Finally a combination of passive magnetic repulsion and hydrodynamics ha...

  14. Optimization of surface maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present conference paper deals with methods of optimizing the surface maintenance of steel-made offshore installations. The paper aims at identifying important approaches to the problems regarding the long-range planning of an economical and cost effective maintenance program. The methods of optimization are based on the obtained experiences from the maintenance of installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. 3 figs

  15. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  16. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  17. Managing nuclear maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For utilities operating nuclear powerplants, the rules of the game continue to change. Conflicting regulatory pressures and a tougher competitive environment will make management's job more complicated and difficult in the 1990s. Dealing with these pressures successfully requires greater attention to maintenance effectiveness. Utilities can help shape their future environment by developing a well-planned strategy to guide their actions. Parts of the strategy that are discussed include developing a sound maintenance philosophy, selecting a service company, radiation exposure, and managing spare parts. This article also addresses the Swedish experience in maintenance, German philosophy regarding maintenance and the current maintenance practices of the Electricite de France

  18. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  19. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  20. Maintenance management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned principally with Maintenance Management systems and their effective introduction into organisations. Maintenance improvement is basically a problem of managing the maintenance department in the broadest sense. Improvement does not only lie in the area of special techniques, systems or procedures; although they are valuable tools, but rather in a balanced attack, carefully guided by management. Over recent years, maintenance systems have received the major emphasis and in many instances the selection of the system has become a pre-occupation, whereas the importance of each maintenance function must be recognised and good management practices applied to all maintenance activities. The ingredients for success in the implementation of maintenance management systems are summarised as: having a management committee, clear objectives, project approach using project management techniques and an enthusiastic leader, user managed and data processing supported project, realistic budget and an understanding of the financial audit requirements. (author)

  1. Bidirectional imperfect quantum teleportation with a single Bell state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, E. O.; Popov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present a bidirectional modification of the standard one-qubit teleportation protocol, where both Alice and Bob transfer noisy versions of their qubit states to each other by using single Bell state and auxiliary (trigger) qubits. Three schemes are considered: the first where the actions of parties are governed by two independent quantum random triggers, the second with single random trigger, and the third as a mixture of the first two. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation for all schemes and find a condition on correlation between trigger qubits in the mixed scheme which allows us to overcome the classical fidelity boundary of 2/3. We apply the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism to the quantum channels obtained in order to investigate an interplay between their ability to transfer the information, entanglement-breaking property, and auxiliary classical communication needed to form correlations between trigger qubits. The suggested scheme for bidirectional teleportation can be realized by using current experimental tools.

  2. A mixing evolution model for bidirectional microblog user networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Guo; Liu, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Microblogs have been widely used as a new form of online social networking. Based on the user profile data collected from Sina Weibo, we find that the number of microblog user bidirectional friends approximately corresponds with the lognormal distribution. We then build two microblog user networks with real bidirectional relationships, both of which have not only small-world and scale-free but also some special properties, such as double power-law degree distribution, disassortative network, hierarchical and rich-club structure. Moreover, by detecting the community structures of the two real networks, we find both of their community scales follow an exponential distribution. Based on the empirical analysis, we present a novel evolution network model with mixed connection rules, including lognormal fitness preferential and random attachment, nearest neighbor interconnected in the same community, and global random associations in different communities. The simulation results show that our model is consistent with real network in many topology features.

  3. Optimal Recursive Bidirection Prediction for Hyperspectral Image Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm named Optimal Recursive Bidirection Prediction (ORBP) for HyperSpetral Image (HSI) compression. Recursive Bidirection Prediction (RBP) is a good algorithm for HSI inter-band prediction. It's simple, efficient. But the algorithm can't get optimal prediction result under the sense of SNR. In this paper, the linear model of HSI is established, and the best prediction is deduced under the sense of SNR. The proposed method can get lower entropy after prediction. Computer simulation results show that compared with the traditional algorithm RBP, the proposed method ORBP has a great improvement by about 9.2738dB in SNR in average

  4. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-12-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals' neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.

  5. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.

  6. A Bidirectional Relationship between Conceptual Organization and Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Kaefer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between word learning and conceptual organization for preschool-aged children. We proposed a bidirectional model in which increases in word learning lead to increases in taxonomic organization, which, in turn, leads to further increases in word learning. In order to examine this model, we recruited 104 4-year olds from Head Start classrooms; 52 children participated in a two-week training program, and 52 children were in a control group. Results indicated that children in the training program learned more words and were more likely to sort taxonomically than children in the control condition. Furthermore, the number of words learned over the training period predicted the extent to which children categorized taxonomically. Additionally, this ability to categorize taxonomically predicted the number of words learned outside the training program, over and above the number of words learned in the program. These results suggest a bi-directional relationship between conceptual organization and word learning.

  7. Optimization Control of Bidirectional Cascaded DC-AC Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun

    reliability in bidirectional cascaded converter. This research work analyses the control strategies based on the topology of dual active bridges converter cascaded with a three phase inverter. It firstly proposed a dc link voltage and active power coordinative control method for this cascaded topology, and it...... can reduce dc link voltage fluctuations, enhancing the dc link voltage reliability in case of one sub converter failure. Then the bidirectional power flow effect is analyzed, and an important guide line is proposed for the design of the two stage cascaded converter system. Towards the different...... reduce the dc link voltage control system type number, which is capable to improve system stability. Afterwards, this dissertation comes up with the concept of front to end impedance control method for the two stage cascaded converter, and it can greatly improve the system stability. At last the thesis...

  8. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  9. A perturbation solution for interlaminar stresses in bidirectional laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers a thin elastic bidirectional symmetric composite laminate subjected to a uniform axial strain. All interlaminar stresses are determined by a zeroth-order perturbation analysis of the governing equations. The method of solution considers the laminate to be composed of an interior region (removed from the free edge) and a boundary layer region. The interior region is analyzed by dropping terms related to powers of the thickness-to-width ratio in the dimensionless elasticity equations. The boundary layer region is studied by introducing a stretching transformation to the governing equations. A uniform solution is then formed by satisfying Prandtl's matching principle of perturbation theory. Results for a four-layer bidirectional graphite-epoxy laminate are compared with existing finite-difference results. It is shown that the perturbation analysis provides more insight into the stress distribution near the free edge.

  10. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    in a number of applications. In this paper, the discharging energy efficiency definition is introduced. The proposed converter has been experimentally tested with the film capacitive load and the DEAP actuator, and the experimental results are shown together with the efficiency measurements.......This paper presents a high voltage DC-DC converter topology for bi-directional energy transfer between a low voltage DC source and a high voltage capacitive load. The topology is a bi-directional flyback converter with variable switching frequency control during the charge mode, and constant...... switching frequency control during the discharge mode. The converter is capable of charging the capacitive load from 24 V DC source to 2.5 kV, and discharges it to 0 V. The flyback converter has been analyzed in detail during both charge and discharge modes, by considering all the parasitic elements in the...

  11. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation via Seven-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Quan; Zha, Xin-Wei; Yu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new protocol of asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice wants to transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to transmit an arbitrary two qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. One only need perform the Bell-state measurements and single-qubit measurement.

  12. Measuring the reliability of MCMC inference with bidirectional Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, Roger B.; Ancha, Siddharth; Roy, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is one of the main workhorses of probabilistic inference, but it is notoriously hard to measure the quality of approximate posterior samples. This challenge is particularly salient in black box inference methods, which can hide details and obscure inference failures. In this work, we extend the recently introduced bidirectional Monte Carlo technique to evaluate MCMC-based posterior inference algorithms. By running annealed importance sampling (AIS) chains both ...

  13. Named Entity Recognition with Bidirectional LSTM-CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Jason P. C.; Nichols, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Named entity recognition is a challenging task that has traditionally required large amounts of knowledge in the form of feature engineering and lexicons to achieve high performance. In this paper, we present a novel neural network architecture that automatically detects word- and character-level features using a hybrid bidirectional LSTM and CNN architecture, eliminating the need for most feature engineering. We also propose a novel method of encoding partial lexicon matches in neural networ...

  14. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    DUDRIK Jaroslav; OLEJAR Martin; BERES Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  15. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  16. Angled multimode interferometer for bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Thomson, D. J.; Khokhar, A.Z.; S. Stanković; Mitchell, C. J.; Gardes, F. Y.; Penades, J. Soler; Mashanovich, G. Z.; Reed, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexer (WDM) on the silicon-on-insulator platform using two 4-channel angled multimode interferometers (AMMIs) sharing the same multimode interference waveguide. An excellent match of the peak transmission wavelength of each channel between the two AMMIs was achieved. The input and output access waveguides were arranged in a configuration such that the propagation of light of one AMMI in the multimode interference waveguide suf...

  17. A spiking Bidirectional Associative Memory for modeling intermodal priming

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, David; Paugam-Moisy, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Starting from a modular artificial neural system modelling the integration of several perceptive stimuli, this article proposes a new implementation of the central module performing a multimodal associative memory. A Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) has been emulated in temporal coding with spiking neurons. Since input patterns are dynamically encoded, the effects of the latency of evocation can be simulated with the ``spiking BAM\\'\\', thus adding temporal properties to the model. For h...

  18. Decompression of superior vena cava during bidirectional Glenn shunt

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni Venugopal; Mudunuri Ravikiran; Mulavisala Krishnaprasad; Byalal R

    2009-01-01

    Patients undergoing bi-directional Glenn shunt for various congenital anomalies of the heart will have their superior vena cava (SVC) clamped during the procedure. The duration of the procedure is variable, ranging from five to 30 minutes. This can affect the cerebral perfusion due to raised venous pressure [Cerebral blood flow = Mean arterial pressure − (Intracranial pressure + Central venous pressure)]. Shunting away the SVC blood is a well known technique to counter this probl...

  19. Bidirectional Influences Between Dimensions of Coparenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and bo...

  20. Bidirectional and persistent photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, Kenjiro [Research Centre for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Megro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan and CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films are described, which are bidirectional between metallic and insulating states and persistent within the laboratory time scale. The phenomena are due to the strong cross-coupling between electronic, magnetic, and elastic interactions. Among them, the elastic part is particularly important to make the process slow and the effect persistent or at least metastable. Observations supporting this view are presented.

  1. Bidirectional and persistent photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films are described, which are bidirectional between metallic and insulating states and persistent within the laboratory time scale. The phenomena are due to the strong cross-coupling between electronic, magnetic, and elastic interactions. Among them, the elastic part is particularly important to make the process slow and the effect persistent or at least metastable. Observations supporting this view are presented.

  2. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDRIK Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  3. The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junhui; Cao Gang; Ma Qingyong; Liu Han; Li Wei; Han Liang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer (PanCa) and diabetes has been confirmed by epidemiological studies, which provide evidence-based medical support for further research into the mechanisms involved in the interaction. We reviewed the literature regarding the role of diabetes in the generation and progression of PanCa and the mechanism by which PanCa induces diabetes for its malignant progression. The effect of antidiabetic drugs on the occurrence and prognosis of ...

  4. Bidirectional Propulsion of Devices Along the Gastrointestinal Tract Using Electrostimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, M. P. D.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a method for propelling devices such as video capsule endoscopes in either direction along the small intestines using electrostimulation-induced muscular contractions. When swallowed, passive diagnostic ‘one-shot’ devices rely on sporadic peristaltic movement, possibly missing vital ‘areas of interest’. This bidirectional propulsion method provides active control for that all-important ‘second look’. Design considerations, within the dimensional constraints, required a d...

  5. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS spring-2008 campaign

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lyapustin; C. K. Gatebe; R. Kahn; R. Brandt; J. Redemann; P. Russell; M. D. King; PEDERSEN, C.A.; S. Gerland; R. Poudyal; A. Marshak; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C; Hall, D.; A. Kokhanovsky

    2009-01-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ame...

  6. Aberration analysis and efficiency improvement of a bidirectional optical subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Huang, Zhangdi; Yu, Ziyan; Qian, Xiaoshi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Beckham; Lu, Yanqing

    2009-10-01

    An approach to improve the coupling efficiency of bidirectional optical subassembly (BOSA) modules is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We analyzed the wavefront aberration coefficients of a typical BOSA. It was found that the 45-deg wavelength filter induces coma and astigmatism, and then it further deteriorates the laser diode to fiber coupling. We measured the BOSA efficiencies based on a series of different filters. For a typical 0.5-mm filter, 25% coupling efficiency improvement was achieved by optimizing the filter parameters.

  7. A New Hard Switching Bidirectional Converter With High Power Density

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador Fani; Majid Delshad; Daryoosh Nazarpour

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new isolated dc-dc bidirectional converter is proposed. This converter consists of two transformers (flyback and forward) and only one switch in primary side and one switch in secondary side of transformers. In this converter energy transfers to the output in both on and off switch states so power density of this converter is high This converter controlled by PWM signal. Also this converter operates over a wide input voltage range. Theoretical analysis is presented and compu...

  8. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian;

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic...

  9. Bidirectional reflectance modeling of non-homogeneous plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Leaf bidirectional reflectance and transmittance distribution functions were measured for corn and soybean leaves. The measurements clearly show that leaves are complex scatterers and considerable specular reflectance is possible. Because of the character of leaf reflectance, true leaf reflectance is larger than the nadir reflectances that are normally used to represent leaves. A 3-dimensional reflectance model, named BIGAR (Bidirectional General Array Model), was developed and compared with measurements from corn and soybean. The model is based on the concept that heterogeneous canopies can be described by a combination of many subcanopies, which contain all the foliage, and these subcanopy envelopes can be characterized by ellipsoids of various sizes and shapes. The model/measurement comparison results indicate that this relatively simple model captures the essential character of row crop BRDF's. Finally, two soil BDRF models were developed: one represents soil particles as rectangular blocks and the other represents soil particles as spheres. The sphere model was found to be superior.

  10. E-maintenance Scenarios Based on Augmented Reality Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents architecture of augmented reality for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. This architecture allows implementing different scenarios which give to the technician possibilities to intervene on a breakdown device with a distant expert help. Each scenario is established according to machine parameters and technician competences. In our case, a hardware platform is designed to carry out e-maintenance scenarios. An example of e-maintenance scenario is then presented.

  11. Framework for Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Duarte, J. Caldeira; Garbatov, Y.;

    2010-01-01

    The present document presents a framework for maintenance planning. Maintenance plays a fundamental role in counteracting degradation effects, which are present in all infrastructure and industrial products. Therefore, maintenance planning is a very critical aspect to consider both during the...... design and during the whole life span of operational use, within an integrated framework founded on risk and reliability based techniques. The document addresses designers, decision makers and professionals responsible for or involved in establishing maintenance plans. The purpose of this document is to...... present maintenance as an integrated approach that needs to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled by proper qualitative and quantitative techniques. This document outlines the basic premises for maintenance planning and provides the general philosophies that can be followed and points to a best...

  12. Pump application and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear maintenance programs are typically organized by overall application, function, cost impact, and failure histories. Each maintenance program is uniquely tailored for each plant's specific goals and objectives. Most maintenance programs include pump maintenance within an application and/or a function. NMAC provides guidance on maintenance, troubleshooting, and applications of Deep Draft Vertical Centrifugal Pumps, Main Coolant Pump Seals, Feedwater Pumps, and Charging Pumps. Each maintenance guide includes a technical discussion of the design and operating issues which influence pump and component performance, reliability, and availability. The guides also discuss comprehensive inspection and corresponding repair Advisory groups consisting of utility, manufacturer, and regulatory representatives oversee the development of the NMAC guides, and review by utility personnel further augments the development process

  13. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  14. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  15. Maintenance of Photochemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Seçkin

    2010-01-01

    Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are widely used effective treatment modalities for many skin diseases. The data regarding the efficacy of maintenance narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) and psoralen and UVA (PUVA) therapies, the most commonly used photo(chemo) therapy methods, in the literature are limited and controversial. In this review article, the data and guidelines in the literature regarding maintenance NB-UVB and PUVA therapy in psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo, and mainten...

  16. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  17. Software evolution and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, Priyadarshi

    2014-01-01

    Software Evolution and Maintenance: A Practitioner's Approach is an accessible textbook for students and professionals, which collates the advances in software development and provides the most current models and techniques in maintenance.Explains two maintenance standards: IEEE/EIA 1219 and ISO/IEC14764Discusses several commercial reverse and domain engineering toolkitsSlides for instructors are available onlineInformation is based on the IEEE SWEBOK (Software Engineering Body of Knowledge)

  18. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  19. Analysis of maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics of the presentation include: (1) an analysis model and methods to evaluate maintenance action programs and the support decision to make changes in them and (2) to understand the maintenance strategies in a systems perspective as a basis for future developments. The subproject showed how systematic models for maintenance analysis and decision support, utilising computerised and statistical tool packages, can be taken into use for evaluation and optimisation of maintenance of active systems from the safety and economic point of view

  20. A Novel Bidirectional DC-DC Converter With Flyback Snubber For Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    DIVYA K.NAIR; ELIZABETH RAJAN

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid electric Vehicles combine the benefits of engine, electric motor and batteries to provide improved fueleconomy. A converter is needed in hybrid Electric Vehicle for charging and discharging of the batteries. So a charging anddischarging can be combined in one circuit topology known as bidirectional DC-DC converter. Here the output is completelyisolated from input, so an isolated bidirectional Dc-DC converter is used. In the bidirectional DC-DC converter, there occursovervoltage and ove...

  1. Facilitation of CRISPR adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR systems, as bacterial defenses against phages, logically must display in their functioning a sequence of at least three major steps. These, in order of occurrence, are “facilitation,” adaptation and interference, where the facilitation step is the main issue considered in this commentary. Interference is the blocking of phage infections as mediated in part by CRISPR spacer sequences. Adaptation, at least as narrowly defined, is the acquisition of these spacer sequences by CRISPR loci. ...

  2. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  3. Current understanding of the bi-directional relationship of major depression with inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messay Berhane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consistent evidence links major depression and its affective components to negative health outcomes. Although the pathways of these effects are likely complex and multifactorial, recent evidence suggests that innate inflammatory processes may play a role. An overview of current literature suggests that pathways between negative moods and inflammation are bi-directional. Indeed, negative moods activate peripheral physiologic mechanisms that result in an up regulation of systemic levels of inflammation. Conversely, peripheral inflammatory mediators signal the brain to affect behavioral, affective and cognitive changes that are consistent with symptoms of major depressive disorder. It is likely that these pathways are part of a complex feedback loop that involves the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and plays a role in the modulation of peripheral inflammatory responses to central and peripheral stimuli, in central responses to peripheral immune activation and in the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Further research is warranted to fully understand the role of central processes in this feedback loop, which likely contributes to the pathophysiology of mental and physical health.

  4. Bi-directional Effects of Peer Relationships and Adolescent Substance Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Jose, Paul E; Stuart, Jaimee

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the predictors of the onset and maintenance of substance use in adolescence is important because it is a recognized health risk. The present longitudinal study examined whether negative peer influence and peer connectedness predicted changes in adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and other illegal drug use, and reciprocally whether substance use predicted changes in peer relationships. Adolescents (N = 1940; 52 % female; 52 % European New Zealanders, 30 % Maori, 12 % Pacific Islander) aged 10-15 years completed measures annually for 3 years. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine bi-directional effects. Negative peer influence predicted increased use of all substances. In turn, alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use predicted increased negative peer influence, but this effect was inconsistent over time. Peer connectedness, predicted to diminish the frequency of substance use, was found to be unrelated to it. Breaking the reciprocal cycle between peer coercion and substance use would seem to be useful for reducing substance use. PMID:26391360

  5. Bi-directional WDM transmission by use of SOAs as inline amplifiers without isolators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle; Yu, Jianjun

    2001-01-01

    Error-free bi-directional transmission of 8×10 Gb/s signals over two inline SOAs is realized for the first time. It is demonstrated that SOAs can be used for inline amplifiers in bidirectional multi-wavelength transmission systems at 10 Gb/s without any isolator.......Error-free bi-directional transmission of 8×10 Gb/s signals over two inline SOAs is realized for the first time. It is demonstrated that SOAs can be used for inline amplifiers in bidirectional multi-wavelength transmission systems at 10 Gb/s without any isolator....

  6. Systematic analysis of maintenance strategies of technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes an approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the maintenance strategies of technical systems in operating power plants. In the Experience Based Reliability Centred Maintenance (EBRCM) approach, the analyses of the history of occurred faults and the preventive maintenance program are combined. Changes in the maintenance programs are proposed for reduction of faults or increasing the cost-efficiency of maintenance. The justification of changes is based on simple maintenance indicators and study of the underlying failure and maintenance data. To make the analysis resource-efficient and generate easily the maintenance indicators, suitable data analysis and warehouse tools are used. They facilitate the online access and treatment of the work orders and other planning information in plant information systems. In order to direct the analysis to the important items from maintenance point of view, the equipment of the plant are classified based on their importance for reaching the maintenance objectives such as plant safety, plant availability and worker protection. Maintenance optimisation is directed to those important equipment which exhibit a high number of failures. The other equipment of less maintenance importance, but which exhibit high preventive maintenance costs and low numbers of failures are also analysed to improve the cost-effectiveness of maintenance. After experiences from performing two case studies, both on a standby safety system and a continuously operating process system, Barsebdck Kraft AB adopted the experience based RCM approach as standard method for evaluation of the maintenance action programs and planning of modifications in them. The strength is the applicability and continuity of this method, i.e. each year again. (orig.)

  7. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents include…

  8. Development of in-vessel remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ITER system, such in-vessel components as blanket and divertor are treated as schedule maintenance components, and the remote handling equipment/tools required for in-vessel maintenance must be capable of handling a heavy payload with high precision, even under intense gamma ray radiation. To facilitate remote maintainability, the blanket and divertor are structurally segmented into modules and cassettes. In addition, a rail-mounted vehicle-type remote handling system and a cassette-type remote handling system have been developed for blanket and divertor maintenance, respectively. Critical technology relating to in-vessel maintenance is currently under extensive development in accordance with the ITER R and D program. This paper summarizes the Japanese Home Team's contributions to remote maintenance design and technology development and outlines the plan on fabrication and testing of full-scale remote handling equipment/tools for in-vessel maintenance. (author)

  9. Maintenance programme and periodic inspection of reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has been safely operated since 1983. The safety of RTP requires provisions in order to facilitate maintenance and appropriate functional testing and inspection. During the operation of RTP lifetime, maintenance, periodic testing and inspection are required to ensure the adequacy of safety status of the reactor and compliance with the operational limits and conditions (OLCs). To help achieve these objectives, several measures such as preventive, corrective, annual and semi-annual maintenance and condition based maintenance have been carried out to maintain the reactor systems towards successful and safe operation of RTP. This paper will report the current practice of RTP maintenance and also to share experience and problems to fulfill safety operation of reactor. In the future, a well structured and systematic maintenance program will be needed as a strategy to shorten the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor. (Author)

  10. Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayevitz Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN. A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM constellations.

  11. Asymmetries in bidirectional leader development of lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velde, Oscar A.; Montanyà, Joan

    2013-12-01

    flashes develop as a bidirectional tree, with a negative and a positive end propagating simultaneously into cloud charges of the opposite polarity. In recent years, this process has been modeled assuming that the bidirectional channel remains a zero-net-charge perfect conductor starting at the electric potential of its initial location. So far, both leader ends were treated identically. We summarize characteristics of bidirectional leader development of various lightning flashes registered by the Ebro 3-D Lightning Mapping Array at the east coast of Spain, supplemented by high-speed camera records. In order to follow the horizontal development of positive and negative leaders over time, a time-distance-altitude graph was designed, using the flash origin or a cloud-to-ground stroke as reference. The examples confirm that negative and positive leaders propagate at characteristic horizontal speeds (105 and 2 · 104 m s-1). The positive leader's low apparent speed corresponds to the phase when recoil processes are active. Very fast negative leaders (up to 8 · 105 m s-1) are detected in association with positive cloud-to-ground strokes. Negative leaders respawn repeatedly from the origin or as a retrograde negative leader at the positive branch. Positive leaders remain propagating throughout the flash or until reaching ground. We show that the velocity difference shifts the potential of the leader, increasing the gradient with cloud charge at the positive end while reducing it at the negative end. The positive section lowers its potential through retrograde negative leaders, eventually making it possible to emit a new negative leader into the upper positive potential well.

  12. The divertor remote maintenance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote replacement of the ITER divertor will be required several times during the life of ITER. To facilitate its regular exchange, the divertor is assembled in the ITER vacuum vessel from 60 cassettes. Radial movers transport each cassette along radial rails through the handling ports and into the vessel where a toroidal mover lifts and transports the cassette around a pair of toroidal rails. Once at its final position the cassette is locked to the toroidal rails and is accurately aligned in both poloidal and toroidal directions. A further requirement on the divertor is to minimise the amount of activated waste to be sent to a repository. To this end the cassettes have been designed to allow the remote replacement, in a hot cell, of their plasma facing components. The paper describes the two facilities built at ENEA Brasimone, Italy, whose aim is to demonstrate the reliable remote maintenance of the divertor cassettes. (author)

  13. Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José; Puerto, Gustavo; Capmany, José

    2007-12-10

    This paper presents a novel architecture for DWDM bidirectional access networks providing symmetric dynamic capacity allocation for both downlink and uplink signals. A foldback arrayed waveguide grating incorporating an optical switch enables the experimental demonstration of flexible assignment of multiservice capacity. Different analog and digital services, such as CATV, 10 GHz-tone, 155Mb/s PRBS and UMTS signals have been transmitted in order to successfully test the system performance under different scenarios of total capacity distribution from the Central Station to different Base Stations with two reconfigurable extra channels for each down and upstream direction. PMID:19550967

  14. Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter with Bidirectional Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gökhan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    This paper presents a bidirectional dc/dc converter operated with batteries both in the input and output. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) with transformer series connection on the high voltage side is preferred due to its ability to handle high currents in the low voltage side....... The converter has been modeled using non-ideal components and operated without any additional circuitry for startup using a digital soft-start procedure. Simulated and measured loop gains have been compared for the validity of the model. On-the-fly current direction change has been achieved between...

  15. On uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2009), s. 1-15. ISSN 1544-3558 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * texture * eye tracking Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-on uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions.pdf

  16. Simple and Accurate Dependency Parsing Using Bidirectional LSTM Feature Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiperwasser, Eliyahu; Goldberg, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and effective scheme for dependency parsing which is based on bidirectional-LSTMs (BiLSTMs). Each sentence token is associated with a BiLSTM vector representing the token in its sentential context, and feature vectors are constructed by concatenating a few BiLSTM vectors. The BiLSTM is trained jointly with the parser objective, resulting in very effective feature extractors for parsing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying it to a greedy transition ...

  17. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  18. Personalized PageRank Estimation and Search: A Bidirectional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Peter; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    We present new algorithms for Personalized PageRank estimation and Personalized PageRank search. First, for the problem of estimating Personalized PageRank (PPR) from a source distribution to a target node, we present a new bidirectional estimator with simple yet strong guarantees on correctness and performance, and 3x to 8x speedup over existing estimators in experiments on a diverse set of networks. Moreover, it has a clean algebraic structure which enables it to be used as a primitive for ...

  19. A potent bidirectional promoter from the monocot cereal Eleusine coracana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Saswati; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-09-01

    Ragi bifunctional α-amylase-trypsin inhibitor (RBI) of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) simultaneously inhibits α-amylase and trypsin. In continuation of previous work on the cloning, expression and characterization of RBI, a bidirectional promoter from finger millet was explored on the basis of experimental observations. Two trypsin inhibitors were identified while purifying RBI from a trypsin-Sepharose column eluent. Using an FPLC gel filtration column, these three inhibitors were purified to homogeneity and subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Both ragi trypsin inhibitors (RTIs) showed the same N-terminal sequence and considerable sequence similarity to RBI, indicating the presence of a multigene protease inhibitor family in finger millet. To gain insight into the evolution of these genes, the upstream region of RBI was explored by Genome Walking. Interestingly, on sequencing, a genome walking product of ∼1 Kb showed presence of an N-terminal RBI specific primer sequence twice but in opposite directions and leaving an intervening region of ∼0.9 Kb. The intervening region was presumed to represent an E. coracana bidirectional promoter (EcBDP), intuitively having a divergent RBI-RTI gene pair at two sides. For assaying the bidirectionality of promoter activity, a dual reporter GUS-GFP vector construct was made for plant expression containing the reporter genes at two ends of EcBDP, which was used to transform Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Transient plant transformation by recombinant Agrobacterium cells was carried out in onion scale epidermal cells and finger millet seedling leaves. Simultaneous expression of GUS and GFP under EcBDP established it as a potent natural bidirectional promoter from monocot origin, thereby potentially having vast application in cereal gene manipulations. In addition, inducibility of the EcBDP by either abscisic acid or cold treatment, as determined by transient

  20. Bidirectional Texture Function Modeling: State of the Art Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2009), s. 1921-1940. ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Grant ostatní: EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * surface texture * 3D texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/filip-bidirectional texture function modeling state of the art survey.pdf

  1. Experimental investigation of the deformable mirror with bidirectional thermal actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ma, Xingkun; Gong, Mali; Bian, Qi

    2015-06-29

    A deformable mirror with actuators of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) is introduced in this paper. Due to the bidirectional thermal actuation property of the TEC, both upward and downward surface control is available for the DM. The response functions of the actuators are investigated. A close-loop wavefront control experiment is performed too, where the defocus and the astigmatism were corrected. The results reveal that there is a promising prospect for the novel design to be used in corrections of static aberrations, such as in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). PMID:26191759

  2. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject the...... power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  3. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  4. Multiqubit entanglement in bidirectional-chiral-waveguide QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Schotland, John C.

    2016-07-01

    We study the generation of transient entanglement induced by a single-photon Gaussian wave packet in multiatom bidirectional-waveguide QED. In particular, we investigate the effect of increasing the number of atoms on the average pairwise entanglement. We demonstrate, by selecting smaller decay rates and in chiral-waveguide settings, that both entanglement survival times and maximum generated entanglement can be increased by at least a factor of ˜3 /2 , independent of the number of atoms. In addition, we analyze the influence of detuning and delays on the robustness of the generated entanglement. There are potential applications of our results in entanglement-based multiqubit quantum networks.

  5. Two-photon entanglement in multiqubit bidirectional-waveguide QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Schotland, John C.

    2016-07-01

    We study entanglement generation and control in bidirectional-waveguide QED driven by a two-photon Gaussian wave packet. In particular, we focus on how increasing the number of qubits affects the overall average pairwise entanglement in the system. We also investigate how the presence of a second photon can introduce nonlinearities, thereby manipulating the generated entanglement. In addition, we show that, through the introduction of chirality and small decay rates, entanglement can be stored and enhanced up to factors of 2 and 3, respectively. Finally, we analyze the influence of finite detunings and time-delays on the generated entanglement.

  6. Bidirectional invisibility in Kramers-Kronig optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A broad class of planar dielectric media with complex permittivity profiles that are fully invisible, for both left and right incidence sides, is introduced. Such optical media are locally isotropic, non-magnetic and belong to the recently discovered class of Kramers-Kronig media [{\\it Nature Photon.} 9, 436 (2015)], i.e. the spatial profiles of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity are related each other by a Hilbert transform. The transition from unidirectional to bidirectional invisibility, and the possibility to realize sharp reflection above a cut-off incidence angle, are also discussed.

  7. A New Hard Switching Bidirectional Converter With High Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Fani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new isolated dc-dc bidirectional converter is proposed. This converter consists of two transformers (flyback and forward and only one switch in primary side and one switch in secondary side of transformers. In this converter energy transfers to the output in both on and off switch states so power density of this converter is high This converter controlled by PWM signal. Also this converter operates over a wide input voltage range. Theoretical analysis is presented and computer simulation and experimental results verify the converter analysis.

  8. Ontology Maintenance using Textual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Gargouri

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are continuously confronted to evolution problem. Due to the complexity of the changes to be made, a maintenance process, at least a semi-automatic one, is more and more necessary to facilitate this task and to ensure its reliability. In this paper, we propose a maintenance ontology model for a domain, whose originality is to be language independent and based on a sequence of text processing in order to extract highly related terms from corpus. Initially, we deploy the document classification technique using GRAMEXCO to generate classes of texts segments having a similar information type and identify their shared lexicon, agreed as highly related to a unique topic. This technique allows a first general and robust exploration of the corpus. Further, we apply the Latent Semantic Indexing method to extract from this shared lexicon, the most associated terms that has to be seriously considered by an expert to eventually confirm their relevance and thus updating the current ontology. Finally, we show how the complementarity between these two techniques, based on cognitive foundation, constitutes a powerful refinement process.

  9. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  10. Maintenance optimization after RCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variant forms of RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) have been the maintenance optimizing tools of choice in industry for the last 20 years. Several such optimization techniques have been implemented at the Bruce Nuclear Station. Further cost refinement of the Station preventive maintenance strategy whereby decisions are based on statistical analysis of historical failure data are now being evaluated. The evaluation includes a requirement to demonstrate that earlier optimization projects have long term positive impacts. This proved to be a significant challenge. Eventually a methodology was developed using Crowe/AMSAA (Army Materials Systems Analysis Activity) plots to justify expenditures on further optimization efforts. (authors)

  11. Mobile network maintenance (GSM)

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN mobile network infrastructure (GSM) on the 23 and 24 July from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in order to replace discontinued equipment and to increase the bandwidth capacity of the GSM mobile network. All CERN GSM emitters (40 units) will be moved one by one to the new infrastructure during the maintenance. The call of a user connected to an emitter at the time of its maintenance will be cut off. However, the general overlapping of the GSM radio coverage should mean that users are able immediately to call again should their call be interrupted. IT/CS/CS

  12. Underwater Image Bidirectional Matching for Localization Based on SIFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Bo Liu

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of identifying the stern of the SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) availably and perfecting the detection technique of the SWATH ship’s performance, this paper presents a novel bidirectional image registration strategy and mosaicing technique based on the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm. The proposed method can help us observe the stern with a great visual angle for analyzing the performance of the control fins of the SWATH. SIFT is one of the most effective local features of the scale, rotation and illumination invariant. However, there are a few false match rates in this algorithm. In terms of underwater machine vision, only by acquiring an accurate match rate can we find an underwater robot rapidly and identify the location of the object. Therefore, firstly, the selection of the match ratio principle is put forward in this paper; secondly, some advantages of the bidirectional registration algorithm are concluded by analyzing the characteristics of the unidirectional matching method. Finally, an automatic underwater image splicing method is proposed on the basis of fixed dimension, and then the edge of the image’s overlapping section is merged by the principal components analysis algorithm. The experimental results achieve a better registration and smooth mosaicing effect, demonstrating that the proposed method is effective.

  13. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  14. Bidirectional Dynamic Diversity Evolutionary Algorithm for Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs were shown to be effective for complex constrained optimization problems. However, inflexible exploration-exploitation and improper penalty in EAs with penalty function would lead to losing the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. To determine an appropriate penalty coefficient is also difficult in most studies. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional dynamic diversity evolutionary algorithm (Bi-DDEA with multiagents guiding exploration-exploitation through local extrema to the global optimum in suitable steps. In Bi-DDEA potential advantage is detected by three kinds of agents. The scale and the density of agents will change dynamically according to the emerging of potential optimal area, which play an important role of flexible exploration-exploitation. Meanwhile, a novel double optimum estimation strategy with objective fitness and penalty fitness is suggested to compute, respectively, the dominance trend of agents in feasible region and forbidden region. This bidirectional evolving with multiagents can not only effectively avoid the problem of determining penalty coefficient but also quickly converge to the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. By examining the rapidity and veracity of Bi-DDEA across benchmark functions, the proposed method is shown to be effective.

  15. Underwater image bidirectional matching for localization based on SIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Bo

    2014-06-01

    For the purpose of identifying the stern of the SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) availably and perfecting the detection technique of the SWATH ship's performance, this paper presents a novel bidirectional image registration strategy and mosaicing technique based on the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm. The proposed method can help us observe the stern with a great visual angle for analyzing the performance of the control fins of the SWATH. SIFT is one of the most effective local features of the scale, rotation and illumination invariant. However, there are a few false match rates in this algorithm. In terms of underwater machine vision, only by acquiring an accurate match rate can we find an underwater robot rapidly and identify the location of the object. Therefore, firstly, the selection of the match ratio principle is put forward in this paper; secondly, some advantages of the bidirectional registration algorithm are concluded by analyzing the characteristics of the unidirectional matching method. Finally, an automatic underwater image splicing method is proposed on the basis of fixed dimension, and then the edge of the image's overlapping section is merged by the principal components analysis algorithm. The experimental results achieve a better registration and smooth mosaicing effect, demonstrating that the proposed method is effective.

  16. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1 the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2 Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3 Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase.

  17. Evolutionary Pseudo-Relaxation Learning Algorithm for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Zhi Du; Zeng-Qiang Chen; Zhu-Zhi Yuan

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity to noise in BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory), and then proves the noise immunity of BAM relates not only to the minimum absolute value of net inputs (MAV) but also to the variance of weights associated with synapse connections. In fact, it is a positive monotonically increasing function of the quotient of MAV divided by the variance of weights. Besides, the performance of pseudo-relaxation method depends on learning parameters (λ and ζ), but the relation of them is not linear. So it is hard to find a best combination of λ and ζ which leads to the best BAM performance. And it is obvious that pseudo-relaxation is a kind of local optimization method, so it cannot guarantee to get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a novel learning algorithm EPRBAM (evolutionary psendo-relaxation learning algorithm for bidirectional association memory) employing genetic algorithm and pseudo-relaxation method is proposed to get feasible solution of BAM weight matrix. This algorithm uses the quotient as the fitness of each individual and employs pseudo-relaxation method to adjust individual solution when it does not satisfy constraining condition any more after genetic operation. Experimental results show this algorithm improves noise immunity of BAM greatly. At the same time, EPRBAM does not depend on learning parameters and can get global optimal solution.

  18. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, Alvaro O.; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca2+ concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:25360084

  19. Bidirectional Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering using AVL Tree Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Abu-Dalbouh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchy is often used to infer knowledge from groups of items and relations in varying granularities. Hierarchical clustering algorithms take an input of pairwise data-item similarities and output a hierarchy of the data-items. This paper presents Bidirectional agglomerative hierarchical clustering to create a hierarchy bottom-up, by iteratively merging the closest pair of data-items into one cluster. The result is a rooted AVL tree. The n leafs correspond to input data-items (singleton clusters needs to n/2 or n/2+1 steps to merge into one cluster, correspond to groupings of items in coarser granularities climbing towards the root. As observed from the time complexity and number of steps need to cluster all data points into one cluster perspective, the performance of the bidirectional agglomerative algorithm using AVL tree is better than the current agglomerative algorithms. The experiment analysis results indicate that the improved algorithm has a higher efficiency than previous methods.

  20. The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer (PanCa and diabetes has been confirmed by epidemiological studies, which provide evidence-based medical support for further research into the mechanisms involved in the interaction. We reviewed the literature regarding the role of diabetes in the generation and progression of PanCa and the mechanism by which PanCa induces diabetes for its malignant progression. The effect of antidiabetic drugs on the occurrence and prognosis of PanCa was also reviewed. Diabetes may directly promote the progression of PanCa by pancreatic duct enlargement and hypertension, as well as by enabling an increased tumor volume. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, cytokines, hyperglycemia and genotype change are also important factors in the progression of PanCa with diabetes. Hyperglycemia may be the first clinical manifestation and is helpful in the early diagnosis of PanCa. Furthermore, antidiabetic drugs can have different effects on the occurrence and prognosis of PanCa. The bidirectional interation between PanCa and diabetes is involved in the occurrence, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of PanCa with diabetes. The discovery of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of PanCa, as well as the novel usage of metformin for its antitumor effects and determining the potential mechanisms of these effects, may be the next direction for PanCa research and treatment.

  1. Bidirectional Effective Components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on Gastrointestinal Peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To find the bidirectional effective components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR on gastrointestinal peristalsis (GIP. Multi-mode separation methods (solvent partition method and macroporous adsorptive resins were used to split AMR component; HPLC and GC-MS were used to analyze the main compounds of fractions; the indexes included gastric residual rate and intestinal propulsive rate were used to observe the effects of AMR and its fractions on GIP; ELISA was used to examine the level of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP and P substance (SP in antrum and ileum. The Water Decoction (WD of AMR was separated into five fractions, namely, Volatile Oil Fraction (VOF, Petroleum Ether Fraction (PEF, Alcohol Eluate Fraction (AEF, Water Eluate Fraction (WEF and polysaccharides (CPF; the GIP was promoted in mice with dose of 1.0 g kg–1 WD, VOF, CPF and WEF. However, GIP was inhibited in mice with dose of WD (10.0 g kg–1, PEF and AEF. The AMR had bidirectional regulation effects on gastrointestinal function; the VOF (contained monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes components, WEF (contained 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and small molecular sugar and CPF (contained inulin-type oligosaccharides are the fractions of AMR for promotion effects on GIP and PEF (contained sesquiterpene lactone and AEF (contained polyacetylene of AMR played opposite action; the underlying action mechanism maybe relate to the SP and VIP levels.

  2. Bidirectional communication in an HF hybrid organic/solution-processed metal-oxide RFID tag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Rockelé, M.; Chasin, A.; Pham, D.V.; Steiger, J.; Botnaras, S.; Weber, D.; Herold, B.; Ficker, J.; Van Putten, B.D.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    A bidirectional communication protocol allows radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to have readout of multiple tags in the RF field without collision of data. In this paper, we realized bidirectional communication between a reader system and thin-film RFID tag by introducing a novel protocol f

  3. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  4. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching and...

  5. Bidirectional effect of Wnt signaling antagonist DKK1 on the modulation of anthrax toxin uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, LiLi; Cai, ChangZu; Yuan, PengFei; Jeong, Sun-Young; Yang, XiaoZhou; Dealmeida, Venita; Ernst, James; Costa, Michael; Cohen, Stanley N; Wei, WenSheng

    2014-05-01

    LRP6, a co-receptor for the morphogen Wnt, aids endocytosis of anthrax complexes. Here we report that Dickkopf1 (DKK1) protein, a secreted LRP6 ligand and antagonist, is also a modulator of anthrax toxin sensitivity. shRNA-mediated gene silencing or TALEN-mediated gene knockout of DKK1 reduced sensitivity of cells to PA-dependent hybrid toxins. However, unlike the solely inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling, the effects of DKK1 overexpression on anthrax toxicity were bidirectional, depending on its endogenous expression and cell context. Fluorescence microscopy and biochemical analyses showed that DKK1 facilitates internalization of anthrax toxins and their receptors, an event mediated by DKK1-LRP6-Kremen2 complex. Monoclonal antibodies against DKK1 provided dose-dependent protection to macrophages from killing by anthrax lethal toxin (LT). Our discovery that DKK1 forms ternary structure with LRP6 and Kremen2 in promoting PA-mediated toxin internalization provides a paradigm for bacterial exploitation of mechanisms that host cells use to internalize signaling proteins. PMID:24671437

  6. Maintenance – Wind Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan, Vairamayil

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates issues like maintenance problems, key factors, maintenance challenges, maintenance solutions and practical difficulties in wind energy. In this case, surveys and interviews have been taken from several companies and maintenance experts, to find most prevailing problems and problem-solving methods since last few years. It helps to show, how the energy maintenance has been developed in past few years. Also it analyses the impact of fourth generation maintenance in wind ...

  7. Maintenance of Photochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Seçkin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are widely used effective treatment modalities for many skin diseases. The data regarding the efficacy of maintenance narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB and psoralen and UVA (PUVA therapies, the most commonly used photo(chemo therapy methods, in the literature are limited and controversial. In this review article, the data and guidelines in the literature regarding maintenance NB-UVB and PUVA therapy in psoriasis, mycosis fungoides and vitiligo, and maintenance photo(chemotherapy applications in Başkent University and other photo(chemo therapy centers are presented. Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter studies using standard treatment protocols are needed to obtain the best data about the efficacy and safety of maintenance photo(chemotherapy applications.

  8. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area. PMID:26904890

  9. Getting into Motorcycle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Lynn

    1978-01-01

    This article tells how to start a high school course in motorcycle maintenance and includes names and addresses of some motorcycle manufacturers and a list of needed tools, equipment, and materials. (MF)

  10. Equipment maintenance and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia DS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The repair and maintenance of ophthalmic equipment, including surgical instruments and diagnostic devices, can be compared to the maintenance of a motor vehicle, something many of us understand well.If you had a car, would you drive it until the fuel runs out or until a tyre punctures, and then abandon it to buy a new car? Of course not. However, many eye care units purchase (or receive as a donation expensive and delicate equipment which, because of poor maintenance, ends up breaking down. If there is not a system in place to report breakdowns and to plan or carry out repairs, equipment can remain unusable for long periods of time. Sometimes, this equipment ends up being dumped. Good maintenance habits and an effective repair system will minimise the amount of time equipment is unusable.

  11. Experts' meeting: Maintenance '83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure presents, in full wording, 20 papers read at the experts' meeting ''Maintenance '83'' in Wiesbaden. Most of the papers discuss reliability data (acquisition, evaluation, processing) of nearly all fields of industry. (RW)

  12. Bidirectional modulation of anxiety-related and social behaviors by amygdala projections to the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix-Ortiz, A C; Burgos-Robles, A; Bhagat, N D; Leppla, C A; Tye, K M

    2016-05-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) modulate anxiety and social behaviors. It remains to be elucidated, however, whether direct projections from the BLA to the mPFC play a functional role in these behaviors. We used optogenetic approaches in behaving mice to either activate or inhibit BLA inputs to the mPFC during behavioral assays that assess anxiety-like behavior and social interaction. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-mediated activation of BLA inputs to the mPFC produced anxiogenic effects in the elevated plus maze and open field test, whereas halorhodopsin (NpHR)-mediated inhibition produced anxiolytic effects. Furthermore, activation of the BLA-mPFC pathway reduced social interaction in the resident-intruder test, whereas inhibition facilitated social interaction. These results establish a causal relationship between activity in the BLA-mPFC pathway and the bidirectional modulation of anxiety-related and social behaviors. PMID:26204817

  13. Bidirectional Five-Level Power Processing Interface for Low Voltage Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jain-Yi; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Wu, Kuen-Der; Lin, You-Si; Wu, Jinn-Chang

    A bidirectional five-level power processing interface for low voltage battery energy storage system (BESS) is developed in this paper. This BESS consists of a bidirectional five-level DC-AC converter, a bidirectional dual boost/buck DC-DC converter and a battery set. This five-level DC-AC converter includes a bidirectional full-bridge converter and a bidirectional dual buck DC-DC converter. The five-level power processing interface can charge power to the battery set form the utility or discharge the power from the battery set to the utility depending on the demanded operation of user. A hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of this BESS. Experimental results show the performance of the developed BESS is as expected.

  14. Remote maintenance development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of remote maintenance as it pertains to nuclear fuel fabrication facilities is quite unique. The future may require completely remote facilities where maintenance will be performed by hybrid manipulators/robots. These units will be capable of being preprogrammed for automatic operation or manually operated with the operator becoming a part of the closed loop control system. These robots will mesh television, computer control, and direct force feedback manual control in a usable new concept of robotics

  15. Remote maintenance development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, C. R.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of remote maintenance as it pertains to nuclear fuel fabrication facilities is quite unique. The future may require completely remote facilities where maintenance will be performed by hybrid manipulators/robots. These units will be capable of being preprogrammed for automatic operation or manually operated with the operator becoming a part of the closed loop control system. These robots will mesh television, computer control, and direct force feedback manual control in a usable new concept of robotics.

  16. Principles of MONJU maintenance. Characteristic of MONJU maintenance and reflection of LWR maintenance experience to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) has unique systems and components and different degradation mechanism from light water reactor (LWR) so that need to establish maintenance technology in accordance with its features. The examination of the FBR maintenance technology is carried out in the special committee for considering the maintenance for Monju established in the Japan Society of Maintenology (JSM). As a result of the study such as extraction of Monju maintenance feature, maintenance technology benchmark between Monju and LWR components and survey of LWR maintenance experience, it is clear that principles of maintenance are same as LWR, necessity of LWR maintenance experience reflection and points to be considered in Monju maintenance. The road map to establish a FBR maintenance technology in the technical aspect became clear and it is vital to acquire operation and maintenance experience of the plant to implement this road map, and to establish a fast reactor maintenance. (author)

  17. Ensuring Maintenance of Oral Hygiene in Persons with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Lisa V

    2016-07-01

    Patients with special needs often must rely on inadequately trained caregivers for oral health maintenance. Consequently, full compliance is often not achieved. It is crucial that dentists carefully consider restorative materials and restoration design to maximize durability and facilitate cleansing in these challenging circumstances. This article discusses materials selection, prosthetic design, and oral hygiene techniques for caregivers to ensure longevity and maintenance of oral health in the special needs population. PMID:27264852

  18. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Kollár, Richard; Bodova, Katarina; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres---nucleo-protein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative...

  19. Acetylation-mediated suppression of transcription-independent memory: bidirectional modulation of memory by acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merschbaecher

    Full Text Available Learning induced changes in protein acetylation, mediated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs, and the antagonistic histone deacetylases (HDACs play a critical role in memory formation. The status of histone acetylation affects the interaction between the transcription-complex and DNA and thus regulates transcription-dependent processes required for long-term memory (LTM. While the majority of studies report on the role of elevated acetylation in memory facilitation, we address the impact of both, increased and decreased acetylation on formation of appetitive olfactory memory in honeybees. We show that learning-induced changes in the acetylation of histone H3 at aminoacid-positions H3K9 and H3K18 exhibit distinct and different dynamics depending on the training strength. A strong training that induces LTM leads to an immediate increase in acetylation at H3K18 that stays elevated for hours. A weak training, not sufficient to trigger LTM, causes an initial increase in acetylation at H3K18, followed by a strong reduction in acetylation at H3K18 below the control group level. Acetylation at position H3K9 is not affected by associative conditioning, indicating specific learning-induced actions on the acetylation machinery. Elevating acetylation levels by blocking HDACs after conditioning leads to an improved memory. While memory after strong training is enhanced for at least 2 days, the enhancement after weak training is restricted to 1 day. Reducing acetylation levels by blocking HAT activity after strong training leads to a suppression of transcription-dependent LTM. The memory suppression is also observed in case of weak training, which does not require transcription processes. Thus, our findings demonstrate that acetylation-mediated processes act as bidirectional regulators of memory formation that facilitate or suppress memory independent of its transcription-requirement.

  20. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice to that of...

  1. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  2. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lyapustin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS, Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°, the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the

  3. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D.; Kokhanovsky, A.

    2010-05-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φBRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the slope distribution function and by adding a simple model of

  4. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS spring-2008 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lyapustin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment was one of the major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year, aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. Part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS, Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°, the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with the experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution

  5. Maintenance risk management in Dayabay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of proper maintenance to safe and reliable nuclear plant operation has long been recognized by the nuclear utility and regulatory body. This paper presents a process of maintenance risk management developed for a Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The process includes three phases: (I) long term maintenance plan risk management, (II) monthly maintenance plan risk management, and (III) detailed risk management for high risk configuration. A risk matrix is developed for phase I whose purpose is to provide a rough guide for risk management in the making of the annual maintenance plan. For Phase II and Phase III, a software tool named Maintenance- Risk-Monitor is developed based on the internal initiating event, level 1 PSA model. The results of Phase II are the risk information of the all plant configurations caused by the unavailability of the components included the monthly maintenance plan. When the increase of core damage frequency (CDF) or the incremental core damage probability (ICDP) of a configuration is higher than the corresponding thresholds, Phase III is needed for this high risk configuration to get the useful information such as risk-importance components, human actions and initial events, from which appropriate preventive measurements could be derived. It is hoped that the provided process of maintenance risk management, together with the developed software tool, could facilitate the maintenance activities in the NPPs of China. (authors)

  6. Robustness of Bidirectional Interdependent Networks: Analysis and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Parandehgheibi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    We study the robustness of interdependent networks where two networks are said to be interdependent if the operation of one network depends on the operation of the other one, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a model for analyzing bidirectional interdependent networks with known topology. We define the metric MR(D) to be the minimum number of nodes that should be removed from one network to cause the failure of D nodes in the other network due to cascading failures. We prove that evaluating this metric is not only NP-complete, but also inapproximable. Next, we propose heuristics for evaluating this metric and compare their performances using simulation results. Finally, we introduce two closely related definitions for robust design of interdependent networks; propose algorithms for explicit design, and demonstrate the relation between robust interdependent networks and expander graphs.

  7. Properties of Coupled Oscillator Model for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we consider the stationary state and dynamical properties of a coupled oscillator model for bidirectional associative memory. For the stationary state, we apply the replica method to obtain self-consistent order parameter equations. The theoretical results for the storage capacity and overlap agree well with the numerical simulation. For the retrieval process, we apply statistical neurodynamics to include temporal noise correlations. For the successful retrieval process, the theoretical result obtained with the fourth-order approximation qualitatively agrees with the numerical simulation. However, for the unsuccessful retrieval process, higher-order noise correlations suppress severely; therefore, the maximum value of the overlap and the relaxation time are smaller than those of the numerical simulation. The reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical result and numerical simulation, and the validity of our analysis are discussed.

  8. Measurement of bidirectional reflection distribution function on material surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hongyuan Wang; Zhile Wang

    2009-01-01

    Two automatic measurement methods of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) are pre sented based on absolute and relative definition. Measurement principle and scheme of the methods are analyzed. A real-time measurement device is developed, the measurement spectral range of which is from ultraviolet to near infrared with 2.4-nm wavelength resolution, and the angular range is 0掳鈥? 360掳 in az imuth angle and 0掳 - 85掳 in zenith angle with 0.01掳 angle resolution. Absolute measurements of BRDF on tinfoil and ceramic tile are performed and the test materials present apparent specular reflection char acteristics. The theoretical error in the experiment is about 6.05%. The BRDF measurement results are closely related to the precision of measurement platform, the sensitivity of measurement instrument, and the stability of illuminating light source.

  9. Single Phase Bidirectional PWM Converter for Microgrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Kalavalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a newly flourishing research area because of its viable applications and expected to address the drawback of existing grid. Microgrids are the part of the Smart grid and they are designed to supply electricity for a small community such as residential areas, universities or industrial sites. Power electronics plays a vital role for connecting the renewable energy sources to Microgrid system. This paper deals the Microgrid connected single phase Bidirectional PWM converter which operates in Rectification and Inverting mode. This converter helps to connect renewable energy sources to loads as well as excess power are given to power grid. Double Loop PID control technique is used for controlling the converter for both modes. The designed Converter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink software and results are verified using the Hardware.

  10. [An experimental study of a new bidirectional distraction appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R; Gounot, N; Cresseaux, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M; Ferez, C; Roger, T; Genevois, J P

    1998-07-01

    The goals of mandibular distraction are to restore a normal length but also a normal shape to the hypoplastic mandible. These two goals are related to the elongation vector which is itself related to the location of the cortictomy and of the device. Other factors influence this elongation vector. So it is impossible to precisely predict the elongation vector. With the monodirectional distraction device no modification can be made during the distraction time. With a bidirectional distraction device offering the possibility to modulate the angulation between the two elongation rods it is possible to adjust the elongation vector during distraction. Precise distraction gap modeling is possible. This is particularly important to correct anterior open-bite. This device was tested on animals (pigs). PMID:9697234

  11. Bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease: Review of Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently there are 170 million diabetic patients worldwide. Pakistan ranks sixth in the world with approximately 6.2 million in the 20-79 year age affected by the diabetes. 6-10% of the 35-44 year old diabetic patients have been reported to be affected by moderate form of periodontal disease in Pakistan. Periodontal disease is referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The association between diabetes and periodontal disease has been reported for more than 40 years but reverse has not been the focus of researchers until recently. Studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship between periodontal disease and glycemic control with each disease having a potential impact on the other. (author)

  12. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibel, Gokce; Ozhan, Kayacan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity-density and flux-density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones.

  13. The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kulić, Igor M; Kim, Hwajin; Kural, Comert; Blehm, Benjamin; Selvin, Paul R; Nelson, Philip C; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2008-01-01

    We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.

  14. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2009-03-05

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  15. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  16. A bidirectional YAC walk from the Norrie disease (NDP) locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, G.C.; Zheng-Yi Chen; Craig, I.W. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-02-10

    The region of Xp between DXS7 and the centromere contains the gene for Norrie disease in addition to the genes for several other ophthalmic disorders. A 650-kb YAC containing the loci MAOA, MAOB, and NDP has been used as the starting point for a bidirectional chromosomal walk. A contig of 16 YACs covering between 2 and 3 Mb has been developed in which the following markers/genes are located (in physical order): Xpter - DXS1201 (256ze5) - DXS6668 - DXS228 - DXS77 - DXS7 - MAOA - MAOB - FR12 (pseudogene) - NDP - DXS6670 - RRM2P3 - DXS6671 - DXS742 - Xcen. Seven new STSs are described both for end clones and for internal Alu PCR products from the contig. The contig contains the breakpoint of the t75-2ma-1b (t75) translocation, close to the 5{prime} end of the MAOB gene. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    CERN Document Server

    Hisatomi, Ryusuke; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Toyofumi; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Usami, Koji; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single-quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a travelling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses ...

  18. Biophysical information in asymmetric and symmetric diurnal bidirectional canopy reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Caldwell, William F.; Pettigrew, Rita E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Rousseau, Robert A.; Berger, Kevin M.; Ganapol, B. D.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Clark, Jenny A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a theory for partitioning the information content in diurnal bidirectional reflectance measurements in order to detect differences potentially related to biophysical variables. The theory, which divides the canopy reflectance into asymmetric and symmetric functions of solar azimuth angle, attributes asymmetric variation to diurnal changes in the canopy biphysical properties. The symmetric function is attributed to the effects of sunlight interacting with a hypothetical average canopy which would display the average diurnal properties of the actual canopy. The authors analyzed radiometer data collected diurnally in the Thematic Mapper wavelength bands from two walnut canopies that received differing irrigation treatments. The reflectance of the canopies varied with sun and view angles and across seven bands in the visible, near-infrared, and middle infrared wavelength regions. Although one of the canopies was permanently water stressed and the other was stressed in mid-afternoon each day, no water stress signature was unambiguously evident in the reflectance data.

  19. Impedance Coordinative Control for Cascaded Converter in Bidirectional Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe;

    2015-01-01

    Two stage cascaded converters are widely used in bidirectional applications, but the negative impedance may cause system instability. Actually the impedance interaction is much different between forward power flow and reversed power flow, which will introduce more uncertainty to the system...... difference between forward and reversed power flow. This paper addresses the analysis with the topology of cascaded dual-active-bridge converter (DAB) with inverter, and the proposed control method can also be implemented in unidirectional applications and other general cascaded converter system. The...... stability. This paper proposes a control method for the constant power controlled converter in cascaded system, and consequently it can change the negative impedance of constant power converter into resistive impedance, which will improve the cascaded system stability, as well as merge the impedance...

  20. Impedance Interaction Modeling and Analysis for Bidirectional Cascaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe;

    2015-01-01

    more uncertainty to the system stability. An investigation is performed here for showing that the forward and reverse interactions are prominently different in terms of dynamics and stability even though the cascaded converter control remains unchanged. An important guideline has been drawn for the......For the cascaded converter system, the output impedance of source converter interacts with the input impedance of load converter, and the interaction may cause the system instability. In bidirectional applications, when the power flow is reversed, the impedance interaction also varies, which brings...... control of the cascaded converter. That is when voltage mode converter working as the load converter; the constant power mode converter as the source converter, the system is more stable. The concluded findings have been verified by simulation and experimental results....

  1. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study the...... behaviour of one expert and two novice facilitators during a Viable System Model workshop. The findings suggest common facilitation patterns in the behaviour of experts and novices. This contrasts literature claiming that experts and novices behave and use their available knowledge differently, and...... facilitation strategies in contexts in which external, expert facilitation is not always possible are also discussed, and limitations of this study are provided....

  2. Genetic evidence for the bidirectional modulation of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex by D1 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yan-You; Simpson, Eleanor; Kellendonk, Christoph; Kandel, Eric R.

    2004-01-01

    To address the role of D1 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex, we combined pharmacological and genetic manipulations to examine long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP)/long-term synaptic depression (LTD) in brain slices of rats and mice. We found that the D1 antagonist SCH23390 selectively blocked the maintenance but not the induction of LTP in the prefrontal cortex. Conversely, activation of D1 receptors facilitated the maintenance of LTP, and this effect is impaired in heterozygous D1 r...

  3. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  4. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  5. Facilitated Asymmetric Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Alan; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a class of facilitated asymmetric exclusion processes in which particles are pushed by neighbors from behind. For the simplest version in which a particle can hop to its vacant right neighbor only if its left neighbor is occupied, we determine the steady state current and the distribution of cluster sizes on a ring. We show that an initial density downstep develops into a rarefaction wave that can have a jump discontinuity at the leading edge, while an upstep results in a shock w...

  6. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  7. Maintenance concepts for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation of structural materials will preclude human access into the ITER vacuum vessel soon after the start of the operations. As a result, all maintenance operations inside the vacuum vessel will have to be carried out remotely. Because of attenuation of neutrons by the shield blanket and vacuum vessel, the activation levels inside the cryostat will build up slowly, and restricted, short term human access for inspection and repair operations may remain feasible. Tasks of loner duration will, however, have to be undertaken remotely. Maintenance concepts for in-vessel and ex-vessel (inside cryostat) components are described in the paper. (author). 5 refs

  8. PROACTIVE STRATEGY MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław RADKOWSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given challenging competition of today service providers are required to be more proactive in satisfying the environmental conditions and customer needs. Proactive maintenance should start at the design stage with establishing the functions, functional failures and failure modes. The understanding the failure behavior, especially the relationship between potential failures, functional failures and diagnostic parameters is the most important task. In the next step the designer have to explore the maintenance activities as they have to apply to the design criteria. The models and frameworks have been presented in the paper also a comprehensive review of literature and some results of laboratory investigations.

  9. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  10. Optimization potential in maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Also in the future, the supreme goal of nuclear power plant operation is going to be plant safety. At the same time, the economic component must be taken into account, which has become more important as a consequence of the deregulation in the electricity market. Until now, the electricity generating costs in nuclear power plants have been optimized by increases in electricity generation, and by high plant availabilities in terms of time and capacity. However, these capacity-based influences on the generating costs practically have been exploited to the full extent possible because of the high plant reliability reached. This makes the cost term the focal point in all optimization efforts, i.e. in existing nuclear power plants especially the maintenance costs. At the present high level of safety, which is going to develop even further, growing operating experience will allow a change to be made from preventive maintenance to cost-optimized state-oriented maintenance strategies. Other measures of advanced maintenance strategies are seen in the fields of work organization, personnel management, and personnel and plant use planning for more than one site. Important components in this effort are IT-based plant management systems allowing the complex problems to be planned, executed, controlled, and analyzed. All these measures serve to allow the operation of nuclear power plants at an even higher level of optimization, maximum safety in line with the state of the art, and demonstrably competitive electricity generating costs. (orig.)

  11. Grounds Maintenance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesapeake Public Schools, VA. Office of Program Evaluation.

    The Grounds Shop of the Chesapeake Public School Division (Virginia) Department of School Plants was evaluated in 1995-96. The goals of the grounds maintenance program are to provide safe and attractive grounds for students, parents, and staff of the school district. The evaluation examined the extent to which these goals are being met by using…

  12. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Operations and Maintenance (O and M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O and M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O and M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades

  13. Maintenance: problem and solution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Equipment that is often unique, machines that are as old as the Laboratory, continuous and demanding performance requirements: these are the challenges faced by CERN’s accelerator maintenance teams. There are some twenty such teams, attached to different departments. A new project aims to standardise their procedures to make their work easier, and you can be a part of it.   “For the past year or so, the Accelerator and Technologies Sector and the GS Department have been working together on identifying the needs of the different teams that perform maintenance on CERN’s equipment. We are now ready to provide computer support with detailed specifics about the processes that need to be set up,” explains Goran Perinić, one of the leaders in CERN’s new Maintenance Management project (MMP). Since the LHC entered operation, the responsibilities of the technical teams have been broadened to cover maintenance of the collider and that of its injectors...

  14. Advances in safety related maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maintenance of systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs) plays an important role in assuring their safe and reliable operation. Worldwide, NPP maintenance managers are seeking to reduce overall maintenance costs while maintaining or improving the levels of safety and reliability. Thus, the issue of NPP maintenance is one of the most challenging aspects of nuclear power generation. There is a direct relation between safety and maintenance. While maintenance alone (apart from modifications) will not make a plant safer than its original design, deficient maintenance may result in either an increased number of transients and challenges to safety systems or reduced reliability and availability of safety systems. The confidence that NPP structures, systems and components will function as designed is ultimately based on programmes which monitor both their reliability and availability to perform their intended safety function. Because of this, approaches to monitor the effectiveness of maintenance are also necessary. An effective maintenance programme ensures that there is a balance between the improvement in component reliability to be achieved and the loss of component function due to maintenance downtime. This implies that the safety level of an NPP should not be adversely affected by maintenance performed during operation. The nuclear industry widely acknowledges the importance of maintenance in NPP safety and operation and therefore devotes great efforts to develop techniques, methods and tools to aid in maintenance planning, follow-up and optimization, and in assuring the effectiveness of maintenance

  15. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stuchly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will be needed in the future. This new approach forces manufacturing companies to change their previous management paradigms. New management paradigm should include new issues and develop innovative methods, practices and technologies striving for solving problem of shortages of resources, softening environment overload and enabling development of environment-friendly lifecycle of products. Hence, its realization requires updating existing production models as they are based on previously accepted paradigm of unlimited resources and unlimited regeneration capabilities. Maintenance plays a crucial role because of its impact on availability, reliability, quality and life cycle cost, thus it should be one of the main pillars of new business running model.  Material and methods: The following paper is a result of research on the literature and observation of practices undertaken by a company within maintenance area. Results and conclusions: The main message is that considering sustainable manufacturing requires considerable expanding range of analysis and focusing on supporting processes. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities of decreasing influence of business processes on natural environment and more efficient resources utilization. The goal of maintenance processes realizing sustainable development strategy is increased profitability of exploitation and optimization of total lifecycle cost without disturbing safety and environmental issues. 

  16. Generalizing Several Theoretical Deterministic Secure Direct Bidirectional Communications to Improve Their Capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. J.; Man, Z. X.

    2004-01-01

    Several theoretical Deterministic Secure Direct Bidirectional Communication protocols are generalized to improve their capacities by introducing the superdense-coding in the case of high-dimension quantum states.

  17. Behavior of composite rigid frame bridge under bi-directional seismic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis and time history analysis are conducted to explore the bi-directional seismic behavior of composite steel-concrete rigid frame bridge, which is composed of RC piers and steel-concrete composite girders. Both longitudinal and transverse directions excitations are investigated using OpenSees. Firstly, the applicability of pushover analysis based on the fundamental mode is discussed. Secondly, an improved pushover analysis method considering the contribution of higher modes is proposed, and the applicability on composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional earthquake is verified. Based on this method, an approach to predict the displacement responses of composite rigid frame bridge under random bi-directional seismic excitations by revising the elasto-plastic demand curve is also proposed. It is observed that the developed method yield a good estimate on the responses of composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional seismic excitations.

  18. The bidirectional relation between positive mental health and psychopathology in a longitudinal representative panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Sanne M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Glas, Cees A.W.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is accumulating evidence that positive mental health and psychopathology should be seen as separate indicators of mental health. This study contributes to this evidence by investigating the bidirectional relation between positive mental health and psychopathological symptoms over t

  19. Bidirectional WDM Self-Healing Ring Network for Hub/Remote Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Bum; Park; Seung; Goo; Kang; Sang; Bae; Lee; Chang-Hee; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a bidirectional WDM self-healing ring network for hub/remote nodes with one fiber. In this network, self-healing can be achieved within 8 ms. The transmission capacity can be doubled in the operating state.

  20. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  1. Facilitative root interactions in intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Facilitation takes place when plants ameliorate the environment of their neighbours, and increase their growth and survival. Facilitation occurs in natural ecosystems as well as in agroecosystems. We discuss examples of facilitative root interactions in intercropped agroecosystems; including...... root architecture, exudation of growth stimulating substances, and biofumigation. Facilitative root interactions are most likely to be of importance in nutrient poor soils and in low-input agroecosystems due to critical interspecific competition for plant growth factors. However, studies from more...

  2. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  3. Bi-directional 120 km long-reach PON link based on distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2006-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional PON link with 120 km reach and symmetric up and down stream data rate of 10 Gbit/s. Lossless transmission was achieved with >40 dB of received OSNR......We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional PON link with 120 km reach and symmetric up and down stream data rate of 10 Gbit/s. Lossless transmission was achieved with >40 dB of received OSNR...

  4. Bi-directional light transmission properties assessment for venetian blinds : Computer simulations compared to photogoniometer measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Rubin, M. D.; Powles, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    An accurate evaluation of daylight distribution through advanced fenestration systems (complex glazing, solar shading systems) requires the knowledge of their Bi-directional light Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF). An innovative equipment for the experimental assessment of these bi-directional functions has been developed, based on a digital imaging detection system. An extensive set of BTDF measurements was performed with this photogoniometer on venetian blinds presenting curved slat...

  5. Bidirectional Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Foam Core Materials Using DIC

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Siavash Talebi; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; M. Dulieu-Barton, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Polymer foam cored sandwich structures are often subjected to aggressive service conditions which may include elevated temperatures. A modified Arcan fixture (MAF) has been developed to characterize polymer foam materials with respect to their tensile, compressive, shear and bidirectional mechanical properties at room and at elevated temperatures. The MAF enables the realization of pure compression or high compression to shear bidirectional loading conditions that is not possible with convent...

  6. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tao, Meixia; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifie...

  7. A Novel PPFHB Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Supercapacitor Application

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bidirectional DC-DC converter for the supercapacitor application. In the proposed converter, push-pull forward with half bridge (PPFHB) voltage doubler structure is used to reduce the number of the power switches and get higher voltage gain. Based on phase-shift modulation scheme, all the switches can realize zero-voltageswitching (ZVS) turn-on and bidirectional power flow can be controlled with phase-shift angle. The operating principles of the converter are descr...

  8. Interval of Routine Maintenance and Maintenance Performance: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au-Yong Cheong Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-rise residential buildings, the quality of facilities management services is significant to the normal operation of the facilities. Unfortunately, lack of concern towards building maintenance, especially preventive maintenance, happens in domestic housing industry in Malaysia. Majority of the maintenance operations of condominiums suffer from lack of planning, lack of proactive maintenance plan, and lack of proper implementation. Thus, this paper reviews the implementation of preventive maintenance strategy, routine maintenance in specific. An extensive review of literature published in 1987 to 2014 is performed for the purpose of this research. The publications are sourced from journal articles, conference proceedings and books. The literature analysis confirms that the routine maintenance of facilities and building services is vital and it can be influential towards the maintenance performance. Subsequently, a theoretical framework is developed, which shows the relationship between routine maintenance of building facilities & services and maintenance performance. The building facilities & services are divided into two categories. They are essential facilities & services that ensure the safety, health, habitability, and operability of buildings; while value-added facilities & services deal with property value, return on investment, and quality living of buildings. Based on the findings, a future research is proposed, which aims to identify the appropriate routine of maintenance for the facilities and services in high-rise residential buildings to improve the maintenance performance.

  9. Efficient label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongpeng Du; Yueming Lu; Yuefeng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Transport network paths are typically bidirectional and symmetrical. In multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) mechanisms, independent labels are distributed for bidirectional paths. Thus, the requirement of the MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP), which is a new transport technology, could not be satisfied efficiently. A novel label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks is proposed. Labels distributed by the mechanism are symmetrical and can reflect the pairing relationship of the forward and backward directions of the transport path.%Transport network paths are typically bidirectional and symmetrical.In multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) mechanisms,independent labels are distributed for bidirectional paths.Thus,the requirement of the MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP),which is a new transport technology,could not be satisfied efficiently.A novel label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks is proposed.Labels distributed by the mechanism are symmetrical and can reflect the pairing relationship of the forward and backward directions of the transport path.

  10. Pilot project: maintenance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to contribute to the development of maintenance indicators based on computer-based reports of faults and on the on-line operation data which are currently measured. The feedwater system, including pumps and heat exchangers, in the reactor cooling system at the Barsebaeck reactors in Malmo, Sweden, was chosen as the focal point of the investigation. Available data on fault registration and on operation were examined in detail. The conclusion was that there was a satisfactory amount of relevant information at Barsebaeck to enable an evaluation of the reactor system's physical condition at any given point in time, and that this could be utilized for optimization of maintenance planning. (AB)

  11. Selection of maintenance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methodologies for maintenance task selection, Reliability Centre Maintenance (RCM) and Degradation Mode Analysis (DMA), are compared with regard to application in the nuclear industry and potential for application at CANDU nuclear power plants. RCM is the favoured one of the two methodologies. It is more thorough than DMA, is well supported within the US nuclear industry, and - with experience in application - is gaining cost effectiveness. There is interest in the use of RCM in other nations, including France and Japan, and it is already being implemented at Bruce A NGS and Bruce B NGS in Canada. DMA lags behind RCM in development and currently there is little experience to support claims of major benefits at reduced cost. Significant advantages over RCM need to be demonstrated if DMA is to gain acceptance in the nuclear industry. (author). 41 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Terminal automation system maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J. [Engineered Systems Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  13. Risk informed maintenance activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, risk informed activities are being investigated as scientifically rational measures. Some Risk informed activities using Core Damage Frequency (CDF) have been already employed. Examples are extraction of accident management strategies, risk informed maintenance importance and such. This paper describes risk information such as CDF, risk profile, risk importance of equipments' contribution to risk, gained from Probabilistic Analysis (PSA). Furthermore, risk informed activities conducted and/or considered are also introduced. The examples are investigation of accident management strategies, on-line maintenance and risk informed In Service Inspection (ISI). In the end, open issues for further employment of risk information in the NPP activities are summarized. Technical quality of PSA methodology is one of these issues and it should be continuously addressed, however, the risk information as it is still useful for better activities in NPP. (author)

  14. Evidence for social facilitation of preening in the common tern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestis; Burger

    1998-11-01

    Social facilitation of reproductive behaviour has been studied extensively in gulls and terns, but social facilitation of preening has been reported only anecdotally, and has not been previously quantified. We studied a common tern, Sterna hirundo, colony during the summers of 1996 and 1997 to test for socially facilitated preening. Scan sampling provided evidence of spatial and temporal synchrony of preening behaviour. Preening occurred more often than expected in groups of three or more neighbours. Breeding pairs also preened simultaneously more often than expected. In loafing (resting) areas, the proportion of preeners present increased with tern density. Behavioural observations suggest that preening spread from neighbour to neighbour. The observed clumping in preening behaviour could not be explained by differences in date, time of day or weather. Social facilitation of preening and other maintenance behaviour may be an important aspect of group living that is often overlooked. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9819325

  15. Data management in maintenance outsourcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most businesses view maintenance as tasks carried out by technicians and the data collected is mostly cost related. There is a growing trend towards outsourcing of maintenance and the data collection issues are not addressed properly in most maintenance service contracts. Effective maintenance management requires proper data management - data collection and analysis for decision-making. This requires a proper framework and when maintenance is outsourced it raises several issues and challenges. The paper develops a framework for data management when maintenance is outsourced and looks at a real case study that highlights the need for proper data management. - Highlights: • Framework for data management in maintenance outsourcing. • Black-box to grey-box approaches for modelling. • Improvements to maintenance decision-making. • Case study to illustrate the approaches and the shortcomings in data collection

  16. Maintenance, a global approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance is an important economic activity, it can represent up to 40% of operating costs in some fabrication units. The opening of energy markets to competition has led main operators to center their activities on their basis business and to sub-contract subsidiary activities. Subcontracting with strong engagements from the sub-contractor about results, time allowed and costs is now currently applied in nuclear industry. (A.C.)

  17. Maintenance in sustainable manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Stuchly; Małgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sustainable development is about reaching a balance between economic, social, and environmental goals, as well as people's participation in the planning process in order to gain their input and support. For a company, sustainable development means adoption of such business strategy and actions that contribute to satisfying present needs of company and stakeholders, as well as simultaneous protection, maintenance and strengthening of human and environmental potential which will...

  18. Case Base Maintenance Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Haouchine, Mohamed-Karim; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2007-01-01

    Case base Maintenance is an active Case Based Reasoning research area. The main stream focuses on the method for reducing the size of the case-base while maintaining case-base competence. This paper gives an overview of these works, and proposes a case deletion strategy based on competence criteria using a novel approach. The proposed method, even if inspired from existing literature, combines an algorithm with a Competence Metric (CM). A series of tests are conducted using two standards data...

  19. Proactive machine maintenance system

    OpenAIRE

    Kasalová, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis concerns issues of proactive maintenance, which is focused on machine tools. The most common failures and the most widespread methods of diagnostics of machine tools are described in the thesis. There are also described the procedure of Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis FMEA/FMECA, its possible development in the future with demonstrative presentation of application this analysis on CNC automatic lathe. Subsequently, in the practical part there has been chose...

  20. Maintenance in dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Póvoa Gomes; Ronaldo Mendes Assis Lucena; Patrícia Barcelos Bastos; José Bernardes das Neves

    2008-01-01

    In implants, maintenance is a decisive factor for obtaining success when implant supported overdentures and dentures are used. The present stud presents, a clinical case of a patient, a 70 year-old white man, with a completely edentulous mandibular alveolar ridge, severe bone resorption with presence of basal bone only, and absence of vestibule. Initially, treatment consisted of the placement of a mandibular overdenture, supported on three implants in the anterior inter-foramen region, as the...

  1. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  2. PROACTIVE STRATEGY MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław RADKOWSKI; Robert GUMIŃSKI

    2014-01-01

    Given challenging competition of today service providers are required to be more proactive in satisfying the environmental conditions and customer needs. Proactive maintenance should start at the design stage with establishing the functions, functional failures and failure modes. The understanding the failure behavior, especially the relationship between potential failures, functional failures and diagnostic parameters is the most important task. In the next step the designer have to explore ...

  3. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  4. A cooperative system of two species with bidirectional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between species is often regarded to mean that the increase of each species promotes the growth of the other. The well-known cooperative model is the Lotka-Volterra equations (LVEs). In the LVEs, population densities of species increase infinitely as the cooperation is strong, which is called the divergence problem. Moreover, LVEs never exhibit an Allee effect in the case of obligate cooperation. In order to avoid these problems, several models have been established although most of them are rather complex. In this paper, we consider a cooperative system of two species with bidirectional interactions, in which each species also has negative feedback on the other. Population densities of the species will not increase infinitely because of the limited resource and negative feedback. Then, we focus on an extended lattice model of cooperation, which is deduced from reactions on lattice and has the same form as that of LVEs. In the case of obligate cooperation, the model predicts an Allee effect. Global dynamics of the system exhibit essential features of cooperation and basic mechanisms by which the cooperation can lead to coexistence/extinction of species. Intermediate cooperation is shown to be beneficial in cooperation under certain conditions, while extremely strong cooperation is demonstrated to lead to extinction of one/both species. Numerical simulations confirm and extend our results. PMID:24816998

  5. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Masaki, E-mail: cedam@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  6. Micropower circuits for bidirectional wireless telemetry in neural recording applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihart, Nathan M; Harrison, Reid R

    2005-11-01

    State-of-the art neural recording systems require electronics allowing for transcutaneous, bidirectional data transfer. As these circuits will be implanted near the brain, they must be small and low power. We have developed micropower integrated circuits for recovering clock and data signals over a transcutaneous power link. The data recovery circuit produces a digital data signal from an ac power waveform that has been amplitude modulated. We have also developed an FM transmitter with the lowest power dissipation reported for biosignal telemetry. The FM transmitter consists of a low-noise biopotential amplifier and a voltage controlled oscillator used to transmit amplified neural signals at a frequency near 433 MHz. All circuits were fabricated in a standard 0.5-microm CMOS VLSI process. The resulting chip is powered through a wireless inductive link. The power consumption of the clock and data recovery circuits is measured to be 129 microW; the power consumption of the transmitter is measured to be 465 microW when using an external surface mount inductor. Using a parasitic antenna less than 2 mm long, a received power level was measured to be -59.73 dBm at a distance of one meter. PMID:16285399

  7. A bidirectional brain-computer interface for effective epilepsy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu QI; Fei-qiang MA; Ting-ting GE; Yue-ming WANG; Jun-ming ZHU; Jian-min ZHANG; Xiao-xiang ZHENG; Zhao-hui WU

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide direct bidirectional communication between the brain and a machine. Recently, the BCI technique has been used in seizure control. Usually, a closed-loop system based on BCI is set up which delivers a therapic electrical stimulus only in response to seizure onsets. In this way, the side effects of neurostimulation can be greatly reduced. In this paper, a new BCI-based responsive stimulation system is proposed. With an efficient morphology-based seizure detector, seizure events can be identifi ed in the early stages which trigger electrical stimulations to be sent to the cortex of the brain. The proposed system was tested on rats with penicillin-induced epileptic seizures. Online experiments show that 83%of the seizures could be detected successfully with a short average time delay of 3.11 s. With the therapy of the BCI-based seizure control system, most seizures were suppressed within 10 s. Compared with the control group, the average seizure duration was reduced by 30.7%. Therefore, the proposed system can control epileptic seizures effectively and has potential in clinical applications.

  8. Bidirectional tornado modes on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discharges on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] with safety factor q(0)<1 and high-power ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), monster sawtooth crashes are preceded by frequency sweeping 'tornado modes' in the toroidal Alfven eigenmode frequency range. A suite of equilibrium and spectral magnetohydrodynamical codes is used for explaining the observed evolution of the tornado mode frequency and for identifying temporal evolution of the safety factor inside the q=1 radius just before sawtooth crashes. In some cases, the tornado modes are observed simultaneously with both positive and negative toroidal mode numbers. Hence, a free energy source other than the radial gradient of the energetic ion pressure exciting these modes is sought. The distribution function of the ICRH-accelerated ions is assessed with the SELFO code [J. Hedin et al., Nucl. Fusion 42, 527 (2002)] and energetic particle drive due to the velocity space anisotropy of ICRH-accelerated ions is considered analytically as the possible source for excitation of bidirectional tornado modes

  9. APLIKASI MIGRASI DATABASE DAN REPLIKASI BI-DIRECTIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yoseph Ricky

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and design a migration and replication configurations in an enterprise using several methods such as literary study and direc survey to the company; analysis on hangar systems, process migration and replication as well as existing problems; and a prototype design for migration process implementated with Oracle SQL Developer and replication process implementated with Oracle GoldenGate. The study resluts ini a prototype for migration and replication configuration processes using Oracle's Golden Gate which can produce two sets of identical data for backup and recovery. Also a simple tool is designed to assist active-active replication process as well as active-passive one. The migration process from MySQL database to Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can not be done because GoldenGate Oracle has bugs related to the binary log, so database migration is done using Oracle SQL Developer. However, bi-directional replication between Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can ensure data availability and reduce the workload of primary database.

  10. Bidirectional Influences Between Dimensions of Coparenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51 % female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238

  11. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, R.; Osada, A.; Tabuchi, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Yamazaki, R.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called the Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a traveling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses the hybrid system through the Kittel mode via Faraday and inverse Faraday effects. The conversion efficiency is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated. The possible schemes for improving the efficiency are also discussed.

  12. Angled multimode interferometer for bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Thomson, D J; Khokhar, A Z; Stanković, S; Mitchell, C J; Gardes, F Y; Penades, J Soler; Mashanovich, G Z; Reed, G T

    2015-10-01

    We have demonstrated a bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexer (WDM) on the silicon-on-insulator platform using two 4-channel angled multimode interferometers (AMMIs) sharing the same multimode interference waveguide. An excellent match of the peak transmission wavelength of each channel between the two AMMIs was achieved. The input and output access waveguides were arranged in a configuration such that the propagation of light of one AMMI in the multimode interference waveguide suffered minimal perturbation by the input and output waveguides of the other AMMI. This type of device is ideal for the WDM system for datacom or telecom applications, e.g. an integrated optical transceiver, where the transmission wavelengths are required to match with the receiving wavelengths. The device also benefits from simple fabrication (as only a single lithography and etching step is required), improved convenience for the transceiver layout design, a reduction in tuning power and circuitry and efficient use of layout space. A low insertion loss of 3-4 dB, and low crosstalk of -15 to -20 dB, was achieved. PMID:26587242

  13. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Kidney Disease: A Potential Bidirectional Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Sharma, Kumar; Ayas, Najib T; Laher, Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high mortality rates and heavy economic and social burdens. Nearly 10% of the United States population suffer from CKD, with fatal outcomes increased by 16-40 times even before reaching end-stage renal disease. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is between 3% and 7% in the general population, and has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades along with increased rates of obesity. However, the prevalence of OSA is much greater in patients with CKD. In addition, aggressive dialysis improves OSA. The current literature suggests a bidirectional association between CKD and OSA through a number of potential pathological mechanisms, which increase the possibility of both diseases being possible risk factors for each other. CKD may lead to OSA through a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in chemoreflex responsiveness, pharyngeal narrowing due to fluid overload, and accumulation of uremic toxins. It is also being increasingly recognized that OSA can also accelerate loss of kidney function. Moreover, animals exposed to intermittent hypoxia suffer histopathological renal damage. Potential mechanisms of OSA-associated renal dysfunction include renal hypoxia, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:25845900

  15. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance Nexus: Any Bidirectional Causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alley Ibrahim S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on corporate governance recognize endogeneity in the nexus between corporate governance and financial performance. Little attention has, however, been paid to the direction of causality between the two phenomena, and hence the Vector Error Correction (VEC model, which allows for endogenous determination of the direction of causality, has not been widely employed. This study fills that gap by estimating the nexus and the direction of causality using the VEC model to analyze panel data on selected listed firms in Nigeria. The results agree with the findings of most previous studies that corporate governance significantly affects financial performance. Board skills, board composition and management skills enhanced financial performance indicators – return on equity (ROE, return on asset (ROA and net profit margin (NPM; in many occasions, significantly. Board size and audit committee size did not, and can actually undermine financial performance. More importantly, financial performance did not significantly affect corporate governance. On the basis of the lag structure of the VEC model, this study affirms unidirectional causality in the nexus, running from corporate governance to financial performance, nullifying the hypothesis of bidirectional causality in the nexus.

  16. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.)

  17. Social software: facilitating information-, identity- and relationship-management

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    During the last years, a growing number of online-based applications has been developed that facilitate the creation, articulation and maintenance of social networks. They are often referred to as "social software", but up to now there is neither an accepted definition of this rather vague term, nor is there a comprehensive analytical framework to describe and explain the social dynamics that come with the institutionalization of these tools. This paper starts with a proposal for a definition...

  18. BIDIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MODELING OF THE GEOSTATIONARY SENSOR HIMAWARI-8/AHI USING A KERNEL-DRIVEN BRDF MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, M.; Takagi, M; Akatsuka, S.; Honda, R.(Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan); Nonomura, A.; Moriya, H; Yoshioka, H.

    2016-01-01

    Himawari-8/AHI is a new geostationary sensor that can observe the land surface with high temporal frequency. Bidirectional reflectance derived by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) includes information regarding land surface properties such as albedo, vegetation condition, and forest structure. This information can be extracted by modeling bidirectional reflectance using a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). In this study, a kernel-driven BRDF model was applied to...

  19. Remote maintenance of tandem mirror hybrid coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid Coils (superconducting coils with normal conducting inserts) are being employed with increasing frequency on Tandem Mirror Devices to obtain high field strengths. The normal conducting copper inserts are short lived in comparison to their encircling superconductors. It becomes desirable, therefore, to devise design features and maintenance procedures to replace the inner normal conducting coils without simultaneously replacing the longer lived (and significantly more costly) superconducting coils. The high neutron wall loadings require that the task be accomplished by remote control. The approach is to permanently mount the coil assemblies on track mounted carriages which serve, during machine operation merely as structural supports, but during maintenance procedures as moveable transport devices. The carriages incorporate all necessary provisions to facilitate remote maintenance operations and to adjust and align the coil assemblies with respect to adjacent machine components. The vacuum vessel is severed on both sides of the hybrid coil by means of a remote cutting machine. The entire coil is transported horizontally, normal to the machine axis to a nearby repair station. Prepositioned carriage mounted repair equipment at the repair station withdraws the damaged normal coil as a single entity and inserts a preassembled spare unit. The repaired hybrid coil is reassembled to the reactor. A cost and risk effective procedure has been evolved to maintain one of the more critical components of a Tandem Mirror Machine

  20. Motorway maintenance work

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Built 20 years ago, the airport section of the Geneva motorway bypass is now in need of maintenance work and alterations to bring it into line with the new standards. Two-lane traffic will be maintained in both directions during the work, which will be carried out in 2006 and 2007, but there will be various temporary special traffic arrangements in force. We should like to thank you in advance for your understanding. Civil Engineering Department, DAEL, State of Geneva More information: tel. 163 or www.autoroute-aeroport.ch Fewer cars, fewer traffic jams, with www.covoiturage.ch

  1. Bidirectional grey matter changes after complex motor skill learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGryga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term motor skill learning has been consistently shown to result in functional as well as structural changes in the adult human brain. However, the effect of short learning periods on brain structure is not well understood. In the present study, subjects performed a sequential pinch force task (SPFT for 20 minutes on 5 consecutive days. Changes in brain structure were evaluated with anatomical MRI scans acquired on the first and last day of motor skill learning. Behaviorally, the SPFT resulted in sequence-specific learning with the trained (right hand. Structural grey matter (GM alterations in left M1, right ventral premotor cortex (PMC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC correlated with performance improvements in the SPFT. More specifically we found that subjects with strong sequence-specific performance improvements in the SPFT also had larger increases in GM volume in the respective brain areas. On the other hand, subjects with small behavioral gains either showed no change or even a decrease in GM volume during the time course of learning. Furthermore, cerebellar GM volume before motor skill learning predicted (A individual learning related changes in the SPFT and (B the amount of structural changes in left M1, right ventral PMC and DLPFC. In summary, we provide novel evidence that short-term motor skill learning is associated with learning-related structural brain alterations. Additionally, we showed that practicing a motor skill is not exclusively accompanied by increased GM volume. Instead, bidirectional structural alterations explained the variability of the individual learning success.

  2. Use of PSA to optimize maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation overviews the following issues: What is Maintenance? Definitions. The Maintenance Schedule. Short term and long term planning. What is Optimizing? Reliability Centered Maintenance. Risk-based Maintenance Optimization. Information Requirements

  3. Towards automated traceability maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Patrick; Gotel, Orlena

    2012-10-01

    Traceability relations support stakeholders in understanding the dependencies between artifacts created during the development of a software system and thus enable many development-related tasks. To ensure that the anticipated benefits of these tasks can be realized, it is necessary to have an up-to-date set of traceability relations between the established artifacts. This goal requires the creation of traceability relations during the initial development process. Furthermore, the goal also requires the maintenance of traceability relations over time as the software system evolves in order to prevent their decay. In this paper, an approach is discussed that supports the (semi-) automated update of traceability relations between requirements, analysis and design models of software systems expressed in the UML. This is made possible by analyzing change events that have been captured while working within a third-party UML modeling tool. Within the captured flow of events, development activities comprised of several events are recognized. These are matched with predefined rules that direct the update of impacted traceability relations. The overall approach is supported by a prototype tool and empirical results on the effectiveness of tool-supported traceability maintenance are provided. PMID:23471308

  4. ITER assembly and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to describe the work conducted by the ITER Assembly and Maintenance (A and M) Design Unit and the supporting home teams during the ITER Conceptual Design Activities, carried out from 1988 through 1990. Its content consists of two main sections, i.e., Chapter III, which describes the identified tasks to be performed by the A and M system and a general description of the required equipment; and Chapter IV, which provides a more detailed description of the equipment proposed to perform the assigned tasks. A two-stage R and D program is now planned, i.e., (1) a prototype equipment functional tests using full scale mock-ups and (2) a full scale integration demonstration test facility with real components (vacuum vessel with ports, blanket modules, divertor modules, armor tiles, etc.). Crucial in-vessel and ex-vessel operations and the associated remote handling equipment, including handling of divertor plates and blanket modules will be demonstrated in the first phase, whereby the database needed to proceed with the engineering phase will be acquired. The second phase will demonstrate the ability of the overall system to execute the required maintenance procedures and evaluate the performance of the prototype equipment

  5. Maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since highly reliable operation is required in a nuclear power plant, monitoring during operation and periodical inspection are conducted carefully. The present invention provides maintenance and management systems for providing an aid so that these systems are combined effectively and operated rationally based on unified information management. That is, the system contains data bases comprising information for the design of the equipments and pipelines of a plant, information for the exchange of equipment parts, information for the history of plant operation, information for the monitoring and inspection, and information for the management of repair operation. In addition, it has an equipment part history management sub-system for managing equipment part exchange information, an operation history management sub-system for managing the operation state of the plant, an operation history management sub-system for managing equipment monitoring inspection data and operation management sub-system for managing periodical inspection/ repairing operation. These sub-systems are collectively combined to manage the maintenance and management jobs of the plant unitarily. (I.S.)

  6. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  7. Ndel1-derived peptides modulate bidirectional transport of injected beads in the squid giant axon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Segal

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional transport is a key issue in cellular biology. It requires coordination between microtubule-associated molecular motors that work in opposing directions. The major retrograde and anterograde motors involved in bidirectional transport are cytoplasmic dynein and conventional kinesin, respectively. It is clear that failures in molecular motor activity bear severe consequences, especially in the nervous system. Neuronal migration may be impaired during brain development, and impaired molecular motor activity in the adult is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases leading to neuronal cell death. The mechanisms that regulate or coordinate kinesin and dynein activity to generate bidirectional transport of the same cargo are of utmost importance. We examined how Ndel1, a cytoplasmic dynein binding protein, may regulate non-vesicular bidirectional transport. Soluble Ndel1 protein, Ndel1-derived peptides or control proteins were mixed with fluorescent beads, injected into the squid giant axon, and the bead movements were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Automated tracking allowed for extraction and unbiased analysis of a large data set. Beads moved in both directions with a clear bias to the anterograde direction. Velocities were distributed over a broad range and were typically slower than those associated with fast vesicle transport. Ironically, the main effect of Ndel1 and its derived peptides was an enhancement of anterograde motion. We propose that they may function primarily by inhibition of dynein-dependent resistance, which suggests that both dynein and kinesin motors may remain engaged with microtubules during bidirectional transport.

  8. Automated Bidirectional Languages Localization Testing for Android Apps with Rich GUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman M. Ayyal Awwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile apps are everywhere. The release of apps on a worldwide scale requires them to be made available in many languages, including bidirectional languages. Developers and translators are usually different persons. While automatic testing by itself is important in general in order to be able to develop high quality software, such automatic tests become absolutely essential when developers that do not possess enough knowledge about right-to-left languages need to maintain code that is written for bidirectional languages. A few bidirectional localization tests of mobile applications exist. However, their functionality is limited since they only cover translations and adoption of locales. In this paper we present our approach for automating the bidirectional localization testing for Android applications with a complete consideration for BiDi-languages issues. The objective is to check for any localization defects in the product. The proposed methods are used to test issues of bidirectional apps in general and specifically for the Arabic language. The results show that the methods are able to effectively reveal deficiencies in the app’s design, ensure that the localized app matches all expectations of local users, and guarantee that the product is culturally congruent to local conventions.

  9. Ionic liquid-assisted bidirectional regulation strategy for carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/Bi4O5I2 nanomaterials and enhanced photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mengxia; Xia, Jiexiang; Di, Jun; Wang, Bin; Yin, Sheng; Xu, Li; Zhao, Junze; Li, Huaming

    2016-09-15

    In this study, novel visible-light-driven carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/Bi4O5I2 material has been prepared via a reactable ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([Hmim]I) assisted bidirectional regulation solvothermal method. This is the first time for the preparation of CQDs/Bi4O5I2 material with halogen and CQDs bidirectional regulation at the same time. With CQDs modified on the surface of Bi4O5I2, fast transfer of photogenerated charges and low recombination of photo-induced electron-hole pairs facilitated the enhancement of photodegradation activity. At the same time, the introduction of CQDs made the electrons occupied in high-energy potential on the conduction band of Bi4O5I2 transfer to the reaction center CQDs and the molecular oxygen can be thus activated. The enhanced mechanisms for the active species (holes, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals) during the photocatalytic reaction under visible irradiation were analyzed using DRS analysis, electron spin resonance (ESR) technique and free radicals trapping experiments. PMID:27318012

  10. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  11. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  12. Fuzzy Logic Reliability Centered Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability Centered Maintenence (RCM is a systematic maintenence strategy based on system reliability. Application of RCM process will not always come out with a binary output of “yes” and “no”. Most of the time they are not supported with available detail information to calculate system reliability. The fuzzy logic method attempts to eliminate the uncertainty by providing “truth” in different degrees.Data and responses from maintenance department will be processed using the two methods (reliability centered maintenance and fuzzy logic to design maintenance strategy for the company. The results of the fuzzy logic RCM application are maintenance strategy which fit with current and future condition.

  13. Management aspects of software maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Brian J.; Sullivan, Brenda J.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Federal government depends upon software systems to fulfill its missions. These software systems must be maintained and improved to continue to meet the growing demands placed on them. The process of software maintenance and improvement may be called "software evolution". The software manager must be educated in the complex nature cf soft- ware maintenance to be able to properly evaluate and manage the software maintenance effort. ...

  14. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  15. Fuzzy Logic Reliability Centered Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    , Felecia

    2014-01-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenence (RCM) is a systematic maintenence strategy based on system reliability. Application of RCM process will not always come out with a binary output of “yes” and “no”. Most of the time they are not supported with available detail information to calculate system reliability. The fuzzy logic method attempts to eliminate the uncertainty by providing “truth” in different degrees.Data and responses from maintenance department will be processed using the two methods (re...

  16. Entretian Model for Software Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya K Betala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance refers to the act of modifying the software after putting in use in order to maintain its usability.[1]. In other words, Software maintenance can be defined as; it is the process of providing services to the customers after the delivery of the software. Despite the fact that maintaining software is very challenging, it is the most important routine that must be carried out in the development cycle. If the software is not maintained efficiently it may lead to the death of the software. Maintenance of software may be carried out in two ways. The first one is called „In-house maintenance‟ and the second one is called „Transition maintenance‟. The latter faces the drastic challenges when compared to former, as one team may not provide complete source code to the other, leading to unstructured code, lack of appropriate technique and knowledge about the functioning of the current software. There are a few aspects of software maintenance that set it apart from the other phases. Software maintenance cost comprises more than half of the total software development cost. Also, without software maintenance, it is impossible to change the problems within the product after its release, and many disasters can happen because of immature software. Recognising the importance of software maintenance, this paper proposes a model called “ENTRETIAN MODEL” (Entretian, a French word meaning Maintenance which consists of six basic steps to follow while maintaining software system. This model overcomes certain misconceptions about maintenance phase and it is highly beneficial to the Maintenance Support Team (MST to handle their maintenance activities systematically and efficiently. By employing the proposed model, the MST is able to overcome the technical and managerial issues that are faced earlier in the maintenance phase. The advantage of using “Entretian Model” is best illustrated in this paper with the help of the ERP package.

  17. Improving industrial maintenance contract relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, A. de

    2010-01-01

    Unavailability of technical systems, such as aircraft, is expensive. Technical systems require maintenance to prevent and to remedy defects that cause unavailability. Users of technical systems usually bear the consequences of the risk of unavailability, in particular the loss of productivity. This is based on the presumption that users are best able to insure the risks, although maintenance organisations may be more capable to mitigate the risks. The risks are seldom allocated to maintenance...

  18. Maintenance management for nuclear power plant 'Integrated valve maintenance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deregulation of Europe's power market does force many utilities, and especially nuclear power plant operators, to introduce extensive cost-cutting measures in order to be able to compete within this new environment. The optimization of plant outages provides considerable potential for raising plant availability but can also lower operating costs by reducing e.g. expenditure on maintenance. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH, in cooperation with plant operators, is currently implementing new and improved service concepts which can have a major effect on the way in which maintenance will be performed in the future. Innovative service packages for maintenance in nuclear power plants are available which can be used to perform a time- and cost-effective maintenance. The concepts encompass optimization of the overall sequence from planning in advance to the individual measures including reduction of the scope of maintenance activities, identification of cost cutting potential and bundling of maintenance activities. The main features of these maintenance activities are illustrated here using the examples of outage planning and integrated valve maintenance. In nuclear power plants approx. 5000 valves are periodically preventively, condition-based or breakdown-based maintained. Because of this large number of valves to be maintained a high potential of improvements and cost reductions can be achieved by performing an optimized, cost-effective maintenance based on innovative methods and tools. Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH has developed and qualified such tools which allow to reduce service costs while maintaining high standards of safety and availability. By changing from preventive to predictive (condition-based) maintenance - the number of valves to be maintained may be reduced considerably. The predictive maintenance is based on the Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH diagnostic and evaluation method (ADAM). ADAM is used to monitor the operability of valves by analytical verification of

  19. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In several European countries, national railway operators have been dismantled and partly privatized to create new contractual relations where operations originally performed internally are now outsourced to several companies. Breaking up work across several independent organizational and...... railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...... a contract, and the competencies of their employees working on the railway are controlled and provided by InfraMan. However, this regime faces a number of further challenges, including uncertainties related to the safety plans, contested responsibility for the education program, difficulties in...

  20. Cofrentes maintenance. Life essence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though it may seem like something much more complex, maintenance is not more than the seed of continuity, the alchemy of eternal youth or the key to combating the cruel passage of time that haunts us all. Little does it matter where you are from or where you are going; it is irrelevant whether you are man, woman or machine. If you do not have a more or less sensible strategy of survival, reality can take you by surprise, without prior warning, at the wrong place and the wrong time. It is sad to see how what we thought was eternal, and thus do not care for and pamper as we should, eventually loses its qualities and functions over the years and fades away like a vague memory. (Author)

  1. DCSP hardware maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmino, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper discusses the necessary changes to be implemented on the hardware side of the DCSP database. DCSP is currently tracking hardware maintenance costs in six separate databases. The goal is to develop a system that combines all data and works off a single database. Some of the tasks that will be discussed in this paper include adding the capability for report generation, creating a help package and preparing a users guide, testing the executable file, and populating the new database with data taken from the old database. A brief description of the basic process used in developing the system will also be discussed. Conclusions about the future of the database and the delivery of the final product are then addressed, based on research and the desired use of the system.

  2. Bidirectional Fano Algorithm for Lattice Coded MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2013-05-08

    Recently, lattices - a mathematical representation of infinite discrete points in the Euclidean space, have become an effective way to describe and analyze communication systems especially system those that can be modeled as linear Gaussian vector channel model. Channel codes based on lattices are preferred due to three facts: lattice codes have simple structure, the code can achieve the limits of the channel, and they can be decoded efficiently using lattice decoders which can be considered as the Closest Lattice Point Search (CLPS). Since the time lattice codes were introduced to Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channel, Sphere Decoder (SD) has been an efficient way to implement lattice decoders. Sphere decoder offers the optimal performance at the expense of high decoding complexity especially for low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and for high- dimensional systems. On the other hand, linear and non-linear receivers, Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), and MMSE Decision-Feedback Equalization (DFE), provide the lowest decoding complexity but unfortunately with poor performance. Several studies works have been conducted in the last years to address the problem of designing low complexity decoders for the MIMO channel that can achieve near optimal performance. It was found that sequential decoders using backward tree 
search can bridge the gap between SD and MMSE. The sequential decoder provides an interesting performance-complexity trade-off using a bias term. Yet, the sequential decoder still suffers from high complexity for mid-to-high SNR values. In this work, we propose a new algorithm for Bidirectional Fano sequential Decoder (BFD) in order to reduce the mid-to-high SNR complexity. Our algorithm consists of first constructing a unidirectional Sequential Decoder based on forward search using the QL decomposition. After that, BFD incorporates two searches, forward and backward, to work simultaneously till they merge and find the closest lattice point to the

  3. Degradation nonuniformity in the solar diffuser bidirectional reflectance distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Chu, Mike; Wang, Menghua

    2016-08-01

    The assumption of angular dependence stability of the solar diffuser (SD) throughout degradation is critical to the on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) in many satellite sensors. Recent evidence has pointed to the contrary, and in this work, we present a thorough investigative effort into the angular dependence of the SD degradation for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and for the twin Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. One common key step in the RSB calibration is the use of the SD degradation performance measured by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) as a valid substitute for the SD degradation factor in the direction of the RSB view. If SD degradations between these two respective directions do not maintain the same relative relationship over time, then the unmitigated use of the SDSM-measured SD degradation factor in the RSB calibration calculation will generate bias, and consequently, long-term drift in derived science products. We exploit the available history of the on-orbit calibration events to examine the response of the SDSM and the RSB detectors to the incident illumination reflecting off SD versus solar declination angle and show that the angular dependency, particularly at short wavelengths, evolves with respect to time. The generalized and the decisive conclusion is that the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the SD degrades nonuniformly with respect to both incident and outgoing directions. Thus, the SDSM-based measurements provide SD degradation factors that are biased relative to the RSB view direction with respect to the SD. The analysis also reveals additional interesting phenomena, for example, the sharp behavioral change in the evolving angular dependence observed in Terra MODIS and SNPP VIIRS. For SNPP VIIRS the mitigation for this

  4. Bidirectional controlled teleportation by using nine-qubit entangled state in noisy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Jin, Xian-min

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation (BQCT) by using a nine-qubit entangled state as a quantum channel, where Alice may transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state called qubits A_1 and A_2 to Bob; and at the same time, Bob may also transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state called qubits B_1 and B_2 to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. Based on our channel, we explicitly show how the bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation protocol works. And we show this bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation scheme may be determinate and secure. Taking the amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise as typical noisy channels, we analytically derive the fidelities of the BQCT process and show that the fidelities in these two cases only depend on the amplitude parameter of the initial state and the decoherence noisy rate.

  5. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-09-01

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  6. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anushandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  7. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency

  8. Bidirectional Partial Generalized Synchronization in Chaotic and Hyperchaotic Systems via a New Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization of a class of continuous-time systems is defined. Then based on the active control idea, a new systematic and concrete scheme is developed to achieve bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization between two chaotic systems or between chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. With the help of symbolic-numerical computation,we choose the modified Chua system, Lorenz system, and the hyperchaotic Tamasevicius-Namajunas-Cenys system to illustrate the proposed scheme. Numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. It is interesting that partialchaos synchronization not only can take place between two chaotic systems, but also can take place between chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. The proposed scheme can also be extended to research bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization between other dynamical systems.

  9. Bidirectionality and compartmentation of metabolic fluxes are revealed in the dynamics of isotopomer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, David W; Peterson, Pearu; Paalme, Toomas; Vendelin, Marko

    2009-04-01

    Isotope labeling is one of the few methods of revealing the in vivo bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes within metabolic networks. We argue that a shift from steady state to dynamic isotopomer analysis is required to deal with these cellular complexities and provide a review of dynamic studies of compartmentalized energy fluxes in eukaryotic cells including cardiac muscle, plants, and astrocytes. Knowledge of complex metabolic behaviour on a molecular level is prerequisite for the intelligent design of genetically modified organisms able to realize their potential of revolutionizing food, energy, and pharmaceutical production. We describe techniques to explore the bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes using information contained in the isotopic transient, and discuss the integration of kinetic models with MFA. The flux parameters of an example metabolic network were optimized to examine the compartmentalization of metabolites and and the bidirectionality of fluxes in the TCA cycle of Saccharomyces uvarum for steady-state respiratory growth. PMID:19468334

  10. Bidirectionality and Compartmentation of Metabolic Fluxes Are Revealed in the Dynamics of Isotopomer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vendelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Isotope labeling is one of the few methods of revealing the in vivo bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes within metabolic networks. We argue that a shift from steady state to dynamic isotopomer analysis is required to deal with these cellular complexities and provide a review of dynamic studies of compartmentalized energy fluxes in eukaryotic cells including cardiac muscle, plants, and astrocytes. Knowledge of complex metabolic behaviour on a molecular level is prerequisite for the intelligent design of genetically modified organisms able to realize their potential of revolutionizing food, energy, and pharmaceutical production. We describe techniques to explore the bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes using information contained in the isotopic transient, and discuss the integration of kinetic models with MFA. The flux parameters of an example metabolic network were optimized to examine the compartmentalization of metabolites and and the bidirectionality of fluxes in the TCA cycle of Saccharomyces uvarum for steady-state respiratory growth.

  11. Optimized control of a flyback-converter for bidirectional feeding of DEAP transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstadt, Thorben; Maas, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Considering electromechanical transducers based on dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) beside a proper transducer design a feeding power supply is mandatory. In order to increase the energy efficiency these power electronics should provide a bidirectional energy flow. Therefore, in this contribution a bidirectional flyback-converter is investigated. Since the superimposed application-oriented control of the DEAP transducer requires an accurate control of the transducer voltage, in a first step a mathematical description of the flyback-converter for feeding capacitive loads is carried out. Based on this a sensor-based as well as a sensor-less current control is developed that is finally superimposed by a voltage control. The obtained results are experimentally validated by measurements of a realized prototype of the bidirectional flyback-converter feeding a DEAP transducer.

  12. Bidirectional Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Foam Core Materials Using DIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taher, Siavash Talebi; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; M Dulieu-Barton, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Polymer foam cored sandwich structures are often subjected to aggressive service conditions which may include elevated temperatures. A modified Arcan fixture (MAF) has been developed to characterize polymer foam materials with respect to their tensile, compressive, shear and bidirectional...... mechanical properties at room and at elevated temperatures. The MAF enables the realization of pure compression or high compression to shear bidirectional loading conditions that is not possible with conventional Arcan fixtures. The MAF is attached to a standard universal test machine equiped with an...... environmental chamber using specially designed grips that allow the specimen to rotate, and hence reduces paristic effects due to misalignment. The objective is to measure the unidirectional and bidirectional mechanical properties of PVC foam materials at elevated tempreature using digital image correlation...

  13. Bidirectional expression of long ncRNA/protein-coding gene pairs in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Anne-Susann; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-05-01

    Bidirectional initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II occurs prevalently at active promoters during protein-coding gene (PCG) expression. Upstream, antisense noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) of differing lengths, stabilities and processings are being expressed from these promoters in concert with downstream, processive messenger RNA transcription. Although abundantly detected, the functional role and regulatory capacity of such transcripts have only been determined for individual cases. Long ncRNAs in general are reportedly able to regulate all steps of the gene expression process. Therefore, to get insight into the functionality of long ncRNAs transcribed bidirectionally from cancer-associated PCGs is of interest, as expression changes of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes are prevalent in cancer.Here, we review the sources and characteristics of antisense transcription occurring at PCG loci in the human genome, and focus on the functional impact of bidirectional long ncRNA expression at cancer-associated PCGs. PMID:26578749

  14. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifies direct transmission, one-way relaying and network-coded two-way relaying between the BS and each MS. Using the proposed three-time-slot TDD protocol, we then propose an optimization framework for resource allocation to achieve the following gains: cooperative diversity (via relay selection), network coding gain (via bidirectional transmission mode selection), and multiuser diversity (via subcarrier assignment). We formulate the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem, which is NP-complete. To make it more tracta...

  15. Synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line using strong mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication. (general)

  16. Self-oscillating Galvanic Isolated Bidirectional Very High Frequency DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold;

    2015-01-01

    synchronous. This increases the complexity of the gate drives, which in this paper is solved by using a self-oscillating gate drive. A bidirectional converter has been implemented and is described in this paper; the converter reaches efficiencies above 80% in forward conduction mode and 73.5% in reverse......This paper describes a galvanic isolated bidirectional Very High Frequency (VHF = 30 MHz - 300MHz) ClassE converter. The reason for increasing the switching frequency is to minimize the passive components in the converter. To make the converter topology bidirectional the rectifier has to be...... conduction mode. The designed converter operates at a switching frequency of 35.6 MHz, which is well within the VHF range. The same converter is also implemented with PCB embedded inductors to minimize cost and the physical volume of the total converter....

  17. Drag reduction in turbulent channel flow using bidirectional wavy Lorentz force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG LePing; CHOI KwingSo; FAN BaoChun; CHEN YaoHui

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent control and drag reduction in a channel flow via a bidirectional traveling wave induced by spanwise oscillating Lorentz force have been investigated in the paper.The results based on the direct numerical simulation (DNS) indicate that the bidirectional wavy Lorentz force with appropriate control parameters can result in a regular decline of near-wall streaks and vortex structures with respect to the flow direction,leading to the effective suppression of turbulence generation and significant reduction in skin-friction drag.In addition,experiments are carried out in a water tunnel via electro-magnetic (EM) actuators designed to produce the bidirectional traveling wave excitation as described in calculations.As a result,the actual substantial drag reduction is realized successfully in these experiments.

  18. Optimal stopping for predictive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    de Saporta, Benoîte; Zhang, Huilong; Elegbede, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical method to compute the optimal maintenance time for a complex dynamic system. An early intervention may be uselessly costly, but a late one may lead to a partial/complete failure of the system, which has to be avoided. One must therefore find a balance between these two extreme maintenance policies. To achieve this aim, we model the system by a stochastic hybrid process and propose a numerical method to optimize the maintenance time for this kind of processes. Mathematically, this is an optimal stopping problem. We apply our algorithm to the example of maintenance of a metallic structure subject to corrosion.

  19. TCMS operations and maintenance philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, David P.; Griffin, Rock E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the basic philosophies of operating and maintaining the Test, Control, and Monitor System (TCMS) equipment. TCMS is a complex and sophisticated checkout system. Operations and maintenance processes developed to support it will be based upon current experience, but will be focused on the specific needs of TCMS in support of Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) and related activities. An overview of the operations and maintenance goals and philosophies are presented. The assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concepts and interfaces for operation, on-line maintenance, off-line support, and Operations and Maintenance (O&M) personnel training on all TCMS equipment located at KSC are described.

  20. Nuclear maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. has developed to introduce various computer systems for desk-top business assistance in a power plant such as system isolation assisting system, operation parameter management system, and so on under aiming at business effectiveness since these ten and some years. Recently, by further elapsed years of the plants when required for further cost reduction and together with change of business environment represented by preparation of individual personal computer, further effectiveness, preparation of the business environment, and upgrading of maintenance in power plant business have been required. Among such background, she has carried out various proposals and developments on construction of a maintenance and management system integrated the business assistant know-hows and the plant know-hows both accumulated previously. They are composed of three main points on rationalization of business management and document management in the further effectiveness, preparation of business environment, TBM maintenance, introduction of CBM maintenance and introduction of maintenance assistance in upgrading of maintenance. Here was introduced on system concepts aiming at the further effectiveness of the nuclear power plant business, preparation of business environment, upgrading of maintenance and maintenance, and so on, at a background of environment around maintenance business in the nuclear power plants (cost-down, highly elapsed year of the plant, change of business environment). (G.K)

  1. Maintenance of Epigenetic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almouzni, Geneviève; Cedar, Howard

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYThe genome is subject to a diverse array of epigenetic modifications from DNA methylation to histone posttranslational changes. Many of these marks are somatically stable through cell division. This article focuses on our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the inheritance of epigenetic marks, particularly, repressive ones, when the DNA and chromatin template are duplicated in S phase. This involves the action of histone chaperones, nucleosome-remodeling enzymes, histone and DNA methylation binding proteins, and chromatin-modifying enzymes. Last, the timing of DNA replication is discussed, including the question of whether this constitutes an epigenetic mark that facilitates the propagation of epigenetic marks. PMID:27141050

  2. IMIS: Integrated Maintenance Information System. A maintenance information delivery concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholle, Joseph C.

    1987-01-01

    The Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) will optimize the use of available manpower, enhance technical performance, improve training, and reduce the support equipment and documentation needed for deployment. It will serve as the technician's single, integrated source of all the technical information required to perform modern aircraft maintenance.

  3. Application of reliability-centered maintenance to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a Reliability Technology Associates program to structure a reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) decision logic for application to nuclear power plants. RCM is based on the following criteria: 1. Scheduled maintenance tasks should be performed on nonsafety critical components only when performance of the scheduled task will reduce the life cycle cost of ownership of the system/equipment. 2. Scheduled maintenance tasks should be performed on safety critical components only when such tasks will prevent a decrease in reliability and/or deterioration of safety to unacceptable levels or when the ask will reduce the life cycle cost of ownership of the system/equipment. RCM involves the use of a well-disciplined decision logic analysis process, which focuses on the consequences of failure to develop the most efficient and cost-effective lifetime maintenance program. The decision logic questions are automatically sequenced to those parts that are maintenance significant in a particular end item. Each significant component failure mode is evaluated to identify specific maintenance tasks. A computer-aided approach greatly facilitates use of the decision logic

  4. Optimization of Bi-Directional Flyback Converter for a High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization technique for a flyback converter with a bidirectional energy transfer. The main goal is to optimize the converter for driving an incremental dielectric electro active polymer actuator, which must be charged and discharged from 0 V to 2500 V DC, supplied from a...... application. The efficiency and loss distribution results provided by the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the transformer design and its impact on total converter efficiency. Finally, experimental work on a prototype of the bi-directional flyback converter is presented. The maximum charging...

  5. The broadcast classical-quantum capacity region of a two-phase bidirectional relaying channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Deppe, Christian

    2015-10-01

    We studied a three-node quantum network that enables bidirectional communication between two nodes with a half-duplex relay node for transmitting classical messages. A decode-and-forward protocol is used to perform the communication in two phases. In the first phase, the messages of two nodes are transmitted to the relay node. The capacity of the first phase is well known by previous works. In the second phase, the relay node broadcasts a re-encoded composition to the two nodes. We determine the capacity region of the broadcast phase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper analyzing quantum bidirectional relay networks.

  6. Transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic motor and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xiangcheng; CHEN Zaili

    2002-01-01

    A transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic notor is presented. It has the features of flexible bi-directional drive, simple construction and easy control, etc. The characteristics parameters of the prototype are: frequency 21.46 kHz, maximum moving speed 400 mm/s under pre-load of 3.2 N, maximum thrust 2.1 N under pre-load of 1.6 N. The influence of phase shift and vibration amplitude of ultrasonic transducers on ideal elliptical locus and output characteristics are investigated with theoretical and experimental methods.

  7. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire;...

  8. Thermal bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies and validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN; Guangjian(阎广建); IANG; Lingmei(蒋玲梅); WANG; Jindi(王锦地); CHEN; Liangfu(陈良富); LI; Xiaowen(李小文)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the row structure model of Kimes and the mean gap probability model in single direction, we develop a bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies. A concept of overlap index is introduced in this model to consider the gaps and their correlation between the sun and view directions. Multiangular thermal emission data sets were measured in Shunyi, Beijing, and these data are used in model validation in this paper. By comparison with the Kimes model that does not consider the gap probability, and the model considering the gap in view direction only, it is found that our bidirectional gap probability model fits the field measurements over winter wheat much better.

  9. Deterministic controlled bidirectional remote state preparation via a six-qubit entangled state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zha, Xin-wei; Duan, Ya-jun; Yang, Yu-quan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we presented a controlled bidirectional remote state preparation scheme which used the six-qubit entangled state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice and Bob can prepare simultaneously an arbitrary single-qubit state in each other's place with the control of the supervisor Charlie. The success probability for our scheme reaches unit. Furthermore, we analyze the expression of quantum channel for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Finally, we discuss the security of our scheme, the detailed security analysis shows that the supervisor Charlie's control can greatly improve the security of our scheme.

  10. Optimization of Bi-Directional Flyback Converter for a High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    application. The efficiency and loss distribution results provided by the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the transformer design and its impact on total converter efficiency. Finally, experimental work on a prototype of the bi-directional flyback converter is presented. The maximum charging......This paper presents an optimization technique for a flyback converter with a bidirectional energy transfer. The main goal is to optimize the converter for driving an incremental dielectric electro active polymer actuator, which must be charged and discharged from 0 V to 2500 V DC, supplied from a...... and discharging energy efficiencies of the optimized design, are 96.1% and 85%, respectively....

  11. Multiple output zero-current switching switched-capacitor bidirectional dc-dc converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuang-Shung; Ko, Yi-Pin; Chi, Chien-An

    2010-08-01

    The proposed circuit is a multiple output quasi-resonant (QR) zero-current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converter with a bidirectional power flow control conversion scheme. The principles of the proposed multiple output QR ZCS SC bidirectional dc-dc converter are described using a detailed circuit model for analysis. Simulation and experimental results are carried out to verify the validity and the soft switching performance of the proposed converter. The maximum efficiency achievable is about 94 and 92% for the forward and reverse power flow control schemes, respectively. The output voltage can be regulated by changing the switching frequency for the designed compensated closed-loop controller.

  12. A Novel PPFHB Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Supercapacitor Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bidirectional DC-DC converter for the supercapacitor application. In the proposed converter, push-pull forward with half bridge (PPFHB) voltage doubler structure is used to reduce the number of the power switches and get higher voltage gain. Based on phase......-shift modulation scheme, all the switches can realize zero-voltageswitching (ZVS) turn-on and bidirectional power flow can be controlled with phase-shift angle. The operating principles of the converter are described in detail, ZVS conditions are discussed, parameters are designed, and the experimental results...

  13. Bidirectional Texture Function Three Dimensional Pseudo Gaussian Markov Random Field Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Michal

    Praha : ČVUT v Praze, 2012, s. 53-62. ISBN 978-80-01-05138-2. [Doktorandské dny 2012. Praha (CZ), 16.11.2012-23.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/havlicek-bidirectional texture function three dimensional pseudo gaussian markov random field model.pdf

  14. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  15. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC c...... efficiency 3kW hard switching bidirectional converter based on normally-on SiC JFET is presented, 98.5% maximum efficiency has been obtained with the prototype and a comparison with SiC MOSFet 1st generation is performed....

  16. Simulation Based Performance analysis of Active Clamp DHB ZVZCS Bidirectional DC-DC converter for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel active clamp dual half bridge DC/DC converter with bidirectional power flow is proposed in this paper and comparative analysis between active clamp DHB ZVZCS and ZVS-ZCS bidirectional DC-DC converter topologies is also presented. By adding active clamping circuits to both bridges, zero voltage and zero current switching are achieved to improve the performance of the bidirectional DC/DC converter. The principle of operation is analyzed and simulated. With the proposed active clamp ZVZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation results of the applications of the fuel cell and battery have been obtained and compared with those of ZVS-ZCS bidirectional converter. The simulation results of proposed converter is compared with the ZVS-ZCS bidirectional DC-DC converter, efficiency, switching losses are the key parameters compared.

  17. Lifetime oriented maintenance planning in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we set up a framework for lifetime oriented maintenance planning as an outcome and input for strategic housing stock management. The maintenance planning holds maintenance activities and costs in the longer term. We consider the maintenance planning as a tool to calculate and implement maintenance strategies. Therefore we designed a model to derive maintenance strategies from housing complex strategies. Maintenance strategies depend on the desired or expected lifetime of buildin...

  18. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  19. The Nordic maintenance care program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Brandborg-Olsen, Dorthe; Albert, Hanne;

    2013-01-01

    To describe and interpret Danish Chiropractors' perspectives regarding the purpose and rationale for using MC (maintenance care), its content, course and patient characteristics.......To describe and interpret Danish Chiropractors' perspectives regarding the purpose and rationale for using MC (maintenance care), its content, course and patient characteristics....

  20. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  1. Facilitation Skills for Library Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, Anne; Matheson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Session summary: Brainstorming, problem-solving, team-building and group communication – all of these things can be made easier through facilitation! Come to this fun, interactive workshop to learn techniques and exercises to boost your group meetings. Taught by two information professionals with formal facilitation training and experience, this workshop will give you theory, hands-on practice time and feedback. What participants will learn: Participants will learn techniques to he...

  2. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  3. Research and development of remote maintenance equipment for ITER divertor maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To facilitate easy remote maintainability, the ITER divertor is divided into 60 cassettes, which are transported in the toroidal and radial directions for replacement through maintenance ports located every 90 degrees using the divertor remote maintenance equipment such as in- and ex-vessel transporters. The cassette of 25 tons has to be transported and installed in the vacuum vessel with a positioning accuracy less than 2 mm in the limited space of the vacuum vessel and maintenance port under the intense gamma radiation field. Based on these requirements, the following design and tests were performed. (1) Link mechanism was studied to apply to the transportation of the heavy cassette in the restricted space. A compact mechanism with links for transportation of heavy cassette is designed through the optimization of the link angle taking account of space requirement and force efficiency. As a test result, the lifting capacity of 30 tons (larger than the cassette weight of 25 tons) using two link mechanisms has been demonstrated in the limited space. (2) Compact link mechanism was also studied to apply for locking of the cassette through the optimization of the link angle taking account of space requirement and force efficiency. As a test result, the final positioning accuracy of 0.03 mm for the 25 tons-cassette installation on the vacuum vessel from the initial positioning error of 5 mm has been demonstrated, so that the test result satisfies the requirement less than 2 mm using the link mechanisms in the limited space. (3) Sensor-based control using simple sensors such as optical fiber for divertor maintenance was tested using the full-scale mock-up divertor cassette and remote maintenance equipment. As a result, it is found that the positioning accuracy of 0.16 mm has been achieved by the optical fiber sensor and this value is sufficient for sensor-based control. In addition, the maintenance operation has been carried out through the human-machine interface

  4. Remote maintenance for a new generation of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing facility concepts, designing specialized equipment, and testing prototypical hardware for reprocessing spent fuel from fast breeder reactors. The major facility conceptual design, the Hot Experimental Facility, was based on total remote maintenance to increase plant availability and to reduce radiation exposure. This thrust included designing modular equipment to facilitate maintenance and the manipulation necessary to accomplish maintenance. Included in the design repetoire was the development effort in advanced servomanipulator systems, a remote sampling system, television viewing, and a transporter for manipulator positioning. Demonstration of these developed items is currently ongoing, and the technology is available for applications where production operations in highly radioactive environments are required

  5. Augmented Reality System for E-maintenance Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.; Malek, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present in this paper an Augmented Reality platform for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. With this platform we identify all possible scenarios which allow the technician to intervene on a machine breakdown using distant expert if necessary. Each scenario depends on the machine parameters and the technician competences. To implement a configuration of Augmented Reality system, we chose a case study of maintenance scenario for machine breakdown. Then we represent this scenario by an interaction model which allows establishing Augmented Reality configuration.

  6. Cell Maintenance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Living human cells require attachment to a suitable surface and special culture conditions in order to grow. These requirements are modified and amplified when cells are taken into a weightless environment. Special handling and maintenance systems are required for routine laboratory procedures conducted in the Orbiter and in the Spacelab. Methods were developed to maintain cells in special incubators designed for the Orbiter middeck, however, electrophoresis and other experiments require cells to be harvested off of the culture substrate before they can be processed or used. The cell transport assembly (CTA) was flown on STS-8, and results show that improvements are required to maintain adequate numbers of cells in this device longer than 48 hours. The life sciences middeck centrifuge probably can be used, but modifications will be required to transfer cells from the CTA and keep the cells sterile. Automated systems such as the Skylab SO-15 flight hardware and crew operated systems are being evaluated for use on the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station research modules.

  7. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides detailed guidance on the provisions of the Code on the Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) on the maintenance of structures, systems and components. Like the Code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. Effective maintenance is essential for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It not only ensures that the level of reliability and effectiveness of all plant structures, systems and components having a bearing on safety remains in accordance with design assumptions and intent, but also that the safety status of the plant is not adversely affected after commencement of operation. Nuclear power plant maintenance requires special attention because of: Limitations set by requirements that a minimum number of components remain operable even when the plant is shut down in order to ensure that all necessary safety functions are guaranteed; Difficulty of access to some plant items even when the plant is shut down, due to radiation protection constraints; Potential radiological hazards to site personnel and the public. This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, selecting and training maintenance personnel, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, reviewing, controlling and carrying out plant modifications, and generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records for establishing and

  8. Methadone Maintenance and State Medicaid Managed Care Programs

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Dennis; Frank, Richard G.; Denmead, Gabrielle C.

    1999-01-01

    Coverage for methadone services in state Medicaid plans may facilitate access to the most effective therapy for heroin dependence. State Medicaid plans were reviewed to assess coverage for methadone services, methadone benefits in managed care, and limitations on methadone treatment. Medicaid does not cover methadone maintenance medication in 25 states (59 percent). Only 12 states (24percent) include methadone services in Medicaid managed care plans. Moreover, two of the 12 states limit cover...

  9. Research on Selection of Equipment Maintenance Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Wen-li; SHI Hai-bo; HE Bai-tao

    2006-01-01

    The development of equipment maintenance management is introduced, and equipment maintenance concept is defined. Equipment maintenance modes are classified, analyzed and compared, which merits and demerits are pointed out. At last, a decision-making frame to select equipment maintenance modes is advanced, and steps to select and implement equipment maintenance are given.

  10. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement…

  11. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by Using Six-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Nie, Li-ping; Li, Xiao-lan; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice under the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  12. Bidirectional Quantum Controlled Teleportation by using a Seven-qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit entangled state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice may transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob may transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  13. A Bidirectional Multi-Port DC-DC Converter Integrating Voltage Equalizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianfei; Hou, Shiying; Deng, Fujin;

    2015-01-01

    A novel bidirectional multi-port dc-dc converter integrating voltage equalizer based on switched-capacitor voltage accumulator (SCVA) is proposed. It has two operating modes of charging and discharging for battery modules. All battery modules are connected in series indirectly and can be equalized...

  14. Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for SuperCapacitor Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnavi, Sayed M. D.; Sen, Gökhan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new bidirectional DC/DC converter for supercapacitor applications. The proposed converter has a parallel structure in supercapacitor side (where voltage is low and current is high) and a series structure in the other side. This structure increases efficiency of the converter...

  15. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi-directional piezoel......This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  16. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by Using Six-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Nie, Li-ping; Li, Xiao-lan; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice under the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  17. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal Parenting and Children's Peer Problems: A Longitudinal Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…

  18. A New Method to Treat High Anal Fistula - Bidirectional Isobaric Drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Linghua; Wang, Yanmei; Zhao, Jingbo;

    2016-01-01

    divided into Experimental group and Control group, 60 patients in each group. The patients of Experimental group were treated using bidirectional isobaric drainage radical resection, i.e., moving internal orifice of the fistula up and making another opening at top end of fistula penetrating to the rectal...

  19. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal and Paternal Parenting and Children's Disruptive Behaviour from Kindergarten to Grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Therese; Verlaan, Pierrette; Davidson, Marilyne; Vitaro, Frank; Poulin, Francois; Capuano, France

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that children's disruptive behaviour (CDB) and quality of parenting influence one another bidirectionally. However, few studies have considered the separate contribution of the mother--child and father--child relationships to disruptive behaviours within a longitudinal context. Against this background, the reciprocal…

  20. Electrolyte system for fast preparative focusing in wide pH range based on bidirectional isotachophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel; Šťastná, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 17 (2014), s. 2438-2445. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bidirectional isotachophoresis * electrofocusing * wide pH range Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0236230

  1. High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar Ullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2013-01-01

    A High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the CoolMOS ...

  2. Studi Komparasi Fungsi Keanggotaan Fuzzy sebagai Kontroler Bidirectional DC-DC Converter pada Sistem Penyimpan Energi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Prasetyono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional DC-DC converter is needed in the energy storage system. The converter topology used in this paper was a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC buck-boost converter. This converter worked in two ways, which the charging mode stored energy into battery when load current was less than nominal main DC current (set point and discharging mode transferred energy from battery to the load when its current exceeded set point value. Both of these modes worked automatically according to the load current. The charging and discharging currents were controlled by fuzzy logic controller which was implemented on microcontroller ARM Cortex-M4F STM32F407VG. This paper compares two types of fuzzy membership function (triangular and sigmoid in controlling bidirectional DC-DC converter. The results showed that fuzzy logic controller with triangle membership function and sigmoid as control bidirectional DC-DC converter had no significant different response, both had an average error for charging and discharging process under 4% with ripple current on the main DC bus around 0.5%. The computing time of program for fuzzy logic controller with triangular membership functions had 19.01% faster than sigmoid, and fuzzy logic computation time on a microcontroller with hardware floating point was 60% faster than software floating point.

  3. Reliability analysis of an LCL tuned track segmented bi-directional inductive power transfer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif Iqbal, S. M.; Madawala, U. K.; Thrimawithana, D. J.;

    2013-01-01

    Bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer (BDIPT) technique is suitable for renewable energy based applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), for the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems. Recently, more efforts have been made by researchers to improve both efficiency and reliability o...

  4. Distributed fiber Raman amplification in long reach PON bidirectional access links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Öhman, Filip;

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Raman fiber amplification is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to support long reach passive optical network (PON) links. An 80 km, bidirectional, single fiber link is demonstrated using both standard intensity optical modulators at 10 Gb/s and up to 7.5 Gb/s using novel...

  5. Properties and Stability of Max-Product Fuzzy Bi-Directional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Lan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy operator of max-product is defined at first, and the fuzzy bi-directional associative memory (FBAM) based on the fuzzy operator of max-product is given. Then the properties and the Lyapunov stability of equilibriums of the networks are studied.

  6. Associative, Bidirectional Changes in Neural Signaling Utilizing NMDA Receptor- and Endocannabinoid-Dependent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent, bidirectional changes in synaptic signaling (that is, potentiation and depression of the synapse) can be induced by the precise timing of individual pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. However, far less attention has been paid to the ability of paired trains of action potentials to elicit persistent potentiation or depression. We…

  7. The synchronization for time-delay of linearly bidirectional coupled chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Lyapunov stability theory and matrix measure, this paper presents a new generic criterion of global chaotic synchronization for bidirectional coupled chaotic system with time-delay. A new chaotic system with four-scroll attractor is chosen as an example to verify the effectiveness of the criterion. Numerical simulation are shown for demonstration

  8. A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth's surface for the correction of remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujean, Jean-Louis; Leroy, Marc; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves

    1992-12-01

    A surface bidirectional reflectance model has been developed for the correction of surface bidirectional effects in time series of satellite observations, where both sun and viewing angles are varying. The model follows a semiempirical approach and is designed to be applicable to heterogeneous surfaces. It contains only three adjustable parameters describing the surface and can potentially be included in an algorithm of processing and correction of a time series of remote sensing data. The model considers that the observed surface bidirectional reflectance is the sum of two main processes operating at a local scale: (1) a diffuse reflection component taking into account the geometrical structure of opaque reflectors on the surface, and shadowing effects, and (2) a volume scattering contribution by a collection of dispersed facets which simulates the volume scattering properties of canopies and bare soils. Detailed comparisons between the model and in situ observations show satisfactory agreement for most investigated surface types in the visible and near-infrared spectral bands. The model appears therefore as a good candidate to reduce substantially the undesirable fluctuations related to surface bidirectional effects in remotely sensed multitemporal data sets.

  9. Bidirectional current-voltage converters based on magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y.; Or, S.W.; Chan, H.L.W.; Jiao, J.; Luo, H.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report a power supply-free, bidirectional electric current-voltage converter based on a coil-wound laminated composite of magnetostrictive alloy and piezoelectric crystal. An electric current applied to the coil induces a magnetic field, resulting in an electric voltage from the composite due to

  10. Interleaved Core Assignment for Bidirectional Transmission in Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We study interleaved core assignment for bidirectional transmission in multi-core fibers. By combining it with heterogeneous core structure in an 18-core fiber, the transmission distance is extended by 10 times compared to homogeneous core structure with unidirectional transmission, achieving a...

  11. Relational and Physical Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Peer Relations: Gender Moderation and Bidirectional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Geiger, Tasha C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2005-01-01

    In this 3-year prospective study (N = 458) spanning a transition to middle school, bidirectional associations between children's relations with schoolmates (social preference and impact) and behaviors (physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior) were examined using structural equation modeling. Gender moderation of all estimated paths…

  12. Absolute exponential stability analysis of delayed bi-directional associative memory neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Xuyang [Research Center of Control Science and Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Cui Baotong [Research Center of Control Science and Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)]. E-mail: btcui@sohu.com

    2007-02-15

    The problem of absolute exponential stability for delayed bi-directional associative memory neural networks with time delay is investigated via Lyapunov stability theory. A new sufficient condition ensuring existence and uniqueness of equilibrium and its absolute exponential stability is derived. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  13. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  14. "Advances in Coupled Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry to address bidirectional ammonia flux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropland farm management modeling system for regional air quality and field-scale applications of bi-directional ammonia exchange was presented at ITM XXI. The goal of this research is to improve estimates of nitrogen deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and ambien...

  15. The Persistence-Strengthening Effects of DRA: An Illustration of Bidirectional Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize a series of bidirectional research studies that demonstrate the persistence-strengthening effects of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior on problem behavior. We model a possible solution to this problem with rats followed by replication with a human clinical population. The importance of coordinated basic and applied…

  16. Anxiety and Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Bidirectional Effects across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A.; Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Soto, Timothy W.; Carter, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    This report focuses on the emergence of and bidirectional effects between anxiety and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 149 toddlers with ASD and their mothers, assessed at 2 annual time points. A cross-lag analysis showed that anxiety symptoms increased over time while SOR remained…

  17. Analysis and design of PPFHB bidirectional DC-DC converter with coupled inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel push-pull-forward half-bridge (PPFHB) bi-directional DC-DC converter with coupled inductors is proposed. All switches can operate under zero-voltage-switching (ZVS). The operation principle with phase-shift modulation scheme, characteristics of coupled inductors, the steady...

  18. A self-adaptive full asynchronous bi-directional transmission channel for network-on-chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve two shortcomings of conventional network-on-chips, i.e. low utilization rate in channels between routers and excessive interconnection lines, this paper proposes a full asynchronous self-adaptive bi-directional transmission channel. It can utilize interconnection lines and register resources with high efficiency, and dynamically detect the data transmission state between routers through a direction regulator, which controls the sequencer to automatically adjust the transmission direction of the bi-directional channel, so as to provide a flexible data transmission environment. Null convention logic units are used to make the circuit quasi-delay insensitive and highly robust. The proposed bi-directional transmission channel is implemented based on SMIC 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology. Post-layout simulation results demonstrate that this self-adaptive bi-directional channel has better performance on throughput, transmission flexibility and channel bandwidth utilization compared to a conventional single direction channel. Moreover, the proposed channel can save interconnection lines up to 30% and can provide twice the bandwidth resources of a single direction transmission channel. The proposed channel can apply to an on-chip network which has limited resources of registers and interconnection lines. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Bidirectional Associations between Sleep (Quality and Duration) and Psychosocial Functioning across the University Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial…

  20. An assessment of the bidirectional reflectance models basing on laboratory experiment of natural particulate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqiu; Lv, Yunfeng; Lu, Shan

    2015-09-01

    The bidirectional reflectance model is commonly used to study surface structure and composition of atmosphereless celestial bodies basing on photometric measurements. We conducted a test of two bidirectional reflectance models, which are theoretically similar but with different form, to assess their ability for calculating the bidirectional reflectance of particulate surfaces and if the parameters could be confidently linked to the surface's property. Two types of natural particulate surfaces with controlled particle sizes vary from 300 μm to 900 μm have been measured in the visible and near-infrared wavelength with the NENULGS (Northeast Normal University Laboratory Goniospectrometer System), we only used these measurement results at 560 nm and 670 nm which are regarded to the evaluation standard of models. In this range of particle size, the bidirectional reflectance models were well match to the experimental data as the results shown in previous publications. Although some parameters of the models can be used to simulate the reflectance of particulate surface, they contain no reliable information on the physical property of our samples. Furthermore, the influence of the number of viewing angles on the precision of modeling results has been tested in this paper. It is clear that an increase of the number of viewing angles and the range of azimuth angles could allow us to improve precision on the estimation of parameters. Comparing with the best fitted model reflectance, we also found that if we used the parameters, which derived from measurements in the principal plane for individual incident zenith angle, to model the bidirectional reflectance may overestimate the computed results in the backward scattering direction and underestimate the computed results in the forward scattering direction. The difference between modeled results and measurements can reach up to 20% in the backward direction when using the parameters inverted in the principal plane. However

  1. Maintenance of Certification for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance of Certification (MOC) recognizes that in addition to medical knowledge, several essential elements involved in delivering quality care must be developed and maintained throughout one's career. The MOC process is designed to facilitate and document professional development of American Board of Radiology (ABR) diplomates in the essential elements of quality care in Radiation Oncology and Radiologic Physics. ABR MOC has been developed in accord with guidelines of the American Board of Medical Specialties. All Radiation Oncology certificates issued since 1995 are 10-year, time-limited certificates; diplomates with time-limited certificates who wish to maintain specialty certification must complete specific requirements of the American Board of Radiology MOC program. Diplomates with lifelong certificates are not required to participate but are strongly encouraged to do so. Maintenance of Certification is based on documentation of participation in the four components of MOC: (1) professional standing, (2) lifelong learning and self-assessment, (3) cognitive expertise, and (4) performance in practice. Through these components, MOC addresses six competencies-medical knowledge, patient care, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Details of requirements for components 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are outlined along with aspects of the fourth component currently under development

  2. Patterns of probabilistic evaluation of the maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boolean equation represented by the minimum sets of court at level of a system or of all one Probabilistic safety analysis (APS) it has been used for to evaluate the output configurations of service of teams during the exploitation. It has been carried out through applications of APS for the optimization of operational regimes. The obtaining of such boolean equations as demands of a process of high mathematical complexity for what exhaustive studies are required, even for the application of their results. The important advantages for the maintenance that they obtain of these applications they require the development of methodologies that bring near these optimization methods to the systems of management of the maintenance, and not facilitate their use for a personnel specialized in the probabilistic topics. The article presents a methodology for the preparation, solution and utilization of the results of the fault tree leaving of technological outlines. This algorithm has been automated through the MOSEG code Win to Ver 1.0 (Author)

  3. Analysis of aircraft maintenance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed several organizational models of aircraft maintenance. All models presented so far have been in use in Air Forces, so that the advantages and disadvantages of different models are known. First it shows the current model of aircraft maintenance as well as its basic characteristics. Then the paper discusses two organizational models of aircraft maintenance with their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of different models are analyzed based on the criteria of operational capabilities of military units. In addition to operational capabilities, the paper presents some other criteria which should be taken into account in the evaluation and selection of an optimal model of aircraft maintenance. Performing a qualitative analysis of some models may not be sufficient for evaluating the optimum choice for models of maintenance referring to the selected set of criteria from the scope of operational capabilities. In order to choose the optimum model, it is necessary to conduct a detailed economic and technical analysis of individual tactical model maintenance. A high-quality aircraft maintenance organization requires the highest state and army authorities to be involved. It is necessary to set clear objectives for all the elements of modern air force technical support programs based on the given evaluation criteria.

  4. 340 Facility maintenance implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the 340 Facility. This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4B, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1994), Chapter II. The objective of this plan is to provide baseline information for establishing and identifying Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE order 4330.4B guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program at the 340 Facility. Primary responsibility for the performance and oversight of maintenance activities at the 340 Facility resides with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Maintenance at the 340 Facility is performed by ICF-Kaiser Hanford (ICF-KH) South Programmatic Services crafts persons. This 340 Facility MIP provides interface requirements and responsibilities as they apply specifically to the 340 Facility. This document provides an implementation schedule which has been developed for items considered to be deficient or in need of improvement. The discussion sections, as applied to implementation at the 340 Facility, have been developed from a review of programs and practices utilizing the graded approach. Biennial review and additional reviews are conducted as significant programmatic and mission changes are made. This document is revised as necessary to maintain compliance with DOE requirements

  5. [Maintenance therapy for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Kato, Shunsuke

    2014-08-01

    Some trials have demonstrated the benefits of maintenance chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. In chemotherapeutic strategies for advanced colorectal cancer, chemotherapy-related toxicity prevention and quality of life(QOL)maintenance are more important than the introduction of a strong regimen, especially when additional surgery is not possible. In Japan, the combination of a folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin(FOLFOX)regimen and bevacizumab is a popular first-line chemotherapy regimen. However, despite its effectiveness, neuropathy or hand-foot syndrome after 5 or 6 cycles tends to lead to chemotherapy withdrawal. CAIRO3 trial reported the effectiveness of capecitabine and bevacizumab as a maintenance chemotherapy regimen. Additionally, the ML18147 trial demonstrated that bevacizumab beyond progression(BBP)prolonged overall survival(OS)and progression free survival(PFS)in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Although those trials demonstrated the effectiveness of continuous or maintenance bevacizumab administration, no trials have compared the effectiveness of cytotoxic drugs with bevacizumab as maintenance therapies. Moreover, controversy exists regarding the selection of drugs as a maintenance therapy and the identification of patients who would benefit from maintenance therapy. PMID:25132024

  6. Barriers and Facilitators to Walking and Physical Activity Among American Indian Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Craig N. Sawchuk, PhD; Russo, Joan E.; Andy Bogart, MA; Steve Charles; Jack Goldberg, PhD; Ralph Forquera; Peter Roy-Byrne, MD; Dedra Buchwald, MD

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is common among older American Indians. Several barriers impede the establishment and maintenance of routine exercise. We examined personal and built-environment barriers and facilitators to walking and physical activity and their relationship with health-related quality of life in American Indian elders. Methods We used descriptive statistics to report barriers and facilitators to walking and physical activity among a sample of 75 American Indians aged 50 to ...

  7. Mechanical and abrasive wear characterization of bidirectional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated. ► Three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed. ► Results are validated against existing microscopic models of Lancaster and Wang. ► Tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases. ► Chopped glass fiber composites are found better in abrasive wear situations. -- Abstract: Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated in five different (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) wt% in an epoxy resin matrix. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. Abrasive wear characteristics of these composites are successfully analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner-Lancaster and Wang. It is observed that quite good linear relationships is held between specific wear rate and reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites which is an indicative that the experimental results are in fair agreement with these existing models. Out of all composites fabricated it is found that tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases because of interface strength enhancement. Chopped glass fiber reinforced composites are observed to perform better than bi-directional glass fiber reinforced composites under abrasive wear situations. The morphology of worn composite specimens has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand about dominant wear mechanisms.

  8. Remote handling maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remote maintenance strategy and the associated component design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have reached a high degree of completeness, especially with respect to those components that are expected to require frequent or occasional remote maintenance. Large-scale test stands, to demonstrate the principle feasibility of the remote maintenance procedures and to develop the required equipment and tools, were operational at the end of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase. The initial results are highly encouraging: major remote equipment deployment and component replacement operations have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  9. Remote handling maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remote maintenance strategy and the associated component design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have reached a high degree of completeness, especially with respect to those components that are expected to require frequent or occasional remote maintenance. Large scale test stands, to demonstrate the feasibility in principle of the remote maintenance procedures and to develop the required equipment and tools, were operational at the end of the Engineering Design Activities phase. The initial results are highly encouraging: major remote equipment deployment and component replacement operations have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  10. Overview of maintenance principles and regulatory supervision of maintenance activities at nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maintenance represents one of the most important tools to ensure safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic to the maintenance issue is expressed by requirements in the regulations. The current practice of maintenance management in operated nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic is presented. Main aspects of maintenance, as maintenance programme, organization of maintenance, responsibilities for maintenance are described. Activities of nuclear regulatory authority in maintenance process are presented too. (author)

  11. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-01

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning. PMID:27050014

  12. On Problems of Multicomponent System Maintenance Modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz Nowakowski; Sylwia Werbinka

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of some recent developments in the area of mathematical modeling of maintenance decisions for multi-unit systems. The emphasis is on three main groups of multicomponent maintenance optimization models: the block replacement models, group maintenance models, and opportunistic maintenance models. Moreover, an example of a two-unit system maintenance process is provided in order to compare various maintenance policies.

  13. Risk Based Maintenance for Compressor Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marquesin De Oliveira, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reviewed part of the maintenance activities in a compressor system using the risk based maintenance philosophy. The goal was to verify if a contribution could be made to the maintenance plan of the system. The risk based maintenance philosophy is applied according to the recommendations in NORSOK Z-008. A reliability model is proposed to verify the impact of the new maintenance approach and to make better informed decisions in the maintenance management process. The model used...

  14. Avionics Maintenance Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the avionics maintenance technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into the following categories: foundations, diploma/degree (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions, diploma/degree (admission requirements, provisional admission…

  15. Maintenance training - who needs it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's job responsibilities at Rocky Flats include preventive maintenance, training to meet the needs of maintenance personnel, training for special projects such as welding and metal fabrication, and reporting to the manager of plant maintenance engineers. He notes that many old-line manufacturers are becoming high-tech companies, emphasizing the role of automation in production and quality control. He lists and discusses changes at Rocky Flats, along with the attendant preventive maintenance program the changes necessitate. He observes estimates that training costs to companies over the next 10 years will exceed 10% of their revenues - that in 1986, American companies spent $210 billion on training at all levels. But, if you think training is expensive, try placing a cost on ignorance. 9 figures

  16. Smart schedules streamline distribution maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    CREEMERS, Tom; Ros, LLuís; Riera, Jordi; Roca, Josep; Ferrarons, Carles

    1998-01-01

    The scheduling and coordination of maintenance tasks and resource dispatching, with the aim of guaranteeing service to all customers, forms an essential part of the planning engineer's tasks. Least cost solutions are key. This article features a novel application called PLANETS, based on a constraint-logic programming paradigm, for scheduling maintenance activities on large distribution networks. Examples are included from system tests performed on subsets of the distribution network of Empre...

  17. Maintenance of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance action of nuclear power plant (NPP) was described. Maintenance of NPP aimed at assurance of required function of NPP's equipment so as to prevent release of radioactive materials into the environment as well as attainment of stable operation of NPP. Philosophy of NPP safety was based on defense-in-depth or multiple barriers requiring specified function for the equipment. Preventive maintenance was essential to NPP's equipment and the scope of maintenance was decided on priority with adequate method and frequency of inspection. Most inspection was conducted during periodic inspection at outage. Repair or improvement works were performed if needed. Periodic inspection period was very long and then capacity factor of NPP was low in Japan compared with foreign data although frequency of unscheduled shutdown was very low. Introduction of reability- centered maintenance was requested based on past experiences of overhaul inspection. Technical evaluation of aged NPP had been conducted on aging phenomena and promotion of advanced maintenance was more needed. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Chee So

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air. Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2 without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper. Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation.

  19. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  20. Corpus Linguistics Facilitates English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思亲

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been widely applied in English teaching. Corpus linguistics has changed the way to teach English. The essay discusses two approaches in English teaching based on corpus, corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach. It finds out that both corpus-driven approach and corpus-based approach facilitate English teaching in their own ways.

  1. Dynamic grouping maintenance with time limited opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents firstly a dynamic grouping maintenance strategy for multi-component systems with positive economic dependence, which implies that combining maintenance activities is cheaper than performing maintenance on components separately. Preventive maintenance durations and multiple occurrences of maintenance activities within scheduling horizon are considered. Moreover, in a dynamic context, maintenance opportunities, defined as inactivity periods of the systems at which several maintenance activities could be executed with reduced maintenance costs, may randomly occur with time. The second objective of the paper is to propose a new algorithm to optimally update online the grouped maintenance planning by taking into account the maintenance opportunities. A numerical example of a five components system is finally introduced to illustrate the proposed dynamic grouping maintenance strategy

  2. Efficient parallel and out of core algorithms for constructing large bi-directed de Bruijn graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assembling genomic sequences from a set of overlapping reads is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Algorithms addressing the assembly problem fall into two broad categories - based on the data structures which they employ. The first class uses an overlap/string graph and the second type uses a de Bruijn graph. However with the recent advances in short read sequencing technology, de Bruijn graph based algorithms seem to play a vital role in practice. Efficient algorithms for building these massive de Bruijn graphs are very essential in large sequencing projects based on short reads. In an earlier work, an O(n/p time parallel algorithm has been given for this problem. Here n is the size of the input and p is the number of processors. This algorithm enumerates all possible bi-directed edges which can overlap with a node and ends up generating Θ(nΣ messages (Σ being the size of the alphabet. Results In this paper we present a Θ(n/p time parallel algorithm with a communication complexity that is equal to that of parallel sorting and is not sensitive to Σ. The generality of our algorithm makes it very easy to extend it even to the out-of-core model and in this case it has an optimal I/O complexity of Θ(nlog(n/BBlog(M/B (M being the main memory size and B being the size of the disk block. We demonstrate the scalability of our parallel algorithm on a SGI/Altix computer. A comparison of our algorithm with the previous approaches reveals that our algorithm is faster - both asymptotically and practically. We demonstrate the scalability of our sequential out-of-core algorithm by comparing it with the algorithm used by VELVET to build the bi-directed de Bruijn graph. Our experiments reveal that our algorithm can build the graph with a constant amount of memory, which clearly outperforms VELVET. We also provide efficient algorithms for the bi-directed chain compaction problem. Conclusions The bi-directed

  3. Tissue Microarray Study of Vasculogenic Mimicry in Bi-directional Differentiated Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XishanHao; BaocunSun; ShiwuZhang; XiulanZhao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if vasculogenic mimicry (VM) exists in bi-directional differentiated malignant tumors. METHODS The blood supply models for bi-directional differentiated tumors were studied with immunohistochemical and PAS double-staining techniques. New sections were made from 158 paraffin-embedded bi-directional malignant-tumor samples, including melanoma (high malignancy n=30, low malignancy n=30); synoviosarcoma(SS) (high malignancy n=26, low malignancy n=13); acinar rhabdomyosarcoma (All) (high malignancy n=16,low malignancy n=13); malignant mesothelioma (MM) (n=26), and epithelioid sarcoma (ES)(n=4). Tissue microarrays were made. The representative points in the paraffin sections were labeled and two tissue microarrays were made, one included 60 cases of melanoma, and the other included the other tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of the platelet-endothelial cell adhesive molecule(CD31 antigen) and periodic acid Schiff(PAS) staining were conducted. The areas were calculated of vessel-like channels consisting of CD31 antigen-positive tumor cells and of PAS positive materials. The VM was studied using the data obtained. RESULTS Some of these bi-directional tumor cells secreted PAS-positive materials and 0D31 positive materials. The walls of the VM consisted of PAS-positive materials lined with CD31 negative tumor cells with red blood cells inside the channel, whereas the walls of the epithelium-dependent vessels were comprised of CD31 positive materials. The positive areas of CD31 were significantly less than that of PAS (P<0.01). The number of cases with VM in highly malignant tumors was greater than that found in the lowly malignant tumors. CONCLUSIONS Bi-directional differentiated malignant tumor cells have the ability to auto-transform and might interact with the extracellular matrix to form a vessel channel system which mimics blood vessels for transporting blood. That process is called VM. Results in this study show that bi-directional

  4. On the concept of e-maintenance: Review and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the maintenance function has increased because of its role in keeping and improving system availability and safety, as well as product quality. To support this role, the development of the communication and information technologies has allowed the emergence of the concept of e-maintenance. Within the era of e-manufacturing and e-business, e-maintenance provides the opportunity for a new maintenance generation. As we will discuss later in this paper, e-maintenance integrates existing telemaintenance principles, with Web services and modern e-collaboration principles. Collaboration allows to share and exchange not only information but also knowledge and (e)-intelligence. By means of a collaborative environment, pertinent knowledge and intelligence become available and usable at the right place and time, in order to facilitate reaching the best maintenance decisions. This paper outlines the basic ideas within the e-maintenance concept and then provides an overview of the current research and challenges in this emerging field. An underlying objective is to identify the industrial/academic actors involved in the technological, organizational or management issues related to the development of e-maintenance. Today, this heterogeneous community has to be federated in order to bring up e-maintenance as a new scientific discipline

  5. Maintenance proficiency evaluation test bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maintenance Proficiency Evaluation Test Bank (MPETB) is an Electric Power Research Institute- (EPRJ-) operated, utility-sponsored means of developing, maintaining, and disseminating secure, high-quality written and performance maintenance proficiency tests. EPRTs charter is to ensure that all tests and test items that go into the Test Bank have been validated, screened for reliability, and evaluated to high standards of psychometric excellence. Proficiency tests of maintenance personnel.(mechanics, electricians, and instrumentation and control [I and C] technicians) are most often used to determine if an experienced employee is capable of performing maintenance tasks without further training. Such tests provide objective evidence for decisions to exempt an employee from what, for the employee, is unnecessary training. This leads to considerable savings in training costs and increased productivity because supervisors can assign personnel to tasks at which their competence is proven. The ultimate objective of proficiency evaluation is to ensure that qualified maintenance personnel are available to meet the maintenance requirements of the plant Numerous task-specific MPE tests (both written and performance) have been developed and validated using the EPRI MPE methodology by the utilities participating in the MPETB project A task-specific MPE consists of a multiple-choice written examination and a multi-step performance evaluation that can be used to assess an individual's present knowledge and skill level for a given maintenance task. The MPETB contains MPEs and test items for the mechanical, electrical, and I and C classifications that are readily available to participating utilities. Presently, utilities are placing emphasis on developing MPEs to evaluate outage-related maintenance tasks that demonstrate the competency and qualifications of plant and contractor personnel before the start of outage work. Utilities are also using the MPE methodology and process to

  6. Maintenance analysis method and operational feedback: a comprehensive maintenance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Current periodic inspections program carried out on the COGEMA LOGISTICS casks is required by regulations and approved by the competent Authority. Thus, Safety and casks conformity to the according certificate of approval are guaranteed. Nonetheless, based on experience it appeared that some maintenance operations did not seem relevant or were redundant. Then, it was decided to rethink completely our maintenance program to reach the following objectives: - Set up the 'a minima' required inspection operations required to guarantee Safety and conformity to the certificate of approval, - Optimize criteria and periodicities of inspections taking into account: operational feedback, routine inspections carried out for each transport, regulations, environmental impact (ALARA, waste reduction,...), cost-effectiveness (reduction of cask's immobilization period,...). - Set up a maintenance program in Safety Analysis Reports that: stands alone (no need to check the specification or the certificate of approval to have the complete list of inspections mandatory to guarantee Safety), gives objectives instead of means of controls. This approach needs then to be re-evaluated by the competent Authority. Study's scope has been limited to the TNTM 12 cask family which is intensely used. COGEMA LOGISTICS has a high operational feedback on these casks. After Authority agreement, and in accordance with its requirements, study will then be extended to the other casks belonging to the COGEMA LOGISTICS cask fleet. Actually, the term 'maintenance' is linked to 'Base maintenance' and 'Main maintenance' and implicitly means that the cask is immobilized for a given period. To emphasize the modifications, the term 'maintenance' is no longer used and is substituted by 'periodic upkeep'. By changing the name, COGEMA LOGISTICS wants to emphasize that: some operations can for instance be realized while the cask is unloaded, periodicities are thought in terms of

  7. Visualization of maintenance data to facilitate analysis and promote lifetime management of gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the work and result of a master thesis in Media Technology and Engineering at Linköping University conducted in collaboration with Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB. The aim of the project was to develop an interactive visualization application to be used for data exploration. The purpose of the application is to provide Siemens with valuable insights about how different configurations of their gas turbines affect the lifetime of the machines and their components. The...

  8. Facilitating Learnscape Development, Maintenance and Use: Teachers' Perceptions and Self-Reported Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Bergmann, Iris

    2001-01-01

    Introduces two pilot schools participating in the project Learnscapes, a learning program in which users interact with the environment on school grounds with features such as an edible garden, a poetry corner, or a wildlife corridor. Presents teachers' ideas on the relationship of learnscapes to environmental education and discusses pedagogical…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Analysis of Vietnamese and English with Implications for Vietnamese Language Acquisition and Maintenance in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Tang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two overall goals of this paper are a to provide a linguistic basis for promoting first language maintenance of Vietnamese in a larger United States context and b to stimulate future research in language acquisition of Vietnamese-English speakers. This paper is divided into three sections. Section 1 discusses previous studies on first language (L1 maintenance among Vietnamese Americans. Section 2 presents a cross-linguistic comparison of Vietnamese and English across speech-sound, word, and grammatical language levels. A cross-linguistic analysis may help educators better understand speaking patterns of Vietnamese American students. Based on this cross-linguistic comparison, Section 3 presents potential bi-directional interactions between Vietnamese and English within an individual speaker. These predictions are intended to provide a framework for future empirical studies related to bilingual development.

  10. Experience based reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic analysis and documentation of operating experiences should be included in a living NPP life management program. Failure mode and effects and maintenance effects analyses are suitable methods for analysis of the failure and corrective maintenance experiences of equipment. Combined use of the information on occurred functional failures and the decision tree logic of the reliability centered maintenance identifies applicable and effective preventive maintenance tasks of equipment in an old plant. In this study the electrical motor drives of closing and isolation valves (MOV) of TVO and Loviisa nuclear power plants were selected to serve as pilot study objects. The study was limited to valve drives having actuators manufactured by AUMA in Germany. The fault and maintenance history of MOVs from 1981 up to and including October 1991 in different safety and process systems at TVO 1 and 2 nuclear power units was at first analyzed in a systematic way. The scope of the components studied was 81 MOVs in safety-related systems and 127 other MOVs per each TVO unit. In the case of the Loviisa plant, the observation period was limited to three years, i.e. from February 1989 up to February 1992. The scope of the Loviisa 1 and 2 components studied was 44 respectively 95 MOVs. (25 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.)

  11. Knowledge engineering thinking of maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance optimization problem could not always settled mathematically and was obliged to use quasi-optimum solution with omitting non-formulated limiting condition or neglecting part of optimization object. In such a case knowledge engineering thinking was encouraged. Maintenance of complicated plant and artificial system should be considered from artificial object (equipment/facility hardware and system), technical information and knowledge base, and organizational and human aspect or society and institution. Comprehensive management system in organization and society was necessary not only for assuring integrity of equipment but also for attaining higher performance, reliability and economics of system. For better judgment it was important to share mechanism to make use of more information with organization or whole society. It was required to create database and data mining for knowledge base management system of maintenance. Maintenance was called 'last fortress' to assure quality such as reliability and safety of required function of equipment. Strategic approach to develop maintenance technology under cooperation was considered. Life extension R and D road map was launched in 2005. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Reliability analyses used by maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusek, S.; Gono, R.; Kral, V.; Kratky, M. [VSB Technical Univ. of Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    A series of studies have been conducted to analyze failures that have been experienced by most power distribution companies in the Czech Republic and in one of the Slovak Republics. The purpose was to find ways to optimize the maintenance of distribution network devices. Data was compiled to enable a comparison of results and to create a statistically more important database. Since the number of failures in the area of electrical power engineering have been rather small, the results on element reliability will only be available in several more years to come. The main challenge with reliability analysis is to find reliable and updated input data. As such, the primary task is to change the existing structure of databases of power distribution companies. These databases must be adjusted to get the input data for the calculation functions of reliability centred maintenance (RCM). This paper described the programs designed for analyses of reliability indices and the optimization of maintenance of equipment of the distribution system that will provide basic data for responsible and logical decisions regarding maintenance and basic data for the preparation of an effective maintenance schedule and the creation of a feedback system. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  14. Identification of a bi-directional promoter from Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bi-directional promoter of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) was obtained with the total DNA from TYLCCNV isolate Y10 infected tobacco leaves as a template. Plant expression vectors were constructed by fusing the amplified DNA fragment with the gus gene and nopaline terminator in different orientations. The vectors containing promoter fragments were transferred into leaf cells and plant stems of Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transient expression results showed that both the complementary and virion-sense promoters could drive the gus gene to express, and the GUS activity of the complementary-sense promoter was stronger than that of the virion-sense. Co-expression of the vector containing βC1 gene of TYLCCNV DNAβ with the vector containing a bi-directional promoter revealed that the βC1 protein has no impact on expression of either the virion- or the complementarysense promoter.

  15. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire; DC current runs with unbalanced part of AC current in neutral wire. Without galvanic isolation grounded neutral would cause short circuit if DC/DC converter is connected to three phase rectifier or inverter. Simulation was carried out with PSCAD electromagnetic transient simulator.

  16. A bidirectional lightwave transport system based on PON integration with WDM VLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yi; Wu, Po-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Chang, Ching-Hung; Lin, Huang-Chang

    2013-10-01

    A novel bidirectional lightwave transport system employing phase modulation (PM) scheme and light injection-locked distributed feedback laser diode (DFB LD) as a duplex transceiver for passive optical network (PON); as well as employing laser pointer lasers (LPLs) with directly modulating data signals for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Impressive and low bit error rate (BER) operation is achieved for PON integration with VLC application. Such bidirectional PON integration with VLC system has been successfully demonstrated, which can not only present its advancement in PON/VLC application but also reveal its simplicity and convenience to be installed. Whereby, our proposed system is suitably applicable to the PON in combination with VLC system in wire and wireless transmission.

  17. Bidirectional output stage matrix converter applied to a distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Manuel; Jurado, Francisco; Roa, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In this article a new bidirectional output stage ultra-sparse matrix converter (BOSUMC) is presented. This converter is designed for connecting a hybrid electrical system to a distributed generation network. The proposed converter comprises an input stage and an output stage with six bidirectional switches in such a way that both the input and output stages are linked with a DC link, which can be coupled to an electrolyser and a fuel cell. The converter allows the current to flow in both ways in its output stage, and if there is an excess of energy in the network, it can be transformed into electric direct current and later into hydrogen for its exploitation. For verifying the control algorithm of the BOSUMC, a laboratory prototype has been prepared using among other elements a Spectrum Digital eZdsp™ TMS320F2812 card.

  18. Comparison of bidirectional power electronics with unidirectional topologies using active discharging circuits for feeding DEAP transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstadt, Thorben; Maas, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    To enable a continuous operation of a DEAP transducer, the feeding power electronics must provide the capability to charge and discharge the transducer to enable a continuous voltage adjustment. While in case of energy harvesting applications a bidirectional power electronics is mandatory, for actuator applications also unidirectional power electronics with active discharging circuits can be used. Thus, in this contribution a bidirectional flyback-converter is compared to a unidirectional with different discharging circuits. For this purpose, the design of a resistive and an inductive-resistive discharging circuit is proposed, that are connected in parallel to the DEAP and activated when required. Modulation schemes for both discharging circuits are derived that enable a continuous voltage control. Based on realized prototypes of the investigated topologies the different converters are finally compared to each other.

  19. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    THe paper examines ISEE 3 solar wind electron data obtained concurrent with reported symmetric polar rain events and it is found that a bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux is present whenever such polar cap events occur. In contrast to the normal situation when only one of the earth's polar caps is magnetically connected to the sun, during hemispherically symmetric polar rain events either both of the earth's polar caps are magnetically connected to the sun, or else both are connected to a magnetic loop which is entirely disconnected from the sun. The relative timing between bidirectional solar wind heat flux and symmetrical polar rain events can be utilized to determine certain magnetospheric quantities such as the cross-tail convection speed.

  20. Detailed string stability analysis for bi-directional optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亮

    2015-01-01

    The class of bi-directional optimal velocity models can describe the bi-directional looking effect that usually exists in the reality and is even enhanced with the development of the connected vehicle technologies. Its combined string stability condition can be obtained through the method of the ring-road based string stability analysis. However, the partial string stability about traffic fluctuation propagated backward or forward was neglected, which will be analyzed in detail in this work by the method of transfer function and its H∞norm from the viewpoint of control theory. Then, through comparing the conditions of combined and partial string stabilities, their relationships can make traffic flow be divided into three distinguishable regions, displaying various combined and partial string stability performance. Finally, the numerical experiments verify the theoretical results and find that the final displaying string stability or instability performance results from the accumulated and offset effects of traffic fluctuations propagated from different directions.

  1. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  2. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Luo, Y.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.

    2013-12-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit.

  3. A new model on bidirectional reflectance surface-atmospheric coupled radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Jinhuan; (邱金桓)

    2001-01-01

    An exact and available model on bidirectional reflectance surface-atmospheric coupled radiation is of great significance for spaceborne remote sensing application. Based on the physical process of interaction of solar radiation with the surface and the atmosphere, a new model on bidirectional reflectance surface-atmospheric coupled radiation is developed in this paper. As shown in numerical simulation, this model is evidently better than the 6S model. The standard error among 110112 sets of upward radiance data calculated by this new model is only 0.49%, which is about one fourth of the one by 6S. In the condition of the solar zenith angle qs≤75°and the viewing angle qv≤60°, the error by the new model is usually smaller than 2.5%.

  4. Effects of aerosols and surface shadowing on bidirectional reflectance measurements of deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, David E.; Davis, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Desert surfaces are probably one of the most stable of the Earth's natural targets for remote sensing. The bidirectional reflectance properties of the Saudi Arabian desert was investigated during the Summer Monsoon Experiment (Summer Monex). A comparison of high-altitude with near-surface measurements of the White Sands desert showed significant differences. These discrepancies have been attributed to forward scattering of the dust-laden atmosphere prevalent during Summer Monex. This paper is concerned in general with modeling the effects of atmospheric aerosols and surface shadowing on the remote sensing of bidirectional reflectance factors of desert targets, and in particular with comparing the results of these models with flight results. Although it is possible to approximate the latter, it is felt that a surface reflectance model with a smaller specular component would have permitted using a more realistic set of atmospheric conditions in the simulations.

  5. The Bidirectional Association between Depressive Symptoms and Gait Speed: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Demakakos, P; Cooper, R.; Hamer, M.; Oliveira, C.; Hardy, R; Breeze, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and physical performance are inversely associated, but it is unclear whether their association is bidirectional. We examined whether the association between depressive symptoms and physical performance measured using gait speed is bidirectional. Methods We used a national sample of 4,581 community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (from 2002–03 to 2008-09). We fitted Generalized Estimating Equation (...

  6. Cross-species mapping of bidirectional promoters enables prediction of unannotated 5' UTRs and identification of species-specific transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin Harris A; Larkin Denis M; Yang Mary Q; Piontkivska Helen; Reecy James; Elnitski Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bidirectional promoters are shared regulatory regions that influence the expression of two oppositely oriented genes. This type of regulatory architecture is found more frequently than expected by chance in the human genome, yet many specifics underlying the regulatory design are unknown. Given that the function of most orthologous genes is similar across species, we hypothesized that the architecture and regulation of bidirectional promoters might also be similar across s...

  7. Clustering and scheduling maintenance tasks over time

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuger, Per

    2008-01-01

    We report results on a maintenance scheduling problem. The problem consists of allocating maintenance task instances to and scheduling the performances of a suitable number of maintenance packages. The number of maintenance packages is not fixed, nor is, in general, the dates or durations of their performances. A constraint programming (CP) model and solver for the problem is presented together with preliminary computational results.

  8. 46 CFR 185.702 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance. 185.702 Section 185.702 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.702 Maintenance. (a) The manufacturer's instructions for onboard maintenance of survival craft, rescue boats,...

  9. 18 CFR 367.81 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 367.81... Expense Instructions § 367.81 Maintenance. (a) The cost of maintenance chargeable to the various operating... maintenance work. A list of work operations applicable generally to service company property is included...

  10. 46 CFR 122.702 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance. 122.702 Section 122.702 Shipping COAST..., Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.702 Maintenance. (a) The manufacturer's instructions for onboard maintenance of survival craft, rescue boats, and launching appliances, manufactured on...

  11. 23 CFR 633.208 - Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 633.208 Section 633.208 Highways FEDERAL... PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.208 Maintenance. Maintenance of all highway... responsibility of the State. The State may arrange for maintenance of such roads or portions thereof,...

  12. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each oth...

  13. Exploration of a Polarized Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Model Using the Ground-Based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Diner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of surface reflection is essential for retrieval of aerosols using downward-looking remote sensors. In this paper, observations from the Ground-based Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (GroundMSPI are used to evaluate a surface polarized bidirectional reflectance distribution function (PBRDF model. GroundMSPI is an eight-band spectropolarimetric camera mounted on a rotating gimbal to acquire pushbroom imagery of outdoor landscapes. The camera uses a very accurate photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging technique to acquire Stokes vector measurements in three of the instrument’s bands (470, 660, and 865 nm. A description of the instrument is presented, and observations of selected targets within a scene acquired on 6 January 2010 are analyzed. Data collected during the course of the day as the Sun moved across the sky provided a range of illumination geometries that facilitated evaluation of the surface model, which is comprised of a volumetric reflection term represented by the modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete function plus a specular reflection term generated by a randomly oriented array of Fresnel-reflecting microfacets. While the model is fairly successful in predicting the polarized reflection from two grass targets in the scene, it does a poorer job for two manmade targets (a parking lot and a truck roof, possibly due to their greater degree of geometric organization. Several empirical adjustments to the model are explored and lead to improved fits to the data. For all targets, the data support the notion of spectral invariance in the angular shape of the unpolarized and polarized surface reflection. As noted by others, this behavior provides valuable constraints on the aerosol retrieval problem, and highlights the importance of multiangle observations.

  14. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by using a Seven-qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wen-qin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit entangled state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice wants to transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. One only need perform the Bell-state measurements and single-qubit measurement.

  15. Transmission characteristics of a bidirectional transparent screen based on reflective microlenses

    OpenAIRE

    Hedili, M. Kıvanç; Ürey, Hakan; Freeman, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A microlens array (MLA) based see-through, front projection screen, which can be used in direct projection head-up displays (HUD), color teleprompters and bidirectional interactive smart windows, is evaluated for various performance metrics in transmission mode. The screen structure consists of a partially reflective coated MLA buried between refractive-index-matched layers of epoxy as reported in Ref [1]. The reflected light is expanded by the MLA to create an eyebox for the user. The bright...

  16. Helical solutions of the bidirectional vortex in a cylindrical cyclone: Beltramian and Trkalian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, two families of helical motions are investigated as prospective candidates for describing the bidirectional vortex field in a right-cylindrical chamber. These basic solutions are relevant to cyclone separators and to idealized representations of vortex-fired liquid and hybrid rocket engines in which bidirectional vortex motion is established. To begin, the bulk fluid motion is taken to be isentropic along streamlines, with no concern for reactions, heat transfer, viscosity, compressibility or unsteadiness. Then using the Bragg–Hawthorne equation for steady, inviscid, axisymmetric motion, two families of Euler solutions are derived. Among the characteristics of the newly developed solutions one may note the axial dependence of the swirl velocity, the Trkalian and Beltramian types of the helical motions, the sensitivity of the solutions to the outlet radius, the alternate locations of the mantle, and the increased axial and radial velocity magnitudes, including the rate of mass transfer across the mantle, for which explicit approximations are obtained. Our results are compared to an existing, complex lamellar model of the bidirectional vortex in which the swirl velocity reduces to a free vortex. In this vein, we find the strictly Beltramian flows to share virtually identical pressure variations and radial pressure gradients with those associated with the complex lamellar motion. Furthermore, both families warrant an asymptotic treatment to overcome their endpoint limitations caused by their omission of viscous stresses. From a broader perspective, the work delineates a logical framework through which self-similar, axisymmetric solutions to bidirectional and multidirectional vortex motions may be pursued. It also illustrates the manner through which different formulations may be arrived at depending on the types of wall boundary conditions. For example, both the slip condition at the sidewall and the inlet flow pattern at the headwall may be enforced

  17. Genealogical Information Search by Using Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm and Rule Based Relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Nuanmeesri, Sumitra; Meesad, Payung

    2010-01-01

    Genealogical information is the best histories resources for culture study and cultural heritage. The genealogical research generally presents family information and depict tree diagram. This paper presents Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm (PBBA) to find consanguine relationship between two persons. In addition, the paper utilizes rules based system in order to identify consanguine relationship. The study reveals that PBBA is fast to solve the genealogical information search problem and the Rule Based Relationship provides more benefits in blood relationship identification.

  18. Real-Time Bidirectional Pyrophosphorolysis-Activated Polymerization for Quantitative Detection of Somatic Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Najie; Zhong, Xueting; Li, Qingge

    2014-01-01

    Detection of somatic mutations for targeted therapy is increasingly used in clinical settings. However, due to the difficulties of detecting rare mutations in excess of wild-type DNA, current methods often lack high sensitivity, require multiple procedural steps, or fail to be quantitative. We developed real-time bidirectional pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (real-time Bi-PAP) that allows quantitative detection of somatic mutations. We applied the method to quantify seven mutation...

  19. Bidirectional Dynamics of Materialism and Loneliness: Not Just a Vicious Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Rik Pieters

    2013-01-01

    This research is the first to test the hypothesis that consumers face a "material trap" in which materialism fosters social isolation which in turn reinforces materialism. It provides evidence that materialism and loneliness are engaged in bidirectional relationships over time. Importantly, it finds that loneliness contributes more to materialism than the other way around. Moreover, it finds that materialism's contribution to loneliness is not uniformly vicious but critically differs between ...

  20. Bi-directional LSTM Recurrent Neural Network for Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yushi; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural network(RNN) has been broadly applied to natural language processing(NLP) problems. This kind of neural network is designed for modeling sequential data and has been testified to be quite efficient in sequential tagging tasks. In this paper, we propose to use bi-directional RNN with long short-term memory(LSTM) units for Chinese word segmentation, which is a crucial preprocess task for modeling Chinese sentences and articles. Classical methods focus on designing and combining...

  1. Sensitivity analysis of an updated bidirectional air–surface exchange model for elemental mercury vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2014-01-01

    A box model for estimating bidirectional air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) has been updated based on the latest understanding of the resistance scheme of atmosphere–biosphere interface transfer. Simulations were performed for two seasonal months to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variation. The base-case results show that water and soil surfaces are net sources, while vegetation is a net sink of Hg0. The estimated net exchange in a domain covering the con...

  2. A Test of the Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Mood in Bipolar Disorder and Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates sleep, mood, and the proposed bidirectional relationship between the two in psychiatric disorders. Participants with interepisode bipolar disorder (n = 49), insomnia (n = 34), and no psychiatric history (n = 52) completed seven days of sleep diaries and mood measures. The interepisode bipolar and insomnia participants exhibited greater sleep disturbance than the healthy control individuals. Negative mood was equally heightened in both interepisode bipolar disord...

  3. A Test of the Bidirectional Association Between Sleep and Mood in Bipolar Disorder and Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Lisa S.; Stone, Susan; Gruber, June; Hairston, Ilana S.; Eidelman, Polina; Harvey, Allison G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates sleep, mood, and the proposed bidirectional relationship between the two in psychiatric disorders. Participants with interepisode bipolar disorder (n = 49), insomnia (n = 34), and no psychiatric history (n = 52) completed seven consecutive days of sleep diaries and mood measures. The interepisode bipolar and insomnia participants exhibited greater sleep disturbance than the healthy control individuals. Negative mood was equally heightened in both interepisode bi...

  4. Bidirectional Relationship between Chronic Kidney Disease and Periodontal Disease: Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica A; Taylor, George W.; West, Brady T.; McCarthy, Ellen T.

    2010-01-01

    Periodontal disease is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), an effect postulated to be due in part to endovascular inflammation. While a bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease is plausible, it has not been previously reported in the literature. Over 11 200 adults 18 years or older were identified in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First, multivariable logistic regre...

  5. The bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep: Implications for exercise adherence and sleep improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has long been associated with better sleep, and evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of exercise as a nonpharmacologic treatment option for disturbed sleep. Recent research, however, has noted that poor sleep may contribute to low physical activity levels, emphasizing a robust bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep. This article will briefly review the evidence supporting the use of exercise as a nonpharmacologic treatment for sleep disturbance, outline future rese...

  6. Inferring bi-directional interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolism with model ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    There has been much interest in reconstructing bi-directional regulatory networks linking the circadian clock to metabolism in plants. A variety of reverse engineering methods from machine learning and computational statistics have been proposed and evaluated. The emphasis of the present paper is on combining models in a model ensemble to boost the network reconstruction accuracy, and to explore various model combination strategies to maximize the improvement. Our results demonstrate that a r...

  7. Bidirectionality and Compartmentation of Metabolic Fluxes Are Revealed in the Dynamics of Isotopomer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Vendelin; Pearu Peterson; Toomas Paalme; Schryer, David W

    2009-01-01

    Isotope labeling is one of the few methods of revealing the in vivo bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes within metabolic networks. We argue that a shift from steady state to dynamic isotopomer analysis is required to deal with these cellular complexities and provide a review of dynamic studies of compartmentalized energy fluxes in eukaryotic cells including cardiac muscle, plants, and astrocytes. Knowledge of complex metabolic behaviour on a molecular level is prereq...

  8. Bidirectional alloreactivity: A proposed microchimerism-based solution to the NIMA paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Burlingham, William J.; Benichou, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The NIMA paradox is the observation that in transplants of allogeneic kidneys or hematopoietic stem cells, siblings benefit from re-exposure to non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA), whereas re-exposure to a transplant from mother herself, theoretically the ideal “NIMA” donor, does not yield clinical results superior to a father-donated allograft. Recent observations of bidirectional alloreactivity in kidney and cord blood transplantation offer a possible solution to this paradox. If correct...

  9. Genealogical Information Search by Using Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm and Rule Based Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Sumitra Nuanmeesri; Chanasak Baitiang,; Phayung Meesad

    2009-01-01

    Genealogical information is the best histories resources for culture study and cultural heritage. The genealogical research generally presents family information and depict tree diagram. This paper presents Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm (PBBA) to find consanguine relationship between two persons. In addition, the paper utilizes rules based system in order to identify consanguine relationship. The study reveals that PBBA is fast to solve the genealogical information search problem and...

  10. Demonstration of Displacement- and Frequency-Noise-Free Laser Interferometry Using Bidirectional Mach-Zehnder Interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Ward, R.; Kawamura, S.; Chen, Y; Pai, A.; Somiya, K

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated displacement- and frequency-noise free laser interferometry (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI). This partial implementation, the minimum necessary to be called DFI, has confirmed the essential feature of DFI: the combination of two MZI signals can be carried out in a way which cancels displacement noise of the mirrors while maintaining gravitational wave signals. The attained ma...

  11. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus; KEREKES, Tamas; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC converter for the battery storage is necessary, as energy will be processed twice. Realisation of the battery converter with silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors offers many advantages compared to Sili...

  12. Inclusion of the specular component in the assessment of bidirectional distribution functions based on digital imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    To describe complex fenestration systems such as novel solar blinds, new glazing or coating materials, daylight and sunlight-redirecting devices, a detailed description of their optical properties is needed, given by their Bidirectional Transmission (or Reflection) Distribution Functions (commonly named BTDFs and BRDFs). These functions are angle-dependent at both the incidence and the emission levels, and are defined as the ratio of the luminance of a surface element in a given direction (af...

  13. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptom...

  14. Uniform suspended nanorods fabricated by bidirectional scanning via two-photon photopolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan; Cui Haibo; Qi Fengjie; Yang Hong; Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: li@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2008-09-17

    Suspended nanorods fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization gradually thickened in the scanning direction when the scanning speed was faster than 60 {mu}m s{sup -1}. For a 2 {mu}m long suspended nanorod, the lateral widths of the thin and the thick ends were about 50 and 150 nm. A bidirectional scanning technique was proposed to effectively eliminate the size difference, resulting in uniform suspended nanorods of 100 nm in width and 2 {mu}m in length.

  15. Uniform suspended nanorods fabricated by bidirectional scanning via two-photon photopolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspended nanorods fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization gradually thickened in the scanning direction when the scanning speed was faster than 60 μm s-1. For a 2 μm long suspended nanorod, the lateral widths of the thin and the thick ends were about 50 and 150 nm. A bidirectional scanning technique was proposed to effectively eliminate the size difference, resulting in uniform suspended nanorods of 100 nm in width and 2 μm in length

  16. BI-DIRECTIONAL COHEN-GROSSBERG NEURAL NETWORK WITH DISCRETE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Discrete-time version of the bi-directional Cohen-Grossberg neural network is stud-ied in this paper. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponen-tial stability of such networks with discrete time based on Lyapunov method. These results do not require the symmetry of the connection matrix and the monotonicity, boundedness and differentiability of the activation function.

  17. Matrix Converter Bi-directional Switch Power Loss and Cooling Condition Estimation for Integrated Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovs, A; Galkins, I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper power loss estimation of bi-directional switch of matrix converter is done by means of calculation and experiments. For safe operation of power devices an efficient cooling system of specific device must be designed. This work is part of a greater project of integrated matrix converter AC drives and the cooling problem here is viewed in context of this task. It is necessary to develop a compact power board and cooling system to extract excessive heat from power devices.

  18. The bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Ning, Zongjun; Su, Yingna

    2016-09-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of ˜10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, 211 Å, 131 Å, 94 Å, 335 Å and 304 Å, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 Å and 1400 Å. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km s^{-1}, while the typically period is ˜90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional flows and their periodicity) can be detected simultaneously at all the 9 wavelengths. This CBP takes place at the site between a small pair of magnetic polarities. High time resolution observations show that they are moving close to each other during its lifetime. These facts support the magnetic reconnection model of the CBP and the bi-directional moving structures could be the observational outflows after the reconnection. Therefore, they can be as the direct observation evidence of the magnetic reconnection.

  19. Acquisition of Bidirectional Reflectance Factor Dataset Using a Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Consumer Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Jouni I.; Juha Suomalainen; Teemu Hakala

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for retrieving the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of land-surface areas, using a small consumer camera on board an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and introducing an advanced calibration routine. Images with varying view directions were taken of snow cover using the UAV. The vignetting effect was corrected from the images, and reflectance factor images were calculated using a calibrated white target as a reference. After spatial registration of the images u...

  20. A sensor network for the Internet of Things Integrated with a bidirectional backend

    OpenAIRE

    Hobring, Linus; Söderberg, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is rapidly evolving. This thesis includes a study of single-board computers suitable for machine-to-machine communication together with the developing process of a sensor network integrated with a bidirectional communication platform. Raspberry Pi was selected as the single-board computer used in the proposed system. The Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol was selected as main communication protocol to handle all exchange of information between the network and the ...

  1. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; KOÇ, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Pati...

  2. Comparison of laser-assisted damage in soft tissue using bi-directional and forward-firing optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhwan; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Park, Hoyong; Lee, Yong Joong; Lee, Ho

    2014-03-01

    Laser-assisted endoscopic surgery is made possible by employing optical devices such as fiber optics and hollow wave-guides. In some applications of laser-assisted endoscopic surgery, it is necessary to change the direction of the light emission. Our group reported a new fabrication method for bi-directional firing fibers. The conical surface of the fiber tip made the bi-directional emission of the laser light at the distal end of the fiber. In this study, we employed the bi-directional firing fiber for laser-assisted coagulation of soft tissue. The developed fiber and the normal forward-firing fiber are used for the endoscopic delivery system of a continuous IR laser into an in vitro porcine liver. The ablation and coagulation pattern were compared for two distinctive fiber systems. Regardless of the laser's parameters, the bi-directional firing fiber produced a cavity and coagulation zone with more or less a circular shape, while the forward fiber produced an elongated cavity and coagulation region. The bi-directional firing fiber produced wider and shorter coagulation and cavity zones compared to that of the forward-firing fiber. We expect the bi-directional firing fiber to be an excellent optical delivery system for endoscopic laser-hyperthermia when used against various tumors in the liver, breast and thyroid.

  3. Sensitivities in Structural Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Kroon, I.B.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    A general description of optimal inspection and maintenance planning based on the classical decision theory and the modern reliability theory is given. A number of simplifications to this description is given leading to more appropriate formulations for practical applications. Sensitivities of both...... optimal inspection and maintenance plans as well as the associated costs are given with respect to the assumptions on which the planning has been performed. These sensitivities indicate the significance of the individual assumptions and may be used as a decision tool to reject particular optimal...... inspection and maintenance plans showing too large sensitivity. An example from the offshore industry is given to indicate how the methodologies can be used in practical applications....

  4. Bidirectional Growth Based Mining and Cyclic Behaviour Analysis of Web Sequential Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantaiah K C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The moreaccurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized toeffectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine

  5. Nanotechnology to rescue bacterial bidirectional extracellular electron transfer in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer

    2016-03-17

    An electrically active bacterium transports its metabolically generated electrons to insoluble substrates such as electrodes via a process known as extracellular electron transport (EET). Bacterial EET is a crucial process in the geochemical cycling of metals, bioremediation and bioenergy devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Recently, it has been found that electroactive bacteria can reverse their respiratory pathways by accepting electrons from a negatively poised electrode to produce high-value chemicals such as ethanol in a process termed as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). A poor electrical connection between bacteria and the electrode hinders the EET and MES processes significantly. Also, the bidirectional EET process is sluggish and needs to be improved drastically to extend its practical applications. Several attempts have been undertaken to improve the bidirectional EET by employing various advanced nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. This review covers the recent progress in the bacterial bidirectional EET processes using advanced nanostructures in the light of current understandings of bacteria–nanomaterial interactions.

  6. Impact of Interference in Coexisting Wireless Networks with Applications to Arbitrarily Varying Bidirectional Broadcast Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Boche

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift from an exclusive allocation of frequency bands, one for each system, to a shared use of frequencies comes along with the need of new concepts since interference will be an ubiquitous phenomenon. In this paper, we use the concept of arbitrarily varying channels to model the impact of unknown interference caused by coexisting wireless systems which operate on the same frequencies. Within this framework, capacity can be zero if pre-specified encoders and decoders are used. This necessitates the use of more sophisticated coordination schemes where the choice of encoders and decoders is additionally coordinated based on common randomness. As an application we study the arbitrarily varying bidirectional broadcast channel and derive the capacity regions for different coordination strategies. This problem is motivated by decode-and-forward bidirectional or two-way relaying, where a relay establishes a bidirectional communication between two other nodes while sharing the resources with other coexisting wireless networks.

  7. Bidirectional Tachycardia after an Acute Intravenous Administration of Digitalis for a Suicidal Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diletta Sabatini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute digoxin intoxication is a life-threating condition associated with severe cardiotoxicity. Female gender, age, low lean body mass, hypertension, and renal insufficiency may worsen the prognosis. Arrhythmias caused by digitalis glycosides are characterized by an increased automaticity coupled with concomitant conduction delay. Bidirectional tachycardia is pathognomonic of digoxin intoxication, but it is rarely observed. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department after self-administration of 5 mg of digoxin i.v. for suicidal purpose. Her digoxin serum concentration was 17.4 ng/mL. The patient developed a bidirectional tachycardia and the Poison Control Center of the hospital provided digoxin immune fab. Bidirectional tachycardia quickly reversed and the patient remained stable throughout the hospital stay. This case shows that a multiple disciplinary approach, involving cardiologists and toxicologists, is essential for the management of digoxin intoxication. The optimal treatment of this rare event depends on the clinical conditions and on the serum drug concentration of the patient. Digoxin immune fab represents a safe, effective, and specific method for rapidly reversing digitalis cardiotoxicity and should be started as soon as the diagnosis is defined.

  8. Continuous measurements of real-life bidirectional pedestrian flows on a wide walkway

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-min; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Employing partially overlapping overhead \\kinectTMS sensors and automatic pedestrian tracking algorithms we recorded the crowd traffic in a rectilinear section of the main walkway of Eindhoven train station on a 24/7 basis. Beside giving access to the train platforms (it passes underneath the railways), the walkway plays an important connection role in the city. Several crowding scenarios occur during the day, including high- and low-density dynamics in uni- and bi-directional regimes. In this paper we discuss our recording technique and we illustrate preliminary data analyses. Via fundamental diagrams-like representations we report pedestrian velocities and fluxes vs. pedestrian density. Considering the density range $0$ - $1.1\\,$ped/m$^2$, we find that at densities lower than $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$ pedestrians in unidirectional flows walk faster than in bidirectional regimes. On the opposite, velocities and fluxes for even bidirectional flows are higher above $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$.

  9. Improved MISO-SAR System Based on BiDirectional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the German Aerospace Center (DLR. proposed a BiDirectional mode that can achieve several seconds of repeated time lags by single star and single flight. Its basic principle includes the generation of a double-beam antenna pattern by electronic beam steering and simultaneous emission of two pulses that irradiate the front and back imaging area. The two pulses, which are simultaneously received will be separated by band-pass filtering in the Doppler domain and imaged, respectively. This paper presents an improved Multi Input Single Output (MISO-SAR system based on the BiDirectional mode which converts the traditional simultaneous dual beam emitting and receiving into time-division emitting and simultaneous receiving, respectively. This results in an improved emitting antenna pattern owning to the suppression of the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR. The current paper describes the spectrum separation effects, AASR analysis, and the system design process. Therefore, to confirm effectiveness, point target 1-D and 2-D simulation results are compared before and after the improvement. Furthermore, the BiDirectional and other short-term repeated SAR modes are compared.

  10. Impact of holding umbrella on uni- and bi-directional pedestrian flow: Experiments and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of holding umbrella on the uni- and bi-directional flow has been investigated via experiment and modeling. In the experiments, pedestrians are required to walk clockwise/anti-clockwise in a ring-shaped corridor under normal situation and holding umbrella situation. No matter in uni- or bi-directional flow, the flow rate under holding umbrella situation decreases comparing with that in normal situation. In bidirectional flow, pedestrians segregate into two opposite moving streams very quickly under normal situation, and clockwise/anti-clockwise walking pedestrians are always in the inner/outer lane due to right-walking preference. Under holding umbrella situation, spontaneous lane formation has also occurred. However, when holding umbrella, pedestrians may separate into more than two lanes. Moreover, the merge of lanes have been observed, and clockwise/anti-clockwise pedestrians are not always in the inner/outer lane. To model the flow dynamics, an improved force-based model has been ...

  11. The Bi-directional Moving Structures in a Coronal Bright Point

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dong; Su, Yingna

    2016-01-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of about 10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171, 193, 211, 131, 94, 335 and 304 A, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 and 1400 A. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km/s, while the typically period is about 90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional fl...

  12. Modelling of laboratory data of bi-directional reflectance of regolith surface containing Alumina

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, C; Das, H S; Sen, A K; Gupta, R

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance of a surface is defined as the ratio of the scattered radiation at the detector to the incident irradiance as a function of geometry. The accurate knowledge of the bidirectional reflection function (BRF) of layers composed of discrete, randomly positioned scattering particles is very essential for many remote sensing, engineering, biophysical applications and in different areas of Astrophysics. The computations of BRF's for plane parallel particulate layers are usually reduced to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by the existing techniques. In this work we present our laboratory data on bidirectional reflectance versus phase angle for two sample sizes of 0.3 and 1 $\\mu m$ of Alumina for the He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm (red) and 543.5nm(green) wavelength. The nature of the phase curves of the asteroids depends on the parameters like- particle size, composition, porosity, roughness etc. In our present work we analyse the data which are being generated using single scattering phas...

  13. Color coded multiple access scheme for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications in smart home technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Sewaiwar, Atul; Chung, Yeon-Ho

    2015-10-01

    In optical wireless communications, multiple channel transmission is an attractive solution to enhancing capacity and system performance. A new modulation scheme called color coded multiple access (CCMA) for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications (VLC) is presented for smart home applications. The proposed scheme uses red, green and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LED) for downlink and phosphor based white LED (P-LED) for uplink to establish a bidirectional VLC and also employs orthogonal codes to support multiple users and devices. The downlink transmission for data user devices and smart home devices is provided using red and green colors from the RGB LEDs, respectively, while uplink transmission from both types of devices is performed using the blue color from P-LEDs. Simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme. It is found that the proposed bidirectional multiuser scheme is efficient in terms of data rate and performance. In addition, since the proposed scheme uses RGB signals for downlink data transmission, it provides flicker-free illumination that would lend itself to multiuser VLC system for smart home applications.

  14. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  15. Inverting Quasi-Resonant Switched-Capacitor Bidirectional Converter and Its Application to Battery Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuang-Shung; Chiu, Yin-Yuan; Cheng, Ming-Wang; Ko, Yi-Pin; Hsiao, Sung-Hsin

    The proposed quasi-resonant (QR) zero current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converter is a new type of bidirectional power flow control conversion scheme. The proposed converter is able to provide voltage conversion ratios from -3/-{1 \\over 3} (triple-mode/trisection-mode) to -n/-{1 \\over n} (-n-mode/-{1 \\over n}-mode) by adding a different number of switched-capacitors and power MOSFET switches with a small series connected resonant inductor for forward and reverse power flow control schemes. It possesses the advantages of low switching losses and current stress in this QR ZCS SC converter. The principle of operation, theoretical analysis of the proposed triple-mode/trisection-mode bidirectional power conversion scheme is described in detail with circuit model analysis. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed inverting type ZCS SC QR bidirectional converter. The proposed converters can be applied to battery equalization for battery management system (BMS).

  16. BIDIRECTIONAL GROWTH BASED MINING AND CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF WEB SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantaiah K C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The more accurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized to effectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine.

  17. High-Frequency Resonant Matrix Converter using IGBT-Based Bidirectional Switches for Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel type soft switching utility frequency AC- high frequency AC converter using asymmetrical PWM bidirectional active switches which can be defined as high frequency resonant matrix converter.This power frequency changer can directly convert utility frequency AC power to high frequency AC power ranging more than 20kHz up to 100kHz. Only one active edge resonant capacitor-assisted soft switching high frequency load resonant cyclo-converter is based on asymmetrical duty cycle PWM strategy. This high frequency cyclo-converter uses bidirectional IGBTs composed of anti-parallel one-chip reverse blocking IGBTs. This high frequency cycloconverter has some remarkable features as electrolytic capacitorless DC busline link, unity power factor correction and sinewave line current shaping, simple configuration with minimum circuit components and low cost, high efficiency and downsizing. This series load resonant cycloconverter incorporating bidirectional active power switches is developed and implemented for high efficiency consumer induction heated food cooking appliances. Its operating principle is described by using equivalent circuits. Its operating performances as soft switching operating ranges and high frequency effective power regulation characteristics are discussed on the basis of simulation and experimental results.

  18. Maintenance organization and outage planning in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Society of the Russian Federation is responsible for all commercial electric power generation in nuclear power plants in Russia (ie., 9 nuclear power plants), and for managing several maintenance enterprises and other technical support organizations. The current status is presented of the maintenance policy and the organization of the maintenance. The impact of maintenance on the reliability of the nuclear power plant systems, and the methods for developing maintenance improvement practices are described. (Z.S.) 4 figs

  19. Selective Maintenance Model Considering Time Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a selective maintenance model for weapon system during mission interval. First, it gives relevant definitions and operational process of material support system. Then, it introduces current research on selective maintenance modeling. Finally, it establishes numerical model for selecting corrective and preventive maintenance tasks, considering time uncertainty brought by unpredictability of maintenance procedure, indetermination of downtime for spares and difference of skill proficiency between staffs. The adaptability and flexibility of selective maintenance model are improved dramatically.

  20. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.