WorldWideScience

Sample records for bidirectional cooperative motion

  1. A cooperative system of two species with bidirectional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between species is often regarded to mean that the increase of each species promotes the growth of the other. The well-known cooperative model is the Lotka-Volterra equations (LVEs). In the LVEs, population densities of species increase infinitely as the cooperation is strong, which is called the divergence problem. Moreover, LVEs never exhibit an Allee effect in the case of obligate cooperation. In order to avoid these problems, several models have been established although most of them are rather complex. In this paper, we consider a cooperative system of two species with bidirectional interactions, in which each species also has negative feedback on the other. Population densities of the species will not increase infinitely because of the limited resource and negative feedback. Then, we focus on an extended lattice model of cooperation, which is deduced from reactions on lattice and has the same form as that of LVEs. In the case of obligate cooperation, the model predicts an Allee effect. Global dynamics of the system exhibit essential features of cooperation and basic mechanisms by which the cooperation can lead to coexistence/extinction of species. Intermediate cooperation is shown to be beneficial in cooperation under certain conditions, while extremely strong cooperation is demonstrated to lead to extinction of one/both species. Numerical simulations confirm and extend our results. PMID:24816998

  2. Helical solutions of the bidirectional vortex in a cylindrical cyclone: Beltramian and Trkalian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, two families of helical motions are investigated as prospective candidates for describing the bidirectional vortex field in a right-cylindrical chamber. These basic solutions are relevant to cyclone separators and to idealized representations of vortex-fired liquid and hybrid rocket engines in which bidirectional vortex motion is established. To begin, the bulk fluid motion is taken to be isentropic along streamlines, with no concern for reactions, heat transfer, viscosity, compressibility or unsteadiness. Then using the Bragg–Hawthorne equation for steady, inviscid, axisymmetric motion, two families of Euler solutions are derived. Among the characteristics of the newly developed solutions one may note the axial dependence of the swirl velocity, the Trkalian and Beltramian types of the helical motions, the sensitivity of the solutions to the outlet radius, the alternate locations of the mantle, and the increased axial and radial velocity magnitudes, including the rate of mass transfer across the mantle, for which explicit approximations are obtained. Our results are compared to an existing, complex lamellar model of the bidirectional vortex in which the swirl velocity reduces to a free vortex. In this vein, we find the strictly Beltramian flows to share virtually identical pressure variations and radial pressure gradients with those associated with the complex lamellar motion. Furthermore, both families warrant an asymptotic treatment to overcome their endpoint limitations caused by their omission of viscous stresses. From a broader perspective, the work delineates a logical framework through which self-similar, axisymmetric solutions to bidirectional and multidirectional vortex motions may be pursued. It also illustrates the manner through which different formulations may be arrived at depending on the types of wall boundary conditions. For example, both the slip condition at the sidewall and the inlet flow pattern at the headwall may be enforced

  3. Cooperative particle motion in complex (dusty) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Sergey; Morfill, Gregor

    2014-05-01

    Strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas give us a unique opportunity to go beyond the limits of continuous media and study various generic processes occurring in liquids or solids at the kinetic level. A particularly interesting and challenging topic is to study dynamic cooperativity at local and intermediate scales. As an important element of self-organization, cooperative particle motion is present in many physical, astrophysical and biological systems. As a rule, cooperative dynamics, bringing to life 'abnormal' effects like enhanced diffusion, self-dragging, or self-propelling of particles, hold aspects of 'strange' kinetics. The synergy effects are also important. Such kind of cooperative behavior was evidenced for string-like formations of colloidal rods, dynamics of mono- and di-vacancies in 2d colloidal crystals. Externally manipulated 'dust molecules' and self-assembled strings in driven 3d particle clusters were other noticeable examples. There is a certain advantage to experiment with complex plasmas merely because these systems are easy to manipulate in a controllable way. We report on the first direct observation of microparticle cooperative movements occurring under natural conditions in a 2d complex plasma.

  4. Fully Distributed Cooperative Motion of Group Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on the fully distributed cooperative motion of group robots and proposes a new approach. Each robot has a local sensing ability and a simple action selection strategy. Computational complexity is decreased by the fully distributed architecture and the information insufficiency is solved by the interaction between the robots and the environment. Variable loop and random method are used to deal with the fluctuation and equity selection problem and the rapidity and reasonabiliiy are guaranteed. Some simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Regenerative Strategy for Sum-rate Enhancement in Bi-directional Three-node Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ning; Zhong Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    In bi-directional three-node cooperation, one regenerative strategy with network coding and power optimization is proposed for system sum-rate under a total energy constraint. In this paper, the network coding and power optimization are applied to improve system sum-rate. But max-min optimization problem in power allocation is a NP-hard problem. In high Signal-to-Noise Ratio regime, this NP-hard problem is transformed into constrained polynomial optimization problem, which can be computed in polynomial time. Although it is a suboptimal solution, numerical simulations show that this strategy enhances the system sum-rate up to 45% as compared to a traditional four-phase strategy, and up to 13% as compared to the three-phase strategy without power optimization.

  6. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  7. Bidirectional electrothermal electromagnetic torsional microactuators for large angular motion at dc mode and high frequency resonance mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel design of a bidirectional torsional micromirror utilizing vertically driven electrothermal electromagnetic silicon beam actuators to generate large angular motion in both static mode and high-frequency resonance mode with low operational voltages. The microactuators are fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer using three photo masks in order to form two different thicknesses of single crystal silicon (SCS) device layer and backside cavities. When the driving bias is applied to the device in the static mode operation, four buckle beams placed alongside the torsion bars are subjected to thermal expansion and buckle in the vertical direction generating torsional displacement of the micromirror with respect to two torsion bars, the center of rotation. The direction of buckle is controlled by the Lorentz force caused by the current flowing through the silicon beams to be buckled in the magnetic field applied, enabling the bidirectional motion of the torsional micromirror. At resonance, Lorentz force itself drives the actuator instead of thermal expansion force from the buckle beams. The maximum static angular displacement of the torsional actuator is 13.42° (26.84°, optical angle) under a driving dc voltage of 7.5 V. In the resonance mode operation, the measured angular displacement is 8.22° (16.44°, optical angle) at 10.64 kHz under sinusoidal driving voltages of 0 to 4.4 V

  8. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.; Lowe, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic swimmers). The velocity gain for swimming cooperatively, which depends on both the geometry and the driving, develops as a result of the near-field coupling of bending and hydrodynamic stresses. We identify the regimes where hydrodynamic cooperativity is advantageous and quantify the change in efficiency. When the filaments' axes are parallel, hydrodynamic interaction induces a directional instability that causes semiflexible swimmers that profit from swimming together to move apart from each other. Biologically, this implies that flagella need to select different synchronized collective states and to compensate for directional instabilities (e.g., by binding) in order to profit from swimming together. By analyzing the cooperative motion of pairs of externally actuated filaments, we assess the impact that stress distribution along the filaments has on their collective displacements.

  9. Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Beker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Comartin, Craig D.; Idriss, I.M.; Lew, Marshall; Mehrain, Michael; Moehle, Jack P.; Naeim, Farzad; Sabol, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g., stiffness, strength) are identical in all directions. This assumption may be true for some in-plan symmetric structures, however, the response of most structures is dominated by modes of vibration along specific axes (e.g., longitudinal and transverse axes in a building), and often the dynamic properties (especially stiffness) along those axes are distinct. In order to achieve structural designs consistent with the collapse risk level given in the NEHRP documents, we argue that design spectra should be compatible with expected levels of ground motion along those principal response axes. The use of MD ground motions effectively assumes that the azimuth of maximum ground motion coincides with the directions of principal structural response. Because this is unlikely, design ground motions have lower probability of occurrence than intended, with significant societal costs. We recommend adjustments to make design ground motions compatible with target risk levels.

  10. A marsupial robotic fish team: Design, motion and cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired marsupial robotic fish system composed of heterogeneous robotic fish is proposed in this paper. A miniature robotic fish, as the daughter robotic fish, can adapt to some narrow space, while the mother robotic fish, with a cabin to transport the daughter, possesses a powerful movement ability to improve the mobility and endurance of the team. The structures for mimicking bio-motion and the method for fishlike-motion are presented. A typical task of daughter-mother following is given to show the cooperation of the team. A motion model of free swimming is built based on the Lagrangian function, and the coupled dynamic and kinematic functions are calculated based on the relation between the generalized force and fluid force. Then, a neural network is trained through the data generated from this model to get a predictive yaw controller, which can control the orientation by a different offset of each link. The daughter robotic fish adopts a dynamic light source tracking approach to follow the mother, and a heterogeneous communication-based finite state machine is presented for task modeling. Experiments are carried out to verify the system.

  11. Hysteresis in the perception of motion direction as evidence for neural cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D; Phillips, G; Sekuler, R

    When elements of a parallel network, such as the human brain, are extensively interconnected, the network can exhibit 'cooperative behaviour'. Such behaviour, which is characterized by order-disorder transitions, multi-stable states, and a form of memory called 'hysteresis', has been observed in human stereopsis and has motivated models of stereopsis that incorporate cooperative networks. More recently, cooperative phenomena have also been observed in human visual motion perception. This report strongly supports a cooperative interpretation of motion perception by demonstrating hysteresis in the perception of motion direction. The results agree quantitatively with a mathematical model incorporating nonlinear excitatory and inhibitory interactions among direction-selective elements. PMID:3785395

  12. MOTION PLANNING OF MULTIPLE MOBILE ROBOTS COOPERATIVELY TRANSPORTING A COMMON OBJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Many applications above the capability of a single robot need the cooperation of multiple mobile robots, but effective cooperation is hard to achieve. In this paper, a master-slave method is proposed to control the motions of multiple mobile robots that cooperatively transport a common object from a start point to a goal point. A noholonomic kinematic model to constrain the motions of multiple mobile robots is built in order to achieve cooperative motions of them, and a "Dynamic Coordinator" strategy is used to deal with the collision-avoidance of the master robot and slave robot individually. Simulation results show the robustness and effectiveness of the method.

  13. A Virtual Motion Camouflage Approach for Cooperative Trajectory Planning of Multiple UCAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqiang Gu; Lincheng Shen; Jing Chen; Yu Zhang; Wanpeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates cooperative trajectory planning of multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles (multi-UCAV) in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. By integrating an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraint models, and a multicriterion objective function, the problem is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTOCP). Then, a virtual motion camouflage (VMC) for cooperative trajectory planning of multi-UCAV, co...

  14. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Lagomarsino, M.C.; Lowe, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic swimmers). The velocity gain for swimming cooperatively, which depends on both the geometry and the driving, develops as a result of the near-field coupling of bending and hydrodynamic stresses. We...

  15. String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-03-28

    Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static

  16. Analysis of the characteristics of human arm in cooperative motion between two humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki; Sawai, Hideki

    2005-12-01

    In the present day, there is demand for making robot being assistant in many kinds of cooperative tasks with human being, for example, in the medical service and welfare work. Such robot is supposed to be without sense of incongruity felt against human being and with the ability of executing smooth movement in human-robot cooperative task. In view of every motion of the human body being in naturally perfect smoothness, it is essential to analyze the human motional characteristics by introducing human model for establishing the law of control on the cooperative robot with human being. In this study, master-slave cooperation more appropriate for human-robot cooperative task was adopted. The experiment was carried out founded on the hypothesis that the human arm around the elbow joint was considered as a simple mass-spring-damper dynamic system with one end fixed. Upon main investigation into the slave's relaxed arm in clockwise motion, by virtue of examining the physical parameters in the mathematical model of the human arm, its impedance characteristics were recognized. It was found that as for human ordinary motion, the damping factor was low enough to be disregarded and the stiffness possessed individually linear property. And besides, the friction-like force was discovered to exist.

  17. Multi-robot motion control for cooperative observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The authors then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. They analyze the effectiveness of the approach by comparing it to 3 other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems

  18. Cooperative motion control for multi-target observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the author investigates the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. The focus is primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The author then presents a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. The effectiveness of the approach is analyzed by comparing it to three other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems

  19. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Grade 12 Learners' Performance in Projectile Motions, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, Israel; Lehong, Moyahabo Jeridah

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the effect of cooperative learning on Grade 12 learners' performance in projectile motions. A quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent control group was used. Two schools were purposively selected from Maleboho Central circuit in South Africa based on their performance in Physical Sciences Grade 12 results of 2011.…

  20. Response analysis of a nuclear containment structure with nonlinear soil-structure interaction under bi-directional ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Raychowdhury, Prishati; Gundlapalli, Prabhakar

    2015-06-01

    Design of critical facilities such as nuclear power plant requires an accurate and precise evaluation of seismic demands, as any failure of these facilities poses immense threat to the community. Design complexity of these structures reinforces the necessity of a robust 3D modeling and analysis of the structure and the soil-foundation interface. Moreover, it is important to consider the multiple components of ground motion during time history analysis for a realistic simulation. Present study is focused on investigating the seismic response of a nuclear containment structure considering nonlinear Winkler-based approach to model the soil-foundation interface using a distributed array of inelastic springs, dashpots and gap elements. It is observed from this study that the natural period of the structure increases about 10 %, whereas the force demands decreases up to 24 % by considering the soil-structure interaction. Further, it is observed that foundation deformations, such as rotation and sliding are affected by the embedment ratio, indicating an increase of up to 56 % in these responses for a reduction of embedment from 0.5 to 0.05× the width of the footing.

  1. Snapshots of cooperative atomic motions in the optical suppression of charge density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichberger, Maximilian; Schäfer, Hanjo; Krumova, Marina; Beyer, Markus; Demsar, Jure; Berger, Helmuth; Moriena, Gustavo; Sciaini, Germán; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2010-12-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, ferrimagnetism and ferromagnetism arise from a delicate balance of different interactions among electrons, phonons and spins on the nanoscale. The study of the interplay among these various degrees of freedom in strongly coupled electron-lattice systems is thus crucial to their understanding and for optimizing their properties. Charge-density-wave (CDW) materials, with their inherent modulation of the electron density and associated periodic lattice distortion, represent ideal model systems for the study of such highly cooperative phenomena. With femtosecond time-resolved techniques, it is possible to observe these interactions directly by abruptly perturbing the electronic distribution while keeping track of energy relaxation pathways and coupling strengths among the different subsystems. Numerous time-resolved experiments have been performed on CDWs, probing the dynamics of the electronic subsystem. However, the dynamics of the periodic lattice distortion have been only indirectly inferred. Here we provide direct atomic-level information on the structural dynamics by using femtosecond electron diffraction to study the quasi two-dimensional CDW system 1T-TaS(2). Effectively, we have directly observed the atomic motions that result from the optically induced change in the electronic spatial distribution. The periodic lattice distortion, which has an amplitude of ∼0.1 Å, is suppressed by about 20% on a timescale (∼250 femtoseconds) comparable to half the period of the corresponding collective mode. These highly cooperative, electronically driven atomic motions are accompanied by a rapid electron-phonon energy transfer (∼350 femtoseconds) and are followed by fast recovery of the CDW (∼4 picoseconds). The degree of cooperativity in the observed structural dynamics is remarkable and illustrates the importance of obtaining atomic-level perspectives of the

  2. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Paik, Jamie; Wood, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso-and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys-high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity-their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180 degrees motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the foldin...

  3. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  4. Bidirectional optical scattering facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...

  5. Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.

  6. A bidirectional shape memory alloy folding actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a low-profile bidirectional folding actuator based on annealed shape memory alloy sheets applicable for meso- and microscale systems. Despite the advantages of shape memory alloys—high strain, silent operation, and mechanical simplicity—their application is often limited to unidirectional operation. We present a bidirectional folding actuator that produces two opposing 180° motions. A laser-patterned nickel alloy (Inconel 600) heater localizes actuation to the folding sections. The actuator has a thin ( < 1 mm) profile, making it appropriate for use in robotic origami. Various design parameters and fabrication variants are described and experimentally explored in the actuator prototype. (paper)

  7. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  8. A cooperative NRC/CEA research project on earthquake ground motion on soil sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of a multi-phase experiment. The objective of the experiment is to collect a comprehensive set of data on the propagation of earthquake ground motions vertically through a shallow soil column (on the order of several tens of meters). The data are used to validate several of the available engineering computer codes for modeling earthquake ground motion. The data set are also used to develop an improved understanding of the earthquake source function and the potential for non-linear effects controlling the propagation through the shallow soil column

  9. Bidirectional coherent classical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Aram W.; Leung, Debbie W.

    2005-01-01

    A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum or classical communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, bidirectional coherent classical communication is no more difficult than bidirectional classical communication — they have the same achievable rate regions. ...

  10. Fermi motion versus co-operative effects in subthreshold pion and energetic gamma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various reaction mechanisms proposed to explain the production of pions at 'sub-threshold' energies and of energetic gammas are examined. They range from the nucleon-nucleon single collision mechanism to a co-operative multi-nucleon process. With a shell model prescription for the initial state energies the single collision picture cannot explain the data. The participation of many nucleons in the pion production process appears to be necessary. We present a statistical model which demands the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. The formation of composite fragments alongside with the produced pion is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data within this model. (orig.)

  11. Markerless Human Motion Tracking Using Hierarchical Multi-Swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Sanjay; Zakaria, Nordin; Rambli, Dayang Rohaya Awang; Sulaiman, Suziah

    2015-01-01

    The high-dimensional search space involved in markerless full-body articulated human motion tracking from multiple-views video sequences has led to a number of solutions based on metaheuristics, the most recent form of which is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the classical PSO suffers from premature convergence and it is trapped easily into local optima, significantly affecting the tracking accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a method for the problem based on ...

  12. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  13. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots. PMID:18331188

  14. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F.

    2014-10-01

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.

  15. Communication: Towards first principles theory of relaxation in supercooled liquids formulated in terms of cooperative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition” [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions

  16. Bidirectional grating compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Zhaoyang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Yanqi; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin

    2016-07-01

    A bidirectional grating compressor for chirped pulse amplifiers is presented. It compresses a laser beam simultaneously in two opposite directions. The pulse compressor is shown to promote chirped pulse amplifiers' output energy without grating damages. To verify the practicability, an experiment is carried out. In addition, a crosscorrelation instrument is designed and set up to test the time synchronization between these two femtosecond pulses.

  17. ac bidirectional motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  18. Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)'s transport sector: A fully modified bi-directional relationship approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the bi-directional long-run relationship between energy consumption in the road transport sector with CO2 emissions and economic growth in OECD countries. Using time series data from 1960 to 2008 and employing the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares cointegration approach, the paper shows positive significant long-run bi-directional relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth, road sector energy consumption and economic growth and CO2 emissions and road sector energy consumption in all the OECD countries. To examine the response of each of the variables to shocks in the value of other variables, the generalized impulse response approach is employed. The response of CO2 emissions to economic growth is initially positive in most cases but it is relatively shorter when compared to its initial response to the road transport sector energy consumption. Moreover, in most cases, the response of carbon emissions to the road transport sector energy consumption lasts longer than its response to economic growth. This implies that most of the CO2 emissions from transport come from energy consumption, thus long-run policies related to the efficient use of energy and shifting to biofuel, renewable and nuclear energy can bring major benefits in mitigating GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. - Highlights: • The relationship between GDP, energy and CO2 in OECD's transport is investigated. • The Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares cointegration approach was employed. • There is positive long-run bi-directional relationship between the variables. • The response of CO2 to GDP is shorter than its response to the energy consumption

  19. Improved Bidirectional Exact Pattern Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Iftikhar; Hassan Kazmi, Syed Zaki; Ali Khan, Israr; Mehmood, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    In this research, we present an improved version of Bidirectional (BD) exact pattern matching (EPM) algorithm to solve the problem of exact pattern matching. Improved-Bidirectional (IBD) exact pattern matching algorithm introduced a new idea of scanning partial text window (PTW) as well with the pattern to take decision of moving pattern to the right of partial text window. IBD algorithm compares the characters of pattern to selected text window (STW) from both sides simultaneously as BD....

  20. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  1. Model for bidirectional movement of cytoplasmic dynein

    CERN Document Server

    Sumathy, S

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein exhibits a directional processive movement on microtubule filaments and is known to move in steps of varying length based on the number of ATP molecules bound to it and the load that it carries. It is experimentally observed that dynein takes occasional backward steps and the frequency of such backward steps increases as the load approaches the stall force. Using a stochastic process model, we investigate the bidirectional movement of single head of a dynein motor. The probability for backward step is implemented based on Crook's fluctuation theorem of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We find that the movement of dynein motor is characterized with negative velocity implying backward motion beyond stall force. We observe that the motor moves backward for super stall forces by hydrolyzing the ATP exactly the same way as it does while moving forward for sub stall forces.

  2. Theory of sporting technique and «semantics of motions» - in search of co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev S.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology of the educational teaching motive actions is examined in a theory and practice of shotput. The biomechanics and psychological semantic mechanisms of organization of motions of pushrod of kernel are investigational. The methods of registration of electric activity of basic muscular groups of sportsmen of different qualification were used. Developed concept-terminology and methodological vehicle of research. It allows to perfect professionally-pedagogical credo of researchers.

  3. Influence of string-like cooperative atomic motion on surface diffusion in the (110) interfacial region of crystalline Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao, E-mail: hao.zhang@ualberta.ca, E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov; Yang, Ying [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Douglas, Jack F., E-mail: hao.zhang@ualberta.ca, E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the “simple” case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, T{sub m}. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials.

  4. Influence of string-like cooperative atomic motion on surface diffusion in the (110) interfacial region of crystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the “simple” case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, Tm. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials

  5. Bidirectional power converter control electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this program was to design, build, test, and deliver a set of control electronics suitable for control of bidirectional resonant power processing equipment of the direct output type. The program is described, including the technical background, and results discussed. Even though the initial program tested only the logic outputs, the hardware was subsequently tested with high-power breadboard equipment, and in the testbed of NASA contract NAS3-24399. The completed equipment is now operating as part of the Space Station Power System Test Facility at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  6. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifies direct transmission, one-way relaying and network-coded two-way relaying between the BS and each MS. Using the proposed three-time-slot TDD protocol, we then propose an optimization framework for resource allocation to achieve the following gains: cooperative diversity (via relay selection), network coding gain (via bidirectional transmission mode selection), and multiuser diversity (via subcarrier assignment). We formulate the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem, which is NP-complete. To make it more tracta...

  7. Bidirectional lexical-gustatory synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, François; Beaufils, Guillaume-Alexandre; Poirier, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    In developmental lexical-gustatory synesthesia, specific words (inducers) can trigger taste perceptions (concurrents) and these synesthetic associations are generally stable. We describe a case of multilingual lexical-gustatory synesthesia for whom some synesthesias were bidirectional as some tastes also triggered auditory word associations. Evoked concurrents could be gustatory but also tactile sensations. In addition to words and pseudowords, many voices were effective inducers, suggesting increased connections between cortical taste areas and both voice-selective and language-selective areas. Lasting changes in some evoked tastes occurred during childhood suggesting that some plasticity can be present after the initial learning of associations. Inducers were often linked to taste concurrents phonologically or semantically, but also through identifiable childhood episodes (persons or events). Several inducers were phonologically linked to episodic inducers suggesting a process of secondary acquisition for many inducers. Implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:21296005

  8. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing

  9. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  10. Ndel1-derived peptides modulate bidirectional transport of injected beads in the squid giant axon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Segal

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional transport is a key issue in cellular biology. It requires coordination between microtubule-associated molecular motors that work in opposing directions. The major retrograde and anterograde motors involved in bidirectional transport are cytoplasmic dynein and conventional kinesin, respectively. It is clear that failures in molecular motor activity bear severe consequences, especially in the nervous system. Neuronal migration may be impaired during brain development, and impaired molecular motor activity in the adult is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases leading to neuronal cell death. The mechanisms that regulate or coordinate kinesin and dynein activity to generate bidirectional transport of the same cargo are of utmost importance. We examined how Ndel1, a cytoplasmic dynein binding protein, may regulate non-vesicular bidirectional transport. Soluble Ndel1 protein, Ndel1-derived peptides or control proteins were mixed with fluorescent beads, injected into the squid giant axon, and the bead movements were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Automated tracking allowed for extraction and unbiased analysis of a large data set. Beads moved in both directions with a clear bias to the anterograde direction. Velocities were distributed over a broad range and were typically slower than those associated with fast vesicle transport. Ironically, the main effect of Ndel1 and its derived peptides was an enhancement of anterograde motion. We propose that they may function primarily by inhibition of dynein-dependent resistance, which suggests that both dynein and kinesin motors may remain engaged with microtubules during bidirectional transport.

  11. Bidirectional reflection effects in practical integrating spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, J R; Walker, J A; Stancil, M M

    2015-10-20

    Integrating spheres play a central role in radiometric instrument calibration, surface optical property measurement, and radiant source characterization. Our work involves a simulation, based on the Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) of bidirectional reflections within a practical integrating sphere pierced with two viewing ports. We used data from the literature to create an empirical model for the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRF) of Spectralon suitable for use in the MCRT environment. The ratio of power escaping through the two openings is shown to vary linearly with wall absorptivity for both diffuse and bidirectional reflections. The sensitivity of this ratio to absorptivity is shown to be less when reflections are weakly bidirectional. PMID:26560384

  12. Image Captioning with Deep Bidirectional LSTMs

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Haojin; Bartz, Christian; Meinel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an end-to-end trainable deep bidirectional LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory) model for image captioning. Our model builds on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and two separate LSTM networks. It is capable of learning long term visual-language interactions by making use of history and future context information at high level semantic space. Two novel deep bidirectional variant models, in which we increase the depth of nonlinearity transition in different way, are propose...

  13. A Multiscale Bidirectional Coupling Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Hlastala, Michael P.; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2011-12-01

    The lung is geometrically articulated across multiple scales from the trachea to the alveoli. A major computational challenge is to tightly link ODEs that describe lower scales to 3D finite element or finite volume models of airway mechanics using iterative communication between scales. In this study, we developed a novel multiscale computational framework for bidirectionally coupling 3D CFD models and systems of lower order ODEs. To validate the coupling framework, a four and eight generation Weibel lung model was constructed. For the coupled CFD-ODE simulations, the lung models were truncated at different generations and a RL circuit represented the truncated portion. The flow characteristics from the coupled models were compared to untruncated full 3D CFD models at peak inhalation and peak exhalation. Results showed that at no time or simulation was the difference in mass flux and/or pressure at a given location between uncoupled and coupled models was greater than 2.43%. The flow characteristics at prime locations for the coupled models showed good agreement to uncoupled models. Remarkably, due to reuse of the Krylov subspace, the cost of the ODE coupling is not much greater than uncoupled full 3D-CFD computations with simple prescribed pressure values at the outlets.

  14. The effect of communication media on cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Brosig, Jeannette; Ockenfels, Axel; Weimann, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    We examine how communication affects cooperation with the help of seven standard public goods experiments that only differ with respect to the medium of pre-play communication. Our treatments include bi-directional and unidirectional communication via (mostly electronic) auditory and/or visual channels. The results suggest that successful cooperation is attributable to the opportunity of 'coordinating' behavior in the communication phase. Furthermore, both the level and the stability of coope...

  15. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  16. Dielectric Electro Active Polymer Incremental Actuator Driven by Multiple High-Voltage Bi-directional DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2013-01-01

    capacitive sub-actuators. It needs to be driven by three high voltage (~2.5 kV) DC-DC converters, to achieve the linear incremental motion. The topology used for this application is a bi-directional flyback DC-DC converter. The control of the incremental actuator involves, implementation of digital...

  17. The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kulić, Igor M; Kim, Hwajin; Kural, Comert; Blehm, Benjamin; Selvin, Paul R; Nelson, Philip C; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2008-01-01

    We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.

  18. Secure Bidirectional Communication Protocol without Quantum Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. J.; Man, Z. X.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter we propose a theoretical deterministic secure direct bidirectional quantum communication protocol by using swapping quantum entanglement and local unitary operations, in which the quantum channel for photon transmission can be discarded, hence any attack with or without eavesdropping or even the destructive attack without scruple is impossible.

  19. Image fusion using bi-directional similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Infrared images are widely used in the practical applications to capture abundant information. However, it is still challenging to enhance the infrared image by the visual image. In this paper, we propose an effective method using bidirectional similarity. In the proposed method, we aim to find an optimal solution from many feasible solutions without introducing intermediate image. We employ some priori constraints to meet the requirements of image fusion which can be detailed to preserve both good characteristics in the infrared image and spatial information in the visual image. In the iterative step, we use the matrix with the square of the difference between images to integrate the image holding most information. We call this matrix the bidirectional similarity distance. By the bidirectional similarity distance, we can get the transitive images. Then, we fuse the images according to the weight. Experimental results show that, compared to the traditional image fusion algorithm, fusion images from bidirectional similarity fusion algorithm have greatly improved in the subjective vision, entropy, structural similarity index measurement. We believe that the proposed scheme can have a wide applications.

  20. Optical bidirectional beacon based visible light communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Sewaiwar, Atul; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2015-10-01

    In an indoor bidirectional visible light communications (VLC), a line-of-sight (LOS) transmission plays a major role in obtaining adequate performance of a VLC system. Signals are often obstructed in the LOS transmission path, causing an effect called optical shadowing. In the absence of LOS, the performance of the VLC system degrades significantly and, in particular, at uplink transmission this degradation becomes severe due to design constraints and limited power at uplink devices. In this paper, a novel concept and design of an optical bidirectional beacon (OBB) is presented as an efficient model to counter the performance degradation in a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) VLC system. OBB is an independent operating bidirectional transceiver unit installed on walls, composed of red, green, and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors (PDs) and color filters. OBB improves the coverage area in the form of providing additional or alternate paths for transmission and enhances the performance of the VLC system in terms of bit error rate (BER). To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, simulations were carried out under optical shadowing conditions at various locations in an indoor environment. The simulation results and analysis show that the implementation of OBB improves the performance of the VLC system significantly, especially when the LOS bidirectional transmission paths are completely or partially obstructed. PMID:26480168

  1. Diffusion stabilizes cavity solitons in bidirectional lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Arjona, Isabel; Sanchez-Morcillo, Victor; Redondo, Javier; Staliunas, Kestutis; Roldan, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    We study the influence of field diffusion on the spatial localized structures (cavity solitons) recently predicted in bidirectional lasers. We find twofold positive role of the diffusion: 1) it increases the stability range of the individual (isolated) solitons; 2) it reduces the long-range interaction between the cavity solitons. Latter allows the independent manipulation (writing and erasing) of individual cavity solitons.

  2. Intergenerational Transmission in a Bidirectional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Mol

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the study of parent-child relationships view intergenerational transmission as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transfer their values, beliefs, and practices to their children. Furthermore, the focus of these unidirectional approaches regarding children's internalisation processes is on continuity or the transmission of similar values, beliefs, and practices from parents to children. Analogous unidirectional perspectives have also influenced the domain of family therapy. In this paper a cognitive-bidirectional and dialectical model of dynamics in parent-child relationships is discussed in which the focus is on continual creation of novel meanings and not just reproduction of old ones in the bidirectional transmission processes between parents and children. Parents and children are addressed as full and equally agents in their interdependent relationship, while these relational dynamics are embedded within culture. This cultural context complicates bidirectional transmission influences in the parent-child relationship as both parents and children are influenced by many other contexts. Further, current research in the domain of parent-child relationships and current concepts of intergenerational transmission in family therapy are reviewed from a bidirectional cognitive-dialectical perspective.

  3. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement.

  4. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold;

    2014-01-01

    using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  5. Motion Aftereffects Transfer between Touch and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Wang, Qi; Hayward, Vincent; Moore, Christopher I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Current views on multisensory motion integration assume separate substrates where visual motion perceptually dominates tactile motion [1, 2]. However, recent neuroimaging findings demonstrate strong activation of visual motion processing areas by tactile stimuli [3–6], implying a potentially bidirectional relationship. To test the relationship between visual and tactile motion processing, we examined the transfer of motion aftereffects. In the well-known visual motion aftereffect, adapting to visual motion in one direction causes a subsequently presented stationary stimulus to be perceived as moving in the opposite direction [7, 8]. The existence of motion aftereffects in the tactile domain was debated [9–11], though robust tactile motion aftereffects have recently been demonstrated [12, 13]. By using a motion adaptation paradigm, we found that repeated exposure to visual motion in a given direction produced a tactile motion aftereffect, the illusion of motion in the opponent direction across the finger pad. We also observed that repeated exposure to tactile motion induces a visual motion aftereffect, biasing the perceived direction of counterphase gratings. These crossmodal aftereffects, operating both from vision to touch and from touch to vision, present strong behavioral evidence that the processing of visual and tactile motion rely on shared representations that dynamically impact modality-specific perception. PMID:19361996

  6. Cooperative motion of a key positively charged residue and metal ions for DNA replication catalyzed by human DNA Polymerase-η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, Vito; Gaspari, Roberto; Dal Peraro, Matteo; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Trans-lesion synthesis polymerases, like DNA Polymerase-η (Pol-η), are essential for cell survival. Pol-η bypasses ultraviolet-induced DNA damages via a two-metal-ion mechanism that assures DNA strand elongation, with formation of the leaving group pyrophosphate (PPi). Recent structural and kinetics studies have shown that Pol-η function depends on the highly flexible and conserved Arg61 and, intriguingly, on a transient third ion resolved at the catalytic site, as lately observed in other nucleic acid-processing metalloenzymes. How these conserved structural features facilitate DNA replication, however, is still poorly understood. Through extended molecular dynamics and free energy simulations, we unravel a highly cooperative and dynamic mechanism for DNA elongation and repair, which is here described by an equilibrium ensemble of structures that connect the reactants to the products in Pol-η catalysis. We reveal that specific conformations of Arg61 help facilitate the recruitment of the incoming base and favor the proper formation of a pre-reactive complex in Pol-η for efficient DNA editing. Also, we show that a third transient metal ion, which acts concertedly with Arg61, serves as an exit shuttle for the leaving PPi. Finally, we discuss how this effective and cooperative mechanism for DNA repair may be shared by other DNA-repairing polymerases. PMID:26935581

  7. Digital Control of a High Voltage (2.5 kV) Bidirectional Flyback DC-DC Converter for Driving a Capacitive Incremental Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Maksimovic, Dragan; Zhang, Zhe;

    2016-01-01

    (0-2.5 kV) bidirectional dc-dc flyback converter for driving a capacitive incremental actuator. The incremental actuator consists of three electrically isolated, mechanically connected capacitive actuators. It requires three high voltage (2-2.5 kV) bidirectional dc-dc converters, to accomplish the...... incremental motion by charging and discharging the capacitive actuators. The bidirectional flyback converter employs a digital controller to improve efficiency and charge/discharge speed using the valley switching technique during both charge and discharge processes, without the need to sense signals on the...... output high-voltage (HV) side. Experimental results verifying the bidirectional operation of a high voltage flyback converter are presented, using a 3 kV polypropylene film capacitor as the load. The energy loss distributions of the converter when 4 kV and 4.5 kV HV MOSFETs are used on HV side are...

  8. Bidirectional Texture Function Simultaneous Autoregressive Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Michal

    Berlin: Springer, 2012, s. 149-159. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7252). ISBN 978-3-642-32435-2. ISSN 0302-9743. [MUSCLE. Pisa (IT), 13.12.2011-15.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture analysis * texture synthesis * data compression * virtual reality Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/haindl-bidirectional texture function simultaneous autoregressive model.pdf

  9. Robust bidirectional links for photonic quantum networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Shi; Yung, Man-Hong; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibers are widely used as one of the main tools for transmitting not only classical but also quantum information. We propose and report an experimental realization of a promising method for creating robust bidirectional quantum communication links through paired optical polarization-maintaining fibers. Many limitations of existing protocols can be avoided with the proposed method. In particular, the path and polarization degrees of freedom are combined to deterministically create a photonic decoherence-free subspace without the need for any ancillary photon. This method is input state-independent, robust against dephasing noise, postselection-free, and applicable bidirectionally. To rigorously quantify the amount of quantum information transferred, the optical fibers are analyzed with the tools developed in quantum communication theory. These results not only suggest a practical means for protecting quantum information sent through optical quantum networks but also potentially provide a new physical platform for enriching the structure of the quantum communication theory. PMID:26824069

  10. Design and Implementation of Bidirectional Dijkstra Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付梦印; 李杰; 周培德

    2003-01-01

    Bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm whose time complexity is (1)/(8)O(n2) is proposed. The theory foundation is that the classical Dijkstra algorithm has not any directional feature during searching the shortest path. The algorithm takes advantage of the adjacent link and the mechanism of bidirectional search, that is, the algorithm processes the positive search from start point to destination point and the negative search from destination point to start point at the same time. Finally, combining with the practical application of route-planning algorithm in embedded real-time vehicle navigation system (ERTVNS), one example of its practical applications is given, analysis in theory and the experimental results show that compared with the Dijkstra algorithm, the new algorithm can reduce time complexity, and guarantee the searching precision, it satisfies the needs of ERTVNS.

  11. Extended Bidirectional Texture Function Moving Average Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Michal

    Praha: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, 2015 - (Ambrož, P.; Masáková, Z.), s. 1-7 [Doktorandské dny 2015. Praha (CZ), 20.11.2015,27.11.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bidirectional texture function * moving average random field model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/havlicek-0455325.pdf

  12. Bidirectional pumped high power Raman fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Q; Yan, P; Li, D; Sun, J; Wang, X; Huang, Y; Gong, M

    2016-03-21

    This paper presents a 3.89 kW 1123 nm Raman all-fiber laser with an overall optical-to-optical efficiency of 70.9%. The system consists of a single-wavelength (1070nm) seed and one-stage bidirectional 976 nm non-wavelength-stabilized laser diodes (LDs) pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The unique part of this system is the application of non-wavelength-stabilized LDs in high power bidirectional pumping configuration fiber amplifier via refractive index valley fiber combiners. This approach not only increases the pump power, but also shortens the length of fiber by avoiding the usage of multi-stage amplifier. Through both theoretical research and experiment, the bidirectional pumping configuration presented in this paper proves to be able to convert 976 nm pump laser to 1070 nm laser via Yb3+ transfer, which is then converted into 1123 nm Raman laser via the first-order Raman effect without the appearance of any higher-order Raman laser. PMID:27136862

  13. Recent Advances in Bidirectional Modeling and Structural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Satyam; Yu, Wen; Li, Xiaoou

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of building structure modeling and control under bidirectional seismic waves. It focuses on different types of bidirectional control devices, control strategies, and bidirectional sensors used in structural control systems. This paper also highlights the various issues like system identification techniques, the time-delay in the system, estimation of velocity and position from acceleration signals, and optimal placement of the sensors and control devices. The i...

  14. Recent Advances in Bidirectional Modeling and Structural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Satyam Paul; Wen Yu; Xiaoou Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of building structure modeling and control under bidirectional seismic waves. It focuses on different types of bidirectional control devices, control strategies, and bidirectional sensors used in structural control systems. This paper also highlights the various issues like system identification techniques, the time-delay in the system, estimation of velocity and position from acceleration signals, and optimal placement of the sensors and control devices. Th...

  15. Improved Approach for Exact Pattern Matching (Bidirectional Exact Pattern Matching)

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Iftikhar; Kausar, Samina; Hussain, Liaqat; Asif Khan, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In this research we present Bidirectional exact pattern matching algorithm [20] in detail. Bidirectional (BD) exact pattern matching (EPM) introduced a new idea to compare pattern with Selected Text Window (STW) of text string by using two pointers (right and left) simultaneously in searching phase. In preprocessing phase Bidirectional EPM algorithm improved the shift decision by comparing rightmost and mismatched character of Partial Text Window (PTW) to the left of pattern at sa...

  16. Bidirectional A*: comparing balanced and symmetric heuristic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Post, Henk; Pijls, Wim

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA widely known algorithm for ¯nding the shortest path in a network is Bidirectional A*. The version of bidirectional A* that is considered the most appropriate hitherto, uses so-called balanced heuristic estimates. In this paper, we focus on symmetric heuristic estimates. First, we show that bidirectional A* using the symmetric heuristic estimate provides us with a feasible approximation. Next a framework is introduced for solving the shortest path problem exactly. It turns out th...

  17. Emulating Realistic Bidirectional Spatial Channels for MIMO OTA Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum;

    2015-01-01

    downlink channel models, whereas uplink channel is often modeled as free space line-of-sight channel without fading. Modeling realistic bidirectional (i.e., both uplink and downlink) propagation environments is essential to evaluate any bidirectional communication systems. There have been works stressing...... configurations) in the uplink and downlink. The simulation results are further supported by measurements in a practical MPAC setup. The proposed algorithm is shown to be a valid method to emulate bidirectional spatial channel models....

  18. Research on Remote Network Bidirectional Detect and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Ju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote network bidirectional detect and control technologies are the key factors to solve local network allopatry expansibility and management. With studying gateway integration technology, bidirectional VPN technology, identity authentication technology and dynamic host management technology can be integrated into gateway. Thus, bidirectional connect and control among allopatry local networks based on Internet can be solved. Whole area expansibility of local network is realized. With experiment, the model is proved to finish remote bidirectional interconnection of local network automatically and to obtain allopatry local users authority. The equipment detecting and controlling in remote local networks are realized.  

  19. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  20. Secure Computation in a Bidirectional Relay

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, Navin; Thangaraj, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional relaying, where a relay helps two user nodes to exchange equal length binary messages, has been an active area of recent research. A popular strategy involves a modified Gaussian MAC, where the relay decodes the XOR of the two messages using the naturally-occurring sum of symbols simultaneously transmitted by user nodes. In this work, we consider the Gaussian MAC in bidirectional relaying with an additional secrecy constraint for protection against a honest but curious relay. The constraint is that, while the relay should decode the XOR, it should be fully ignorant of the individual messages of the users. We exploit the symbol addition that occurs in a Gaussian MAC to design explicit strategies that achieve perfect independence between the received symbols and individual transmitted messages. Our results actually hold for a more general scenario where the messages at the two user nodes come from a finite Abelian group, and the relay must decode the sum within the group of the two messages. We pr...

  1. [Novel bidirectional promoter from human genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhova, A S; Sverdlova, P S; Spirin, P V; Leonova, O G; Popenko, V I; Prasolov, V S; Rubtsov, P M

    2011-01-01

    In human and other mammalian genomes a number of closely linked gene pairs transcribed in opposite directions are found. According to bioinformatic analysis up to 10% of human genes are arranged in this way. In present work the fragment of human genome was cloned that separates genes localized at 2p13.1 and oriented "head-to-head", coding for hypothetical proteins with unknown functions--CCDC (Coiled Coil Domain Containing) 142 and TTC (TetraTricopeptide repeat Containing) 31. Intergenic CCDC142-TTC31 region overlaps with CpG-island and contains a number of potential binding sites for transcription factors. This fragment functions as bidirectional promoter in the system ofluciferase reporter gene expression upon transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The vectors containing genes of two fluorescent proteins--green (EGFP) and red (DsRed2) in opposite orientations separated by the fragment of CCDC142-TTC31 intergenic region were constructed. In HEK293 cells transfected with these vectors simultaneous expression of two fluorescent proteins is observed. Truncated versions of intergenic region were obtained and their promoter activity measured. Minimal promoter fragment contains elements Inr, BRE, DPE characteristic for TATA-less promoters. Thus, from the human genome the novel bidirectional promoter was cloned that can be used for simultaneous constitutive expression of two genes in human cells. PMID:21790010

  2. Personalized recommendation based on heat bidirectional transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Feng, Xiang; Wang, Shanfeng; Gong, Maoguo

    2016-02-01

    Personalized recommendation has become an increasing popular research topic, which aims to find future likes and interests based on users' past preferences. Traditional recommendation algorithms pay more attention to forecast accuracy by calculating first-order relevance, while ignore the importance of diversity and novelty that provide comfortable experiences for customers. There are some levels of contradictions between these three metrics, so an algorithm based on bidirectional transfer is proposed in this paper to solve this dilemma. In this paper, we agree that an object that is associated with history records or has been purchased by similar users should be introduced to the specified user and recommendation approach based on heat bidirectional transfer is proposed. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches based on bipartite network, experiments on two benchmark data sets, Movielens and Netflix, demonstrate that our algorithm has better performance on accuracy, diversity and novelty. Moreover, this method does better in exploiting long-tail commodities and cold-start problem.

  3. Synchronization of bidirectionally coupled chaotic Chen's system with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents synchronization scheme for time-delayed linearly bidirectionally coupled chaotic Chen's system. The method is based on linear stability analysis of hyperbolic fixed point. Here we derive a generic condition of global chaos synchronization for time-delayed chaotic Chen's system with linearly bidirectional coupling. The behavior of the system with and without coupling are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  4. Effects of Noise on Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yi-you; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-07-01

    We present a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation via a six-qubit cluster state in noisy environments, which includes the phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels. We analytically derive the fidelities of the asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation process in these two noise channels. We show that the fidelities only depend on the initial state and the noisy rate.

  5. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  6. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    ISEE 3 plasma and magnetic field data are used here to document the general characteristics of bidirectional electron heat flux events (BEHFEs). Significant field rotations often occur at the beginning and/or end of such events and, at times, the large-field rotations characteristic of 'magnetic clouds' are present. Approximately half of all BEHFEs are associated with and follow interplanetary shocks, while the other events have no obvious shock associations. When shock-associated, the delay from shock passage typically is about 13 hours, corresponding to a radial separation of about 0.16 AU. When independent of any shock association, BEHFEs typically are about 0.13 AU thick in the radial direction. It is suggested that BEHFEs are one of the more prominent signatures of coronal mass ejection events in the solar wind at 1 AU.

  7. A Moving Average Bidirectional Texture Function Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Michal; Haindl, Michal

    Vol. II. Heidelberg: Springer, 2013 - (Wilson, R.; Bors, A.; Hancock, E.; Smith, W.), s. 338-345. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8048). ISBN 978-3-642-40245-6. ISSN 0302-9743. [International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP 2013) /15./. York (GB), 27.08.2013-29.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BTF * texture analysis * texture synthesis * data compression Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/havlicek-a moving average bidirectional texture function model.pdf

  8. Bidirectional LSTM-CRF Models for Sequence Tagging

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhiheng; Xu, Wei; Yu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a variety of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based models for sequence tagging. These models include LSTM networks, bidirectional LSTM (BI-LSTM) networks, LSTM with a Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer (LSTM-CRF) and bidirectional LSTM with a CRF layer (BI-LSTM-CRF). Our work is the first to apply a bidirectional LSTM CRF (denoted as BI-LSTM-CRF) model to NLP benchmark sequence tagging data sets. We show that the BI-LSTM-CRF model can efficiently use both past and fu...

  9. Digital control of a high-voltage (2.5 kV) bidirectional DC-DC converter for driving a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) based capacitive actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2014-01-01

    the valley switchingtechnique during both charge and discharge processes, withoutthe need to sense signals on the output high-voltage side.Experimental results verifying the bidirectional operation of asingle high voltage flyback converter are presented, using afilm capacitor as the load. Energy......This paper presents a digital control technique toachieve valley switching in a bidirectional flyback converterused to drive a dielectric electro active polymer basedincremental actuator. The incremental actuator consists ofthree electrically isolated, mechanically connected capacitiveactuators....... The incremental actuator requires three highvoltage (~2.5 kV) bidirectional DC-DC converters, toaccomplish the incremental motion by charging anddischarging the capacitive actuators. The bidirectional flybackconverter employs a digital controller to improve efficiencyand charge/discharge speed using...

  10. Advances in ground motion studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许力生; 俞言祥; 陈运泰

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the works in the processing of strong ground motion data, the factors affecting strong ground motion, the modeling of strong ground motion and the calculating of broad-band response spectrum which have been done recent years by engineering seismologists and seismologists of China. In addition, we think back to the international cooperation in strong ground motion of the recent years and make some expectations for the future.

  11. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  12. Effect of particle nonsphericity on bidirectional reflectance of cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, M.I.; Rossow, W.B.; Macke, A.; Lacis, A.A. [Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the fractal ice particle method to study the differences in bidirectional reflectance caused by the differences in the single scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets and nonspherical ice crystals.

  13. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  14. Projective synchronization of chaotic systems with bidirectional nonlinear coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammada Ali Khan; Swarup Poria

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new scheme for constructing bidirectional nonlinear coupled chaotic systems which synchronize projectively. Conditions necessary for projective synchronization (PS) of two bidirectionally coupled chaotic systems are derived using Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed PS scheme is discussed by taking as examples the so-called unified chaotic model, the Lorenz–Stenflo system and the nonautonomous chaotic Van der Pol oscillator. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  15. Bidirectional soft-switching converter-fed DC motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, TW; Chan, CC; Chau, KT

    1998-01-01

    Two new soft-switching DC-DC power converters, with the capabilities of bidirectional power flow and soft-switching (either zero-voltage transition or zero-current transition) are developed for DC motor drives. The proposed bidirectional zero-voltage-transition power converter possesses the definite advantages that both main transistors and rectifiers can switch with zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and unity device stresses during both motoring and regenerating modes of operation, while both the...

  16. An epistemic interpretation of bidirectional optimality based on signaling games

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To some, the relation between bidirectional optimality theory and game theory seems obvious: strong bidirectional optimality corresponds to Nash equilibrium in a strategic game (Dekker and van Rooij 2000). But in the domain of pragmatics this formally sound parallel is conceptually inadequate: the sequence of utterance and its interpretation cannot be modelled reasonably as a strategic game, because this would mean that speakers choose formulations independently of a meaning that they want to...

  17. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output volta...

  18. Passive Resonant Bidirectional Converter with Galvanic Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblad, Nathan S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A passive resonant bidirectional converter system that transports energy across a galvanic barrier includes a converter using at least first and second converter sections, each section including a pair of transfer terminals, a center tapped winding; a chopper circuit interconnected between the center tapped winding and one of the transfer terminals; an inductance feed winding interconnected between the other of the transfer terminals and the center tap and a resonant tank circuit including at least the inductance of the center tap winding and the parasitic capacitance of the chopper circuit for operating the converter section at resonance; the center tapped windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a first common winding core and the inductance feed windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a second common winding core for automatically synchronizing the resonant oscillation of the first and second converter sections and transferring energy between the converter sections until the voltage across the pairs of transfer terminals achieves the turns ratio of the center tapped windings.

  19. Dynamic feature analysis in bidirectional pedestrian flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yang; Winnie, Daamen; Serge, Paul Hoogendoorn; Hai-Rong, Dong; Xiu-Ming, Yao

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of dynamic features of pedestrian flows is one of the most exciting topics in pedestrian dynamics. This paper focuses on the effect of homogeneity and heterogeneity in three parameters of the social force model, namely desired velocity, reaction time, and body size, on the moving dynamics of bidirectional pedestrian flows in the corridors. The speed and its deviation in free flows are investigated. Simulation results show that the homogeneous higher desired speed which is less than a critical threshold, shorter reaction time or smaller body size results in higher speed of flows. The free dynamics is more sensitive to the heterogeneity in desired speed than that in reaction time or in body size. In particular, an inner lane formation is observed in normal lanes. Furthermore, the breakdown probability and the start time of breakdown are focused on. This study reveals that the sizes of homogeneous desired speed, reaction time or body size play more important roles in affecting the breakdown than the heterogeneities in these three parameters do. Project supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61233001) and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2013JBZ007).

  20. An Experimental Investigation of the Responses of Classic Spar Platform Subjected to Bi-directional Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kurian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bi-directional short-crested waves on the dynamic motion responses of the moored classic spar is demonstrated from the results of the models test in this study. Practically in the design of offshore structures, long-crested or 2-dimensional wave properties that propagated to one direction are considered. Even though such long-crested wave is widely used for the design purposes, it is hardly determined in the real sea. The wind generated sea state in the real sea conditions are indeed well represented by the short-crested waves. Short-crested waves are defined as linear summation of long-crested wave series that propagated to different directions. Hence, the motions of the model were investigated experimentally by conducting the wave tank tests in the wave tank of Offshore Laboratory of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. Five groups of bi-directional wave series were defined and exerted on the classic spar model, which fabricated by using steel with scaling factor of 1:100. From the results measured, it was found that similar trends of the responses in term of Response Amplitude Operator (RAO for surge, heave and pitch motions were obtained. Maximum responses of surge, heave and pitch were found due to wave crossing angle 90°, while minimum response was found due to wave crossing angle 135°, respectively. It could be concluded that the wave crossing angle 90° (BD3 gives the widest spreading for short crested waves, while the wave crossing angle 135° (BD4 gives the narrowest spreading for short crested waves.

  1. Multi-agent robotic cooperative assembly system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents a multi-robot cooperative assembly systen (MRCAS) which is composed of an organizer computer, three industrial robots, PUMA 562 mounted on an onni-directional vehicle, PUMA 760 and Adept I and organized in to a hierarchical structure with the cooperation organization on the top and the coordination motion at the bottom to solve the main problem of coordination and cooperation among robots, and concludes with experimental results that MRCAS is reconfigurable and adaptable as the mission changes.

  2. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  3. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3 has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements in the Southeastern US, NH3 concentrations decrease throughout the globe, up to 17 ppb in India and Southeastern China, with corresponding decreases in aerosol nitrate by up to 7 μg m−3. The ammonium (NH4+ soil pool in the bi-directional exchange model largely extends the NH3 lifetime in the atmosphere. Including bi-directional exchange generally increases NH3 gross emissions (7.1% and surface concentrations (up to 3.9 ppb throughout the globe in July, except in India and Southeastern China. In April and October, it decreases NH3 gross emissions in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., 43.6% in April in China and increases NH3 gross emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. Bi-directional exchange does not largely impact NH4+ wet deposition overall. While bi-directional exchange is fundamentally a better representation of NH3 emissions from fertilizers, emissions from primary sources are still underestimated and thus significant model biases remain when compared to in situ measurements in the US. The adjoint of bi-directional exchange has also been developed for the GEOS-Chem model and is used to investigate the sensitivity of NH3 concentrations with respect to soil pH and fertilizer application rate. This study thus lays the groundwork for future inverse modeling studies to more directly constrain these physical processes rather than tuning bulk uni-directional NH3 emissions.

  4. Note: A robust low-cost high-sensitivity subangstrom bidirectional displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a simple, robust, low-cost, and bidirectional displacement sensor with subangstrom resolution is described. A small gold plate is attached to the object, whose displacement is to be measured, and a small gold tip is brought into contact with the plate, establishing a reference current between the two. Movements of the gold plate away from the tip lead to a change in the tip-plate current; the reference current is then re-established by moving the tip using a simple magnetic actuator. The resolution of the sensor has been calibrated using an interferometer and was shown to be as high as 0.3 A per system count. Potential applications of the sensor are numerous, including microbar air pressure measurement, motion and infrasound detection, thermal sensing, and gravitational field and relativistic gravity wave measurement.

  5. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa-tion...

  6. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  7. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  8. On the evolution of cooperation under social pressure in multiplex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pereda, María

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the human pro-social behavior by studying the influence that a particular form of social pressure "being watched" has on the evolution of cooperative behavior. We study how cooperation emerge in multiplex complex topologies by analyzing a particular bidirectionally-coupled dynamics on top of a two-layers multiplex network (duplex). The coupled dynamics appears between the Prisoner's Dilemma game in a network, and a threshold cascade m...

  9. Response of piping system on friction support to bi-directional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation of friction devices between a piping system and its supporting medium is an effective way of energy dissipation in the piping systems. In this paper, seismic effectiveness of friction type support for a piping system subjected to two horizontal components of earthquake motion is investigated. The interaction between the mobilized restoring forces of the friction support is duly considered. The non-linear behavior of the restoring forces of the support is modeled as an elastic-perfectly plastic system with a very high value of initial stiffness. Such an idealization avoids keeping track of transitional rules (as required in conventional modeling of friction systems) under arbitrary dynamic loading. The frictional forces mobilized at the friction support are assumed to be dependent on the sliding velocity and instantaneous normal force acting on the support. A detailed systematic procedure for analysis of piping systems supported on friction support considering the effects of bi-directional interaction of the frictional forces is presented. The proposed procedure is validated by comparing the analytical seismic responses of a spatial piping system supported on a friction support with the corresponding experimental results. The responses of the piping system and the frictional forces of the support are observed to be in close agreement with the experimental results validating the proposed analysis procedure. It was also observed that the friction supports are very effective in reducing the seismic response of piping systems. In order to investigate the effects of bi-directional interaction of the frictional forces, the seismic responses of the piping system are compared by considering and ignoring the interaction under few narrow-band and broad-band (real earthquake) ground motions. The bi-directional interaction of the frictional forces has significant effects on the response of piping system and should be included in the analysis of piping systems

  10. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly modulated semiconductor lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bindu M Krishna; Manu P John; V M Nandakumaran

    2010-02-01

    Chaotic synchronization of two directly modulated semiconductor lasers with negative delayed optoelectronic feedback is investigated and this scheme is found to be useful for efficient bidirectional communication between the lasers. A symmetric bidirectional coupling is identified as a suitable method for isochronal synchronization of such lasers. The optimum values of coupling and feedback strength that can provide maximum quality of synchronization are identified. This method is successfully employed for encoding/decoding both analog and digital messages. The importance of a symmetric coupling is demonstrated by studying the variation of decoding efficiency with respect to asymmetric coupling.

  11. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru; Miyauchi; Yanjun; Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirm low optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  12. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru Miyauchi; Yanjun Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirmlow optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  13. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  14. Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Direct Communication by Using a GHZ State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Zhong-Xiao; XIA Yun-Jie

    2006-01-01

    @@ A controlled bidirectional quantum secret direct communication scheme is proposed by using a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. In the scheme, two users can exchange their secret messages simultaneously with a set of devices under the control of a third party. The security of the scheme is analysed and confirmed.

  15. Quantum Bidirectional Secure Direct Communication via Entanglement Swapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; MAN Zhong-Xiao; XIA Yun-Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ In light of a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme using entanglement swapping [Chin. Phys.Lett. 22 (2005)18], by introducing additional local operations for encoding, we propose a bidirectional QSDC (BQSDC) protocol, in which two legitimate users can simultaneously exchange their respective messages.

  16. Bidirectional Quantum Teleportation by Using Five-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-03-01

    We propose a scheme for bidirectional quantum teleportation by using a five-qubit cluster state. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice.

  17. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and...

  18. Parenting and children's externalizing behavior: Bidirectionality during toddlerhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Aken, van Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Aken, van Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parenting and boys' externalizing behaviors in a four-wave longitudinal study of toddlers. Participants were 104 intact two-parent families with toddler sons. When their sons were 17, 23, 29, and 35 months of age, mothers and fathers reporte

  19. Bidirectional Associations among Sensitive Parenting, Language Development, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36?months in a community sample of 174 families. In…

  20. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  1. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... mass at the end of the dialysis (54 +/- 19 mumol, P

  2. Isolated Boost Converter with Bidirectional Operation for Supercapacitor Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gökhan;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an isolated bidirectional dc/dc converter based on primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). This topology is an efficient solution in low voltage high power applications due to its ability to handle high currents in the low voltage side. In this paper, the converter...

  3. Cooperative Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhuan, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The current companies increasingly expect to involve more external sources to achieve more open innovation for value-added. However, the cooperation problem between internal organization and external parties still challenges the top management. This paper aims to find out the solution. The fast spring up Chinese IT market impacts the world market, especially mobile Internet. Therefore, this paper employ the fast growing Chinese Mobile Internet company--- Xiao Mi as the study case. By applying...

  4. Cooperative Transport of Brownian Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Derenyi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamas

    1998-01-01

    We consider the collective motion of finite-sized, overdamped Brownian particles (e.g., motor proteins) in a periodic potential. Simulations of our model have revealed a number of novel cooperative transport phenomena, including (i) the reversal of direction of the net current as the particle density is increased and (ii) a very strong and complex dependence of the average velocity on both the size and the average distance of the particles.

  5. Motion constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Raunhardt, Daniel; Boulic, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid postural control approach taking advantage of data-driven and goal-oriented methods while overcoming their limitations. In particular, we take advantage of the latent space characterizing a given motion database. We introduce a motion constraint operating in the latent space to benefit from its much smaller dimension compared to the joint space. This allows its transparent integration into a Prioritized Inverse Kinematics framework. If its priority is high t...

  6. The Stepping Motion of Brownian Particle Derived by Nonequilibrium Fluctuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yong; ZHAO Tong-Jun; YU Hui; SONG Yan-Li; AN Hai-Long

    2003-01-01

    The direct motion of Brownian particle is considered as a result of system derived by external nonequilibriumfluctuating. The cooperative effects caused by asymmetric ratchet potential, external rocking force and additive colorednoise drive a Brownian particle in the directed stepping motion. This provides this kind of motion of kinesin along amicrotubule observed in experiments with a reasonable explanation.

  7. Evolution of Cooperation among Mobile Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhuo; Cai, Yun-Ze; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of mobility on the evolution of cooperation among self-driven agents, which move at a constant speed v in a two-dimensional plane without boundary restrictions and average directions of neighbors within a radius R for collective motion. Adopting the the prisoner's dilemma game and the snowdrift game as metaphors, we find that cooperation can be maintained and even enhanced for small v and modest values of R, when compared with the case that all agents do not move. Depending on the payoff parameter and the game model, the cooperator frequency may show resonant behavior, or reach an absorbing state of all cooperators as the increase of R and the initial population density. These findings may help understanding the role of individual motion in social systems.

  8. Orientation effect on ground motion measurement for Mexican subduction earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.P Hong; A. Pozos-Estrada; R. Gomez

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the principal directions of the ground motion based on Arias intensity is well-known. These principal directions do not necessarily coincide with the orientations of recording sensors or with the orientations along which the ground motion parameters such as the peak ground acceleration and the pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) are maximum. This is evidenced by the fact that the maximum PSA at different natural vibration periods for horizontal excitations do not correspond to the same orientation. A recent analysis carried out for California earthquake records suggests that an orientation-dependent ground motion measurement for horizontal excitations can be developed. The main objective of this study is to investigate and provide seismic ground motion measurements in the horizontal plane, including bidirectional horizontal ground motions, for Mexican interplate and inslab earthquake records. Extensive statistical analyses of PSA are conducted for the assessment, The analysis results suggest that similar to the case of California records, the average behavior of the ratio of the PSA to the maximum resulting PSA can be approximated by a quarter of an ellipse in one quadrant; and that the ratio can be considered to be independent of the value of the maximum resulting PSA, earthquake magnitude, earthquake distance and the focal depth. Sets of response ratios and attenuation relationships that can be used to represent a bidirectional horizontal ground motion measurement for Mexican interplate and inslab earthquakes were also developed.

  9. Quantifying Local and Cooperative Components in the Ferroelectric Distortion of BaTiO3: Learning from the Off-Center Motion in the MnCl65– Complex Formed in KCl:Mn+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; García-Fernández, P.; Calle-Vallejo, F.;

    2014-01-01

    The delicate balance between cooperative and local contributions in the ferroelectric distortions of BaTiO3 is explored by means of ab initio calculations. As a salient feature, it is found that a single Ti4+ ion in BaTiO3 is not allowed to move off-center at ambient pressure, while this is no lo......The delicate balance between cooperative and local contributions in the ferroelectric distortions of BaTiO3 is explored by means of ab initio calculations. As a salient feature, it is found that a single Ti4+ ion in BaTiO3 is not allowed to move off-center at ambient pressure, while...

  10. Bidirectional transport and pulsing states in a multi-lane ASEP model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Congping; Ashwin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an ASEP-like transport model for bidirectional motion of particles on a multi-lane lattice. The model is motivated by experiments on organelle motility along a microtubule (MT), where particles are propelled by molecular motors (dynein and kinesin) along the thirteen protofilaments of the MT. In the model, particles can switch directions of motion due to "tug-of-war" events between counteracting motors. Collisions of particles on the same lane can be cleared by switching to adjacent filaments (lane changes). We analyze transport properties of the model with no-flux boundary conditions at the end of a MT ("plus-end" or tip). In particular, we find a nonlinear scaling of the mean number of particles accumulated at the tip ({\\em tip size}) with injection rate and an associated phase transition leading to {\\em pulsing states} characterized by periodic filling and emptying of the system. Moreover, we show that the ability of changing protofilaments can affect the transport efficiency. F...

  11. Bidirectional imperfect quantum teleportation with a single Bell state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, E. O.; Popov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present a bidirectional modification of the standard one-qubit teleportation protocol, where both Alice and Bob transfer noisy versions of their qubit states to each other by using single Bell state and auxiliary (trigger) qubits. Three schemes are considered: the first where the actions of parties are governed by two independent quantum random triggers, the second with single random trigger, and the third as a mixture of the first two. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation for all schemes and find a condition on correlation between trigger qubits in the mixed scheme which allows us to overcome the classical fidelity boundary of 2/3. We apply the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism to the quantum channels obtained in order to investigate an interplay between their ability to transfer the information, entanglement-breaking property, and auxiliary classical communication needed to form correlations between trigger qubits. The suggested scheme for bidirectional teleportation can be realized by using current experimental tools.

  12. A mixing evolution model for bidirectional microblog user networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei-Guo; Liu, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Microblogs have been widely used as a new form of online social networking. Based on the user profile data collected from Sina Weibo, we find that the number of microblog user bidirectional friends approximately corresponds with the lognormal distribution. We then build two microblog user networks with real bidirectional relationships, both of which have not only small-world and scale-free but also some special properties, such as double power-law degree distribution, disassortative network, hierarchical and rich-club structure. Moreover, by detecting the community structures of the two real networks, we find both of their community scales follow an exponential distribution. Based on the empirical analysis, we present a novel evolution network model with mixed connection rules, including lognormal fitness preferential and random attachment, nearest neighbor interconnected in the same community, and global random associations in different communities. The simulation results show that our model is consistent with real network in many topology features.

  13. Optimal Recursive Bidirection Prediction for Hyperspectral Image Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm named Optimal Recursive Bidirection Prediction (ORBP) for HyperSpetral Image (HSI) compression. Recursive Bidirection Prediction (RBP) is a good algorithm for HSI inter-band prediction. It's simple, efficient. But the algorithm can't get optimal prediction result under the sense of SNR. In this paper, the linear model of HSI is established, and the best prediction is deduced under the sense of SNR. The proposed method can get lower entropy after prediction. Computer simulation results show that compared with the traditional algorithm RBP, the proposed method ORBP has a great improvement by about 9.2738dB in SNR in average

  14. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-12-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals' neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.

  15. Bidirectional selection between two classes in complex social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.

  16. A Bidirectional Relationship between Conceptual Organization and Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Kaefer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between word learning and conceptual organization for preschool-aged children. We proposed a bidirectional model in which increases in word learning lead to increases in taxonomic organization, which, in turn, leads to further increases in word learning. In order to examine this model, we recruited 104 4-year olds from Head Start classrooms; 52 children participated in a two-week training program, and 52 children were in a control group. Results indicated that children in the training program learned more words and were more likely to sort taxonomically than children in the control condition. Furthermore, the number of words learned over the training period predicted the extent to which children categorized taxonomically. Additionally, this ability to categorize taxonomically predicted the number of words learned outside the training program, over and above the number of words learned in the program. These results suggest a bi-directional relationship between conceptual organization and word learning.

  17. Optimization Control of Bidirectional Cascaded DC-AC Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun

    reliability in bidirectional cascaded converter. This research work analyses the control strategies based on the topology of dual active bridges converter cascaded with a three phase inverter. It firstly proposed a dc link voltage and active power coordinative control method for this cascaded topology, and it...... can reduce dc link voltage fluctuations, enhancing the dc link voltage reliability in case of one sub converter failure. Then the bidirectional power flow effect is analyzed, and an important guide line is proposed for the design of the two stage cascaded converter system. Towards the different...... reduce the dc link voltage control system type number, which is capable to improve system stability. Afterwards, this dissertation comes up with the concept of front to end impedance control method for the two stage cascaded converter, and it can greatly improve the system stability. At last the thesis...

  18. A perturbation solution for interlaminar stresses in bidirectional laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, P. W.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers a thin elastic bidirectional symmetric composite laminate subjected to a uniform axial strain. All interlaminar stresses are determined by a zeroth-order perturbation analysis of the governing equations. The method of solution considers the laminate to be composed of an interior region (removed from the free edge) and a boundary layer region. The interior region is analyzed by dropping terms related to powers of the thickness-to-width ratio in the dimensionless elasticity equations. The boundary layer region is studied by introducing a stretching transformation to the governing equations. A uniform solution is then formed by satisfying Prandtl's matching principle of perturbation theory. Results for a four-layer bidirectional graphite-epoxy laminate are compared with existing finite-difference results. It is shown that the perturbation analysis provides more insight into the stress distribution near the free edge.

  19. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    in a number of applications. In this paper, the discharging energy efficiency definition is introduced. The proposed converter has been experimentally tested with the film capacitive load and the DEAP actuator, and the experimental results are shown together with the efficiency measurements.......This paper presents a high voltage DC-DC converter topology for bi-directional energy transfer between a low voltage DC source and a high voltage capacitive load. The topology is a bi-directional flyback converter with variable switching frequency control during the charge mode, and constant...... switching frequency control during the discharge mode. The converter is capable of charging the capacitive load from 24 V DC source to 2.5 kV, and discharges it to 0 V. The flyback converter has been analyzed in detail during both charge and discharge modes, by considering all the parasitic elements in the...

  20. Modifying fragility and collective motion in polymer melts with nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Francis W; Douglas, Jack F

    2011-03-18

    We investigate the impact of nanoparticles (NP) on the fragility and cooperative stringlike motion in a model glass-forming polymer melt by molecular dynamics simulation. The NP cause significant changes to both the fragility and the average length of stringlike motion, where the effect depends on the NP-polymer interaction and NP concentration. We interpret these changes via the Adam-Gibbs (AG) theory, assuming the strings can be directly identified with the abstract "cooperatively rearranging regions" of AG. Our findings indicate that fragility is primarily a measure of the temperature dependence of the cooperativity of molecular motion. PMID:21469879

  1. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation via Seven-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Quan; Zha, Xin-Wei; Yu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new protocol of asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice wants to transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to transmit an arbitrary two qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. One only need perform the Bell-state measurements and single-qubit measurement.

  2. Measuring the reliability of MCMC inference with bidirectional Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse, Roger B.; Ancha, Siddharth; Roy, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is one of the main workhorses of probabilistic inference, but it is notoriously hard to measure the quality of approximate posterior samples. This challenge is particularly salient in black box inference methods, which can hide details and obscure inference failures. In this work, we extend the recently introduced bidirectional Monte Carlo technique to evaluate MCMC-based posterior inference algorithms. By running annealed importance sampling (AIS) chains both ...

  3. Named Entity Recognition with Bidirectional LSTM-CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Jason P. C.; Nichols, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Named entity recognition is a challenging task that has traditionally required large amounts of knowledge in the form of feature engineering and lexicons to achieve high performance. In this paper, we present a novel neural network architecture that automatically detects word- and character-level features using a hybrid bidirectional LSTM and CNN architecture, eliminating the need for most feature engineering. We also propose a novel method of encoding partial lexicon matches in neural networ...

  4. A Chronic Generalized Bi-directional Brain-Machine Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Adam; Stanslaski, Scott; Cong, Peng; Jensen, Randy; Afshar, Pedram; Ullestad, Dave; Moran, Dan; Denison, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and built by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercially approved neural stimulator. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from a market-approved neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing approved therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic clinical research, such as four channel...

  5. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    DUDRIK Jaroslav; OLEJAR Martin; BERES Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  6. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  7. Angled multimode interferometer for bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexing

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y.; Thomson, D. J.; Khokhar, A.Z.; S. Stanković; Mitchell, C. J.; Gardes, F. Y.; Penades, J. Soler; Mashanovich, G. Z.; Reed, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexer (WDM) on the silicon-on-insulator platform using two 4-channel angled multimode interferometers (AMMIs) sharing the same multimode interference waveguide. An excellent match of the peak transmission wavelength of each channel between the two AMMIs was achieved. The input and output access waveguides were arranged in a configuration such that the propagation of light of one AMMI in the multimode interference waveguide suf...

  8. A spiking Bidirectional Associative Memory for modeling intermodal priming

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, David; Paugam-Moisy, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Starting from a modular artificial neural system modelling the integration of several perceptive stimuli, this article proposes a new implementation of the central module performing a multimodal associative memory. A Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) has been emulated in temporal coding with spiking neurons. Since input patterns are dynamically encoded, the effects of the latency of evocation can be simulated with the ``spiking BAM\\'\\', thus adding temporal properties to the model. For h...

  9. Decompression of superior vena cava during bidirectional Glenn shunt

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni Venugopal; Mudunuri Ravikiran; Mulavisala Krishnaprasad; Byalal R

    2009-01-01

    Patients undergoing bi-directional Glenn shunt for various congenital anomalies of the heart will have their superior vena cava (SVC) clamped during the procedure. The duration of the procedure is variable, ranging from five to 30 minutes. This can affect the cerebral perfusion due to raised venous pressure [Cerebral blood flow = Mean arterial pressure − (Intracranial pressure + Central venous pressure)]. Shunting away the SVC blood is a well known technique to counter this probl...

  10. Bidirectional Influences Between Dimensions of Coparenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and bo...

  11. Bidirectional and persistent photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, Kenjiro [Research Centre for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Megro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan and CREST, JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films are described, which are bidirectional between metallic and insulating states and persistent within the laboratory time scale. The phenomena are due to the strong cross-coupling between electronic, magnetic, and elastic interactions. Among them, the elastic part is particularly important to make the process slow and the effect persistent or at least metastable. Observations supporting this view are presented.

  12. Bidirectional and persistent photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoinduced phase change in manganite thin films are described, which are bidirectional between metallic and insulating states and persistent within the laboratory time scale. The phenomena are due to the strong cross-coupling between electronic, magnetic, and elastic interactions. Among them, the elastic part is particularly important to make the process slow and the effect persistent or at least metastable. Observations supporting this view are presented.

  13. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDRIK Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  14. The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junhui; Cao Gang; Ma Qingyong; Liu Han; Li Wei; Han Liang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer (PanCa) and diabetes has been confirmed by epidemiological studies, which provide evidence-based medical support for further research into the mechanisms involved in the interaction. We reviewed the literature regarding the role of diabetes in the generation and progression of PanCa and the mechanism by which PanCa induces diabetes for its malignant progression. The effect of antidiabetic drugs on the occurrence and prognosis of ...

  15. Bidirectional Propulsion of Devices Along the Gastrointestinal Tract Using Electrostimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, M. P. D.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a method for propelling devices such as video capsule endoscopes in either direction along the small intestines using electrostimulation-induced muscular contractions. When swallowed, passive diagnostic ‘one-shot’ devices rely on sporadic peristaltic movement, possibly missing vital ‘areas of interest’. This bidirectional propulsion method provides active control for that all-important ‘second look’. Design considerations, within the dimensional constraints, required a d...

  16. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS spring-2008 campaign

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lyapustin; C. K. Gatebe; R. Kahn; R. Brandt; J. Redemann; P. Russell; M. D. King; PEDERSEN, C.A.; S. Gerland; R. Poudyal; A. Marshak; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C; Hall, D.; A. Kokhanovsky

    2009-01-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ame...

  17. Aberration analysis and efficiency improvement of a bidirectional optical subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Huang, Zhangdi; Yu, Ziyan; Qian, Xiaoshi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Beckham; Lu, Yanqing

    2009-10-01

    An approach to improve the coupling efficiency of bidirectional optical subassembly (BOSA) modules is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We analyzed the wavefront aberration coefficients of a typical BOSA. It was found that the 45-deg wavelength filter induces coma and astigmatism, and then it further deteriorates the laser diode to fiber coupling. We measured the BOSA efficiencies based on a series of different filters. For a typical 0.5-mm filter, 25% coupling efficiency improvement was achieved by optimizing the filter parameters.

  18. A New Hard Switching Bidirectional Converter With High Power Density

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador Fani; Majid Delshad; Daryoosh Nazarpour

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new isolated dc-dc bidirectional converter is proposed. This converter consists of two transformers (flyback and forward) and only one switch in primary side and one switch in secondary side of transformers. In this converter energy transfers to the output in both on and off switch states so power density of this converter is high This converter controlled by PWM signal. Also this converter operates over a wide input voltage range. Theoretical analysis is presented and compu...

  19. Bidirectional reflectance modeling of non-homogeneous plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Leaf bidirectional reflectance and transmittance distribution functions were measured for corn and soybean leaves. The measurements clearly show that leaves are complex scatterers and considerable specular reflectance is possible. Because of the character of leaf reflectance, true leaf reflectance is larger than the nadir reflectances that are normally used to represent leaves. A 3-dimensional reflectance model, named BIGAR (Bidirectional General Array Model), was developed and compared with measurements from corn and soybean. The model is based on the concept that heterogeneous canopies can be described by a combination of many subcanopies, which contain all the foliage, and these subcanopy envelopes can be characterized by ellipsoids of various sizes and shapes. The model/measurement comparison results indicate that this relatively simple model captures the essential character of row crop BRDF's. Finally, two soil BDRF models were developed: one represents soil particles as rectangular blocks and the other represents soil particles as spheres. The sphere model was found to be superior.

  20. Collective Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Czirok, A

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the emergence of collective motion from local interactions of organisms in a "noisy" environment, we study biologically inspired, inherently non-equilibrium models consisting of self-propelled particles. In these models particles interact with their neighbors by turning towards the local average direction of motion. In the limit of vanishing velocities this behavior results in a dynamics analogous to some Monte Carlo realization of equilibrium ferromagnets. However, numerical simulations indicate the existence of new types of phase transitions which are not present in the corresponding ferromagnets. In particular, here we demonstrate both numerically and analytically that even in certain one dimensional self-propelled particle systems an ordered phase exists for finite noise levels.

  1. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  2. A Novel Bidirectional DC-DC Converter With Flyback Snubber For Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    DIVYA K.NAIR; ELIZABETH RAJAN

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid electric Vehicles combine the benefits of engine, electric motor and batteries to provide improved fueleconomy. A converter is needed in hybrid Electric Vehicle for charging and discharging of the batteries. So a charging anddischarging can be combined in one circuit topology known as bidirectional DC-DC converter. Here the output is completelyisolated from input, so an isolated bidirectional Dc-DC converter is used. In the bidirectional DC-DC converter, there occursovervoltage and ove...

  3. Bi-directional WDM transmission by use of SOAs as inline amplifiers without isolators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle; Yu, Jianjun

    2001-01-01

    Error-free bi-directional transmission of 8×10 Gb/s signals over two inline SOAs is realized for the first time. It is demonstrated that SOAs can be used for inline amplifiers in bidirectional multi-wavelength transmission systems at 10 Gb/s without any isolator.......Error-free bi-directional transmission of 8×10 Gb/s signals over two inline SOAs is realized for the first time. It is demonstrated that SOAs can be used for inline amplifiers in bidirectional multi-wavelength transmission systems at 10 Gb/s without any isolator....

  4. Hemi-Fontan or Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Shunt for Right Ventricular Failure after Mitral Valve Replacement and Acute Ascending Aortic Dissection: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Teimouri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Right ventricular failure due to right coronary artery disease, right ventricular hypertrophy, stunning, abnormal septal motion, myocardial infarction, or non-homogeneous distribution of cardioplegia is an uncommon but serious complication of open heart surgery. We report a patient with severe right ventricular hypertrophy secondary to severe mitral valve stenosis and another patient with detachment of the right coronary artery due to the dissection of the ascending aorta. The patients developed right ventricular failure, which persisted after surgery and rendered weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass unsuccessful. Through a hemi-Fontan, or bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt, and an intra-aortic balloon pump, the patients were successfully weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. This shunt may be an alternative to a right ventricular assist device in some patients with right ventricular failure. The long-term outcome and the indication of bi-directional cavopulmonary shunt has not been confirmed, although it is believed to be effective for saving the life of patients with low cardiac output and acute right ventricular failure. In our cases, six months following the operation, there was some degree of recovery of the right ventricular function. In long-term follow-up, however, it would be interesting for the authors to know if the improved right ventricular function, with better antegrade pulsatile flow in the pulmonary artery, in any way interferes with the functioning of the bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt.

  5. Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayevitz Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN. A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM constellations.

  6. Asymmetries in bidirectional leader development of lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velde, Oscar A.; Montanyà, Joan

    2013-12-01

    flashes develop as a bidirectional tree, with a negative and a positive end propagating simultaneously into cloud charges of the opposite polarity. In recent years, this process has been modeled assuming that the bidirectional channel remains a zero-net-charge perfect conductor starting at the electric potential of its initial location. So far, both leader ends were treated identically. We summarize characteristics of bidirectional leader development of various lightning flashes registered by the Ebro 3-D Lightning Mapping Array at the east coast of Spain, supplemented by high-speed camera records. In order to follow the horizontal development of positive and negative leaders over time, a time-distance-altitude graph was designed, using the flash origin or a cloud-to-ground stroke as reference. The examples confirm that negative and positive leaders propagate at characteristic horizontal speeds (105 and 2 · 104 m s-1). The positive leader's low apparent speed corresponds to the phase when recoil processes are active. Very fast negative leaders (up to 8 · 105 m s-1) are detected in association with positive cloud-to-ground strokes. Negative leaders respawn repeatedly from the origin or as a retrograde negative leader at the positive branch. Positive leaders remain propagating throughout the flash or until reaching ground. We show that the velocity difference shifts the potential of the leader, increasing the gradient with cloud charge at the positive end while reducing it at the negative end. The positive section lowers its potential through retrograde negative leaders, eventually making it possible to emit a new negative leader into the upper positive potential well.

  7. Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José; Puerto, Gustavo; Capmany, José

    2007-12-10

    This paper presents a novel architecture for DWDM bidirectional access networks providing symmetric dynamic capacity allocation for both downlink and uplink signals. A foldback arrayed waveguide grating incorporating an optical switch enables the experimental demonstration of flexible assignment of multiservice capacity. Different analog and digital services, such as CATV, 10 GHz-tone, 155Mb/s PRBS and UMTS signals have been transmitted in order to successfully test the system performance under different scenarios of total capacity distribution from the Central Station to different Base Stations with two reconfigurable extra channels for each down and upstream direction. PMID:19550967

  8. Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter with Bidirectional Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gökhan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    This paper presents a bidirectional dc/dc converter operated with batteries both in the input and output. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) with transformer series connection on the high voltage side is preferred due to its ability to handle high currents in the low voltage side....... The converter has been modeled using non-ideal components and operated without any additional circuitry for startup using a digital soft-start procedure. Simulated and measured loop gains have been compared for the validity of the model. On-the-fly current direction change has been achieved between...

  9. On uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Chantler, M.J.; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2009), s. 1-15. ISSN 1544-3558 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * texture * eye tracking Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/haindl-on uniform resampling and gaze analysis of bidirectional texture functions.pdf

  10. Simple and Accurate Dependency Parsing Using Bidirectional LSTM Feature Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Kiperwasser, Eliyahu; Goldberg, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and effective scheme for dependency parsing which is based on bidirectional-LSTMs (BiLSTMs). Each sentence token is associated with a BiLSTM vector representing the token in its sentential context, and feature vectors are constructed by concatenating a few BiLSTM vectors. The BiLSTM is trained jointly with the parser objective, resulting in very effective feature extractors for parsing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying it to a greedy transition ...

  11. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  12. Personalized PageRank Estimation and Search: A Bidirectional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Peter; Banerjee, Siddhartha; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    We present new algorithms for Personalized PageRank estimation and Personalized PageRank search. First, for the problem of estimating Personalized PageRank (PPR) from a source distribution to a target node, we present a new bidirectional estimator with simple yet strong guarantees on correctness and performance, and 3x to 8x speedup over existing estimators in experiments on a diverse set of networks. Moreover, it has a clean algebraic structure which enables it to be used as a primitive for ...

  13. A potent bidirectional promoter from the monocot cereal Eleusine coracana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Saswati; Dutta, Samir Kr

    2016-09-01

    Ragi bifunctional α-amylase-trypsin inhibitor (RBI) of Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. (finger millet) simultaneously inhibits α-amylase and trypsin. In continuation of previous work on the cloning, expression and characterization of RBI, a bidirectional promoter from finger millet was explored on the basis of experimental observations. Two trypsin inhibitors were identified while purifying RBI from a trypsin-Sepharose column eluent. Using an FPLC gel filtration column, these three inhibitors were purified to homogeneity and subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Both ragi trypsin inhibitors (RTIs) showed the same N-terminal sequence and considerable sequence similarity to RBI, indicating the presence of a multigene protease inhibitor family in finger millet. To gain insight into the evolution of these genes, the upstream region of RBI was explored by Genome Walking. Interestingly, on sequencing, a genome walking product of ∼1 Kb showed presence of an N-terminal RBI specific primer sequence twice but in opposite directions and leaving an intervening region of ∼0.9 Kb. The intervening region was presumed to represent an E. coracana bidirectional promoter (EcBDP), intuitively having a divergent RBI-RTI gene pair at two sides. For assaying the bidirectionality of promoter activity, a dual reporter GUS-GFP vector construct was made for plant expression containing the reporter genes at two ends of EcBDP, which was used to transform Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. Transient plant transformation by recombinant Agrobacterium cells was carried out in onion scale epidermal cells and finger millet seedling leaves. Simultaneous expression of GUS and GFP under EcBDP established it as a potent natural bidirectional promoter from monocot origin, thereby potentially having vast application in cereal gene manipulations. In addition, inducibility of the EcBDP by either abscisic acid or cold treatment, as determined by transient

  14. Bidirectional Texture Function Modeling: State of the Art Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2009), s. 1921-1940. ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Grant ostatní: EC Marie Curie(BE) 41358; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF * surface texture * 3D texture Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/RO/filip-bidirectional texture function modeling state of the art survey.pdf

  15. Experimental investigation of the deformable mirror with bidirectional thermal actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ma, Xingkun; Gong, Mali; Bian, Qi

    2015-06-29

    A deformable mirror with actuators of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) is introduced in this paper. Due to the bidirectional thermal actuation property of the TEC, both upward and downward surface control is available for the DM. The response functions of the actuators are investigated. A close-loop wavefront control experiment is performed too, where the defocus and the astigmatism were corrected. The results reveal that there is a promising prospect for the novel design to be used in corrections of static aberrations, such as in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). PMID:26191759

  16. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject the...... power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  17. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  18. Multiqubit entanglement in bidirectional-chiral-waveguide QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Schotland, John C.

    2016-07-01

    We study the generation of transient entanglement induced by a single-photon Gaussian wave packet in multiatom bidirectional-waveguide QED. In particular, we investigate the effect of increasing the number of atoms on the average pairwise entanglement. We demonstrate, by selecting smaller decay rates and in chiral-waveguide settings, that both entanglement survival times and maximum generated entanglement can be increased by at least a factor of ˜3 /2 , independent of the number of atoms. In addition, we analyze the influence of detuning and delays on the robustness of the generated entanglement. There are potential applications of our results in entanglement-based multiqubit quantum networks.

  19. Two-photon entanglement in multiqubit bidirectional-waveguide QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Schotland, John C.

    2016-07-01

    We study entanglement generation and control in bidirectional-waveguide QED driven by a two-photon Gaussian wave packet. In particular, we focus on how increasing the number of qubits affects the overall average pairwise entanglement in the system. We also investigate how the presence of a second photon can introduce nonlinearities, thereby manipulating the generated entanglement. In addition, we show that, through the introduction of chirality and small decay rates, entanglement can be stored and enhanced up to factors of 2 and 3, respectively. Finally, we analyze the influence of finite detunings and time-delays on the generated entanglement.

  20. Bidirectional invisibility in Kramers-Kronig optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A broad class of planar dielectric media with complex permittivity profiles that are fully invisible, for both left and right incidence sides, is introduced. Such optical media are locally isotropic, non-magnetic and belong to the recently discovered class of Kramers-Kronig media [{\\it Nature Photon.} 9, 436 (2015)], i.e. the spatial profiles of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity are related each other by a Hilbert transform. The transition from unidirectional to bidirectional invisibility, and the possibility to realize sharp reflection above a cut-off incidence angle, are also discussed.

  1. A New Hard Switching Bidirectional Converter With High Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Fani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new isolated dc-dc bidirectional converter is proposed. This converter consists of two transformers (flyback and forward and only one switch in primary side and one switch in secondary side of transformers. In this converter energy transfers to the output in both on and off switch states so power density of this converter is high This converter controlled by PWM signal. Also this converter operates over a wide input voltage range. Theoretical analysis is presented and computer simulation and experimental results verify the converter analysis.

  2. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  3. Mechanism and bias considerations for design of a bi-directional pneumatic artificial muscle actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs), or McKibben actuators, have received considerable attention for robotic manipulators and in aerospace applications due to their similarity to natural muscles. Like natural muscles, PAMs are a purely contractile actuator, so that, in order to produce bi-directional or rotational motion, they must be arranged in an agonist/antagonist pair, which inherently limits the deflection of the system due to the high parasitic stiffness of the antagonistic PAM. This study presents two methods for increasing the performance of an antagonistic PAM system by decreasing the passive parasitic torque, rather than increasing the active torque. The first involves selection of the kinematic mechanism geometry, and the second involves the introduction of bias into the system, both in terms of PAM contraction and passive (antagonistic) PAM pressure. It was found with the proper selection of design parameters, including mechanism geometry, PAM geometry, and bias conditions, that an ideal actuator configuration can be chosen that maximizes deflection for a given arbitrary loading. When comparing a baseline design to an improved design for a simplified case, a nearly 50% increase in maximum deflection was predicted simply by optimizing mechanism geometry and bias contraction. These results were experimentally verified with quasi-static testing that showed a 300% increase in actuator deflection over the baseline design. (paper)

  4. Ukraine’s trade and economic priorities in the Black sea economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Goncharuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of trade and economic priorities of Ukraine’s integration into the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC. The country’s integration options have been analyzed including the Western European vs. pro-Russian integration vector, the bidirectional gravity model, and an alte — native subregional cooperation direction. Ukraine’s sectoral priorities for deepening economic cooperation with the BSEC member countries in the context of implementation of the national interests have been identified, in particular in the field of goods, transport and tourism services, and energy trading. The ways of and instruments for improving Ukraine’s trade activities within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation have been offered for the various working groups of the Organization that are focused on such areas of cooperation as macroeconomics, policy and law, finance and economics, science and technology, culture and society, infrastructure, and institutional renewal.

  5. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  6. New Cooperative Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Hardesty, Shermain D.; Shultz, Madeline; Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the increased interest in new cooperative development, factors for successful cooperative development, and strategies to improve the performance of new and emerging cooperatives. The article highlights issues identified by a panel of cooperative leaders, USDA specialists and academic experts

  7. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  8. Underwater Image Bidirectional Matching for Localization Based on SIFT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Lin; Bo Liu

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of identifying the stern of the SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) availably and perfecting the detection technique of the SWATH ship’s performance, this paper presents a novel bidirectional image registration strategy and mosaicing technique based on the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm. The proposed method can help us observe the stern with a great visual angle for analyzing the performance of the control fins of the SWATH. SIFT is one of the most effective local features of the scale, rotation and illumination invariant. However, there are a few false match rates in this algorithm. In terms of underwater machine vision, only by acquiring an accurate match rate can we find an underwater robot rapidly and identify the location of the object. Therefore, firstly, the selection of the match ratio principle is put forward in this paper; secondly, some advantages of the bidirectional registration algorithm are concluded by analyzing the characteristics of the unidirectional matching method. Finally, an automatic underwater image splicing method is proposed on the basis of fixed dimension, and then the edge of the image’s overlapping section is merged by the principal components analysis algorithm. The experimental results achieve a better registration and smooth mosaicing effect, demonstrating that the proposed method is effective.

  9. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) whether parenting styles at Wave 1 predict Wave 2 temperament, controlling for Wave 1 temperament. We found support for bidirectional relations between temperament and authoritarian parenting, such that higher effortful control and lower anger/frustration were associated with higher authoritarian parenting across time and in both directions. There were no significant cross-time associations between children's temperament and authoritative parenting. These findings extend the previous tests of transactional relations between child temperament and parenting in Chinese children and are consistent with the cultural values toward effortful control and control of anger/frustration in Chinese society. PMID:23482684

  10. Bidirectional Dynamic Diversity Evolutionary Algorithm for Constrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weishang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms (EAs were shown to be effective for complex constrained optimization problems. However, inflexible exploration-exploitation and improper penalty in EAs with penalty function would lead to losing the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. To determine an appropriate penalty coefficient is also difficult in most studies. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional dynamic diversity evolutionary algorithm (Bi-DDEA with multiagents guiding exploration-exploitation through local extrema to the global optimum in suitable steps. In Bi-DDEA potential advantage is detected by three kinds of agents. The scale and the density of agents will change dynamically according to the emerging of potential optimal area, which play an important role of flexible exploration-exploitation. Meanwhile, a novel double optimum estimation strategy with objective fitness and penalty fitness is suggested to compute, respectively, the dominance trend of agents in feasible region and forbidden region. This bidirectional evolving with multiagents can not only effectively avoid the problem of determining penalty coefficient but also quickly converge to the global optimum nearby or on the constrained boundary. By examining the rapidity and veracity of Bi-DDEA across benchmark functions, the proposed method is shown to be effective.

  11. Underwater image bidirectional matching for localization based on SIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Bo

    2014-06-01

    For the purpose of identifying the stern of the SWATH (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull) availably and perfecting the detection technique of the SWATH ship's performance, this paper presents a novel bidirectional image registration strategy and mosaicing technique based on the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm. The proposed method can help us observe the stern with a great visual angle for analyzing the performance of the control fins of the SWATH. SIFT is one of the most effective local features of the scale, rotation and illumination invariant. However, there are a few false match rates in this algorithm. In terms of underwater machine vision, only by acquiring an accurate match rate can we find an underwater robot rapidly and identify the location of the object. Therefore, firstly, the selection of the match ratio principle is put forward in this paper; secondly, some advantages of the bidirectional registration algorithm are concluded by analyzing the characteristics of the unidirectional matching method. Finally, an automatic underwater image splicing method is proposed on the basis of fixed dimension, and then the edge of the image's overlapping section is merged by the principal components analysis algorithm. The experimental results achieve a better registration and smooth mosaicing effect, demonstrating that the proposed method is effective.

  12. The Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Immunity against Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ibarra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is considered an important modulator of the immune response. Thus, a lack of sleep can weaken immunity, increasing organism susceptibility to infection. For instance, shorter sleep durations are associated with a rise in suffering from the common cold. The function of sleep in altering immune responses must be determined to understand how sleep deprivation increases the susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. There are several explanations for greater susceptibility to infections after reduced sleep, such as impaired mitogenic proliferation of lymphocytes, decreased HLA-DR expression, the upregulation of CD14+, and variations in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which have been observed during partial sleep deprivation. Also, steroid hormones, in addition to regulating sexual behavior, influence sleep. Thus, we hypothesize that sleep and the immune-endocrine system have a bidirectional relationship in governing various physiological processes, including immunity to infections. This review discusses the evidence on the bidirectional effects of the immune response against viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections on sleep patterns and how the lack of sleep affects the immune response against such agents. Because sleep is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, these situations must be adapted to elicit changes in sleep patterns and other physiological parameters during the immune response to infections to which the organism is continuously exposed.

  13. An Improved Multidimensional MPA Procedure for Bidirectional Earthquake Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the modal pushover analysis procedure is extended to multidimensional analysis of structures subjected to multidimensional earthquake excitations. an improved multidimensional modal pushover analysis (IMMPA method is presented in the paper in order to estimate the response demands of structures subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations, in which the unidirectional earthquake excitation applied on equivalent SDOF system is replaced by the direct superposition of two components earthquake excitations, and independent analysis in each direction is not required and the application of simplified superposition formulas is avoided. The strength reduction factor spectra based on superposition of earthquake excitations are discussed and compared with the traditional strength reduction factor spectra. The step-by-step procedure is proposed to estimate seismic demands of structures. Two examples are implemented to verify the accuracy of the method, and the results of the examples show that (1 the IMMPA method can be used to estimate the responses of structure subjected to bidirectional earthquake excitations. (2 Along with increase of peak of earthquake acceleration, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase. (3 Along with increase of the number of total floors of structures, structural response deviation estimated with the IMMPA method may also increase.

  14. Bidirectional Microglia-Neuron Communication in the Healthy Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpong B. Eyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other resident neural cells that are of neuroectodermal origin, microglia are resident neural cells of mesodermal origin. Traditionally recognized for their immune functions during disease, new roles are being attributed to these cells in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS including specific communication with neurons. In this review, we highlight some of the recent findings on the bidirectional interaction between neurons and microglia. We discuss these interactions along two lines. First, we review data that suggest that microglial activity is modulated by neuronal signals, focusing on evidence that (i neurons are capable of regulating microglial activation state and influence basal microglial activities; (ii classic neurotransmitters affect microglial behavior; (iii chemotactic signals attract microglia during acute neuronal injury. Next, we discuss some of the recent data on how microglia signal to neurons. Signaling mechanisms include (i direct physical contact of microglial processes with neuronal elements; (ii microglial regulation of neuronal synapse and circuit by fractalkine, complement, and DAP12 signaling. In addition, we discuss the use of microglial depletion strategies in studying the role of microglia in neuronal development and synaptic physiology. Deciphering the mechanisms of bidirectional microglial-neuronal communication provides novel insights in understanding microglial function in both the healthy and diseased brain.

  15. Evolutionary Pseudo-Relaxation Learning Algorithm for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Zhi Du; Zeng-Qiang Chen; Zhu-Zhi Yuan

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity to noise in BAM (Bidirectional Associative Memory), and then proves the noise immunity of BAM relates not only to the minimum absolute value of net inputs (MAV) but also to the variance of weights associated with synapse connections. In fact, it is a positive monotonically increasing function of the quotient of MAV divided by the variance of weights. Besides, the performance of pseudo-relaxation method depends on learning parameters (λ and ζ), but the relation of them is not linear. So it is hard to find a best combination of λ and ζ which leads to the best BAM performance. And it is obvious that pseudo-relaxation is a kind of local optimization method, so it cannot guarantee to get the global optimal solution. In this paper, a novel learning algorithm EPRBAM (evolutionary psendo-relaxation learning algorithm for bidirectional association memory) employing genetic algorithm and pseudo-relaxation method is proposed to get feasible solution of BAM weight matrix. This algorithm uses the quotient as the fitness of each individual and employs pseudo-relaxation method to adjust individual solution when it does not satisfy constraining condition any more after genetic operation. Experimental results show this algorithm improves noise immunity of BAM greatly. At the same time, EPRBAM does not depend on learning parameters and can get global optimal solution.

  16. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, Alvaro O.; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca2+ concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:25360084

  17. Bidirectional Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering using AVL Tree Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Abu-Dalbouh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchy is often used to infer knowledge from groups of items and relations in varying granularities. Hierarchical clustering algorithms take an input of pairwise data-item similarities and output a hierarchy of the data-items. This paper presents Bidirectional agglomerative hierarchical clustering to create a hierarchy bottom-up, by iteratively merging the closest pair of data-items into one cluster. The result is a rooted AVL tree. The n leafs correspond to input data-items (singleton clusters needs to n/2 or n/2+1 steps to merge into one cluster, correspond to groupings of items in coarser granularities climbing towards the root. As observed from the time complexity and number of steps need to cluster all data points into one cluster perspective, the performance of the bidirectional agglomerative algorithm using AVL tree is better than the current agglomerative algorithms. The experiment analysis results indicate that the improved algorithm has a higher efficiency than previous methods.

  18. The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junhui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer (PanCa and diabetes has been confirmed by epidemiological studies, which provide evidence-based medical support for further research into the mechanisms involved in the interaction. We reviewed the literature regarding the role of diabetes in the generation and progression of PanCa and the mechanism by which PanCa induces diabetes for its malignant progression. The effect of antidiabetic drugs on the occurrence and prognosis of PanCa was also reviewed. Diabetes may directly promote the progression of PanCa by pancreatic duct enlargement and hypertension, as well as by enabling an increased tumor volume. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, cytokines, hyperglycemia and genotype change are also important factors in the progression of PanCa with diabetes. Hyperglycemia may be the first clinical manifestation and is helpful in the early diagnosis of PanCa. Furthermore, antidiabetic drugs can have different effects on the occurrence and prognosis of PanCa. The bidirectional interation between PanCa and diabetes is involved in the occurrence, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of PanCa with diabetes. The discovery of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of PanCa, as well as the novel usage of metformin for its antitumor effects and determining the potential mechanisms of these effects, may be the next direction for PanCa research and treatment.

  19. Bidirectional Effective Components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on Gastrointestinal Peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To find the bidirectional effective components of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR on gastrointestinal peristalsis (GIP. Multi-mode separation methods (solvent partition method and macroporous adsorptive resins were used to split AMR component; HPLC and GC-MS were used to analyze the main compounds of fractions; the indexes included gastric residual rate and intestinal propulsive rate were used to observe the effects of AMR and its fractions on GIP; ELISA was used to examine the level of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP and P substance (SP in antrum and ileum. The Water Decoction (WD of AMR was separated into five fractions, namely, Volatile Oil Fraction (VOF, Petroleum Ether Fraction (PEF, Alcohol Eluate Fraction (AEF, Water Eluate Fraction (WEF and polysaccharides (CPF; the GIP was promoted in mice with dose of 1.0 g kg–1 WD, VOF, CPF and WEF. However, GIP was inhibited in mice with dose of WD (10.0 g kg–1, PEF and AEF. The AMR had bidirectional regulation effects on gastrointestinal function; the VOF (contained monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes components, WEF (contained 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and small molecular sugar and CPF (contained inulin-type oligosaccharides are the fractions of AMR for promotion effects on GIP and PEF (contained sesquiterpene lactone and AEF (contained polyacetylene of AMR played opposite action; the underlying action mechanism maybe relate to the SP and VIP levels.

  20. Bidirectional communication in an HF hybrid organic/solution-processed metal-oxide RFID tag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Rockelé, M.; Chasin, A.; Pham, D.V.; Steiger, J.; Botnaras, S.; Weber, D.; Herold, B.; Ficker, J.; Van Putten, B.D.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    A bidirectional communication protocol allows radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to have readout of multiple tags in the RF field without collision of data. In this paper, we realized bidirectional communication between a reader system and thin-film RFID tag by introducing a novel protocol f

  1. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiu, Henry [Research Engineer; van Dam, Cornelis P. [Professor

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn

  2. Development of movie caption translation lecture site using MobileMotion{sub TM}; MobileMotion{sub TM} wo mochiita jimaku hon'yaku koza site no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The site of Internet that performs the correspondence education for bringing up a movie caption translator was developed. Correspondence education that fully deepens understanding was obtained by distributing a motion picture using MPEG-4 distribution software (MobileMotion{sub TM}) and performing the learning based on bi-directional communication. HTML distribution and E-mail transmission and reception are done from Gaga Communications, and a MobileMotion{sub TM} file is distributed from the OnDemand Server of Toshiba. This reduces the communication traffic of heavy motion picture data. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Bidirectional Five-Level Power Processing Interface for Low Voltage Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jain-Yi; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Wu, Kuen-Der; Lin, You-Si; Wu, Jinn-Chang

    A bidirectional five-level power processing interface for low voltage battery energy storage system (BESS) is developed in this paper. This BESS consists of a bidirectional five-level DC-AC converter, a bidirectional dual boost/buck DC-DC converter and a battery set. This five-level DC-AC converter includes a bidirectional full-bridge converter and a bidirectional dual buck DC-DC converter. The five-level power processing interface can charge power to the battery set form the utility or discharge the power from the battery set to the utility depending on the demanded operation of user. A hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of this BESS. Experimental results show the performance of the developed BESS is as expected.

  4. Telemedical work and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    In telemedicine, cooperation occurs via telecommunication. This represents a new situation for medical cooperation. Whether such cooperation works poorly or well will be important with an increasing volume of telemedicine. When personnel are involved in external cooperation, as in telemedicine, the question of cooperation within one's own organization also arises. To investigate these matters, qualitative interviews were performed with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. The results showed that cooperating by telecommunication mainly worked well. The cooperation may be influenced by factors such as personality, knowing each other personally, preparation and experience. Telemedical teamwork may be improved by factors like experience and education. Working with telemedicine did not reduce the personnel's cooperation within their own organizations, but rather improved it, although this effect was slight and most commonly involved improved knowledge of others. In general, the findings concerning cooperation and telemedicine were positive. PMID:11506756

  5. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArjenAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  6. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lyapustin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS, Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°, the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the

  7. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D.; Kokhanovsky, A.

    2010-05-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φBRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the slope distribution function and by adding a simple model of

  8. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS spring-2008 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lyapustin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS experiment was one of the major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year, aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. Part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS, Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°, the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with the experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution

  9. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their...

  10. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here a...

  11. Robustness of Bidirectional Interdependent Networks: Analysis and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Parandehgheibi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    We study the robustness of interdependent networks where two networks are said to be interdependent if the operation of one network depends on the operation of the other one, and vice versa. In this paper, we propose a model for analyzing bidirectional interdependent networks with known topology. We define the metric MR(D) to be the minimum number of nodes that should be removed from one network to cause the failure of D nodes in the other network due to cascading failures. We prove that evaluating this metric is not only NP-complete, but also inapproximable. Next, we propose heuristics for evaluating this metric and compare their performances using simulation results. Finally, we introduce two closely related definitions for robust design of interdependent networks; propose algorithms for explicit design, and demonstrate the relation between robust interdependent networks and expander graphs.

  12. Properties of Coupled Oscillator Model for Bidirectional Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we consider the stationary state and dynamical properties of a coupled oscillator model for bidirectional associative memory. For the stationary state, we apply the replica method to obtain self-consistent order parameter equations. The theoretical results for the storage capacity and overlap agree well with the numerical simulation. For the retrieval process, we apply statistical neurodynamics to include temporal noise correlations. For the successful retrieval process, the theoretical result obtained with the fourth-order approximation qualitatively agrees with the numerical simulation. However, for the unsuccessful retrieval process, higher-order noise correlations suppress severely; therefore, the maximum value of the overlap and the relaxation time are smaller than those of the numerical simulation. The reasons for the discrepancies between the theoretical result and numerical simulation, and the validity of our analysis are discussed.

  13. Measurement of bidirectional reflection distribution function on material surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hongyuan Wang; Zhile Wang

    2009-01-01

    Two automatic measurement methods of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) are pre sented based on absolute and relative definition. Measurement principle and scheme of the methods are analyzed. A real-time measurement device is developed, the measurement spectral range of which is from ultraviolet to near infrared with 2.4-nm wavelength resolution, and the angular range is 0掳鈥? 360掳 in az imuth angle and 0掳 - 85掳 in zenith angle with 0.01掳 angle resolution. Absolute measurements of BRDF on tinfoil and ceramic tile are performed and the test materials present apparent specular reflection char acteristics. The theoretical error in the experiment is about 6.05%. The BRDF measurement results are closely related to the precision of measurement platform, the sensitivity of measurement instrument, and the stability of illuminating light source.

  14. Single Phase Bidirectional PWM Converter for Microgrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Kalavalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a newly flourishing research area because of its viable applications and expected to address the drawback of existing grid. Microgrids are the part of the Smart grid and they are designed to supply electricity for a small community such as residential areas, universities or industrial sites. Power electronics plays a vital role for connecting the renewable energy sources to Microgrid system. This paper deals the Microgrid connected single phase Bidirectional PWM converter which operates in Rectification and Inverting mode. This converter helps to connect renewable energy sources to loads as well as excess power are given to power grid. Double Loop PID control technique is used for controlling the converter for both modes. The designed Converter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink software and results are verified using the Hardware.

  15. [An experimental study of a new bidirectional distraction appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R; Gounot, N; Cresseaux, P; Breton, P; Freidel, M; Ferez, C; Roger, T; Genevois, J P

    1998-07-01

    The goals of mandibular distraction are to restore a normal length but also a normal shape to the hypoplastic mandible. These two goals are related to the elongation vector which is itself related to the location of the cortictomy and of the device. Other factors influence this elongation vector. So it is impossible to precisely predict the elongation vector. With the monodirectional distraction device no modification can be made during the distraction time. With a bidirectional distraction device offering the possibility to modulate the angulation between the two elongation rods it is possible to adjust the elongation vector during distraction. Precise distraction gap modeling is possible. This is particularly important to correct anterior open-bite. This device was tested on animals (pigs). PMID:9697234

  16. Bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease: Review of Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently there are 170 million diabetic patients worldwide. Pakistan ranks sixth in the world with approximately 6.2 million in the 20-79 year age affected by the diabetes. 6-10% of the 35-44 year old diabetic patients have been reported to be affected by moderate form of periodontal disease in Pakistan. Periodontal disease is referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The association between diabetes and periodontal disease has been reported for more than 40 years but reverse has not been the focus of researchers until recently. Studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship between periodontal disease and glycemic control with each disease having a potential impact on the other. (author)

  17. Study on bi-directional pedestrian movement using ant algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibel, Gokce; Ozhan, Kayacan

    2016-01-01

    A cellular automata model is proposed to simulate bi-directional pedestrian flow. Pedestrian movement is investigated by using ant algorithms. Ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called a pheromone, on the substrate while crawling forward. Similarly, it is considered that oppositely moving pedestrians drop ‘visual pheromones’ on their way and the visual pheromones might cause attractive or repulsive interactions. This pheromenon is introduced into modelling the pedestrians’ walking preference. In this way, the decision-making process of pedestrians will be based on ‘the instinct of following’. At some densities, the relationships of velocity-density and flux-density are analyzed for different evaporation rates of visual pheromones. Lane formation and phase transition are observed for certain evaporation rates of visual pheromones.

  18. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2009-03-05

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  19. Malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma: a bidirectional correlation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, W L

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic studies have suggested a bidirectional association between breast carcinoma (BC) and malignant melanoma (MM). OBSERVATION: We present a series of patients with MM and BC detected in our department within a span of 6 months, raising concerns for the high associations between the two malignancies. This led us to match the concordance of the two tumours in the National Irish Cancer Registry. CONCLUSION: The national figures provide evidence of a link between BC and MM. We recommend increased awareness among clinicians leading to more detailed surveillance of both second primary tumours. All MM patients with a family history of BC should be referred to a breast clinic. Women above the age of 40 with MM should undergo annual mammography and those less than 40 may be better evaluated with a breast MRI. All breast cancer patients should be made aware of the significance of changing moles and those with suspicious lesions referred to a dermatologist for evaluation.

  20. A bidirectional YAC walk from the Norrie disease (NDP) locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, G.C.; Zheng-Yi Chen; Craig, I.W. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-02-10

    The region of Xp between DXS7 and the centromere contains the gene for Norrie disease in addition to the genes for several other ophthalmic disorders. A 650-kb YAC containing the loci MAOA, MAOB, and NDP has been used as the starting point for a bidirectional chromosomal walk. A contig of 16 YACs covering between 2 and 3 Mb has been developed in which the following markers/genes are located (in physical order): Xpter - DXS1201 (256ze5) - DXS6668 - DXS228 - DXS77 - DXS7 - MAOA - MAOB - FR12 (pseudogene) - NDP - DXS6670 - RRM2P3 - DXS6671 - DXS742 - Xcen. Seven new STSs are described both for end clones and for internal Alu PCR products from the contig. The contig contains the breakpoint of the t75-2ma-1b (t75) translocation, close to the 5{prime} end of the MAOB gene. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    CERN Document Server

    Hisatomi, Ryusuke; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Toyofumi; Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Usami, Koji; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single-quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a travelling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses ...

  2. Biophysical information in asymmetric and symmetric diurnal bidirectional canopy reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Caldwell, William F.; Pettigrew, Rita E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Rousseau, Robert A.; Berger, Kevin M.; Ganapol, B. D.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Clark, Jenny A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a theory for partitioning the information content in diurnal bidirectional reflectance measurements in order to detect differences potentially related to biophysical variables. The theory, which divides the canopy reflectance into asymmetric and symmetric functions of solar azimuth angle, attributes asymmetric variation to diurnal changes in the canopy biphysical properties. The symmetric function is attributed to the effects of sunlight interacting with a hypothetical average canopy which would display the average diurnal properties of the actual canopy. The authors analyzed radiometer data collected diurnally in the Thematic Mapper wavelength bands from two walnut canopies that received differing irrigation treatments. The reflectance of the canopies varied with sun and view angles and across seven bands in the visible, near-infrared, and middle infrared wavelength regions. Although one of the canopies was permanently water stressed and the other was stressed in mid-afternoon each day, no water stress signature was unambiguously evident in the reflectance data.

  3. Impedance Coordinative Control for Cascaded Converter in Bidirectional Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe;

    2015-01-01

    Two stage cascaded converters are widely used in bidirectional applications, but the negative impedance may cause system instability. Actually the impedance interaction is much different between forward power flow and reversed power flow, which will introduce more uncertainty to the system...... difference between forward and reversed power flow. This paper addresses the analysis with the topology of cascaded dual-active-bridge converter (DAB) with inverter, and the proposed control method can also be implemented in unidirectional applications and other general cascaded converter system. The...... stability. This paper proposes a control method for the constant power controlled converter in cascaded system, and consequently it can change the negative impedance of constant power converter into resistive impedance, which will improve the cascaded system stability, as well as merge the impedance...

  4. Impedance Interaction Modeling and Analysis for Bidirectional Cascaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe;

    2015-01-01

    more uncertainty to the system stability. An investigation is performed here for showing that the forward and reverse interactions are prominently different in terms of dynamics and stability even though the cascaded converter control remains unchanged. An important guideline has been drawn for the......For the cascaded converter system, the output impedance of source converter interacts with the input impedance of load converter, and the interaction may cause the system instability. In bidirectional applications, when the power flow is reversed, the impedance interaction also varies, which brings...... control of the cascaded converter. That is when voltage mode converter working as the load converter; the constant power mode converter as the source converter, the system is more stable. The concluded findings have been verified by simulation and experimental results....

  5. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  6. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  7. Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article p...

  8. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D and D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the

  9. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  10. The Cooperative Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neu

  11. A reference architecture for cooperative driving

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Sagar; Törngren, Martin; Chen, Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key finding...

  12. Generalizing Several Theoretical Deterministic Secure Direct Bidirectional Communications to Improve Their Capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z. J.; Man, Z. X.

    2004-01-01

    Several theoretical Deterministic Secure Direct Bidirectional Communication protocols are generalized to improve their capacities by introducing the superdense-coding in the case of high-dimension quantum states.

  13. Behavior of composite rigid frame bridge under bi-directional seismic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis and time history analysis are conducted to explore the bi-directional seismic behavior of composite steel-concrete rigid frame bridge, which is composed of RC piers and steel-concrete composite girders. Both longitudinal and transverse directions excitations are investigated using OpenSees. Firstly, the applicability of pushover analysis based on the fundamental mode is discussed. Secondly, an improved pushover analysis method considering the contribution of higher modes is proposed, and the applicability on composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional earthquake is verified. Based on this method, an approach to predict the displacement responses of composite rigid frame bridge under random bi-directional seismic excitations by revising the elasto-plastic demand curve is also proposed. It is observed that the developed method yield a good estimate on the responses of composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional seismic excitations.

  14. The bidirectional relation between positive mental health and psychopathology in a longitudinal representative panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Sanne M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Glas, Cees A.W.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is accumulating evidence that positive mental health and psychopathology should be seen as separate indicators of mental health. This study contributes to this evidence by investigating the bidirectional relation between positive mental health and psychopathological symptoms over t

  15. Bidirectional WDM Self-Healing Ring Network for Hub/Remote Nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung-Bum; Park; Seung; Goo; Kang; Sang; Bae; Lee; Chang-Hee; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a bidirectional WDM self-healing ring network for hub/remote nodes with one fiber. In this network, self-healing can be achieved within 8 ms. The transmission capacity can be doubled in the operating state.

  16. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  17. Seismic Responses of Asymmetric Base-Isolated Structures under Near-Fault Ground Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Kun; LI Li; FANG Qin-han

    2008-01-01

    An inter-story shear model of asymmetric base-isolated structures incorporating deformation of each isolation bearing was built, and a method to simultaneously simulate bi-directional near-fault and far-field ground motions was proposed. A comparative study on the dynamic responses of asymmetric base-isolated structures under near-fault and far-field ground motions were conducted to investigate the effects of eccentricity in the isolation system and in the superstructures, the ratio of the uncoupled torsional to lateral frequency of the superstructure and the pulse period of near-fault ground motions on the nonlinear seismic response of asymmetric base-isolated structures. Numerical results show that eccentricity in the isolation system makes asymmetric base-isolated structure more sensitive to near-fault ground motions, and the pulse period of near-fault ground motions plays an import role in governing the seismic responses of asymmetric base-isolated structures.

  18. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle;

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  19. Bi-directional 120 km long-reach PON link based on distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2006-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional PON link with 120 km reach and symmetric up and down stream data rate of 10 Gbit/s. Lossless transmission was achieved with >40 dB of received OSNR......We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional PON link with 120 km reach and symmetric up and down stream data rate of 10 Gbit/s. Lossless transmission was achieved with >40 dB of received OSNR...

  20. Bi-directional light transmission properties assessment for venetian blinds : Computer simulations compared to photogoniometer measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Rubin, M. D.; Powles, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    An accurate evaluation of daylight distribution through advanced fenestration systems (complex glazing, solar shading systems) requires the knowledge of their Bi-directional light Transmission Distribution Function (BTDF). An innovative equipment for the experimental assessment of these bi-directional functions has been developed, based on a digital imaging detection system. An extensive set of BTDF measurements was performed with this photogoniometer on venetian blinds presenting curved slat...

  1. Bidirectional Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Foam Core Materials Using DIC

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Siavash Talebi; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; M. Dulieu-Barton, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Polymer foam cored sandwich structures are often subjected to aggressive service conditions which may include elevated temperatures. A modified Arcan fixture (MAF) has been developed to characterize polymer foam materials with respect to their tensile, compressive, shear and bidirectional mechanical properties at room and at elevated temperatures. The MAF enables the realization of pure compression or high compression to shear bidirectional loading conditions that is not possible with convent...

  2. Optimization Framework and Graph-Based Approach for Relay-Assisted Bidirectional OFDMA Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan; Tao, Meixia; Li, Bin; Shen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a relay-assisted bidirectional cellular network where the base station (BS) communicates with each mobile station (MS) using OFDMA for both uplink and downlink. The goal is to improve the overall system performance by exploring the full potential of the network in various dimensions including user, subcarrier, relay, and bidirectional traffic. In this work, we first introduce a novel three-time-slot time-division duplexing (TDD) transmission protocol. This protocol unifie...

  3. A Novel PPFHB Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Supercapacitor Application

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bidirectional DC-DC converter for the supercapacitor application. In the proposed converter, push-pull forward with half bridge (PPFHB) voltage doubler structure is used to reduce the number of the power switches and get higher voltage gain. Based on phase-shift modulation scheme, all the switches can realize zero-voltageswitching (ZVS) turn-on and bidirectional power flow can be controlled with phase-shift angle. The operating principles of the converter are descr...

  4. Efficient label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongpeng Du; Yueming Lu; Yuefeng Ji

    2012-01-01

    Transport network paths are typically bidirectional and symmetrical. In multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) mechanisms, independent labels are distributed for bidirectional paths. Thus, the requirement of the MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP), which is a new transport technology, could not be satisfied efficiently. A novel label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks is proposed. Labels distributed by the mechanism are symmetrical and can reflect the pairing relationship of the forward and backward directions of the transport path.%Transport network paths are typically bidirectional and symmetrical.In multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and generalized MPLS (GMPLS) mechanisms,independent labels are distributed for bidirectional paths.Thus,the requirement of the MPLS transport profile (MPLS-TP),which is a new transport technology,could not be satisfied efficiently.A novel label distribution mechanism for bidirectional paths in MPLS-TP networks is proposed.Labels distributed by the mechanism are symmetrical and can reflect the pairing relationship of the forward and backward directions of the transport path.

  5. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edamatsu, Masaki, E-mail: cedam@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  6. Micropower circuits for bidirectional wireless telemetry in neural recording applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihart, Nathan M; Harrison, Reid R

    2005-11-01

    State-of-the art neural recording systems require electronics allowing for transcutaneous, bidirectional data transfer. As these circuits will be implanted near the brain, they must be small and low power. We have developed micropower integrated circuits for recovering clock and data signals over a transcutaneous power link. The data recovery circuit produces a digital data signal from an ac power waveform that has been amplitude modulated. We have also developed an FM transmitter with the lowest power dissipation reported for biosignal telemetry. The FM transmitter consists of a low-noise biopotential amplifier and a voltage controlled oscillator used to transmit amplified neural signals at a frequency near 433 MHz. All circuits were fabricated in a standard 0.5-microm CMOS VLSI process. The resulting chip is powered through a wireless inductive link. The power consumption of the clock and data recovery circuits is measured to be 129 microW; the power consumption of the transmitter is measured to be 465 microW when using an external surface mount inductor. Using a parasitic antenna less than 2 mm long, a received power level was measured to be -59.73 dBm at a distance of one meter. PMID:16285399

  7. A bidirectional brain-computer interface for effective epilepsy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu QI; Fei-qiang MA; Ting-ting GE; Yue-ming WANG; Jun-ming ZHU; Jian-min ZHANG; Xiao-xiang ZHENG; Zhao-hui WU

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide direct bidirectional communication between the brain and a machine. Recently, the BCI technique has been used in seizure control. Usually, a closed-loop system based on BCI is set up which delivers a therapic electrical stimulus only in response to seizure onsets. In this way, the side effects of neurostimulation can be greatly reduced. In this paper, a new BCI-based responsive stimulation system is proposed. With an efficient morphology-based seizure detector, seizure events can be identifi ed in the early stages which trigger electrical stimulations to be sent to the cortex of the brain. The proposed system was tested on rats with penicillin-induced epileptic seizures. Online experiments show that 83%of the seizures could be detected successfully with a short average time delay of 3.11 s. With the therapy of the BCI-based seizure control system, most seizures were suppressed within 10 s. Compared with the control group, the average seizure duration was reduced by 30.7%. Therefore, the proposed system can control epileptic seizures effectively and has potential in clinical applications.

  8. Bidirectional tornado modes on the Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discharges on the Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] with safety factor q(0)<1 and high-power ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), monster sawtooth crashes are preceded by frequency sweeping 'tornado modes' in the toroidal Alfven eigenmode frequency range. A suite of equilibrium and spectral magnetohydrodynamical codes is used for explaining the observed evolution of the tornado mode frequency and for identifying temporal evolution of the safety factor inside the q=1 radius just before sawtooth crashes. In some cases, the tornado modes are observed simultaneously with both positive and negative toroidal mode numbers. Hence, a free energy source other than the radial gradient of the energetic ion pressure exciting these modes is sought. The distribution function of the ICRH-accelerated ions is assessed with the SELFO code [J. Hedin et al., Nucl. Fusion 42, 527 (2002)] and energetic particle drive due to the velocity space anisotropy of ICRH-accelerated ions is considered analytically as the possible source for excitation of bidirectional tornado modes

  9. APLIKASI MIGRASI DATABASE DAN REPLIKASI BI-DIRECTIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yoseph Ricky

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and design a migration and replication configurations in an enterprise using several methods such as literary study and direc survey to the company; analysis on hangar systems, process migration and replication as well as existing problems; and a prototype design for migration process implementated with Oracle SQL Developer and replication process implementated with Oracle GoldenGate. The study resluts ini a prototype for migration and replication configuration processes using Oracle's Golden Gate which can produce two sets of identical data for backup and recovery. Also a simple tool is designed to assist active-active replication process as well as active-passive one. The migration process from MySQL database to Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can not be done because GoldenGate Oracle has bugs related to the binary log, so database migration is done using Oracle SQL Developer. However, bi-directional replication between Oracle database using Oracle GoldenGate can ensure data availability and reduce the workload of primary database.

  10. Bidirectional Influences Between Dimensions of Coparenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on coparenting documents that mothers' and fathers' coordination and mutual support in their parenting roles is linked to their offspring's adjustment in childhood, but we know much less about the coparenting of adolescents. Taking a family systems perspective, this study assessed two dimensions of coparenting, parents' shared decision-making and joint involvement in activities with their adolescents, and examined bidirectional associations between these coparenting dimensions and boys' and girls' risky behaviors and depressive symptoms across four time points (6 years) in adolescence. Participants were 201 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M = 11.83, SD = .55 years of age at Time 1; 51 % female). Parents of sons shared more decisions, on average, than parents of daughters. On average, shared decision-making followed an inverted U shaped pattern of change, and parents' joint involvement in their adolescents' activities declined. Cross-lagged findings revealed that risky behavior predicted less shared decision-making, and shared decision-making protected against increased risky behavior for boys. For girls and boys, parents' joint involvement predicted fewer risky behaviors, and lower levels of risky behavior predicted higher levels of joint involvement. In contrast, boys' and girls' depressive symptoms predicted less joint involvement. The discussion centers on the nature and correlates of coparenting during adolescence, including the role of child effects, and directions for future research on coparenting during this developmental period. PMID:23539238

  11. Bidirectional conversion between microwave and light via ferromagnetic magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, R.; Osada, A.; Tabuchi, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Yamazaki, R.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2016-05-01

    Coherent conversion of microwave and optical photons in the single quantum level can significantly expand our ability to process signals in various fields. Efficient up-conversion of a feeble signal in the microwave domain to the optical domain will lead to quantum-noise-limited microwave amplifiers. Coherent exchange between optical photons and microwave photons will also be a stepping stone to realize long-distance quantum communication. Here we demonstrate bidirectional and coherent conversion between microwave and light using collective spin excitations in a ferromagnet. The converter consists of two harmonic oscillator modes, a microwave cavity mode and a magnetostatic mode called the Kittel mode, where microwave photons and magnons in the respective modes are strongly coupled and hybridized. An itinerant microwave field and a traveling optical field can be coupled through the hybrid system, where the microwave field is coupled to the hybrid system through the cavity mode, while the optical field addresses the hybrid system through the Kittel mode via Faraday and inverse Faraday effects. The conversion efficiency is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated. The possible schemes for improving the efficiency are also discussed.

  12. Angled multimode interferometer for bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Thomson, D J; Khokhar, A Z; Stanković, S; Mitchell, C J; Gardes, F Y; Penades, J Soler; Mashanovich, G Z; Reed, G T

    2015-10-01

    We have demonstrated a bidirectional wavelength division (de)multiplexer (WDM) on the silicon-on-insulator platform using two 4-channel angled multimode interferometers (AMMIs) sharing the same multimode interference waveguide. An excellent match of the peak transmission wavelength of each channel between the two AMMIs was achieved. The input and output access waveguides were arranged in a configuration such that the propagation of light of one AMMI in the multimode interference waveguide suffered minimal perturbation by the input and output waveguides of the other AMMI. This type of device is ideal for the WDM system for datacom or telecom applications, e.g. an integrated optical transceiver, where the transmission wavelengths are required to match with the receiving wavelengths. The device also benefits from simple fabrication (as only a single lithography and etching step is required), improved convenience for the transceiver layout design, a reduction in tuning power and circuitry and efficient use of layout space. A low insertion loss of 3-4 dB, and low crosstalk of -15 to -20 dB, was achieved. PMID:26587242

  13. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Kidney Disease: A Potential Bidirectional Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Sharma, Kumar; Ayas, Najib T; Laher, Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high mortality rates and heavy economic and social burdens. Nearly 10% of the United States population suffer from CKD, with fatal outcomes increased by 16-40 times even before reaching end-stage renal disease. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is between 3% and 7% in the general population, and has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades along with increased rates of obesity. However, the prevalence of OSA is much greater in patients with CKD. In addition, aggressive dialysis improves OSA. The current literature suggests a bidirectional association between CKD and OSA through a number of potential pathological mechanisms, which increase the possibility of both diseases being possible risk factors for each other. CKD may lead to OSA through a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in chemoreflex responsiveness, pharyngeal narrowing due to fluid overload, and accumulation of uremic toxins. It is also being increasingly recognized that OSA can also accelerate loss of kidney function. Moreover, animals exposed to intermittent hypoxia suffer histopathological renal damage. Potential mechanisms of OSA-associated renal dysfunction include renal hypoxia, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:25845900

  15. Corporate Governance and Financial Performance Nexus: Any Bidirectional Causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alley Ibrahim S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on corporate governance recognize endogeneity in the nexus between corporate governance and financial performance. Little attention has, however, been paid to the direction of causality between the two phenomena, and hence the Vector Error Correction (VEC model, which allows for endogenous determination of the direction of causality, has not been widely employed. This study fills that gap by estimating the nexus and the direction of causality using the VEC model to analyze panel data on selected listed firms in Nigeria. The results agree with the findings of most previous studies that corporate governance significantly affects financial performance. Board skills, board composition and management skills enhanced financial performance indicators – return on equity (ROE, return on asset (ROA and net profit margin (NPM; in many occasions, significantly. Board size and audit committee size did not, and can actually undermine financial performance. More importantly, financial performance did not significantly affect corporate governance. On the basis of the lag structure of the VEC model, this study affirms unidirectional causality in the nexus, running from corporate governance to financial performance, nullifying the hypothesis of bidirectional causality in the nexus.

  16. Design of Bi-Directional Hydrofoils for Tidal Current Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Tidal Current Turbines operate in flows which reverse direction. Bi-directional hydrofoils have rotational symmetry and allow such turbines to operate without the need for pitch or yaw control, decreasing the initial and maintenance costs. A numerical test-bed was developed to automate the simulations of hydrofoils in OpenFOAM and was utilized to simulate the flow over eleven classes of hydrofoils comprising a total of 700 foil shapes at different angles of attack. For promising candidate foil shapes physical models of 75 mm chord and 150 mm span were fabricated and tested in the University of New Hampshire High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HiCaT). The experimental results were compared to the simulations for model validation. The numerical test-bed successfully generated simulations for a wide range of foil shapes, although, as expected, the k - ω - SST turbulence model employed here was not adequate for some of the foils and for large angles of attack at which separation occurred. An optimization algorithm is currently being coupled with the numerical test-bed and additional turbulence models will be implemented in the future.

  17. Canonical active Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Gluck, Alexander; Huffel, Helmuth; Ilijic, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    Active Brownian motion is the complex motion of active Brownian particles. They are active in the sense that they can transform their internal energy into energy of motion and thus create complex motion patterns. Theories of active Brownian motion so far imposed couplings between the internal energy and the kinetic energy of the system. We investigate how this idea can be naturally taken further to include also couplings to the potential energy, which finally leads to a general theory of cano...

  18. Cooperative Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have described how cooperation can benefit the different phases of the so called cognitive radio cycle. In particular we have focused on physical layer cooperation, showing that benefits can be obtained for both the primary and the secondary system in terms of spatial diversity, increased range and increased availability. In addition, we have modeled the critical interference management problem in a cooperative and cognitive system through a game theoretical approach, as w...

  19. Cooperative Machine Learning Method

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan M. Al-Khatib

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to an approach where one or more team of learners work together towards reaching a better knowledge or understanding of a specified task. The purpose of this paper is to use this approach to describe a proposal for designing and building a cooperative machine learning system (Multi-Learning system) that contains two or more machine learners that cooperate together. The objective of the proposal in this paper is to improve the effectiveness of the machine learning...

  20. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  1. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  2. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  4. BIDIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MODELING OF THE GEOSTATIONARY SENSOR HIMAWARI-8/AHI USING A KERNEL-DRIVEN BRDF MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, M.; Takagi, M; Akatsuka, S.; Honda, R.(Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan); Nonomura, A.; Moriya, H; Yoshioka, H.

    2016-01-01

    Himawari-8/AHI is a new geostationary sensor that can observe the land surface with high temporal frequency. Bidirectional reflectance derived by the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) includes information regarding land surface properties such as albedo, vegetation condition, and forest structure. This information can be extracted by modeling bidirectional reflectance using a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). In this study, a kernel-driven BRDF model was applied to...

  5. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  6. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  7. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  8. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (g

  9. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it...

  10. Adapting hierarchical bidirectional inter prediction on a GPU-based platform for 2D and 3D H.264 video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafael; Martínez, José Luis; Cock, Jan De; Fernández-Escribano, Gerardo; Pieters, Bart; Sánchez, José L.; Claver, José M.; de Walle, Rik Van

    2013-12-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard introduces some improved tools in order to increase compression efficiency. Moreover, the multi-view extension of H.264/AVC, called H.264/MVC, adopts many of them. Among the new features, variable block-size motion estimation is one which contributes to high coding efficiency. Furthermore, it defines a different prediction structure that includes hierarchical bidirectional pictures, outperforming traditional Group of Pictures patterns in both scenarios: single-view and multi-view. However, these video coding techniques have high computational complexity. Several techniques have been proposed in the literature over the last few years which are aimed at accelerating the inter prediction process, but there are no works focusing on bidirectional prediction or hierarchical prediction. In this article, with the emergence of many-core processors or accelerators, a step forward is taken towards an implementation of an H.264/AVC and H.264/MVC inter prediction algorithm on a graphics processing unit. The results show a negligible rate distortion drop with a time reduction of up to 98% for the complete H.264/AVC encoder.

  11. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A. G.; Stanslaski, S. R.; Cong, P.; Jensen, R. M.; Afshar, P.; Ullestad, D.; Gupta, R.; Molnar, G. F.; Moran, D. W.; Denison, T. J.

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy.

  12. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A G; Stanslaski, S R; Cong, P; Jensen, R M; Afshar, P; Ullestad, D; Gupta, R; Molnar, G F; Moran, D W; Denison, T J

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy. PMID:21543839

  13. Bidirectional grey matter changes after complex motor skill learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGryga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term motor skill learning has been consistently shown to result in functional as well as structural changes in the adult human brain. However, the effect of short learning periods on brain structure is not well understood. In the present study, subjects performed a sequential pinch force task (SPFT for 20 minutes on 5 consecutive days. Changes in brain structure were evaluated with anatomical MRI scans acquired on the first and last day of motor skill learning. Behaviorally, the SPFT resulted in sequence-specific learning with the trained (right hand. Structural grey matter (GM alterations in left M1, right ventral premotor cortex (PMC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC correlated with performance improvements in the SPFT. More specifically we found that subjects with strong sequence-specific performance improvements in the SPFT also had larger increases in GM volume in the respective brain areas. On the other hand, subjects with small behavioral gains either showed no change or even a decrease in GM volume during the time course of learning. Furthermore, cerebellar GM volume before motor skill learning predicted (A individual learning related changes in the SPFT and (B the amount of structural changes in left M1, right ventral PMC and DLPFC. In summary, we provide novel evidence that short-term motor skill learning is associated with learning-related structural brain alterations. Additionally, we showed that practicing a motor skill is not exclusively accompanied by increased GM volume. Instead, bidirectional structural alterations explained the variability of the individual learning success.

  14. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  15. Automated Bidirectional Languages Localization Testing for Android Apps with Rich GUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman M. Ayyal Awwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile apps are everywhere. The release of apps on a worldwide scale requires them to be made available in many languages, including bidirectional languages. Developers and translators are usually different persons. While automatic testing by itself is important in general in order to be able to develop high quality software, such automatic tests become absolutely essential when developers that do not possess enough knowledge about right-to-left languages need to maintain code that is written for bidirectional languages. A few bidirectional localization tests of mobile applications exist. However, their functionality is limited since they only cover translations and adoption of locales. In this paper we present our approach for automating the bidirectional localization testing for Android applications with a complete consideration for BiDi-languages issues. The objective is to check for any localization defects in the product. The proposed methods are used to test issues of bidirectional apps in general and specifically for the Arabic language. The results show that the methods are able to effectively reveal deficiencies in the app’s design, ensure that the localized app matches all expectations of local users, and guarantee that the product is culturally congruent to local conventions.

  16. Compressible motion fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Kohli, Pushmeet

    2013-01-01

    Traditional video compression methods obtain a compact representation for image frames by computing coarse motion fields defined on patches of pixels called blocks, in order to compensate for the motion in the scene across frames. This piecewise constant approximation makes the motion field efficiently encodable, but it introduces block artifacts in the warped image frame. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating dense motion fields that, while accurately predicting one frame from ...

  17. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  18. Non-Cooperative Facial Recognition Video Dataset Collection Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Marcia L.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2013-08-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will produce a non-cooperative (i.e. not posing for the camera) facial recognition video data set for research purposes to evaluate and enhance facial recognition systems technology. The aggregate data set consists of 1) videos capturing PNNL role players and public volunteers in three key operational settings, 2) photographs of the role players for enrolling in an evaluation database, and 3) ground truth data that documents when the role player is within various camera fields of view. PNNL will deliver the aggregate data set to DHS who may then choose to make it available to other government agencies interested in evaluating and enhancing facial recognition systems. The three operational settings that will be the focus of the video collection effort include: 1) unidirectional crowd flow 2) bi-directional crowd flow, and 3) linear and/or serpentine queues.

  19. Bidirectional Fano Algorithm for Lattice Coded MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2013-05-08

    Recently, lattices - a mathematical representation of infinite discrete points in the Euclidean space, have become an effective way to describe and analyze communication systems especially system those that can be modeled as linear Gaussian vector channel model. Channel codes based on lattices are preferred due to three facts: lattice codes have simple structure, the code can achieve the limits of the channel, and they can be decoded efficiently using lattice decoders which can be considered as the Closest Lattice Point Search (CLPS). Since the time lattice codes were introduced to Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channel, Sphere Decoder (SD) has been an efficient way to implement lattice decoders. Sphere decoder offers the optimal performance at the expense of high decoding complexity especially for low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and for high- dimensional systems. On the other hand, linear and non-linear receivers, Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), and MMSE Decision-Feedback Equalization (DFE), provide the lowest decoding complexity but unfortunately with poor performance. Several studies works have been conducted in the last years to address the problem of designing low complexity decoders for the MIMO channel that can achieve near optimal performance. It was found that sequential decoders using backward tree 
search can bridge the gap between SD and MMSE. The sequential decoder provides an interesting performance-complexity trade-off using a bias term. Yet, the sequential decoder still suffers from high complexity for mid-to-high SNR values. In this work, we propose a new algorithm for Bidirectional Fano sequential Decoder (BFD) in order to reduce the mid-to-high SNR complexity. Our algorithm consists of first constructing a unidirectional Sequential Decoder based on forward search using the QL decomposition. After that, BFD incorporates two searches, forward and backward, to work simultaneously till they merge and find the closest lattice point to the

  20. Degradation nonuniformity in the solar diffuser bidirectional reflectance distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Chu, Mike; Wang, Menghua

    2016-08-01

    The assumption of angular dependence stability of the solar diffuser (SD) throughout degradation is critical to the on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) in many satellite sensors. Recent evidence has pointed to the contrary, and in this work, we present a thorough investigative effort into the angular dependence of the SD degradation for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and for the twin Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. One common key step in the RSB calibration is the use of the SD degradation performance measured by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) as a valid substitute for the SD degradation factor in the direction of the RSB view. If SD degradations between these two respective directions do not maintain the same relative relationship over time, then the unmitigated use of the SDSM-measured SD degradation factor in the RSB calibration calculation will generate bias, and consequently, long-term drift in derived science products. We exploit the available history of the on-orbit calibration events to examine the response of the SDSM and the RSB detectors to the incident illumination reflecting off SD versus solar declination angle and show that the angular dependency, particularly at short wavelengths, evolves with respect to time. The generalized and the decisive conclusion is that the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the SD degrades nonuniformly with respect to both incident and outgoing directions. Thus, the SDSM-based measurements provide SD degradation factors that are biased relative to the RSB view direction with respect to the SD. The analysis also reveals additional interesting phenomena, for example, the sharp behavioral change in the evolving angular dependence observed in Terra MODIS and SNPP VIIRS. For SNPP VIIRS the mitigation for this

  1. Bidirectional controlled teleportation by using nine-qubit entangled state in noisy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Jin, Xian-min

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation (BQCT) by using a nine-qubit entangled state as a quantum channel, where Alice may transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state called qubits A_1 and A_2 to Bob; and at the same time, Bob may also transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state called qubits B_1 and B_2 to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. Based on our channel, we explicitly show how the bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation protocol works. And we show this bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation scheme may be determinate and secure. Taking the amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise as typical noisy channels, we analytically derive the fidelities of the BQCT process and show that the fidelities in these two cases only depend on the amplitude parameter of the initial state and the decoherence noisy rate.

  2. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish

    2015-09-01

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  3. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Durga P.; Nayak, Praveen P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Debasish [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Institute of Technical Education and Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anushandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2015-09-28

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency.

  4. Bi-directional magnetic resonance based wireless power transfer for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to power or charge electronic devices wirelessly, a bi-directional wireless power transfer method has been proposed and experimentally investigated. In the proposed design, two receiving coils are used on both sides of a transmitting coil along its central axis to receive the power wirelessly from the generated magnetic fields through strongly coupled magnetic resonance. It has been observed experimentally that the maximum power transfer occurs at the operating resonant frequency for optimum electric load connected across the receiving coils on both side. The optimum wireless power transfer efficiency is 88% for the bi-directional power transfer technique compared 84% in the one side receiver system. By adopting the developed bi-directional power transfer method, two electronic devices can be powered up or charged simultaneously instead of a single device through usual one side receiver system without affecting the optimum power transfer efficiency

  5. Bidirectional Partial Generalized Synchronization in Chaotic and Hyperchaotic Systems via a New Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization of a class of continuous-time systems is defined. Then based on the active control idea, a new systematic and concrete scheme is developed to achieve bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization between two chaotic systems or between chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. With the help of symbolic-numerical computation,we choose the modified Chua system, Lorenz system, and the hyperchaotic Tamasevicius-Namajunas-Cenys system to illustrate the proposed scheme. Numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. It is interesting that partialchaos synchronization not only can take place between two chaotic systems, but also can take place between chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. The proposed scheme can also be extended to research bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization between other dynamical systems.

  6. Bidirectionality and compartmentation of metabolic fluxes are revealed in the dynamics of isotopomer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, David W; Peterson, Pearu; Paalme, Toomas; Vendelin, Marko

    2009-04-01

    Isotope labeling is one of the few methods of revealing the in vivo bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes within metabolic networks. We argue that a shift from steady state to dynamic isotopomer analysis is required to deal with these cellular complexities and provide a review of dynamic studies of compartmentalized energy fluxes in eukaryotic cells including cardiac muscle, plants, and astrocytes. Knowledge of complex metabolic behaviour on a molecular level is prerequisite for the intelligent design of genetically modified organisms able to realize their potential of revolutionizing food, energy, and pharmaceutical production. We describe techniques to explore the bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes using information contained in the isotopic transient, and discuss the integration of kinetic models with MFA. The flux parameters of an example metabolic network were optimized to examine the compartmentalization of metabolites and and the bidirectionality of fluxes in the TCA cycle of Saccharomyces uvarum for steady-state respiratory growth. PMID:19468334

  7. Bidirectionality and Compartmentation of Metabolic Fluxes Are Revealed in the Dynamics of Isotopomer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vendelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Isotope labeling is one of the few methods of revealing the in vivo bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes within metabolic networks. We argue that a shift from steady state to dynamic isotopomer analysis is required to deal with these cellular complexities and provide a review of dynamic studies of compartmentalized energy fluxes in eukaryotic cells including cardiac muscle, plants, and astrocytes. Knowledge of complex metabolic behaviour on a molecular level is prerequisite for the intelligent design of genetically modified organisms able to realize their potential of revolutionizing food, energy, and pharmaceutical production. We describe techniques to explore the bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes using information contained in the isotopic transient, and discuss the integration of kinetic models with MFA. The flux parameters of an example metabolic network were optimized to examine the compartmentalization of metabolites and and the bidirectionality of fluxes in the TCA cycle of Saccharomyces uvarum for steady-state respiratory growth.

  8. Optimized control of a flyback-converter for bidirectional feeding of DEAP transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstadt, Thorben; Maas, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Considering electromechanical transducers based on dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAP) beside a proper transducer design a feeding power supply is mandatory. In order to increase the energy efficiency these power electronics should provide a bidirectional energy flow. Therefore, in this contribution a bidirectional flyback-converter is investigated. Since the superimposed application-oriented control of the DEAP transducer requires an accurate control of the transducer voltage, in a first step a mathematical description of the flyback-converter for feeding capacitive loads is carried out. Based on this a sensor-based as well as a sensor-less current control is developed that is finally superimposed by a voltage control. The obtained results are experimentally validated by measurements of a realized prototype of the bidirectional flyback-converter feeding a DEAP transducer.

  9. Bidirectional Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Foam Core Materials Using DIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taher, Siavash Talebi; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; M Dulieu-Barton, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Polymer foam cored sandwich structures are often subjected to aggressive service conditions which may include elevated temperatures. A modified Arcan fixture (MAF) has been developed to characterize polymer foam materials with respect to their tensile, compressive, shear and bidirectional...... mechanical properties at room and at elevated temperatures. The MAF enables the realization of pure compression or high compression to shear bidirectional loading conditions that is not possible with conventional Arcan fixtures. The MAF is attached to a standard universal test machine equiped with an...... environmental chamber using specially designed grips that allow the specimen to rotate, and hence reduces paristic effects due to misalignment. The objective is to measure the unidirectional and bidirectional mechanical properties of PVC foam materials at elevated tempreature using digital image correlation...

  10. Bidirectional expression of long ncRNA/protein-coding gene pairs in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Anne-Susann; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-05-01

    Bidirectional initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II occurs prevalently at active promoters during protein-coding gene (PCG) expression. Upstream, antisense noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) of differing lengths, stabilities and processings are being expressed from these promoters in concert with downstream, processive messenger RNA transcription. Although abundantly detected, the functional role and regulatory capacity of such transcripts have only been determined for individual cases. Long ncRNAs in general are reportedly able to regulate all steps of the gene expression process. Therefore, to get insight into the functionality of long ncRNAs transcribed bidirectionally from cancer-associated PCGs is of interest, as expression changes of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes are prevalent in cancer.Here, we review the sources and characteristics of antisense transcription occurring at PCG loci in the human genome, and focus on the functional impact of bidirectional long ncRNA expression at cancer-associated PCGs. PMID:26578749

  11. Synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line using strong mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication. (general)

  12. Self-oscillating Galvanic Isolated Bidirectional Very High Frequency DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold;

    2015-01-01

    synchronous. This increases the complexity of the gate drives, which in this paper is solved by using a self-oscillating gate drive. A bidirectional converter has been implemented and is described in this paper; the converter reaches efficiencies above 80% in forward conduction mode and 73.5% in reverse......This paper describes a galvanic isolated bidirectional Very High Frequency (VHF = 30 MHz - 300MHz) ClassE converter. The reason for increasing the switching frequency is to minimize the passive components in the converter. To make the converter topology bidirectional the rectifier has to be...... conduction mode. The designed converter operates at a switching frequency of 35.6 MHz, which is well within the VHF range. The same converter is also implemented with PCB embedded inductors to minimize cost and the physical volume of the total converter....

  13. Drag reduction in turbulent channel flow using bidirectional wavy Lorentz force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG LePing; CHOI KwingSo; FAN BaoChun; CHEN YaoHui

    2014-01-01

    Turbulent control and drag reduction in a channel flow via a bidirectional traveling wave induced by spanwise oscillating Lorentz force have been investigated in the paper.The results based on the direct numerical simulation (DNS) indicate that the bidirectional wavy Lorentz force with appropriate control parameters can result in a regular decline of near-wall streaks and vortex structures with respect to the flow direction,leading to the effective suppression of turbulence generation and significant reduction in skin-friction drag.In addition,experiments are carried out in a water tunnel via electro-magnetic (EM) actuators designed to produce the bidirectional traveling wave excitation as described in calculations.As a result,the actual substantial drag reduction is realized successfully in these experiments.

  14. Learning to cooperate for cooperative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Sharan

    2014-01-01

    Learning to learn cooperatively requires several changes for teachers and students: in their perception of learning, in their attitudes towards teaching and learning, and in their social and cognitive behaviors in class. This article presents some of the ways that decades of research and practice have developed to enable teachers and students to acquire and adjust to these changes. In the process of change teachers and students are interconnected and interdependent, and together carry out the...

  15. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algo- rithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  16. Effectiveness of a dynein team in a tug of war helped by reduced load sensitivity of detachment: evidence from the study of bidirectional endosome transport in D. discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidirectional cargo transport by molecular motors in cells is a complex phenomenon in which the cargo (usually a vesicle) alternately moves in retrograde and anterograde directions. In this case, teams of oppositely pulling motors (e.g., kinesin and dynein) bind to the cargo, simultaneously, and ‘coordinate’ their activity such that the motion consists of spells of positively and negatively directed segments, separated by pauses of varying duration. A set of recent experiments have analyzed the bidirectional motion of endosomes in the amoeba D. discoideum in detail. It was found that in between directional switches, a team of five to six dyneins stall a cargo against a stronger kinesin in a tug of war, which lasts for almost a second. As the mean detachment time of a kinesin under its stall load was also observed to be ∼1 s, we infer that the collective detachment time of the dynein assembly must also be similar. Here, we analyze this inference from a modeling perspective, using experimentally measured single-molecule parameters as inputs. We find that the commonly assumed exponential load-dependent detachment rate is inconsistent with observations, as it predicts that a five-dynein assembly will detach under its combined stall load in less than a hundredth of a second. A modified model where the load-dependent unbinding rate is assumed to saturate at stall-force level for super-stall loads gives results which are in agreement with experimental data. Our analysis suggests that the load-dependent detachment of a dynein in a team is qualitatively different at sub-stall and super-stall loads, a conclusion which is likely to have implications in other situations involving collective effects of many motors. (paper)

  17. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  18. International cooperation and exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA continued and enlarged bilateral cooperation with the nuclear energy developing countries and enhanced visiting for high rank leaders of regulatory authorities. Besides, the domestic units for implementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety were settled by coordination

  19. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  20. International cooperation between electricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the opening of the Montreal Forum 'Electricity: the New Millennium', Francois Ailleret as outgoing president of UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electricity) spoke in favour of maintaining and even developing international cooperation between electricians. As the liberalization of electrical systems throughout the world increases, leading to a certain competition between electricians, international cooperation may become difficult. The author recalls the remarkable results of this cooperation in the twentieth century and confirms that it remains an irreplaceable communal resource perfectly compatible with competition between electricity companies. This multifaceted cooperation will lead firstly to a whole variety of spin-off benefiting companies and customers. It will also foster the sustainable development of projects to save the environment and combat poverty in the world, clearly illustrated by the situation of these nearly two billion inhabitants of our planet who still today do not enjoy the irreplaceable services of electricity. (author)

  1. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  2. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  3. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached...

  4. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  5. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  6. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  7. Non-cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, E.E.C. van

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (games in normal form, and games in extensive form), as well as the main concepts that have been proposed to solve these games.Solution concepts predict the outcomes that might arise when the game is...

  8. Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz; Sładkowski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox...

  9. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  10. Optimization of Bi-Directional Flyback Converter for a High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization technique for a flyback converter with a bidirectional energy transfer. The main goal is to optimize the converter for driving an incremental dielectric electro active polymer actuator, which must be charged and discharged from 0 V to 2500 V DC, supplied from a...... application. The efficiency and loss distribution results provided by the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the transformer design and its impact on total converter efficiency. Finally, experimental work on a prototype of the bi-directional flyback converter is presented. The maximum charging...

  11. The broadcast classical-quantum capacity region of a two-phase bidirectional relaying channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche, Holger; Cai, Minglai; Deppe, Christian

    2015-10-01

    We studied a three-node quantum network that enables bidirectional communication between two nodes with a half-duplex relay node for transmitting classical messages. A decode-and-forward protocol is used to perform the communication in two phases. In the first phase, the messages of two nodes are transmitted to the relay node. The capacity of the first phase is well known by previous works. In the second phase, the relay node broadcasts a re-encoded composition to the two nodes. We determine the capacity region of the broadcast phase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper analyzing quantum bidirectional relay networks.

  12. Transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic motor and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xiangcheng; CHEN Zaili

    2002-01-01

    A transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic notor is presented. It has the features of flexible bi-directional drive, simple construction and easy control, etc. The characteristics parameters of the prototype are: frequency 21.46 kHz, maximum moving speed 400 mm/s under pre-load of 3.2 N, maximum thrust 2.1 N under pre-load of 1.6 N. The influence of phase shift and vibration amplitude of ultrasonic transducers on ideal elliptical locus and output characteristics are investigated with theoretical and experimental methods.

  13. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire;...

  14. Thermal bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies and validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN; Guangjian(阎广建); IANG; Lingmei(蒋玲梅); WANG; Jindi(王锦地); CHEN; Liangfu(陈良富); LI; Xiaowen(李小文)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the row structure model of Kimes and the mean gap probability model in single direction, we develop a bidirectional gap probability model for row crop canopies. A concept of overlap index is introduced in this model to consider the gaps and their correlation between the sun and view directions. Multiangular thermal emission data sets were measured in Shunyi, Beijing, and these data are used in model validation in this paper. By comparison with the Kimes model that does not consider the gap probability, and the model considering the gap in view direction only, it is found that our bidirectional gap probability model fits the field measurements over winter wheat much better.

  15. Deterministic controlled bidirectional remote state preparation via a six-qubit entangled state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zha, Xin-wei; Duan, Ya-jun; Yang, Yu-quan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we presented a controlled bidirectional remote state preparation scheme which used the six-qubit entangled state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice and Bob can prepare simultaneously an arbitrary single-qubit state in each other's place with the control of the supervisor Charlie. The success probability for our scheme reaches unit. Furthermore, we analyze the expression of quantum channel for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Finally, we discuss the security of our scheme, the detailed security analysis shows that the supervisor Charlie's control can greatly improve the security of our scheme.

  16. Optimization of Bi-Directional Flyback Converter for a High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    application. The efficiency and loss distribution results provided by the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the transformer design and its impact on total converter efficiency. Finally, experimental work on a prototype of the bi-directional flyback converter is presented. The maximum charging......This paper presents an optimization technique for a flyback converter with a bidirectional energy transfer. The main goal is to optimize the converter for driving an incremental dielectric electro active polymer actuator, which must be charged and discharged from 0 V to 2500 V DC, supplied from a...... and discharging energy efficiencies of the optimized design, are 96.1% and 85%, respectively....

  17. Multiple output zero-current switching switched-capacitor bidirectional dc-dc converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuang-Shung; Ko, Yi-Pin; Chi, Chien-An

    2010-08-01

    The proposed circuit is a multiple output quasi-resonant (QR) zero-current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converter with a bidirectional power flow control conversion scheme. The principles of the proposed multiple output QR ZCS SC bidirectional dc-dc converter are described using a detailed circuit model for analysis. Simulation and experimental results are carried out to verify the validity and the soft switching performance of the proposed converter. The maximum efficiency achievable is about 94 and 92% for the forward and reverse power flow control schemes, respectively. The output voltage can be regulated by changing the switching frequency for the designed compensated closed-loop controller.

  18. A Novel PPFHB Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Supercapacitor Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bidirectional DC-DC converter for the supercapacitor application. In the proposed converter, push-pull forward with half bridge (PPFHB) voltage doubler structure is used to reduce the number of the power switches and get higher voltage gain. Based on phase......-shift modulation scheme, all the switches can realize zero-voltageswitching (ZVS) turn-on and bidirectional power flow can be controlled with phase-shift angle. The operating principles of the converter are described in detail, ZVS conditions are discussed, parameters are designed, and the experimental results...

  19. Bidirectional Texture Function Three Dimensional Pseudo Gaussian Markov Random Field Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlíček, Michal

    Praha : ČVUT v Praze, 2012, s. 53-62. ISBN 978-80-01-05138-2. [Doktorandské dny 2012. Praha (CZ), 16.11.2012-23.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/havlicek-bidirectional texture function three dimensional pseudo gaussian markov random field model.pdf

  20. A Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on EPR Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Sheng, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    A multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol is proposed based on EPR pair and entanglement swapping. The legitimate identities of communicating parties are encoded to Bell states which act as a detection sequence. Secret messages are transmitted by using the classical XOR operation, which serves as a one-time-pad. No photon with secret information transmits in the quantum channel. Compared with the protocols proposed by Wang et al. [Acta Phys. Sin. 56 (2007) 673; Opt. Commun. 266 (2006) 732], the protocol in this study implements bidirectional communication and authentication, which defends most attacks including the ‘man-in-the-middle’ attack efficiently.

  1. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC c...... efficiency 3kW hard switching bidirectional converter based on normally-on SiC JFET is presented, 98.5% maximum efficiency has been obtained with the prototype and a comparison with SiC MOSFet 1st generation is performed....

  2. Simulation Based Performance analysis of Active Clamp DHB ZVZCS Bidirectional DC-DC converter for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel active clamp dual half bridge DC/DC converter with bidirectional power flow is proposed in this paper and comparative analysis between active clamp DHB ZVZCS and ZVS-ZCS bidirectional DC-DC converter topologies is also presented. By adding active clamping circuits to both bridges, zero voltage and zero current switching are achieved to improve the performance of the bidirectional DC/DC converter. The principle of operation is analyzed and simulated. With the proposed active clamp ZVZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation results of the applications of the fuel cell and battery have been obtained and compared with those of ZVS-ZCS bidirectional converter. The simulation results of proposed converter is compared with the ZVS-ZCS bidirectional DC-DC converter, efficiency, switching losses are the key parameters compared.

  3. 77 FR 10504 - Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; Alaska Village Electric Cooperative On February 13, 2012, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) filed an application for a preliminary permit... kilowatt (kW) units with a 480-volt, 3-phase synchronous generator and switchgear for each unit. Each...

  4. Remote monitoring system workshop and technical cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kwack, E. H.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, J. S.; Cha, H. Y.; Na, W.W

    2000-06-01

    RMS workshop at the year focus on installing the material monioring system at technology lab. within TCNC. This system was developed by cooperative monitoring center(CMC) belonging to Sandia national lab. MMS consisted of data storage computer, data collection computer and easily connet to DCM-14 camera using monitoring the NPP by IAEA. The system run when the motion is catching and stroes the event data to MMS server. Also, the system communicate with the internet and then they access to check the event data only if the authencated person.

  5. Negotiation of goal direction for cooperative transport

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Alexandre; Nouyan, Shervin; Birattari, Mauro; Groß, Roderich; Dorigo, Marco

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the cooperative transport of a heavy object by a group of robots towards a goal. We investigate the case in which robots have partial and noisy knowledge of the goal direction and can not perceive the goal itself. The robots have to coordinate their motion to apply enough force on the object to move it. Furthermore, the robots should share knowledge in order to collectively improve their estimate of the goal direction and transport the object as fast and as accurately ...

  6. Remote monitoring system workshop and technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RMS workshop at the year focus on installing the material monioring system at technology lab. within TCNC. This system was developed by cooperative monitoring center(CMC) belonging to Sandia national lab. MMS consisted of data storage computer, data collection computer and easily connet to DCM-14 camera using monitoring the NPP by IAEA. The system run when the motion is catching and stroes the event data to MMS server. Also, the system communicate with the internet and then they access to check the event data only if the authencated person

  7. Considering Cooperation: A Guide For New Cooperative Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Anderson, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    This publication reviews the key elements needed for successful formation and development of new cooperative businesses. The motivation for and process of forming cooperatives are discussed. Six phases of cooperative formation are presented including: 1) identifying the opportunity, 2) building consensus on the potential for a cooperative, 3) developing trust among potential members, 4) securing member commitment, 5) involving other stakeholders, and 6) starting up the cooperative enterprise....

  8. Decision Making and Cooperation Restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  9. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  10. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  11. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  12. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement…

  13. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by Using Six-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Nie, Li-ping; Li, Xiao-lan; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice under the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  14. Bidirectional Quantum Controlled Teleportation by using a Seven-qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit entangled state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice may transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob may transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  15. A Bidirectional Multi-Port DC-DC Converter Integrating Voltage Equalizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianfei; Hou, Shiying; Deng, Fujin;

    2015-01-01

    A novel bidirectional multi-port dc-dc converter integrating voltage equalizer based on switched-capacitor voltage accumulator (SCVA) is proposed. It has two operating modes of charging and discharging for battery modules. All battery modules are connected in series indirectly and can be equalized...

  16. Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for SuperCapacitor Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnavi, Sayed M. D.; Sen, Gökhan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new bidirectional DC/DC converter for supercapacitor applications. The proposed converter has a parallel structure in supercapacitor side (where voltage is low and current is high) and a series structure in the other side. This structure increases efficiency of the converter...

  17. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi-directional piezoel......This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  18. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by Using Six-qubit Cluster State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Nie, Li-ping; Li, Xiao-lan; Sang, Ming-huang

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme for asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice under the control of the supervisor Charlie.

  19. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal Parenting and Children's Peer Problems: A Longitudinal Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko

    2013-01-01

    This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…

  20. A New Method to Treat High Anal Fistula - Bidirectional Isobaric Drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Linghua; Wang, Yanmei; Zhao, Jingbo;

    2016-01-01

    divided into Experimental group and Control group, 60 patients in each group. The patients of Experimental group were treated using bidirectional isobaric drainage radical resection, i.e., moving internal orifice of the fistula up and making another opening at top end of fistula penetrating to the rectal...

  1. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal and Paternal Parenting and Children's Disruptive Behaviour from Kindergarten to Grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Therese; Verlaan, Pierrette; Davidson, Marilyne; Vitaro, Frank; Poulin, Francois; Capuano, France

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that children's disruptive behaviour (CDB) and quality of parenting influence one another bidirectionally. However, few studies have considered the separate contribution of the mother--child and father--child relationships to disruptive behaviours within a longitudinal context. Against this background, the reciprocal…

  2. Electrolyte system for fast preparative focusing in wide pH range based on bidirectional isotachophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel; Šťastná, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 17 (2014), s. 2438-2445. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bidirectional isotachophoresis * electrofocusing * wide pH range Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0236230

  3. High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar Ullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2013-01-01

    A High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the CoolMOS ...

  4. Studi Komparasi Fungsi Keanggotaan Fuzzy sebagai Kontroler Bidirectional DC-DC Converter pada Sistem Penyimpan Energi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Prasetyono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional DC-DC converter is needed in the energy storage system. The converter topology used in this paper was a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC buck-boost converter. This converter worked in two ways, which the charging mode stored energy into battery when load current was less than nominal main DC current (set point and discharging mode transferred energy from battery to the load when its current exceeded set point value. Both of these modes worked automatically according to the load current. The charging and discharging currents were controlled by fuzzy logic controller which was implemented on microcontroller ARM Cortex-M4F STM32F407VG. This paper compares two types of fuzzy membership function (triangular and sigmoid in controlling bidirectional DC-DC converter. The results showed that fuzzy logic controller with triangle membership function and sigmoid as control bidirectional DC-DC converter had no significant different response, both had an average error for charging and discharging process under 4% with ripple current on the main DC bus around 0.5%. The computing time of program for fuzzy logic controller with triangular membership functions had 19.01% faster than sigmoid, and fuzzy logic computation time on a microcontroller with hardware floating point was 60% faster than software floating point.

  5. Reliability analysis of an LCL tuned track segmented bi-directional inductive power transfer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif Iqbal, S. M.; Madawala, U. K.; Thrimawithana, D. J.;

    2013-01-01

    Bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer (BDIPT) technique is suitable for renewable energy based applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), for the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems. Recently, more efforts have been made by researchers to improve both efficiency and reliability o...

  6. Distributed fiber Raman amplification in long reach PON bidirectional access links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Öhman, Filip;

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Raman fiber amplification is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to support long reach passive optical network (PON) links. An 80 km, bidirectional, single fiber link is demonstrated using both standard intensity optical modulators at 10 Gb/s and up to 7.5 Gb/s using novel...

  7. Properties and Stability of Max-Product Fuzzy Bi-Directional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Lan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy operator of max-product is defined at first, and the fuzzy bi-directional associative memory (FBAM) based on the fuzzy operator of max-product is given. Then the properties and the Lyapunov stability of equilibriums of the networks are studied.

  8. Associative, Bidirectional Changes in Neural Signaling Utilizing NMDA Receptor- and Endocannabinoid-Dependent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent, bidirectional changes in synaptic signaling (that is, potentiation and depression of the synapse) can be induced by the precise timing of individual pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. However, far less attention has been paid to the ability of paired trains of action potentials to elicit persistent potentiation or depression. We…

  9. The synchronization for time-delay of linearly bidirectional coupled chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Lyapunov stability theory and matrix measure, this paper presents a new generic criterion of global chaotic synchronization for bidirectional coupled chaotic system with time-delay. A new chaotic system with four-scroll attractor is chosen as an example to verify the effectiveness of the criterion. Numerical simulation are shown for demonstration

  10. A bidirectional reflectance model of the Earth's surface for the correction of remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujean, Jean-Louis; Leroy, Marc; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves

    1992-12-01

    A surface bidirectional reflectance model has been developed for the correction of surface bidirectional effects in time series of satellite observations, where both sun and viewing angles are varying. The model follows a semiempirical approach and is designed to be applicable to heterogeneous surfaces. It contains only three adjustable parameters describing the surface and can potentially be included in an algorithm of processing and correction of a time series of remote sensing data. The model considers that the observed surface bidirectional reflectance is the sum of two main processes operating at a local scale: (1) a diffuse reflection component taking into account the geometrical structure of opaque reflectors on the surface, and shadowing effects, and (2) a volume scattering contribution by a collection of dispersed facets which simulates the volume scattering properties of canopies and bare soils. Detailed comparisons between the model and in situ observations show satisfactory agreement for most investigated surface types in the visible and near-infrared spectral bands. The model appears therefore as a good candidate to reduce substantially the undesirable fluctuations related to surface bidirectional effects in remotely sensed multitemporal data sets.

  11. Bidirectional current-voltage converters based on magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y.; Or, S.W.; Chan, H.L.W.; Jiao, J.; Luo, H.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report a power supply-free, bidirectional electric current-voltage converter based on a coil-wound laminated composite of magnetostrictive alloy and piezoelectric crystal. An electric current applied to the coil induces a magnetic field, resulting in an electric voltage from the composite due to

  12. Interleaved Core Assignment for Bidirectional Transmission in Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    We study interleaved core assignment for bidirectional transmission in multi-core fibers. By combining it with heterogeneous core structure in an 18-core fiber, the transmission distance is extended by 10 times compared to homogeneous core structure with unidirectional transmission, achieving a...

  13. Relational and Physical Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Peer Relations: Gender Moderation and Bidirectional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Geiger, Tasha C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2005-01-01

    In this 3-year prospective study (N = 458) spanning a transition to middle school, bidirectional associations between children's relations with schoolmates (social preference and impact) and behaviors (physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior) were examined using structural equation modeling. Gender moderation of all estimated paths…

  14. Absolute exponential stability analysis of delayed bi-directional associative memory neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Xuyang [Research Center of Control Science and Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Cui Baotong [Research Center of Control Science and Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)]. E-mail: btcui@sohu.com

    2007-02-15

    The problem of absolute exponential stability for delayed bi-directional associative memory neural networks with time delay is investigated via Lyapunov stability theory. A new sufficient condition ensuring existence and uniqueness of equilibrium and its absolute exponential stability is derived. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  15. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  16. "Advances in Coupled Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry to address bidirectional ammonia flux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropland farm management modeling system for regional air quality and field-scale applications of bi-directional ammonia exchange was presented at ITM XXI. The goal of this research is to improve estimates of nitrogen deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and ambien...

  17. The Persistence-Strengthening Effects of DRA: An Illustration of Bidirectional Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, F. Charles; McComas, Jennifer J.; Mauro, Benjamin C.; Progar, Patrick R.; Taylor, Bridget; Ervin, Ruth; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize a series of bidirectional research studies that demonstrate the persistence-strengthening effects of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior on problem behavior. We model a possible solution to this problem with rats followed by replication with a human clinical population. The importance of coordinated basic and applied…

  18. Anxiety and Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Bidirectional Effects across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A.; Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Soto, Timothy W.; Carter, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    This report focuses on the emergence of and bidirectional effects between anxiety and sensory over-responsivity (SOR) in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 149 toddlers with ASD and their mothers, assessed at 2 annual time points. A cross-lag analysis showed that anxiety symptoms increased over time while SOR remained…

  19. Analysis and design of PPFHB bidirectional DC-DC converter with coupled inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel push-pull-forward half-bridge (PPFHB) bi-directional DC-DC converter with coupled inductors is proposed. All switches can operate under zero-voltage-switching (ZVS). The operation principle with phase-shift modulation scheme, characteristics of coupled inductors, the steady...

  20. A self-adaptive full asynchronous bi-directional transmission channel for network-on-chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve two shortcomings of conventional network-on-chips, i.e. low utilization rate in channels between routers and excessive interconnection lines, this paper proposes a full asynchronous self-adaptive bi-directional transmission channel. It can utilize interconnection lines and register resources with high efficiency, and dynamically detect the data transmission state between routers through a direction regulator, which controls the sequencer to automatically adjust the transmission direction of the bi-directional channel, so as to provide a flexible data transmission environment. Null convention logic units are used to make the circuit quasi-delay insensitive and highly robust. The proposed bi-directional transmission channel is implemented based on SMIC 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology. Post-layout simulation results demonstrate that this self-adaptive bi-directional channel has better performance on throughput, transmission flexibility and channel bandwidth utilization compared to a conventional single direction channel. Moreover, the proposed channel can save interconnection lines up to 30% and can provide twice the bandwidth resources of a single direction transmission channel. The proposed channel can apply to an on-chip network which has limited resources of registers and interconnection lines. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Bidirectional Associations between Sleep (Quality and Duration) and Psychosocial Functioning across the University Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial…

  2. An assessment of the bidirectional reflectance models basing on laboratory experiment of natural particulate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqiu; Lv, Yunfeng; Lu, Shan

    2015-09-01

    The bidirectional reflectance model is commonly used to study surface structure and composition of atmosphereless celestial bodies basing on photometric measurements. We conducted a test of two bidirectional reflectance models, which are theoretically similar but with different form, to assess their ability for calculating the bidirectional reflectance of particulate surfaces and if the parameters could be confidently linked to the surface's property. Two types of natural particulate surfaces with controlled particle sizes vary from 300 μm to 900 μm have been measured in the visible and near-infrared wavelength with the NENULGS (Northeast Normal University Laboratory Goniospectrometer System), we only used these measurement results at 560 nm and 670 nm which are regarded to the evaluation standard of models. In this range of particle size, the bidirectional reflectance models were well match to the experimental data as the results shown in previous publications. Although some parameters of the models can be used to simulate the reflectance of particulate surface, they contain no reliable information on the physical property of our samples. Furthermore, the influence of the number of viewing angles on the precision of modeling results has been tested in this paper. It is clear that an increase of the number of viewing angles and the range of azimuth angles could allow us to improve precision on the estimation of parameters. Comparing with the best fitted model reflectance, we also found that if we used the parameters, which derived from measurements in the principal plane for individual incident zenith angle, to model the bidirectional reflectance may overestimate the computed results in the backward scattering direction and underestimate the computed results in the forward scattering direction. The difference between modeled results and measurements can reach up to 20% in the backward direction when using the parameters inverted in the principal plane. However

  3. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  4. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  5. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  6. game theory, competition and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Russel Crowe, playing John Forbes Nash Junior (aka John Nash in Ron Howards’ motion picture A beautiful mind, claims that Adam Smith’s theory that “in competition, individual ambition serves the common good” is incomplete, and that “the best result will come from everybody in the group doing what’s best for himself and the group”. Adam Smith’s motto synthesizes pretty well what happens in the competition-driven proprietary software development market, whereas Nash’s adds the cooperation that is so common even among competitors in free software markets. Every commercial free software developer tries to obtain its edge by developing better software, thus contributing to the software pool that even its competitors will be able to build upon. I.e., every free software developer does what’s best for himself, and the group, so the best outcome is achieved. The paper shows how the GNU General Public License (or GNU GPL or simply GPL licensing model can be economically favorable to developers over proprietary and even Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD-like licenses.

  7. Mechanical and abrasive wear characterization of bidirectional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated. ► Three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed. ► Results are validated against existing microscopic models of Lancaster and Wang. ► Tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases. ► Chopped glass fiber composites are found better in abrasive wear situations. -- Abstract: Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated in five different (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) wt% in an epoxy resin matrix. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. Abrasive wear characteristics of these composites are successfully analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner-Lancaster and Wang. It is observed that quite good linear relationships is held between specific wear rate and reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites which is an indicative that the experimental results are in fair agreement with these existing models. Out of all composites fabricated it is found that tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases because of interface strength enhancement. Chopped glass fiber reinforced composites are observed to perform better than bi-directional glass fiber reinforced composites under abrasive wear situations. The morphology of worn composite specimens has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand about dominant wear mechanisms.

  8. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  9. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  10. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    for Nordic projects of common interests. This created the necessary critical knowledge base in new energy technologies, energy systems and energy markets. Nordic energy policy cooperation followed the ordinary Nordic governance structures, rules and mode of operation with Council of Ministers, supported...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  11. Subradiant split Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a way to characterize the coherence of the split Cooper pairs emitted by a double-quantum-dot based Cooper pair splitter (CPS), by studying the radiative response of such a CPS inside a microwave cavity. The coherence of the split pairs manifests in a strongly nonmonotonic variation of the emitted radiation as a function of the parameters controlling the coupling of the CPS to the cavity. The idea to probe the coherence of the electronic states using the tools of Cavity Quantum Ele...

  12. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed that it was...... possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  13. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  14. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  15. Cyclotron motion in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schliemann, John

    2008-01-01

    We investigate cyclotron motion in graphene monolayers considering both the full quantum dynamics and its semiclassical limit reached at high carrier energies. Effects of zitterbewegung due to the two dispersion branches of the spectrum dominate the irregular quantum motion at low energies and are obtained as a systematic correction to the semiclassical case. Recent experiments are shown to operate in the semiclassical regime.

  16. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  17. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  18. Motional Coherence in Fluid Phospholipid Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Rheinstadter, Maikel C; Flenner, Elijah J; Bruening, Beate; Seydel, Tilo; Kosztin, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    We report a high energy-resolution neutron backscattering study, combined with in-situ diffraction, to investigate slow molecular motions on nanosecond time scales in the fluid phase of phospholipid bilayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) and DMPC/40% cholesterol (wt/wt). A cooperative structural relaxation process was observed. From the in-plane scattering vector dependence of the relaxation rates in hydrogenated and deuterated samples, combined with results from a 0.1 microsecond long all atom molecular dynamics simulation, it is concluded that correlated dynamics in lipid membranes occurs over several lipid distances, spanning a time interval from pico- to nanoseconds.

  19. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  20. Predicting Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  1. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  2. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  3. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  4. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  5. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  6. Cooperating with the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Rand, David G.; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-07-01

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the `Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVE SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative Learning Skills :David Johnson and Roger Johnson (2009a) explain five elements that define true cooperative learning groups : (i) Positive interdependence ; (ii) Promotive interaction ; (iii) Individual accountability ; (iv) Collaborative and social skills ; (v) Group processing.

  8. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Arthur; André, Jean-Baptiste; Bredeche, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  9. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  10. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  11. Harvest-Then-Cooperate: Wireless-Powered Cooperative Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Rebelatto, Joao Luiz; Uchoa-Filhoand, Bartolomeu F.; Vucetic, Branka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a wireless-powered cooperative communication network consisting of one hybrid access-point (AP), one source, and one relay. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the source and relay in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the AP for their cooperative information transmission. Based on this three-node reference model, we propose a harvest-then-cooperate (HTC) prot...

  12. Duty-ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, Nadiv

    2012-01-01

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body, and have many different and important roles. These micro-machines move along filament tracks, and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty-ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II - a non-processive molecular machine with a low duty ratio - cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of non-processive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  13. The Effects of Group Investigation and Cooperative Learning Techniques Applied in Teaching Force and Motion Subjects on Students’ Academic Achievements / Kuvvet ve Hareket Konularının Grup Araştırması ve Birlikte Öğrenme Teknikleri ile Uygulanmasının Öğrencilerin Akademik Başarılarına Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer OKUR AKÇAY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of group investigation and cooperative learning techniques on the academic achievements of first year university students attending classes in which the units of force and motion are taught within the general physics course. The sample of this study consists of 96 first year pre-service science teachers during the 2010-2011 academic year. As data collection instruments, the Academic Achievement Test (AAT, Graphic Test (GT, Module Tests (Module A, B, C, D and E were used. This study was carried out in three different groups. One of these groups was Group Investigation Group (GIG, the second group was the Learning Together Group (LTG and the other was the Control Group (CG, in which teacher-centered instruction was applied. The data obtained on instruments were evaluated using ANOVA and descriptive statistics. The results of this study indicated no significant difference between GIG and LTG, but a significant difference between LTG and CG.

  14. OCT Motion Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Martin F.; Hornegger, Joachim

    From the introduction of time domain OCT [1] up to recent swept source systems, motion continues to be an issue in OCT imaging. In contrast to normal photography, an OCT image does not represent a single point in time. Instead, conventional OCT devices sequentially acquire one-dimensional data over a period of several seconds, capturing one beam of light at a time and recording both the intensity and delay of reflections along its path through an object. In combination with unavoidable object motion which occurs in many imaging contexts, the problem of motion artifacts lies in the very nature of OCT imaging. Motion artifacts degrade image quality and make quantitative measurements less reliable. Therefore, it is desirable to come up with techniques to measure and/or correct object motion during OCT acquisition. In this chapter, we describe the effect of motion on OCT data sets and give an overview on the state of the art in the field of retinal OCT motion correction.

  15. Ionic motion in crystalline cryolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Lindsay; Madden, Paul A

    2006-08-10

    The character of the ion dynamics in crystalline cryolite, Na(3)AlF(6), a model double perovskite-structured mineral, has been examined in computer simulations using a polarizable ionic potential obtained by force-fitting to ab initio electronic structure calculations. NMR studies, and conductivity measurements, have indicated a high degree of mobility, in both Na(+) ion diffusion and reorientation of the AlF(6) octahedral units. The simulations reproduce the low-temperature (tilted) crystal structure and the existence of a transition to a cubic structure at elevated temperatures, in agreement with diffraction measurements, though the calculated transition temperature is too low. The reorientational dynamics of the AlF(6) octahedra is shown to consist of a hopping motion between the various tilted positions of the low-temperature form, even above the transition temperature. The rate of reorientation estimated by extrapolation to the temperature régime of the NMR measurements is consistent with the experimental data. In addition, we report a novel cooperative "tilt-swapping" motion of the differently tilted sublattices, just below the transition temperature. The perfect crystals show no Na(+) diffusion, in apparent disagreement with observation. We argue, following previous analyses of the cryolite phase diagram, that the diffusion observed in the experimental studies is a consequence of defects that are intrinsic to the thermodynamically stable form of cryolite. By introducing defects into the simulation cell, we obtain diffusion rates that are consistent with the NMR and conductivity measurements. Finally, we demonstrate a link between diffusion of the Na(+) ions and the reorientation of AlF(6) units, though the correlation between the two is not very strong. PMID:16884249

  16. Efficient parallel and out of core algorithms for constructing large bi-directed de Bruijn graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assembling genomic sequences from a set of overlapping reads is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Algorithms addressing the assembly problem fall into two broad categories - based on the data structures which they employ. The first class uses an overlap/string graph and the second type uses a de Bruijn graph. However with the recent advances in short read sequencing technology, de Bruijn graph based algorithms seem to play a vital role in practice. Efficient algorithms for building these massive de Bruijn graphs are very essential in large sequencing projects based on short reads. In an earlier work, an O(n/p time parallel algorithm has been given for this problem. Here n is the size of the input and p is the number of processors. This algorithm enumerates all possible bi-directed edges which can overlap with a node and ends up generating Θ(nΣ messages (Σ being the size of the alphabet. Results In this paper we present a Θ(n/p time parallel algorithm with a communication complexity that is equal to that of parallel sorting and is not sensitive to Σ. The generality of our algorithm makes it very easy to extend it even to the out-of-core model and in this case it has an optimal I/O complexity of Θ(nlog(n/BBlog(M/B (M being the main memory size and B being the size of the disk block. We demonstrate the scalability of our parallel algorithm on a SGI/Altix computer. A comparison of our algorithm with the previous approaches reveals that our algorithm is faster - both asymptotically and practically. We demonstrate the scalability of our sequential out-of-core algorithm by comparing it with the algorithm used by VELVET to build the bi-directed de Bruijn graph. Our experiments reveal that our algorithm can build the graph with a constant amount of memory, which clearly outperforms VELVET. We also provide efficient algorithms for the bi-directed chain compaction problem. Conclusions The bi-directed

  17. Tissue Microarray Study of Vasculogenic Mimicry in Bi-directional Differentiated Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XishanHao; BaocunSun; ShiwuZhang; XiulanZhao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if vasculogenic mimicry (VM) exists in bi-directional differentiated malignant tumors. METHODS The blood supply models for bi-directional differentiated tumors were studied with immunohistochemical and PAS double-staining techniques. New sections were made from 158 paraffin-embedded bi-directional malignant-tumor samples, including melanoma (high malignancy n=30, low malignancy n=30); synoviosarcoma(SS) (high malignancy n=26, low malignancy n=13); acinar rhabdomyosarcoma (All) (high malignancy n=16,low malignancy n=13); malignant mesothelioma (MM) (n=26), and epithelioid sarcoma (ES)(n=4). Tissue microarrays were made. The representative points in the paraffin sections were labeled and two tissue microarrays were made, one included 60 cases of melanoma, and the other included the other tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of the platelet-endothelial cell adhesive molecule(CD31 antigen) and periodic acid Schiff(PAS) staining were conducted. The areas were calculated of vessel-like channels consisting of CD31 antigen-positive tumor cells and of PAS positive materials. The VM was studied using the data obtained. RESULTS Some of these bi-directional tumor cells secreted PAS-positive materials and 0D31 positive materials. The walls of the VM consisted of PAS-positive materials lined with CD31 negative tumor cells with red blood cells inside the channel, whereas the walls of the epithelium-dependent vessels were comprised of CD31 positive materials. The positive areas of CD31 were significantly less than that of PAS (P<0.01). The number of cases with VM in highly malignant tumors was greater than that found in the lowly malignant tumors. CONCLUSIONS Bi-directional differentiated malignant tumor cells have the ability to auto-transform and might interact with the extracellular matrix to form a vessel channel system which mimics blood vessels for transporting blood. That process is called VM. Results in this study show that bi-directional

  18. Simulation of Arc Motion in Air Switching Devices Taking Ferromagnetic Material into Accout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FLUENT and ANSYS codes are used to solve the magnethydrodynamics (MHD) equations and electromagnetic field equations, respectively. An interface code is developed to implement the bi-direction transfer of calculation data between FLUENT and ANSYS. Then a 2-D MHD arc model is built up with the consideration of the nonlinear ferromagnetic material. The arc shape, gas flow velocity and magnetic field distribution are presented at a current of 200 A. The influence of the number of splitter plates on arc motion is also analyzed. (fusion engineering)

  19. Simulation of Arc Motion in Air Switching Devices Taking Ferromagnetic Material into Accout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwen; TUSONGJIANG Kari; CHEN Degui; SUN Haitao; XIE Ensheng

    2009-01-01

    FLUENT and ANSYS codes axe used to solve the magnethydrodynamics (MHD)equations and electromagnetic field equations, respectively. An interface code is developed to implement the bi-direction transfer of calculation data between FLUENT and ANSYS. Then a 2-D MHD arc model is built up with the consideration of the nonlinear ferromagnetic material.The arc shape, gas flow velocity and magnetic field distribution are presented at a current of 200 A. The influence of the number of splitter plates on arc motion is also analyzed.

  20. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  1. Merging Cooperatives: Planning, Negotiating, Implementing

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for reorganization of cooperatives through merger, acquisition, or consolidation are provided. Planning, negotiating, and implementing phases of reorganization are covered. Items from actual combinations of cooperatives are reported as they relate to phases of the reorganization process.

  2. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  3. Generalized compliant motion primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-08-01

    This invention relates to a general primitive for controlling a telerobot with a set of input parameters. The primitive includes a trajectory generator; a teleoperation sensor; a joint limit generator; a force setpoint generator; a dither function generator, which produces telerobot motion inputs in a common coordinate frame for simultaneous combination in sensor summers. Virtual return spring motion input is provided by a restoration spring subsystem. The novel features of this invention include use of a single general motion primitive at a remote site to permit the shared and supervisory control of the robot manipulator to perform tasks via a remotely transferred input parameter set.

  4. ROV Motion Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dukan, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about automatic motion control systems for remotely operated vehicles (ROV). The work has focused on topics within guidance and navigation. In addition, a motion control system has been developed, implemented, tested and used on two ROVs in sea trials.The main motivation for the work has been the need to automate ROV tasks in order to make the ROV a more efficient tool for exploring the ocean space. Many parts of a motion control system for a ROV is similar to that of surface v...

  5. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  6. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed

  7. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  8. Financial Performance of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Thomas H.

    1985-01-01

    Combined balance sheets and operating statements were used to develop benchmark financial ratios for dairy marketing cooperatives. Data from 291 cooperatives were summarized for five types of dairy cooperatives, then by three types and three size combinations. Both type and size of cooperative made differences in most of the 16 financial ratios calculated as well as in the common size balance sheets and operating statements.

  9. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  10. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro

    2015-09-25

    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters. PMID:26451584

  11. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  12. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  13. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  14. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  15. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  16. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... ibandronate sodium, risedronate sodium TREATMENT Nonpharmacologic treatments for preventing and treating motion sickness can be effective with ...

  17. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  18. Comparative Literature in Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Donat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Beyond methodological or ideological principles, Comparative Literature depends upon, and flourishes in, cooperation between different systems, fields and disciplines. We introduce two projects developed by Munich’s Comparative Literature Department as examples of the specific challenges and opportunities afforded by this cooperation: in editing Roman Jakobson’s analyses of poetry, experts in 16 different languages and literatures worked together to present translations, interpretations and commentary on this corpus. In ongoing bilateral teaching and research projects with the German Department at Seoul National University, inter-lingual, inter-cultural and inter-disciplinary communication enables and informs studies focusing on Goethe’s concept of active and passive roles in Weltliteratur, as well as censorship and textual control in divided nations.

  19. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  20. Cooperation between employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidance is given on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organisation have the potential to expose to ionising radiation the employees of another. One of the Regulations of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. OWRs give more detailed requirements for the performance of the duties where one employers' classified employee works in another employer's controlled area. This document explains the separate responsibilities of site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required, and gives guidance on how it can be achieved. It also gives guidance to nuclear site licence holders regarding their duties under IRR 85 in such circumstances. (Author)

  1. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  2. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  3. Cooperative Retransmissions Through Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Foh, Chuan Heng

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key capacity-limiting factors. Recently developed interference-embracing techniques show promising performance on turning collisions into useful transmissions. However, the interference-embracing techniques are hard to apply in practical applications due to their strict requirements. In this paper, we consider utilising the interference-embracing techniques in a common scenario of two interfering sender-receiver pairs. By employing opportunistic listening and analog network coding (ANC), we show that compared to traditional ARQ retransmission, a higher retransmission throughput can be achieved by allowing two interfering senders to cooperatively retransmit selected lost packets at the same time. This simultaneous retransmission is facilitated by a simple handshaking procedure without introducing additional overhead. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed cooperative retransmission.

  4. Ballistic motion planning

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Mylène; Laumond, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the motion planning problem for a jumping point-robot. Each jump consists in a ballistic motion linking two positions in contact with obstacle surfaces. A solution path is thus a sequence of parabola arcs. The originality of the approach is to consider non-sliding constraints at contact points: slipping avoidance is handled by constraining takeoff and landing velocity vectors to belong to 3D friction cones. Furthermore the magnitude of these velocities is bounded. A balli...

  5. Humanoid Motion Description Language

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ben; Chen, Yanbing

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we propose a description language for specifying motions for humanoid robots and for allowing humanoid robots to acquire motor skills. Locomotion greatly increases our ability to interact with our environments, which in turn increases our mental abilities. This principle also applies to humanoid robots. However, there are great difficulties to specify humanoid motions and to represent motor skills, which in most cases require four-dimensional space representations. We propose a ...

  6. Motion of a Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Wynn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to derive and solve the equation of motion for a pendulum swinging at small angles in one dimension. The pendulum may be either a simple pendulum like a ball hanging from a string or a physical pendulum like a pendulum on a clock. For simplicity, we only considered small rotational angles so that the equation of motion becomes a harmonic oscillator.

  7. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  8. Identification of a bi-directional promoter from Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bi-directional promoter of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) was obtained with the total DNA from TYLCCNV isolate Y10 infected tobacco leaves as a template. Plant expression vectors were constructed by fusing the amplified DNA fragment with the gus gene and nopaline terminator in different orientations. The vectors containing promoter fragments were transferred into leaf cells and plant stems of Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transient expression results showed that both the complementary and virion-sense promoters could drive the gus gene to express, and the GUS activity of the complementary-sense promoter was stronger than that of the virion-sense. Co-expression of the vector containing βC1 gene of TYLCCNV DNAβ with the vector containing a bi-directional promoter revealed that the βC1 protein has no impact on expression of either the virion- or the complementarysense promoter.

  9. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire; DC current runs with unbalanced part of AC current in neutral wire. Without galvanic isolation grounded neutral would cause short circuit if DC/DC converter is connected to three phase rectifier or inverter. Simulation was carried out with PSCAD electromagnetic transient simulator.

  10. A bidirectional lightwave transport system based on PON integration with WDM VLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yi; Wu, Po-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Chang, Ching-Hung; Lin, Huang-Chang

    2013-10-01

    A novel bidirectional lightwave transport system employing phase modulation (PM) scheme and light injection-locked distributed feedback laser diode (DFB LD) as a duplex transceiver for passive optical network (PON); as well as employing laser pointer lasers (LPLs) with directly modulating data signals for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Impressive and low bit error rate (BER) operation is achieved for PON integration with VLC application. Such bidirectional PON integration with VLC system has been successfully demonstrated, which can not only present its advancement in PON/VLC application but also reveal its simplicity and convenience to be installed. Whereby, our proposed system is suitably applicable to the PON in combination with VLC system in wire and wireless transmission.

  11. Bidirectional output stage matrix converter applied to a distributed generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Manuel; Jurado, Francisco; Roa, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In this article a new bidirectional output stage ultra-sparse matrix converter (BOSUMC) is presented. This converter is designed for connecting a hybrid electrical system to a distributed generation network. The proposed converter comprises an input stage and an output stage with six bidirectional switches in such a way that both the input and output stages are linked with a DC link, which can be coupled to an electrolyser and a fuel cell. The converter allows the current to flow in both ways in its output stage, and if there is an excess of energy in the network, it can be transformed into electric direct current and later into hydrogen for its exploitation. For verifying the control algorithm of the BOSUMC, a laboratory prototype has been prepared using among other elements a Spectrum Digital eZdsp™ TMS320F2812 card.

  12. Comparison of bidirectional power electronics with unidirectional topologies using active discharging circuits for feeding DEAP transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstadt, Thorben; Maas, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    To enable a continuous operation of a DEAP transducer, the feeding power electronics must provide the capability to charge and discharge the transducer to enable a continuous voltage adjustment. While in case of energy harvesting applications a bidirectional power electronics is mandatory, for actuator applications also unidirectional power electronics with active discharging circuits can be used. Thus, in this contribution a bidirectional flyback-converter is compared to a unidirectional with different discharging circuits. For this purpose, the design of a resistive and an inductive-resistive discharging circuit is proposed, that are connected in parallel to the DEAP and activated when required. Modulation schemes for both discharging circuits are derived that enable a continuous voltage control. Based on realized prototypes of the investigated topologies the different converters are finally compared to each other.

  13. Bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    THe paper examines ISEE 3 solar wind electron data obtained concurrent with reported symmetric polar rain events and it is found that a bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux is present whenever such polar cap events occur. In contrast to the normal situation when only one of the earth's polar caps is magnetically connected to the sun, during hemispherically symmetric polar rain events either both of the earth's polar caps are magnetically connected to the sun, or else both are connected to a magnetic loop which is entirely disconnected from the sun. The relative timing between bidirectional solar wind heat flux and symmetrical polar rain events can be utilized to determine certain magnetospheric quantities such as the cross-tail convection speed.

  14. Detailed string stability analysis for bi-directional optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亮

    2015-01-01

    The class of bi-directional optimal velocity models can describe the bi-directional looking effect that usually exists in the reality and is even enhanced with the development of the connected vehicle technologies. Its combined string stability condition can be obtained through the method of the ring-road based string stability analysis. However, the partial string stability about traffic fluctuation propagated backward or forward was neglected, which will be analyzed in detail in this work by the method of transfer function and its H∞norm from the viewpoint of control theory. Then, through comparing the conditions of combined and partial string stabilities, their relationships can make traffic flow be divided into three distinguishable regions, displaying various combined and partial string stability performance. Finally, the numerical experiments verify the theoretical results and find that the final displaying string stability or instability performance results from the accumulated and offset effects of traffic fluctuations propagated from different directions.

  15. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit

  16. The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Luo, Y.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.

    2013-12-01

    Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit.

  17. Bidirectional Conversion between CAD Model and TRIPOLI Model: An Extending Function of MCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L.; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Lia, Y.; Ding, A.; Wua, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Chang, H. [Institute of nuclear and new energy technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    TRIPOLI is a Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport code which can be applied to nuclear analysis of complex nuclear devices; however, modeling of a complex geometry for TRIPOLI computation is a time-consuming and error-prone task. MCAM (Monte Carlo automatic modeling system) is an interface code that can facilitate MC modeling by employing Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology. An extended function of MCAM was developed to implement the bidirectional conversion between CAD model and TRIPOLI model. Different geometry representations of CAD model and TRIPOLI model, as well as the process of bidirectional conversion between the two representations were introduced. ITER benchmark model, a complex fusion system, was converted into TRIPOLI model for validation, On the basis of the converted model, actual calculation of neutron flux on inboard blanket was performed, and the results were compared with that of MCNP calculation, which showed a good agreement. (authors)

  18. A new model on bidirectional reflectance surface-atmospheric coupled radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Jinhuan; (邱金桓)

    2001-01-01

    An exact and available model on bidirectional reflectance surface-atmospheric coupled radiation is of great significance for spaceborne remote sensing application. Based on the physical process of interaction of solar radiation with the surface and the atmosphere, a new model on bidirectional reflectance surface-atmospheric coupled radiation is developed in this paper. As shown in numerical simulation, this model is evidently better than the 6S model. The standard error among 110112 sets of upward radiance data calculated by this new model is only 0.49%, which is about one fourth of the one by 6S. In the condition of the solar zenith angle qs≤75°and the viewing angle qv≤60°, the error by the new model is usually smaller than 2.5%.

  19. Effects of aerosols and surface shadowing on bidirectional reflectance measurements of deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, David E.; Davis, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Desert surfaces are probably one of the most stable of the Earth's natural targets for remote sensing. The bidirectional reflectance properties of the Saudi Arabian desert was investigated during the Summer Monsoon Experiment (Summer Monex). A comparison of high-altitude with near-surface measurements of the White Sands desert showed significant differences. These discrepancies have been attributed to forward scattering of the dust-laden atmosphere prevalent during Summer Monex. This paper is concerned in general with modeling the effects of atmospheric aerosols and surface shadowing on the remote sensing of bidirectional reflectance factors of desert targets, and in particular with comparing the results of these models with flight results. Although it is possible to approximate the latter, it is felt that a surface reflectance model with a smaller specular component would have permitted using a more realistic set of atmospheric conditions in the simulations.

  20. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  1. Le banche popolari cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Co-operative banks are an important reality of the credit system and they are spread in Italy and in Europe. These banks are a category different from other banks, as are characterized by a legal form which has some very specific characteristics. These banks may contribute to the development of human capital and the strengthening of social capital, but also to the development of the knowledge economy that thrives on knowledge and tacit knowledge passed down through the local culture. This ess...

  2. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  3. Quantized Cooperative Control

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Meng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis project, we consider the cooperative control of multi-agent systems under limited communication between the individual agents. In particular, quantized values of the relatives states between neighboring agents are used as the control parameters for each agent. As an introductory part, the theoretical framework for the distributed consensus problem under perfect communication is reviewed with the focus on the system stability and convergence. We start from the common problem set...

  4. The Bidirectional Association between Depressive Symptoms and Gait Speed: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Demakakos, P; Cooper, R.; Hamer, M.; Oliveira, C.; Hardy, R; Breeze, E

    2013-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and physical performance are inversely associated, but it is unclear whether their association is bidirectional. We examined whether the association between depressive symptoms and physical performance measured using gait speed is bidirectional. Methods We used a national sample of 4,581 community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (from 2002–03 to 2008-09). We fitted Generalized Estimating Equation (...

  5. Cross-species mapping of bidirectional promoters enables prediction of unannotated 5' UTRs and identification of species-specific transcripts

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin Harris A; Larkin Denis M; Yang Mary Q; Piontkivska Helen; Reecy James; Elnitski Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bidirectional promoters are shared regulatory regions that influence the expression of two oppositely oriented genes. This type of regulatory architecture is found more frequently than expected by chance in the human genome, yet many specifics underlying the regulatory design are unknown. Given that the function of most orthologous genes is similar across species, we hypothesized that the architecture and regulation of bidirectional promoters might also be similar across s...

  6. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  7. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  8. Exploitative and hierarchical antagonism in a cooperative bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Social organisms that cooperate with some members of their own species, such as close relatives, may fail to cooperate with other genotypes of the same species. Such noncooperation may take the form of outright antagonism or social exploitation. Myxococcus xanthus is a highly social prokaryote that cooperatively develops into spore-bearing, multicellular fruiting bodies in response to starvation. Here we have characterized the nature of social interactions among nine developmentally proficient strains of M. xanthus isolated from spatially distant locations. Strains were competed against one another in all possible pairwise combinations during starvation-induced development. In most pairings, at least one competitor exhibited strong antagonism toward its partner and a majority of mixes showed bidirectional antagonism that decreased total spore production, even to the point of driving whole populations to extinction. Differential response to mixing was the primary determinant of competitive superiority rather than the sporulation efficiencies of unmixed populations. In some competitive pairings, the dominant partner sporulated more efficiently in mixed populations than in clonal isolation. This finding represents a novel form of exploitation in bacteria carried out by socially competent genotypes and is the first documentation of social exploitation among natural bacterial isolates. Patterns of antagonistic superiority among these strains form a highly linear dominance hierarchy. At least some competition pairs construct chimeric, rather than segregated, fruiting bodies. The cooperative prokaryote M. xanthus has diverged into a large number of distinct social types that cooperate with clone-mates but exhibit intense antagonism toward distinct social types of the same species. Most lengthy migration events in nature may thus result in strong antagonism between migratory and resident populations, and this antagonism may have large effects on local

  9. Asymmetric Bidirectional Controlled Teleportation by using a Seven-qubit Entangled State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wen-qin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new protocol of asymmetric bidirectional controlled teleportation by using a seven-qubit entangled state as the quantum channel. That is to say Alice wants to transmit an arbitrary single-qubit state to Bob and Bob wants to transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. One only need perform the Bell-state measurements and single-qubit measurement.

  10. Transmission characteristics of a bidirectional transparent screen based on reflective microlenses

    OpenAIRE

    Hedili, M. Kıvanç; Ürey, Hakan; Freeman, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A microlens array (MLA) based see-through, front projection screen, which can be used in direct projection head-up displays (HUD), color teleprompters and bidirectional interactive smart windows, is evaluated for various performance metrics in transmission mode. The screen structure consists of a partially reflective coated MLA buried between refractive-index-matched layers of epoxy as reported in Ref [1]. The reflected light is expanded by the MLA to create an eyebox for the user. The bright...

  11. Genealogical Information Search by Using Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm and Rule Based Relationship

    CERN Document Server

    Nuanmeesri, Sumitra; Meesad, Payung

    2010-01-01

    Genealogical information is the best histories resources for culture study and cultural heritage. The genealogical research generally presents family information and depict tree diagram. This paper presents Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm (PBBA) to find consanguine relationship between two persons. In addition, the paper utilizes rules based system in order to identify consanguine relationship. The study reveals that PBBA is fast to solve the genealogical information search problem and the Rule Based Relationship provides more benefits in blood relationship identification.

  12. Real-Time Bidirectional Pyrophosphorolysis-Activated Polymerization for Quantitative Detection of Somatic Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Najie; Zhong, Xueting; Li, Qingge

    2014-01-01

    Detection of somatic mutations for targeted therapy is increasingly used in clinical settings. However, due to the difficulties of detecting rare mutations in excess of wild-type DNA, current methods often lack high sensitivity, require multiple procedural steps, or fail to be quantitative. We developed real-time bidirectional pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (real-time Bi-PAP) that allows quantitative detection of somatic mutations. We applied the method to quantify seven mutation...

  13. Bidirectional Dynamics of Materialism and Loneliness: Not Just a Vicious Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Rik Pieters

    2013-01-01

    This research is the first to test the hypothesis that consumers face a "material trap" in which materialism fosters social isolation which in turn reinforces materialism. It provides evidence that materialism and loneliness are engaged in bidirectional relationships over time. Importantly, it finds that loneliness contributes more to materialism than the other way around. Moreover, it finds that materialism's contribution to loneliness is not uniformly vicious but critically differs between ...

  14. Bi-directional LSTM Recurrent Neural Network for Chinese Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yushi; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural network(RNN) has been broadly applied to natural language processing(NLP) problems. This kind of neural network is designed for modeling sequential data and has been testified to be quite efficient in sequential tagging tasks. In this paper, we propose to use bi-directional RNN with long short-term memory(LSTM) units for Chinese word segmentation, which is a crucial preprocess task for modeling Chinese sentences and articles. Classical methods focus on designing and combining...

  15. Sensitivity analysis of an updated bidirectional air–surface exchange model for elemental mercury vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.

    2014-01-01

    A box model for estimating bidirectional air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) has been updated based on the latest understanding of the resistance scheme of atmosphere–biosphere interface transfer. Simulations were performed for two seasonal months to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variation. The base-case results show that water and soil surfaces are net sources, while vegetation is a net sink of Hg0. The estimated net exchange in a domain covering the con...

  16. A Test of the Bidirectional Relationship between Sleep and Mood in Bipolar Disorder and Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates sleep, mood, and the proposed bidirectional relationship between the two in psychiatric disorders. Participants with interepisode bipolar disorder (n = 49), insomnia (n = 34), and no psychiatric history (n = 52) completed seven days of sleep diaries and mood measures. The interepisode bipolar and insomnia participants exhibited greater sleep disturbance than the healthy control individuals. Negative mood was equally heightened in both interepisode bipolar disord...

  17. A Test of the Bidirectional Association Between Sleep and Mood in Bipolar Disorder and Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Lisa S.; Stone, Susan; Gruber, June; Hairston, Ilana S.; Eidelman, Polina; Harvey, Allison G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates sleep, mood, and the proposed bidirectional relationship between the two in psychiatric disorders. Participants with interepisode bipolar disorder (n = 49), insomnia (n = 34), and no psychiatric history (n = 52) completed seven consecutive days of sleep diaries and mood measures. The interepisode bipolar and insomnia participants exhibited greater sleep disturbance than the healthy control individuals. Negative mood was equally heightened in both interepisode bi...

  18. Bidirectional Relationship between Chronic Kidney Disease and Periodontal Disease: Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica A; Taylor, George W.; West, Brady T.; McCarthy, Ellen T.

    2010-01-01

    Periodontal disease is associated with diabetes, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), an effect postulated to be due in part to endovascular inflammation. While a bidirectional relationship between CKD and periodontal disease is plausible, it has not been previously reported in the literature. Over 11 200 adults 18 years or older were identified in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First, multivariable logistic regre...

  19. The bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep: Implications for exercise adherence and sleep improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has long been associated with better sleep, and evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of exercise as a nonpharmacologic treatment option for disturbed sleep. Recent research, however, has noted that poor sleep may contribute to low physical activity levels, emphasizing a robust bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep. This article will briefly review the evidence supporting the use of exercise as a nonpharmacologic treatment for sleep disturbance, outline future rese...

  20. Inferring bi-directional interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolism with model ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    There has been much interest in reconstructing bi-directional regulatory networks linking the circadian clock to metabolism in plants. A variety of reverse engineering methods from machine learning and computational statistics have been proposed and evaluated. The emphasis of the present paper is on combining models in a model ensemble to boost the network reconstruction accuracy, and to explore various model combination strategies to maximize the improvement. Our results demonstrate that a r...

  1. Bidirectionality and Compartmentation of Metabolic Fluxes Are Revealed in the Dynamics of Isotopomer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Vendelin; Pearu Peterson; Toomas Paalme; Schryer, David W

    2009-01-01

    Isotope labeling is one of the few methods of revealing the in vivo bidirectionality and compartmentalization of metabolic fluxes within metabolic networks. We argue that a shift from steady state to dynamic isotopomer analysis is required to deal with these cellular complexities and provide a review of dynamic studies of compartmentalized energy fluxes in eukaryotic cells including cardiac muscle, plants, and astrocytes. Knowledge of complex metabolic behaviour on a molecular level is prereq...

  2. Bidirectional alloreactivity: A proposed microchimerism-based solution to the NIMA paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Burlingham, William J.; Benichou, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The NIMA paradox is the observation that in transplants of allogeneic kidneys or hematopoietic stem cells, siblings benefit from re-exposure to non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA), whereas re-exposure to a transplant from mother herself, theoretically the ideal “NIMA” donor, does not yield clinical results superior to a father-donated allograft. Recent observations of bidirectional alloreactivity in kidney and cord blood transplantation offer a possible solution to this paradox. If correct...

  3. Genealogical Information Search by Using Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm and Rule Based Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Sumitra Nuanmeesri; Chanasak Baitiang,; Phayung Meesad

    2009-01-01

    Genealogical information is the best histories resources for culture study and cultural heritage. The genealogical research generally presents family information and depict tree diagram. This paper presents Parent Bidirectional Breadth Algorithm (PBBA) to find consanguine relationship between two persons. In addition, the paper utilizes rules based system in order to identify consanguine relationship. The study reveals that PBBA is fast to solve the genealogical information search problem and...

  4. Demonstration of Displacement- and Frequency-Noise-Free Laser Interferometry Using Bidirectional Mach-Zehnder Interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Ward, R.; Kawamura, S.; Chen, Y; Pai, A.; Somiya, K

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated displacement- and frequency-noise free laser interferometry (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI). This partial implementation, the minimum necessary to be called DFI, has confirmed the essential feature of DFI: the combination of two MZI signals can be carried out in a way which cancels displacement noise of the mirrors while maintaining gravitational wave signals. The attained ma...

  5. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus; KEREKES, Tamas; Mathe, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC converter for the battery storage is necessary, as energy will be processed twice. Realisation of the battery converter with silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors offers many advantages compared to Sili...

  6. Inclusion of the specular component in the assessment of bidirectional distribution functions based on digital imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Marilyne; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    To describe complex fenestration systems such as novel solar blinds, new glazing or coating materials, daylight and sunlight-redirecting devices, a detailed description of their optical properties is needed, given by their Bidirectional Transmission (or Reflection) Distribution Functions (commonly named BTDFs and BRDFs). These functions are angle-dependent at both the incidence and the emission levels, and are defined as the ratio of the luminance of a surface element in a given direction (af...

  7. Anxiety and Reading Difficulties in Early Elementary School: Evidence for Unidirectional- or Bi-Directional Relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined competing models of the bi-directional influences of anxiety and reading achievement. Participants were 153 ethnically-diverse children (84 male, 69 female) from general education classes evaluated in the winter and spring of their first-grade academic year. Children completed standardized measures of reading achievement involving decoding and fluency along with an anxiety rating scale. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that separation anxiety symptom...

  8. Uniform suspended nanorods fabricated by bidirectional scanning via two-photon photopolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan; Cui Haibo; Qi Fengjie; Yang Hong; Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: li@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2008-09-17

    Suspended nanorods fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization gradually thickened in the scanning direction when the scanning speed was faster than 60 {mu}m s{sup -1}. For a 2 {mu}m long suspended nanorod, the lateral widths of the thin and the thick ends were about 50 and 150 nm. A bidirectional scanning technique was proposed to effectively eliminate the size difference, resulting in uniform suspended nanorods of 100 nm in width and 2 {mu}m in length.

  9. Uniform suspended nanorods fabricated by bidirectional scanning via two-photon photopolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspended nanorods fabricated by two-photon photopolymerization gradually thickened in the scanning direction when the scanning speed was faster than 60 μm s-1. For a 2 μm long suspended nanorod, the lateral widths of the thin and the thick ends were about 50 and 150 nm. A bidirectional scanning technique was proposed to effectively eliminate the size difference, resulting in uniform suspended nanorods of 100 nm in width and 2 μm in length

  10. BI-DIRECTIONAL COHEN-GROSSBERG NEURAL NETWORK WITH DISCRETE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Discrete-time version of the bi-directional Cohen-Grossberg neural network is stud-ied in this paper. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponen-tial stability of such networks with discrete time based on Lyapunov method. These results do not require the symmetry of the connection matrix and the monotonicity, boundedness and differentiability of the activation function.

  11. Matrix Converter Bi-directional Switch Power Loss and Cooling Condition Estimation for Integrated Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovs, A; Galkins, I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper power loss estimation of bi-directional switch of matrix converter is done by means of calculation and experiments. For safe operation of power devices an efficient cooling system of specific device must be designed. This work is part of a greater project of integrated matrix converter AC drives and the cooling problem here is viewed in context of this task. It is necessary to develop a compact power board and cooling system to extract excessive heat from power devices.

  12. The bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Ning, Zongjun; Su, Yingna

    2016-09-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of ˜10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, 211 Å, 131 Å, 94 Å, 335 Å and 304 Å, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 Å and 1400 Å. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km s^{-1}, while the typically period is ˜90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional flows and their periodicity) can be detected simultaneously at all the 9 wavelengths. This CBP takes place at the site between a small pair of magnetic polarities. High time resolution observations show that they are moving close to each other during its lifetime. These facts support the magnetic reconnection model of the CBP and the bi-directional moving structures could be the observational outflows after the reconnection. Therefore, they can be as the direct observation evidence of the magnetic reconnection.

  13. Acquisition of Bidirectional Reflectance Factor Dataset Using a Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Consumer Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Jouni I.; Juha Suomalainen; Teemu Hakala

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for retrieving the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of land-surface areas, using a small consumer camera on board an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and introducing an advanced calibration routine. Images with varying view directions were taken of snow cover using the UAV. The vignetting effect was corrected from the images, and reflectance factor images were calculated using a calibrated white target as a reference. After spatial registration of the images u...

  14. A sensor network for the Internet of Things Integrated with a bidirectional backend

    OpenAIRE

    Hobring, Linus; Söderberg, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Things is rapidly evolving. This thesis includes a study of single-board computers suitable for machine-to-machine communication together with the developing process of a sensor network integrated with a bidirectional communication platform. Raspberry Pi was selected as the single-board computer used in the proposed system. The Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol was selected as main communication protocol to handle all exchange of information between the network and the ...

  15. Prior esophagogastroduodenoscopy does not affect the cecal intubation time at bidirectional endoscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Osman Zekai; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gündüz, Umut Rıza; Aslaner, Arif; KOÇ, Ümit; Bülbüller, Nurullah

    2013-01-01

    Bidirectional endoscopy (BE) is often used to assess patients for the reason of anemia or to screen asymptomatic population for malignancy. Limited clinical data favors to perform first the upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy, but its effect to the duration of colonoscopy is yet to be determined. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy on the time to achieve cecal intubation during colonoscopy in patients undergoing BE. Pati...

  16. Comparison of laser-assisted damage in soft tissue using bi-directional and forward-firing optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhwan; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Park, Hoyong; Lee, Yong Joong; Lee, Ho

    2014-03-01

    Laser-assisted endoscopic surgery is made possible by employing optical devices such as fiber optics and hollow wave-guides. In some applications of laser-assisted endoscopic surgery, it is necessary to change the direction of the light emission. Our group reported a new fabrication method for bi-directional firing fibers. The conical surface of the fiber tip made the bi-directional emission of the laser light at the distal end of the fiber. In this study, we employed the bi-directional firing fiber for laser-assisted coagulation of soft tissue. The developed fiber and the normal forward-firing fiber are used for the endoscopic delivery system of a continuous IR laser into an in vitro porcine liver. The ablation and coagulation pattern were compared for two distinctive fiber systems. Regardless of the laser's parameters, the bi-directional firing fiber produced a cavity and coagulation zone with more or less a circular shape, while the forward fiber produced an elongated cavity and coagulation region. The bi-directional firing fiber produced wider and shorter coagulation and cavity zones compared to that of the forward-firing fiber. We expect the bi-directional firing fiber to be an excellent optical delivery system for endoscopic laser-hyperthermia when used against various tumors in the liver, breast and thyroid.

  17. Bidirectional Growth Based Mining and Cyclic Behaviour Analysis of Web Sequential Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantaiah K C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The moreaccurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized toeffectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine

  18. Nanotechnology to rescue bacterial bidirectional extracellular electron transfer in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kalathil, Shafeer

    2016-03-17

    An electrically active bacterium transports its metabolically generated electrons to insoluble substrates such as electrodes via a process known as extracellular electron transport (EET). Bacterial EET is a crucial process in the geochemical cycling of metals, bioremediation and bioenergy devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Recently, it has been found that electroactive bacteria can reverse their respiratory pathways by accepting electrons from a negatively poised electrode to produce high-value chemicals such as ethanol in a process termed as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). A poor electrical connection between bacteria and the electrode hinders the EET and MES processes significantly. Also, the bidirectional EET process is sluggish and needs to be improved drastically to extend its practical applications. Several attempts have been undertaken to improve the bidirectional EET by employing various advanced nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. This review covers the recent progress in the bacterial bidirectional EET processes using advanced nanostructures in the light of current understandings of bacteria–nanomaterial interactions.

  19. Impact of Interference in Coexisting Wireless Networks with Applications to Arbitrarily Varying Bidirectional Broadcast Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Boche

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift from an exclusive allocation of frequency bands, one for each system, to a shared use of frequencies comes along with the need of new concepts since interference will be an ubiquitous phenomenon. In this paper, we use the concept of arbitrarily varying channels to model the impact of unknown interference caused by coexisting wireless systems which operate on the same frequencies. Within this framework, capacity can be zero if pre-specified encoders and decoders are used. This necessitates the use of more sophisticated coordination schemes where the choice of encoders and decoders is additionally coordinated based on common randomness. As an application we study the arbitrarily varying bidirectional broadcast channel and derive the capacity regions for different coordination strategies. This problem is motivated by decode-and-forward bidirectional or two-way relaying, where a relay establishes a bidirectional communication between two other nodes while sharing the resources with other coexisting wireless networks.

  20. Bidirectional Tachycardia after an Acute Intravenous Administration of Digitalis for a Suicidal Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diletta Sabatini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute digoxin intoxication is a life-threating condition associated with severe cardiotoxicity. Female gender, age, low lean body mass, hypertension, and renal insufficiency may worsen the prognosis. Arrhythmias caused by digitalis glycosides are characterized by an increased automaticity coupled with concomitant conduction delay. Bidirectional tachycardia is pathognomonic of digoxin intoxication, but it is rarely observed. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department after self-administration of 5 mg of digoxin i.v. for suicidal purpose. Her digoxin serum concentration was 17.4 ng/mL. The patient developed a bidirectional tachycardia and the Poison Control Center of the hospital provided digoxin immune fab. Bidirectional tachycardia quickly reversed and the patient remained stable throughout the hospital stay. This case shows that a multiple disciplinary approach, involving cardiologists and toxicologists, is essential for the management of digoxin intoxication. The optimal treatment of this rare event depends on the clinical conditions and on the serum drug concentration of the patient. Digoxin immune fab represents a safe, effective, and specific method for rapidly reversing digitalis cardiotoxicity and should be started as soon as the diagnosis is defined.

  1. Continuous measurements of real-life bidirectional pedestrian flows on a wide walkway

    CERN Document Server

    Corbetta, Alessandro; Lee, Chung-min; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Employing partially overlapping overhead \\kinectTMS sensors and automatic pedestrian tracking algorithms we recorded the crowd traffic in a rectilinear section of the main walkway of Eindhoven train station on a 24/7 basis. Beside giving access to the train platforms (it passes underneath the railways), the walkway plays an important connection role in the city. Several crowding scenarios occur during the day, including high- and low-density dynamics in uni- and bi-directional regimes. In this paper we discuss our recording technique and we illustrate preliminary data analyses. Via fundamental diagrams-like representations we report pedestrian velocities and fluxes vs. pedestrian density. Considering the density range $0$ - $1.1\\,$ped/m$^2$, we find that at densities lower than $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$ pedestrians in unidirectional flows walk faster than in bidirectional regimes. On the opposite, velocities and fluxes for even bidirectional flows are higher above $0.8\\,$ped/m$^2$.

  2. Improved MISO-SAR System Based on BiDirectional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the German Aerospace Center (DLR. proposed a BiDirectional mode that can achieve several seconds of repeated time lags by single star and single flight. Its basic principle includes the generation of a double-beam antenna pattern by electronic beam steering and simultaneous emission of two pulses that irradiate the front and back imaging area. The two pulses, which are simultaneously received will be separated by band-pass filtering in the Doppler domain and imaged, respectively. This paper presents an improved Multi Input Single Output (MISO-SAR system based on the BiDirectional mode which converts the traditional simultaneous dual beam emitting and receiving into time-division emitting and simultaneous receiving, respectively. This results in an improved emitting antenna pattern owning to the suppression of the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR. The current paper describes the spectrum separation effects, AASR analysis, and the system design process. Therefore, to confirm effectiveness, point target 1-D and 2-D simulation results are compared before and after the improvement. Furthermore, the BiDirectional and other short-term repeated SAR modes are compared.

  3. Impact of holding umbrella on uni- and bi-directional pedestrian flow: Experiments and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of holding umbrella on the uni- and bi-directional flow has been investigated via experiment and modeling. In the experiments, pedestrians are required to walk clockwise/anti-clockwise in a ring-shaped corridor under normal situation and holding umbrella situation. No matter in uni- or bi-directional flow, the flow rate under holding umbrella situation decreases comparing with that in normal situation. In bidirectional flow, pedestrians segregate into two opposite moving streams very quickly under normal situation, and clockwise/anti-clockwise walking pedestrians are always in the inner/outer lane due to right-walking preference. Under holding umbrella situation, spontaneous lane formation has also occurred. However, when holding umbrella, pedestrians may separate into more than two lanes. Moreover, the merge of lanes have been observed, and clockwise/anti-clockwise pedestrians are not always in the inner/outer lane. To model the flow dynamics, an improved force-based model has been ...

  4. The Bi-directional Moving Structures in a Coronal Bright Point

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dong; Su, Yingna

    2016-01-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of about 10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171, 193, 211, 131, 94, 335 and 304 A, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 and 1400 A. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km/s, while the typically period is about 90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional fl...

  5. Modelling of laboratory data of bi-directional reflectance of regolith surface containing Alumina

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, C; Das, H S; Sen, A K; Gupta, R

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance of a surface is defined as the ratio of the scattered radiation at the detector to the incident irradiance as a function of geometry. The accurate knowledge of the bidirectional reflection function (BRF) of layers composed of discrete, randomly positioned scattering particles is very essential for many remote sensing, engineering, biophysical applications and in different areas of Astrophysics. The computations of BRF's for plane parallel particulate layers are usually reduced to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by the existing techniques. In this work we present our laboratory data on bidirectional reflectance versus phase angle for two sample sizes of 0.3 and 1 $\\mu m$ of Alumina for the He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm (red) and 543.5nm(green) wavelength. The nature of the phase curves of the asteroids depends on the parameters like- particle size, composition, porosity, roughness etc. In our present work we analyse the data which are being generated using single scattering phas...

  6. Color coded multiple access scheme for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications in smart home technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Sewaiwar, Atul; Chung, Yeon-Ho

    2015-10-01

    In optical wireless communications, multiple channel transmission is an attractive solution to enhancing capacity and system performance. A new modulation scheme called color coded multiple access (CCMA) for bidirectional multiuser visible light communications (VLC) is presented for smart home applications. The proposed scheme uses red, green and blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LED) for downlink and phosphor based white LED (P-LED) for uplink to establish a bidirectional VLC and also employs orthogonal codes to support multiple users and devices. The downlink transmission for data user devices and smart home devices is provided using red and green colors from the RGB LEDs, respectively, while uplink transmission from both types of devices is performed using the blue color from P-LEDs. Simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme. It is found that the proposed bidirectional multiuser scheme is efficient in terms of data rate and performance. In addition, since the proposed scheme uses RGB signals for downlink data transmission, it provides flicker-free illumination that would lend itself to multiuser VLC system for smart home applications.

  7. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  8. Inverting Quasi-Resonant Switched-Capacitor Bidirectional Converter and Its Application to Battery Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuang-Shung; Chiu, Yin-Yuan; Cheng, Ming-Wang; Ko, Yi-Pin; Hsiao, Sung-Hsin

    The proposed quasi-resonant (QR) zero current switching (ZCS) switched-capacitor (SC) converter is a new type of bidirectional power flow control conversion scheme. The proposed converter is able to provide voltage conversion ratios from -3/-{1 \\over 3} (triple-mode/trisection-mode) to -n/-{1 \\over n} (-n-mode/-{1 \\over n}-mode) by adding a different number of switched-capacitors and power MOSFET switches with a small series connected resonant inductor for forward and reverse power flow control schemes. It possesses the advantages of low switching losses and current stress in this QR ZCS SC converter. The principle of operation, theoretical analysis of the proposed triple-mode/trisection-mode bidirectional power conversion scheme is described in detail with circuit model analysis. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed inverting type ZCS SC QR bidirectional converter. The proposed converters can be applied to battery equalization for battery management system (BMS).

  9. BIDIRECTIONAL GROWTH BASED MINING AND CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS OF WEB SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikantaiah K C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Web sequential patterns are important for analyzing and understanding users’ behaviour to improve the quality of service offered by the World Wide Web. Web Prefetching is one such technique that utilizes prefetching rules derived through Cyclic Model Analysis of the mined Web sequential patterns. The more accurate the prediction and more satisfying the results of prefetching if we use a highly efficient and scalable mining technique such as the Bidirectional Growth based Directed Acyclic Graph. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm called Bidirectional Growth based mining Cyclic behavior Analysis of web sequential Patterns (BGCAP that effectively combines these strategies to generate prefetching rules in the form of 2-sequence patterns with Periodicity and threshold of Cyclic Behaviour that can be utilized to effectively prefetch Web pages, thus reducing the users’ perceived latency. As BGCAP is based on Bidirectional pattern growth, it performs only (log n+1 levels of recursion for mining n Web sequential patterns. Our experimental results show that prefetching rules generated using BGCAP is 5-10% faster for different data sizes and 10-15% faster for a fixed data size than TD-Mine. In addition, BGCAP generates about 5-15% more prefetching rules than TD-Mine.

  10. High-Frequency Resonant Matrix Converter using IGBT-Based Bidirectional Switches for Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel type soft switching utility frequency AC- high frequency AC converter using asymmetrical PWM bidirectional active switches which can be defined as high frequency resonant matrix converter.This power frequency changer can directly convert utility frequency AC power to high frequency AC power ranging more than 20kHz up to 100kHz. Only one active edge resonant capacitor-assisted soft switching high frequency load resonant cyclo-converter is based on asymmetrical duty cycle PWM strategy. This high frequency cyclo-converter uses bidirectional IGBTs composed of anti-parallel one-chip reverse blocking IGBTs. This high frequency cycloconverter has some remarkable features as electrolytic capacitorless DC busline link, unity power factor correction and sinewave line current shaping, simple configuration with minimum circuit components and low cost, high efficiency and downsizing. This series load resonant cycloconverter incorporating bidirectional active power switches is developed and implemented for high efficiency consumer induction heated food cooking appliances. Its operating principle is described by using equivalent circuits. Its operating performances as soft switching operating ranges and high frequency effective power regulation characteristics are discussed on the basis of simulation and experimental results.

  11. Cooperative Fluorescence from a Strongly Driven Dilute Cloud of Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Lodahl, Peter; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kaiser, R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate cooperative fluorescence in a dilute cloud of strongly driven two-level emitters. Starting from the Heisenberg equations of motion, we compute the first-order scattering corrections to the saturation of the excited-state population and to the resonance-fluorescence spectrum, which both require going beyond the state-of-the-art linear-optics approach to describe collective phenomena. A dipole blockade is observed due to long-range dipole-dipole coupling that vanishes at stronger...

  12. Cooperative Object Manipulation by a Space Robot with Flexible Appendages

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ali A. Moosavian; Zarafshan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Modelling and control of rigid-flexible multibody systems is studied in this paper. As a specified application, a space robotic system with flexible appendages during a cooperative object manipulation task is considered. This robotic system necessitates delicate force exertion by several end-effectors to move an object along a desired path. During such maneuvers, flexible appendages like solar panels may get stimulated and vibrate. This vibrating motion will cause some oscillatory disturbing ...

  13. Cooperative distributed target tracking algorithm in mobile wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a cooperative distributed target tracking algorithm in mobile wireless sensor networks.There are two main components in the algorithm:distributed sensor-target assignment and sensor motion control.In the key idea of the sensor-target assignment,sensors are considered as autonomous agents and the defined objective function of each sensor concentrates on two fundamental factors:the tracking accuracy and the tracking cost.Compared with the centralized algorithm and the noncooperative distrib...

  14. Coalitions in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Suhas; Mandayam, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rational users in wireless networks is studied using coalitional game theory. Using the rate achieved by a user as its utility, it is shown that the stable coalition structure, i.e., set of coalitions from which users have no incentives to defect, depends on the manner in which the rate gains are apportioned among the cooperating users. Specifically, the stability of the grand coalition (GC), i.e., the coalition of all users, is studied. Transmitter and receiver cooperation in an interference channel (IC) are studied as illustrative cooperative models to determine the stable coalitions for both flexible (transferable) and fixed (non-transferable) apportioning schemes. It is shown that the stable sum-rate optimal coalition when only receivers cooperate by jointly decoding (transferable) is the GC. The stability of the GC depends on the detector when receivers cooperate using linear multiuser detectors (non-transferable). Transmitter cooperation is studied assuming that all receivers coopera...

  15. Neural Mechanisms of Cortical Motion Computation Based on a Neuromorphic Sensory System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Issa Abdul-Kreem

    Full Text Available The visual cortex analyzes motion information along hierarchically arranged visual areas that interact through bidirectional interconnections. This work suggests a bio-inspired visual model focusing on the interactions of the cortical areas in which a new mechanism of feedforward and feedback processing are introduced. The model uses a neuromorphic vision sensor (silicon retina that simulates the spike-generation functionality of the biological retina. Our model takes into account two main model visual areas, namely V1 and MT, with different feature selectivities. The initial motion is estimated in model area V1 using spatiotemporal filters to locally detect the direction of motion. Here, we adapt the filtering scheme originally suggested by Adelson and Bergen to make it consistent with the spike representation of the DVS. The responses of area V1 are weighted and pooled by area MT cells which are selective to different velocities, i.e. direction and speed. Such feature selectivity is here derived from compositions of activities in the spatio-temporal domain and integrating over larger space-time regions (receptive fields. In order to account for the bidirectional coupling of cortical areas we match properties of the feature selectivity in both areas for feedback processing. For such linkage we integrate the responses over different speeds along a particular preferred direction. Normalization of activities is carried out over the spatial as well as the feature domains to balance the activities of individual neurons in model areas V1 and MT. Our model was tested using different stimuli that moved in different directions. The results reveal that the error margin between the estimated motion and synthetic ground truth is decreased in area MT comparing with the initial estimation of area V1. In addition, the modulated V1 cell activations shows an enhancement of the initial motion estimation that is steered by feedback signals from MT cells.

  16. Object impedance control for cooperative manipulation - Theory and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic control module of the Dynamic and Strategic Control of Cooperating Manipulators (DASCCOM) project at Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory. First, the cooperative manipulation problem is analyzed from a systems perspective, and the desirable features of a control system for cooperative manipulation are discussed. Next, a control policy is developed that enforces a controlled impedance not of the individual arm endpoints, but of the manipulated object itself. A parallel implementation for a multiprocessor system is presented. The controller fully compensates for the system dynamics and directly controls the object internal forces. Most importantly, it presents a simple, powerful, intuitive interface to higher level strategic control modules. Experimental results from a dual two-link-arm robotic system are used to compare the object impedance controller with other strategies, both for free-motion slews and environmental contact.

  17. Case Studies on an Approach to Multiple Autonomous Vehicle Motion Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K. Liu; X. Wu; G. Paul; G. Dissanayake

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a series of case studies on a novel Simultaneous Path and Motion Planning (SiPaMoP) approach[1] to multiple autonomous or Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) motion coordination in bidirectional networks. The SiPaMoP approach plans collision-free paths for vehicles based on the principle of shortest path by dynamically changing the vehicles' paths, traveling speeds or waiting times, whichever gives the shortest traveling time. It integrates path planning, collision avoidance and motion planning into a comprehensive model and optimizes the vehicles' path and motion to minimize the completion time of a set of tasks. Five case studies, i.e., head-on collision avoidance,catching-up collision avoidance, buffer node generation and collision avoidance, prioritybased motion coordination, and safety distance based planning, are presented. The results demonstrated that the method can effectively plan the path and motion for a team of autonomous vehicles or AGVs, and solve the problems of traffic congestion and collision under various conditions.

  18. Experimental Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, G. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    1. Elementary theory of harmonic motion; 2. Experimental work in harmonic motion; Experiment 1. Determination of g by a simple pendulum; Experiment 2. Harmonic motion of a body suspended by a spring; Experiment 3. Harmonic motion of a rigid body suspended by a torsion wire; Experiment 4. Study of a system with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 5. Dynamical determination of ratio of couple to twist for a torsion wire; Experiment 6. Comparison of the moments of inertia of two bodies; Experiment 7. Experiment with a pair of inertia bars; Experiment 8. Determination of the moment of inertia of a rigid pendulum; Experiment 9. Experiment on a pendulum with variable moment of inertia; Experiment 10. Determination of g by a rigid pendulum; Experiment 11. Pendulum on a yielding support; Experiment 12. Determination of the radius of curvature of a concave mirror by the oscillations of a sphere rolling in it; Experiment 13. Determination of g by the oscillations of a rod rolling on a cylinder; Experiment 14. Study of a vibrating system with two degrees of freedom; Note 1. On the vibration of a body suspended from a light spring; Note 2. Periodic time of a pendulum vibrating through a finite arc; Note 3. Periodic time for finite motion; Note 4. Periodic times of a pendulum with two degrees of freedom.

  19. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  20. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field