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Sample records for bidens actinopterygii cypriniformes

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping;

    2007-01-01

    noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial...... genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon...

  2. Evolutionary trends of the pharyngeal dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi.

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    Emmanuel Pasco-Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial. Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity using X-ray microtomography and we map the resulting dental characters on a phylogenetic tree to explore evolutionary trends. RESULTS: We performed a pilot survey of dental formulae and individual tooth shapes in 34 adult species of Cypriniformes by X-ray microtomography (using either conventional X-ray machine, or synchrotron microtomography when necessary or by dissecting. By mapping morphological results in a phylogenetic tree, it emerges that the two super-families Cobitoidea and Cyprinoidea have followed two distinct evolutionary pathways. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis of a three-row dentition as ancestral for Cyprinoidea and a general trend in tooth row reduction in most derived lineages. Yet, this general scheme must be considered with caution as several events of tooth row gain and loss have occurred during evolutionary history of Cyprinoidea. SIGNIFICANCE: Dentition diversity in Cypriniformes constitutes an excellent model to study the evolution of complex morphological structures. This morphological survey clearly advocates for extending the use of X-ray microtomography to study tooth morphology in Cypriniformes. Yet, our survey also underlines that improved knowledge of Cypriniformes life traits, such as feeding habits, is required as current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude on the link between diet and dental morphology.

  3. The food of roach, Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), in a biomanipulated water supply reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, T.; Mareš, J.; Jurajda, Pavel; Všetičková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 15-22. ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diet analysis * gut * biomanipulation * age groups Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2014 http://www.aiep.pl/volumes/2010/5_1/pdf/03_1421_F1.pdf

  4. Modified Method of Metaphase Plates Obtaining for Polyploid Fish Genera Carassius and Cobitis Karyotyping (Actinopterygii, Cypriniformes

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    Pukhtayevych P. P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ото- браны и апробированы современные методики получения метафазных пластинок соматических клеток рыб, дающих наибольший эффект при исследовании полиплоидных видов. На основании эмпирических данных в отношении представителей родов Carassius и Cobitis рекомендуется ме- тодика с использованием CoCl2 и колхицина. В статье приведено подробное описание модифи- цированной методики и полученные в результате её применения метафазные пластинки Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, 1758 и триплоидной формы Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758.

  5. Competition between the alien Bidens frondosa and its native congener Bidens tripartita

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gruberová, Helena; Prach, Karel

    Leiden : Backhuys Publishers, 2003 - (Child, L.; Brock, J.; Brundu, G.; Prach, K.; Pyšek, P.; Wade, P.; Williamson, M.), s. 227-235 ISBN 90-5782-135-4. [International Conference on the Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions (EMAPI)/6./. Loughborough (GB), 12.09.2001-15.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : Bidens frondosa * Bidens tripartita Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por esp

  7. Schistura udomritthiruji, a new loach from southern Thailand (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2009), s. 319-324. ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cypriniformes * Nemacheilidae * Schistura udomritthuji Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.940, year: 2009

  8. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%. PMID:24047169

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Yangyang; He, Dekui

    2016-09-01

    The Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) is an ecological important fish in East Asia. In this study, we firstly sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of R. oxycephalus. The mitogenome is 16,606 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and two non-coding regions (origin of light-strand replication and control region). The gene content and order is in accord with the common vertebrate form. The nucleotide base composition of H-strand is 28.4% A, 27.2% T, 26.4% C and 18.0% G. The complete mitochondrial genome data would be useful for further studies of genetics, conservation biology and adaptive evolution of R. oxycephalus. PMID:25799350

  10. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  11. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria. PMID:26176227

  12. The influence of water hardness and PCBs mixtures on embryonic development and hatching of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae.

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    Magdalena Katarzyna Socha

    2015-11-01

    After 24 h of incubation there was no significant difference in the percentage of live eggs between groups either in experiment with Aroclor 1254 or Delor 103. In the case of hatching rate tested PCBs mixtures had no effect in both variants of water harness. Delor 103 had no effect on the percentage of deformed larvae of Prussian carp in both hard and soft water. Only the observation of the number of deformed larvae showed higher teratogenic influence of Aroclor 1254 in hard water. Summing up, our results showed that Delor 103 is not harmful to the development of activated Prussian carp eggs in both hard and soft water, but in the case of Aroclor 1254 diluted in hard water increased teratogenic effect was observed.

  13. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

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    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  14. Aspectos biológicos de Sceloenopla bidens, praga de filodendros Biological aspects of Sceloenopla bidens, pest of philodendron spp.

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    André Luiz Lourenção

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Há cerca de dez anos vem sendo observada a presença de Sceloenopla bidens (F., 1792 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae em folhas de Philodendron spp., em Campinas e outras localidades paulistas. O adulto permanece na face inferior das folhas, onde se alimenta, causando injúrias características. As larvas criam-se nas folhas, minando-as e comprometendo o aspecto ornamental da planta. Em condições de laboratório, o desenvolvimento do inseto desde ovo até emergência do adulto durou aproximadamente 48 dias. Em Campinas, efetuaram-se observações de seus danos na Floricultura Campineira, em cinco espécies de filodendros presentes - P. melinoni, P. bipinnatifidum, P. erubescens, P. selhom e P. wilsoni e no parque do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, onde a maioria das espécies não se encontra identificada. Em ambos os locais, verificou-se comportamento diferenciado de algumas espécies de filodendros em relação a S. bidens. Não se observou sua alimentação ou presença em outras epífitas dessa família (Araceae, situadas próximo a filodendros infestados, sugerindo possível especificidade da espécie com o gênero Philodendron.The occurrence of Sceloenopla bidens (F., 1792 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Hispinae on Philodendron spp. has been observed in Campinas and other cities of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The adults stay in the lower surface of the leaves, where they feed, causing typical leaf injury. The larvae are leaf miners and, therefore, impair the ornamental effect of the plant. Under laboratory conditions, the insect development from egg to adult emergence lasted 48 days. In the philodendron germplasm of the Instituto Agronômico, a variation of performance among the species in relation to injury caused by this insect was verified. Two species showed leaves without damage, adults or larvae while others, as P. renauxii, exhibited highly damaged leaves and many adults. The presence or feeding of S. bidens in other epiphytes

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Cypriniformes, Catostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Shiung

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Cypriniformes, Catostomidae) has been amplified and sequenced by employing long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,636 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes, and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 944 bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of M. asiaticus is 28.62% for A, 27.90% for C, 24.8% for T, and 18.70% for G, with a slight AT bias of 53.40%. The complete mitogenome may provide important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analyses for higher taxa of teleost fishes especially for the members of Cypriniformes. PMID:23544832

  16. Emergência de Bidens pilosa em diferentes profundidades de semeadura Seed emergence of Bidens pilosa at different sowing depths

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    M.C. Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa é uma das mais importantes plantas daninhas que ocorrem em lavouras anuais e perenes da região Centro-Sul do Brasil. A grande capacidade de produção de aquênios é uma das suas principais estratégias de sobrevivência, e o conhecimento das condições fundamentais para germinação e emergência das plântulas é essencial para predição do crescimento populacional e para a elaboração de plano de manejo de suas infestações e de seus biótipos resistentes aos herbicidas. Foram conduzidos ensaios em condições de casa de vegetação, onde foi avaliada a emergência de aquênios de B. pilosa em diferentes profundidades (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 cm. Os experimentos foram conduzidos nos meses de maio, agosto e novembro de 2006 e em março de 2007. Os resultados mostraram que a emergência de plântulas de picão-preto foi bastante afetada pela localização do aquênio no perfil do solo, ocorrendo expressiva redução a partir de 2 cm de profundidade. Essa característica da biologia reprodutiva do picão-preto é importante para a formação de densos bancos de sementes em solos submetidos ao preparo convencional, onde grande parte da chuva de sementes é nele incorporada.Bidens pilosa is one of the major weeds in annual and perennial crops in midsouthern Brazil. High seed production is one of its most important survival strategies and the knowledge of the fundamental conditions for seedling germination and emergence is essential to establish prediction models of its population growth and to elaborate management models for control and prevention of herbicide resistant populations. This research aimed to understand the importance of B. pilosa seed depth in the soil profile to enhance its germination and seedling emergence potential. Thus, four assays were carried out under greenhouse conditions and the seeds were sown at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm from the soil surface. The emergence of B. pilosa seedlings was reduced as sowing depth

  17. Antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids from Bidens tripartita.

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    Wolniak, Michał; Tomczykowa, Monika; Tomczyk, Michał; Gudej, Jan; Wawer, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Extracts from herb and flowers of Bidens tripartita L. (Asteraceae), obtained using solvents of different polarity, were studied for their radical scavenging effects. Antioxidant activities of pure flavonoids: flavanomarein (isookanin 7-O-glucoside), cynaroside (luteolin 7-O-glucoside) and luteolin, which had been isolated from this plant, were also evaluated. Radical-scavenging activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The content of flavonoids in flower heads is half of that found in the herb; however, the extract from flowers showed that the antioxidant activity was almost two times higher there. Some extracts (n-BuOH fraction) showed long lasting radical scavenging activity and the EPR spectra were recorded in time to follow the reaction kinetics. Scavenging of DPPH showed second-order kinetics at the beginning of the assay period and later the first-order one. Different kinetics suggested the presence of polymerized and/or less active antioxidants with different scavenging mechanisms for particular polyphenolic compounds. Bur-marigold extracts are a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used in pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:18540165

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). The mitogenome, consisted of 16 601 base pairs (bp), encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of M. yaluensis was G + C: 43.8%, A + T: 56.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. yaluensis was close to Hemibarbus mylodon. PMID:26260172

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Squalidus japonicus coreanus (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

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    Eon Park, Chang; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The short-barbel gudgeon Squalidus japonicus coreanus (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) is a subspecies of S. japonicus, and is endemic to Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence consisted of 16 597 base pairs (bp) encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and two non-coding regions. The overall base composition of S. japonicus coreanus was G + C: 47.4% and A + T: 52.6%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. japonicus coreanus was closely related to Pungtungia herzi. PMID:26329666

  20. 4-Deoxyaurone formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC.

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    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq. DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6'-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction. Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general.

  1. Total flavonoids of Bidens bipinnata L. ameliorate experimental adjuvant-induced arthritis through induction of synovial apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ai-Zong; Li, Xia; Hu, Wei; Chen, Fei-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Background Bidens bipinnata are widely distributed in China, which have been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of total avonoids of Bidens pilosa L. (TFB) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) and its possible mechanisms. Methods The macroscopic scoring of paw edema, secondary paw swelling, and polyarthritis index were measured. Histological examination of the joints and the serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha were examined. ...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Zacco platypus, Huangshan, China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang-Huai; Yan, Jin-Jin; Yan, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Xia, Meng-Ning; Liu, Ying-Long; Lu, Yan-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae, subfamily Daninninae) is a circular molecule of 16,611 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a D-loop region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most fish mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATG codon except for COI which use GTG as start codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop codon TAA or TAG, except for the COII which use single T as stop codon. The D-loop region is 928 bp long, located between tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes. It contains some structures of repeated motifs and microsatellite-like elements characteristic of the Cyprinidae. PMID:24409889

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Pseudogastromyzon jiulongjiangensis Chen (Cypriniformes, Homalopteridae) and phylogenetic analysis of the Cyprinoidei.

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    Lv, Yaoping; Zhang, Kaibo; Liu, Ziming; Hu, Zehui; Wang, Kaiwei; Zhou, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    The Pseudogastromyzon jiulongjiangensis Chen (Cypriniformes, Homalopteridae) is a promising ornamental and commercial candidate in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. jiulongjiangensis was first determined. It is 16,571 bp length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. jiulongjiangensis, Formosania lacustris, and other seven fish first clustered into the Homalopteridae clade. Then, the Homalopteridae and Cobitidae formed the sister group. The Catostomoidae and Cyprinidae constituted the sister branch, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the taxonomic research might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phylogenetic analysis of the Homalopteridae and the natural resources conservation of P. jiulongjiangensis. PMID:27158787

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diptychus maculatus Steindachner (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

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    He, Dekui; Liang, Yangyang; Li, Chunhua; Wei, Chaojun; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    Diptychus maculatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), the sole species of genus Diptychus, is an economically important freshwater fish widely distributed in Asia. In this study, we first sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of D. maculatus. The genome is 16,835 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes as well as 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The gene composition and order are identical with most bony fishes. The overall nucleotide composition of the heavy strand is 27.7% A, 26.7% T, 26.5% C and 19.1% G. The mitogenome data would be useful for further genetics studies, phylogenetic analysis, and resource protection of D. maculatus and phylogenetic analysis of Schizothoracine fishes. PMID:25774947

  5. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide endosulfan in the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Debora J. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce INTA - Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales UNMdP, Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Menone, Mirta L. [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales UNMdP, Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: lujanm@mdp.edu.ar; Camadro, Elsa L. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce INTA - Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias - UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Moreno, Victor J. [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales UNMdP, Funes 3350 (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2008-06-15

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase (CAAT) was determined in root tips of the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.02, 0.5 and 5 {mu}g/L) for 48 h. MN frequency varied from 0 in negative controls and plants exposed to 0.01 {mu}g/L endosulfan to 0-3 in plants exposed to 5 {mu}g/L. Moreover, a significant concentration-dependent increase of CAAT was observed. The higher proportion of laggards and vagrand chromosomes observed at 5 {mu}g/L would indicate that endosulfan interacts with the spindle interrupting normal chromosome migration. Endosulfan resulted genotoxic to B. laevis, a species of potential value for bioassays and in situ monitoring of environmental contamination by pesticides. - Endosulfan causes a concentration-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations in the macrophyte Bidens laevis.

  6. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide endosulfan in the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase (CAAT) was determined in root tips of the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.02, 0.5 and 5 μg/L) for 48 h. MN frequency varied from 0 in negative controls and plants exposed to 0.01 μg/L endosulfan to 0-3 in plants exposed to 5 μg/L. Moreover, a significant concentration-dependent increase of CAAT was observed. The higher proportion of laggards and vagrand chromosomes observed at 5 μg/L would indicate that endosulfan interacts with the spindle interrupting normal chromosome migration. Endosulfan resulted genotoxic to B. laevis, a species of potential value for bioassays and in situ monitoring of environmental contamination by pesticides. - Endosulfan causes a concentration-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations in the macrophyte Bidens laevis

  7. Allelopathic influence of Phytolacca dioica L. germination and early growth of Lycopersicum esculentum and Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy refers to the ability that a plant has to interfere in the metabolism of another by means of chemical compounds released into the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of leaves of Phytolacca dioica L. on the germination and early growth of tomato plants and Bidens pilosa. Extracts were prepared at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%. We measured the pH and osmotic potential of the extracts and carried out a phytochemical analysis of the leaves. In our experiments we used four replicates of 25 seeds distributed in Petri dishes with two sheets of germitest paper dampened with 5mL extract. We evaluated the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG, speed of germination index (IVG, and length (root and shoot and mass (fresh and dry of seedlings of tomato and Bidens pilosa. The pH and osmotic potential were found to be within acceptable standards and the phytochemical analysis of the leaves showed the presence of flavonoids. PG, VG and IVG were affected in more concentrated treatments (4 and 8%, and the length and mass of seedlings of tomato and Bidens pilosa were affected in all treatments. Treatments at an 8% concentration completely inhibited the germination process of the plants.

  8. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  9. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  10. Caracterização de um isolado de Bidens mosaic virus proveniente de alface Characterization of an isolate of Bidens mosaic virus (BiMV from lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Shinia Suzuki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 2004, plantas de alface com sintomas de mosaico coletadas em São Manuel - SP foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica, constatando-se presença de partículas típicas de potyvirus com 730 nm de comprimento. Após purificação biológica por monolesionais em Chenopodium quinoa, o extrato vegetal foi inoculado em uma série de plantas diferenciadoras, verificando-se que o isolado testado foi capaz de infectar C. quinoa e C. amaranticolor induzindo lesões locais seguidas de mosaico sistêmico. Ervilha (Pisum sativum mostrou-se assintomática, e em diferentes cultivares de alface como Trocadero, White Boston, Regina, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Rafaela, Tainá, Vera e Laurel foi observado o mosaico. A cultivar Gizele foi tolerante ao vírus. O sequenciamento da região codificadora da proteína capsidial revelou maior identidade de aminoácidos (97% deste isolado com o Bidens mosaic virus - BiMV (nº de acesso AY960151. Diferentemente dos isolados de BiMV já descritos, este proveniente de alface não foi capaz de infectar Bidens pilosa, Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum TNN e N. glutinosa. A ocorrência natural do BiMV em alface, causando sintomas semelhantes aos do LMV e a suscetibilidade de várias das cultivares hoje plantadas, servem como um alerta para a correta diagnose do vírus a campo.In 2004 lettuce plants showing mosaic symptoms collected in São Manuel, SP were analyzed by electron microscopy, and particles with 730 nm typically from potyvirus were observed. After biological purification by monolesionals on Chenopodium quinoa, this isolate was sap inoculated on a host range assay. The virus infected C. quinoa and C. amaranticolor, causing local lesions and systemic mosaic. The virus did not induce symptoms on pea (Pisum sativum, but induced mosaic on the leaves of some lettuce cultivars such as Trocadero, White Boston, Regina, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Rafaela, Tainá, Vera and Laurel. The lettuce cultivar Gizele was tolerant to

  11. Sensitivity of Bidens laevis L. to mutagenic compounds. Use of chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers of genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis possesses suitable cytological characteristics for genotoxicity testing. To test its sensitivity as compared to terrestrial plants species currently in use in standardized assays, Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and Maleic Hydrazide (HM) were used. On the other hand, the insecticide Endosulfan (ES) - an environmentally relevant contaminant - was assayed in seeds and two-month old plants. Mitotic Index (MI), frequency of Chromosome Aberrations in Anaphase-Telophase (CAAT) and frequency of Abnormal Metaphases (AM) were analyzed. MH, MMS and ENU caused a significant decrease of the MI. MMS was aneugenic whereas MH and ENU were both aneugenic and clastogenic. ES caused a significant concentration-dependent increase of total- and aneugenic-CAAT in roots and a significant high frequency of AM at high concentrations. Because of its sensitivity to mutagenic substances, B. laevis can be regarded as a reliable and convenient species for genotoxicity assays especially if aquatic contaminants are evaluated. - The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis is sensitive to genotoxic compounds similarly to terrestrial standardized species.

  12. Sensitivity of Bidens laevis L. to mutagenic compounds. Use of chromosomal aberrations as biomarkers of genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.J. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lukaszewicz, G. [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Menone, M.L., E-mail: lujanm@mdp.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Departamento de Ciencias Marinas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camadro, E.L. [Laboratorio de Genetica, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Balcarce (INTA), Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNMdP, CC 276, 7620 Balcarce (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis possesses suitable cytological characteristics for genotoxicity testing. To test its sensitivity as compared to terrestrial plants species currently in use in standardized assays, Methyl Methanesulfonate (MMS), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and Maleic Hydrazide (HM) were used. On the other hand, the insecticide Endosulfan (ES) - an environmentally relevant contaminant - was assayed in seeds and two-month old plants. Mitotic Index (MI), frequency of Chromosome Aberrations in Anaphase-Telophase (CAAT) and frequency of Abnormal Metaphases (AM) were analyzed. MH, MMS and ENU caused a significant decrease of the MI. MMS was aneugenic whereas MH and ENU were both aneugenic and clastogenic. ES caused a significant concentration-dependent increase of total- and aneugenic-CAAT in roots and a significant high frequency of AM at high concentrations. Because of its sensitivity to mutagenic substances, B. laevis can be regarded as a reliable and convenient species for genotoxicity assays especially if aquatic contaminants are evaluated. - The wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis is sensitive to genotoxic compounds similarly to terrestrial standardized species.

  13. EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil by Bidens maximowicziana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cleanup technology for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Bidens maximowicziana is a new Pb hyperaccumulator, which not only has remarkable tolerance to Pb but also extraordinary accumulation capacity for Pb. The maximum Pb concentration was 1509.3 mg/kg in roots and 2164.7 mg/kg in above ground tissues. The Pb distribution order in the Bidens maximowicziana was: leaf > stem > root. The effect of amendments on phytoremediation was also studied. The mobility of soil Pb and the Pb concentrations in plants were both increased by EDTA application. And compared with CK (control check), EDTA application promoted translocation of Pb to above ground parts of the plant. The Pb concentrations in aboveground parts of plants was increased from 24.23-680.56 mg/kg to 29.07-1905.57 mg/kg. This research demonstrated that B. maximowicziana appeared to be suitable for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil, especially, combination with EDTA.

  14. Antihyperglycemic effects of the methanol leaf extract ofDiaphananthe bidens in normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anaga Aruh Ottah; Onuoha Augustine; Igboeli Okechukwu Obiora; Ezeja Maxwell

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the methanol leaf extract of Diaphanathe bidens (D. bidens) (AFZEL. EX SW) SCHLTRfor antihyperglycemic activity in order to confirm it antidiabetic potential.Methods:D. bidens was extracted by cold maceration for48 h and concentrated in vacuo to yieldD. bidens extract(DBE). Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg). Oral glucose tolerance test was done with2 g/kg glucose load in normal rats.DBE (150, 300 and600 mg/kg) was administered orally, while tolbutamide (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the standard reference drug. Blood glucose levels determined usingACCUCHEKglucose auto-analyzer. The acute toxicity and phytochemical studies were also carried out.Results:DBE (600 mg/kg) and tolbutamide (100 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05, 0.005) reduced blood glucose levels of rats between120 and480 min post administration in normal rats. In the streptozotocin- induced hyperglycemic rats,DBE (150, 300, 600mg/kg) caused significant (P<0.001)dose- and time- dependent reduction in the blood glucose levels by1.7%, 22.8%and43.4%, respectively at 480 min compared to the negative control group.DBE (600mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose level of rats by1.2% in the oral glucose tolerance test when compared with the normal saline treated group. The acute toxicity test showed thatDBE was safe at the doses used and the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, tannins and terpernoids.Conclusions: D. bidens extract possess antihyperglycemic activity which may be mediated through pancreatic and extra-pancreatic pathways, thereby justifying it folkloric use.

  15. Karyotype, NORs, and C-banding analysis of Pseudophoxinus firati Bogutskaya, Küçük & Atalay, 2007 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in the Euphrates River, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KARASU, Muradiye; YÜKSEL, Eşref; Muhammet GAFFAROĞLU

    2011-01-01

    Pseudophoxinus firati Bogutskaya, Küçük & Atalay, 2007 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) living in the Euphrates River system were analyzed in terms of their karyotype, C-banding, and nucleolus organizer region properties. Metaphase chromosome spreads were obtained from kidney cells. The diploid chromosome number was found to be 2n = 50, of which 19 pairs were meta-submetacentric and 6 pairs were subtelocentric, and the fundamental number was found to be 88. No sex chromosome differentiation w...

  16. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1, the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  17. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  18. Habitat-specific locomotor variation among Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens along a river.

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    Shi-Jian Fu

    Full Text Available The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens, varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR, maximum metabolic rate (MMR, cost of transport (COT and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not U(crit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens.

  19. A new species of parasitic copepod, Sarcotretes umitakae sp. n. (Siphonostomatoida, Pennellidae, on the rattail (Actinopterygii, Macrouridae from the East China Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Uyeno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of copepod, Sarcotretes umitakae sp. n., of the siphonostomatoid family Pennellidae is described based on female specimens from the rattail Coelorinchus jordani Smith and Pope (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae caught in the East China Sea. This species is characterized by exhibiting the following characters: the large proboscis projects strongly; the head bears paired lateral processes which are bulbous and taper into a slender horn; the twisting neck is significantly longer than the trunk; and the trunk bears an anterior constriction with a reduced abdomen.

  20. Allelopathic effect of essential oils of medicinal plants in Bidens pilosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the inhibitory allelopathic effects of the volatile extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, Lippia sidoides Cham. and Cymbopogum nardus L. on seed germination and root growth of seedlings of Bidens pilosa. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. For this end, we used oils at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (v/v. Five treatments were used for each of the oils arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in Petri dishes lined with filter paper moistened with distilled water and, aiming at the indirect contact with each oil, two sheets of filter paper were placed on top of the lid, in which three (3 mL of each oil solution were added. Then, the dishes were incubated in a germination chamber at 25°C. The pH did not contribute to alter the results; the volatile extracts of essential oils of C. zeylanicum, L. sidoides and C. nardus inhibited seed germination and root growth of seedlings of B. pilosa, which shows allelopathic potential; and the concentration of 0.08% of oils caused the overall deterioration of the roots and death of seedlings of B. pilosa.

  1. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhou Qixing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria at Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: Zhouqx@iae.ac.cn; Wang Lin; Liu Weitao [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2009-01-30

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16 mg kg{sup -1}, the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments ({<=}16 mg kg{sup -1}), the application of Cd could facilitate plant growth, resulting in 3.9-11.0% and 5.9-13.8%, respectively, increase in shoots dry biomass compared with the control. The Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and shoots exceeded 100 mg kg{sup -1} when soil Cd was at 8 mg kg{sup -1}, and they were positively correlated with Cd concentration in soils, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) values were all greater than 1.0. Thus, it is clear that B. pilosa has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator. All the results elementarily indicated that B. pilosa is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulating plant.

  2. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuebing; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Weitao

    2009-01-30

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16mgkg(-1), the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (

  3. Population genetic diversity of sesarmid crab (Perisesarma bidens) in China based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haolang; Xu, Jingming; Yang, Mingliu; Wu, Bin; Yan, Bing; Xiong, Yingze

    2016-09-01

    The population genetic diversity of Perisesarma bidens in China was investigated using 627 bp fragment of mtDNA COI gene sequence. A total of 186 individuals were collected from ten localities over most of the species' range and 31 different haplotypes were obtained. The most frequent haplotype was Hap2, which was shared in all ten localities (132 individuals), whereas most haplotypes were rare and existed in only one or two individuals. Haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.338 to 0.731 and from 0.00058 to 0.00278, respectively, which represented a moderate level of haplotype diversity and a low level of nucleotide diversity. The genetic distance ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0028 within populations and from 0.0006 to 0.0023 between populations. An analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (FST) revealed a low level of genetic differentiation among ten populations (FST = -0.00439, p > 0.05), indicating that no significant population genetic structure existed in populations from the East China Sea and South China Sea. Both mismatch distribution and neutrality tests implied a recent population expansion event for the sesarmid crab species in the late Pleistocene. PMID:25693695

  4. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  5. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  6. Description of sounds associated with Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) in the western North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiak, Danielle; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2013-11-01

    Several groups of Sowerby's beaked whales (Mesoplodon bidens) were encountered on July 4, 2011, during a shipboard cetacean survey conducted off the eastern seaboard of the United States. Acoustic recordings were collected using a three-element towed hydrophone array. Many echolocation clicks were recorded during the encounter, but no tonal sounds were detected. A total of 2969 echolocation clicks were included in analyses of frequency and temporal characteristics. A Gaussian mixture model with four mixtures was fitted to the histogram of peak frequencies; four subsets of clicks were designated. The majority of clicks (n = 2048) contained a median peak frequency of 33 kHz, while the others contained a median peak frequency of 25 kHz (n = 324), 51 kHz (n = 304), or 67 kHz (n = 293). Most clicks did not contain a clear frequency-modulated upsweep, though some clicks exhibited a slight sweep from 30-36 kHz. Seven burst pulses were detected in the encounter, two of which were of high enough quality for detailed analysis. The acoustic characteristics of Sowerby's beaked whales have not previously been described; the current study will facilitate incorporation of these data into passive acoustic monitoring programs in the North Atlantic Ocean. PMID:24180799

  7. Efecto de diferentes adyuvantes en la eficiencia del bioherbicida HERBIO sobre hojas de Bidens pilosa L. (Romerillo)

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Altuna; Gloria Bueno; María E. Díaz de Villegas; Antonio Bell; Cristina Gastón; Esmérida Torres; Yunex Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la efectividad de la adición de diferentes adyuvantes, sobre las propiedades físico-químicas, el mojamiento y actividad fitotóxica del bioherbicida HERBIO. Se seleccionaron cuatro adyuvantes comerciales: DASH HC, AG-5, Rosado y Oro, los cuales fueron preparados a diferentes concentraciones en la mezcla bioherbicida-adyuvante-agua. Se determinó tensión superficial (Ts), el mojamiento y el efecto fitotóxico en la superficie foliar de Bidens pilosa L. La adición de los adyuvantes a la...

  8. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  9. The complete mtDNA genome of Triplophysa dorsalis (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae, Cobitoidea): genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dujuan; Conteh Kanu, Unisa; Zhao, Guang; Xie, Peng; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yu; Niu, Jiangong; Ma, Xufa

    2016-09-01

    Based upon the morphological characters, the genus Triplophysa (plateau Loach) is a highly diverse group in the family Balitoridae (or Cypriniformes, Cobitoidea) with 133 valid species. Therefore, the taxonomic relationship of this species at the genetic level remains ambiguous. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Triplophysa dorsalis. In order to understand its position and genetic background at the gene level, the characteristics of mitochondrial DNA sequences and phylogenetic relationship were examined. The mitochondrial genome of T. dorsalis is similar to those of the typical vertebrates, 16 572 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All genes were encoded on the heavy strand except for ND6 and 8 tRNA genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.16%, 28.41%, 25.62% and 17.82% for A, T, C and G, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the seven Triplophysa species clustered together with T. dorsalis to form a sister group with Triplophysa strauchii, T. bleekeri, T. stoliczkai and T. bombifrons. The two genera Triplophysa and Barbatula formed a sister-group relationship, the species Homatula potanini located in the intermediate position, and the genus Leptobotia elongata was in the basal position in the subfamily Nemacheilidae. Further investigations with more Triplophysa species need to be performed for better understanding of the evolutionary history of this fascinating genus. PMID:26457606

  10. In vitro study of mutagenic potential of Bidens pilosa Linné and Mikania glomerata Sprengel using the comet and micronucleus assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ronaldo de Jesus; Diniz, Andréa; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2008-06-19

    Teas of Bidens pilosa and Mikania glomerata are popularly consumed to medicinal ends. The capacity to induce DNA damages and mutagenic effects of these teas were evaluated, in vitro, on HTC cells, with comet assay and micronucleus test. The teas tested at various doses were prepared differently: infusion of Mikania glomerata (IM) and Bidens pilosa (IB), macerate of Mikania glomerata in 80% ethanol (MM80) and decoction of Bidens pilosa (DB). In IM and MM80, the quantity of coumarin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. Methylmethanesulfonate was utilized as positive control, phosphate-buffered saline as negative control, 80% ethanol as solvent control and 2-aminoanthracene as drug metabolism control. The comet assay demonstrated genotoxic effects for both plants. The genotoxic potential of IB was upper than DB, showing dose-response. In the MN test, excepting IM 40 microL/mL, all treatments was not mutagenic. The effects did not show direct relation with cumarin quantity present in IM and MM80. The results demonstrated DNA damages at the highest concentrations of alcoholic macerate (10 and 20 microL/mL) and infusion of Mikania glomerata (20 and 40 microL/mL) and of Bidens pilosa infusion (40 microL/mL). Thus, both dose and preparation-form suggest caution in the phytotherapeutic use of these plants. PMID:18485638

  11. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaohua Xia; Jie Zhao; Qiyan Du; Zhongjie Chang

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  12. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads. PMID:20861569

  13. In vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral effects of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum extracts Efeitos citotóxico, antioxidante e antiviral in vitro de extratos de Pterocaulon alopecuroides e Bidens segetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silva Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle and Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla are two species belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts from those two species were evaluated to their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiviral activities. All the extracts assayed have shown a very high cytotoxity against RBL-2H3 cell line. The antioxidant assay pointed out a really high activity of the ethyl acetate extracts for B. segetum and P. alopecuroides. This can be partially explained due to the high content of coumarins, at least for P. alopecuroides. None of the total ethanol extracts from B. segetum showed significant activity against the two strains of Herpes simplex virus (Types 1 and 2 resistant to acyclovir. P. alopecuroides ethanol extract was also inactive against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 resistant to acyclovir. However, this extract presented inhibitory activity against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 resistant to acyclovir. From the ethanol crude extract of P. alopecuroides, it was possible to isolate 7-(2',3'-dihidroxy-3'-methylbutyloxy-6-methoxycoumarin, which was tested in the same conditions, showing a viral inhibitory rate almost twice bigger than the P. alopecuroides sample for HSV-2-ACVr. The coumarin was also active against HSV-1-ACVr. Those results provide further evidence of the importance of Pterocaulon alopecuroides and Bidens segetum as medicinal plants.Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lamark De Candolle e Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla são duas espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae. Os extratos dessas duas espécies foram avaliados quanto às suas atividades citotóxica, antioxidante e antiviral. Todos os extratos analisados apresentaram citotoxidade muito alta contra linhagens de células RBL-2H3. O ensaio de atividade antioxidante demonstrou uma alta atividade das frações em acetato de etila de B. segetum e P. alopecuroides. Isso pode ser parcialmente explicado pelo alto conteúdo de cumarinas, ao menos para P

  14. Role of Ethanol Extract of Bidens Pilosa L. Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidens pilosa L. is one of the dominant families of plants contributing to medicinal species worldwide. The present study was performed to investigate the role of ethanolic extract of B. pilosa (BpE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-induced hepatic dysfunction in gamma irradiated mice. BpE was orally administered to mice for eight consecutive days at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight (one day before and eight days after tumour inoculation). On the 3rd day of tumour inoculation, animals were exposed to whole body gamma radiation at dose of 6 Gy. The results obtained in the present study revealed that both EAC and/or gamma radiation induced liver biochemical and histopathological alterations. In vitro short term toxicity study, Bidens pilosa extract at different experimental dose levels increased the percentage of non-viable cell count. Gamma radiation and/or EAC induced oxidative stress, inflammation and biochemical alteration in liver function. The liver oxidative stress was manifested by increase in lipid peroxidation concomitant with decrease in glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Liver inflammation was manifested by increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interlukin-2 (IL-2) and alteration in leukocyte count (LC). Biochemical alteration in liver function manifested by significant increase in liver transaminases (AST and ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Moreover, radiation and EAC induced liver oxidative stress and significant increase in caspase-3. In vivo studies showed that BpE restored the hepatic function profile in tumour bearing mice. Histopathological studies showed that EAC and radiation caused fatty degeneration, enlargement of liver cells nuclei and presence of necrosis. Treatment with BpE modulates most of the pathological alterations. It could be concluded that the hepato protective effect of BpE is related to its phyto chemical components, which were claimed to be the mechanism of hepatic protection.

  15. Length-weight and length-length relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes from five localities in northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Keskar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Botia striata, Lepidocephalichthys thermalis, Paracanthocobitis mooreh, Indoreonectes evezardi, Nemacheilus anguilla, Nemachilichthys rueppelli and Schistura denisoni were studied from five localities within the Krishna River system of the Indian Western Ghats: Lonawala (Indrayani River, Paud (Mula River, Warje (Mutha River, Bhor (Nira River and Patan (Koyna River.  With the exception of L. thermalis all species are endemic to peninsular India, and to our knowledge this is the first presentation of LWR and LLR data for them.  New maximum lengths are also reported for I. evezardi, N. anguilla, N. rueppelli and S. denisoni. 

  16. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L.) in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Dieamant; Maria Del Carmen V. Pereda; Cecília Nogueira; Samara Eberlin; Gustavo Facchini; Juliana Tibério Checon; Camila Kappke Cesar; Lilian Mussi; Márcio Antonio Polezel; Divino Martins-Oliveira; Luiz Claudio Di Stasi

    2015-01-01

    The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A) containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed f...

  17. Fungitoxicty of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis in the in vitro development of phytophatogens fungi / Fungitoxidade de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento in vitro de fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Stangarlin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The fungitoxicity of aqueous crude extracts (ACE of Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba and Rosmarinus officinalis was evaluated in vitro on development of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. The active ACE were incorporated to Potato- Dextrose-Agar (PDA alone or in mixture, at 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% concentrations. Measurement in fungal colonies was taken daily until the control treatment covered 2/3 of the culture media. The mixtures of T. vulgaris with B. pilosa did not have positive effect because the ACE of B. pilosa did not reduce the fungal growth of R. solani and in mixture inhibited the effect ACE of T. vulgaris. However, the mixture of ACEs of R. officinalis and L. alba produced better results than isolated ACEs, with 60% of growth inhibition of A. alternata. The ACE of T. vulgaris inhibited the growth of C. graminicola at 97%. The results show that ACEs have significative fungitoxicity in the evaluated phythopathogens.Avaliou-se in vitro, a atividade fungitóxica dos extratos brutos aquosos (EBA em diferentes concentrações isolados e em misturas de Bidens pilosa, Thymus vulgaris, Lippia alba e Rosmarinus officinalis no desenvolvimento dos fungos Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum graminicola, Rhizoctonia solani e Sclerotium rolfsii. A avaliação foi realizada incorporando os extratos brutos aquosos (EBAs ao meio BDA isolados e em mistura, nas concentrações 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% e 50%. Foram feitas medições diárias das colônias fúngicas até o momento em o tratamento controle cobriu 2/3 da superfície do meio de cultura. Verificou-se que a mistura de T. vulgaris com B. pilosa não teve efeito positivo, pois o EBA isolado de B. pilosa não reduziu o crescimento do fungo R. solani e em mistura reduziu o efeito do EBA de T. vulgaris. Porém, o EBAs de R. officinalis e L. alba em mistura levaram a melhores resultados, reduzindo em até 60% o

  18. Estratégias de manejo de inverno e verão visando ao controle de Conyza bonariensis e Bidens pilosa Winter and summer management strategies for Conyza bonariensis and Bidens pilosa control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Oliveira Neto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis é uma das principais plantas daninhas da região Sul do País; com a seleção de biótipos tolerantes e resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, demandas são crescentes por alternativas de manejo para essa espécie. Com esse intuito, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes estratégias de manejo de inverno e de verão sobre o controle de Conyza bonariensis, utilizando a mistura em tanque de glyphosate+2,4-D associada ou não com herbicidas residuais. As combinações de manejo foram realizadas após a colheita do milho safrinha (manejo de inverno, associadas a manejos antecedendo a semeadura da soja (manejo de verão, totalizando 15 tratamentos. Os manejos de inverno avaliados foram eficientes na dessecação das plantas daninhas e mantiveram excelentes níveis de controle residual até a pré-semeadura da cultura da soja. A semeadura da aveia após o manejo de inverno com posterior manejo de verão com glyphosate+2,4-D+diclosulam mostrou-se eficiente no controle de Bidens pilosa. Em todos os manejos em que o herbicida 2,4-D foi associado ao glyphosate houve controle total de Conyza bonariensis.Conyza bonariensis is one of the most important weeds in southern Brazil. The selection of biotypes tolerant and resistant to the herbicide glyphosate has led to increasing demand for alternatives of management strategy to control this species. This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different winter and summer management strategy for the control of Conyza bonariensis, by using glyphosate + 2,4-D tank mixtures combined or not with residual herbicides. The different burndown alternatives were applied after corn harvest (winter burndown, associated to applications before soybean sowing (summer burndown with a total of 15 treatments. Winter burndown options evaluated in this research were efficient in weed desiccation and provided excellent levels of residual weed control up to the next summer soybean

  19. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

  20. Myxobolus franciscoi sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), a parasite of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae) from the Upper São Francisco River, Brazil, with a revision of Myxobolus spp. from South America

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge C. Eiras; Cassandra M. Monteiro; Marilia C. Brasil-Sato

    2010-01-01

    Myxobolus franciscoi sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) is described from the "curimatá-pacú" fish, Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae) from the Upper São Francisco River, Brazil. This parasite forms whitish plasmodia (about 1 x 1 mm) that develop in the connective tissue of fins. The spores are more or less round in frontal view and ellipsoidal in lateral view, measuring 6.4 (6.0-6.9) µm in length, by 6.0 (5.8-6.4) µm in width and 3.2 µm in ...

  1. Estudio morfohistológico y efecto quimioprotector de las hojas de Bidens pilosa L. sobre el cáncer de colon inducido en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arroyo; Pablo Bonilla; Raquel Oré; Ernesto Ráez; Manuel Marin; José Valencia; Hugo Justil; Jaime Martínez; Christian Palomino

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar la histología vegetal y la influencia del extracto etanólico de la planta entera de Bidens pilosa L. sobre el cáncer de colón inducido en ratas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Facultades de Medicina, de Farmacia y Bioquímica y de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratas Holzmann. Intervenciones: Se agrupó 48 ratas Holtzmann, de 2 meses de edad, con pesos 100 g a 130 g, en seis grupos de ocho cada uno, y se...

  2. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y CONTENIDO TOTAL DE FENOLES DE LOS EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DE Salvia aratocensis, Salvia Sochensis, Bidens reptons y Montanoa ovalifolia.

    OpenAIRE

    Tafurt García, Geovanna; Vásquez Cardeño , Ángela; Molina Cala, Monica; Miranda, Ingrid; Morales Martinez, Jairo; Stashenko, Elena

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluaron las actividades antioxidantes, a través del ensayo de descoloramiento del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo, DPPH, y el contenido total de fenoles mediante el método de Folin-Ciocalteu, de los extractos etanólicos de Salvia aratocensis, Salvia sochensis, Bidens reptans y Montanoa ovalifolia; los valores obtenidos fueron en orden respectivo: 0.0011 ± 0.0001, 0.00190 ± 0.00005, 0.0017 ± 0.0001 y 0.0073 ± 0.0001 (kg extracto/mmol iniciales de DP...

  3. Germination and morphology of diaspores and seedlings of Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla=Germinação e morfologia de diásporos e plântulas de Bidens segetum Mart. ex Colla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of new ornamental plants from native species such as Bidens segetum has great potential for the floriculture market, however, this depends on studies that enable its propagation for commercial purposes. This research aimed to define conditions from germination and to describe and illustrate the morphology of diaspores and seedlings of B. segetum. The germination study was performed with freshly harvested diaspores using a paper substrate at three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C and diaspores stored with two substrates (paper and sand at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30°C. The variables analyzed were: number of diaspores per gram, moisture content, germination percentage, and germination speed index. For morphology, measurements were made to characterize the seedlings and their structures. Based on the results, it is concluded that the germination test of diaspores of B. segetum can be performed at temperatures of 20 to 25°C, using paper as substrate, in the presence of constant light. The first count should be performed the fourth day after sowing, and end fifteen days after the start of the test. The dispersion unit of B. segetum is the fruit of cypsela type, monospermic, containing a straight, axial, and hyaline embryo. Germination is epigeous=A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas como Bidens segetum apresenta grande potencial para o mercado da floricultura, entretanto dependem de estudos que viabilizem sua propagação com fins comerciais. Assim, objetivou-se determinar condições para germinação, descrever e ilustrar a morfologia de diásporos e plântulas de B. segetum. Os testes da germinação foram realizados com diásporos recém colhidos, usando papel mata-borrão como substrato, em três temperaturas (15, 20 e 25°C e com diásporos armazenados, em dois substratos (papel mata-borrão e areia e três temperaturas (20, 25 e 30°C. As variáveis analisadas foram: número de di

  4. Changes in gametophyte physiology of Pteris multifida induced by the leaf leachate treatment of the invasive Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the response of fern gametophytes to environment has raised much attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion to fern gametophytes are scarce. Allelopathy plays an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathic effects of invasive plants on fern gametophytes and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on spermatophyte growth. Field investigation shows that many ferns are threatened by the invasion of B. pilosa. The distribution of Pteris multifida overlaps with that of B. pilosa in China. To examine the potential involvement of allelopathic mechanisms of B. pilosa leaves, changes in the physiology in P. multifida gametophytes are analyzed. We found that cell membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities as well as photosynthesis pigment contents of the gametophytes were affected by B. pilosa leachates. Gametophytes of P. multifida exposed to B. pilosa had increased damages to cell membranes, expressed in thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (membrane permeability), and degree of injury. Enzyme activities, assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) enhanced with the increase in leachate concentration after 2-day exposure. Meanwhile, lower chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoid (Car), and the total chlorophyll were measured as leachate concentrations increased. At day 10, leaf leachates of B. pilosa exhibited the greatest inhibition. These results suggest that the observed inhibitory or stimulatory effects on the physiology studied can have an adverse effect on P. multifida and that allelopathic interference seems to have involved in this process. PMID:26490937

  5. Efectos de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. y de Microorganismos en la Incidencia y Severidad de Phytophthora infestans (Mont. De Bary en Papa Criolla (Solanum phureja Cultivada en Tenjo (Cundinamarca, Colombia / Effects of Chipaca (Bidens pilosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Enrique León Sicard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En una finca ecológica del municipio de Tenjo(Cundinamarca-Colombia se estudió el efecto de variosmateriales preparados a partir de chipaca (Bidens pilosa y deaislamientos microbianos, sobre la incidencia y severidad deP. infestans en un cultivo de papa criolla (Solanum phureja,utilizando un diseño completamente al azar (DCA consubmuestreo y ocho tratamientos: purín de flores; purín mezcla; actinomiceto AC 12 (Streptomyces sp.; mezcla de actinomicetos; aislamiento bacteriano (Bacillus subtilis; mezcla bacterias (Bacillus subtilis y Burkholderia cepacia; Hongo (Geotrichum sp. y un control (agua destilada estéril. Los resultados mostraron rápida incidencia de la enfermedad, que fue evidente a los 36 días después de la siembra (dds y alcanzó 100% de afectacióna los 52 dds sin diferencias entre tratamientos. La severidadfue estadísticamente diferente únicamente en el tratamientode “purín de flores”, que se diferenció significativamente deltratamiento control entre los 56 y 70 dds (27,8% menos lo que fortalece resultados de ensayos anteriores sobre su potencial como posible producto biocontrolador de la Gota. Resultados menores de severidad frente al control (no significativos también se obtuvieron con los tratamientos “purín mezcla” y “mezcla de actinomicetos”, entre los 60 y 87 dds / In an organic farm of Tenjo (Cundinamarca, Colombiathe effect of various materials prepared from chipaca (Bidenspilosa and microbial isolates, on the incidence and severity ofP. infestans in potato (Solanum phureja were studied usinga completely randomized design (CRD with subsampling andeight treatments: flowers slurry, mixed slurry; actinomyceteAC 12 (Streptomyces sp., mix actinomycetes; isolationbacterial (Bacillus subtilis ; mixed bacteria (Bacillus subtilisand Burkholderia cepacia; fungus (Geotrichum sp. and acontrol (sterile distilled water. The results showed rapid disease incidence, which was evident at 36 days after planting (dap

  6. Using the whole body as a sucker: combining respiration and feeding with an attached lifestyle in hill stream loaches (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Jens; Geerinckx, Tom

    2014-09-01

    Small fishes living in fast-flowing rivers face a harsh environment as they can easily be swept away by the rapid currents. To survive such circumstances, teleosts evolved a wide variety of attachment mechanisms, based on friction, negative pressure or both. Balitorinae (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes) are exceptional in using their whole body as an adhesive apparatus. We investigated the morphological adaptations of Balitorinae by studying the osteology and myology of four species (Beaufortia leveretti, Sewellia lineolata, Pseudogastromyzon myersi, and Gastromyzon punctulatus) using clearing and staining, serial cross-sections and CT-scanning. A kinematic analysis was performed to study the respiration and feeding mechanisms and to identify key structures in these mechanisms. Our research showed that the whole body of Balitorinae acts as a suction disc, with friction-enhancing structures (unculi) on the thickened anterior rays of the paired fins. The abruptly rising head profile, supported by the extremely enlarged lacrimal bone and the flat ventral body surface facilitate effective substrate attachment. During attachment, the pelvic girdle is pulled anterodorsally, suggesting the formation of a negative pressure underneath the body. Detachment by water inflow underneath the body is prevented by three mechanisms. 1) Barbels control the water inflow by detachment and reattachment to the substrate. 2) Most water present underneath the body is removed during inspiration. 3) Excess water is regularly removed by movements of the posterior pectoral fin rays. The balitorine body is thus modified as such that it allows effective attachment, while not impairing respiration. Comparison with other teleosts living in similar environments shows that most species use more locally concentrated modifications of the paired fins and/or the mouth for attachment. The high diversity in teleostean adhesive apparatuses and associated myological modifications suggest a substantial functional

  7. Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae. PMID:25118414

  8. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds in Bidens pilosa L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xianrui; Xu, Qiao

    2016-05-01

    A validated method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established to separate and identify phenolic compounds in Bidens pilosa L. Mass spectrometry experiments were performed both in positive and negative ion modes. A total of 35 compounds were detected, and 26 phenolic compounds were unequivocally identified or tentatively assigned based on retention time, maximum UV absorption, molecular formula, and fragments. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method was validated and showed good linearity (R(2) ≧ 0.9996) over the test range. The limits of detection and quantification were above 0.072 and 0.162 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday precision were below 0.3 and 1.6%, respectively. PMID:27004754

  9. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Alberson, Neely R; Woodyard, Ethan T; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in some host records. In the summer of 2013, thirteen adult smallmouth buffalo were seined from a 0.1-acre (0.04-hectare) experimental research pond at the Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Two previously unknown species of Myxobolus were observed parasitising the gills. Plasmodia of the two species differed from each other in both size and shape. Morphologically the two species were distinct from one another and from other Myxobolus spp. previously reported from buffalo fish. Myxospores of Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. were spherical and measured 12.7-14.5 (13.9 ± 0.4) µm in length and 10.7-13.6 (12.5 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 10.3-14.8 (12.6 ± 2.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 5.6-7.4 (6.6 ± 0.4) µm in length and 3.7-4.9 (4.5 ± 0.8) µm in width and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Myxospores of Myxobolus minutus n. sp. were circular in shape and measured 7.4-9.6 (8.6 ± 0.7) µm in length and 7.5-9.9 (8.8 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 6.5-7.3 (6.7 ± 0.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 3.6-4.9 (4.3 ± 0.3) µm in length and 2.8-3.8 (3.3 ± 0.3) µm and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Supplemental 18S rRNA gene sequencing identified unique sequences for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences demonstrated a strong clustering of both isolates with other species of Myxobolus from cypriniform fish. PMID:27307169

  10. Bidens pilosa and its active compound inhibit adipogenesis and lipid accumulation via down-modulation of the C/EBP and PPARγ pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Meng-Ting; Lin, Chuan-Ju; Chang, Cicero Lee-Tian; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its complications are a major global health problem. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of an edible plant, Bidens pilosa, and its active constituent. We first assessed the long-term effect of B. pilosa on body composition, body weight, blood parameters in ICR mice. We observed that it significantly decreased fat content and increased protein content in ICR mice. Next, we verified the anti-obesity effect of B. pilosa in ob/ob mice. It effectively and dose-dependently reduced fat content, adipocyte size and/or body weight in mice. Moreover, mechanistic studies showed that B. pilosa inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and Egr2 in adipose tissue. Finally, we examined the effect of 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHT) on adipogenesis in adipocytes. We found that B. pilosa significantly decreased the adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This decrease was associated with the down-regulation of expression of Egr2, C/EBPs, PPARγ, adipocyte Protein 2 (aP2) and adiponectin. In summary, this work demonstrated that B. pilosa and GHT suppressed adipogenesis and lipid content in adipocytes and/or animals via the down-regulation of the Egr2, C/EBPs and PPARγ pathways, suggesting a novel application of B. pilosa and GHT against obesity. PMID:27063434

  11. Studies on bioactivity and secondary metabolites of crude extracts of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae): A medicinal plant used in the Transkei region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njume, Collise; Gqaza, Bomkazi M; Rozani, Carina; Goduka, Nomalungelo I

    2016-05-01

    Whole plant-parts of Bidens pilosa were powdered and extracted in concentrated hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (25922), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), Enterococcus faecalis (51299) Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC127853), using standard microbiological techniques. Active crude extracts were macerated in concentrated methanol and tested for secondary metabolites including tannins, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, steroids and flavonoids using standard phytochemical procedures. Hexane and methanol extracts demonstrated similar activity producing 8-17 mm and 11-18 mm inhibition zone-diameter ranges respectively. Further analysis for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50) recorded 1.25-20mg/mL and 2.5-20mg/mL for hexane and methanol extracts respectively. The highest zones of inhibition diameters (22-36mm) and lowest MIC50 values (0.0002-0.0006mg/mL) were recorded for Gentamicin, the positive control. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges were between 10-80mg/mL and 0.001-0.005mg/mL for extracts and control antibiotic respectively. With the exception of anthraquinones, the plant crude extracts tested positive for all secondary metabolites analyzed. These results provide scientific basis for the use of B. pilosa in South African traditional medicine. The antibacterial activity reported herein may be attributed to one or more of the 6 secondary metabolites detected in the plant crude extracts. PMID:27166532

  12. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments. PMID:26940382

  13. In vitro SCREENING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Bidens pilosa LINNÉ AND Annona crassiflora MART. AGAINST OXACILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA FROM THE AERIAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE DENTAL CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Junior da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05. Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90 for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity.

  14. Auxin effects on Pb phytoextraction from polluted soils by Tegetes minuta L. and Bidens pilosa L.: Extractive power of their root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Cid, Carolina Vergara; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-07-01

    The principal impediment for Pb uptake by plants is the Casparian strip in roots. It prevents metals reaching the xylem, thereby hampering translocation to the aerial organs. In the root apices, young root cells have thin cell walls and the Casparian strip is not completely developed, which could facilitate Pb uptake by roots at these vulnerable points. However, as the phytotoxic effects of Pb reduce root growth and enhance suberization, entry of Pb into the plant is avoided. We propose that the application of root growth promotors could be an important complement in the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils, due to their effects on produced biomass, Pb toxicity, and root exudate production. A greenhouse experiment was carried on to evaluate the auxin application effect on the Pb uptake of Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta. These species were sensitive to auxins, but the phytotoxic effect of Pb was not reversed by this treatment. Root exudates capable of extracting Pb were produced only when the species were grown in highly polluted soils, indicating a behavioral response to Pb exposure which is desirable for phytoremediation. PMID:26954477

  15. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L. in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Dieamant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis. Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent.

  16. Myxobolus franciscoi sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae, a parasite of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Brazil, with a revision of Myxobolus spp. from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Eiras

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Myxobolus franciscoi sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae is described from the "curimatá-pacú" fish, Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Brazil. This parasite forms whitish plasmodia (about 1 x 1 mm that develop in the connective tissue of fins. The spores are more or less round in frontal view and ellipsoidal in lateral view, measuring 6.4 (6.0-6.9 µm in length, by 6.0 (5.8-6.4 µm in width and 3.2 µm in thickness. The polar capsules are very small, measuring about 2 µm in length by 1.5 µm in width and ending in a tapered anterior neck. The polar filament makes three turns in a plane at right angles with the longitudinal axis of the spore. Thorough comparisons with the remaining species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from South American fish, as well as with almost all species of Myxobolus described so far, are provided. This paper also includes a revision of Myxobolus species from South American fish hosts.

  17. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  18. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks. PMID:27625769

  19. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: Zhouqx@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu Weitao; An Jing; Xu Zhiqiang; Wang Lin [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd ({<=}25 mg kg{sup -1}) and As ({<=}50 mg kg{sup -1}) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg{sup -1} when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg{sup -1}, and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg{sup -1} compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  20. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue-bing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Wei-tao; An, Jing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Lin

    2009-06-15

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (

  1. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (≤25 mg kg-1) and As (≤50 mg kg-1) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg-1, respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg-1. Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg-1 when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg-1, and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg-1 compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  2. An acqueous extract of Bidens pilosa L. protects liver from cholestatic disease: experimental study in young rats Um extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. protege o fígado da doença colestática: estudo experimental em ratos jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabel Suzigan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test the hepatoprotective effect of water extract from Bidens Pilosa L. (BPE in cholestatic liver disease induced by ligature and resection of the common bile ducts (LRBD in young rats. METHODS: We studied four groups of ten 21 days old (P21 Wistar rats, Group SW: sham operation and water; Group SD: sham operation and BPE (160 mg of fresh leaves/100 g of body weight/day; Group LW: LRBD and water and Group LD: LRBD and BPE daily. Pentobarbital sleeping time (PST and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined after the sacrifice (P70. A Ruwart's score for hepatic fibrosis (RS was given to each animal. Were employed two way ANOVA and the test of Tukey or a non-parametric test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between LW and LD in the measurements of the PST ((means LW=390; LD=173, AST (means LW=8, LD=5, ALT (medians LW=2; LD=1 e RS (medians LW=2; LD=1. CONCLUSION: BPE could be used in the phytotherapy of the hepatic damage induced by chronic obstructive cholestasis, because protects liver function, decreases the rate of necrosis and liver fibrosis in cholestatic liver disease.OBJETIVO: Testar o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato aquoso de Bidens pilosa L. (EBP na doença hepática induzida pela ligadura e ressecção do ducto biliar comum (LRDBC em ratos jovens. MÉTODOS: Estudamos ratos Wistar com 21º. dia de vida (P21 divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais, Grupo SA: operação simulada e água; Grupo SD: operação simulada e EBP (160mg de folhas frescas/100g de peso corporal/dia; Grupo LA: LRDBC e água e Grupo LD: LRDBC e EBP diariamente. O tempo de sono por pentobarbital (TSP, aspartato (AST e alanina (ALT aminotransferase foram determinadas após o sacrifício (P70. O Score de Ruwart (SR para fibrose hepática foi atribuído para cada animal. Foi realizada análise de variância com dois fatores e pelo teste de Tukey

  3. Efecto Antagónico in vitro de Actinomicetos Aislados de Purines de Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Frente a Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary In vitro Antagonistic Effect of Actinomycetes Isolated from Chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. Purins Against Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary

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    Yudy Astrid Fonseca Ardila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto inhibidor de los actinomicetos presentes en purines o extractos fermentados de plantas de chipaca (Bidens pilosa L., sobre el crecimiento de Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, causante del tizón tardío de la papa. Se elaboraron cuatro purines de flores, raíces, hojas-tallos y su mezcla. De estos purines se obtuvieron 25 aislamientos de actinomicetos, cada uno de los cuales se enfrentó con P. infestans en placas de medio de cultivo, utilizando la técnica de anillos de Gauze y estableciendo las concentraciones iniciales de esporas mediante conteos microscópicos en cámara de Neubauer. Los actinomicetos no crecieron en el purin de flores debido, posiblemente, a que en él no se utiliza suelo rizosférico o porque su pH (9 es mayor que el rango normal de crecimiento de estos microorganismos ( pH 6 -; 8. Se evidenció inhibición del crecimiento del oomycete por parte de 8 aislamientos de actinomicetos con porcentajes de inhibición entre 33,3 - 77,8%, provenientes de los purines de raíces, tallos-hojas y mezcla de partes de la planta. La mayor inhibición se obtuvo en los aislamientos AC001, AC010, AC011 y AC025 con conteos de 0,4, 6,0, 3,0, y 3,6 x10(5 esporas mL-1.Purins or liquid fermented extracts of chipaca (Bidens pilosa L. were prepared to establish the inhibitory effect of the actinomycetes found in such biopharmaceutical preparations on the growth of Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, the causative of potato late blight disease. Four purins made from flowers, roots, leaf-steams and a mixture of them were prepared; 25 actinomycete isolates were obtained from these purins and their ability to resist challenge by P. infestans was ascertained in medium plates using the ring Gauze technique and establishing initial concentrations of spores by microscopic counting in Neubauer chamber. Actinomycetes did not grow in flower purin as rhizosphere soil was not used in its preparation or because this particular pH (9

  4. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper Leaf anatomical studies in weed species: II - Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a anatomia das folhas das espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides e Sonchus asper, visando aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e, assim, fornecer subsídios para a busca de estratégias para superar esses obstáculos. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região central mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm². Foram realizados estudos de estrutura e clarificação e observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras potenciais foliares à penetração de herbicidas constatadas na planta daninha B. pilosa foram a alta densidade tricomática, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e o alto teor de cera epicuticular, principalmente na face adaxial. Alto teor de cera epicuticular, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e baixa densidade estomática nas duas faces foram os obstáculos constatados nas folhas de E. sonchifolia. Já em relação a A. conizoides, a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial foi o principal obstáculo detectado. S. asper apresentou como principais barreiras foliares à penetração de herbicidas a baixa densidade estomática na face adaxial e a grande espessura da epiderme da face adaxial.This research aimed to study leaf anatomy in the widely common Brazilian weed species Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Ageratum conyzoides and Sonchus asper, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes upon herbicide penetration, and provide information on how to overcome these obstacles. The completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from plants

  5. Avaliação de pontas de jato plano na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa Evaluation of flat fan nozzles in spray deposition on different combinations of bean blants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa

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    A.C.P. Rodrigues-Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a ponta XR na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa, em dois volumes de aplicação, com e sem a adição de surfatante Silwet. Foi utilizado como traçador o corante Azul Brilhante FDC -1 na concentração de 500 ppm para quantificar a deposição. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete combinações de plantas: (feijão, (B. plantaginea, (B. pilosa, (feijão + B. plantaginea, (feijão + B. pilosa, (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa e (feijão + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as pontas de jato plano XR 110015 VS e XR 11002 VS com volumes de aplicação de 150 e 200 L ha-1, respectivamente, com e sem a presença do Silwet a 0,05% v v-1. Após a aplicação, as plantas foram imediatamente coletadas e, em seguida, lavadas em 100 mL de água destilada, para posterior quantificação do traçador em espectrofotômetro. As pontas XR apresentaram comportamento distinto na deposição das gotas de pulverização nas espécies estudadas; a adição de um surfatante à calda de pulverização aumentou a uniformidade da deposição nos alvos e contribuiu para a redução do volume de aplicação.The objective of this study was to evaluate flat fan nozzle spray deposition on different combinations of the common bean plants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa, in two volumes of application, with and without the addition of surfactant. Brilliant blue FDC -1 was used as tracer solution at the concentration of 500 ppm to evaluate the deposition. The treatments consisted of 7 combinations of plants: (common bean; (B. plantaginea; (B. pilosa; (common bean + B. plantaginea; (common bean + B. pilosa; (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa and (common bean + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The flat fan nozzles XR 110015 VS

  6. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ZACCO PLATYPUS (CYPRINIFORMES: CYPRINIDAE) DISTRIBUTED IN BEIJING%北京地区宽鳍(鱼巤)的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢迎春; 赵亚辉; 李高岩; 唐文乔; 张春光

    2011-01-01

    formed around 29h after fertilization. The embryonic development took lh to develop into effect of muscle after tail fin, embryo body could be seen tic regular intermittent, spherical yolk sac cylindrical front, rear section with the further growth of the caudal fin was elongate. Heart fully formed and slowly beat at 38h35min after fertilization, average heart beat was 84 times per min. The embryonic development took around 73h from fertilized egg to hatch, and then took 6.3 days to develop into flexion larvae. The development speed was slower in larvae than that in embryonic stage. Flexion larvae died in large scales may be because limited conditions of artificial cultivation and lack of energy supply when coexistence of mixed nutrition. Comparing to 21 other cyprinid species, development time of Zacco platypus was longer than that of seven species. Total development time of Zacco platypus was slightly longer than sympatric species Opsariichthys bidens, and obviously longer than Zacco temminckii. We also found the development speed before hatch of northern population was faster than southern one, but slower after hatch.%作者对分布于北京市怀柔区怀九河的宽鳍(鱼巤)(Zacco platypus)的胚胎发育及仔鱼前期发育进行了研究,过程中采用人工干法授精获取受精卵,观察并描述了宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育过程及其特点.结果显示,宽鳍(鱼巤)成熟卵呈圆球状,平均卵径1.04 mm,为沉性卵.在平均23.0℃(17.1-28.0℃)水温条件下,从受精卵到孵化经历了73hlmin,积温为1682.3度·时;孵化后6.5d进入弯曲期仔鱼.仔鱼前期发育速度与出膜前相比明显减慢;弯曲期仔鱼出现大量死亡可能与有限的人工培育条件、混合营养期能量供给不足等原因有关.通过比较发现,宽鳍(鱼巤)与鲤科中其他21个种相比,早期发育时间比其中7个种均长.宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育时间比同域分布、相同发育水温的马口鱼略长,明显长于同属的纵

  7. 基于Rag1基因序列变异的鲤形目鱼类系统发育重建:采样策略对生命之树的影响%Inferring the Tree of Life of the order Cypriniformes, the earth's most diverse clade of freshwater fishes: Implications of varied taxon and character sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard L. MAYDEN; Phillip M. HARRIS; Junbing LI; Xuzhen WANG; Kenji SAITOH; Shunping HE; Huanzhang LIU; Yiyu CHEN; Mutsumi NISHIDA; Masaki MIYA; Kevin L. TANG; Robert M. WOOD; Wei-Jen CHEN; Mary K. AGNEW; Kevin W. CONWAY; Lei YANG; Andrew M. SIMONS; Henry L. BART

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of species are fundamental to any biological investigation, including all evolutionary studies. Accurate inferences of sister group relationships provide the researcher with an historical framework within which the attributes or geographic origin of species (or supraspecific groups) evolved. Taken out of this phylogenetic context, interpretations of evolutionary processes or origins, geographic distributions, or speciation rates and mechanisms, are subject to nothing less than a biological experiment without controls. Cypriniformes is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes with estimates of diversity of nearly 3,500 species. These fishes display an amazing array of morphological, ecological, behavioral, and geographic diversity and offer a tremendous opportunity to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors associated with diversification and adaptation to environments. Given the nearly global distribution of these fishes, they serve as an important model group for a plethora of biological investigations, including indicator species for future climatic changes. The occurrence of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in this order makes this clade a critical component in understanding and predicting the relationship between mutagenesis and phenotypic expressions in vertebrates, including humans. With the tremendous diversity in Cypriniformes, our understanding of their phylogenetic relationships has not proceeded at an acceptable rate, despite a plethora of morphological and more recent molecular studies. Most studies are pre-Hennigian in origin or include relatively small numbers of taxa. Given that analyses of small numbers of taxa for molecular characters can be compromised by peculiarities of long-branch attraction and nodal-density effect, it is critical that significant progress in our understanding of the relationships of these important fishes occurs with increasing sampling of species to mitigate these potential

  8. Bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. sobre picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. on germination and early growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar a bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de capim-limão sobre germinação e crescimento inicial da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e da planta teste alface (Lactuca sativa L.. A partir de maceração hidroalcoólica de folhas secas e rasuradas (127,46 g de capim-limão em 1L de álcool de cereais (70%, foram preparados os tratamentos como extratos hidroalcoólicos (HA pela diluição (v/v do macerado filtrado em água deionizada na proporção 1:1 (HA1:1 e 1:2 (HA1:2; dos quais foram obtidos os respectivos extratos secos (ES, a partir da evaporação da fase líquida de duas alíquotas de 50 mL de cada extrato HA, que após re-suspendidas em igual volume de água, sendo uma autoclavada (1 atm por 15 minutos, resultando nos extratos secos de HA1:1 e HA1:2 autoclavados (ES1:1A e ES1:2A e nos extratos secos não autoclavados (ES1:1 e ES1:2; e água (AG como controle. No primeiro dia dos bioensaios, foram aplicados 2 mL dos tratamentos, em DIC, com cinco repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, altura da parte aérea (AA e comprimento de radícula (CR de aquênios (25 de picão-preto e de alface distribuídos em placas de Petri e mantidos em câmara de germinação (B.O.D. por duas semanas. Os extratos HA1:1 e HA1:2 inibiram a G%, AA e CR das duas espécies. Todos os extratos secos reduziram a G%, IVG e o CR da alface. Para o picão preto, apenas o extrato ES1:1 reduziu a G% e o IVG foi reduzido por todos os extratos, a exceção do ES1:1A, mas nenhum extrato influenciou o crescimento inicial desta espécie.This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extract of lemongrass on the germination and early growth of the weed plant beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and the test plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. From the hydroalcoholic maceration of dried and cut leaves of lemon grass (127.46 g in 1 L grain alcohol (70%, the following

  9. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira; José Roberto Pinto de Souza; Terezinha de Jesus Faria

    2007-01-01

    O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.) é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.). Fo...

  10. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos extratos das plantas medicinais Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. em inibir a germinação de Bidens pilosa L., sem interferir na germinação de Glycine max L. Merrill. Os extratos foram obtidos triturandose 200 g de folhas com 1 L de água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em B.O.D. à temperatura de 25°C, com fotoperíodo de 12h de luz. Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, constatou-se que o extrato de capim-limão inibiu a germinação de picão-preto sem que este inibisse a germinação da soja, enquanto o extrato de sabugueiro inibiu a germinação de picão-preto e a germinação da soja. Assim, indica-se a utilização do capim-limão, como um herbicida natural para o picão-preto.Agriculture has been suffering adaptations throughout time, from hard hand labor to the most advanced sowing and harvesting techniques. Invasive plants are a constant, diminishing productivity by competing for space, nutrients, and water. Therefore, farmers have adopted, on alarge scale, the use of efficient synthetic chemicals, which are highly toxic to the environment, in order to control plant production. However, there are other alternative means to control those competitors: using allelochemicals present in some plants, such as medicinal ones. The objective of this paper is to analyze allelophatic properties of the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. and Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl

  11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis for Volatile Compounds in Bidens biternata by Headspace Injection%基于顶空静态进样技术的中药鬼针草挥发性成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 蒋海强; 巩丽丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立顶空静态进样快速分析鬼针草低温易挥发性成分的方法.方法:采用顶空静态加热萃取技术,提取鬼针草低温易挥发性成分,进行气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析.结果:经GC-MS分析,鉴定出鬼针草中24个挥发性化学成分,其中α-蒎烯、α-人参烯含量最高,分别为25.19%,12.29%.结论:GC-MS结合顶空进样技术,分析鬼针草中的低温易挥发性化学成分信息,寻求中药气味主观认识的化学成分客观表征,为中药采集术语和采集经验的客观化研究提供科学依据,从而有效推进中药现代化的进程.%Objective:To establish a rapid analysis of volatile components in Bidens biternata by static headspace injection. Method; Using head-space injection technology,extract the volatile components,analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Result; By GC-MS, 24 volatile components can be identified,the content of a-pinene and α-panasinsen is the highest up to 30.666 0% and 14.966 5%. Conclusion; GC-MS combined with static headspace injection technology can provide the low boiling point volatile components, search the component objective characterization of the smell of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) ,the experiment provide a scientific basis for the objective research on collection terminology and experiences of TCM and effectively promote the modernization process of TCM.

  12. Atividades alelopáticas de nim sobre o crescimento de sorgo, alface e picão-preto Allelopathic activities of nim on the growth of sorghum, lettuce and Bidens pilosa

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    André Cabral França

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A busca de alternativas para os herbicidas sintéticos, como os produtos naturais provenientes de plantas, pode acrescentar mais um elemento no manejo das plantas daninhas das culturas. Neste trabalho objetivou-se verificar o potencial alelopático do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. sobre o crescimento de plântulas de sorgo, alface e picão-preto. Extratos metanólico, aquoso e hexanólico, nas concentrações de 10, 5 e 2,5% (p/v de folhas de nim, foram usados para irrigar sementes das plantas teste, em caixas gerbox, permanecendo em incubadora, tipo BOD. O percentual de germinação de sementes de alface e picão-preto irrigadas com extrato aquoso e metanólico, respectivamente, foram os mais prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento das plântulas; para o sorgo independente do extrator utilizado, o aumento da concentração causou redução do percentual de germinação. O extrato aquoso causou maior efeito detrimental sobre o índice de velocidade de germinação para as três espécies estudadas. Para o sorgo, independente da concentração avaliada, o extrato aquoso foi o mais prejudicial, diferenciando dos demais extratores, com médias de 8,00; 12,986 e 14,68, para os extratores água destilada, hexanol e metanol, respectivamente. Quando se analisou o acúmulo de biomassa para plantas de picão-preto e sorgo, em todos os extratos utilizados, pôde-se verificar que o acúmulo de biomassa foi inversamente proporcional à concentração de nim aplicada.The search for alternatives for the synthetic herbicides, as the natural products from plants, may increase one more element to the handling of the harmful plants of the cultures. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. upon sorghum, lettuce, and Bidens pilosa L. (beggustick seeds germination and seedlings growth. Aqueous, methanolic, and hexanolic extracts, in the concentrations of 10, 5 and 2,5% (w/v of nim leaves, were used to irrigate seeds

  13. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosaEfeito alelopático de extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. em alface, soja, milho, feijão e picão-preto

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    Daiane Maria Pilatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Meliaceae has been identified as one of the most promising for biological control, as most species have biologically active compounds. Among the species, the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is that stands out most for its efficiency and low toxicity, and it is utilized to control insects, fungi and nematodes. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic potential of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Neem on germination of lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosa, as a way to control this weed. The extract was obtained by grinding 200g/L of fresh leaves of the Neem (considered extract 100% and diluting in distilled water at concentrations of 80, 60, 40, and 20%, and a control with only water. The seeds were kept in the germination chamber at a temperature of 25°C, with photoperiod of 12 hours of light. The aqueous extract affected the germination percentage and average length root of lettuce, with values of 1% and 0.1, cm respectively. For the soybeans, the extract influenced negatively the average time of germination and average speed of germination. There was a drastic reduction of the average root length at higher concentration for soybean, corn and beans. For Bidens pilosa all the parameters analyzed were negatively affected, which means sensitivity to the extract. The bioassay performed in the laboratory showed that the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica has allelopathic effect on all species.A família Meliaceae foi identificada como um dos grupos mais promissores para o controle biológico, pois a maioria das espécies possui compostos biologicamente ativos. Dentre as espécies, o Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. é a que mais se destaca pela sua alta eficiência e baixa toxidade, empregada no controle de insetos, fungos e nematóides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de Nim sobre a germinação de alface, soja, milho, feij

  14. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 % além do controle (0,0 % água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%, porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto.Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B

  15. Development of the splanchnocranium in Prochilodus argenteus (Teleostei: Characiformes) with a discussion of the basal developmental patterns in the Otophysi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Vari, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Development of the mandibular, hyoid and gill arches, which constitute the splanchnocranium, are described for Prochilodus argenteus, order Characiformes, one of the basal lineages of the Otophysi. Development was examined from just hatched larvae through juveniles using whole specimens cleared and counterstained for cartilage and bone as well as histological preparations. Observations are compared with the developmental trends reported for Cypriniformes, the basalmost clade of the Otophysi. Shortened developmental sequences for Prochilodus compared to the cypriniform Catostomus were discovered in the ontogeny of the ceratohyals, ceratobranchials 1-5, epibranchials 1-4 and the symplectic portion of the hyosymplectic. Prochilodus also differs from Catostomus in having the basihyal plus the anterior copula appearing at different stages of ontogeny rather than simultaneously. Contrary to previous assumptions, developmental information indicates that hypobranchial 4 as well as likely basibranchial 5 are present in Prochilodus. Various developmental patterns in Prochilodus considered basal for the Otophysi, the predominant component of the Ostariophysi, are likely conserved from patterns prevalent in basal groups in the Actinopterygii. PMID:25595854

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Rhodeus ocellatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Chen, Yibin; Zhao, Huihong; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Li

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner) was determined using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The genome was 16 761 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.43% A, 27.50% T, 25.94% C, and 16.13% G, with an A + T bias of 57.93%. The gene composition and the arrangement of the R. ocellatus mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence will help to study the evolutionary relationships and population genetics of Rhodeus fish. PMID:26258516

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ancherythroculter lini (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Hu, Juan; Zhao, Huihong; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Li

    2016-07-01

    Ancherythroculter lini is the endemic species of fish in China. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Ancherythroculter lini using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The total length of the complete mitochondrial genome is 16 616 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNAs genes, and a control region. Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The genes order and locations are similar to other vertebrates. The H-strand has a nucleotide composition of 30.78% A, 24.74% T, 16.48% G, and 28.00% C. 13 intergenic spacers and five gene overlaps exist in the complete mitochondrial genome. And, we found the culter genus and Ancherythroculter nigrocauda are more closely related to Ancherythroculter lini by constructing a phylogenetic tree. PMID:27158794

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pimephales promelas (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Kai; Xiao, Liang

    2016-09-01

    The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is an ecological important fish distributed across North America. In this study, we firstly assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of P. promelas. The mitogenome is 16 709 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The gene content and order is in accord with the common vertebrate form. ATG acts as the start codon for all PCGs except cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI), which has GTG as a start codon. The nucleotide base composition of H-strand is 29.2% A, 27.9% T, 25.9% C, and 17.0% G. The complete mitochondrial genome data would be useful for further studies of reproduction, development, and adaptive evolution of P. promelas. PMID:26328777

  19. Molecular Systematics of the Phoxinin Genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Mayden

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of the currently recognized Notropis harperi, herein referred to as Pteronotropis. Two major clades are supported: one inclusive of P. hubbsi, P. welaka, and P. harperi and the second inclusive of P. signipinnis, P. grandipinnis, P. hypselopterus plus P. merlini sister to P. euryzonus, and P. metallicus plus P. stonei.

  20. The mitochondrial genome of Pseudolaubuca sinensis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijuan; Wang, Dengqiang; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Pseudolaubuca sinensis was determined using PCR amplificationand DNA sequencing, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,617 bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The codon usage followed the typical vertebrate mitochondrial pattern (ATG or GTG for start codon and TAA or TAG for stop codon). There are 6 regions of gene share totaling 22 bp and 14 intergenic spacer regions totaling 66 bp. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of Pseudolaubuca sinensis. PMID:25714142

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis (Cypriniformes, Barbinae, Acrossocheilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Shiqi; Du, Zongjun; Xie, Meng; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Yanzhi; He, Tao; Ren, Hongmei; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Anxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis collected from the Qingyi River is determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. yunnanensis is a circular molecule of 16,596 bp in length, and all genes showed the typical gene arrangement conforming to the vertebrate consensus. The 13 protein-coding genes of A. yunnanensis and other 21 Barbinae species from 3 genera were used for phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. The topology demonstrated the genus Acrossocheilus is relatively close to the Labeo than Garra, the A. yunnanensis may have a common ancestor with A. monticola, where both belong to the non-barred group. PMID:26024134

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sinibotia robusta (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Ding, Shuquan; Yang, Qichao; Li, Xilei; Wan, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The Sinibotia robusta mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KP979711) was a circular molecule of 16 575 bp in length, with two rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, an l-strand replication origin (OL), and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 31.91% for A, 26.90% for C, 15.56% for G, and 25.63% for T, with an A + T content of 57.54%. And the A + T content of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and D-loop was 51.26%, 56.17%, and 67.73%, respectively. PMID:26258519

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Gnathopogon taeniellus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wei-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Xiang; Yuan, Le-Yang; Lu, Yi-Wei; Jiang, Xia-Min

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gnathopogon taeniellus was first determined in this study. It is 16,596 bp in length, contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one control region in the typical vertebrate gene order and transcriptional direction. There are total of 29 bp short overlaps and 34 bp non-coding intergenic spacers were found in the mitogenome. Overall nucleotide base composition of light strand is 29.3% A, 25.8% C, 17.9% G and 27.0% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were used in the protein-coding genes. The origin of light strand replication (OL) was identified between tRNA(Asn) and tRNA(Cys) genes and could fold a hairpin structure. The nucleotide composition of control region is 31.8% A, 20.9% C, 14.0% G and 33.3% T. PMID:25714152

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Ambastaia sidthimunki (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Wei, Min; Yang, Qichao; Yang, Yingming; Wan, Quan

    2016-09-01

    Ambastaia sidthimunki is a beautiful small-sized fish and it was categorized as Endangered B2ab (iii,v) in the IUCN Red List. In this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of the A. sidthimunki. The mitochondrial genome sequence was a circular molecule with 16,574 bp in length, and it contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, an L-strand replication origin (OL) and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 26.94% for C, 15.55% for G, 31.84% for A and 25.67% for T, with an AT content of 57.51%. This research contributes new molecular data for the conservation of this Endangered species. PMID:25722037

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Schizopygopsis anteroventris (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yangyang; Chen, Yifeng; Li, Chunhua; He, Dekui

    2016-09-01

    Schizopygopsis anteroventris (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) is an ecologically and economically important cyprinid endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of S. anteroventris by DNA sequencing based on PCR fragments. The mitogenome of S. anteroventris is 16,620 in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions: the control region (D-loop) and the origin of light-strand replication (OL). The gene order in the mitogenome is identical with common vertebrate form. The complete mitogenome sequence is useful for further genetic studies, phylogenetic analysis and resource protection of S. anteroventris. PMID:25791361

  6. Complete mitochodrial genome of Vanmanenia pingchowensis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chongrui; Wu, Yuanan; Li, Hong; Yuan, Xiping; Wei, Qiwei

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Vanmanenia pingchowensis was determined in this study. The gene composition, arrangement and transcriptional orientation in V. pingchowensis mitogenome were identical to most vertebrates. The complete mitogenome of V. pingchowensis was 15,560 bp in size with 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. Two start codon patterns and three stop codon patterns were found in protein-coding genes. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure for lacking the dihydrouridine arm. Sequences alignment results suggest that the complete mitogenome of V. pingchowensis is an efficient tool to study molecular phylogenetics, biogeography and adaptive evolution of this lineage. PMID:25427810

  7. Complete mitochodrial genome of Parasinilabeo assimilis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanan; Liu, Xunhua; Hong, Bo; Li, Hong; Ge, Hongzi; Liang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Xiping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasinilabeo assimilis has been determined in this study. The gene composition, arrangement and transcriptional orientation in P. assimilis mitogenome were identical to most vertebrates. The complete mitogenome of P. assimilis was 16,602 bp in size with 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. Two start codon patterns and three stop codon patterns were found in protein-coding genes. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure due to the lack of the dihydrouridine arm. Sequence alignment results suggest that the complete mitogenome of P. assimilis is an efficient tool to study molecular phylogenetics, biogeography and adaptive evolution of this lineage. PMID:25423522

  8. Complete mitochodrial genome of Bangana decora (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Li, Chuanwu; Tang, Xiangbei; Liao, Fuchu; Wang, Chongrui; Liang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Hong; Yuan, Xiping

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bangana decora was determined in this study. The gene composition, arrangement and transcriptional orientation in B. decora mitogenome were identical to most vertebrates. The complete mitogenome of B. decora was 16,607 bp in size with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. Two start codon patterns and three stop codon patterns were found in protein-coding genes. Only the tRNA-Ser2 could not fold into a typical clover-leaf secondary structure due to the absence of the dihydrouridine arm. Sequence alignment results suggest that the complete mitogenome of B. decora is an efficient tool to study molecular phylogenetics, biogeography and adaptive evolution of this lineage. PMID:25423524

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gobiobotia filifer (Teleostei, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Lai, Jiansheng; Li, Lianman

    2016-09-01

    The Gobiobotia filifer is a small economic fish which distributes in the upstream of Yangtze River and its distributaries. For the environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer was determined with PCR technology, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,613 bp. The order and composition of genes were similar to most of the other teleost fish. Most of the genes were encoded on heavy strand, except for ND6 genes and eight tRNAs. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer would contribute to better understand evolution of this lineage, population genetics, and will help administrative department to make rules and laws to protect this lineage. PMID:25806579

  10. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. PMID:21798200

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengzhi; Guo, Baoying; Zhang, Zhiming; Xie, Congxin; Wu, C W

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg. The genome was 16,610 bp (LR) in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [the control region (CR) and the origin of the light strand replication], the gene composition and order of which was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 26.7%, C 26.5 %, A 30.0% and G 16.8%, with a slight A+T bias of 56.7%. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of the Leuciscinae. PMID:23815319

  12. Phylogeny of the Southeast Asian freshwater fish genus Pangio (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Tan, H. H.; Britz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2011), s. 854-865. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pangio * eel loaches * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2011

  13. Reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akewake Geremew

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana was investigated by collecting monthly samples (January to December 2006 from the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, where these species are endemic.  Garra regressus has an extended breeding time from April to October while G. tana breeds throughout the year with a peak from March to July.  The mean size at maturity in both the species was not significantly different between the sexes, but G. tana had a significantly lower mean size at maturity than G. regressus in female specimens.  Absolute fecundity estimates for G. regressus ranged from 580.8–1800, while those for G. tana ranged from 538.9–2968.  Egg size frequency distribution revealed that G. regressus is a multiple spawner, while G. tana is a single spawner.  The sex ratio in the total catch of G. regressus was found to be skewed in favour of females (Chi-square, P< 0.05, while those for G. tana was not significantly different from 1:1. The mean size at maturity was not significantly different between the sexes for G. tana. 

  14. Finding of triploid Carassius Gibelio (Bloch, 1780)(Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), in Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Memis, D.; Bohlen, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-79. ISSN 0399-0974 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/02/0460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : carassius gibelio * cyprinidae * Turkey Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  15. Schistura puncticeps, a new species of loach from Myanmar (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2013), s. 85-92. ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Teleostei Nemacheilidae * basin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2013

  16. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He

    2008-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  17. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Eastern Asian Cyprinidae (Pisces: Cypriniformes) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; LIU; Huanzhang; CHEN; Yiyu; Masayuki; Kuwah

    2004-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 54 species, including 18 newly sequenced, were analyzed to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae in East Asia. Phylogenetic trees were generated using various tree-building methods, including Neighbor-joining (NJ), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods, with Myxocyprinus asiaticus (family Catostomidae) as the designated outgroup. The results from NJ and ML methods were mostly similar, supporting some existing subfamilies within Cyprinidae as monophyletic, such as Cultrinae, Xenocyprinae and Gobioninae (including Gobiobotinae). However, genera within the subfamily "Danioninae" did not form a monophyletic group. The subfamily Leuciscinae was divided into two unrelated groups: the "Leuciscinae" in East Asia forming as a monophyletic group together with Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae, while the Leuciscinae in Europe, Siberia, and North America as another monophyletic group. The monophyly of subfamily Cyprininae sensu Howes was supported by NJ and ML trees and is basal in the tree. The position of Acheilognathinae, a widely accepted monophyletic group represented by Rhodeus sericeus, was not resolved.

  18. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of the mitogenome of Sarcocheilichthys parvus Nichols (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaopeng; Li, Wenwen; Lv, Sisi; Li, Chen; Qian, Yaoxuan; Xu, Jie; Lu, Yi; Lin, Yuru; Yang, Pengjie; Lin, Zhihua; Yang, Shoubao

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of a Sarcocheilichthys parvus Nichols was sequenced and identified. It contained 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the mitogenome sequence could be useful data in the field of systematics and conservation biology for S. parvus Nichols and other aquatic species. PMID:26287583

  19. Genetic diversity of Cobitis spp. (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) from different drainage areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušek, Ivo; Lusková, Věra; Koščo, J.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Povž, M.; Šumer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 83-89. ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /3./. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Danubian spined loach * population diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/1-2/083-089_MS1291.pdf

  20. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann

    2009-01-01

    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species,Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  1. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan; CHANG Meemann

    2009-01-01

    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species, Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  2. The mitochondrial genome of Schizothorax esocinus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz Khan, Muhammad; Nasir Khan Khattak, Muhammad; He, Dekui; Liang, Yangyang; Li, Chunhua; Ullah Dawar, Farman; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial DNA sequence represents a mainstay of phylogenetics. It allows biologists to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among species. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, hence got importance in the field of biology. The current study was designed to know the mitochondrial sequence of Schizothorax esocinus, a delicious fish belonging to family Cyprinidae. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. esocinus from Northern Pakistan was determined. The mitogenome of S. esocinus was found to be 16 591 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region. All genes were encoded on heavy strain except ND6 and few tRNA genes. The overall base composition was T 25.5%, C 27.0%, A 29.8% and G 17.7%, A + T content 55.3% and G + C content 47.7%. The length of control region (CR) was 938 bp and contained putative termination-associated sequence (TAS) and several conserved sequence blocks (CSB) and control region also contained a microsatellite region (TA). This is the very first study reported from a reservoir of large cold water bodies in Pakistan which have a great potential for conservation of cold water fish species. This mitogenome sequence would be useful to know the phylogenetic status of the fish. PMID:26369993

  3. Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gazola

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest

  4. Karyotype analysis of an endemic sucker catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad,1981 (Actinopterygii: Sisoridae), from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; NAZARI, Narges; GHOLAMIFARD, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The karyotypic and cytogenetic characteristics of southern catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981, was investigated for the first time by examining metaphase chromosome spreads obtained from gill epithelial and kidney cells. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n = 52. The karyotype consisted of 9 pairs of metacentric, 14 pairs of submetacentric, and 3 pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. The arm number was 98. No heteromorphic sex chromosomes were cytologically detected in th...

  5. Ryby (Actinopterygii) v tekoucích vodách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěnová, V.; Matěna, Josef

    České Budějovice : Jihočeská univerzita, 2004 - (Papáček, M.), s. 156-166 ISBN 80-7040-756-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : fish communities * human impacts * dominant species – population characteristics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. The South American freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Characiformes: Prochilodontidae): new species in Vietnamese aquaculture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Chaloupková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2012), 955-958. ISSN 1355-557X Grant ostatní: MZe(CZ) 29/MZe/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : exotic species * aquaculture * Prochilodus lineatus Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  7. Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of the Benue Trough, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Romain; Courville, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Selachian and ray-finned fish remains from various Late Cretaceous localities of Nigeria are described. Each locality has yielded only a very few specimens and the diversity is therefore very low. However, some taxa are recorded for the first time in Africa. The Ashaka locality in the Upper Benue Trough (northeastern Nigeria) has yielded a small but interesting late Cenomanian assemblage of microremains, including teeth of “Carcharias” amonensis, Rhombopterygia zaborskii sp. nov., Hamrabatis sp., “Stephanodus” sp., and a possible ionoscopiform. A large prearticular dentition coming from the early Turonian beds of this locality is assigned to the large pycnodontiform Acrotemnus, a poorly known genus here regarded as a senior synonym of Macropycnodon. In the Lower Benue Trough (southeastern Nigeria), several localities ranging in age from the late Cenomanian to the early Maastrichtian have yielded various widespread taxa such as Ptychodus, Scapanorhynchus, Squalicorax, Vidalamiinae indet., cf. Protosphyraena, and Eodiaphyodus. The seaway that occupied the Benue Trough during transgressive episodes (late Cenomanian-early Turonian and Maastrichtian) created opportunities for the dispersal of many marine fish taxa into new areas, such as the proto-South Atlantic.

  8. Fish hatchering and its effects on the morphology of Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, S O; Pompeu, P S

    2016-02-01

    The fish stocking in captivity for later release into natural water bodies has historically been applied in Brazil, as a measure to mitigate impacts caused by dams. However, the released fish are adapted to the hatchery environment, which is totally different from the natural, which results in low post-release survival rates and ineffectiveness of stocking as a management measure. Worldwide, several studies have demonstrated the existence of large phenotypic differences between farmed and wild fish, but in Brazil, there is a great need for this kind of study. Based on this, our objective here was to verify if hatchery fish differ morphologically from its wild counterparties, at the same size class. Hence, a population of young Prochilodus lineatus raised in a fish farming station was compared with another from marginal lagoons of the Grande river. The results indicated that the fish farming resulted in morphologically different individuals of P. lineatus and a less diverse population, compared with wild fish. Measures such as environmental enrichment of hatchery tanks should be studied as a way to increase environmental heterogeneity and increase the morphological variability of the fingerlings produced. PMID:26909638

  9. The parasite community of gobiid fishes (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae) from the Lower Volga River region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Boldyrev, V.; Lohner, R.; Stepien, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 7 (2015), s. 948-957. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobiidae * parasites * Volga River * Caspian Sea * introduced species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  10. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848 (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo

    Full Text Available Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations.Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π and the haplotype diversity index (H indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, and H+-ATPase (HA was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes.These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G. maculatus osmoregulatory system, especially at hyposmotic environments, associated to a drastic shift in habitat and life cycle at a scale of a few thousand years.

  11. A new teleost (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii from the Early Jurassic Posidonia shale of Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arratia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new teleostean genus and species, Paraleptolepis wiedenrothi, is described from the Lower Liassic of Germany. The fish has an overall similarity with Leptolepis coryphaenoides (from different Lower Liassic European localities but differs from L. coryphaenoides in the presence of a few autapomorphies and also in the retention of several primitive features not present in L. coryphaenoides. Examples of autapomorphic characters are: two moderately large suborbital bones; preopercle triangular and with a notch at its posterior margin; large cleithrum with pronounced curvature anteriorly: pelvic axillary process formed by one small elongate bone; and long neural spines on preural centrum 1 and the ural centrum 1 + 2. Paraleptolepis n. gen. is more closely related to Leptolepis and extant teleosts than it is to Proleptolepis (from Lower Liassic localities. The new evidence supports the previous hypothesis that the family Leptolepididae sensu Nybelin is non-monophyletic. Several characters (e.g., concerning structure of vertebrae that previously were accepted to have arisen at the phylogenetic level of Leptolepis coryphaenoides, are found also to occur in Paraleptolepis n. gen. Eine neue Teleosteergattung und -art. Paraleptolepis wiedenrothi. wird aus dem unteren Lias Deutschlands beschrieben. Der Fisch hat eine generelle Ähnlichkeit mit Leptolepis coryphaenoides (bekannt von verschiedenen europäischen Lokalitäten des unteren Lias, aber unterscheidet sich von L. coryphaenoides in einigen Autapomorphien und in der Beibehaltung mehrerer primitiver Merkmale, die in L. coryphaenoides nicht vorhanden sind. Beispiele autapomorpher Merkmale sind: zwei verhält-nismäßig große suborbitale Knochen; ein dreieckiges Präoperculum mit einer Einbuchtung am hinteren Rand: ein großes Cleithrum mit einer ausgeprägten vorderen Einbuchtung; ein Axillarfortsatz am Beckengürtel, der aus einem schmalen langen Knochen gebildet wird; und lange Neuralfortsätze auf dem präuralen Zentrum 1 und dem uralen Zentrum 1 + 2. Paraleptolepis n. gen. ist näher mit Leptolepis und lebenden Teleosteern verwandt als mit Proleptolepis (aus Lokalitäten des unteren Lias. Die neuen Ergebnisse unterstützen die frühere Hypothese, dass die Familie Leptolepididae sensu Nybelin nicht monophyletisch ist. Verschiedene Merkmale (z. B. Strukturen der Wirbel. die früher als auf der Evolutionshöhe von Leptolepis coryphaenoides entstanden angesehen wurden, treten bereits bei Paraleptolepis n. gen. auf. doi:10.1002/mmng.20010040111

  12. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic. This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a reduced grid-like structure for the neural elements in the vertebral column. Further derived characters are in the endoskeleton of the dorsal and anal fin, where radials articulate only to anterior lepidotrichia, the posterior ones being supported by the first scale from the caudal pedicle mid-dorsal and mid-ventral rows, deeply imbedded in the body. In addition, the haemal spines of the caudal region are much enlarged and reversed, with their distal parts pointing forwards. Though the skull is lacking, postcranial characters are enough to justify the erection of a new species. This new Saurichthys species, together with other few actinopterygians, can be considered as the oldest assemblage of the Triassic Middle Fish Fauna, which bloomed probably in the early Anisian and widespread especially all over the Tethys for the Middle Triassic and at least the Carnian in the Late Triassic. This new fish assemblage, together with some of the oldest marine reptiles, is considered as the beginning of the actual Triassic recovery among marine vertebrates.

  13. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII) FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC) OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA)

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREA TINTORI; JIAN-DONG HUANG; DA-YONG JIANG; ZUO-YU SUN; RYOSUKE MOTANI; GUANBAO CHEN

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill) near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China). Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic). This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a red...

  14. The Fish of Walther (Actinopterygii; Ginglimoide) to 80 years of its description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of the so-called (Walther's fish), 80 years after its original description by the geologist Karl Walther, is discussed herein. This specimen was the first fossil known for the Tacuarembo Formation and it still represents so far the most complete vertebrate recovered from this unit. Furthermore, it constituted the first clear evidence for suggesting a subaqueous origin for part of the ''Tacuarembo sandstones''. The geology of the locality where the fossil was recovered is summarized. Some polemic aspects concerning the taxonomic assignment of the specimen (in light of the most recent phylogenetic analysis) are discussed

  15. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars ,Lepisosteus oculatus ,Actinopterygii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light,scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy.In the enamel,slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed,suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians.Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus,rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage.In the maturation stage,a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts,while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm.The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells,stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts,but there was no stratum intermedium.It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  16. Growth of Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii, Pimelodidae in cages at different stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saula Corrêa Afonso de Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of densities 8, 32, 56 and 80 fish/m3 on the productive performance of Pimelodus maculatus in 1m3 cages installed in 0.19ha earthen ponds without water renewal, located on private property in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina. Fish were fed daily with extruded commercial ration containing 32% of crude protein, in a proportion of 5.0% of the stocked biomass. Fish were sampled monthly (30% of the stocked fish in each cage to evaluate length, weight, specific growth rate, survival, condition factor and biomass. Final length and weight were the same at densities 8, 32 and 56 fish/m3, with values higher than those registered with 80 fish/m3. The survival was the same at the different densities, with a mean of 91.4 ± 5.4%, whereas a higher biomass was registered with 56 and 80 fish/m3. The results showed that density influences fish growth and indicated 56 fish/m3 as the ideal for the performance of P. maculatus juveniles. However, additional information must be produced to optimize the species biomass production.

  17. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America. PMID:25271459

  18. Growth of Pimelodus maculatus (Actinopterygii, Pimelodidae) in cages at different stocking densities

    OpenAIRE

    Saula Corrêa Afonso de Almeida; Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of densities 8, 32, 56 and 80 fish/m3 on the productive performance of Pimelodus maculatus in 1m3 cages installed in 0.19ha earthen ponds without water renewal, located on private property in Santo Amaro da Imperatriz, Santa Catarina. Fish were fed daily with extruded commercial ration containing 32% of crude protein, in a proportion of 5.0% of the stocked biomass. Fish were sampled monthly (30% of the stocked fish) in each cage to evaluate length, w...

  19. Nowe stanowiska kielbia Wladykowa Romanogobio vladykovi (Fang, 1943) (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) w dorzeczu Górnej Wisly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nowak, M.; Szcerbik, P.; Klaczak, A.; Mendel, Jan; Popek, W.

    Szczecin: Wydział Nauk Przyrodniczych Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego [et al, 2011 - (Kalisińska, E.; Wysocki, D.; Jarska, K.). s. 51 ISBN 978-83-7518-316-0. [Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Zoologicznego /20./. 05.09.2011-08.09.2011, Szczecin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Romanogobio vladykovi * Poland Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  20. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubut, Vincent; Fouquet, Antoine; Voisin, Adrien; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2012-01-01

    Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts) and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites) were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene) seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region. PMID:22479629

  1. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  2. Lapillus otoliths of the Cathorops spixii (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Genidens genidens (Cuvier, 1829 (Actinopterygii - Ariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maichak de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the morphology and morphometry of lapillus otoliths of the catfishes Cathorops spixii and Genidens genidens from the coast of Paraná State, Brazil. We used 147 lapillus from C. spixii and 96 from G. genidens, of different size classes. Otoliths were characterized with smooth margins for both species but with different shapes: oblong for C. spixii and oval for G. genidens. The morphological differentiation between the two species is in the anterior region: rounded for C. spixii and pointed for G. genidens. The t-test results for otolith measurements were: length (t value = -2.88; p = 0.0042, height (t value = -6.87; p < 0.000001, anterior angle (t value= 9.84; p = 0.000001 and posterior angle (t value =0.41; p = 0.68. The results show that lapillus otoliths of C. spixii and G. genidens differ in the shape of the anterior region and in the anterior angle, which facilitate the differentiation between the two species in trophic ecology studies on ichthyophagous.

  3. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; González-Wevar, Claudio A; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Fuentes, Juan; Poulin, Elie; Bertrán, Carlos; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated ...

  4. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  5. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes): comparing populations of distinct environments

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio T. Mise; Fagner de Souza; João P. A. Pagotto; Erivelto Goulart

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream) and a lentic (Jaboti Lake). Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus,...

  6. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century, but little research on this important assemblage has been executed since. The present paper provides figures and brief descriptions of fishes from the Maastrichtian type area as an aid for field i...

  7. Ray-finned fishes (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ray-finned fishes are a diverse, but understudied, component of the Maastrichtian marine fauna of the southeast Netherlands (Limburg) and northeast Belgium (Liège-Limburg). The most extensive reviews of fishes from these uppermost Cretaceous deposits were made in the early and mid-Twentieth Century,

  8. Comparative Ultrastructure of Langerhans-Like Cells in Spleens of Ray-Finned Fishes (Actinopterygii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovy, J.; Wright, G. M.; Speare, D. J.; Tyml, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 10 (2010), s. 1229-1239. ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * cyprinidae * halibut * dendritic cells * Langerhans cell * Birbeck granules * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  9. A new species of dwarf sea bass, genus Serranus (Serranidae: Actinopterygii, from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carvalho Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serranus aliceae n. sp. is described from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species is readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: scales around the caudal peduncle 20 or 21; total gill rakers on first branchial arch 23-29; cheek-scales rows 5 or 6; and by the coloration of live specimens, which are reddish with a broad, conspicuous, white stripe from post-orbital region to the caudal-fin base and a white abdomen. The new species apparently inhabits the deeper (30 or more meters portions of reef environments along the subtropical Brazilian coast, and is possibly associated with upwelling cold-water masses. The species was observed hovering above rocky bottoms, feeding on micro-crustaceans, squid larvae, and zooplankton. This new species increases to eight the number of valid Serranus species recorded in the southwestern Atlantic.

  10. Genetic diversity of Sabanejewia balcanica (Actinopterygii: Cobitidae) in the western Balkans and comparison with other regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marešová, Eva; Delić, A.; Kostov, V.; Marić, S.; Mendel, Jan; Šanda, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), s. 335-342. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 1/2360/05; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200930901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Balkan golden loach * cytochrome b * mitochondrial DNA * Balkans region Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  11. Rivulus torrenticola n. sp. (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), a new killifish from highlands in the Guyana shield

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Frans B.M.; Isbrücker, Isaac J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Rivulus torrenticola n. sp. is described from small tributaries of the Kamarang River, which itself is a left bank tributary of the Mazaruni River in Guyana. R. torrenticola is a small, non-annual species. Males are distinguished from other Rivulus spp. by their long dorsal, anal and pelvic fins, by their truncate caudal fin and by their two longitudinal, dark lines on the body. Females have rounded fins and dark pigment on the body. They lack a so-called Rivulus-spot. R. torrenticola is remi...

  12. Karyotype of Persian Chub, Petroleuciscus persidis (Coad, 1981) (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ESMAEILI, H. R.; PIRAVAR, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number of Persian chub, Petroleuciscus persidis (Coad, 1981), was 2n = 50, comprising 29 metacentric, 18 submetacentric, and 3 subtelocentric chromosomes and the number of arms was 97. A detailed karyotype of this endemic cyprinid fish of southern Iran was established for the first time in this study.

  13. A new species of Rhinonastes (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae), nasal parasite of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii, Characiformes) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2014-09-01

    A new species of Rhinonastes, hitherto monotypic, is described and illustrated from the nasal cavity of 'curimat', Prochilodus argenteus from São Francisco River, Brazil. Rhinonastes curimatae n. sp. presents a male copulatory organ with more than five rings while the type species of the genus is characterized by male copulatory organ with less than two rings. This is the first record of a nasal parasite in P. argenteus. PMID:25119370

  14. Identification of specialists and abundance-occupancy relationships among intestinal bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coalescence of next generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineating host-microbial associations has a...

  15. Reproductive biology and age determination of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) in central Iran

    OpenAIRE

    ABEDI, Masoud; SHIVA, Amir Houshang; Mohammadi, Hamid; MALEKPOUR, Rokhsareh

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843, a native cyprinid fish species from the Armand stream in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiari province, central Iran, were investigated by regular monthly collections throughout 1 year. A significant relationship between length and weight and the isometric growth pattern were observed in this fish. There were no significant differences in the total number of male and female specimens. The population of this cyprinid fish had a narrow age...

  16. Screening assessment of cyanobacterial embryotoxicity to Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes (Actinopterygii: Beloniformes: Adrianichthyidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Sikora, J.; Bláha, L.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2011), s. 293-299. ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH81012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanotoxins * embryotoxicity Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2011

  17. Isolation Driven Divergence in Osmoregulation in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) (Actinopterygii: Osmeriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Fuentes, Juan; Poulin, Elie; Bertrán, Carlos; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Marine species have colonized extreme environments during evolution such as freshwater habitats. The amphidromous teleost fish, Galaxias maculatus is found mainly migrating between estuaries and rivers, but some landlocked populations have been described in lakes formed during the last deglaciation process in the Andes. In the present study we use mtDNA sequences to reconstruct the historical scenario of colonization of such a lake and evaluated the osmoregulatory shift associated to changes in habitat and life cycle between amphidromous and landlocked populations. Results Standard diversity indices including the average number of nucleotide differences (Π) and the haplotype diversity index (H) indicated that both populations were, as expected, genetically distinctive, being the landlocked population less diverse than the diadromous one. Similarly, pairwise GST and NST comparison detected statistically significant differences between both populations, while genealogy of haplotypes evidenced a recent founder effect from the diadromous stock, followed by an expansion process in the lake. To test for physiological differences, individuals of both populations were challenged with a range of salinities from 0 to 30 ppt for 8 days following a period of progressive acclimation. The results showed that the landlocked population had a surprisingly wider tolerance to salinity, as landlocked fish survival was 100% from 0 to 20 ppt, whereas diadromous fish survival was 100% only from 10 to 15 ppt. The activity of ATPase enzymes, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), and H+-ATPase (HA) was measured in gills and intestine. Activity differences were detected between the populations at the lowest salinities, including differences in ATPases other than NKA and HA. Population differences in mortality are not reflected in enzyme activity differences, suggesting divergence in other processes. Conclusions These results clearly demonstrate the striking adaptive changes of G. maculatus osmoregulatory system, especially at hyposmotic environments, associated to a drastic shift in habitat and life cycle at a scale of a few thousand years. PMID:27168069

  18. Field trial of medicinal plant, Bidens pilosa, against eimeriosis in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cicero Lee-Tian; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Eimeriosis is a severe protozoan disease in poultry. Because of increasing concern about drug residue and drug resistance with the use of anticoccidial drugs, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary approach to control avian eimeriosis. Our previous publication showed that feed supplemented with B. pilosa (BP) was effective at combating chicken eimeriosis in experimental settings. However, its efficacy against chicken eimeriosis under field conditions is not known. Here, we investigated the efficacy of BP against eimeriosis on an organic chicken farm. We found that feed supplemented with BP, at the dose of 0.025% of feed or more, significantly reduced Eimeria infection. This treatment increased body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio, leading to superior growth performance. It lowered morbidity/mortality rate, decreased oocysts per gram of feces and gut pathology and augmented the anticoccidial index. Collectively, these data demonstrated the potential of BP to control chicken eimeriosis on chicken farms. BP can, therefore, be used as an effective means to control eimeriosis. PMID:27098674

  19. Field trial of medicinal plant, Bidens pilosa, against eimeriosis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cicero Lee-Tian; Yang, Cheng-Ying; Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Eimeriosis is a severe protozoan disease in poultry. Because of increasing concern about drug residue and drug resistance with the use of anticoccidial drugs, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary approach to control avian eimeriosis. Our previous publication showed that feed supplemented with B. pilosa (BP) was effective at combating chicken eimeriosis in experimental settings. However, its efficacy against chicken eimeriosis under field conditions is not known. Here, we investigated the efficacy of BP against eimeriosis on an organic chicken farm. We found that feed supplemented with BP, at the dose of 0.025% of feed or more, significantly reduced Eimeria infection. This treatment increased body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio, leading to superior growth performance. It lowered morbidity/mortality rate, decreased oocysts per gram of feces and gut pathology and augmented the anticoccidial index. Collectively, these data demonstrated the potential of BP to control chicken eimeriosis on chicken farms. BP can, therefore, be used as an effective means to control eimeriosis. PMID:27098674

  20. The impact of mining upon the features of the Blue Lagoon Lake in the Aghireşu area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Pandi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The substrate of Aghireşu area contains several resources, which in time it was exploited and processed in locality. Among them is the brown coal, the gypsum, the kaolin. The exploitations began in galleries, and then passed to phase of surface quarries. After mining was formed several lakes trough the collapse of the galleries; to them was added the artificial lakes too. The Blue Lagoon Lake is a hydrological unit, the most representative of mixed origin. The water characteristics of the lake are under the influence of mineral composition of the substrate, the activity of mining, the erosion processes, the characteristics of lakes depressions, the climate elements, etc. The water physical and chemical properties are analyzed in space and time scale variation. Sampling and analysis made afford to compare the values in horizontally and vertically plain. The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  1. Relação preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii ameaçadas no Brasil Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are presently listed as endangered by federal legislation. Based on a literature search and a survey directed to the Neotropical ichthyologists, we present an unofficial list including a total of 78 threatened fish species (12 elasmobranchs and 66 actinopterygians. Of these, sixteen actinopterygian species are listed as endangered, three elasmobranchs and nine actinopterygians as vulnerable, and seven actinopterygians as rare; 40 species either have indeterminate status or are data deficient to yield an adequate assessment, and three species are listed as extinct or possibly extinct.

  2. Relação preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) ameaçadas no Brasil Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo S. Rosa; Naércio A Menezes

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are...

  3. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León; Omar Domínguez-Domínguez; Ignacio Doadrio

    2009-01-01

    A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a promi...

  4. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del cuerpo, un punto negro presente en la base de la aleta caudal que se extiende hasta las membranas interradiales, y por presentar la línea lateral pigmentada. Esta nueva especie incrementa nuestro conocimiento de la diversidad de la ictiofauna endémica de la cuenca del río Ameca, y queda manifiesto su parentesco cercano con la especie A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, lo cual refleja una conexión histórica entre ambos sistemas hidrológicos que posteriormente fue interrumpida por un evento vicariante que produjo el aislamiento de las poblaciones y con ello el evento de especiación. Debido a la limitada distribución del nuevo taxón y al deterioro ambiental del río Ameca, se recomienda designarla como una especie protegida dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana.

  5. Ploidy differences represent an impassable barrier for hybridization. Is there an exception among botiid loaches (Cypriniformes: Botiidae?

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    Joerg Bohlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are generally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. However, the species ‘Botia’ zebra combines a number of morphological characters of a genus of Leptobotiinae with morphological characters of a genus of Botiinae, giving rise to the idea that it is the result of a hybridisation event between two species from different subfamilies. We here present a closer morphological examination, an allozyme comparison between ‘Botia’ zebra and the two potential parental species, a cytogenetic analyses as well as phylogenetic reconstructions basing on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and on the nuclear RAG-1 gene. The results are discussed in a phylogenetic, geographic and ecologic context.

  6. Genetic variation in Labeo fimbriatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) populations as revealed by partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Subrat Kumar; Bej, Dillip; Das, Sofia Priyadarsani; Sahoo, Lakshman; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Pratap Chandra; Das, Paramananda

    2016-05-01

    Labeo fimbriatus, a medium sized carp is assessed as a commercially important aquaculture species in Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of four Indian riverine populations of L. fimbriatus have been evaluated using partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA. Sequencing and analysis of this gene from 108 individuals defined 7 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.067 to 0.405 and 0.00023 to 0.03231, respectively. The Mahanadi population had the highest π level. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 47.36% of genetic variation contained within population and 53.76% of genetic variation among groups. Pairwise FST analysis indicated that there was little or no genetic differentiation among populations (-0.0018 to 04572) from different geographical regions except Mahanadi population. The Mahanadi population can be considered as a separate stock from rest three riverine populations. Accordingly, the genetic information generated from this study can be implemented while taking decision in formulating base population for the sustainable selective breeding programs of this species. PMID:25329277

  7. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 μL, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 μm and 3.8 ± 1.0 μm (p fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro fertilization is a very high viable option to optimize and maximize resources; besides, the reproduction management optimization under controlled conditions may enhance wild fish stocks preservation. PMID:25720172

  8. Sex ratio and body size in Cobitis elongatoides and Sabanejewia balcanica (Cypriniformes; Cobitidae) from a thermal spring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Freyhof, J.; Nolte, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 191-197. ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : environmental sex determination * Fisher's principle * cobitine loach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  9. Taxonomic status of a population of Gymoncypris waddelli Regan, 1905 (Cypriniformes: Schizothoracinae) distributed in Pengqu River, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Tao; Feng, Chen-Guang; Wanghe, Kun-Yuan; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Gymnocypris waddelli, a highland cold-water fish, is distributed among rivers and lakes of the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Although previously described as G. waddelli, specimens from the Pengqu River are morphologically distinguishable from those from Lake Yamzhog Yumco, which is the type locality of G. waddelli. We investigated morphological variations of G. waddelli specimens from Pengqu River and Lake Yamzhog Yumco using not only traditional morphological methods but also newly-developed geometric morphometric analysis; furthermore, mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene analysis was employed to explore the phylogenetic position of the Pengqu River population. Our morphological analyses suggested that G. waddelli from the Pengqu River had an obtuse snout, nearly straight oral fissure, shorter lower jaw than upper jaw, broad mouth and sparse inside gill rakers of the first arch relative to the Lake Yamzhog Yumco population. The strongly supported monophyly of Pengqu population according to mitochondrial datasets was obtained, indicating genetic differences between Pengqu River and Lake Yamzhog Yumco populations. Given their substantial genetic and morphological divergence, specimens from Pengqu River warrant recognition as a distinct species, here described and named Gymnocypris pengquensis. PMID:27395577

  10. Garra arupi, a new cyprinid fish species (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from upper Brahmaputra basin in Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    K. Nebeshwar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Garra arupi, a new cyprinid fish species is differentiated from its congeners along the base of the Himalaya in Brahmaputra basin by a combination of characters: two pairs of barbels, anterior position of vent (vent to anal distance 52.6-60.0% pelvic to anal distance, a band of 6-9 prominent horny tubercles on the tip of the snout, a submarginal black band on the dorsal fin, and 16 circumpeduncular scales. It is similar to G. kempi in having an anterior position of the vent, and similar to G. lissorynchus in having a distinct submarginal band on the dorsal fin. Garra arupi differs from G. kempi in having 35-36 (vs. 40-42 lateral line scales, 11-12 (vs. 13-14 predorsal scales, 16 (vs. 12 circumpeduncular scales, the presence of a distinct submarginal band on the dorsal fin (vs. absence, the presence of a transverse band of tubercles on the snout tip (vs. absence, and the presence of 7-8 thin stripes on the caudal peduncle (vs. absence. Garra arupi differs from G. lissorynchus in having 11-12 (vs. 14-15 predorsal scales, 7 (vs. 6 branched dorsal fin rays, 5 (vs. 4 branched anal fin rays, the absence of a W-shaped color band on the caudal fin (vs. presence, the absence of a rostral lobe on the snout (vs. presence, the presence of a transverse band of tubercles on the snout tip (vs. absence, and a vent to anal distance 52.6-60.0 (vs. 37.3-40.2 % pelvic to anal distance.

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC (EARLY LADINIAN OF THE NORTHERN GRIGNA MOUNTAIN (LOMBARDY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys is described. It comes from an Early Ladinian fossil-bearing bed lying in the middle-lower part of the Buchenstein Formation on the Northern Grigna southern slope (Pasturo, Lecco. This new species differs from the several other Middle Triassic species in the remarkable size (more than 130 cm in length, in the presence of a grid structure made by the dorsal elements of its vertebral column, and in the posteriorly enlarging endoskeletal elements of both dorsal and anal fins. Moreover, only two longitudinal scale rows distinguish this taxon; together with the grid structure of the dorsal vertebral column, this character was previously observed only in Norian species (Late Triassic. The early appearance of these features in a Ladinian species opens a new, serious discussion on the evolutionary trends of Saurichthys , which is a very important genus, inhabiting the seas and lakes all over the world from the latest Permian to the end of the Triassic. 

  12. Pelagic occurrence and diet of invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae) juveniles in deep well-mixed European reservoirs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jůza, Tomáš; Zemanová, Jana; Tušer, Michal; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Baran, Roman; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Blabolil, Petr; Wagenvoort, A. J.; Ketelaars, H. A. M.; Kubečka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 768, č. 1 (2016), s. 197-209. ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biesbosch reservoirs * fish community composition changes * invasive species * vertical distribution * length distribution * fry trawling Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  13. Organization of the nitrergic neuronal system in the primitive bony fishes Polypterus senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus (Actinopterygii: Cladistia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jesús M; Lozano, Daniel; Morona, Ruth; González, Agustín

    2016-06-15

    Cladistians are a group of basal actinopterygian fishes that constitute a good model for studying primitive brain features, most likely present in the ancestral bony fishes. The analysis of the nitrergic neurons (with the enzyme nitric oxide synthase; NOS) has helped in understanding important aspects of brain organization in all vertebrates studied. We investigated the nitrergic system of two cladistian species by means of specific antibodies against NOS and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, which, with the exception of the primary olfactory and terminal nerve fibers, labeled only for NADPH-d, yielded identical results. Double immunohistochemistry was conducted for simultaneous detection of NOS with tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase, calbindin, calretinin, and serotonin, to establish accurately the localization of the nitrergic neurons and fibers and to assess possible interactions between these neuroactive substances. The pattern of distribution in both species showed only subtle differences in the density of labeled cells. Distinct groups of NOS-immunoreactive cells were observed in pallial and subpallial areas, paraventricular region, tuberal and retromammillary hypothalamic areas, posterior tubercle, prethalamic and thalamic areas, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum, interpeduncular nucleus, superior and middle reticular nuclei, magnocellular vestibular nucleus, solitary tract nucleus, nucleus medianus magnocellularis, the spinal cord and amacrine cells in the retina. Large neurons in cranial nerve sensory ganglia were also labeled. The comparison of these results with those from other vertebrates, using a neuromeric analysis, reveals a conserved pattern of organization of the nitrergic system from this primitive fish group to amniotes, including mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1770-1804, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26517971

  14. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  15. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  16. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Cuban genus Girardinus Poey, 1854 and relationships within the tribe Girardinini (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doadrio, Ignacio; Perea, Silvia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Hernandez, Natividad

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among members of the freshwater fish tribe Girardinini were inferred to test existing colonization and diversification hypotheses for this group in the Caribbean. The genetic material examined was mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 1140 bp) and nuclear (RAG-1 and beta-actin, 2450 bp) DNA from 161 specimens representing 44 ingroup and three outgroup taxa. Our mtDNA and combined data matrix (mtDNA+nuclear DNA) results rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the tribe Girardinini and suggest the need to review the group's current taxonomy. From the data presented here, it may be inferred that the Girardinini diverged from other poeciliid fishes approximately 62 Mya ago in the Palaeocene period. This estimate, however, conflicts with the hypothesis that today's vertebrate fauna is the result of the more recent colonization of the Antillean islands during the Early Oligocene (35-33 Mya ago). The isolation of western, central and eastern Cuba during the Miocene and that of the Juventud Island and Guanahacabibes Peninsula during the Pliocene, are the main geologic events that could have promoted speciation in this group. PMID:18854217

  17. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.Diplectrum formosum, Diplectrum radiale (micholes-da-areia, Epinephelus marginatus (garoupa-verdadeira e Mycteroperca acutirostris (badejo-mira são quatro espécies simpátricas que pertencem à família Serranidae, de reconhecida importância ecológica e comercial. Este estudo analisou a alimentação destas quatro espécies de peixes no Canal de São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo (sudeste do Brasil, comparando suas dietas, o uso do habitat e algumas características morfológicas relacionadas ao comportamento alimentar e a distribuição vertical na coluna d'água. Estes quatro serranídeos são predadores oportunistas que utilizam um total de nove táticas diferentes para capturar suas presas, alimentando-se principalmente de crustáceos durante o dia e crepúsculo, e permanecendo estacionários e inativos durante a noite. Um estudo ecomorfológico foi empregado para testar seu valor preditivo. Foi verificado que tal abordagem deve ser utilizada com cautela e sempre complementada com observações diretas no ambiente. Apesar de morfologicamente e comportamentalmente muito semelhantes, D. formosum e D. radiale mostraram divergências com relação ao tipo de substrato preferido pelos maiores indivíduos, que são exclusivamente predadores de espreita. Por outro lado, E. marginatus mostrou possuir hábitos de vida mais sedentários do que M. acutirostris, o mais versátil predador dentre as espécies estudadas. As espécies de Diplectrum estudadas, assim como E. marginatus, podem ser classificadas como serranídeos bentônicos, enquanto que M. acutirostris pode ser classificada como uma espécie nectobentônica.

  18. FUYUANPERLEIDUS DENGI GENG ET AL., 2012 (OSTEICHTHYES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF YUNNAN PROVINCE, SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUOYU SUN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two well preserved specimens of Fuyuanperleidus dengi Geng et al., 2012 are described from the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation (Pelsonian, Anisian, Middle Triassic in Luoping County, Yunnan Province, South China. The attribution  to Perleidiformes is confirmed according to a combination of features such as the general skull pattern, with the large preoperculum showing a prominent infraorbital process, the maxilla with deep posterior region and a dentition made of  long and stout peg-like teeth with an acuminate apex, the deep mid-lateral flank scales and the caudal fin with epaxial fin rays. However, this taxon shows an unique arrangement of the squamation (here considered as autapomorphy given by the insertion of several scales in each vertical row posterior to the pelvic fin, just below the scales carrying the lateral line, when their depth decreases abruptly. Owing to this unique character, and  in spite of the very recent description of this genus, the authors considered necessary the erection of a new family, Fuyuanperleididae offering also new insights on the evolutionary trends and morphological specializations of the “subholosteans”. A cladistic analysis of the well known perleidiformes, with this taxon included, supports a possible monophyly of the order, and matches well the paleobiogeographic relationships of the Gondwana fresh-water taxa. The specialized deep-bodied Gondwana and Tethyan perleidiformes are independently evolved, ascertained by the parsimony analysis. 

  19. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  20. Different population structure in genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Casal-Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Here, through a phylogeographic study based on mitochondrial molecular markers, we found different structures on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar, as well as faunistic connections probably established on both sides during Miocene. Our results show that populations may have followed different and complex histories and species have suffered diverse events of vicariance and dispersion. While north Moroccan population show a well-defined structure, showing not only unique haplotypes, but different species, the case of the southern populations of the Iberian endemism, Luciobarbus sclateri Günther, 1868, differs substantially.

  1. Spot the difference: Two cryptic species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting Astyanax aeneus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Over the course of one year, undescribed specimens of Gyrodactylus were recovered from banded tetra, Astyanax aeneus collected in the La Antigua and Nautla river basins in central Veracruz, Mexico. Parasites were processed for morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphometrically, Gyrodactylus samples collected in the La Antigua river had slightly smaller haptoral structures than those collected from the Nautla river. During the 12month-collection of samples, however, water temperature varied considerably (ca. 20°C to 30°C), and this abiotic factor is known to affect the size of gyrodactylid attachment structures. Moreover, no clear discrimination was possible between individual parasites collected from the two rivers based on the morphology of the marginal hook, which is recognised as a very informative character to discriminate between species. The morphology of the ventral bar, however, differed between specimens from both rivers: worms from Nautla all had long, rounded processes on the ventral bar, which formed a relatively closed angle with the dorsal edge of the bar proper, while most - but not all - specimens from La Antigua had comparatively slender processes forming a more open angle with respect to the ventral bar. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2 of gyrodactylids indicated the existence of two distinct, well-supported lineages whose sequences differ by >4%, one of which was only found in the Nautla basin, while the other was collected in both river systems. A posteriori, principal component analysis (PCA) of the morphometric data of sequenced specimens indicated that features of the dorsal bar, the hamuli and the ventral bar enable discrimination between the two phylogenetic lineages. Based on these independent sources of information (morphometric and molecular data), two new species of Gyrodactylus are described: Gyrodactyluspakan n. sp. and Gyrodactylusteken n. sp. The phylogenetic relationships of both new species to other gyrodactylids infecting characiformes (for which molecular data are available) are presented, which suggests that their closest relative is Gyrodactylus carolinae, a parasite of Characidium lanei in Brazil. PMID:27208885

  2. SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF HELMINTH COMMUNITIES IN THE GOLDEN GREY MULLET, LIZA AURATA (ACTINOPTERYGII: MUGILIDAE), FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míguez-Lozano, R.; Pardo-Carranza, T.V.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Balbuena, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 5 (2012), s. 904-912. ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 1914 DIGENEA HAPLOPORIDAE * PARASITE SPECIES RICHNESS * N. SP MONOGENEA * MARINE FISHES * ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS * LIGOPHORUS MONOGENEA * SATURNIUS MANTER * BETA DIVERSITY * DISTANCE DECAY * BLACK-SEA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2897.1#fn2

  3. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA Elements and Its Implications for the Chromosomal Evolution of Channid Fishes (Actinopterygii, Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Villa, Mateo Andres; de Oliveira, Ezequiel Aguiar; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Chaveerach, Arunrat

    2015-01-01

    Channid fishes, commonly referred to as "snakeheads", are currently very important in Asian fishery and aquaculture due to the substantial decline in natural populations because of overexploitation. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been found in this family, mainly through the use of conventional cytogenetic investigations. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and the distribution of 7 repetitive DNA sequences in several Channa species from different Thailand river basins. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromosomal differentiation among species and populations to improve upon the knowledge of its biodiversity and evolutionary history. Rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions, fusions and polyploidization, appear to be important events during the karyotypic evolution of this genus, resulting in the chromosomal diversity observed among the distinct species and even among populations of the same species. In addition, such variability is also increased by the genomic dynamism of repetitive elements, particularly by the differential distribution and accumulation of rDNA sequences on chromosomes. This marked diversity is likely linked to the lifestyle of the snakehead fishes and their population fragmentation, as already identified for other fish species. The karyotypic features highlight the biodiversity of the channid fishes and justify a taxonomic revision of the genus Channa, as well as of the Channidae family as a whole, as some nominal species may actually constitute species complexes. PMID:26067030

  4. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  5. Morfologia do vírus do mosaico do picão Morphology of the bidens mosaic virus particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot W. Kitajima

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparações feitas com exsudato de plantas de fumo, girassol, picão, erva--de-Santa-Maria, cordão-de-frade, fedegoso. Chenopodium amaranticolor e Physalis floridana, sadias e infectadas pelo vínis do mosaico do picão, foram examinadas ao microscópio electrônico. Partículas com comprimento normal aproximado de 720 mm x 12-13 mm, foram encontradas nos exsudatos das oito espécies, quando afetadas, mas não nos das plantas sadias, testemunhas. Tais partículas são consideradas como sendo o vírus causador do mosaico do picão.Electron microscopical observations were made on exudates obtained from plants of Bidrus pilosa, Chenopodium amaranticolor Leonolis nepaetifolia, Helianthus annums. Nicotiana tabucum, Cassia occidentalis, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Physalis floridona infected with a virus that induces mosaic on the first named species. The presenes of a flexible thread with a normal length 720 mm. x 12-13 mm was recorded in the exudates from the: diseased plants, but not in those from the healthy ones, and is considered to represent the causal virus.

  6. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae) on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L.) and Glycine max (L.) Merr

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica da Silva; Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Fernanda Melo Gomes; Tassiane Terezinha Pinto; Thaliny Bonamigo; Nayara Parisoto Boiago

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations...

  7. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L. and Glycine max (L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations were held daily. The parameters under analysis were: germination percentage, time and average speed of germination, and average root lenght. The data obtained underwent the F-Test and the mean values were compared through Tukey’s test, at a 5% probability level. The results confi rm the presence of allelopathic potential in camelina. It was found that this species can be considered an option for cultivating with soybean, due to the positive allelophatic interference caused in the culture and because it can be used in the control of weeds such as beggartick, having in mind that that it has delayed the development of the seedlings tested.

  8. [Effect of food availability in early ontogenesis on the rate of growth and numbers of bream Abramis brama L. (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, E N

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of studies of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the coastal zone of Kursh Bay of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton production accessible for juveniles of bream Abramis brama L. at early stages of ontogenesis, degree of removal of food resources, and food availability of juveniles of the bream that was reflected in the rate of growth were calculated. It is concluded that the removal of more than 60% of production of food zooplankton by bream juveniles leads to an increase of their mortality at early stages and a decrease in the rate of increase in the body weight. PMID:21786657

  9. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes, with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Mayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay.

  10. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayden, Richard L; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  11. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction. PMID:26808475

  12. Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Zakiur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.

  13. Families of Cobitoidea (Teleostei; Cypriniformes) as revealed from nuclear genetic data and the position of the mysterious genera Barbucca, Psilorhynchus, Serpenticobitis and Vaillantella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg; Tan, H. H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2007), s. 1358-1365. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitoidea Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2007

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic signifi- cance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5′ end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian meth- ods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size.

  15. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, J.; Pekárik, L.; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), e0146872-e0146872. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GPP506/12/P857; GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : in-situ hybridization * fresh water fish * unisexual salamanders Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  16. Four new records of fish species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Balitoridae; Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) and corrections of two misidentified fish species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae; Beloniformes: Belonidae) in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six fish species of five families are reported for the first time from Yunnan Province, China. The nemacheilid Schistura amplizona Kottelat, 2000 is reported from the Luosuojiang River and Nanlahe River subbasins, Mekong basin; the prochilodontid Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), the balitorid Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat, 2000, and the tetraodontid Monotrete turgidus Kottelat, 2000, from Nanlahe River subbasin, Mekong basin; the balitorid Beaufortia daon (Mai, 1978), and the belonid Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker, 1854), both, from Black River subbasin, Red River basin. The freshwater puffer M. turgidus and the needlefish X. canciloides have been previously misidentified as Tetraodon leiurus (Bleeker, 1950) and Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823), respectively. PMID:24470454

  17. Microscopia óptica e eletrônica do corpúsculo de Stannius do curimbatá (Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ferreira Goldman Pinheiro

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stannius corpuscles of Prochilodus scrofa are studied microscopically (both optically and electronically as well as macroscopically. Two CS, and sometimes 3 or 4, are found per animal. They are pink-coloured organs, rounded in shape and scattered laterally in the first anterior third of the kidney. Each CS is enveloped by a thick connective tissue capsule. The grandular parenchyma consists of only one cellular (PAS-/AF- type, cylindrical in shape, with oval or rounded nucleus located eccentrically with visible nucleolus. The ultrastructural description is as follows: well developed Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in moderate quantities. Electron-dense granules numerous. CS highly vascularized.

  18. Microscopia óptica e eletrônica do corpúsculo de Stannius do curimbatá (Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881) (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes, Prochilodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elza Ferreira Goldman Pinheiro; Agar Costa Alexandrino; Silvio Ferri

    1986-01-01

    The Stannius corpuscles of Prochilodus scrofa are studied microscopically (both optically and electronically) as well as macroscopically. Two CS, and sometimes 3 or 4, are found per animal. They are pink-coloured organs, rounded in shape and scattered laterally in the first anterior third of the kidney. Each CS is enveloped by a thick connective tissue capsule. The grandular parenchyma consists of only one cellular (PAS-/AF-) type, cylindrical in shape, with oval or rounded nucleus located ec...

  19. Garra arupi, a new cyprinid fish species (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from upper Brahmaputra basin in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nebeshwar; W. Vishwanath; Das, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Garra arupi, a new cyprinid fish species is differentiated from its congeners along the base of the Himalaya in Brahmaputra basin by a combination of characters: two pairs of barbels, anterior position of vent (vent to anal distance 52.6-60.0% pelvic to anal distance), a band of 6-9 prominent horny tubercles on the tip of the snout, a submarginal black band on the dorsal fin, and 16 circumpeduncular scales. It is similar to G. kempi in having an anterior position of the vent, and similar to ...

  20. Growth, reproduction and feeding biology of an endemic Sucker Catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981 (Actinopterygii: Sisoridae), in the Maroon River, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Amini Chermahini; Samad Bahrami; Farideh Bakhshi; Amir Hossein Tahmasebi; Fatemeh Shahrani

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to provide some information on the biological features of the endemic Sucker Catfish, Glyptothorax silviae, from the Maroon River in the Tigris basin, Iran. Samples were collected at monthly intervals throughout the year and 277 individuals of G. silviae were caught. The mean total length and weight were 8.1 ± 1.7 (±SD) cm and 5.8 ± 3.5 (±SD) g and maximum length and weight were 11.9 cm and 17.4 g, respectively. Length-Weight relationship of the total specimens was ...

  1. Growth, reproduction and feeding biology of an endemic Sucker Catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981 (Actinopterygii: Sisoridae, in the Maroon River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amini Chermahini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide some information on the biological features of the endemic Sucker Catfish, Glyptothorax silviae, from the Maroon River in the Tigris basin, Iran. Samples were collected at monthly intervals throughout the year and 277 individuals of G. silviae were caught. The mean total length and weight were 8.1 ± 1.7 (±SD cm and 5.8 ± 3.5 (±SD g and maximum length and weight were 11.9 cm and 17.4 g, respectively. Length-Weight relationship of the total specimens was calculated as W = 0.006 TL3.205, (R2 = 0.956 indicating allometric growth and was not significantly different between males and females. The overall condition factor was 0.62. The sex-ratio (1.23M:1F was not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. Glyptothorax silviae reproduces during June-September. Absolute and relative fecundity was 1129 eggs/fish and 105 eggs/g body weight, respectively. The egg size ranged from 0.994 to 1.76 mm with a mean value of 1.29 ± 0.171 (±SD mm. The highest values of gonadosomatic index were observed in June-July. The gut content analysis revealed that G. silviae feeds only on aquatic insects.

  2. Contribución al conocimiento de los peces Pycnodontiformes (Actinopterygii, neopterygii) del Sajoniense inferior del NO de Alemania descritos por Fricke (1876)

    OpenAIRE

    Licht, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Pycnodontiform fishes are mostly represented by disarticulated cranial elements such as the vomer or prearticulars. These elements with their characteristic molariform dentition play an important role in establishing taxonomic identity. During the last 150 years, several species of pycnodonts were described from Lower Saxony based on the dentition of the prearticular and/or vomer. This paper describes a prearticular from Hanover which differs from all known prearticulars of this area an...

  3. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea nagelia sp. n. (Microsporidia: Glugeidae), infecting the intestinal wall of the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Actinopterygii: Serranidae), from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Rocha, Sonia; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Casal, Graca; Azevedo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A new microsporidian species of the genus Glugea Thélohan, 1891 parasitising the marine teleost fish Cephalopholis hemistiktos Rüppell, collected from the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical and whitish xenoma were observed adhering to the intestinal wall. The numerous spores contained within these xenoma, were ovoid to pyriform and measured 4.3-6.0 µm (5.1 µm) in length and 1.8-2.9 µm (2.2 µm) in width. The spore's wall was composed of two thick layers, which were thinner in the area contacting the anchoring disk. The latter appeared at the spore's anterior pole, in an eccentric position to the longitudinal axis. A lamellar polaroplast surrounded the uncoiled portion of the polar filament projected to the basal region of the spore, giving rise to 26-29 turns with winding from the base to the anterior zone of the spore. The posterior vacuole, located at the spore's posterior pole, and surrounded by the polar filament coils, was irregular and composed of light material. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the ITS region, was performed using maximum parsimony, neighbour-joining and maximum likelihood methods. The ultrastructural features observed, combined with the phylogenetic data analysed, suggest this parasite to be a new species of the genus Glugea. This is the first species of this genus to be reported from Saudi Arabia and is herein named Glugea nagelia sp. n. PMID:25960551

  4. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae): Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Santiago, Diushi Keri; Doadrio, Ignacio; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the complex. The species complex shows minimal genetic differentiation. The separation of A. diazi and A. meeki was dated to 400-7000 years ago, explained by geological and climate events. A bottleneck and reduction of genetic diversity in Allotoca diazi was detected, attributed to recent climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activity. The isolation of A. catarinae occurred ~1900 years ago. No geological events are documented in the area during this period, but the date is contemporary with P'urhépecha culture settlements. This founder effect represents the first evidence of fish species translocation by a pre-Hispanic culture of Mexico. The response of the complex to climate fluctuation, geological changes and human activity in the past and the future according to the ecological niches predictions indicates areas of vulnerability and important information for conservation. The new genetic information showed that the Allotoca diazi complex consist of two genetic groups with an incomplete lineage sorting pattern: Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes, and an introduced population in the Cupatitzio River. PMID:25946217

  5. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae: Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diushi Keri Corona-Santiago

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the complex. The species complex shows minimal genetic differentiation. The separation of A. diazi and A. meeki was dated to 400-7000 years ago, explained by geological and climate events. A bottleneck and reduction of genetic diversity in Allotoca diazi was detected, attributed to recent climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activity. The isolation of A. catarinae occurred ~1900 years ago. No geological events are documented in the area during this period, but the date is contemporary with P'urhépecha culture settlements. This founder effect represents the first evidence of fish species translocation by a pre-Hispanic culture of Mexico. The response of the complex to climate fluctuation, geological changes and human activity in the past and the future according to the ecological niches predictions indicates areas of vulnerability and important information for conservation. The new genetic information showed that the Allotoca diazi complex consist of two genetic groups with an incomplete lineage sorting pattern: Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes, and an introduced population in the Cupatitzio River.

  6. Evolutionary History of the Live-Bearing Endemic Allotoca diazi Species Complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae): Evidence of Founder Effect Events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic Period

    OpenAIRE

    Diushi Keri Corona-Santiago; Ignacio Doadrio; Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain th...

  7. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Walter Gutierrez; Javier Zaldívar; Guadalupe Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA) de la materia seca (MS), proteína cruda (PC), lípido crudo(LC) y energía bruta (EB) de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP) y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD) fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g). En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las ...

  8. Two new freshwater fish species of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from karst poljes in Eastern Herzegovina and Dubrovnik littoral (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogutskaya, Nina G.; Zupančič, Primož; Bogut, Ivan; Naseka, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi, are described on the basis of morphological comparisons of isolated geographical populations of fishes identified earlier as Telestes metohiensis. A lectotype is designated for Telestes metohiensis, whose range is shown to include waters of Gatačko, Cerničko, and Nevesinjsko poljes in Eastern Herzegovina. Telestes dabar from Dabarsko Polje (Eastern Herzegovina) and Telestes miloradi from Konavosko Polje (south Croatia) share with Telestes metohiensis the following combination of characters that distinguish them from the rest of the genus Telestes: pharyngeal teeth in one row, usually 5–4; preoperculo-mandibular canal not communicating with the infraorbital canal; mouth subterminal, the tip of the mouth cleft on or below the level of the ventral margin of the eye; postcleithrum minute or absent; ventral portion of the trunk with a dark stripe on a pale background; and dorsal portion of trunk uniformly dark and bordered ventrally by a dark midlateral stripe. Telestes dabar and Telestes miloradi are distinguishable from Telestes metohiensis in usually having 8½ branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. usually 7½), 9 or 10 gill rakers (vs. 7–10, usually 8), and the dark stripe on the ventral portion of the trunk below the main pigmented area of the back narrow and usually not reaching posteriorly to the caudal peduncle (vs. dark stripe wide and extending posteriorly to the caudal peduncle). Telestes dabar is distinguished from Telestes miloradi by having scales on most of the body situated close to one another and overlapping in a region behind the pectoral girdle and usually on the caudal peduncle (vs. overlapping scales on most of the body); the lateral line usually incomplete and interrupted, with 24–69, usually 54–65, total scales (vs. lateral line usually complete, with 55–67 total scales); scales above and below the lateral line slightly smaller than lateral-line scales (vs. of about equal size); head width 43–52% HL (vs. 48–58% HL); and lower jaw length 10–12% SL or 36–41% HL (vs. 8–10% SL or 33–38% HL). Telestes miloradi, a very local endemic species,is known only by historical samples. Telestes dabar is an abundant fish in Dabarsko Polje, but its range is critically restricted during the dry season by a few permanent sources. Nothing is known about its occurrence in underground karst waters. PMID:22539906

  9. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  10. Diet and feeding strategy of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario V. Condini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper (Mycteroperca marginata is a marine species usually associated with rocky bottoms and reefs. The present work investigated the diet and feeding strategy of a dusky grouper population inhabiting a 4.5 km long pair of rocky jetties located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon estuary. No prior research has been conducted in such man-made habitat and the current study provides a basis for comparative studies on the diet of the dusky grouper populations inhabiting natural vs. man-made rocky habitats. Similarly with previous studies on natural substrates, crabs and fishes were the main food categories consumed (%IRI = 85.1 and %IRI = 12.6, respectively, whereas shrimps and mollusks had lower importance in the diet (%IRI = 1.9 and 0.4, respectively. As previously reported for dusky grouper populations inhabiting reefs and rocky bottoms, the present work revealed conspicuous size related dietary shifts. Blue crabs and fishes become increasingly important food items in the diet of larger individuals (> 500 mm, TL. Finally, it was found that the studied dusky population has a generalist feeding strategy with a high between-individual variation in prey consumption. Such strategy remained similar across the size increment of the species. Our findings suggest that man-made rocky substrates provide suitable feeding grounds for the dusky grouper in southern Brazil and could be used as an additional tool in the conservation efforts of this endangered species.A garoupa-verdadeira (Mycteroperca marginata é uma espécie marinha geralmente associada a fundos rochosos e recifes. O presente trabalho investiga a dieta e estratégia alimentar de uma população da garoupa-verdadeira que habita um longo (4,5 km par de molhes de pedra na desembocadura do estuário da laguna dos Patos, sul do Brasil. Não há trabalhos anteriores realizados nesse tipo de habitat construído pelo homem e este trabalho fornece uma base de comparação com estudos de dieta de outras populações da garoupa-verdadeira ocorrendo em habitats naturais. De modo similar ao encontrado em estudos prévios realizados em substratos naturais, caranguejos e peixes foram as principais categorias de alimento consumidas (%IRI = 85,1 e %IRI = 12,6, respectivamente, enquanto camarões e moluscos tiveram menor importância na dieta (%IRI = 1,9 e %IRI = 0,4, respectivamente. Como reportado anteriormente para populações de garoupa-verdadeira que habitam recifes e fundos rochosos, o presente trabalho revelou marcadas mudanças na dieta em função do tamanho da espécie. Siri-azul e peixes tornam-se gradativamente mais importantes na dieta de indivíduos maiores (> 500 mm de comprimento total, CT. Finalmente, foi observado que a população de garoupa-verdadeira teve uma estratégia alimentar generalista com uma elevada variação entre indivíduos no consumo de presas. Essa estratégia permaneceu similar ao longo do aumento em tamanho da espécie. Os resultados do presente trabalho sugerem que substratos rochosos estabelecidos pelo homem propiciam locais de alimentação adequados para a garoupa-verdadeira no sul do Brasil e que poderiam ser usados como ferramentas adicionais nos esforços de conservação dessa espécie ameaçada.

  11. Variation in life-history traits between a newly established and long-established population of non-native pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Centrarchidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2015), s. 385-392. ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : freshwater fish * alien species * introduced species * date of introduction * size-at-maturity * fecundity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2014

  12. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos no município de Rio Grande, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados 130 indivíduos obtidos entre fevereiro de 2007 e maio de 2009, com comprimento total entre 260 e 800 mm. O coeficiente de crescimento no presente estudo (K: 0,069 foi inferior aos valores reportados para oMediterrâneo (0,087 e sudeste da África (0,09. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada a temperaturas médias maiores nessas regiões comparadas ao presente local de estudo ou devido a menor qualidade de habitat em termo de abrigos para os indivíduos de garoupa-verdadeira estabelecerem seus territórios. Análises microscópicas dos ovários dos indivíduos durante esses três anos de amostragens revelaram somente a ocorrência de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas em repouso. A ausência de indivíduos ovados ou em pós-desova, associada com baixos valores do IGS (<0,2, ao longo de todos os meses de coleta, indica que a garoupa-verdadeira não utiliza esse substrato rochoso construído pelo homem como um local de desova. A estimativa de um L50 de 451,3 mm indica que a maioria dos indivíduos capturados nessa região é imatura. Pressão de pesca sobre indivíduos imaturos, associada com a sua lenta taxa de crescimento e complexo modo reprodutivo, ameaça a sustentabilidade da atual pesca da garoupa-verdadeira na área de estudo.

  13. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g−1 for Fe to 7 μg g−1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  14. Composição em tamanho dos peixes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei de ribeirões da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibatta Oscar A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard length of 7610 specimens of 43 species from eight streams of rio Tibagi basin was obtained in order to analyze the means of fish sizes. The higher mean size was observed in Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (165,5 mm and the smaller, in Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 (16,25 mm. Some fish like Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1836, Gymnotus carapo Linneus, 1758 and Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 can reach big or medium size when adults but were collected only young, evidencing they use some streams in beginning of life. The mean size of total species was 49,81mm, what shows the small size composition of fishes in the streams. The Kolmogov-Smirnov test comparing the mean size of all streams showed significant similar size both in upstream and downstream regions, independent to the different environmental conditions.

  15. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was earlier and related to the rising of the Betic Mountains. Divergence of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations was associated with the creation of the freshwater systems of southern Iberia close to the Gibraltar Strait. The presence of S. pyrenaicus in southern Iberia may be the result of recent colonization associated with river capture, as demonstrated our biogeographic reconstruction. PMID:26785110

  16. Morphological and molecular taxonomy of a new species of Fundulotrema and comments on Gyrodactylus stephanus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Fundulus heteroclitus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontiformes) in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stanley D; Cone, David K

    2009-08-01

    Fundulotrema porterensis n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) is described from the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus (L.; Cyprinodontidae), inhabiting Porters Lake, Nova Scotia, Canada. The new parasite species is characterized by having a ventral bar with small anterolateral processes and linguiform membrane, differentiating it from all other known species of Fundulotrema. The morphological description of F. porterensis is supplemented with 1011 sequenced base pairs (bp) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) spanning both internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and 5.8S regions of the genome. A BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) search revealed that the 5.8S (157 bp) region varied by 1 bp from Gyrodactylus turnbulli Harris, 1986 and G. pictae Cable, Oosterhout, Barson and Harris, 2005, which also infect cyprinodontids. Morphometrically, F. porterensis most closely resembles Fundulotremafoxi (Rawson, 1973), but the 2 species are easily separated by length of hamuli (50.7 vs. 42.2 microm, respectively), length of anterolateral process of the ventral bar (4.9 vs. 8.9 microm), shape of marginal hooks, and shape of the ventral bar membrane. A morphological and molecular supplemental diagnosis of Gyrodactylus stephanus Mueller, 1937, from the mummichog, is also presented. This new material provides previously unrecorded information on the attributes of the ventral bar, marginal hooks, and also clarifies the structure of the male copulatory organ (MCO). PMID:20049991

  17. Karyotype diversity of the offspring resulting from reproduction experiment between diploid male and triploid female of silver Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae, Actinopterygii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, Lukáš; Knytl, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2011), s. 115-121. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Prussian carp Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  18. A new grenadier of the genus Hymenocephalus from Tosa Bay, southern Japan (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Naohide; Endo, Hiromitsu; Schwarzhans, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Hymenocephalus yamasakiorum, a new species of grenadier fishes, is described from a single specimen collected from Tosa Bay off Aki, Kochi, Japan, at a depth of 320–400 m. The species is distinguished from its 26 known congeners in having the following combination of features: pelvic-fin rays nine...

  19. A new species of Anacanthoroides and redescription of Apedunculata discoidea (Monogenoidea) parasitizing Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii) from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cassandra Moraes; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Anacanthoroides sanctifrancisci n. sp. from the gills of 'curimatã-pacú', Prochilodus argenteus from the São Francisco River, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Anacanthoroides, monotypic, is represented by Anacanthoroides mizellei. The new species can be distinguished from A. mizellei by the presence of a pair of muscular pseudosuckers in the anterior region of the body, an accessory piece not articulated to the male copulatory organ and the number of rings in the male copulaty complex. Apedunculata discoidea is redescribed and recorded in the gills of P. argenteus. The generic diagnosis of Apedunculata is amended. Both genera are recorded for the first time in the São Francisco River basin. PMID:24872054

  20. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  1. Neotropical monogenoidea. 55. Dactylogyrids parasitising the pintado-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the Rio São Francisco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Kritsky, Delane C; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2010-07-01

    Eight species of Dactylogyridae were collected from the gills of the pintado-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède in the Rio São Francisco in Brazil: Ameloblastella paranaensis (França, Isaac, Pavanelli & Takemoto, 2003) Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2009, A. satoi n. sp., Ameloblastella sp., Demidospermus armostus Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998, D. cf. bidiverticulatum (Suriano & Incorvaia, 1995) Kritsky & Gutiérrez, 1998, D. ichthyocercus n. sp., D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez & Suriano, 1992 and D. uncusvalidus Gutiérrez & Suriano, 1992. Two new species, A. satoi n. sp. and D. ichthyocercus n. sp., are described, and A. paranaensis is redescribed. The Rio São Francisco represents new geographical records for the five previously described dactylogyrid species. PMID:20532849

  2. Presencia del pez león, Pterois volitans (Actinopterygii: Scorpaenidae), en el departamento de la Guajira, Mar Caribe de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Viloria, H.; Rosado Gómez, A.; Acero P., A.

    2011-01-01

    The red lionfish was captured in the northeast Colombian Caribbean, in “El Yoyo” fishing ground, located in La Guajira peninsula (Riohacha). The Guajira continental shelf, located between Santa Marta and Venezuela, should be a stepping area for lionfish pelagic larvae.

  3. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific interactions, territorial and reproductive behaviour. In general, these fish from Fernando de Noronha occurs in intertidal zone, are gregarious, with small home ranges of near 2 x 2 m², and show low agressivity towards other fish. Occasionally, some chasing was recorded between individuals of the same or distinct species. Low agressivity is probably associated to the occupation of small areas (e.g. tide pools, as a high degree of agressivity may represent an unnecessary [excessive] waste of energy. Most of the studied species presents cryptic coloration, associated to the avoidance of predators, but some males showed conspicuous coloration and intense aggressive behaviour, mainly during the reproductive season. It was only during this occasion that territorial behaviour, chasing and bites were recorded.

  4. Territorial hypothesis predicts the trade-off between reproductive opportunities and parental care in three species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii La hipótesis territorial predice la compensación entre las oportunidades reproductivas y el cuidado parental en tres especies de peces damisela (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paternal care is rare in most animals, but common in fishes, including Pomacentridae. One way of explaining it is through the territorial hypothesis, which predicts that paternal care may evolve when caring for a territory with eggs will not cost more than territories without eggs. Here we describe the reproductive behavior of three pomacentrids from São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluate if the territorial hypothesis explains their behavioral variation through five predictions. We checked if females have multiple spawns (prediction 1, if they forage more (prediction 2 and if territory defence demands more when eggs are present (prediction 3. We also described how visible eggs are (prediction 4 and how available nesting sites are (prediction 5. Chromis multilineata differed from Abudefduf saxatilis and Stegastes fuscus by not guarding the eggs, spending less time with territoriality and fanning eggs; and more time feeding and foraging. Females of the three species are iteroparous. Females' A. saxatilis and S. fuscus foraged more than males, which spent the same amount of time in territorial defence before and after eggs were delivered. These two species also have very conspicuous egg clutches on clean rock surfaces defended by them. On the other hand, males and females of C. multilineata spent the same time foraging, while territoriality took more effort after eggs were present and it spawns cryptic eggs amid Sargassum, a common and disperse micro-environment in São Paulo rocky shores. Territorial hypothesis explains why paternal care by A. saxatilis and S. fuscus lasts longer than by C. multilineata.El cuidado paterno es raro en la mayoría de los animales, pero común en los peces, incluyendo los Pomacentridae. Una forma de explicar este fenómeno es la hipótesis territorial, que predice que el cuidado paterno puede evolucionar cuando la protección de un territorio con huevos no cuesta más que la de territorios sin huevos. Aquí se describe el comportamiento reproductivo de tres pomacentrídios de São Paulo, Brasil, y se evalúa si la hipótesis territorial explica la variación de su comportamiento a través de cinco predicciones. Se analizó si las hembras tienen múltiples desoves (predicción 1, si forrajean más (predicción 2 y si la defensa del territorio es mayor cuando los huevos están presentes (predicción 3. También se evaluó si los huevos eran visibles (predicción 4 y cuán disponibles eran los sitios de anidación (predicción 5. Chromis multilineata difería de Abudefduf saxatilis y Stegastes fuscus por no proteger a sus huevos, dedicar menos tiempo a la territorialidad y ventilación de sus huevos, y más tiempo para la alimentación y forrajeo. Las hembras de las tres especies son iteróparas. Las hembras de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus forrajean más que los machos, que gastan la misma cantidad de tiempo en la defensa territorial antes y después de liberar los huevos. Estas dos especies también defienden a desoves muy conspicuos adheridos en superficies de roca limpia. Por otra parte, las hembras y machos de C. multilineata pasaron el mismo tiempo forrajeando, mientras la territorialidad tomó más esfuerzo después, con los huevos presentes, y los desoves estaban escondidos en medio de Sargassum, un ambiente común y disperso en micro-ambientes de las costas rocosas de São Paulo. La hipótesis territorial explica el motivo por el cual el cuidado paterno de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus es más prolongado que el de C. multilineata.

  5. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior findings suggest the existence of undescribed species among the cyprinids of central Mexico. Within the genus Notropis distributed across central Mexico and adjacent areas sometimes reaching southern basins, two groups have been recognized: a Southern Mexican clade and a central Mexican clade. Within this last clade, Notropis calientis has been defined as a species complex of four small minnows inhabiting upland areas. Here we describe two new species of this complex based on morphometric, meristic and genetic characters. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. was diagnosed according to the following set of characters: 7, rarely 8, branched pelvic fin rays (vs. 8, rarely 7 or 9, in other species of the N. calientis complex and 9, rarely 8, scales in a transverse series (vs. 10, rarely 9 or 11 in N.grandis & N. calientis; a dark, narrow lateral stripe running from around the pectoral fin to the caudal peduncle origin; and twenty-six fixed nucleotide positions in the cytochrome b gene. The diagnosis of Notropis grandis sp. nov. was based on: 6, rarely 7, branched fin rays (vs. 7, rarely 6 or 8, in N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis and N. aulidion and 8, rarely 7 or 9, in N. calbazas and N. amecae, 42, rarely 40-41, or 43-45 scales in a lateral series (vs. 40, rarely 37-39, in N. calabazas; 35-36, rarely 37-39, or 33-34 in N. amecae; 35, rarely 31-34, or 36 in N. marhabatiensis and N. calientis and 34, rarely 30-33, or35 in N. aulidion and 11 rarely 10 or 12 gill rakers in the first arch; a dark lateral stripe widening from approximately the pectoral fin origin to the dorsal fin origin, forming a slightly convex segment; adult animals larger (n=30, or = 42.6, SD=4.69 relative to N. calientis (n=55, or = 33.3, SD= 3.28 and N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, or = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p or = 6.3% to 8.1% for N. grandis.Diversos estudios sugieren la existencia de especies no descritas de ciprínidos en el centro de México. Las especies del género Notropis se distribuyen a lo largo del centro de México y regiones adyacentes, algunas especies llegan a cuencas del sur del país. Se han reconocido dos grupos: un clado sureño y uno en la parte central del país. En este último, Notropis calientis fue descrito como un complejo de especies que habita las partes altas de las cuencas donde se distribuyen. Con base en características morfométricas, merísticas y genéticas, se describen dos nuevas especies que emanan del complejo Notropis calientis. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. se diagnostica por presentar: 7, rara vez 8 radios ramificados en la aleta pélvica (vs. 8 rara vez 7 o 9 en las otras especies dentro del complejo N. calientis y 9 rara vez 8 escamas transversales (vs. 10 rara vez 11 o 9 en N. grandis y N. calientis. Una línea lateral oscura y delgada corre a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el pedúnculo caudal. Veintiséis posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas en el gen citocromo b. Notropis granáis sp. nov. presenta 6, rara vez 7 radios ramificados en la aleta anal (vs. 7, rara vez 8 o 6 en N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis y N. aulidion y 8, rara vez 7 o 9 en N. calbazas y N. amecae; 42, rara vez 40-41 y 43-45 escamas en una línea lateral (vs. 40 rara vez 37-39 en N. calabazas; 35-36, rara vez 37-39 y 33-34 en N. amecae; 35, rara vez 31-34 y 36 en N. marhabatiensis y N. calientis y 34 rara vez 30-33 y 35 in N. aulidion y 11, rara vez 10 o 12 branquiespinas en el primer arco branquial. La línea lateral se extiende a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta dorsal, con un segmento ligeramente convexo. Los adultos de esta especies son de mayor tamaño (longitud estándar= o = 42.6, SD= 4.69 (vs. N. calientis (n=55, o = 33.3, SD=3.28 y N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, o = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p o = 6.1% a 7.4%. Para N. granáis fueron de o = 6.3% a 8.1%.

  6. Distribuição espacial e temporal de Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii-Engraulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are members of the Engraulidae family, characterized to present coastal pelagic habits, concentrating in large schoolings distributed among the continental shelf and semi-closed environment, like bays, where they are target of heavy fisheries. The present study aims to describe spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulous (Cuvier, 1828 in the Sepetiba bay (22º54'-23º04'S, 43º34'-44º10'W and to assess influences of environmental variables on fish occurrence. A monthly sampling programme was carried out between October 1998 and September 1999, to take both, fish and environmental information on temperature, salinity and depth. Three bay zones were established based on spatial gradient of salinity and depth. Adults C. edentulus were more abundant in the inner bay zone; seasonally, larger size groups (total length > 16 cm occurred in spring/summer. Significant negative correlations were found between fish abundance and salinity and depth. The close relationship of this species to innermost areas in bays, and the absence of juveniles in sandy beaches, suggest that young-of-the-year use mangrove areas as recruitment sites.

  7. Comparative study of closely related \\kur{Asteraceae} species with different invasive status

    OpenAIRE

    ŠAFARČÍKOVÁ, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Complex of 4 closely related Asteraceae species with different invasive status (native Bidens tripartita, casual aliens Cosmos bipinnatus, Coreopis tinctoria and invasive alien Bidens frondosa) was studied to clarify the invasive success of Bidens frondosa and to assess the invasive potential of both unsuccessful aliens. Among studied characteristics were included: reproductive traits (germination in different regimes, seed viability and seed production), growth characteristics (relative grow...

  8. ПЕРВОЕ ОБНАРУЖЕНИЕ ЛЕЩА ABRAMIS BRAMA (CYPRINIFORMES, CYPRINIDAE) В РЕКЕ ЛЕНЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Кириллов, А.; Шахтарин, Д.; Собакина, И.

    2007-01-01

    В р. Лене впервые обнаружен лещ Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758). Рассматриваются вопросы расселения леща, приводятся данные по морфологии и росту.

  9. [Differences in the infestation rate of young cyprinid fishes (Cypriniformes) by metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum Cuticola (Digenea, Diplostomatidae) in river and lake systems of the Lake Chany basin (Western Siberia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadrenkina, E N

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 fish species were studied for the invasion of P. cuticola (Nordmann, 1832) metacercariae in the Chany Lake estuaries, river and lake systems during different periods of water level. All infected individuals were represented by juveniles of the family Cyprinidae, except for adults of the dace Leuciscus leuciscus. (L.). Under an average water level (2010) the highest rate of fish invasion was revealed in the estuary zone, where the prevalence of infection (PI) constituted 37.5%, 13.4%, and 5.9% for the gudgeon Gobio gobio, the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), and the dace L. leuciscus (L.), respectively. An infested carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Heckel) (PI - 13.5%) was recorded in the lower Kargat River, and the goldfish Carassius auratus (L.) (PI - 3.2%), in the lake system. Mean intensity of infection (MI) constituted 1.3, 1.4, 2.5, 2.6, and 1.0 in gudgeon, roach, dace, carp, and bream (Abramis brama L.), respectively. During dry season (2011) with high water salinity only two fish species were infected with P. cuticola metacercariae, the goldfish (PI - 7.9%) and the roach (PI - 1.5%). No correlation between PI and fish density was revealed. It is assumed that the high degree of water salinity is a limiting factor regulating the efficiency of cercariae transition from the first intermediate host (Planorbis planorbis (L.)) to the second one (Pisces, Cyprinidae). PMID:25693328

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Acheilognathidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidea) as revealed from evidence of both nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequence variation: Evidence for necessary taxonomic revision in the family and the identification of cryptic species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chang, H.-C.; Li, F.; Shao, K.-T.; Lin, Y.-S.; Morosawa, T.; Kim, S.; Koo, H.; Kim, W.; Lee, J.-S.; He, S.; Smith, Carl; Reichard, Martin; Miya, M.; Sado, T.; Uehara, K.; Lavoué, S.; Chen, W.-J.; Mayden, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 81, December (2014), s. 182-194. ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acheilognathinae * Cyprinidae * Cryptic species * Nuclear loci * Cytochrome b * European bitterling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014

  11. Morphological and molecular description of Tenuisentis niloticus (Meyer, 1932) (Acanthocephala: Tenuisentidae) from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii: Arapaimidae), in Burkina Faso, with emendation of the family diagnosis and notes on new features, cryptic genetic diversity and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, R Paul; Boungou, Magloire; Heckmann, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Specimens described as Rhadinorhynchus niloticus Meyer, 1932 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from two male specimens collected from Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier) in the Egyptian Nile were later redescribed in the genus Tenuisentis Van Cleave, 1936 (Tenuisentidae) based on 12 specimens collected from the same host species in the White Nile. That redescription basically distinguished the two genera based on five traits but did not actually provide a formal description. His account left out information about cerebral ganglion, lemnisci, some reproductive structures, eggs, proboscis hook dissymmetry and roots, size of trunk and a few other structures. We provide (i) the first complete description of this species enhanced by SEM, molecular, and histo-pathological studies; (ii) expand the existing descriptions; (iii) correct questionable accounts advanced by Van Cleave on the cement gland and the hypodermal giant nuclei; and (iv) add descriptions of new features such as the para-receptacle structure which we also report from Paratenuisentis Bullock & Samuel, 1975, the only other genus in Tenuisentidae Van Cleave, 1936. The subsequent description of a few more specimens from the same host collected in Mali was more informative yet incomplete and at variance with our specimens from Burkina Faso. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) and nuclear (18S ribosomal RNA) gene relationships uncovered a cryptic species complex containing two lineages. Based on our studies, the family diagnosis is emended. The acanthocephalan causes damage to the host intestine as depicted in histopathological sections. The invading worm can extend from the mucosal layer to the muscularis externa of the host with subsequent tissue necrosis, villi compression, haemorrhaging and blood loss. PMID:26790681

  12. Population and feeding structure of Steindachnerina notonota Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937 (Actinopterygii, Characiformes, Curimatidae in Taperoá II dam, semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil Estrutura populacional e alimentar de Steindachnerina notonota Miranda Ribeiro, 1937 (Actinopterygii, Characiformes, Curimatidae no Açude Taperoá II, na região do semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla Araujo Montenegro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The present study investigated population structure, weight-length relationships, sex ratio and associations between feeding activity and reproductive period, diet and alimentary regime of Steindachnerina notonota at Taperoá II dam, semi-arid region of Paraíba State. METHODS: The region has the lowest pluviometric rates of Brazil. Fishes were collected during six sampling periods (October and December/2005, and March, June, August and October of 2006 encompassing two dry periods, and one rainy period. Cast, seine and gill nets were used to collect the individuals. RESULTS: Throughout the study period 120 individuals were collected, with total length ranging between 2.2 and 10.7 cm and weight between 0.31 and 43.1 g. A recruitment period, identified due to a higher abundance of small individuals in the population, was observed in the beginning of the rainy period of 2006, lasting until the beginning of the dry season. S. notonota showed a negative allometric growth type, i.e., individuals 'elongate' during their development. A significantly higher proportion of females were observed throughout the study period. The relationship between feeding and reproductive activities were not significant, given that individuals showed high feeding rates regardless of the intensity of their reproductive activities. Although the diet of S. notonota comprised several items such as plant debris, eggs, organic matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, Nematoda, Ostracada, Conchostraca, among others, the most important feeding item was detritus, suggesting a predominant detritivirous feeding habit. CONCLUSIONS: Biological aspects of S. notonota observed in the present study suggest that this species has potential to attain great population sizes, as consequence of both diet and feeding dynamics, as well as its reproductive characteristics and growth type.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a estrutura da população, a relação peso-comprimento, a razão sexual, as associações entre atividade alimentar e período de reprodução, dieta e regime alimentar de Steindachnerina notonota, no açude Taperoá II, semi-árido paraibano. MÉTODOS: A região tem os menores índices pluviométricos do Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados em seis amostragens (Outubro e Dezembro de 2005, e Março, Junho, Agosto e Outubro de 2006, compreendendo 2 períodos de estiagem e 1 chuvoso. Para a captura dos exemplares, utilizou-se tarrafa, redes de espera e de arrasto. RESULTADOS: Ao longo do estudo capturou-se um total de 120 indivíduos, que mediram entre 2,2 e 10,7 cm de comprimento total e pesaram de 0,31 a 43,1 g. Evidenciou‑se intenso recrutamento durante todo o período estudado, demonstrado pela maior abundância de indivíduos em estádios gonadais “em maturação” (2 e “maduros (3”. S. notonota apresentou um crescimento do tipo alométrico negativo (quando os indivíduos se tornam mais “alongados” durante o seu desenvolvimento, com uma proporção sexual significativamente maior de fêmeas ao longo do período estudado. Observou-se que a relação entre a atividade alimentar e a atividade reprodutiva não foi significativa, tendo em vista que os indivíduos apresentaram alta atividade alimentar independente da intensidade da atividade reprodutiva. Embora a dieta alimentar de S. notonota tenha sido composta por diversos itens, a exemplo de restos vegetais, ovos, matéria orgânica, fitoplâncton, zooplâncton, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Conchostraca, dentre outros, o item de maior importância alimentar foi detritos, indicando um regime alimentar predominantemente detritívoro. CONCLUSÕES: Os aspectos da biologia de S. notonota observados no presente estudo, remetem a uma espécie com potencial para atingir grandes tamanhos populacionais, tanto pela sua dieta e dinâmica alimentar, quanto pelas suas características reprodutivas, e tipo de crescimento.

  13. 延边地区稻田抗药性杂草的研究%Study on resistant weeds in rice fields in Yanbian Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明根; 曹凤秋; 杜小军; 崔锡花

    2005-01-01

    延边地区及其周围稻田大量发生外来杂草狼巴草(Bidens tripartita L.)、大狼巴草(Bidens frondosa L.)和柳叶鬼针草(Bidens cernua L.).长期连续使用农得时,稻田杂草雨久花(Monochoria korsakowii kegel et Maack.)、野慈姑(Sagittaria trifolia L.)对磺酰脲类除草剂表现出很强的抗性,初步认为这些杂草为抗磺酰脲类除草剂的生态型.

  14. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  15. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  16. Salida de campo al Castrillo (Zamora) el 19 y 20 de junio de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo al Castrillo, en la provincia de Zamora, cerca de Toro, los días 19 y 20 de junio de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre Hirudo medicinalis (Sanguijuela, Annelida), Tinca tinca (Tenca, Actinopterygii), ranas (sin identificar la especie) y las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Carricero tordal), Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Carricero común), Alectoris sp. (Perdiz), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón), Apus sp. (Vencejo), Ardea cinerea (Garza real), Athene noct...

  17. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Lei YANG; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish ...

  18. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Márcia Maria Mauli; Danielle Medina Rosa; Gislaine Piccolo; Denise Sommer Marques; Rachel Mohana de Carvalho Refosco

    2009-01-01

    As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos ...

  19. Сравнительное анатомо-морфологическое исследование видов рода Bidens L

    OpenAIRE

    Исайкина, Надежда; Андреева, В.

    2011-01-01

    Изучено морфологическое и анатомическое строение видов рода череда для разработки проекта нормативной документации на траву череды. Морфологические и анатомические признаки исследовали по фармакопейным методикам у серийных образцов официнального сырья и других видов рода череда. Выявлены существенные различия в морфологических признаках этих видов и близость их анатомического строения....

  20. Application of InterPro for the functional classification of the proteins of fish origin in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Margaret Biswas; Alex Kanapin; Rolf Apweiler

    2001-06-01

    InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and sites, developed initially as a means of rationalizing the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. It is a useful resource that aids the functional classification of proteins. Almost 90% of the actinopterygii protein sequences from SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL can be classified using InterPro. Over 30% of the actinopterygii protein sequences currently in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL are of mitochondrial origin, the majority of which belong to the cytochrome b/b6 family. InterPro also gives insights into the domain composition of the classified proteins and has applications in the functional classification of newly determined sequences lacking biochemical characterization, and in comparative genome analysis. A comparison of the actinopterygii protein sequences against the sequences of other eukaryotes confirms the high representation of eukaryotic protein kinase in the organisms studied. The comparisons also show that, based on InterPro families, the trans-species evolution of MHC class I and II molecules in mammals and teleost fish can be recognized.

  1. Microcobitis, a new genus name for Cobitis misgurnoides (Teleostei: Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Harant, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2010), s. 295-300. ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cypriniformes * fish * guangxi Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2010

  2. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert, Yann; Bernard, Laure; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Bourrat, Franck; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Pottin, Karen; Meyer, Axel; Retaux, Sylvie; Stock, David W.; Jackman, William R.; Seritrakul, Pawat; Begemann, Gerrit; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of evolutionary developmental biology is to link specific adaptations to changes in developmental pathways. The dentition of cypriniform fishes, which in contrast to many other teleost fish species possess pharyngeal teeth but lack oral teeth, provides a suitable model to study the development of feeding adaptations. Here, we have examined the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) in tooth development and show that RA is specifically required to induce the pharyngeal tooth develo...

  3. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Sanda; Jasna Vukic; Michal Nowak; Jan Mendel; Tihomir Stefanov; Stamatis Zogaris

    2015-01-01

    Gudgeons (Gobio and Romanogobio, Cypriniformes) are taxonomically very complicated group of primary freshwater fishes. The region of the west Aegean Sea rivers is inhabited by three species according to Kottelat and Freyhof (2007): Gobio feraensis endemic to the Pinios River basin; Gobio balcanicus inhabiting all remaining drainages, from the Aliakmon up to the Marica drainage; and Romanogobio elimeus occurring from the Pinios to the Vardar basin. Recent analysis of barcoding gene cytochrome ...

  4. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Yann; Bernard, Laure; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Bourrat, Franck; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Pottin, Karen; Meyer, Axel; Retaux, Sylvie; Stock, David W; Jackman, William R; Seritrakul, Pawat; Begemann, Gerrit; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-09-01

    One of the goals of evolutionary developmental biology is to link specific adaptations to changes in developmental pathways. The dentition of cypriniform fishes, which in contrast to many other teleost fish species possess pharyngeal teeth but lack oral teeth, provides a suitable model to study the development of feeding adaptations. Here, we have examined the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) in tooth development and show that RA is specifically required to induce the pharyngeal tooth developmental program in zebrafish. Perturbation of RA signaling at this stage abolished tooth induction without affecting the development of tooth-associated ceratobranchial bones. We show that this inductive event is dependent on RA synthesis from aldh1a2 in the ventral posterior pharynx. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been shown to be critical for tooth induction in zebrafish, and its loss has been associated with oral tooth loss in cypriniform fishes. Pharmacological treatments targeting the RA and FGF pathways revealed that both pathways act independently during tooth induction. In contrast, we find that in Mexican tetra and medaka, species that also possess oral teeth, both oral and pharyngeal teeth are induced independently of RA. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary scenario in which the gene network controlling tooth development obtained RA dependency in the lineage leading to the cypriniforms. The loss of pharyngeal teeth in this group was cancelled out through a shift in aldh1a2 expression, while oral teeth might have been lost ultimately due to deficient RA signaling in the oral cavity. PMID:20445074

  5. СРАВНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ПЛОДОВИТОСТИ ABRAMIS BRAMA ( OSTEICHTHYES, CYPRINIFORMES) ДНЕПРОВСКОГО ВОДОХРАНИЛИЩА

    OpenAIRE

    Федоненко, Е.; Косинова, Н.

    2003-01-01

    Зміна темпів росту, статевого дозрівання, вгодованості й плідності риб розглядається як пристосувальна реакція популяції риб до змін умов життя. Вивчення плідності риб дає змогу прогнозувати формування іхтіофауни водосховищ.

  6. Baltic States get security reaffirmation from their key ally, the US / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2016-01-01

    Riias toimunud Balti riikide presidentide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide asepresidendi Joe Bideni kohtumisel arutleti Balti riikide julgeoleku ja julgeolekualase koostöö teemadel. Joe Biden kinnitas Ameerika Ühendriikide valmisolekut tulla võimaliku rünnaku korral Balti riike kaitsma

  7. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF СOMPOSITAE PLANTS. I. CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS WITH NEW PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Matvieieva, N.

    2015-01-01

    The review explores some of the recent advances and the author's own researchs concerning biotechnological approaches for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes -mediated transformation of Compositae family plants. This paper reviews the results of genetic transformation of Compositae plants, including edible ( Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa ), oil ( Helianthus annuus ), decorative ( Gerbera hyb rida ), medical ( Bidens pilosa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinali...

  8. Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force in the Mid-Atlantic Region Which Would Coordinate Government Agencies, Including U.S. Attorneys, the FBI, DEA, Customs Service, BATF, and the IRS. Dover, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document presents testimony and proceedings from the Congressional hearings on organized crime and drug enforcement in the Mid-Atlantic region, and government efforts to solve these problems. Opening statements are presented from Senators Strom Thurmond and Joseph Biden. Testimony is also presented from the United States attorneys for the…

  9. COMPOSIÇÃO DA ICTIOFAUNA DAS BACIAS HIDROGRÁFICAS DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace Silva do Nascimento; Nirlei Hirachy Costa Barros; Andréa Soares Araújo; Liliane Lima Gurgel; Bhaskara Canan; Wagner Franco Molina; Ricardo S. Rosa; Sathyabama Chellappa

    2014-01-01

    Aqui é apresentado um extenso levantamento atualizado da composição das espécies de peixes de água doce das bacias hidrográficas do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. A compilação foi realizada a partir de levantamentos préviose dados da literatura sobre o registro das espécies, reportadas no período de 1982 a 2013. Foram identificadas 51 espécies, distribuídas em dezordens (Cypriniformes, Characiformes, Perciformes, Siluriformes, Synbranchiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Gymnotiformes, Gasterosteifo...

  10. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladão, Gustavo Moraes Ramos; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Martins, Maurício Laterça; de Pádua, Santiago Benites

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae), from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided. PMID:26154956

  11. Diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in the Zhoushan archipelago,Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bullfrogs (Runa catesbeiana) are listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the world.They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.In previous studies,the food contents of bullfrogs were mostly examined at a single site.In the present study,the diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs on eight islands (Daishan,Liuheng,Xiushan,Fodu,Taohua,Xiashi,Cezi,and Putuoshan) in the Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province of China,were examined by using the stomach flushing method from June 30 to August 11 in 2005.A total 0f391 individual frogs were measured,including 113 adults and 278 juveniles.The analysis of the stomach contents shows that,for adult bullfrogs,the most important prey (by diet volume) overall were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Odonata,Mesogastropoda,Raniformes,and Cypriniformes.For juvenile bullfrogs,these were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Cypriniformes,Odonata,Orthoptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera larvae,Mesogastropoda,and Raniformes.Moreover,the prey size and diet volume increased with the body size of both adult and juvenile bullfrogs.The diet composition of primary preys of bullfrogs was significantly different among the islands.The results indicate that bullfrogs exert different predatory influences on native fauna at different sites and that bullfrogs are generalist predators with extensive ecological impacts on native fauna.

  12. Oncology Nurses and the Cancer Moonshot 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    When Vice President Joe Biden's son, Beau, died of a brain tumor in May 2015, the Vice President's grief was profound. Yet, his grief generated an idea, a big idea: Let's collaborate and focus the talent and resources in our country to eliminate cancer as we know it. When Vice President Biden shared his idea with President Barack Obama in the fall of 2015, not only did President Obama endorse the idea, he announced the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative during his January 2016 State of the Union Address. The goal is to double progress against cancer and break down silos that prevent science and industry from working together. The initiative centers around the development and implementation of new vaccine-based immunotherapies to target individual tumors based on their genomic signature. PMID:27441504

  13. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros; Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior; Adalci Leite Torres

    2005-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas), Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos), Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas), Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell.) Morong (frutos), Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos), Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas), Piper nigrum L. (folhas), Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos), Poth...

  14. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856); Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842); Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856); Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838); Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767); Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823); Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mor...

  15. 河南外来入侵植物新报%New materials to the alien invasive plants in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云霞; 刘兆云; 陈付合; 朱长山

    2010-01-01

    报道新确认的河南外来入侵植物9种:细叶满江红(Azolla filiculioides)、野老鹳草(Geranium carolinianum)、假酸浆(Nicandra physaloides)、毛酸浆(Physalis pubescens)、牛茄子(Solanum surattense)、北美车前(Plantago virginica)、霍香蓟(Ageratum conyzoides)、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)和两耳草(Paspalum conjugatum).

  16. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Werlang; Silva, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamen...

  17. Apuntes sobre la flora gallega, XVII

    OpenAIRE

    Amigo Vázquez, Javier; Pulgar Sañudo, Íñigo

    2005-01-01

    Presentamos un nuevo capítulo dentro de la serie de contribuciones al conocimiento actualizado de la Flora de Galicia, aportando información de interés corológico sobre 11 taxa recolectados: Bidens frondosa L., Crypsis alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.) Schrad., Cyperus fuscus L., Cyperus michelianus (L.) Link, Dittrichia graveolens (L.) Desf., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. hispidula (Retz.) Honda, Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees, Hypericum hirsutum L., Lindernia dubia (L.) Pe...

  18. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, César G.; Torres, Enrique; de Vis, Raf

    2011-01-01

    En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA) de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca), se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis) sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de z...

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Moscardini Chavasco; Barbara Helena Muniz Prado E Feliphe; Claudio Daniel Cerdeira; Fabricio Damasceno Leandro; Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho; Jeferson Junior da Silva; Jorge Kleber Chavasco; Amanda Latercia Tranches Dias

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf an...

  20. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Ocheng; Freddie Bwanga; Moses Joloba; Abier Softrata; Muhammad Azeem; Katrin Pütsep; Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson; Celestino Obua; Anders Gustafsson

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed ...

  1. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Saul A; Ochoa Veronica J; Rojas Jhon J; Muñoz John F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and...

  2. Dosadašnje stanje rasprostranjenosti nekih neofita u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Pandža, M.; Franjić, J.; Trinajstić, I.; Škvorc, Ž.; Stančić, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Istraživanjem rasprostranjenosti neofita u Hrvatskoj ukupno je otkriveno 332 novih nalazišta za 21 neofitsku vrstu. Najviše novih nalazišta ima vrsta Bidens subalternans (52), zatim slijede Impatiens glandulifera (49), Aster squamatus (43), Impatiens balfourii (29), Datura inoxia (25), Euphorbia prostrata (11), Galinsoga parviflora (17), Amaranthus albus (14), Galinsoga quadriradiata (15), Diplotaxis erucoides (11), Xanthium strumarium ssp. italicum (9), Phytolacca americana (12), Artemisia v...

  3. Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., new species for slovenian flora, and contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of Primorska region

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer Pečnikar, Živa; Glasnović, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses Akebia quinata, a new alien species for the Slovenian flora. The authors provide a description of the species and its locality, and discuss its invasive potential, as in 2008, the species was recognized by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization as emerging invader in Europe. The authors also discuss the occurrence of several other neophytes in the Primorska region (Slovenia): Amaranthus deflexus, Artemisia annua, Aster squamatus, Bidens pilosa, Bide...

  4. Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., nova vrsta v slovenski flori, ter prispevek k poznavanju neofitske flore Primorske: Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., new species for slovenian flora, and contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of Primorska region:

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer Pečnikar, Živa; Glasnović, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses Akebia quinata, a new alien species for the Slovenian flora. The authors provide a description of the species and its locality, and discuss its invasive potential, as in 2008, the species was recognized by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization as emerging invader in Europe. The authors also discuss the occurrence of several other neophytes in the Primorska region (Slovenia): Amaranthus deflexus, Artemisia annua, Aster squamatus, Bidens pilosa, Bide...

  5. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  6. A comparative study on the performance of 3 plants for remediation of cadmium contaminated farmland soil%3种植物对Cd污染农田土壤的修复效果比较试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩少华; 黄沈发; 唐浩; 王敏; 吴健

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验研究了3种植物三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)、紫茉莉(Mirabilis Jalapa)、中华景天(Sedum polytrichoides)对上海地区2种质量浓度(1.2、12.0 mg/kg)Cd污染农田土壤的修复效果,以探索其在上海地区Cd污染农田土壤修复中应用的可行性.结果表明:2种浓度下,三叶鬼针草对土壤Cd去除效果均最佳,1.2 mg/kg处理下盆中土壤Cd质量浓度由原来的1.249 9 mg/kg下降到0.861 7mg/kg,降低0.388 2 mg/kg,Cd去除率为31.06%;12.0mg/kg处理下三叶鬼针草盆中土壤Cd质量浓度由原来的12.033 2 mg/kg下降到10.020 6mg/kg,降低2.012 6 mg/kg,Cd去除率为16.73%;紫茉莉和中华景天相比较而言,修复效果均较差.在2种浓度下,3种植物地上部分生物量排序均为三叶鬼针草>中华景天>紫茉莉.因此,建议将三叶鬼针草作为上海地区Cd污染农田土壤修复的优选植物.%Series of pot experiments were conducted to remediate cadmium contaminated farmland soil by 3 species of plants (Bidens pilosa L. ,Mirabilis Jalapa and Sedum polytrichoides). Two levels cadmium stress of 1. 2 mg/kg and 12. 0 mg/kg were set in experiments. The feasibility of 3 plants for remediation the cadmium contaminated soil in Shanghai area was discussed. Results showed that Bidens pilosa L. presented best performance of cadmium removal under both level of cadmium stress. Under low cadmium stress, the cadmium concentration in pot of Bidens pilosa L. fell from 1. 249 9 mg/kg to 0. 861 7 mg/kg, average cadmium removal was 0. 388 2 mg/kg given the Cd removal rate of 31. 06%. Under high cadmium stress, the cadmium concentration in soil fell from 12. 033 2 mg/kg to 10. 020 6 mg/kg, the average cadmium removal was 2. 012 6 mg/kg given the Cd removal rate of 16. 73%. Compared with Bidens pilosa L. , the performance of Mirabilis Jalapa and Sedum polytrichoides for remediation of cadmium contaminated soil was relative poor. The aboveground biomass of 3 plants followed

  7. Length-weight relationship of 73 fish species caught in the southeastern inner continental shelf region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June F Dias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The a and b parameters of the length-weight relationship (LWR of the form W = aLb were estimated for 71 species of Actinopterygii and 2 Elasmobranchii, caught in the coastal region and inner shelf of southeastern Brazil. Estimates of b varied from 2.151 to 3.882. For the first time LWR for eight fish species is reported. Significant differences were observed among b values obtained for the same species caught in different ecosystems. Moreover, significant different results for b were observed among species caught in different ecosystems and between sexes of 12 species. Therefore, in order to obtain a reliable biomass estimate it is necessary to choose LWR data close in time and region with estimates for each sex.

  8. The current status of the Adriatic sea fish biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Dulčić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is nowadays facing substantial structural changes in flora and fauna. Such changes were observed in the Adriatic Sea as well. During the last few decades, various factors including climate change, anthropogenic activity and lessepsian migration have altered the composition of Adriatic ichthyofauna. Furthermore, extensive investigations carried out in the last decades allowed us to recognize species previously not recorded or reported in this area. These changes are reflected in the number of species quoted in the checklist of Adriatic fishes, from 407 in 1996 (sensu Jardas, 1996 to 440 in 2010 (Agnatha 1, Elasmobranchii 52, Holocephali 1 and Actinopterygii 386 (sensu Lipej and Dulčić, 2010. The present updates for the period 2010-2014, were compiled from survey of relevant scientific papers and doctoral theses. Only those species which were reported and appropriately documented in scientific literature were taken into consideration. In the period of 2010-2014, twelve new fish species have been recorded in the Adriatic Sea such as Lobotes surinamensis, Siganus luridus, Paranthias furcifer, Holacanthus ciliaris, Elates ransonnetti, Enchelycore anatina, Caranx rhonchus, Lagocephalus sceleratus, Chrysiptera cyanea, Notoscopelus kroeyerii, Notoscopelus bolini and Dipturus nidaroniensis. These findings increase the number of fish species recorded in the Adriatic Sea to 452 (Elasmobranchii 53, Actinopterygii 397. Certain fish species were probably related to recent processes in the Adriatic Sea, such as bioinvasion and tropicalisation. Of the 14 Lessepsian migrants that were recorded in the Adriatic Sea, Fistularia commersonii and Siganus luridus proved to be successful invaders in its southern part. Some fish species were recorded for the very first time due to new research approaches and techniques in the area (e.g. cryptobenthic fish fauna.

  9. Evolution and differential expression of a vertebrate vitellogenin gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongshaug Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multiplicity or loss of the vitellogenin (vtg gene family in vertebrates has been argued to have broad implications for the mode of reproduction (placental or non-placental, cleavage pattern (meroblastic or holoblastic and character of the egg (pelagic or benthic. Earlier proposals for the existence of three forms of vertebrate vtgs present conflicting models for their origin and subsequent duplication. Results By integrating phylogenetics of novel vtg transcripts from old and modern teleosts with syntenic analyses of all available genomic variants of non-metatherian vertebrates we identify the gene orthologies between the Sarcopterygii (tetrapod branch and Actinopterygii (fish branch. We argue that the vertebrate vtg gene cluster originated in proto-chromosome m, but that vtg genes have subsequently duplicated and rearranged following whole genome duplications. Sequencing of a novel fourth vtg transcript in labrid species, and the presence of duplicated paralogs in certain model organisms supports the notion that lineage-specific gene duplications frequently occur in teleosts. The data show that the vtg gene cluster is more conserved between acanthomorph teleosts and tetrapods, than in ostariophysan teleosts such as the zebrafish. The differential expression of the labrid vtg genes are further consistent with the notion that neofunctionalized Aa-type vtgs are important determinants of the pelagic or benthic character of the eggs in acanthomorph teleosts. Conclusion The vertebrate vtg gene cluster existed prior to the separation of Sarcopterygii from Actinopterygii >450 million years ago, a period associated with the second round of whole genome duplication. The presence of higher copy numbers in a more highly expressed subcluster is particularly prevalent in teleosts. The differential expression and latent neofunctionalization of vtg genes in acanthomorph teleosts is an adaptive feature associated with oocyte hydration

  10. Curvas dose-resposta em espécies de plantas daninhas com o uso do herbicida glyphosate(1 Dose-response curves in weed species with the use of herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Lacerda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a resposta de diferentes espécies de plantas daninhas ao herbicida glyphosate, foi desenvolvido em câmara de crescimento um experimento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ/USP. Para isso, foram estudadas seis espécies de plantas daninhas: Bidens pilosa L., Tridax procumbens L., Digitaria insularis (L. Fedde, Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., Ipomoea grandifolia L. e Commelina benghalensis L. Utilizou-se o herbicida glyphosate, inibidor da enzima EPSPs, com doses em escalas de 0,0; 11,3; 22,5; 45; 90; 180; 360; 720 e 1.440 g.ha-1 i.a. A elaboração das curvas dose-resposta foi feita pelo ajuste da equação dos dados coletados de biomassa verde utilizando o modelo log-logístico: Y = C+D-C / 1 + Exp{b[log(x-log(RC50]}, calculado por modelo estatístico não linear dos dados pelo programa estatístico SAS. Após a determinação das curvas dose-resposta nas espécies acima citadas concluiu-se que Bidens pilosa foi considerada a planta daninha mais suscetível ao herbicida glyphosate, pois apresentou menor RC50 (31,86 g.ha-1 i.a.. As espécies Tridax procumbens, Digitaria insularis, Spermacoce latifolia, Ipomoea grandifolia, Commelina benghalensis obtiveram RC50 de 58,40; 128,50; 250,44; 615,49 e >1.440 g.ha-1 i.a. respectivamente. Portanto, a quantidade necessária de herbicida para reduzir em 50% a biomassa verde foi de 1,83; 4,03; 7,86; 32 e >359,56 vezes maior em relação à Bidens pilosa respectivamente.With the objective of veryfing the response of different doses in species of weeds by herbicide glyphosate, an experiment was conducted in growth chamber in a completetly randomized design with three repetitions, in the Department of Vegetable Production at ESALQ/USP. For that, were chosen six species of weeds: Bidens pilosa L., Tridax procumbens L., Digitaria insularis (L. Feed, Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., Ipomoea grandifolia L. and Commelina benghalensis L

  11. Germination of seeds from herbaceous plants artificially stored in cerrado soil

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    SASSAKI R. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of three cerrado herbaceous species: Bidens gardneri, Vernonia herbacea (Asteraceae and Psychotria barbiflora (Rubiaceae was studied using seeds stored in cerrado soil and in refrigerator at 4°C. The field experiment was carried out at a preserved area of cerrado, the Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The soil was collected in the same cerrado where the experiment was carried out. The achenes of Bidens gardneri are light sensitive, but this sensitivity disappeared when the achenes were stored in soil. With 3 months storage in cerrado soil no differences in germination in light or darkness were detected. The number of intact achenes retrieved from storage in soil decreased with increasing time of storage. A large number of seeds had already germinated during the 3 months storage in soil. The longevity of seeds of this species stored for nearly 10 years at 4°C was checked: the achenes were viable for a long period of time but less than 10 years. Intact achenes of Vernonia herbacea could be retrieved from the soil only with 1 month storage. Germination was always very low and only 15% of the achenes possessed embryos. The number of intact seeds of Psychotria barbiflora decreased the longer the period of storage in soil. Germination of seeds stored at 4°C or in the soil was always very low. From the germination studies of stored seeds in cerrado it can be concluded that Vernonia herbacea does not form a seed bank and Bidens gardneri and Psychotria barbiflora may form a temporary seed bank in cerrado.

  12. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF TREE-CLIMBING MANGROVE SESARMID CRABS FROM LUZON, PHILIPPINES

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    JIMMY TEVAR MASAGCA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove tree climbers (EMTC; Sarmatium germaini − occasional mangrove tree climber (OMTC; and the non-mangrove tree-climbing (NMTC sesarmids- Neosarmatium smithii, Perisesarma bidens and Perisesarma eumolpe

  13. Ponto de murcha permanente de soja, feijão e plantas daninhas Permanent wilting point of soybean, bean and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    S.O. Procópio; J.B. Santos; Silva, A. A.; G.K. Donagemma; E. S. Mendonça

    2004-01-01

    Objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar o ponto de murcha permanente das culturas da soja e do feijão e de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência nas áreas agrícolas do Brasil. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por seis espécies, sendo duas cultivadas, Glycine max e Phaseolus vulgaris, e quatro de plantas daninhas - Euphorbia heterophylla (plantas suscetíveis e resistentes a herbicidas inibidores de ALS), Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum -, com duas épocas de indução de estresse hídrico (pré...

  14. Antarctic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: part I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida and Haplosclerida Esponjas Antárticas (Porifera, Demospongiae das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: parte I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida e Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to redescribe 11 species of sponges collected through the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR, at the South Shetland Islands and vicinity. New information is provided on the Antarctic sponge fauna, in regard to species richness and the geographical and bathymetric distributions of identified species. The following species were identified and are here illustrated and fully described: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880, Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915, Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905, Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 and Calyx arcuarius (Topsent, 1913. Two new records are given for the Antarctic continent: Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915 and Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905. Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880 and Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 represent the first records for this sector of the continent. Bathymetric data are extended for T. longispinum and H. attenuata.O objetivo deste trabalho é redescrever 11 espécies de esponjas coletadas através do Programa Antártico Brasileiro (PROANTAR, nas Is. Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas. Nnovas informações são fornecidas acerca do conhecimento da fauna de poríferos da Antártica, tanto para a riqueza específica como para os dados referentes às distribuições geográfica e batimétrica das espécies identificadas. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas e são aqui ilustradas e amplamente descritas: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886

  15. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  16. Atividade alelopática da leucena sobre espécies de plantas daninhas Allelopathic activity of leucaena on weed species

    OpenAIRE

    Nádja de Moura Pires; Hélio Teixeira Prates; Israel Alexandre Pereira Filho; Rubem Silvério de Oliveira Jr.; Trícia Cristina Lessa de Faria

    2001-01-01

    Alelopatia é o efeito direto ou indireto de uma planta sobre outra, por meio da produção de compostos químicos liberados no ambiente. Os metabólitos secundários ou produtos naturais envolvidos em alelopatia são denominados aleloquímicos e estão presentes nos tecidos de diferentes partes das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial alelopático da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.) sobre as plantas daninhas Desmodium purpureum (desmódio), Bidens pilosa (picão-pr...

  17. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior; Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim Junior; Jorge Braz Torres; Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e ...

  18. Captação e aproveitamento da radiação solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por plantas daninhas

    OpenAIRE

    Santos José Barbosa dos; Procópio Sérgio de Oliveira; Silva Antônio Alberto da; Costa Luiz Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Com o objetivo de desenvolver técnicas para a criação de um programa de manejo integrado de plantas daninhas (MIPD), avaliou-se neste trabalho, em condições de campo, o desempenho das culturas do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) e da soja [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] e das plantas daninhas picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.), dois biótipos de leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (sensível e resistente a herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS), e carrapicho-beiço-de-boi [Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], qu...

  19. Diversidad de la fauna de artropodos terrestres en el humedal jaboque, bogotá-colombia

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ-N., DAVID; AMAT-GARCÍA, GERMÁN D.

    2012-01-01

    En el Humedal Jaboque, ubicado dentro del perímetro urbano de la ciudad de Bogotá, se estudió la composición taxonómica y trófica, la riqueza y la diversidad de la fauna de artrópodos terrestres asociada a cinco comunidades de vegetación cuyas especies dominantes eran: Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus y Polygonum punctatum; Schoenoplectus californicus, Typha latifolia y Bidens laevis. Se colectaron 8944 individuos que representan una biomasa seca de 9757.8 mg., correspondientes a 212 morfoespec...

  20. Caracterización de la artropofauna terrestre del humedal jaboque (bogotá, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Amat García Germán; Sánchez Núñez David Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    En el humedal Jaboque, se estudió la diversidad y la estructura trófica de la artropofauna asociada a las comunidades de vegetación Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus-Polygonum punctatum, Schoenoplectus californicus y Typha latifolia. La composición y riqueza asociada a la comunidad Bidens laevis y la composición de los insectos antófilos relacionados a algunas plantas. Se identificaron en total 212 morfoespecies, distribuidas en 48 familias y siete órdenes. A lo largo del estudio se colectaron 8...

  1. Notes florístiques de les conques altes dels rius Segre i Llobregat. III

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Al present article, hi aportem dades d’un interès especial per a la flora regional de les conques superiors del Segre i el Llobregat (Pirineus orientals), referides a tàxons fins ara desconeguts a la zona o molt rars. Els tàxons al·lòctons Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (invasor) i Berberis vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris i Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (casuals) constitueixen una novetat per a la flora de Catalunya. També confirmem la presència actual de Bidens cernuus L., espècie que, aparentmen...

  2. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Rodríguez S.; Carlos Rodríguez M.; Anastasia Cruz C.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas), que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, ut...

  3. Eficiência do herbicida oxyfluorfen, quando veiculado ao papel, no controle de algumas espécies daninhas Effect of the herbicide oxyfluorfen using paper as a vehicle on the weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre J. Bezutte; Fabio Calegare; Pedro L. C. A. Alves; Robinson A. Pitelli

    1995-01-01

    Com o objetivo de encontrar um método alternativo de aplicação de herbicidas, estudou-se a eficiência do oxyfluorfen aplicado em três doses (0, 480 e 960g/ha) sob duas formas (pulverizado e veiculado em folha de papel) no controle em pré-emergência de Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum, Eleusine indica, Sida rhombifolia Amaranthus retroflexus, Acanthospermum hispidum e Digitaria horizontalis. A pulverização do oxyfluorfen foi realizada com o auxílio de um pulverizador, e sua veiculação foi fe...

  4. Produção e características qualitativas de sementes de plantas daninhas Production and qualitative characteristics of weed seeds

    OpenAIRE

    J.B. Santos; S.O. Procópio; Silva, A. A.; Costa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção (número e peso) e a composição (teores de lipídeo total, proteína total, carboidrato e cinzas) de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla (biótipos suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS), Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum em condições de campo. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram maiores valores para peso de 100 sementes. D. tortuosum produziu maior número de sementes por planta (714,2). Para todas as espécies avaliadas,...

  5. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    OpenAIRE

    F.A.M. Silva; F.D. Nogueira; L.L. Ribeiro; Godinho, A; P. T. G. Guimarães

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto), Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo), Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão) Amaranthus deflexus (caruru), na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais), em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiên...

  6. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  7. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Silva

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto, Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo, Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão Amaranthus deflexus (caruru, na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram identificados, na rizosfera das plantas estudadas, os ácidos oxálico, cítrico, acético, butírico e propiônico, sendo os dois primeiros encontrados em maiores concentrações, em relação aos demais. As maiores concentrações dos ácidos identificados ocorreram em B. pilosa.In order to identify and quantify organic acids in the rizosphere of weeds infesting coffee plantations, the rizosphere samples of the weeds Bidens pilosa, Alternanthera ficoidea, Taraxacum officinale, Amaranthus deflexus were collected at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG - Lavras-MG, Brazil. The samples were submitted to extraction and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic, citric, acetic, butyric and propionic acids were identified in the rizosphere of the studied plants. The first two were found in larger concentrations and the largest concentrations occurred in B. pilosa.

  8. Fish genomes provide novel insights into the evolution of vertebrate secretin receptors and their ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Trindade, Marlene; Power, Deborah M

    2014-12-01

    The secretin receptor (SCTR) is a member of Class 2 subfamily B1 GPCRs and part of the PAC1/VPAC receptor subfamily. This receptor has long been known in mammals but has only recently been identified in other vertebrates including teleosts, from which it was previously considered to be absent. The ligand for SCTR in mammals is secretin (SCT), an important gastrointestinal peptide, which in teleosts has not yet been isolated, or the gene identified. This study revises the evolutionary model previously proposed for the secretin-GPCRs in metazoan by analysing in detail the fishes, the most successful of the extant vertebrates. All the Actinopterygii genomes analysed and the Chondrichthyes and Sarcopterygii fish possess a SCTR gene that shares conserved sequence, structure and synteny with the tetrapod homologue. Phylogenetic clustering and gene environment comparisons revealed that fish and tetrapod SCTR shared a common origin and diverged early from the PAC1/VPAC subfamily group. In teleosts SCTR duplicated as a result of the fish specific whole genome duplication but in all the teleost genomes analysed, with the exception of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the duplicates was lost. The function of SCTR in teleosts is unknown but quantitative PCR revealed that in both sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) transcript abundance is high in the gastrointestinal tract suggesting it may intervene in similar processes to those in mammals. In contrast, no gene encoding the ligand SCT was identified in the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) although it was present in the coelacanth (lobe finned fish, Sarcopterygii) and in the elephant shark (holocephalian). The genes in linkage with SCT in tetrapods and coelacanth were also identified in ray-finned fishes supporting the idea that it was lost from their genome. At present SCTR remains an orphan receptor in ray-finned fishes and it will be of interest in the future to establish why SCT was

  9. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingda Hu

    Full Text Available Resistin (encoded by Retn was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish, but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions.

  10. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  11. Coelacanths as 'almost living fossils’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LionelCavin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its usage by Darwin in 1859, the concept of ‘living fossil’ has undergone multiple definitions and has been much discussed and criticized. Soon after its discovery in 1938, the coelacanth Latimeria was regarded as the iconic example of a ‘living fossil’. Several morphological studies have shown that the coelacanth lineage (Actinistia has not displayed critical morphological transformation during its evolutionary history and molecular studies have revealed a low substitution rate for Latimeria, indicating a slow genetic evolution. This statement, however, has been recently questioned by arguing that the low substitution rate was not real, and that the slow morphological evolution of actinistians was not supported by paleontological evidence. The assessment of morphological transformation among three vertebrate lineages during a time interval of circa 400 million years shows that the morphological disparity of coelacanths is much more reduced than the morphological disparity of Actinopterygii and Tetrapoda. These results support the idea that living coelacanths are singular organisms among the living world.

  12. The fish tail as a derivation from axial musculoskeletal anatomy: an integrative analysis of functional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, B E

    2014-02-01

    The adult morphology of the tail varies greatly among extant fishes despite sharing both ontogenetic similarities and the functional need to propel the body through a fluid medium. Both sharks (Chondrichthyes) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) control caudal fin musculature independently of axial body myomere activity to modify the stiffness and shape of their tails. For example, sharks and bony fishes possess different structural elements and muscles and move their tails in different ways, resulting in different locomotory hydrodynamic effects and a range of performance variables including speed and maneuverability. The stiffness of the heterocercal, lobate tail of the shark can be modulated during the tail beat resulting in nearly continuous thrust production. In contrast, the highly flexible tail of ray-finned fishes can be manipulated into many different shape conformations enabling increased maneuverability for these fishes. Consequently, the developmental, morphological, and functional derivation of the tail from the axial trunk has resulted in a diversity of form, the attributes of which may be of ecological and evolutionary significance. PMID:24290784

  13. The Oldest Actinopterygian Highlights the Cryptic Early History of the Hyperdiverse Ray-Finned Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Giles, Sam; Friedman, Matt; den Blaauwen, Jan L; Zhu, Min

    2016-06-20

    Osteichthyans comprise two divisions, each containing over 32,000 living species [1]: Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods) and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). Recent discoveries from China highlight the morphological disparity of early sarcopterygians and extend their origin into the late Silurian [2-4]. By contrast, the oldest unambiguous actinopterygians are roughly 30 million years younger, leaving a long temporal gap populated by fragments and rare body fossils of controversial phylogenetic placement [5-10]. Here we reinvestigate the enigmatic osteichthyan Meemannia from the Early Devonian (∼415 million years ago) of China, previously identified as an exceptionally primitive lobe-finned fish [3, 7, 11, 12]. Meemannia combines "cosmine"-like tissues taken as evidence of sarcopterygian affinity with actinopterygian-like skull roof and braincase geometry, including endoskeletal enclosure of the spiracle and a lateral cranial canal. We report comparable histological structures in undoubted ray-finned fishes and conclude that they are general osteichthyan features. Phylogenetic analysis places Meemannia as an early-diverging ray-finned fish, resolving it as the sister lineage of Cheirolepis [13] plus all younger actinopterygians. This brings the first appearance of ray-fins more in line with that of lobe-fins and fills a conspicuous faunal gap in the otherwise diverse late Silurian-earliest Devonian vertebrate faunas of the South China Block [4]. PMID:27212403

  14. Gnathostome phylogenomics utilizing lungfish EST sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between the Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes), the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes), and the piscine Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes) and how the Tetrapoda (four-limbed terrestrial vertebrates) are related to these has been a contentious issue for more than a century. A general consensus about the relationship of these vertebrate clades has gradually emerged among morphologists, but no molecular study has yet provided conclusive evidence for any specific hypothesis. In order to examine these relationships on the basis of more extensive sequence data, we have produced almost 1,000,000 bp of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the African marbled lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus. This new data set yielded 771 transcribed nuclear sequences that had not been previously described. The lungfish EST sequences were combined with EST data from two cartilaginous fishes and whole genome data from an agnathan, four ray-finned fishes, and four tetrapods. Phylogenomic analysis of these data yielded, for the first time, significant maximum likelihood support for a traditional gnathostome tree with a split between the Chondrichthyes and remaining (bone) gnathostomes. Also, the sister group relationship between Dipnoi (lungfishes) and Tetrapoda received conclusive support. Previously proposed hypotheses, such as the monophyly of fishes, could be rejected significantly. The divergence time between lungfishes and tetrapods was estimated to 382-388 Ma by the current data set and six calibration points. PMID:19029191

  15. Building blocks of a fish head: Developmental and variational modularity in a complex system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Caroline; Cloutier, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of the vertebrate skull is developmentally constrained by the interactions among its anatomical systems, such as the dermatocranium and the sensory system. The interaction between the dermal bones and lateral line canals has been debated for decades but their morphological integration has never been tested. An ontogenetic series of 97 juvenile and adult Amia calva (Actinopterygii) was used to describe the patterning and modularity of sensory lateral line canals and their integration with supporting cranial bones. Developmental modules were tested for the otic canal and supratemporal commissure by computing correlations in the branching sequence of groups of pores. Landmarks were digitized on 25 specimens to test a priori hypotheses of variational and developmental modularity at the level of canals and dermal bones. Branching sequence suggests a specific patterning supported by significant positive correlations in the sequence of appearance of branches between bilateral sides. Differences in patterning between the otic canal and the supratemporal commissure and tests of modularity with geometric morphometrics suggest that both canals form distinct modules. The integration between bones and canals was insufficient to detect a module. However, both components were not independent. Groups of pores tended to disappear without affecting other groups of pores suggesting that they are quasi-independent units acting as modules. This study provides evidence of a hierarchical organization for the modular sensory system that could explain variation of pattern of canals among species and their association with dermal bones. PMID:26227536

  16. Chromosome evolution in fishes: a new challenging proposal from Neotropical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a database containing cytogenetic data of Neotropical actinopterygian fishes from Venezuela obtained in a single laboratory for the first time. The results of this study include 103 species belonging to 74 genera assigned to 45 families and 17 out of the 40 teleost orders. In the group of marine fishes, the modal diploid number was 2n=48 represented in 60% of the studied species, while in the freshwater fish group the modal diploid complement was 2n=54, represented in 21.21 % of the studied species. The average number of chromosomes and the mean FN were statistically higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish. The degree of diversification and karyotype variation was also higher in freshwater fish in contrast to a more conserved cytogenetic pattern in marine fish. In contrast to the assumption according to which 48 acrocentric chromosomes was basal chromosome number in fish, data here presented show that there is an obvious trend towards the reduction of the diploid number of chromosomes from values near 2n=60 with high number of biarmed chromosomes in more basal species to 2n=48 acrocentric elements in more derived Actinopterygii.

  17. INAA of microelements in plant species from the Danube floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research was developed and implemented in the Danube floodplain, as a part of a program dealing with biogeochemistry of metals, to assess the possibility of using the ubiquitous plant species in the soil pollution monitoring activity. The Danube River is heavily polluted by the input from a catchment, which includes 12 countries. Even if the concentrations in the Danube water and sediments reach acute values only in some hot spots, due to the dilution effect, they could have negative consequences by phenomena of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration. The content of Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V and Zn in Bidens tripartita, Rubus caesius, Stachys palustris and Xanthium strumarium ubiquitous plant species, collected from two areas located on different regularly flooded islands of the Danube river was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis method at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. From the statistical point of view, three groups of elements present highly correlated concentrations in the investigated plant samples (p(0.05))//. The first one includes Al, As, Ce, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Th and V, the second one Au, Ca, Cu and Sr, and the third one Br, Cr, Na and Mn. For the elements of the first group, the elemental concentrations are found to be in similar ratios in the species investigated, namely: Xanthium s. < Rubus c. < Bidens t. < Stachys p. as well as for the third group: Bidens t. < Rubus c. < Stachys p. < Xanthium s, suggesting that physiological features of the species could be responsible for the observed patterns of distribution. The soil and dominating plant species were analysed for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Zr by the X-ray fluorescence method at the Institute for Geological Explorations, Bucharest. The elemental content in soil is reflected in the analysed plants for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, but not for Mn. This could be explained by the redox

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon): structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R-Q; Wang, D-Z; Li, C-T; Yang, X-R

    2016-01-01

    The complete 16,532-nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon) was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method, and compared with the mitochondrial genome sequences of 49 other catfish species belonging to the order Siluriformes. The locations of protein-coding genes and ribosomal ribonucleic acids (RNAs) were identified by comparison with known sequences of other catfishes, including P. fulvidraco and P. nitidus. The P. eupogon mitochondrial genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order was identical to that of other Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets were carried out to further clarify the relative phylogenetic position of P. eupogon, and identify phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) 8.0.X were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of P. eupogon with Amblycipitidae than Siluridae. We therefore concluded that this species appears to be closely related to the Amblycipitidae. In the phylogenetic tree, the Amblycipitidae appeared as the most basal extant lineage within the Siluriformes, while the Bagridae appeared as the sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The mitochondrial genome sequence of P. eupogon has been deposited in GenBank (accession No. KJ001784). PMID:27323031

  19. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1. Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management.

  20. Mitochondrial genome sequence of Paramisgurnus dabryanus from the Yellow River estuary: implication for Cobitidae phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Paramisgurnus dabryanus Sauvage (Cobitidae, Cypriniformes) is a native large-scale loach widely distributed in main inland freshwater systems of China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. dabryanus from the Yellow River (YR) estuary was characterized in the present study. The circular mitogenome is 16 570 bp in size and contains two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes. The overall A + T content is 56.64% in the range of other Cobitidae studied. The mitogenome of P. dabryanus YR has an overall nucleotide sequence identity of 96.9% with that from Zhejiang, and 89.2% with that from Hubei. All the Misgurnus and Paramisgurnus species were clustered into two Misgurnus/Paramisgurnus complex clades with high bootstrap values based on the whole mitogenome sequences. The mitochondrial phylogenomic analysis indicates that the relationships in Cobitidae are inconsistent with the current classification system and taxonomic revision is required on the basis of molecular phylogeny and morphology. PMID:26162049

  1. 清水江流域天柱段鱼类资源调查%Investigation on Fish Resources in Tianzhu Section of Qingshui River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟立霞; 潘年庆; 薛明淦

    2012-01-01

    对清水江流域天柱段的鱼类资源进行了调查,结果发现:共有52种(亚种),隶属4目12科41属,其中以鲤形目种类最多,鲈形目、鲇形目次之,合鳃目最少。干流分布的鱼类种类比支流多;小型野杂鱼种类多,大中型鱼类较少。近些午来鱼类资源呈减少的趋势,主要是受过度捕捞、水利工程和水域环境污染的影响。%In Tianzhu Section of Qingshui River, freshwater fish are investigated. The results show that freshwater fish have 52 species ( subspecies ) , which belong to 4 orders, 12 families, 41genera. The Cypriniformes are the most species, Perciformes and Siluriformes are less, Symbranchir are minimal. The species in main stream are more than in tributary stream. Small wild miscellaneous fish are more than large and medium fish. In recent years the fish resources have appeared a declining trend, which mainly due to overfishing, water conservancy project and water environment pollution.

  2. Cloning and tissue distribution of appetite-regulating peptides in pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, H

    2015-10-01

    Pirapitinga (or red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) is an economically important South American fish for which the endocrine mechanism of the regulation of feeding has never been examined. To better understand these mechanisms, cDNAs encoding the appetite-regulating peptides orexin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), apelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), leptin and ghrelin were isolated in pirapitinga and their mRNA distributions examined in peripheral tissues and brain. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to those of other Characiforme fish (i.e. Mexican cavefish) and Siluriformes (catfish) as well as Cypriniformes (i.e. goldfish, zebrafish). All peptides were widely expressed within the brain. With the exception of CART, which was only expressed in brain, the mRNAs of all peptides were present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and gills. The widespread and peptide-specific distributions suggest that each peptide might have distinct physiological actions in the brain and on peripheral tissues, in particular on the gastrointestinal tract, which include feeding regulation. This preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulation of feeding in Serrasalmidae fish, including pirapitinga. PMID:25846408

  3. Clupeiformes' Egg Envelope Proteins characterization: The case of Engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Andrea; Leonori, Iole; Estonba, Andone; De Felice, Andrea; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-07-01

    Zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. Such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. Nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. In Clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant and commercially important order which accounts for over 400 species and totally contributes to more than a quarter of the world fish catch, Egg Envelope Protein (EEP) information exist only for the Clupea pallasii and Engraulis japonicus species. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the target of a well-consolidated fishery in the Mediterranean Sea, has been ignored until now and the interest on the Otocephala superorder has been fragmentally limited to some Cypriniformes and Gonorynchiformes, as well. The aim of the present study was to fill the ZP protein-wise gap of knowledge afflicting the understanding of the European anchovy's reproductive process and to expand the background on Clupeiformes. We cloned the five Engraulis encrasicolus' zp genes and deduced their products, determined their tissue distribution, quantified their mRNA expression throughout the reproductive cycle and provided an insight into their evolution through phylogenetic tools. Furthermore, we proposed a multivariate statistics-based method to objectively infer and/or confirm the classification of Engraulis encrasicolus' sexual maturity stages by analyzing data of zp mRNAs' relative abundance. PMID:27060425

  4. Levantamento de plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho 'safrinha'no estado de São Paulo Weed survey in autumn corn crops in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aildson P. Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento da flora infestante na lavoura do milho "safrinha" nas duas principais regiões de plantio no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995. Foram visitadas 85 lavouras na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema e 29 na Região Norte. Nesta, em quatro lavouras fez-se a semeadura na palha e em 25, em solo com preparo de gradagem simples, todos sem herbicida. Naquela, a semeadura na palha foi em 68 lavouras, em 11 fez-se gradagem simples e, em seis, gradagem dupla, havendo aplicação de herbicidas de POS em algumas áreas. As espécies que ocorreram, segundo a sua freqüência, foram, na Região Norte: Glycine max> Amaranthus retroflexus> Acanthospermum hispidum = Bidens pilosa = Alternanthera tenella > Cenchrus echinatus > Euphorbia heterophylla > Ipomoea spp. > Commelina benghalensis > Sida spp. = Eleusine indica; e, na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema: Euphorbia heterophylla = Glycine max = Commelina benghalensis > Bidens pilosa = Raphanus sativus > Cenchrus echinatus = Acanthospermum hispidum > Brachiaria plantaginea > Sida spp. = Coronopus didymus > Eleusine indica > Digitaria horizontalis > Amaranthus retroflexus. O preparo do solo com gradagem dupla, resultou em menor índice de ocorrência de alta infestação, seguida da gradagem simples. O uso de herbicidas, de modo geral, também reduziu esse índice. As espécies Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spp., Eleusine indica e Amaranthus hibridus ocorreram apenas com a semeadura direta na Região do Paranapanema. Na Região Norte, Ipomoea spp. e Euphorbia heterophylla só ocorreram nas áreas com gradagem simples.A weed infestation survey was carried out in the two main cultivation regions of autumn corn crops in the State of São Paulo. In the Médio Vale do Paranapanema 85 plantations were visited and in the Região Norte 29 plantations. In this region four crops were sowed directly and 25 after soil preparation with a single harrowing, all without herbicides

  5. The effects of soil fumigation on the growth and mineral nutrition of weeds and crops=Efeito da fumigação do solo no crescimento e nutrição mineral de plantas daninhas e culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and soil microorganisms interact with each other in the soil/root interface, promoting the development and establishment of both. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and nutrient accumulation in eight species of weeds (Ageratum conyzoides L., Bidens pilosa L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Conyza bonariensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Eleusine indica L. Ipomoea grandifolia L. and Lolium multiflorum L. and in bean and corn crops grown for 50 days in a substrate fumigated with methyl bromide. Assessments relating to the height, leaf area, leaf number, dry weight of shoots and roots and relative content of nutrients were carried out 50 days after seedling emergence. A positive effect of soil fumigation was observed on the growth, leaf number, leaf area, plant height and accumulation of nutrients in monocot weeds in relation to dicots. Conyza bonariensis was the most affected by soil fumigation, with levels of dry matter, leaf number, leaf area, height and accumulation of nutrients approximately 50% lower than plants grown in normal soil. Fumigation also influenced the growth cycle of the plants, which was lower for B. pilosa, E. indica and C. echinatus. We also observed a 20 and 30% lower phosphorus accumulation in Bidens pilosa and Conyza bonariensis, respectively, when grown in the sterilized soil. Overall, the bean and corn crops were less affected by soil fumigation than the weeds.Plantas daninhas e microrganismos do solo se interagem na interface solo/raiz promovendo vantagens para o desenvolvimento e estabelecimento de ambos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em oito espécies de plantas daninhas (Ageratum conyzoides L., Bidens pilosa L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Conyza bonariensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Eleusine indica L., Ipomoea grandifolia L. e Lolium multiflorum L. e nas culturas de feijão e milho, cultivadas, por 50 dias, em substrato fumigado com brometo de

  6. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF COMPOSITAE PLANTS. I. CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS WITH NEW PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A.Matvieieva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The review explores some of the recent advances and the author's own researchs concerning biotechnological approaches for Agrobacterium tumefaciens- and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Compositae family plants. This paper reviews the results of genetic transformation of Compositae plants, including edible (Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, oil (Helianthus annuus, decorative (Gerbera hybrida, medical (Bidens pilosa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Withania somnifera etc. plant species. Some Compositae genetic engineering areas are considered including creation of plants, resistant to pests, diseases and herbicides, to the effect of abiotic stress factors as well as plants with altered phenotype. The article also presents the data on the development of biotechnology for Compositae plants Cynara cardunculus, Arnica montana, Cichorium intybus, Artemisia annua "hairy" roots construction.

  7. [Investigations on the biology of nematodes Elaphostrongylus cervi and epizootiology of elaphostrongylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowska, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    Elaphostrongylus cervi is a parasite of the family Protostrongylidae, occurring in cervids in Eurasia. This nematode has hitherto been recorded in some woodland areas in Poland. The current distribution of E. cervi in Poland was studied in the frames of the presently reported thesis. The above-mentioned nematode was found in deer in eight additional voivodeships, and in all thirteen forest management units examined. The prevalence values ranged from 66.7% to 100%. The above facts justify the statement that that E. cervi is a common parasite species in Poland. The dynamics of the larval shedding (L I) by deer was monitored and it turned out that there were two peaks--the first in February and the second in December. The identity of the intermediate hosts--terrestrial snails--has been established, as well as the prevalence and the infection intensity of their natural infections. The intermediate hosts of E. cervi are Succinea putris, Bradybena fruticum, Perforatella bidens, and Zonitoides nitidus. It was determined that the prevalence of snails, S. putris, infected with E. cervi larvae maintained a constant level from June to August and it decreased in September and October. Snails, B. fruticum, showed the highest prevalence in July--and it decreased in subsequent months. In the case of P. bidens the prevalence of E. cervi infection was the lowest in August, and than it increased, to reach the highest value in October. The prevalence of spontaneous infections of different snail species ranged from 7.6% to 20.6%. For the first time the highest prevalence of spontaneous infection was found in P. bidens. Till now the most infected species of snail has always been S. putris. The highest intensity of infection--242 larvae--was found in B. fruticum, and little lower--202 in S. putris. In two other species the intensity ranged from 1 to 23 larvae. The most significant role in spreading of E. cervi in the Białowieza Forest is performed by S. putris and B. fruticum, because

  8. Seletividade do oxyfluorfen para a cultura do pinhão-manso Selectivity of oxyfluorfen for physic nut culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S Gonçalves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para avaliar a seletividade do oxyfluorfen para a cultura do pinhão-manso. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 + 1, sendo duas doses do herbicida (600 e 1.200 g ha-1 do ingrediente ativo, dois modos de aplicação (sobre a planta e sobre o solo e uma testemunha sem aplicação do herbicida. Após o transplante das mudas para vasos plásticos com 10 litros de solo, os tratamentos foram aplicados com o auxílio de um balde. O oxyfluorfen, quando aplicado sobre as plantas, mostrou-se tóxico nas duas doses testadas, sendo observados sintomas mais intensos nos primeiros dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Após esse período, as mudas recuperaram o vigor e surgiram novas brotações que não apresentavam sintomas de toxicidade. Esses sintomas consistiram de manchas esbranquiçadas nas folhas, que evoluíram para necrose. Nas mudas em que o herbicida foi aplicado no solo, não foram observados sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Observou-se redução na massa fresca e seca das folhas quando 600 g ha-1 do herbicida foram aplicados sobre a planta ou 1.200 g ha-1 sobre o solo. Contudo, a área foliar e o número de folhas não diferiram significativamente entre as doses utilizadas e os modos de aplicação. Das quatro espécies daninhas semeadas (Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Sida rhombifolia e Bidens pilosa, apenas Bidens pilosa não foi controlada pelo oxyfluorfen aplicado em pré-emergência.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the selectivity of oxyfluorfen for physic nut culture. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 2 x 2 + 1, two herbicide doses (600 and 1,200 g ha-1 of active ingredient, two modes of application (on the plant and soil and a control without herbicide application.. After transplanting the seedlings into plastic pots with 10 liters of soil

  9. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  10. Efeito residual de herbicidas em pré-plantio do feijoeiro, em dois sistemas de aplicação em plantio direto e sua viabilidade econômica Economic viability of residual herbicides in dry bean pre-planting under two aplication methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cobucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência e a viabilidade econômica de controle de plantas daninhas com alguns herbicidas residuais (registrados ou não, aplicados em pré-plantio na cultura do feijoeiro. O experimento foi realizado em Santo Antônio de Goiás, no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. Os herbicidas foram aplicados em cobertura das plantas daninhas Commelina benghalensis e Bidens pilosa, com 3 t ha-1 de biomassa seca. Os tratamentos foram constituídos do fatorial 2x10x3, arranjados em parcelas subsubdivididas no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições; o primeiro fator consistiu de sistemas de dessecação da área [Sistema Integrado de Controle (SIC e Aplique e Plante]. No SIC foi usado o sulfosate (720 g ha-1 aos 20 dias antes do plantio e paraquat (200 g ha¹ adicionado aos herbicidas com efeitos residuais, aplicados imediatamente após o plantio do feijoeiro. No sistema Aplique e Plante foi aplicado o sulfosate (720 g ha¹ adicionado aos residuais, cinco dias antes do plantio do feijoeiro. O segundo fator representa a aplicação dos herbicidas com efeitos residuais, em g ha-1: sulfentrazone (200 e 300, dimethenamid (900 e 1.125, clomazone (360, pendimethalin (2.500, smetolachlor (768 e 1.152, diclosulan (12,45 e testemunha; e o terceiro, as doses dos herbicidas de pós-emergência: imazamox (15 + bentazon (240, imazamox (30 + bentazon (480 e testemunha. Os herbicidas residuais aplicados nos sistemas SIC e Aplique e Plante reduziram o crescimento inicial de Bidens pilosa. Para Euphorbia heterophylla somente os herbicidas diclosulan e sulfentrazone proporcionaram efeito semelhante. A aplicação de herbicidas residuais em pré-plantio mostrou ser viável economicamente, em virtude da redução dos de pós-emergência, exceto para os herbicidas dimethenamid e s-metolachlor.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and economic viability of controlling weeds with residual herbicides, applied in

  11. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacious for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted. PMID:17207273

  12. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of fifty-eight ethnomedicinal plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for skin problems, stomach problems, pain and internal parasites for safety and possible efficacy. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000 on medicinal plant use for health problems. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad and one in Tobago. The uses are compared to those current in Asia. Bambusa vulgaris, Bidens alba, Jatropha curcas, Neurolaena lobata, Peperomia rotundifolia and Phyllanthus urinaria are possibly efficacous for stomach problems, pain and internal parasites. Further scientific study of these plants is warranted.

  13. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult....... DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden) recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...

  14. CONTROLE QUÍMICO E CULTURAL DAS PLANTAS DANINHAS NA VIDEIRA 'NIAGARA ROSADA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON MARTINS PAULO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o controle das plantas daninhas e a seletividade dos herbicidas diclobenil, diuron e simazine à cultura da videira `Niagara Rosada', procurando-se separar os efeitos da cobertura morta sobre os fatores de produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis do suco da uva. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que os herbicidas diuron (2,0 kg/ha, simazine (2,4 kg/ha e diclobenil (3,04; 4,05 e 5,06 kg/ha foram seletivos à cultura da videira e eficientes no controle das plantas daninhas capim-colchão (Digitaria horizontalis Willd., caruru (Amaranthus hibridus L., guanxuma (Sida spp. e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.. A cobertura vegetal de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora L. foi eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas.This study aimed at controlling the weeds in grapevine `Niagara Rosada' using grass mulching and evaluating the selectivity of three herbicides. The experiment consisted of a randomized complete block design with four replications and the following doses of herbicides: 3.04, 4.05 and 5.06 kg/ha of dichlobenil; 2.00 kg/ha of diuron and 2.40 kg/ha of simazine. There were no differences in grape yield and soluble solids contents of grape juice for the three herbicides or among the doses of dichlobenil used. The herbicides were efficient in controlling Digitaria horizontalis Willd., Amaranthus hibridus L., Sida spp. and Bidens pilosa L. The grass mulching Melinis minutiflora L. was also efficient in controlling the weeds.

  15. Interferência de plantas daninhas no acúmulo de nutrientes e no crescimento de plantas de abacaxi Weed interference in nutrient accumulation and pineapple crop growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Catunda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da interferência de Bidens pilosa, Cyperus rotundus e Digitaria horizontalis, em cinco densidades (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 plantas por vaso, nos teores de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio presentes na folha D e no comprimento desta, aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após o plantio do abacaxizeiro. Em geral, os teores dos nutrientes na folha D da cultura reduziram em razão do aumento da densidade das espécies de plantas daninhas, e os elementos mais extraídos aos 30 dias foram fósforo e potássio; além disso, C. rotundus e D. horizontalis foram as espécies que mais interferiram no teor nutricional do abacaxizeiro. Com relação ao comprimento da folha D, verificou-se comportamento análogo, ou seja, à medida que se aumentou a densidade de plantas daninhas, o valor dessa variável foi reduzido.The objective of this study is to verify the interference of Bidens pilosa, Cyperus rotundus and Digitaria horizontalis, under five densities (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 plants per vase, of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents present in the D leaf, and in its length, at 30, 60 and 90 days after pineapple crop planting. In general, the nutrient contents in the D leaf of pineapple decreased with increasing weed density, but the most extracted elements at 30 days were phosphorus and potassium, respectively; besides, C. rotundus and D. horizontalis were the species that most interfered in the nutritional content of the pineapple crop. In relation to D leaf length, an analogous behavior was verified, i.e., weed density increased as D leaf length value decreased.

  16. Produção e características qualitativas de sementes de plantas daninhas Production and qualitative characteristics of weed seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção (número e peso e a composição (teores de lipídeo total, proteína total, carboidrato e cinzas de sementes de Euphorbia heterophylla (biótipos suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum em condições de campo. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram maiores valores para peso de 100 sementes. D. tortuosum produziu maior número de sementes por planta (714,2. Para todas as espécies avaliadas, a maior parte da reserva da biomassa seca das sementes foi constituída por carboidrato, e B. pilosa apresentou o maior acúmulo (61,7%. Biótipos de E. heterophylla acumularam maiores quantidades de lipídeos e de cinzas, enquanto D. tortuosum acumulou maior teor de proteínas (34,8%. Biótipos de E. heterophylla não diferiram quanto a produção e composição de suas sementes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the production (number and weight and composition (contents of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and ashes of Euphorbia heterophylla seeds (susceptible and resistant biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum under field conditions. Biotypes of E. heterophylla presented the highest weight of 100 seeds. D. tortuosum produced the largest number of seeds per plant (714.25. For all the evaluated species, most of the seed dry biomass reserve was constituted of carbohydrate with B. pilosa presenting the largest accumulation (61.7%. Biotypes of E. heterophylla accumulated higher amounts of lipids and ashes, while D. tortuosum accumulated higher protein content (34.8%. Biotypes of E. heterophylla did not differ in their seed production and composition.

  17. Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) family: Phylogeny, structure-function, tissue distribution, and associated inherited diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanukoglu, Israel; Hanukoglu, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is composed of three homologous subunits and allows the flow of Na(+) ions across high resistance epithelia, maintaining body salt and water homeostasis. ENaC dependent reabsorption of Na(+) in the kidney tubules regulates extracellular fluid (ECF) volume and blood pressure by modulating osmolarity. In multi-ciliated cells, ENaC is located in cilia and plays an essential role in the regulation of epithelial surface liquid volume necessary for cilial transport of mucus and gametes in the respiratory and reproductive tracts respectively. The subunits that form ENaC (named as alpha, beta, gamma and delta, encoded by genes SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D) are members of the ENaC/Degenerin superfamily. The earliest appearance of ENaC orthologs is in the genomes of the most ancient vertebrate taxon, Cyclostomata (jawless vertebrates) including lampreys, followed by earliest representatives of Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) including cartilaginous sharks. Among Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates), Actinopterygii (ray finned-fishes) branch has lost ENaC genes. Yet, most animals in the Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) branch including Tetrapoda, amphibians and amniotes (lizards, crocodiles, birds, and mammals), have four ENaC paralogs. We compared the sequences of ENaC orthologs from 20 species and established criteria for the identification of ENaC orthologs and paralogs, and their distinction from other members of the ENaC/Degenerin superfamily, especially ASIC family. Differences between ENaCs and ASICs are summarized in view of their physiological functions and tissue distributions. Structural motifs that are conserved throughout vertebrate ENaCs are highlighted. We also present a comparative overview of the genotype-phenotype relationships in inherited diseases associated with ENaC mutations, including multisystem pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1B), Liddle syndrome, cystic fibrosis-like disease and essential hypertension. PMID

  18. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

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    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  19. New cyt b gene universal primer set for forensic analysis.

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    Lopez-Oceja, A; Gamarra, D; Borragan, S; Jiménez-Moreno, S; de Pancorbo, M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, and in particular the cytochrome b gene (cyt b), has become an essential tool for species identification in routine forensic practice. In cases of degraded samples, where the DNA is fractionated, universal primers that are highly efficient for the amplification of the target region are necessary. Therefore, in the present study a new universal cyt b primer set with high species identification capabilities, even in samples with highly degraded DNA, has been developed. In order to achieve this objective, the primers were designed following the alignment of complete sequences of the cyt b from 751 species from the Class of Mammalia listed in GenBank. A highly variable region of 148bp flanked by highly conserved sequences was chosen for placing the primers. The effectiveness of the new pair of primers was examined in 63 animal species belonging to 38 Families from 14 Orders and 5 Classes (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Actinopterygii, and Malacostraca). Species determination was possible in all cases, which shows that the fragment analyzed provided a high capability for species identification. Furthermore, to ensure the efficiency of the 148bp fragment, the intraspecific variability was analyzed by calculating the concordance between individuals with the BLAST tool from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnological Information). The intraspecific concordance levels were superior to 97% in all species. Likewise, the phylogenetic information from the selected fragment was confirmed by obtaining the phylogenetic tree from the sequences of the species analyzed. Evidence of the high power of phylogenetic discrimination of the analyzed fragment of the cyt b was obtained, as 93.75% of the species were grouped within their corresponding Orders. Finally, the analysis of 40 degraded samples with small-size DNA fragments showed that the new pair of primers permits identifying the species, even when the DNA is highly degraded as it is very common in

  20. An update on MyoD evolution in teleosts and a proposed consensus nomenclature to accommodate the tetraploidization of different vertebrate genomes.

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    Daniel J Macqueen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MyoD is a muscle specific transcription factor that is essential for vertebrate myogenesis. In several teleost species, including representatives of the Salmonidae and Acanthopterygii, but not zebrafish, two or more MyoD paralogues are conserved that are thought to have arisen from distinct, possibly lineage-specific duplication events. Additionally, two MyoD paralogues have been characterised in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. This has lead to a confusing nomenclature since MyoD paralogues have been named outside of an appropriate phylogenetic framework. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we initially show that directly depicting the evolutionary relationships of teleost MyoD orthologues and paralogues is hindered by the asymmetric evolutionary rate of Acanthopterygian MyoD2 relative to other MyoD proteins. Thus our aim was to confidently position the event from which teleost paralogues arose in different lineages by a comparative investigation of genes neighbouring myod across the vertebrates. To this end, we show that genes on the single myod-containing chromosome of mammals and birds are retained in both zebrafish and Acanthopterygian teleosts in a striking pattern of double conserved synteny. Further, phylogenetic reconstruction of these neighbouring genes using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods supported a common origin for teleost paralogues following the split of the Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that myod was duplicated during the basal teleost whole genome duplication event, but was subsequently lost in the Ostariophysi (zebrafish and Protacanthopterygii lineages. We propose a sensible consensus nomenclature for vertebrate myod genes that accommodates polyploidization events in teleost and tetrapod lineages and is justified from a phylogenetic perspective.

  1. Determining the diet of larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus using high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques.

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    Richard O'Rorke

    Full Text Available The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The present study uses a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach on DNA obtained from the hepatopancreas of larvae to discover significant prey items. Two short regions of the 18S rRNA gene were amplified under the presence of lobster specific PNA to prevent lobster amplification and to improve prey amplification. In the resulting sequences either little prey was recovered, indicating that the larval gut was empty, or there was a high number of reads originating from multiple zooplankton taxa. The most abundant reads included colonial Radiolaria, Thaliacea, Actinopterygii, Hydrozoa and Sagittoidea, which supports the hypothesis that the larvae feed on multiple groups of mostly transparent gelatinous zooplankton. This hypothesis has prevailed as it has been tentatively inferred from the physiology of larvae, captive feeding trials and co-occurrence in situ. However, these prey have not been observed in the larval gut as traditional microscopic techniques cannot discern between transparent and gelatinous prey items in the gut. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of gut DNA has enabled us to classify these otherwise undetectable prey. The dominance of the colonial radiolarians among the gut contents is intriguing in that this group has been historically difficult to quantify in the water column, which may explain why they have not been connected to larval diet previously. Our results indicate that a PCR based technique is a very successful approach to identify the most abundant taxa in the natural diet of lobster larvae.

  2. Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean

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    J. EVANS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands is presented on account of new records and amendments to a previous review in 2007. Species were classified according to their establishment status (‘Questionable’, ‘Casual’, ‘Established’, ‘Invasive’ and origin (‘Alien’, ‘Range expansion’, ‘Cryptogenic’. A total of 31 species were added to the inventory, while 6 species have been removed, bringing the total number of species to 73. Of these, 66 are considered to be aliens (or putative aliens but with uncertain origin with the remaining 7 resulting from range expansion. Six records are considered to be questionable and hence unverified. For verified records, the dominant taxonomic groups are Mollusca (represented by 21 species and Actinopterygii (15 species, followed by Crustacea (8 species and Rhodophyta (7 species. Eight of these species (aliens: Caulerpa cylindracea, Lophocladia lallemandi, Womersleyella setacea, Brachidontes pharaonis, Percnon gibbesi, Fistularia commersonii, Siganus luridus; range extender: Sphoeroides pachygaster are considered to be invasive. The introduction pathway for 30 species is unknown. Amongst the alien species, ‘Shipping’ is the most common introduction pathway, followed by ‘Secondary dispersal’ from elsewhere in the Mediterranean Sea. An increasing trend in the number of alien marine species reported from the Maltese Islands is evident, with a peak of 22 species recorded during the last decade (2001–2010. A discussion on the rationale for including range-expanding species in national inventories of recent arrivals, and in the analysis of trends in records from the Maltese Islands, is included. In particular, the general warming trend of Mediterranean surface waters appears to be facilitating the westward spread of thermophilic alien species from the Eastern to the Central Mediterranean, and the eastward range expansion of

  3. Physiological hepatic response to zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure in the white sucker, Catostomus commersonii.

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    Dieni, Christopher Anthony; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; Gormley, Patrick Thomas; Butler, Kathryn Marie Alison; Maccormack, Tyson James

    2014-05-01

    Liver toxicity of commercially relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) was assessed in a benthic freshwater cypriniform, the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii). Exposure to nZnO caused several changes in levels of liver enzyme activity, antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation end products consistent with an oxidative stress response. Aconitase activity decreased by ~65% but tended to be restored to original levels upon supplementation with Fe(2+), indicating oxidative inactivation of the 4Fe-4S cluster. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased by ~29%, and glutathione levels increased by ~56%. Taken together, these suggest that nZnO induces hepatic physiological stress. Each assay was then validated by using a single liver homogenate or plasma sample that was partitioned and treated with nZnO or Zn(2+), the breakdown product of nZnO. It was found that Zn(2+), but not nZnO, increased detected glutathione reductase activity by ~14% and decreased detected malondialdehyde by ~39%. This indicates that if appreciable nZnO dissolution occurs in liver samples during processing and assay, it may skew results, with implications not only for this study, but also for a wide range of nanotoxicology studies focusing on nZnO. Finally, in vitro incubations of cell-free rat blood plasma with nZnO failed to generate any significant increase in malondialdehyde or protein carbonyl levels, or any significant decrease in ferric reducing ability of plasma. This suggests that at the level tested, any oxidative stress caused by nZnO is the result of a coordinated physiological response by the liver. PMID:24704545

  4. Gonadotropin-Releasing hormones in the brain and pituitary of the white sucker

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    Robinson, T. Craig; Tobet, Stuart A.; Chase, Cindy; Waldron, Travis; Sower, Stacia A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated GnRH forms within the brain of a representative of the order Cypriniformes, the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, using HPLC, RIA, andimmunocytochemistry. Several immunoreactive (ir) GnRH forms were identified in the brain of the white sucker by chromatography and radioimmunoassay, including ir-salmon GnRH, ir-lamprey GnRH-I and -III, and ir-chicken GnRH-II. Results from immunocytochemical studies were consistent with multiple GnRH forms distributed in different patterns, particularly for fibers. Neuronal perikarya containing ir-salmon GnRH and ir-lamprey-like GnRH were found laterally within the preoptic area and rostralhypothalamus. Cells containing exclusively ir-salmon GnRH appeared slightly more rostrally, but in the same region. Fibers containing ir-salmon GnRH and ir-lamprey-like GnRH were seen throughout the caudal telencephalon and extended into thediencephalon, toward the pituitary. Fibers containing ir-chicken-II-like GnRH were also seen in the caudal telencephalon, but were concentrated more dorsally in the diencephalon. Within the pituitary, fibers containing ir-salmon GnRH and ir-lamprey-like GnRH entered the neurohypophysis, but differed in their destinations. Fibers containing ir-salmon GnRH remained within the neurohypophysis, while fibers containing ir-lamprey-like GnRH targeted adenohypophyseal tissue. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple GnRH forms with multiple functions exist within the brain and pituitary of teleosts and provide further evidence of a lamprey-like GnRH within an early evolved teleost species.

  5. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

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    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  6. Independently evolved upper jaw protrusion mechanisms show convergent hydrodynamic function in teleost fishes.

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    Staab, Katie Lynn; Holzman, Roi; Hernandez, L Patricia; Wainwright, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    A protrusible upper jaw has independently evolved multiple times within teleosts and has been implicated in the success of two groups in particular: Acanthomorpha and Cypriniformes. We use digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to compare suction feeding flow dynamics in a representative of each of these clades: goldfish and bluegill. Using DPIV, we contrast the spatial pattern of flow, the temporal relationship between flow and head kinematics, and the contribution of jaw protrusion to the forces exerted on prey. As expected, the spatial patterns of flow were similar in the two species. However, goldfish were slower to reach maximal kinematic excursions, and were more flexible in the relative timing of jaw protrusion, other jaw movements and suction flows. Goldfish were also able to sustain flow speeds for a prolonged period of time as compared with bluegill, in part because goldfish generate lower peak flow speeds. In both species, jaw protrusion increased the force exerted on the prey. However, slower jaw protrusion in goldfish resulted in less augmentation of suction forces. This difference in force exerted on prey corresponds with differences in trophic niches and feeding behavior of the two species. The bluegill uses powerful suction to capture insect larvae whereas the goldfish uses winnowing to sort through detritus and sediment. The kinethmoid of goldfish may permit jaw protrusion that is independent of lower jaw movement, which could explain the ability of goldfish to decouple suction flows (due to buccal expansion) from upper jaw protrusion. Nevertheless, our results show that jaw protrusion allows both species to augment the force exerted on prey, suggesting that this is a fundamental benefit of jaw protrusion to suction feeders. PMID:22496281

  7. Evolution of dopamine receptor genes of the D1 class in vertebrates.

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    Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes-D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E-which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species. PMID:23197594

  8. Révison caryologique des barbinés et hypothèses concernant la plésiomorphie possible de l'état polyploïde chez les Cyprinidés

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    COLLARES-PEREIRA M. J.

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle d'évolution caryologique des Cyprinidés, selon lequel le nombre polyploïde 2n=100 doit être considéré comme plésiomorphe pour la famille, en opposition à la théorie orthodoxe, semble se vérifier par la publication récente de nouvelles données concernant les nombres chromosomiques de Cyprininés d'Afrique et d'Asie du sud. L'hypothèse d'un ancêtre de type Cyprininé, appartenant probablement à une lignée proche des Barbinés, ainsi que l'existence d'une polyploïdie fonctionnant comme un «système-ouvert» est suggérée sur la base de caractères caryoévolutifs. L'importance de ce phénomène dans le processus évolutif de quelques lignées justifie un appel à l'inclusion future de l'information caryologique dans les travaux de systématique évolutive. En effet, les progrès actuels en cytogénétique moléculaire, en rendant possible la reconnaissance d'homologies chromosomiques interspécifiques, permettront probablement de clarifier les relations phylogénétiques au sein même des Cypriniformes.

  9. Chromosome Evolution and Genome Miniaturization in Minifish

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    Liu, Shaojun; Hui, Tan Heok; Tan, Sze Ley; Hong, Yunhan

    2012-01-01

    Background Paedocypris is a newly established genus of fish in Southeast Asia. Paedocypris is characterized by several unique features, including a tiny adult size (thus named miniature fish or minifish), fragmentary habitats of acidic peat blackwater swamps, an unusual reproduction mode and truncated development. These peculiarities lend themselves excellent for studying chromosome evolution and rapid speciation in vertebrates but also make them highly controversial for the phylogenetic position. Methodology and Principal Findings We have established an organ procedure to prepare chromosome spreads from tiny organs of minifish and performed a cytogenetic study on two species of the genus Paedocypris, namely P. carbunculus (Pc) and P. sp. “Singkep” (Ps). We found 30 and 34 chromosomes in diploid cells of Pc and Ps, respectively, which are unusual in teleost fishes. The diploid metaphase has 5 pairs of metacentrics and 7 pairs of subtelocentrics in Pc compared to 3 pairs of metacentrics and 11 pairs of subtelocentrics in Ps, whereas the haploid metaphase contains 5 metacentrics and 7 subtelocentrics in Pc compared to 3 metacentrics and 11 subtelocentrics Ps. Chromosome behavior in first meiosis revealed the presence of a chromosomal ring consisting of 2 metacentrics in Pc, suggesting that centric fusion rather than fission was responsible for the karyotypic evolution from Ps to Pc. Flow cytometry revealed that Pc had a 45% nuclear staining intensity relative to medaka whose genome is 700 Mb in size and contains 0.81 pg DNA. The Pc genome should have 315 Mb in length and 0.36 pg of DNA, which represent one of the smallest values in vertebrates, suggesting genome miniaturization in this organism. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that gross chromosome rearrangements and genome miniaturization have accompanied the evolution of Paedocypris fishes. Our data also place Paedocypris outside currently described taxa of the Cypriniformes. PMID:22615970

  10. Composition and changes in abundance and biomass of fish assemblages along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River over the last decade

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    Shasha Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River, which lies near the estuary with an irregular semidiurnal tide, is the National Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve and plays an important role in conserving fishery resources. To clarify the composition and changes in abundance/biomass of fish assemblages of these coastal waters, investigations were carried out along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River in the autumns of 2002 to 2011. Results showed that 91 species, belonging to 12 orders and 23 families, were collected from surveys conducted during this period. Fish included 47 species of Cypriniformes, 17 species of Perciformes and 10 species of Siluriformes. Four were migratory species, 13 were estuarine, and 74 were freshwater fish. The average number of different fish species recorded each autumn was 47 (range = 32–61, and mean Jaccard similarity index was 53.72 (range = 38.46–69.09%. The total number of dominant and common species recorded was 42, with the annual value averaging 19. Dominant and common species were mainly small fish, such as Hemiculter bleekeri, Pseudobrama simony, Pseudobagrus nitidus etc., as well as juveniles of large or medium fish, such as Culter alburnus, Parabramis pekinensis, P. vachellii etc. The mean individual weight (MIW of the fish assemblage was 6.99 g. The abundance biomass comparison curve indicated that the first dominant species recorded in autumn in all years except 2010 were all very small-sized fish. The most dominant species in 2002–2009 were also of small-size fish, and large-size fish only contributed to the dominant species in 2010 and 2011. Our research also indicated a general increase in abundance or biomass (CPUEN、CPUEW, the MIW of the fish assemblage, and the population size of 62% of dominant and common species. This suggested that fishery resources of the waters studied are likely to improve.

  11. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish). PMID:26335181

  12. Scolex morphology of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) from the Palaearctic Region: a useful tool for species identification.

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    Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Mackiewicz, John S

    2010-03-01

    A comparative study of the scoleces of caryophyllidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasitic in cypriniform fishes in the Palaearctic Region, was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. Three-dimensional pictures of the scoleces of 18 species of caryophyllidean cestodes of the Capingentidae (1 species), Caryophyllaeidae (7) and Lytocestidae (10), and outlines of the scoleces and anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles of 19 Palaearctic taxa were documented. Both species of Atractolytocestus Anthony, 1957 possess a bulboacuminate scolex, whereas species of Archigetes Leuckart, 1876 have fossate scoleces of the bothrioloculodiscate type, with loculi, bothrium-like depressions and an apical disc. Breviscolex orientalis Kulakovskaya, 1962, the only member of the Capingentidae, has a cuneiform scolex, as do both taxa of the lytocestid genus Caryophyllaeides Nybelin, 1922. The scoleces of two species of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 are flabellate, whereas that of the congeneric C. fimbriceps Annenkova-Chlopina, 1919 is cuneicrispitate. Khawia Hsü, 1935, the most specious Palaearctic genus, with seven taxa that we consider to be valid, has the highest diversity in scolex morphology: semi-bulbate, flabellate, cuneiform, cuneifimbriate, truncated cuneiform-flabellate and festoon-like. Species of Monobothrium Nybelin, 1922 have either a digitiform scolex with widened posterior part or cuneiform, with lateral auricular extensions. Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (Motomura, 1927) is characteristic in its possessing a bulbate scolex, whereas Paraglaridacris limnodrili (Yamaguti, 1934) has a fossate scolex of the bulboloculate type with bothrium-like depressions and feebly developed lateral loculi. Anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles and their mutual position show a somewhat higher variability than scolex shape, with intraspecific variation in some taxa, such as Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1965), B

  13. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

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    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  14. Eficiência dos herbicidas oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen e Imazapyr sobre a cultura de pinus Efficiency of the oxadiazil, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and imazapyr herbicides on Pinus cropping

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    Wilson da Silva

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade de alguns herbicidas para mudas de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis e suas eficiências no controle de plantas daninhas. As mudas com 20 cm de altura, produzidas em tubetes, foram transplantadas num espaçamento de 2,0 m x 2,0 m, em parcelas de quatro fileiras com 10,0 m de comprimento. Os tratamentos utilizados foram oxadiazil (600; 800 e 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 e 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazapyr (250 g ha-1 e testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sete dias após o transplante, usando-se pulverizador costal, pressurizado com CO2, calibrado para 200 L ha- 1 de calda. As principais plantas daninhas com maior infestação foram: Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea grandifolia e com menor infestação: Galinsoga parviflora e Bidens pilosa. O oxadiazil apresentou excelente controle de B. plantaginea, I. grandifolia e G. parviflora, não sendo eficiente para controle de B. pilosa, embora proporcionasse controle superior ao observado pelo oxadiazon. O oxadiazon foi eficiente até 45 dias após o tratamento para B. plantaginea, G. parviflora e até 90 dias para I. grandifolia. Tanto o oxyfluorfen quanto o imazapyr apresentaram excelente controle das plantas daninhas. De todos os herbicidas avaliados, apenas o imazapyr não deve ser recomendado para aplicação sobre o dossel de Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis, em face da toxicidade provocada.The selectivity of some herbicides were evaluated on Pinus caribaea var. Hondurensis seedlings as well as these herbicide efficiencies in the weed control. When the tubule-produced seedlings were 20 cm height they were transplanted at 2,0 m x 2,0 m spacings in fourrows plots with 10,0 m length. The treatments with oxadiazil (600; 800 and 1000 g ha-1, oxadiazon (1140; 1520 and 1900 g ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1, imazpyr (250 g ha-1 and controls (weeded and without weeding were disposed

  15. Influência de chuva simulada após aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência, sobre o controle de plantas daninhas, em solo com dois níveis de umidade Effects of rainfall on weed control in soil with two moisture levels, after herbicide applied in postemergence

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    Marcos L.R. Bastiani

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em 1995, em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da chuva após a aplicação de herbicidas, no controle de capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea L. e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., na cultura do milho (Zea mays L., em solo com dois níveis de umidade. Foram aplicados o nicosulfuron em duas formulações (SC e WDG e as misturas nicosulfuron + atrazine e atrazine + óleo, com intervalos de 0, 15, 30, 60 e 120 min entre a aplicação do herbicida e a ocorrência de 30 mm de chuva simulada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, dispostos em arranjo fatorial 5x5, sendo o primeiro fator constituído de herbicidas mais testemunha, e o segundo de cinco tempos para ocorrência de chuva. Os parâmetros estimados foram biomassa fresca, biomassa seca e altura de plantas (apenas para picão-preto. Após emergência das plântulas, o teor de umidade do solo foi mantido próximo à capacidade de campo (41,3% para um experimento e, umidade mantida de forma a submeter as plantas à condição de estresse hídrico (24,7% para o outro. A eficiência do nicosulfuron no controle de capim-marmelada foi maior com o aumento do intervalo sem chuva até 30 min após a aplicação do herbicida, para as plantas cultivadas em solo com elevada umidade. Em solo com baixa umidade, a eficiência do controle foi muito baixa, mesmo quando a chuva ocorreu 120 min após aplicação. O controle de picão-preto com nicosulfuron SC ou WDG foi muito baixo (Two experiments were conducted on a greenhouse, at Fitotecnia Department at University Federal of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, intending to evaluate simulated rain influence after herbicides application, on the control of Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa on corn (Zea mays crop, on soil with two moisture levels. Nicosulfuron on two formulations (SC and WDG

  16. The Bernades herbarium in the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC

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    Ibáñez, N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The BC-Bernades herbarium is one of the oldest collections conserved in the Botanical Institute of Barcelona. It contains part of the field collections of Miquel Bernades i Mainader and Miquel Bernades i Clarís, doctors of medicine and botanists of Catalonian origin living in Madrid in the 18th century. The collection consists of 817 sheets, the complete list provided in the annexe. We also present information concerning the localities of certain specific recollections, the taxonomic groups and families, as well as a list of sheets of special interest. This list contains witness of cornfield weed now very rare or extinct in Iberian lands, such as Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi or Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , and also some of the first witness known from Spain of introduced plants, such as Aster cordifolius L. or Bidens bipinnata L.

    [es] El herbario BC-Bernades es una de las colecciones más antiguas conservadas en el Instituto Botánico de Barcelona. Contiene parte de las recolecciones de Miquel Bernades y Mainader y Miquel Bernades y Clarís, médicos y botánicos catalanes del siglo XVIII establecidos en Madrid. Consta de 817 pliegos, la relación de los cuales presentamos en un anexo. También mostramos datos sobre las localidades de recolección, grupos taxonómicos y familias presentes, y una relación de pliegos de interés. Entre estos aparecen testimonios de plantas arvenses extinguidas o muy raras en tierras ibéricas como Hymenocarpos circinatus (L. Savi o Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dörfl , y también algunos de los primeros testimonios conocidos en España de plantas introducidas como Aster cordifolius L. o Bidens bipinnata L. [ct] L’herbari BC-Bernades és una de les col·leccions més antigues de les conservades a l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona. Conté part de les recol·leccions de Miquel Bernades i Mainader i Miquel Bernades

  17. Eficácia de glyphosate em plantas de cobertura Efficacy of glyphosate in cover crops

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    P.C. Timossi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a eficácia de três dosagens do herbicida glyphosate para a dessecação de Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu e vegetação espontânea, visando a adoção do sistema plantio direto. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Testaram-se três tipos de cobertura vegetal e três dosagens de glyphosate (1,44, 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação (DAA, foram feitas avaliações visuais da porcentagem de controle das coberturas vegetais e, aos 45 DAA, avaliações visuais da porcentagem de reinfestação da área. Conclui-se que, para as espécies que compunham a vegetação espontânea, o uso de 1,44 kg ha-1 proporcionou bom controle, sem no entanto evitar rebrotes de Digitaria insularis. Para as braquiárias, a mesma taxa de controle foi observada a partir de 2,16 kg ha-1. A camada de palha das braquiárias sobre o solo não foi capaz de suprimir a emergência de Cyperus rotundus, Alternanthera tenella, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa e Euphorbia heterophylla.This work aimed to compare rates of glyphosate to desiccate Brachiaria decumbens, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and spontaneous plants (weeds, aiming to adopt the no-tillage system. A randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme was used (3x3, with four replications. The factors consisted of three species of cover crops and three rates of glyphosate (1.44, 2.16 and 2.88 kg ha-1. At 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of the herbicide, visual evaluations of the percentage of cover crop control were carried out and at 45 days of the reinfestation percentage of the area. It was concluded that the spontaneous plants presented a good control at 1.44 kg ha-1, without, however, preventing Digitaria insularis sprouts. The same control rate starting at 2.16 kg ha-1 was observed for the Brachiaria species. The straw layer of these cover crops on the soil

  18. Atividade alelopática da leucena sobre espécies de plantas daninhas Allelopathic activity of leucaena on weed species

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    Nádja de Moura Pires

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é o efeito direto ou indireto de uma planta sobre outra, por meio da produção de compostos químicos liberados no ambiente. Os metabólitos secundários ou produtos naturais envolvidos em alelopatia são denominados aleloquímicos e estão presentes nos tecidos de diferentes partes das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial alelopático da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. sobre as plantas daninhas Desmodium purpureum (desmódio, Bidens pilosa (picão-preto e Amaranthus hybridus (caruru. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação com extratos aquosos da parte aérea da leucena nas concentrações de 100, 50, 25, 12,5 % (v v-1. O extrato apresentou maior efeito quando aplicado em papel filtro. O potencial alelopático da leucena variou com a espécie de planta daninha, sendo o picão-preto e o caruru as espécies mais sensíveis ao extrato em ambos os bioensaios. A mimosina foi quantificada por HPLC em concentrações diretamente correlacionadas à concentração do extrato, indicando ser este aleloquímico o provável responsável pelo efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento das plantas daninhas.Allelopathy is the direct or indirect effect of one plant on another through substances liberated into the environment, and occurs widely in natural plant communities. The secondary metabolites or natural products involved in allelopathy are called allelochemicals and can be produced in different parts of the plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of the aerial part of Leucaena leucocephala on the weeds Desmodium purpureum, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus hybridus. Bioassays were carried out in laboratory and in greenhouse with aqueous extracts of the aerial part of leucaena in concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5 % (v v-1. The aqueous extract showed major effect over the weeds when applied to filter paper. The allelopathic potential of

  19. Studies on the Allelopathy and GAP Management of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees%穿心莲化感作用与GAP栽培规范的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令杰; 刘意; 褚晨亮; 何洋

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究穿心莲的化感作用,为GAP栽培管理提供依据.方法 以表面皿培养法试验穿心莲根际土壤浸提液及穿心莲内酯对照品溶液对穿心莲种子及三叶鬼针草种子萌发的抑制作用:以HPLC法对穿心莲根际土壤浸提液进行了分析鉴定.结果 穿心莲根际土壤浸提液及穿心莲内酯对照品溶液均能显著抑制三叶鬼针草和穿心莲种子的萌发,其抑制作用随着浓度的增大而增强;结果表明,穿心莲内酯是其根际土壤浸提液中的一主要成分.结论 穿心莲在其生长过程中释放了化感物质进入了其根际土壤,对穿心莲和其他植物产生化感作用,穿心莲内酯为其中的主要化感物质之一.%Objective To investigate allelopathy of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees for its GAP management.Methods With watch glass culture, the inhibitory effects of andrographlide and the rhizosphere extract of Andrographis paniculata on seed germination of the herb itself and Bidens pilosa were conducted, and with HPLC method, the main constituents of the rhizosphere extract were analysed.Results The results showed that both of andrographlide and the rhizosphere extract had significant inhibitory effects on the germinations of Bidens pilosa seeds and itself; the effects strengthened with increasing of their concentrations.Andrographlide is one kind of main constituents in the rhizosphere extract indicated by HPLC analysis.Conclusion In the growth period, Andrographis paniculata release some alleochemicals into the soil, and andrographlide is one of the main allelochemical.

  20. Distribuição mensal da emergência de seis ervas daninhas em solos com e sem cultivos Monthly emergence of six weeds in cultived and undisturbed soil

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    Hélio G. Blanco

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados no período de 14 meses, com início em outubro de 1988, levantamentos demográficos mensais para registro da dinâmica de emergência de seis espécies de ervas daninhas anuais, submetidas mensalmente a um dos seguintes sistemas de manejo da população: grade de disco, grade de disco seguida de rolo compactador do solo, enxada rotativa, e herbicida de contato. Os resultados mostraram que a distribuição mensal da emergência de Digitaria horizontalis Willd. (capim-colchão, Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. (capim-marmelada, Bidens pilosa L. (picão-preto, e Amaranthus viridis L. (caruru-de-mancha, se configurou com um pico de emergência muito alto em outubro (acima de 80% do total emergido no período, com reinfestações pouco significativas nos meses seguintes, e que o manejo através do cultivo do solo favoreceu a emergência dessas espécies. O modelo de emergência de Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. (capim-pé-de-galinha, e Eragrostis pilosa (L. Beauv. (capim-barba-de-alemão, por outro lado, apresentou um grau de emergência baixo em outubro, elevando-se até janeiro quando ocorreu o fluxo de maior pico. O manejo sem revolvimento do solo dessas duas espécies incrementou a geminação dos propágulos do banco de sementes. De um modo geral, quando não se permitiu a multiplicação sexuada, a taxa de população foi extremamente reduzida no ciclo seguinte.In lhe period of October/l988 to December/1989 a research was carried out to study lhe emergence dynamics of six weeds through monthly samplings under four weed managements: destruction of lhe former flora by cultivation with harrow, harrow following compaction by soil roller, rotary harrow and use of a contact herbicide without soil disturbance. The results showed that lhe initial emergence in October is very high for Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus viridis compared with lhe emergence in lhe following months and that

  1. Influência do tipo e da quantidade de resíduos vegetais na emergência de plantas daninhas Influence of type and amount of crop residues on weed emergence

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    N.M. Correia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da semeadura no outono/inverno de diferentes espécies: sorgo de cobertura (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'híbrido Cober Exp', milheto forrageiro (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana e braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha para formação de palha (nas quantidades de 3,0 e 5,5 t ha¹, na emergência de plantas daninhas, foi conduzido experimento no ano agrícola 2003/04, na fazenda Três Marcos, em Uberlândia, MG. Foi mantida uma testemunha como tratamento adicional, sem cobertura com restos vegetais. A composição específica e as densidades populacionais das comunidades infestantes foram influenciadas pelos sistemas de produção de cobertura morta. A emergência das plantas daninhas foi menor nas coberturas de sorgo e braquiária e nos maiores níveis de palha. O número de plântulas emergidas de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis e gramíneas foi inibido pelas coberturas, enquanto para Chamaesyce spp. os resíduos contribuíram para incremento na sua emergência.To evaluate the effects on weed emergence of autumn/winter sowing of different species [sorghum (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense 'Cober Exp hybrid', forage millet (Pennisetum americanum 'var. BN2', finger millet (Eleusine coracana and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha, for mulch formation (at rates of 3.0 and 5.5 t ha-1, an experiment was carried out in the agricultural year 2003/2004, in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The specific composition and population densities of the infesting community were influenced by the mulch production systems. Weed emergence was minor under sorghum and Sta Lucia grass cover and in greater amounts of straw. Straw cover inhibited the emergence of seedlings of Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus spp., Commelina benghalensis, Leucas martinicensis and grasses and stimulated the emergence of Chamaesyce spp.

  2. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

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    Ocampo Saul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and one yeast (Candida albicans. These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml, clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml. Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml. Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml. Conclusion This in vitro study

  3. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

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    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  4. Evaluación preliminar del efecto que sobre algunas enzimas del suelo tienen diferentes mecanismos de control del hongo (Phytophthora infestans en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum bajo dos tipos de manejo agrícola (orgánico y convencional

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    Guardiola Marta Lucía

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó comparativamente el posible efecto diferencial que, sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina y celulasa, además del pH y la materia orgánica del suelo, tuvieron los métodos de control de Phytophthora infestans tanto en la agricultura orgánica (purín de Chipaca Bidens pilosum como en la convencional (diversos fungicidas comerciales en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Igualmente, en los parámetros antes mencionados, se evaluó el efecto de un promotor fúngico utilizado como control del mismo hongo en ambas agriculturas. La investigación se dividió en una fase de campo y una de laboratorio. En la fase de campo, realizada durante siete meses de 1999, se acompañó la siembra, el desarrollo del cultivo y evolución de la enfermedad a través de la determinación de la incidencia y su severidad. En el laboratorio se determinó la actividad enzimática proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, celulasa, así como también el pH y porcentaje de materia orgánica. Se encontró que en el manejo agrícola orgánico la actividad de la fosfatasa ácida, la fosfatasa alcalina y la proteasa así como también el pH fueron más influenciados por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas que por efecto del los tratamientos utilizados en el control del hongo. En el manejo agrícola convencional la actividad enzimática de las celulasas fue inhibida significativamente por los fungicidas. La actividad de las proteasas y fosfatasas ácidas fueron estimuladas por efecto de los fungicidas comerciales y por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas. Las actividades enzimáticas fosfatasa ácida, proteasa y celulasa presentaron comportamientos significativamente diferentes entre los cultivos convencional y orgánico. Para el control de la enfermedad, el uso de los fungicidas fue el tratamiento que mejores resultados presentó con una mayor producción de papa pero con mayores gastos de producción, mientras

  5. Perdas de rendimento de grãos de soja causadas por interferência de picão-preto e guanxuma Soybean grain yield losses due to interference by beggatticks and arrowleaf sida

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    Mauro Antônio Rizzardi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência mútua entre plantas daninhas e cultivadas pode ser afetado pelas espécies concorrentes e por seu nível populacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de uso do modelo da hipérbole retangular na previsão das perdas de rendimento de grãos de soja causadas por picão-preto (Bidens spp. e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia L.. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos em campo no Município de Eldorado do Sul-RS, nos anos de 1999/00 e 2000/01. Os tratamentos constaram de densidades de plantas de picão-preto ou de guanxuma, as quais foram alocadas de acordo com níveis populacionais de ervas encontrados naturalmente na área experimental. Constatou-se que as perdas de rendimento causadas por incrementos nas densidades de picão-preto e de guanxuma aumentaram de forma não linear. O modelo da hipérbole retangular propicia melhores ajustes quando utiliza perdas do rendimento de grãos do que perdas da matéria seca da soja no florescimento ou do rendimento biológico da soja. por meio da comparação dos parâmetros obtidos para o modelo testado, conclui-se que picão-preto interfere mais negativamente na cultura do que guanxuma.The level of reciprocal interference between weeds and crops is affected by the competing species and plant populations involved. This research was conducted in order to evaluate the possibility of using the retangular hyperbolic model for predicting soybean grain yield losses caused by beggarticks (Bidens spp. and arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia L. infestations. To accomplish this, there were carried out two field experiments in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, during the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of beggarticks and arrowleaf densities, which were located according to naturally ocurring population levels in the research area. Was detected that grain yield losses due to increasing densities of these weeds increased non-linearly. The retangular

  6. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  7. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Luís Cláudio Paterno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.

  8. Influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Núbia Maria; Durigan, Julio Cezar; Klink, Urubatan Palhares

    2005-01-01

    This research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid Cober Exp" (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense), forage millet (Pennisetum americanum "var. BN2"), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of Bidens pilosa, Chamaesyce spp., Amaranthus spp., and Commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado, in the region of Uberlândia--MG. The control consisted additional treatment lacking the straw cover. Emergence of weed depended on the type and amount of straw cover, as well as the weed species. The lowest number of B. pilosa seedlings was found in the presence of forage sorghum straw; Chamaesyce spp. in the lack of straw; Amaranthus spp. in the presence of higher amount of forage sorghum and forage millet, and lower amounts of forage millet and Finger Millet. All the types and amounts of straw reduced the emergency of C. benghalensis, except at the lowest level of St Lucia grass and the lack of straw. PMID:15656176

  9. Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

  10. Screening Green Manure Cover Crops for their Allelopathic Effects on Some Important Weeds Found in Zimbabwe

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    Runzika, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is a serious problem in smallholder conservation agriculture farming areas in Zimbabwe. Green Manure Cover Crops (GMCCs, which improve soil fertility and reduce weeds through allelopathy, are likely to reduce the cost of weed control in these areas. A laboratory study was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe to investigate the effect of extracts of eleven GMCCs on the germination percentage, radicle and plumule length of Bidens pilosa, Eleusine indica and Pennisatum glaucum (pearl millet. A green house experiment was also done to determine the allelopathic potential of these GMCC extracts applied as soil incorporated residues on the emergence and dry matter production of E. indica, B. pilosa and Acanthospermum hispidum. GMCC extracts significantly reduced germination, radicle and plumule length of Pennisatum glaucum (P < 0.05 except for Crotalaria grahamiana and Raphanus sativas which had no effect on germination of Pearl millet. The emergence and dry matter of B. pilosa, E. indica and A. hispidum were significantly reduced by these legumes (P < 0.05 with the exception of common vetch (Vicia sativa which stimulated the emergence of A. hispidum. Most of the legumes that were used in this study have allelopathic effects on B. pilosa, E. indica and A. hispidum.

  11. Macrophomina phaseolina: density and longevity of microsclerotia in soybean root tissues and free on the soil, and competitive saprophytic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In field experiments, the density of Macrophomina phaseolina microsclerotia in root tissues of naturally colonized soybean cultivars was quantified. The density of free sclerotia on the soil was determined for plots of crop rotation (soybean-corn and soybean monoculture soon after soybean harvest. M. phaseolina natural infection was also determined for the roots of weeds grown in the experimental area. To verify the ability of M. phaseolina to colonize dead substrates, senesced stem segments from the main plant species representing the agricultural system of southern Brazil were exposed on naturally infested soil for 30 and 60 days. To quantify the sclerotia, the methodology of Cloud and Rupe (1991 and Mengistu et al. (2007 was employed. Sclerotium density, assessed based on colony forming units (CFU, ranged from 156 to 1,108/g root tissue. Sclerotium longevity, also assessed according to CFU, was 157 days for the rotation and 163 days for the monoculture system. M. phaseolina did not colonize saprophytically any dead stem segment of Avena strigosa,Avena sativa,Hordeum vulgare,Brassica napus,Gossypium hirsutum,Secale cereale,Helianthus annus,Triticosecalerimpaui, and Triticum aestivum. Mp was isolated from infected root tissues of Amaranthus viridis,Bidens pilosa,Cardiospermum halicacabum,Euphorbia heterophylla,Ipomoea sp., and Richardia brasiliensis. The survival mechanisms of M. phaseolina studied in this paper met the microsclerotium longevity in soybean root tissues, free on the soil, as well as asymptomatic colonization of weeds.

  12. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. PMID:26314055

  13. Team LunaCY Outreach Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, James; Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    Iowa State University's Lunabotics Club, Team LunaCY, has worked hard to generate enthusiasm for robotics, engineering, and lunar activities. Team LunaCY participated in a variety of different outreach events making a strong impression on Iowa youth. These events led the chair of the mechanical engineering department, Dr. Ted Heindel, to refer to the club's outreach program as "the model that all other engineering clubs should follow." Team LunaCY's outreach activities totaled over 200 hours and captivated over 3000 students and adults throughout the course of this acaden1ic year, reaching out to people all over Iowa and to several special guests. These guests included Vice-President Joe Biden, during a visit to Iowa State University in March 2012, and astronaut Clayton Anderson, during a visit to Iowa State's campus in the fall 2011. Team LunaCY's outreach events created hands on learning opportunities for local youth ranging in age from elementary school children to high school students. The team strove to make a positive impression on Iowa youth and to encourage interest and involvement in scientific fields. The full list of events is shown in Table 1. Three of the major outreach events the team participated in were the FIRST LEGO League, Science Bound, and iExplore STEM Festival.

  14. The occurrence of alien species in the settlement areas of the Kampinos National Park and its vicinity (Central Poland

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    Kirpluk Izabella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS, and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa which may potentially pose a threat to the ecosystems of KNP. Species encroaching from settlement areas to semi-natural and natural communities included: Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Reunoutria japonica and Solidago gigantea. Most of them were species from the highest invasiveness (IV and III classes in Poland. Similarity analysis carried out for all investigated localities with regard to all alien species, and only for invasive ones showed a clear division into separate groups: villages within the boundaries of the national park and villages outside the park.

  15. A method to label seeds and seedlings using gamma-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A major obstacle limiting field studies in plant population biology is that there is no way of uniquely labeling or identifying the seeds produced by a mother plant so that her seedlings can be distinguished from the offspring of other conspecific plants. This article describes experiments undertaken to develop gamma—emitting radionuclide labels that are injected into a plant and are incorporated into the developing seeds and subsequent seedlings. The nuclides were used singly and in combination since each nuclide has unique spectral peaks that can be used to distinguish it from other nuclides. Five species were used: Phaseolus vulgaris, Polygonum pensylvanicum, Impatiens capensis, Bidens frondosa, and B. connata. Easily detectable levels of 58cobalt, 60cobalt, 134cesium, 137cesium, and 75selenium were incorporated by seeds of the five species. The incorporation of 54manganese and 65zinc varied among the species. 88Yttrium, 125antimony, and 85strontium were weak or not present as labels, depending on the species, while 110silver and 46scandium were never found in the seeds. Bean seedlings showed readily detectable amounts of nuclide label, while the nuclides apparently leached out of the Impatiens seedlings. The quantities of nuclides used in these experiments were so low that there was no effect of radiation on plant performance. (author)

  16. Herbicidal and Cytotoxic Constituents from Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hui; Sun, Yongyan; Yuan, Yunfei; Zhao, Huanhuan; Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Weiyun; Zhou, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 3β-hydroxyoleana-11,13(18)-diene-28,30-dioic acid (1) and 3-oxooleana-11,13(18)-diene-28,30-dioic acid (2), one novel triterpenoid glycoside, 3β-O-(6'-O-methyl-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl)oleana-11,13(18)-dien-28-oic acid (3) along with six known compounds (4 - 9) were isolated from the stem bark of Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic methods. The herbicidal activities of these compounds against Bidens pilosa L., an invasive weed in P. R. China, were evaluated. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 exhibited more significant herbicidal activities on B. pilosa than the positive-control pendimethalin. Their possible use as herbicidal chemicals or model compounds deserved more attention. The effects of compounds 1 - 9 on Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1 cell proliferation and its morphology were also evaluated. The results indicated that compounds 1 - 5 affected Sl-1 cell proliferation. Compound 3 showed more obvious proliferation inhibition activities on Sl-1 cell than the positive-control rotenone. With regard to the effect on morphology, compound 2 significantly changed Sl-1 cell, resulting in cell blebbing and vacuole forming. Triterpenoids aremedicinally and agriculturally important, and cytotoxicity of the three new compounds 1 - 3 deserved further studies. PMID:26948515

  17. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  18. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  19. SPATIAL CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND WEEDS IN TWO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Roberto Schaffrath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial correlation between soil properties and weeds is relevant in agronomic and environmental terms. The analysis of this correlation is crucial for the interpretation of its meaning, for influencing factors such as dispersal mechanisms, seed production and survival, and the range of influence of soil management techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial correlation between the physical properties of soil and weeds in no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT systems. The following physical properties of soil and weeds were analyzed: soil bulk density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, aeration capacity of soil matrix, soil water content at field capacity, weed shoot biomass, weed density, Commelina benghalensis density, and Bidens pilosa density. Generally, the ranges of the spatial correlations were higher in NT than in CT. The cross-variograms showed that many variables have a structure of combined spatial variation and can therefore be mapped from one another by co-kriging. This combined variation also allows inferences about the physical and biological meanings of the study variables. Results also showed that soil management systems influence the spatial dependence structure significantly.

  20. Determinação de espécie indicadora e comparação de genótipos de girassol quanto ao potencial alelopático Determination of indicative species and comparison of sunflower genotypes as to their allelopathic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na agricultura atual, o método mais utilizado para o controle de plantas daninhas é o químico, em razão da facilidade de uso, elevada eficiência e baixa necessidade de mão de obra. No entanto, a utilização inadequada desses produtos provoca problemas ao ambiente e à saúde humana. Cresce, portanto, a busca por métodos alternativos de controle de plantas daninhas, menos demandadores de energia e menos tóxicos e agressivos ao ambiente. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito alelopático da cultura do girassol (Helianthus annuus sobre diferentes espécies de plantas daninhas e cultivadas, em dois experimentos realizados em delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, utilizando o método da semeadura em substituição. O primeiro experimento foi realizado com quatro repetições, em esquema bifatorial. O primeiro fator foi constituído por seis espécies indicadoras: picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia, caruru (Amaranthus hybridus, alface (Lactuca sativa, cultivar Aurélia, tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum, cultivar Santa Cruz, trigo (Triticum aestivum, cultivar BRS 208; e o segundo, pela presença ou não de plântulas de girassol. O segundo experimento foi composto por 24 tratamentos, representados por 23 genótipos de girassol e por uma testemunha sem girassol, utilizando-se quatro repetições. A espécie indicadora foi apenas o picão-preto. Em ambos os experimentos, no final do período de sete dias de convívio, foram avaliados o número de sementes germinadas e o comprimento radicular e da parte aérea das espécies indicadoras. Não foram observadas diferenças entre as porcentagens de germinação de quaisquer das espécies indicadoras avaliadas, em função da presença ou não das plântulas de girassol. A presença de plântulas de girassol estimulou o crescimento radicular das plântulas de tomate e trigo e inibiu o crescimento da parte aérea de picão-preto, trigo e corda

  1. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  2. Germinação de sementes de alface e de duas ervas invasoras com a aplicação de um novo análogo do estrigol, sintetizado a partir do safrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel André José A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estrigol é um sesquiterpeno natural que possui elevada atividade como estimulante da germinação, principalmente de sementes de espécies invasoras, pertencentes aos gêneros Striga e Orobanche. Soluções contendo 0,01; 0,1; 10 e 1000 mg/L de um novo análogo de estrigol, sintetizado a partir de um alilbenzeno natural, o safrol (isolado do óleo de sassafraz, foram aplicadas em sementes de alface e de Ipomoea grandifolia e Bidens pilosa. Observou-se que houve efeito estimulador na germinação das sementes das ervas invasoras, sem afetar a germinação da alface. Os resultados indicam que essa substância apresenta potencial de uso para estimular a germinação de sementes de ervas invasoras, que poderiam ser eliminadas do solo, antes do plantio de hortaliças como a alface.

  3. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

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    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  4. Sequences of cytochrome b gene for primitive cyprinid fishes in East Asia and their phylogenetic concerning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    1140 bp of cytochrome b gene were amplified and sequenced from 14species of primitive cyprinid fishes in East Asia. Aligned with other ten cytochrome b gene sequences of cyprinid fish from Europe and North America retrieved from Gene bank, we obtained a matrix of 24 DNA sequences. A cladogram was generated by the method of Maximum likelihood for the primitive cyprinid fishes. The result indicated that subfamily Leuciscinae and Danioninae do not form a monophyletic group. In the subfamily Danioninae, Opsariichthys biden and Zacco platypus are very primitive and form a natural group and located at the root. But the genera in subfamily Danioninae are included in different groups and have not direct relationship. Among them, Aphyocypris chinensis and Yaoshanicus arcus form a monophyletic group. Tanichthys albonubes and Gobiocypris rarus have a close relation to Gobioninae. The genus Danio is far from other genera in Danioninae. In our cladogram, the genera in Leuciscinae were divided into two groups that have no direct relationship. The genera in Leuciscinae distributed in Europe, Sibera and North America, including Leuciscus, Rutilus, Phoxinus, N. crysole, Opsopoeodus emilae, form a monophyletic group. And the Leuciscinae in southern China including Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Squalibarbus and Ochetobius elongatus have a common origination.

  5. Energy- and climate policy of the USA. Goals of the new government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US president Barack Obama and vice president Joe Biden announced a detailed new political agenda on 20 January 2009 when they took over from the Bush government. The internet pages of the White House list 24 items, including an action plan for energy and environment. This ''New Energy for America Plan'' comprises the following goals: Creation of 5 million new jobs by supporting private efforts for clean energy supply with strategic investments of 150 thousand million US dollars for the next decade; Savings of petroleum that are higher than the volume currently imported from the Middle East and Venezuela within the next decade; Ensuring that about 1 million US-made plug-in hybrid cars are on the roads by 2015; Achieving a share of 10 percent by 2012 and 25 percent by 2025 for renewable energy sources; Implementation of a ''cap-and-trade system'' for the whole US economy in order to reduce climate-relevant gaseous emissions by 80 percent until 2050. (orig.)

  6. Preferencia de hospedadores de Culicidae (Diptera recolectados en el centro de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almirón Walter R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la preferencia de hospedadores vertebrados por mosquitos hembras, durante 2 períodos octubre-abril (primavera-verano, se realizaron muestreos cada 15 días en Córdoba y Cosquín (Argentina. Se utilizaron trampas de latón con cebo animal: anfibios (sapos, aves (pollos, mamíferos (conejos y reptiles (tortugas. El 92,9% de los especímenes recolectados pertenecen al género Culex, mientras que un 7,0% corresponde a Aedes y el 0,02% restante a Psorophora ciliata, única especie que se capturó de ese género. En trampas con pollo se recolectó el mayor número de hembras (68,7%, siguiendo en orden las trampas con conejos (29,9%, con tortugas (0,8% y con sapos (0,5%, por lo tanto, la mayoría de los mosquitos entraron en las trampas con hospedadores homeotermos. Culex dolosus se alimentó sobre todos los cebos, mientras que Cx. acharistus, Cx. chidesteri y Cx. quinquefasciatus se alimentaron sobre pollos, conejos y tortugas; Ae. albifasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. bidens y Cx. coronator lo hicieron sobre ambos hospedadores homeotermos; Cx. apicinus, Cx. maxi, Cx. saltanensis y Cx. spinosus se alimentaron solamente sobre pollos y Ps. ciliata sobre conejos.

  7. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  8. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol Phytosociological survey of weeds in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S Adegas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento fitossociológico da comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol foi realizado em duas épocas distintas: no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura (entre 20 e 40 dias após a semeadura e na pré-colheita do girassol. As espécies de plantas daninhas foram identificadas e quantificadas pelo método do quadrado inventário (1,0 x 1,0 m, com amostragem de 12 m² por área. Os levantamentos foram realizados em 54 propriedades de seis municípios da região do cerrado e em 38 propriedades de oito municípios da região dos pampas, que são as duas principais regiões produtoras brasileiras. Foram registrados a frequência, a frequência relativa, a densidade, a densidade relativa, a abundância, a abundância relativa, o índice de importância relativa e o índice de similaridade. No total, foram identificadas 60 espécies de plantas daninhas, sendo 17 presentes em ambas as regiões. Asteraceae e Poaceae foram as duas principais famílias, entre as 16 encontradas. As principais espécies presentes no cerrado foram Euphorbia heterophylla, Chamaesyce hirta, Ageratum conyzoides, Commelina benghalensis, Zea mays e Bidens sp. As principais espécies presentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram Bidens sp., Raphanus raphanistrum, Lolium multiflorum, Gnaphalium spicatum, Sonchus oleraceus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Sida rhombifolia, Digitaria sp. e Ipomea sp. A densidade das plantas daninhas foi maior na fase de pré-colheita do que no desenvolvimento inicial da cultura, em ambas as regiões, sendo de 30,84 plantas m-2 e 23,58 plantas m-2, respectivamente, para o cerrado, e de 23,19 plantas m-2e 21,41 plantas m-2, para o Rio Grande do Sul. O índice de similaridade dentro das regiões foi de 0,91 para os levantamentos do cerrado e de 0,79 para os do Rio Grande do Sul. Entretanto, entre as regiões, os índices ficaram abaixo de 0,5, mostrando similaridade mediana entre a flora daninha do cerrado e a do Rio Grande do Sul, na cultura do girassol

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  10. Mechanistic Study of the Phytocompound, 2- β -D-Glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne in Human T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by Using Combined Differential Proteomics and Bioinformatics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Jeng-Yuan; Yin, Shu-Yi; Chang, Shu-Lin; Hsu, Yi-Jou; Chen, Kai-Wei; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Feng, Ching-Shan; Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Wen-Chin; Wen, Tuan-Nan

    2015-01-01

    Bidens pilosa, a medicinal herb worldwide, is rich in bioactive polyynes. In this study, by using high resolution 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, as many as 2000 protein spots could be detected and those whose expression was specifically up- or downregulated in Jurkat T cells responsive to the treatment with 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHTT) can be identified. GHTT treatment can upregulate thirteen proteins involved in signal transduction, detoxification, metabolism, energy pathways, and channel transport in Jurkat cells. Nine proteins, that is, thioredoxin-like proteins, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID protein involving apoptosis), methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, were downregulated in GHTT-treated Jurkat cells. Further, bioinformatics tool, Ingenuity software, was used to predict signaling pathways based on the data obtained from the differential proteomics approach. Two matched pathways, relevant to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, in Jurkat cells were inferred from the proteomics data. Biochemical analysis further verified both pathways involving GHTT in Jurkat cells. These findings do not merely prove the feasibility of combining proteomics and bioinformatics methods to identify cellular proteins as key players in response to the phytocompound in Jurkat cells but also establish the pathways of the proteins as the potential therapeutic targets of leukemia. PMID:26557148

  11. Mechanistic Study of the Phytocompound, 2-β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne in Human T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells by Using Combined Differential Proteomics and Bioinformatics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Yuan Shiau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa, a medicinal herb worldwide, is rich in bioactive polyynes. In this study, by using high resolution 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, as many as 2000 protein spots could be detected and those whose expression was specifically up- or downregulated in Jurkat T cells responsive to the treatment with 2-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxytrideca-5,7,9,11-tetrayne (GHTT can be identified. GHTT treatment can upregulate thirteen proteins involved in signal transduction, detoxification, metabolism, energy pathways, and channel transport in Jurkat cells. Nine proteins, that is, thioredoxin-like proteins, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID protein involving apoptosis, methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase beta chain, and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, were downregulated in GHTT-treated Jurkat cells. Further, bioinformatics tool, Ingenuity software, was used to predict signaling pathways based on the data obtained from the differential proteomics approach. Two matched pathways, relevant to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, in Jurkat cells were inferred from the proteomics data. Biochemical analysis further verified both pathways involving GHTT in Jurkat cells. These findings do not merely prove the feasibility of combining proteomics and bioinformatics methods to identify cellular proteins as key players in response to the phytocompound in Jurkat cells but also establish the pathways of the proteins as the potential therapeutic targets of leukemia.

  12. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Cortés-Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has been successfully employed for the encapsulation of herbal bioactive compounds resulting in stable phytopharmaceutical preparations. Bidens pilosa L. is a South American medicinal plant with proved antimalaric, hepatoprotector and antioxidant activities, generally linked to their secondary metabolites, flavonoids and polyacetylenes. In this work the physicochemical stability of an optimized spray dried composition from a B. pilosa extract was evaluated at three different stress storage conditions in open containers and in sealed sachets. High performance liquid chromatography was employed to monitor the concentration of three marker compounds over 12 months. Color variation of the stored samples was evaluated by using a color spectrophotometer. It was observed that the concentration of the monitored compounds of the plant decreases more drastically in samples stored in open containers. The two flavonoids monitored, rutin and hyperoside, showed lower degradation than the polyacetylene. The concentration of the markers did not change significantly at the lowest temperature. With regard to color, darker hues were observed at higher temperatures and storage times. This study showed that the storage conditions cause significant impact on stability of standardized spray dried B. pilosa extract.

  13. The search for new antimalarial drugs from plants used to treat fever and malaria or plants ramdomly selected: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krettli Antoniana U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the ongoing situation of human malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, where it is endemic causing over 610,000 new acute cases yearly, a number which is on the increase. This is partly a result of drug resistant parasites and new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The approaches we have used in the search of new drugs during decades are now reviewed and include ethnopharmocology, plants randomly selected, extracts or isolated substances from plants shown to be active against the blood stage parasites in our previous studies. Emphasis is given on the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa, proven to be active against the parasite blood stages in tests using freshly prepared plant extracts. The anti-sporozoite activity of one plant used in the Brazilian endemic area to prevent malaria is also described, the so called "Indian beer" (Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Rhamnaceae. Freshly prepared extracts from the roots of this plant were totally inactive against blood stage parasites, but active against sporozoites of Plasmodium gallinaceum or the primary exoerythrocytic stages reducing tissue parasitism in inoculated chickens. This result will be of practical importance if confirmed in mammalian malaria. Problems and perspectives in the search for antimalarial drugs are discussed as well as the toxicological and clinical trials to validate some of the active plants for public health use in Brazil.

  14. Herbs of interest to the Brazilian Federal Government: female reproductive and developmental toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Verissimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the Brazilian Ministry of Health published a document named RENISUS that lists 71 herbs traditionally used in Brazil that could result in phytomedicines to be dispensed by the governmental health care program. This manuscript reviews female reproductive and/or developmental toxicity information of these herbs. More than half (35 of the herbs lack information regarding female reproductive and/or developmental effects. From the fourteen herbs used traditionally to disturb female reproduction, five present experimental data corroborating their actions as abortifacients (Maytenus ilicifolia, Momordica charantia, Plectranthus barbatus, Ruta graveolens or labour facilitator (Bidens pilosa. For 23 of the herbs evaluated experimentally for any type of female reproductive endpoint, only a single study was retrieved and at least twelve of these studies were conducted with a single dose. This scenario suggests that the scientific power of the published information is very low and that a scientifically-based risk/benefit analysis about the use of these herbs during pregnancy is not possible. Considering the appeal that phytomedicines have for pregnant women, usually aware and afraid of the risks that synthetic drugs may have in their pregnancy and progeny, well designed studies evaluating reproductive and/or developmental toxicity of these herbs urge.

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Moscardini Chavasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05. The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development.

  17. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  18. Plants known as té in Spain: an ethno-pharmaco-botanical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo de Santayana, Manuel; Blanco, Emilio; Morales, Ramón

    2005-04-01

    Although the word té (tea) in Spanish is derived from the Chinese tscha and refers to the oriental plant Camellia sinensis, it is popularly used throughout Spain to refer to at least 70 different plant species. These are usually collected in the countryside, boiled dry or fresh, and drunk after meals. The drinking of té is a social habit that encourages conversation in a relaxed atmosphere. Tés are also commonly used as digestifs and stomachics, and in some cases as laxatives, antidiarrhoeics, and to reduce the blood pressure. They are not used as stimulants. It appears that the habit of drinking Camellia sinensis afforded the cognitive context for drinking other infusions with no specific medicinal purpose. Some té species are very common in Spain (and their use is quite extended), others are endemic, and others still are allochthonous that now live in the wild. The majority of these species belong to the families Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. The most important and widely distributed are Jasonia glutinosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Lithospermum officinale, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Bidens aurea. Other remarkable but more locally used tés include Cruciata glabra (only in the Pyrenees), Inula salicina and Mentha arvensis (in the Central Mountain Range of Madrid), and Potentilla caulescens (in Tarragona). PMID:15763359

  19. The impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reaction profiles of patients on antiretroviral therapy in zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076-0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292-0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  20. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy. PMID:17476467

  1. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of substituted 3-(pyridin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives as potent herbicidal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Chi, Hui-Wei; Guan, Ai-Ying; Liu, Chang-Ling; Ma, Hong-Juan; Cui, Dong-Liang

    2016-02-01

    In an attempt to obtain novel candidate compound for weed control, a series of newly substituted 3-(pyridin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives 2 were designed and synthesized using compound II7 as a lead compound by Intermediate Derivatization Methods and their herbicidal activities were evaluated. The herbicidal activity assay in greenhouse tests showed several compounds (2g, 2i, 2j, 2k, 2l, 2m, 2n and 2o) exhibited significant herbicidal activity for controlling velvet leaf (Abutilon theophrasti medic.) and youth-and-old age (Zinnia elegans jacq.) at 37.5ga.i./ha. In particular, 2h was found to be the most potential candidate herbicide and was proved higher activity than the lead compound II7. The result of the weed controlling spectrum test showed that 2h could effectively control dayflower (Commelina tuberosa), bur beggarticks (Bidens tripartita linn.), youth-and-old age, cassia tora (Cassiaobtusifolia L.), velvet leaf, purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and false daisy (Eclipta prostrata L.). In addition, the mixture of compound 2h and propanil could produce a synergistic effect and enhance herbicidal activity. The result of the herbicidal activity assay in field test demonstrated that 2h could effectively control dayflower and nightshade (Disambiguation) with long-lasting persistence. The present work indicates that 2h may be a novel compound candidate as a potential herbicide. PMID:26385445

  3. Occurrence of symbiotic fungi and rhizospheric phosphate solubilization in weeds - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Aparecido dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the ecology of the organisms involved in the production process are necessary for the development of sustainable agriculture, and sustainability is currently closely linked to the profitability of production. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in weeds infesting Brazilian crops and to evaluate the inorganic phosphate solubilization potential of the associated microbiota. A total of 36 weed species were evaluated for the occurrence of mycorrhizae; of these, 11 were selected to evaluate their potential for total and relative phosphate solubilization. All of the species demonstrated mycorrhizal colonization, including a member of the Brassicaceae family, which is usually assumed to be non-mycorrhizal. In most of the species, morphological types of arbuscular and coiled hyphae were observed, with the coiled hyphae being the most common in the grasses. Dark septate endophytic fungi were observed in most of the plants. The weeds presented different potentials for P solubilization in the rhizosphere; Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa and Leonotis nepetaefolia showed high values of relative phosphate solubilization. This is the first report on the mycorrhizae and phosphate solubilization activity in weeds in Brazil.

  4. [Drug or plant substances which antagonize venoms or potentiate antivenins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Rakotonirina, V S; Rakotonirina, A; Dzikouk, G

    1997-01-01

    Dendroaspis jamesoni (Elapidae) and Echis oceliatus (Viperidae) are responsible for most of severe evenomation in Cameroon. Toxicity of venoms of these two species has been measured using mice according to the method of Spearman & Kàrber. The effect on experimental envenomation of various drugs (atropine, promethazine, neostigmine, hydrocortisone, pentosane sulfuric polyester, heparin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) and plant extracts (Schumanniophyton magnificum, Bidens pilosa, Securidaca longepedunculata and Garcinia lucida) has been observed associated or not with the antivenom lpser Afrique (SAV). The venom of D. jamesoni contains neurotoxins agonizing and antagonising acetylcholine. The toxicity of the venom did not depend on the route of injection. Atropine, promethazine, neostigmine and hydrocortisone protected animals against a venom dose up to 2 LD50. Moreover, atropine and promethazine potentiated the SAV. Similar results have been obtained with extracts from S. magnificum and B. pilosa. The venom of E. ocellatus induces haemorrhage and necrosis. The toxicity increased by 3-fold when the venom was injected through intravenous or intraperitoneal route, compared to intramuscular route. Pentosane sulfuric polyester and tranexamic acid protected mice against doses up to 3 LD50. Pentosane sulfuric polyester, hydrocortisone, heparin and aminocaproic acid increased the SAV protective titre by 50%. However, tried plant extracts weakly antagonised the venom and did not potentiate the SAV. PMID:9479470

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of a basal teleost, the Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus, Osteoglossidae

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    Yue Gen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA-derived sequences have become popular markers for evolutionary studies, as their comparison may yield significant insights into the evolution of both the organisms and their genomes. From the more than 24,000 teleost species, only 254 complete mtDNA sequences are available (GenBank status on 06 Sep 2006. In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Asian arowana, a basal bonytongue fish species, which belongs to the order of Osteoglossiformes. Results The complete mitochondrial genomic sequence (mtDNA of Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus was determined by using shotgun sequencing method. The length of Asian arowana mtDNA is ca. 16,650 bp (its variation is due to polymorphic repeats in the control region, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes. Twelve of the thirteen protein coding genes were found to be encoded by the heavy strand in the order typically observed for vertebrate mitochondrial genomes, whereas only nad6 was located on the light strand. An interesting feature of Asian arowana mitogenome is that two different repeat arrays were identified in the control region: a 37 bp tandem repeat at the 5' end and an AT-type dinucleotide microsatellite at the 3' end. Both repeats show polymorphism among the six individuals tested; moreover the former one is present in the mitochondrial genomes of several other teleost groups. The TACAT motif described earlier only from mammals and lungfish was found in the tandem repeat of several osteoglossid and eel species. Phylogenetic analysis of fish species representing Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii taxa has shown that the Asian arowana is located near the baseline of the teleost tree, confirming its status among the ancestral teleost lineages. Conclusion The mitogenome of Asian arowana is very similar to the typical vertebrate mitochondrial genome in terms of gene arrangements, codon usage and base composition

  7. Duplication of the dystroglycan gene in most branches of teleost fish

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    Giardina Bruno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dystroglycan (DG complex is a major non-integrin cell adhesion system whose multiple biological roles involve, among others, skeletal muscle stability, embryonic development and synapse maturation. DG is composed of two subunits: α-DG, extracellular and highly glycosylated, and the transmembrane β-DG, linking the cytoskeleton to the surrounding basement membrane in a wide variety of tissues. A single copy of the DG gene (DAG1 has been identified so far in humans and other mammals, encoding for a precursor protein which is post-translationally cleaved to liberate the two DG subunits. Similarly, D. rerio (zebrafish seems to have a single copy of DAG1, whose removal was shown to cause a severe dystrophic phenotype in adult animals, although it is known that during evolution, due to a whole genome duplication (WGD event, many teleost fish acquired multiple copies of several genes (paralogues. Results Data mining of pufferfish (T. nigroviridis and T. rubripes and other teleost fish (O. latipes and G. aculeatus available nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of two functional paralogous DG sequences. RT-PCR analysis proved that both the DG sequences are transcribed in T. nigroviridis. One of the two DG sequences harbours an additional mini-intronic sequence, 137 bp long, interrupting the uncomplicated exon-intron-exon pattern displayed by DAG1 in mammals and D. rerio. A similar scenario emerged also in D. labrax (sea bass, from whose genome we have cloned and sequenced a new DG sequence that also harbours a shorter additional intronic sequence of 116 bp. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of DG protein products in all the species analysed including two teleost Antarctic species (T. bernacchii and C. hamatus. Conclusion Our evolutionary analysis has shown that the whole-genome duplication event in the Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish involved also DAG1. We unravelled new important molecular genetic details

  8. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

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    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  9. The mitochondrial phylogeny of an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes (Polypteridae with implications for the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin loss, and craniofacial morphology in Osteichthyes

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    Brandley Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Polypteridae, commonly known as "bichirs", is a lineage that diverged early in the evolutionary history of Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish, but has been the subject of far less evolutionary study than other members of that clade. Uncovering patterns of morphological change within Polypteridae provides an important opportunity to evaluate if the mechanisms underlying morphological evolution are shared among actinoptyerygians, and in fact, perhaps the entire osteichthyan (bony fish and tetrapods tree of life. However, the greatest impediment to elucidating these patterns is the lack of a well-resolved, highly-supported phylogenetic tree of Polypteridae. In fact, the interrelationships of polypterid species have never been subject to molecular phylogenetic analysis. Here, we infer the first molecular phylogeny of bichirs, including all 12 recognized species and multiple subspecies using Bayesian analyses of 16S and cyt-b mtDNA. We use this mitochondrial phylogeny, ancestral state reconstruction, and geometric morphometrics to test whether patterns of morphological evolution, including the evolution of body elongation, pelvic fin reduction, and craniofacial morphology, are shared throughout the osteichthyan tree of life. Results Our molecular phylogeny reveals 1 a basal divergence between Erpetoichthys and Polypterus, 2 polyphyly of P. endlicheri and P. palmas, and thus 3 the current taxonomy of Polypteridae masks its underlying genetic diversity. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that pelvic fins were lost independently in Erpetoichthys, and unambiguously estimate multiple independent derivations of body elongation and shortening. Our mitochondrial phylogeny suggested species that have lower jaw protrusion and up-righted orbit are closely related to each other, indicating a single transformation of craniofacial morphology. Conclusion The mitochondrial phylogeny of polypterid fish provides a strongly

  10. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

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    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  11. Toxicity of Nitrate-N to Freshwater Aquatic Life and Its Water Quality Criteria%硝酸盐对淡水水生生物毒性及水质基准推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铃松; 王业耀; 孟凡生; 周岳溪; 于海斌

    2013-01-01

    为推导保护淡水水生生物的NO3-水质基准,收集了NO3-的水生生物毒性数据,然后分析了不同水生生物类群的毒性敏感性,并分别采用评价因子法、毒性百分数排序法和物种敏感度分布法进行基准值推导.结果表明,不同生物类群的水生生物对NO3-毒性的敏感性存在明显差异,其敏感性排序为节肢动物门>软体动物门>脊索动物门;甲壳纲>昆虫纲>腹足纲>双壳>两栖纲>辐鳍纲.3种基准计算方法得到的基准值存在一定差异,最终推荐采用毒性百分数排序法得出的87.97mg·L-1和5.17 mg·L-1为现阶段NO3-(以N计)的水质急性毒性和慢性毒性基准值.%The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper.Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life.The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata,and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia >Amphibia > Actinopterygii.Moreover,the output of assessment factor method,species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different.Finally,criterias of 87.97 mg·L-1 and 5.17 mg· L-1 to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  12. Review of Studies on the Germplasm Resources of the Schizothoracinae Fishes%裂腹鱼类种质多样性研究综述

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    代应贵; 肖海

    2011-01-01

    裂腹鱼类隶属于鲤形目鲤科裂腹鱼亚科,目前已记录有12属90种(亚种),是鲤科鱼类中为数不多的适应于亚洲中部青藏高原地区自然条件的一个自然类群.整个裂腹鱼类呈现出以青藏高原为中心的分布格局,中国是世界上裂腹鱼类种类分布最多的国家.目前,随着对鱼类种质资源研究越来越受到人们的关注,裂腹鱼类作为产地名贵经济鱼类,其种质资源已成为了研究的热点.主要从形态分类、物种多样性、地理分布、细胞水平、生化水平和分子水平等,对多年来裂腹鱼类种质资源研究方面的进展进行了综述,以期为裂腹鱼类资源的保护和利用提供基础资料.%The schizothoracinae fishes, commonly known as mountain carps, which belong to schizothoracinae, cyprinidae and cypriniforme, comprise 90 species (subspecies) and 12 genera. Almost all species in schizothoracinae are the wild species of big to middle size with highly scientific and economic value. The group of fishes are mainly distributed in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and its adjacent area. Especially, most of the species in schizothoracinae live in China and many are endemic to China. The germplasm resources, also biodiversity, cytology resources, means the gene pool of species. The germplasm resources can be studied by the methods of morphology, cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology. With the development of study on the germplasm resources of fishes, the germplasm resources of the schizothoracinae fishes has become one of research foci today. This paper reviews the progress of study on the germplasm resources of the schizothoracinae fishes, including the researches in the classification, species diversity, geographic distribution, cytology, biochemistry and molecular biology of the group, so as to supply scientific data for the conservation and utilization of the schizothoracinae fishes.

  13. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

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    Haendler Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4, a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish, Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes, the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD and the DNA binding domain (DBD. Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be

  14. Early Pliocene Sturgeons and Bony Fishes from the Dniester Valley (Republic of Moldova / Осетровые и костистые рыбы раннего плиоцена из долины Днестра (Республика Молдова

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    Kovalchuk О. М.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available В статье описаны ископаемые остатки рыб из отложений раннего плиоцена долины Днестра (Республика Молдова. Из место- нахождений Никольское и Уютное идентифицированы семь видов, относящихся к 6 родам, 4 се- мействам и 4 отрядам (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes. Все они являют- ся морфологическими аналогами рецентных таксонов. В статье представлен краткий обзор раз- вития пресноводной ихтиофауны в бассейне Нижнего Днестра на протяжении раннего плиоцена.

  15. 莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性%Fish Diversity in Momoge National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富亿; 吕宪国; 娄彦景; 娄晓楠; 薛滨; 姚书春; 肖海丰; 王波

    2012-01-01

    2008~2010年,在鱼类资源调查的基础上,分析了莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性特征.调查结果显示,莫莫格国家级自然保护区有鱼类物种5目11科42属49种,其中本区土著种5目10科38属45种,包括中国特有种4种,中国易危种5种,冷水种8种,国家Ⅱ级保护动物1种.土著种群落中,有鲤形目(Cypriniformes)鱼类32种,鲤科(Cyprinidae)鱼类29种,鮈亚科(Gobioninae)鱼类13种;古北界北方区黑龙江亚区黑龙江分区的物种为22种;源于东部平原和北方平原生态类群的鱼类有27种;适应于江—湖缓流环境和淡水定居生活的鱼类有33种;草上产卵和水层产卵繁殖的鱼类有37种:杂食性和初级肉食性种类有28种,它们均相对占优势.莫莫格国家级自然保护区与嫩江的鱼类群落物种结构Jaccard系数和Morisita-Hom相似性指数分别为0.918和0.838;稀有种(包括中国易危种)和常见种分别为14种和25种;物种多度格局近似于对数正态分布.这些结果表明,莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性与嫩江密切相关,鱼类区系复杂,物种组成与生态类型多样;群落结构相对较稳定,多样性程度相对较高,但仍面临着稀有种(包括中国易危种)尚占有一定比例而导致群落结构脆弱的潜在威胁.保持嫩江鱼类群落结构的稳定,对维护和发展莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性具有特别重要的意义.%Engaged in sample survey by 57 surveys with gill net, trawl net, trap net and pull net, the samples of 6 542 fish individuals were collected in Momoge National Nature Reserve during 2008-2010. The characteristics of the fish diversity in Momoge National Nature Reserve were analyzed. It was observed that there were 49 species/subspecies of 42 genus, 11 families, and 5 orders. Four species of these were introduced species while the others were indigenous, including 4 species peculiar and 5 vulnerable to China, and 8 of

  16. Photosynthetic activity of cassava plants under weed competition Atividade fotossintética de plantas de mandioca submetidas a competição com plantas daninhas

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    I. Aspiazú

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity of cassava plants under weed competition. The trial was carried out under field conditions, and experimental units consisted of 150 dm³ fiberglass boxes containing red yellow Latosol, previously corrected and fertilized. Treatments consisted in the cultivation of cassava plants which were free of weed competition and associated with three weed species: Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis or Brachiaria plantaginea. After manioc sprouting started, 15 days after being planted, weeds that had been sown when manioc was planted were thinned, there were then eight plants left per experimental unit in accordance with specified treatments: cassava free of competition, cassava competing with B. pilosa, cassava competing with C. benghalensis and cassava competing with B. plantaginea. Sixty days after crop emergence leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci, leaf temperature at the time of evaluation (Tleaf and photosynthetic rate (A were evaluated, also the CO2 consumption rate (ΔC of cassava plants was calculated. A correlation matrix between variables was also obtained. All characteristics associated with photosynthesis in cassava plants were influenced by weed species. Cassava was more affected by B. pilosa and B. plantaginea in which concerns its exposition to solar radiation and water, while C. benghalensis seems to mostly affect the composition of incident light on the culture, allowing cassava to anticipate imposition when competing, even before it reaches harmful levels.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características associadas à atividade fotossintética de plantas de mandioca sob competição ou não com plantas daninhas. O experimento foi realizado em condições de ambiente aberto, sendo as unidades experimentais compostas por vasos de fibra de vidro de 150 dm³ preenchidos com Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, previamente adubado. Os

  17. Water use efficiency of cassava plants under competition conditions Eficiência do uso da água de plantas de mandioca em condições de competição

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    I Aspiazú

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate characteristics associated with the photosynthetic activity of cassava plants in competition with weeds or not. The trial was performed on open environment conditions, with experimental units consisting of fiber glass vases with 150 dm³ filled with Red Yellow Latosol, previously fertilized. Treatments consisted in the cultivation of cassava plants isolated and associated to three weed species (Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis and Brachiaria plantaginea. After cassava shooting, 15 days after planting, a removal of the weeds excess was performed, sown at the time of cassava planting, leaving six plants m-2 of B. pilosa and four plants m-2 of C. benghalensis and B. plantaginea. At 60 days after emergence (DAE, stomatal conductance (Gs, vapor pressure in the substomatal cavity (Ean, temperature gradient between leaf and air (ΔT, transpiration rate (E and water use efficiency (WUE were evaluated. B. pilosa showed greater capacity to affect growth of cassava plants. B. plantaginea is very efficient in using water, especially by presenting C4 metabolism, and remains competitive with cassava even under temporarily low water status. C. benghalensis, in turn, is not a good competitor for light and apparently is not the primary cause of water depletion in the soil. The effects of weeds, in this case, were more associated with the competition. However, they were found between moderate to low. This implies that the competition established at experimental level was low.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características associadas à eficiência de uso da água de plantas de mandioca sob competição ou não com plantas daninhas. O experimento foi realizado em condições de ambiente aberto, sendo as unidades experimentais compostas por vasos de fibra de vidro de 150 dm³preenchidos com Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, previamente adubado. Os tratamentos consistiram no cultivo de plantas de mandioca isoladas e

  18. Ponto de murcha permanente de soja, feijão e plantas daninhas Permanent wilting point of soybean, bean and weeds

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    S.O. Procópio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar o ponto de murcha permanente das culturas da soja e do feijão e de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência nas áreas agrícolas do Brasil. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por seis espécies, sendo duas cultivadas, Glycine max e Phaseolus vulgaris, e quatro de plantas daninhas - Euphorbia heterophylla (plantas suscetíveis e resistentes a herbicidas inibidores de ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum -, com duas épocas de indução de estresse hídrico (pré-florescimento e início do enchimento de grãos. Os solos contidos nos vasos foram mantidos próximos a 80% da capacidade de campo até as épocas predeterminadas para o início do estresse hídrico. A partir desta etapa não foram mais molhadas e, ao primeiro sinal de murcha das espécies, no final do dia, os respectivos vasos foram transferidos para câmara escura, com umidade relativa do ar próxima a 100%, para constatação do não-retorno definitivo da turgidez [ponto de murcha permanente (PMP]. Nesse ponto, foi coletada uma amostra (sem raízes do solo para a determinação do teor de água pelo método gravimétrico. A partir dos valores de umidade determinados nas amostras de solo, para cada tratamento avaliado, caracterizou-se, por meio da curva de retenção de umidade do solo, o potencial da água no PMP. Na fase de enchimento de grãos, o PMP das plantas de B. pilosa ocorreu quando o potencial de retenção de água do solo era mais negativo em relação às outras espécies avaliadas, demonstrando que, neste estádio de desenvolvimento, esta espécie apresenta maior eficiência na extração de água do solo e, conseqüentemente, maior potencial competitivo do que as outras avaliadas.This work aimed to determine the permanent wilting point of soybean, and bean crops and weeds of high occurrence in Brazilian agricultural areas. The treatments consisted of two crops, Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris, and four weed species: Euphorbia

  19. Allelopathic effect of sunflower water extract on the germination of soybean and hairy beggartick / Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de girassol sobre a germinação de soja e picão-preto

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    Raquel Leszczynski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extract from sunflower fresh leaves on the germination and initial development of conventional and transgenic soybean cultivars, and of the invasive hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.. Experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, in 2007. Fresh leaves from sunflower were ground in a blender at the proportion 200g/1L distilled water, resulting in crude extract (100%, in which pH was measured. Dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were done from the crude extract, and only distilled water was used as control. Statistical analysis (Tukey 5% probability indicated that only the highest extract concentrations (60%, 80% and 100% influenced the analyzed parameters for conventional and transgenic soybean. Beggartick seeds, however, had germination percentage completely inhibited when 40% water extract was applied, which indicates that sunflower straw could be used as a natural herbicide. Nevertheless, field studies must be carried out to prove such effect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de girassol sobre a germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas das cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill convencional (CD232, transgênica (CD213RR e uma de suas invasoras, o picão preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná no ano de 2007. As folhas de girassol colhidas na época da floração foram trituradas com o auxílio de um liquidificador na proporção de 200g/1L de água destilada resultando no extrato bruto (100%. A partir do extrato bruto foram feitas as diluições de 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%, sendo utilizado como testemunha apenas água destilada. Após análise estatística (Tukey 5% de probabilidade, pode-se verificar que o extrato aquoso das

  20. Dinâmica do banco de sementes de plantas daninhas sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo Weed seedbank dynamics under different soil management systems

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    E. Voll

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em campo no período de 1982 a 1998, em Londrina-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo nas reduções anuais de um banco de sementes de plantas daninhas e seus períodos de sobrevivência, sendo as plantas daninhas manejadas através de herbicidas, e a seqüência anual de cultivo soja após trigo. Os tratamentos de manejo de solos foram: 1 semeadura direta; 2 arado de discos e grade niveladora; 3 grade aradora e grade niveladora; 4 escarificação e grade niveladora. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A identificação e contagem das sementes presentes no solo foram feitas em 1990, 1995 e 1998. As estimativas de sobrevivência (a 1% da população inicial das gramíneas capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea e capim-colchão (Digitaria horizontalis , nos quatro sistemas de manejo, foram de 5 a 10 anos e 5 a 7 anos, respectivamente; as das espécies de folhas largas, como caruru (Amaranthus spp., de 5 a 9 anos, carrapicho-de-carneiro (Acanthospermum hispidum , de 7 a 9 anos, de 10 a 20 anos, e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa, de 3 a 4 anos, e a comelinácea trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis de 10 a 20 anos. As sementes de espécies de plantas daninhas apresentaram características distintas de sobrevivência, em função do manejo do solo, do controle ao longo dos anos e das características morfológicas e fisiológicas das sementes.A field experiment was conducted from 1982 to 1998, in Londrina-PR, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems on the survival of a weed seedbank, with the weeds managed by herbicides, and the annual sequence of crops consisting of soybean - wheat. The soil management treatments were: 1 no-till; 2 mouldboard; 3 heavy disc, and 4 chisel. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four replications. Seed identification and counting were performed in 1990, 1995

  1. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura da soja nos sistemas de semeadura direta e convencional Periods of weed interference in soybean under tillage and no-tillage systems

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    M. Nepomuceno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa objetivou estudar os efeitos dos períodos de controle e de convivência de uma comunidade infestante sobre as características produtivas da soja nos sistemas de semeadura direta (SSD, com o cultivar CD 201, e convencional (SSC, com a MSOY-6101. No SSD, a comunidade infestante foi composta principalmente por Alternanthera tenella, Cenchrus echinatus e Bidens pilosa, com densidade máxima de 377 plantas m-2, acumulando 365,7 g m-2 de matéria seca, e, no SSC, por A. tenella, Senna obtusifolia e Panicum maximum, com densidade máxima de 161 plantas m-2, acumulando 406,7 g m-2. Tolerando cinco por cento de perda na produtividade da cultura, constatou-se que os períodos críticos de prevenção da interferência foram dos 33 aos 66 DAE para o cultivar CD 201 no SSD e dos 34 aos 76 DAE para o cultivar M-SOY-6101 no SSC. A interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura reduziu, em média, 46% (SSD e 32% (SSC a produtividade de grãos da soja. Não houve efeito das plantas daninhas na estatura das plantas, na altura de inserção da primeira vagem e no número de vagens por planta.This work aimed to determine the interference of weed communities in crop yield characteristics, under no-till and conventional till systems. The soybean cultivars used in these experiments were M-SOY - 6101 and CD 201 for conventional and no-till, respectively. The notill system weed community reached its maximum value of 377 plants m-2 28 days after soybean emergence. Maximum dry matter accumulation was 365.7 g m-2, 118 days after emergence, with the main plants being Alternanthera tenella, Cenchrus echinatus and Bidens pilosa. Under the conventional till system, maximum density was 161 plants m-2, 18 DAE and 406.7 g m² of dry matter accumulation at 118 DAE, with the main plants being A. tenella, Senna obtusifolia and Panicum maximum. Accepting losses of 5% in soybean productivity, the CPPI values were estimated to range from 33

  2. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

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    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  3. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

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    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e fecundidade foram similares entre as plantas, porém o peso de machos e longevidade de fêmeas foram reduzidos em Desmodium tortuosum e R. communis, respectivamente. Com base nos parâmetros de tabela de vida foi estimada melhor performance do predador em Amaranthus hybridus, D. tortuosum e R. communis. Ninfas submetidas à escassez total de presas viveram mais em Ageratum conyzoides, B. pilosa, D. tortuosum e Euphorbia heterophylla; porém não viveram além do terceiro ínstar. A longevidade de fêmeas do predador foi favorecida pela presença de A. conyzoides em relação a Gossypium hirsutum, vivendo em média 15,7 e 29,8 dias, respectivamente. No entanto, a disponibilidade de plantas não foi suficiente para as fêmeas atingirem maturação sexual e produção de ovos, quando submetidas à escassez total de presas.This work evaluated the effect of six weeds and cotton plants on predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae development, reproduction and survival under partial prey scarcity, three days feeding intervals, and total absence of prey. Nymphal developmental periods under partial prey scarceness with three days of feeding intervals were higher on Ricinus communis and lower on Bidens pilosa. Partial prey scarcity did not affect nymphal viability, adult female weight and reproductive characteristics, but male weight and female longevity were reduced in Desmodium tortuosum and R. communis, respectively

  4. Efeitos de doses e épocas de aplicação do bentazon na produção de duas cultivares de cebola (Allium cepa L. Effects of doses and time of application of bentazon on the yield of two onion cultivars

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    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em um solo aluvião eutrófico de classificação textural argilo siltoso, com 2,75% de M.O. foram estudados os efeitos de doses do herbicida bentazon (3 - isopropi l - 2,1,3 - benzotio-diazinona - (4 - 2,2 - dióxido aplicado em pós-emergência. no controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura da cebola. O delineamento experimental adotado foi um fatorial 2 x 5 x 2 + 4. constituído por duas cultivares: 'Baia Pe ri forme' e 'Texas Grano': cinco épocas de aplicação do produto: aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência das plantas daninhas: duas doses de bentazon: 0,46kg. i.a./ha e 0,96 kg. i.a./ha e quatro tratamentos adicionais: 'Baia Periforme' capinada e sem capina e 'Texas Grano'. capinada e sem capina. . As plantas daninhas predominantes no experimento foram: botão -de-ouro (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia prunifoiia Jacq.(, mostarda (Brassica campestris L., joá (Physalis angulata L. fedegoso (Cassia tora L.(, serralha falsa (Emilia sonchifolia (L . DC e mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L. Nas condições em que foi realizado o ensaio, o herbicida bentazon nas duas doses aplicadas mostrou-se eficiente no controle das plantas daninhas até 60 dias após o transplante. Nas doses empregadas o bentazon não apresentou efeito fitotóxico sobre a produção das cultivares 'Baia Periforme' e 'Texas Grano'.The effects of doses of the herbicide bentazon applied at post-emergence in the control of dycotiledonous weeds in onion crops were studied on a alluvial eutrophic soil with a clay silt texture. and 2.75%% of organic matter. The experiment was set according to a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 x 2- 4 (two onion varieties: 'Bala Periforme' and 'Texas Grano': five herbicide application dates: 10. 20. 30, 40 and 50 days after emergence of the weeds: bentazon doses were 0,46g a.i./ha and 0.96 g a.i./ha: and four more tre atments: 'Baia Periforme

  5. Seletividade de inseticidas a Orius insidiosus Selectivity of insecticides to Orius insidiosus

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    Fabrícia Zimermann Vilela Torres

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de produtos fitossanitários seletivos a inimigos naturais é importante para o sucesso de programas de manejo integrado de pragas em agroecossistemas. Objetivou-se investigar efeitos letais e subletais de inseticidas empregados para o controle de pragas da roseira sobre ovos e ninfas de quinto ínstar de Orius insidiosus (Say Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, em condições laboratoriais. Formulações comerciais dos seguintes inseticidas foram diluídas em água destilada (concentração em g i.a./100 ml: endosulfam (0,021, formetanato (0,04, espinosade (0,0144 e deltametrina (0,0008. O tratamento testemunha foi somente com água destilada. Os bioensaios foram mantidos em câmara climática a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ovos do predador colocados em hastes de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. foram imersos nas caldas inseticidas por cinco segundos. As ninfas de quinto ínstar do predador foram tratadas com os inseticidas em torre de Potter. O efeito total dos inseticidas foi estimado e enquadrados em classes toxicológicas de acordo com a IOBC. O inseticida deltametrina foi nocivo a ovos e ninfas de quinto ínstar de O. insidiosus; endosulfam, formetanato e espinosade foram levemente nocivos. Endosulfam e formetanato não afetaram negativamente as características reprodutivas de fêmeas oriundas de ovos tratados. Endosulfam e espinosade reduziram o número de ovos colocados por fêmeas oriundas de ninfas de quinto ínstar que receberam tratamento, e espinosade afetou negativamente a viabilidade desses ovos.The use of selective pesticides to natural enemies is important for the success of integrated pest management programs. The objective of this study was to investigate lethal and sublethal effects of some insecticides, used to control pests in rose crops, on eggs and fifth instar-nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say under laboratory conditions. Commercial formulations of the following insecticides were diluted in

  6. Capacidade competitiva do jatobá com adubos verdes, forrageiras e plantas daninhas Competitive capacity of Hymenaea courbaril with green manure, forage species and weeds

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    A.M.M Gandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do consórcio entre espécies anuais e perenes representa uma ferramenta importante no processo de implantação e manejo florestal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade competitiva do jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril com espécies de adubos verdes, forrageiras e plantas daninhas quanto à alocação de matéria seca, área foliar e concentração de nutrientes. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sendo os tratamentos compostos pela combinação de mudas de jatobá, desenvolvendo-se isoladamente ou em competição com cada uma das seguintes espécies: Brachiaria humidicola, Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis e Mucuna aterrima (experimento 1 e Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Lolium multiflorum e Solanum americanum (experimento 2, mais o cultivo de cada planta daninha e consorte isolada. Após convivência por 60 dias, as plantas foram coletadas para avaliação de matéria seca, área foliar e teor de nutrientes. Observou-se que a competição entre as plantas não promoveu alterações na produção de matéria seca ou área foliar do jatobá. Tendo em vista o exposto, verifica-se que a capacidade competitiva do jatobá não é afetada pela presença das espécies de adubos verdes e forrageiras, possibilitando convivência em fase inicial de desenvolvimento. Quanto à convivência das plantas daninhas com o jatobá, observou-se efeito positivo no acúmulo de nutrientes por estas.The study of intercropping between annual and perennial plants is an important tool in the process of forest implantation and management. The objective of this study was to assess the competitive capacity of jatoba (Hymeneae courbaril against green manure, forage and weed species, regarding the allocation of dry matter, leaf area and nutritional content. Two experiments were installed and the treatments consisted of combinations of jatoba seedlings per plot, alone

  7. Uso do novo sistema Clearfield® na cultura do girassol para o controle de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas Use of the new Clearfield® system in sunflower culture to control dicotyledonous weeds

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    G. Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de plantas daninhas dicotiledóneas tem limitado o aumento da área de cultivo de girassol no Brasil, devido ao seu impacto sobre a produtividade. Isso se deve à escassez de produtos registrados para a cultura com amplo espectro de ação. Em razão disso, desenvolveram-se dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia e seletividade de herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas aplicados em pós-emergência de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas na cultura do girassol Clearfield®. Os experimentos foram instalados no campo, em Iguatemi, distrito de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas testemunhas sem aplicação de herbicida, sendo uma sem capina e outra capinada, sulfentrazone (200,00 g ha-1 aplicado em pré-emergência e imazapic+imazapyr aplicados em pós-emergência nas doses de [36,75+12,25], [52,5+17,5], [12,25+36,75] e [17,5+52,5] g ha-1. Foram feitas avaliações de controle para Euphorbia heterophylla, Conyza bonariensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Bidens pilosa, Ipomoea grandifolia e Portulaca oleracea. Também foram realizadas avaliações de intoxicação do girassol Clearfield®, estande e produtividade em kg ha-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se que o uso do sistema Clearfield® mostrou-se uma ótima opção para áreas com infestação de plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas, pois possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS; os controles obtidos variaram de medianos a excelentes, além de ele não provocar injúrias à cultura e manter o estande inicial e a produtividade.The occurrence of dicotyledonous weeds has limited the increase of the area of sunflower cultivation in Brazil, due to their impact on crop yield. This is a result of a shortage of products registered for the crop with broad-spectrum control. Thus, two experiments were installed to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the imidazolinone herbicides applied on post

  8. Controle químico de plantas daninhas na semeadura direta de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Weed control on direct seeded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

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    L. R. Ferreira

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Em dois ensaios, um conduzido em Viçosa, MG, e outro em Domingos Martins, ES, estudou-se o comportamento dos herbicidas metribuzin, chloramben, napropamide, diphenamid, pebulate e trifluralin, nas doses de 0,36; 2,40; 2,50; 2,00; 3,60 e 0,67 kg/ha, respectivamente, e a combinação de 0,35 kg/ha de metribuzin com cada um dos demais, nas mesmas doses, no controle de plantas daninhas e na tolerância da cultura do tomate semeado diretamente no local definitivo. Num terceiro ensaio, conduzido em Viçosa, fez-se o mesmo estudo, combinando pebulate, nas doses 4,32 e 5,76 kg/ha, com chloramben, napropamide, diphenamid e metribuzin, nas doses de 3,40; 3,00; 5,00 e 0,70 kg/ha, respectivamente, e também os mesmos compostos, isoladamente, nas mesmas doses. Todos os herbicidas avaliados exerceram controle sobre as plantas daninhas; entretanto, a eficiência de cada um foi muito influenciada pela espécie presente. Apenas pebulate apresentou eficiente controle da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L.. Chloramben, napropamide, diphenamid e trifluralin controlaram eficientemente capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch. e capim-colchão (Digitaria Sanguinalis (L. Scop.. Metribuzin apresentou excelente controle de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e botão-de-ouro (Galin-soga parviflora Cav.. As misturas demetribuzin ou de pebulate com os demais herbicidas aumentaram a eficiência de controle e o número de espécies controladas. Nenhum dos herbicidas, nas doses estudadas, causou danos à cultura e os maiores pesos de matéria verde da parte aérea das plantas de tomate foram obtidos nos tratamentos que proporcionaram maior controle de plantas daninhas.Three assays were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of several herbicides on direct seeded tomato. The compounds metribuzin, napropamide, chloramben, diphenamid, pebulate and trifluralin aplied separatly, at the dosage of .35; 3.40; 2.50; 2.00; 3.60 and .67 kg/ha respectively, and combined each one

  9. Efeitos de misturas de napropamide e simazine no controle de mono e dicotiledoneas em cafeeiros novos Effects of napropamide and simazine mixtures on the control of mono and dicotyledon on new coffee trees

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    L.S.P. Cruz

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se conhecer a ação de misturas de napropamide e simazine no controle de plantas daninhas mono e dicotiledôneas em cafee iros com dois anos de idade, foi conduzido um experimento de campo em Araras, SP, em 1979/80. 0 delineamento foi o de blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: napropamide a 2,00 kg e 3,00 kg/ha; simazine a 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha; e, misturas de 2,00 kg/ha de napropamide com 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha de simazine, e de 3,00 kg/ha de napropamide também com 0,50 kg e 0,75 kg/ha de simaz ine . Constou do experimento ainda, uma testemunha sem herbicida. Aos 45 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita uma contagem das plantas daninhas, e a cada 15 dias, até aos 90 dias da aplicação, foram realizadas observações visuais de porcentagem de infestação do mato. Nestas mesmas épocas também foram realizadas observações sobre sintomas de fi totoxicidade causados pelos herbicidas aos cafeeiros. As plantas daninhas presentes em maior número no ensaio foram as monocotiledôneas capim - de-colchão - Digitaria horizontalis Willd e capimpé -de-galinha Eleusine indica (L.1 Gaertn, e as dicotiledôneas carurú-de-mancha - Amaranthus viridis L. e picão-preto - Bidens pilosa L. Como era esperado, as misturas foram superiores aos tratamentos com herbicidas isolados. sendo bastante eficientes no controle das mono e dicotiledõneas que incidiram no experimento. Todos os tratamentos com 0.75 k ' ha de simazine apresentaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade, limitados a algumas folhas dos cafeeiros. até a última observação realizada.A field experiment was conducted in Araras in 1979/80 with the purpose to study the effects of mixture of napropamide and simazine on the control of mono and dicotyledons weeds in two years old coffee trees. The experiment was in randomised blocks with nine treatments and four repplications. The treatments were the following

  10. Comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolado e em mistura com outros herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em cafeeiros novos por dois anos consecutivos Effect of metribuzin, sprayed alone or in mixture with another herbicides, for weed control on young coffee trees, during two years

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    L.S.P. Cruz

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Para se conhecer o comportamento do herbicida metribuzin, aplicado isolaso ou em mistura com outros herbicidas residuais (napropamide, pendimethalin, alchlor, oryzalin e diuron no controle de plantas daninhas que comumente infestam cafeeiros em formação, foi conduzido um experimento de campo onde esse herbicida a 0,28; 0,42; 0,56 e 0,70 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha pendimethalin a 1,00 kg/ha, alachlor a 2,40kg/ha, oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha ou com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha, comparado com duas testemunhas , onde, em uma, o mato foi mantido a níveis não competitivos com a cultura, por meios mecânicos, e outra onde o mato foi deixado desenvolver-se naturalmente, sem nenhuma interferência. Foi incluído também um tratamento com diuron a 1,20 kg/ha. A infestação natural de plantas daninhas da área do experimento era formada pelas gramínas, capim-de-colçhão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop, capim - marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link. Hitch capim-pé-de-galinha (Elcusine indica (L. Gaertn., Capim-favorito (Rhynchelitrum roseum (Nees Stapf eet Hubb, e pelas dicotiledôneas beldroega (Portulaca oleracea L., picão-branco (Galinsoga parviflora Cav., caruru-de-mancha (Amarantus virides L., amendoim bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla L., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., mentruz (Lepidium virginicum L., quebra-pedra (Phyllantus cordovadensis, Muell Arg. e falsa-serralha (Emilia sachifolia DC. Os resultados dos dois anos foram semelhantes para cada tratamento. Metribuzin a 0,28 kg/ha em mistura com napropamide a 4,00 kg/ha, apresentam períodos de ação maior, seguidos da mistura de metribuzin, naquela mesma dose, com oryzalin a 1,50 kg/ha. Não foi contatado a presença de qualquer sintoma de intoxicação nos cafeeiros, em todos os tratamentos, até a última observação, realizada 210 dias após a segunda aplicação dos herbicidas.This paper reports on two years field trials carried out in Araras, SP, Brazil, on coffee tress with twenty

  11. BOTANICAL DIVERSITY AND HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN THE RESIDUE MATRIX AND PLANTS AT THE MORAVIA DUMP IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA DIVERSIDAD BOTÁNICA Y CONTENIDO DE METALES PESADOS EN LA MATRIZ DE RESIDUOS Y LAS PLANTAS EN EL BASURERO DE MORAVIA EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

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    Maria Solange Sanchez Pinzón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available . Floristic characterization, plant tissue and residue matrix (RM analysis were conducted to establish the extent of heavy metal (HM pollution of the Moravia dump at Medellín, Colombia, a site that was inhabited by more than 17000 people since 1984. More than 65 plant species (28 families were identified, most of which were herbaceous. Content of HM in the (RM was determined in 14 different RM samples varied greatly among them, reaching 121 and 9600 mg/kg of Hg and Pb respectively. Mean content of HM (mg/kg in the RM had the following pattern: Pb > Ni > Cr > Hg > Cd. Uptake of HM from the RM to plants was evident in most sampled species, with concentrations of Pb, Cr, and Hg reaching maximum values of 1.0, 123.7, 263.7 mg/kg of Hg, Pb and Cr respectively. However, Lepidium virginicum excluded, estimated bioconcentration factors were not greater than 1.0. Given their adaptation, Bidens pilosa, Urochloa maxima and L. virginicum, appear to be suitable for the revegetation of Moravia. Twenty-four years after its closure, HM content in Moravia continue to be high and the local flora actively takes up HM. Since other studies have shown that in Moravia there is still production of lixiviates and that there is an active heavy metal transference to the local Moravia fauna, it is imperative to implement adequate control measures in order to control HM contamination at this site.Con el fin de establecer el nivel de contaminación por metales pesados (MP, se llevó a cabo una caracterización florística y análisis de la matriz de residuos (MR y muestras de tejidos vegetales en el morro de basuras de Moravia en Medellín, un antiguo botadero de basuras habitado desde 1984 por más de 17.000 personas. Se identificaron más de 65 especies vegetales, la mayoría de ellas herbáceas, agrupadas en 28 familias. El contenido de MP en 14 diferentes muestras de MR varió considerablemente, yendo de 121 y 9.600 mg/kg de Hg y Pb, respectivamente. El contenido

  12. Avaliação de substratos de oviposição para Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae Evaluation of oviposition substrates for Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae

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    Lívia M. Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação de substratos de oviposição para Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae. Fêmeas do predador O. insidiosus usam tecidos de plantas para colocação de seus ovos, o que caracteriza a oviposição endofítica. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar diferentes substratos de oviposição para este predador. O estudo foi conduzido em sala climatizada a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os substratos de oviposição utilizados foram brotos de feijão (Phaselus vulgaris L., brotos de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], brotos de batata (Solanum tuberosum L., vagem de feijão (Phaselus vulgaris L. e inflorescências de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Foram avaliados os números médio diário e total de ovos por um período de 15 dias, o número de adultos vivos em cada recipiente e a viabilidade na produção dos adultos. Todos os substratos testados foram aceitos pelas fêmeas. Entretanto, foi observado um número significativamente maior de ovos de O. insidiosus em brotos de feijão (4,3 ovos por dia e brotos de soja (3,9 ovos por dia, comparado aos demais substratos avaliados. As menores (pFemales of O. insidiosus deposit their eggs in the plant tissue. This study aimed to evaluate oviposition substrates for this predator. The study was conducted in an air-conditioned room at 25 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and a 12 h photophase. The oviposition substrates used consisted of bean sprouts (Phaseolus vulgaris L., soybean sprouts [Glycine max (L. Merr.], potato sprouts (Solanum tuberosum L., bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris L., and farmer's friend inflorescences (Bidens pilosa L.. Evaluations included the daily mean and total numbers of eggs per female during a 15-day period, the number of live adults in each container, and adult production viability. All substrates tested were accepted by the females. However, a significantly higher number of O. insidiosus eggs was found on bean sprouts (4.3 eggs per day and soybean sprouts (3

  13. Interferência de picão-preto e guanxuma com a soja: efeitos da densidade de plantas e época relativa de emergência Interference of hair beggarticks and arrowleaf sida with soybeans: effects of plant density and relative emergence time

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    Nilson Gilberto Fleck

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as influências de densidades de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia L. e de épocas de sua emergência em relação à da soja, no grau de interferência que ocasionam à cultura. Foram realizados experimentos em duas condições em Porto Alegre - RS, em 1998/99 e 1999/00. Os fatores testados foram espécies e densidade de plantas daninhas e épocas de emergência. A convivência das plantas daninhas com a soja deu-se durante a fase vegetativa da cultura. Em experimentos em vasos, avaliaram-se cinco épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas (11, 7, 2 dias antes e 4 e 8 dias após a emergência da soja. Em microparcelas, avaliaram-se três épocas de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja (4 dias antes, no mesmo dia e 4 dias após e seis densidades de plantas daninhas (0, 4, 8, 16, 32 e 64 plantas m-2. Verificou-se que a época de emergência das plantas daninhas em relação à soja modifica as relações de competição entre essas espécies e que picão-preto exerce maior efeito de competição à soja e é menos afetado pela presença da cultura do que guanxuma. O atraso na emergência da soja em relação às plantas daninhas aumenta os efeitos negativos dessas sobre a cultura, os quais são potencializados pelo incremento da densidade, principalmente no caso de picão-preto.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. and arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia L. densities and relative emergence time, on the degree of interference they may cause on soybeans. There were studies carried out under two conditions in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, in 1998/99 and 1999/00. The factors tested were weed species, emergence times, and weed densities. Weed-soybean associations occurred during the vegetative period of the crop. In pot assays, five weed emergence times were evaluated (11, 7, and 2 days before, and 4 and 8 days after

  14. Mistura em tanque de boro e herbicidas em semeadura convencional de girassol Tank-mix of boron and herbicides on conventional sunflower sowing

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    C. Castro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste experimento foi avaliar a resposta do girassol às aplicações de boro (B, isoladas ou em mistura com herbicidas, e o controle de plantas daninhas por meio de experimento conduzido na Embrapa Soja, Londrina-PR. Os tratamentos foram acetochlor (1,92 kg i.a. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0,36 kg i.a. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0,35 kg i.a.ha-1, trifluralin (1,80 kg i.a. ha-1 e as testemunhas capinada e sem capina. Todos os tratamentos foram aplicados, isoladamente ou em mistura, com 2 kg ha-1 de B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - bórax e H3BO3 - ácido bórico. O tratamento mais eficiente foi acetochlor mais ácido bórico; essa combinação resultou em solução mais homogênea da calda de pulverização, quando comparada com os herbicidas mais bórax. O herbicida acetochlor aplicado isoladamente ou em mistura com as duas fontes de B foi eficiente no controle da trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis, do picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e da corda-de-viola (Ipomoea grandifolia. Os herbicidas oxyfluorfen e sulfentrazone, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas com as duas fontes de B, foram eficientes no controle do amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla e da corda-de-viola, respectivamente. É viável a aplicação de boro juntamente com os herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa em mistura em tanque, evitando a deficiência desse micronutriente e controlando as plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol.The objectives of this study were to determine the response of sunflower to application of boron (B fertilizer and herbicides, alone or in combination, and to determine its weed control. A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. The treatments were acetochlor (1.92 kg a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen (0.36 kg a.i. ha-1, sulfentrazone (0.35 kg a.i. ha-1, trifluralin (1.80 kg a.i. ha-1 and two controls (with and without hoeing. All treatments were applied alone or in combination with 2 kg ha-1 of B (Na2B4O7.10H2 0 - borax and H3BO3 - boric acid

  15. Características fisiológicas das culturas de soja e feijão e de três espécies de plantas daninhas Physiological caracteristics of soybean and common bean crops and three weed species

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    S.O. Procópio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os características fisiológicas taxa de fotossíntese líquida (A, taxa de transpiração (E, condutância estomática (gs e eficiência do uso da água (WUE e os índices de crescimento biomassa seca total (Wt e índice de área foliar (L para as culturas de soja (Glycine max e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e para as das plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum e dois biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (um suscetível e outro resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, em duas épocas de avaliação: 39 e 67 dias após a semeadura (DAS. O experimento foi conduzido a campo em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, fase terraço, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas, sendo o fator da parcela principal as espécies vegetais e o da subparcela as épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Foi observado maior Wt da soja em relação às plantas daninhas. As culturas de soja e feijão apresentaram maior L do que as plantas daninhas. Os biótipos de E. heterophylla apresentaram a maior A, bem como a maior gs. Com exceção de D. tortuosum, as plantas daninhas apresentaram maior WUE em relação às culturas nos estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento. Não foram observadas diferenças em relação a qualquer parâmetro fisiológico avaliado entre os biótipos de E. heterophylla.This work aimed to evaluate the physiological caracteristics net photosynthesis (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs and water use efficiency (WUE and growth indexes of total dry matter (Wt and leaf area index (L for soybean (Glycine max, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and weeds Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum and two biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (one susceptible and other resistant to ALS inhibitor herbicides during two periods of evaluation, 39 and 67 days after sowing (DAS. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a Red

  16. Eficiência do herbicida oxyfluorfen, quando veiculado ao papel, no controle de algumas espécies daninhas Effect of the herbicide oxyfluorfen using paper as a vehicle on the weed control

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    Alexandre J. Bezutte

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de encontrar um método alternativo de aplicação de herbicidas, estudou-se a eficiência do oxyfluorfen aplicado em três doses (0, 480 e 960g/ha sob duas formas (pulverizado e veiculado em folha de papel no controle em pré-emergência de Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum, Eleusine indica, Sida rhombifolia Amaranthus retroflexus, Acanthospermum hispidum e Digitaria horizontalis. A pulverização do oxyfluorfen foi realizada com o auxílio de um pulverizador, e sua veiculação foi feita através da determinação prévia da capacidade de embebição do papel. Obteve-se a concentração necessária da calda quando o papel atingiu completa embebição e então, escorrido o excesso, foi posto a secar na sombra. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Foram realizadas avaliações aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após a aplicação (DAA, e os resultados indicaram que os métodos de aplicação utilizados, assim como as doses, apresentaram excelente controle de B. pilosa, D. tortuosum, E. indica S. rhombifolia, D. horizontalis e A. retroflexus até 60 DAA, reduzindo tanto a densidade como o acúmulo de matéria seca. Quanto ao A. hispidum, ambos os métodos e doses não proporcionaram bom controle. Foi observado também que o papel utilizado como veículo do oxyfluorfen proporcionou redução na densidade de B. pilosa, E. indica, D. horizontalis e A. retroflexus e promoveu a germinação de S. rhombifolia e A. hispidum quando da avaliação aos DAA. Estes resultados demonstram a viabilidade de utilização de papel como veículo de aplicação do oxyfluorfen.A greenhouse assay was conducted to evaluate na alternative method for applying oxyfluorfen to control annual weeds. The experiment was in 3 x 2 factorial, in a completely randomized design, with three replications. The factors were: three doses of oxyfluorfen (0, 480 and 960g/ha and two methods to apply the herbicide to the soil surface

  17. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

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    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  18. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do alho (Allium sativum L. através da combinação de herbicidas residuais com glyphosate

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    M.H.T. Mascarenhas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Em solo aluvião eutrófico de textura argilosa com 3,14% de matéria orgânica foram estudados os efeitos de herbicidas aplicadas em pré -emergência, quatro dias após o plantio, combinados com glyphosate aplicado em pós-emergência, 10 dias antes do preparo do solo. As plantas daninhas predominantes foram: Cyperus rotundus L.; Ageratum conysoides L.; Bidens pilosa L.; Cynodon dactylon (Li Pers., Emilia sagitata D.C. e Sonchus oleraceus L. Os herbicidas e as doses utilizadas foram: prometryne 2,00 e 0,96 kg do ingrediente ativo (i.a./ha; diuron 2,00 e 0,80 kg i.a./ha; nitralin 1,00 kg i.a./ha, fluorodifen 3,00 kg i.a./ha; linuron 2,00 kg i.a./ha; chloroxuron 4,00 kg i.a./ha; glyphosate 2,00 kg i.a./ha e bifenox 1,68 kg i.a./ha e as combinações destes herbicidas, nas mesmas doses, com o glyphosate (2,00 kg i.a./ha, mais uma testemunha capinada e outra sem capina. Prometryne, diuron, fluorodifen, chloroxuron, linuron e bifenox combinados com o glyphosate, nas doses empregadas foram eficientes no controle das plantas daninhas, não sendo fitotóxicos ao alho.The effects of pre-emergence herbicides applied four days after planting date, associated with glyphosate, which was applied post-emergence 10 days before plowing, were studied on a clay eutrophic alluvial soil with 3,14% organic matter. The predomina nt weeds were: Cyperus rotundus L.; Ageratum conysoides L.; Bidens pilosa L.; Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., Emilia sagitata D.C. and Sonchus oleraceus L. The following herbicides and doses were used: prometryne 2,00 and 0,96 kg active ingredient (a.i./ha; diuron 2,00 and 0,80 kg a.i./ha; nitralin 1.00 kg a.i./ha; fluorodifen 3,00 kg a.i./ha; linuron 2,00 kg a.i./ha; chloroxuron 4,00 kg a.i./ha; glyphosate 2.00 kg a.i./ha; bifenox 1,68 kg a.i./ha, and all combinations between these herbicides with the same dose of glyphosate (2,00 kg a.i./ha. Two more treatments were added: an uncultivated and a manualy cultivated one. Prometryne, diuron

  19. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

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    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas, Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (frutos, Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos, Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas, Piper nigrum L. (folhas, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (folhas, Sapindus saponaria L. (folhas, S. saponaria (frutos, Solanum cernuum Vell. (folhas, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (casca, Symphytum officinale L. (folhas, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (folhas, T. catigua (ramos, Trichilia pallida Sw. (folhas e T. pallida (ramos, em relação à preferência para oviposição de Plutella xylostella. Discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cultivar Georgia foram imersos em cada extrato à concentração de 10% (massa/volume por um minuto. Em seguida, foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e duas partes foram colocadas alternadamente com outras duas partes tratadas com água destilada, em uma gaiola. A contagem dos ovos foi feita após 24 horas. Os extratos apresentaram efeito deterrente na oviposição da praga, com exceção do extrato de S. adstringens, que não diferiu da testemunha, tratada apenas com água destilada. Os extratos de E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (frutos e T. pallida (folhas foram os mais eficientes, apresentando 100% de deterrência.The effect of aqueous extracts from Achillea millefolium L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves, Bidens pilosa L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (leaves, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (leaves, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (fruits, Mentha crispa L. (leaves e branches, Nicotiana tabacum L. (leaves, Piper nigrum

  20. Clinical and biochemical effects of a combination botanical product (ClearGuard™ for allergy: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

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    Lin Yumei

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botanical products are frequently used for treatment of nasal allergy. Three of these substances, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Malpighia glabra, and Bidens pilosa, have been shown to have a number of anti-allergic properties in-vitro. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of these combined ingredients upon the nasal response to allergen challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Methods Twenty subjects were randomized to receive the combination botanical product, (CBP 2 tablets three times a day, loratadine, 10 mg once a day in the morning, or placebo, using a randomized, double-blinded crossover design. Following 2 days of each treatment and during the third day of treatment, subjects underwent a nasal allergen challenge (NAC, in which nasal symptoms were assessed after each challenge dose and every 2 hours for 8 hours. Nasal lavage fluid was assessed for tryptase, prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene E4 concentrations and inflammatory cells. Results Loratadine significantly reduced the total nasal symptom score during the NAC compared with placebo (P = 0.04 while the CBP did not. During the 8 hour period following NAC, loratadine and the CBP both reduced NSS compared with placebo (P = 0.034 and P = 0.029, respectively. Analysis of nasal lavage fluid demonstrated that the CBP prevented the increase in prostaglandin D2 release following NAC, while neither loratadine nor placebo had this effect. None of the treatments significantly affected tryptase or leukotriene E4 release or inflammatory cell infiltration. Conclusion The CBP significantly reduced NSS during the 8 hours following NAC and marginally inhibited the release of prostaglandin D2 into nasal lavage fluid, suggesting potential clinical utility in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  1. Densities of Eggs and Nymphs and Percent Parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Common Weeds in West Central Florida

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    Hugh A. Smith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The density of eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B and the percent parasitism of the nymphs were measured from specimens collected on nine species of weeds, commonly found in west central Florida during the spring and summer of 2012 and 2013. The weeds were direct seeded in 2012 and grown as transplants in 2013 for Randomized Complete Block design experiments. The leaf area of each whole-plant sample was measured and the B. tabaci density parameters were converted to numbers per 100 cm2. In June and July, 2013, whole-plant samples became too large to examine entirely, thus a representative portion of a plant totaling about 1000 cm2 was sampled. Egg and nymph densities and percent parasitism varied greatly among weed species, and were higher overall in 2012 than in 2013. The highest densities of eggs and nymphs were measured on Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia and Emilia fosbergii each year. Lower densities of immature B. tabaci were measured on most dates for Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens alba, Ipomoea lacunosa, Sesbania exaltata and Sida acuta. Nymph to egg ratios of 1:4 were observed on A. theophrasti and S. exaltata in 2012, while less than one nymph per ten eggs was observed overall on A. retroflexus, E. fosbergii and I. lacunosa. In 2012, parasitism rates of 32.3% were measured for B. alba, 23.4% for C. obtusifolia and 17.5% for S. acuta. Of the 206 parasitoids reared out over two seasons, 96.6% were Encarsia spp. and the remainder Eretmocerus spp. The role of weeds in managing B. tabaci is discussed.

  2. Densities of Eggs and Nymphs and Percent Parasitism of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Common Weeds in West Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Nagle, Curtis A; Evans, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The density of eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and the percent parasitism of the nymphs were measured from specimens collected on nine species of weeds, commonly found in west central Florida during the spring and summer of 2012 and 2013. The weeds were direct seeded in 2012 and grown as transplants in 2013 for Randomized Complete Block design experiments. The leaf area of each whole-plant sample was measured and the B. tabaci density parameters were converted to numbers per 100 cm². In June and July, 2013, whole-plant samples became too large to examine entirely, thus a representative portion of a plant totaling about 1000 cm² was sampled. Egg and nymph densities and percent parasitism varied greatly among weed species, and were higher overall in 2012 than in 2013. The highest densities of eggs and nymphs were measured on Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia and Emilia fosbergii each year. Lower densities of immature B. tabaci were measured on most dates for Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens alba, Ipomoea lacunosa, Sesbania exaltata and Sida acuta. Nymph to egg ratios of 1:4 were observed on A. theophrasti and S. exaltata in 2012, while less than one nymph per ten eggs was observed overall on A. retroflexus, E. fosbergii and I. lacunosa. In 2012, parasitism rates of 32.3% were measured for B. alba, 23.4% for C. obtusifolia and 17.5% for S. acuta. Of the 206 parasitoids reared out over two seasons, 96.6% were Encarsia spp. and the remainder Eretmocerus spp. The role of weeds in managing B. tabaci is discussed. PMID:26462945

  3. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier Barona Carmen Elena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  4. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  5. Comportamento de espécies herbáceas em misturas de solo com diferentes graus de contaminação com metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Marco Aurélio Carbone

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, o comportamento de espécies herbáceas em relação ao excesso de Cd e Zn no solo. O gradiente de contaminação foi estabelecido a partir de mistura de solo contaminado com solo sem contaminação em diferentes proporções. As sementes foram semeadas em tubetes contendo 250 mL de solo, e após 90 dias as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas. A maioria das espécies apresentou redução no crescimento com aumento da contaminação do solo e elevadas concentrações de Cd e Zn na matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, na mistura com 15% de solo contaminado. A espécie Pffafia sp. mostrou-se tolerante à contaminação, crescendo em misturas de solo contendo até 90 mg kg-1 de Cd e 1.450 mg kg-1 de zinco. Além disso, apresentou concentração superior a 100 mg kg-1 de Cd na MSPA, sendo considerada hiperacumuladora desse metal. Sida glaziovii, Bidens pilosa, Rhynchelytrum repens, Cenchrus echinatus e Nicandra physaloides, por sua vez, foram severamente afetadas pela contaminação, ao contrário de Trifolium repens, Euchlaena mexicana, Cynodon dactylon, Avena strigosa, Cenchrus ciliares e Cyperus sp. que apresentaram crescimento satisfatório. As espécies avaliadas mostram-se promissoras para estudos adicionais sobre a reabilitação de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados.

  6. Biomass production and heavy metal absorption by four plants grown at the Moravia dump, Medellin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumps are sites where the presence of high heavy metal (HM) concentration is a common occurrence, creating the need for implementing restoration processes immediately after their closure. In the 7.6 ha and 45 m high Morro de Moravia dump, arose from the disposal of Medellin solid wastes from 1974 to 1984, previous studies have demonstrated high contents of contaminants, including HM, prompting the need to identify effective mechanisms to implement its restoration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptation, growth and phytoremediation capacity of Bidens pilosa, Lepidium virginicum, Brachiaria decumbens and Arachis pintoi. Content of HM (mg/kg) in Moravia residue matrix went from 17 to 8193 for Pb, 44 to 564 for Cr, 0.2 to 339 for Cd and 77 to 1679 for Ni. Measurements of plant cover, plant height and dry matter production at all plant species studied suggested adequate growth and adaptation to the Moravia dump conditions. Plant absorption of HM showed the pattern Cr > Cd > Ni > Pb. Estimated bioconcentration factors were generally low, and maximum values were 0.36 in A. pintoi (Cr), 2.96 in B. pilosa (Cd) and 0.26 in B. decumbens (Ni). However, our estimations of the phytoremediation potential of the assayed species, suggested they possess low remediation efficiency. Further investigation should be carried out in order to identify more efficient HM accumulators, and to test the use of technologies such as modification of pH, rhizoremediation or the use of genetically enhanced accumulators to increase HM availability to plants

  7. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ángela Rodríguez S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas, que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, utilizando la técnica de inmersión de garrapatas adultas. A las 24 h de exposición, se realizó la lectura de mortalidad, donde se tomó como mínimo eficaz una mortalidad del 60%. Las pruebas iniciales se realizaron con extractos puros y cuando éstos mostraban eficacia se procedía a realizar diluciones crecientes, hasta encontrar la concentración mínima eficaz. Estas pruebas fueron realizadas en clima frio y cálido. Resultados. El extracto de N. tabacum, mostró efectividad en garrapata pequeña, hasta las diluciones 0.5:10 y 1:10 en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente y con 2.5:10 y 5:10 sobre garrapata mediana en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente; B. arbórea, mostró eficacia sobre garrapata pequeña hasta la dilución 7.5:10 en ambos climas; S. nigra y B. pilosa solo fueron eficaces en clima cálido sobre garrapatas pequeñas empleando extracto puro. A. cumanenses no fue eficaz en ninguna de las pruebas. Conclusiones. N. tabacum, mostró mayor eficacia y se observó que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las mayores concentraciones.

  8. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm2.day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  9. A history of abuse and operative delivery--results from a European multi-country cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Schei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS, or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49, and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24. Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3. Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years, nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05-2.19. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS.

  10. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds; Desenvolvimento foliar das culturas da soja e do feijao e de plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Santos, Jose Barbosa do; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: procopio@alunos.ufv.br; jbarbosa2000@yahoo.com.br; aasilva@mail.ufv.br; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mail: l.costa@mail.ufv.br

    2003-03-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm{sup 2}.day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  11. Rod monochromacy and the coevolution of cetacean retinal opsins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Meredith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans have a long history of commitment to a fully aquatic lifestyle that extends back to the Eocene. Extant species have evolved a spectacular array of adaptations in conjunction with their deployment into a diverse array of aquatic habitats. Sensory systems are among those that have experienced radical transformations in the evolutionary history of this clade. In the case of vision, previous studies have demonstrated important changes in the genes encoding rod opsin (RH1, short-wavelength sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1, and long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS in selected cetaceans, but have not examined the full complement of opsin genes across the complete range of cetacean families. Here, we report protein-coding sequences for RH1 and both color opsin genes (SWS1, LWS from representatives of all extant cetacean families. We examine competing hypotheses pertaining to the timing of blue shifts in RH1 relative to SWS1 inactivation in the early history of Cetacea, and we test the hypothesis that some cetaceans are rod monochomats. Molecular evolutionary analyses contradict the "coastal" hypothesis, wherein SWS1 was pseudogenized in the common ancestor of Cetacea, and instead suggest that RH1 was blue-shifted in the common ancestor of Cetacea before SWS1 was independently knocked out in baleen whales (Mysticeti and in toothed whales (Odontoceti. Further, molecular evidence implies that LWS was inactivated convergently on at least five occasions in Cetacea: (1 Balaenidae (bowhead and right whales, (2 Balaenopteroidea (rorquals plus gray whale, (3 Mesoplodon bidens (Sowerby's beaked whale, (4 Physeter macrocephalus (giant sperm whale, and (5 Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale. All of these cetaceans are known to dive to depths of at least 100 m where the underwater light field is dim and dominated by blue light. The knockout of both SWS1 and LWS in multiple cetacean lineages renders these taxa rod monochromats, a condition previously unknown among

  12. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by N-deoxynojirimycin analogs in several insect phloem sap feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'kobovitz, Marina Katzman; Butters, Terry D; Cohen, Ephraim

    2016-02-01

    Secondary metabolites and synthetic iminosugars that structurally resemble monosaccharides are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity. The enzyme is core in cleaving sucrose in phloem feeding insects and it also plays a crucial role of reducing osmotic stress via the formation of oligosaccharides. Inhibition of hydrolysis by iminosugars should result in nutritional deficiencies and/or disruption of normal osmoregulation. Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and 2 N-alkylated analogs [N-butyl DNJ (NB-DNJ) and N-nonyl DNJ (NN-DNJ)] were the major iminosugars used throughout the study. The extensive experiments conducted with α-glucosidase of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci indicated the competitive nature of inhibition and that the hydrophilic DNJ is a potent inhibitor in comparison to the more hydrophobic NB-DNJ and NN-DNJ compounds. The same inhibitory pattern was observed with the psyllid Cacopsylla bidens α-glucosidase. In contrast to the above pattern, enzymes of the aphids, Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were more sensitive to the hydrophobic iminosugars as compared to DNJ. In vivo experiments in which adult B. tabaci were fed dietary iminosugars, show that the hydrophilic DNJ was far less toxic than the lipophilic NB-DNJ and NN-DNJ. It is proposed that this pattern is attributed to the better accessibility of the hydrophobic NN-DNJ to the α-glucosidase membrane-bound compartment in the midgut. Based on the inhibitory effects of certain polyhydroxy N-alkylated iminosugars, α-glucosidase of phloem feeding hemipterans could serve as an attractive target site for developing novel pest control agents. PMID:25900765

  13. Current state of knowledge of the concentration of mercury and other heavy metals in fresh water fish in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water), therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents) in eight species of fresh waters fish: carassius auratus, oreochromis spp., piractus brachypomus, prochilodus magdalenae, astyanax fasciatus, colossoma bidens, gambusia affinis and grundulus bogotensis

  14. СООБЩЕСТВА СОЮЗА BIDENTI FRONDOSAE-SALICION TRIANDRAE GOLUB 2004 НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ ДОЛИНЫ НИЖНЕЙ ВОЛГИ

    OpenAIRE

    Голуб, В.; Кузьмина, Е.

    2010-01-01

    Сообщества союза Bidenti frondosae-Salicion triandrae Golub 2004 это кустарниковые сообщества с доминированием Salix triandra и Amorpha fruticosa по берегам водотоков и озер в долине нижней Волги. Диагностическими видами союза являются: Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Bidens frondosa, Xanthium strumarium, Thalictrum flavum. Характерным является также отсутствие или незначительной представленностью ряда видов, характерных для сообществ с доминированием Salix triandra на более северных территориях, кот...

  15. Métodos de quantificação da cobertura foliar da infestação de plantas daninhas e da cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzardi Mauro Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de modelos matemáticos para previsão de perdas de rendimento de grãos causadas pela infestação das plantas daninhas, que usam a medida da área foliar, depende da rapidez e precisão da estimativa dessa variável. Neste sentido, a cobertura foliar, definida como a proporção de área do solo ocupada pela projeção vertical da parte aérea de uma espécie, pode ser uma alternativa viável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência de métodos de avaliação da estimativa da cobertura foliar relativa na quantificação das perdas de rendimento de grãos de soja causadas por Bidens spp. (picão-preto ou Sida rhombifolia L. (granxuma. Foram conduzidos experimentos em campo, utilizando-se diferentes épocas de semeadura da cultura da soja em relação à dessecação da cobertura vegetal da área, e densidades variáveis de picão-preto ou guanxuma. Avaliaram-se as coberturas foliares das plantas daninhas e da cultura aos 20 dias após a emergência da soja. Constatou-se que métodos fotográficos de avaliação da cobertura foliar, integrados a auxílios computacionais, são alternativas promissoras na quantificação dessa variável, embora a avaliação visual seja mais prática e rápida de ser determinada.

  16. 木薯、野花生的他感作用%Allelopathy of Manihot utilissima and Arachis pintoi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朝华; 骆焱平; 许敏; 颜桂军

    2006-01-01

    用木薯(Manihot utilissima Crantz.)茎叶的汁液及根系土壤分别处理南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)、玉米(Zea mays L)、豇豆(Vigna sinensis)、花生(Arachis hypogaea)、热研2号柱花草(Stylosanthes guiaensis cv.Reyan No.2)、热研8号坚尼草(Panicum maximum cv.Reyan No.8);用野花生(Arachis pintoi)茎叶汁液及根系土壤分别处理胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides L)、小飞蓬[Comnyza canadensis(L.)Cronq.]、粘人草(Bidens pilosa L.),测定其对种子萌发和生长的影响.结果表明:木薯茎叶的汁液对南瓜、玉米、豇豆、花生、热研2号柱花草、热研8号坚尼草的种子萌发和生长均有影响;木薯根系土壤对南瓜、玉米、豇豆、花生的种子萌发影响均不明显,对南瓜、玉米、豇豆、花生的露白种子生长均有影响.野花生茎叶的汁液对胜红蓟的种子萌发有影响,对胜红蓟、小飞蓬和粘人草的生长均有影响;野花生根系土壤对胜红蓟和小飞蓬的种子萌发影响均不明显,对胜红蓟、小飞蓬和粘人草的生长均有影响.

  17. Emergência de plantas daninhas em lavouras de feijão e de trigo após o cultivo de espécies de cobertura de solo Weed emergence in commom bean and wheat crops after cultivation of coverage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.B.P. Braz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a emergência das espécies de plantas daninhas Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa em áreas de produção de feijão e de trigo, após o cultivo de plantas de cobertura. O trabalho foi conduzido em área sob sistema de plantio direto na palha, manejado por cinco anos consecutivos, na Fazenda Capivara, da Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, localizada no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. O solo do local é classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de sete plantas de cobertura de solo: braquiarão (Brachiaria brizantha - cv. Marandu; braquiarão em consórcio com o milho (Zea mays - híbrido HT BRS 3150; guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan; milheto (Pennisetum glaucum - cv. BN-2; mombaça (Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça; sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor - cv. BR 304; e estilosantes (Stylosanthes guianensis - cv. Mineirão e por duas culturas cultivadas em sucessão nas áreas: feijão cv. Pérola e trigo - Embrapa 42. Todas as plantas de cobertura foram cortadas no mesmo dia, utilizando-se um triturador de palhada, e deixadas na superfície do solo. As semeaduras do feijão e do trigo foram realizadas sessenta dias após o corte das culturas de cobertura. Foram realizadas duas contagens do número de plantas emergidas de E. heterophylla e de B. pilosa, separadas em três estágios de crescimento (plantas com menos de duas folhas, de duas a quatro folhas e com mais de quatro folhas. Entre as plantas de cobertura testadas, braquiarão e mombaça se mostraram as mais promissoras em reduzir a emergência de plantas daninhas em cultivos subseqüentes, apresentando resultados significativos na diminuição do número de plantas de E. heterophylla estabelecidas nas áreas cultivadas com feijão ou com trigo. Não se constataram diferenças quanto à capacidade das culturas de feijão e de trigo em reduzir a população de E. heterophylla e B. pilosa.This study

  18. Uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in dominant plants growing in an arsenic-contami%砷矿区植物对重金属的吸收和富集特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易锋; 王宏镔; 高建培; 潘义宏; 焦鹏

    2011-01-01

    通过野外调查研究了云南楚雄雨露砷矿区采矿、冶炼废弃地生长的16种优势植物的生长状态及其对应根区土壤的基本理化性质.结果表明,该矿区植物长势良好,未出现受害症状.土壤磷氮含量充足,As含量远远超过《土壤环境质量标准》3级标准中的旱地As含量标准值,高达133倍.16种植物的地上部重金属含量As最高,并且在总As平均质量比高达5 318 mg/kg的土壤环境条件下,蜈蚣草(Pteris vittata L.)体内As质量比可达2 327 mg/kg,小酸模(Rumex acetosella L.)、辣子草(Galinsoga parviflora Cav.)、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)等7种植物对Cd,以及牛口刺(Cirsium shansiense Petrak.)对Zn的富集系数和转移系数均大于1.0,其中地石榴对Cd的富集系数高达7.99.上述植物对重金属污染均表现出了较强的耐性,具有进一步的研究潜力.%Phytoremediation technology has been widely advocated to treat polluted soil because it is cost-effective and environmental-friendly. Exploring suitable hyperaccumulators or tolerant plants is the key step for phytoremediating metal-contaminated environment. Up to now, about 500 plants have been identified as metal hyperaccumulators all over the world. However, there are difficulties in extension of this technique due to its disadvantage such as a low biomass production. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the ideal hyperaccumulators in the field. In present study, the growth status and concentrations of heavy metals(Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As) in 16 dominant plants growing in Yulu arsenic mining area, Chuxiong city, Yunnan Province were evaluaed by a field survey. Concentrations of these five metals and physico-chemical properties of soils were also determined. Results indicated that the investigated soils were abundant in total potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively accounted for 0.21 %, 0.34% and 0.49% of soil dry weight. The average content of organic

  19. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade da mandioca (Manihot esculenta Weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta yield

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    J.A.A. Albuquerque

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O manejo inadequado das plantas daninhas é uma das principais causas da baixa produtividade da cultura da mandioca no Brasil. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar as espécies de plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura da mandioca e o grau de interferência que estas exercem sobre o cultivo, em função do período de convivência com a cultura. Dois experimentos foram realizados em áreas adjacentes, no município de Viçosa-MG, utilizando-se o cultivar Cacauzinha, do grupo das mandiocas mansas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos do primeiro experimento foram compostos por períodos iniciais de convivência da cultura com as plantas daninhas: 25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 dias após o plantio (DAP; no segundo experimento, as plantas de mandioca, inicialmente, permaneceram livres das plantas daninhas pelos mesmos períodos. Em ambos os experimentos adotou-se o espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,5 m, sendo a área útil da parcela constituída pelas duas linhas centrais, deixando-se 1,0 m em cada extremidade como bordaduras frontais, totalizando 8,0 m². As plantas daninhas foram avaliadas aos 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325 e 350 DAP. As características produtividade de raízes, peso da parte aérea, índice de colheita, teor de amido e matéria seca das raízes foram avaliadas aos 12 meses após o plantio. As espécies de plantas daninhas que predominaram na área experimental foram: Bidens pilosa, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cyperus rotundus e Commelina benghalensis, com a primeira delas predominando em quase todas as épocas de coletas. Os períodos de convivência com as plantas daninhas não interferiram nos índices de colheita, teor de amido e matéria seca das raízes. Todavia, considerando a produtividade de raízes, o final do período anterior à interferência foi próximo dos 25 dias, e o período crítico de prevenção da interfer

  20. Associações de peixes na região costeira de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ

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    Cassiano Monteiro-Neto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A região costeira de Itaipu, Rio de Janeiro é guarnecida por três ilhas, formando uma enseada semi-abrigada porém com ampla comunicação com o mar. Esta enseada recebe o aporte de águas do complexo lagunar Itaipu-Piratininga, além da influência de massas d'água oceânicas, constituindo uma área de intensa atividade pesqueira artesanal. Utilizando-se dados provenientes do monitoramento mensal da pesca artesanal (arrastos-de-praia, redes de emalhe e linha de mão, de arrastos experimentais em zona de arrebentação, censos visuais sub-aquáticos (ilhas da Menina, Mãe e Pai e um experimento multiamostral na lagoa de Itaipu, elaborou-se uma lista de espécies de peixes que ocorrem na região, observando-se as suas conectividades e afinidades aos diversos habitats locais, incluindo a enseada, os recifes rochosos, a zona de arrebentação e a lagoa de Itaipu. Foram identificadas 183 espécies, sendo 26 Elasmobranchii, agrupados em 13 famílias e 157 espécies de Actinopterygii (63 famílias. A pesca de arrasto-de-praia capturou o maior número de espécies (112, seguida das redes de emalhe (94 e da linha de mão (35. Os arrastos na zona de arrebentação (picaré, capturaram apenas 49 espécies (oito exclusivas, principalmente juvenis e sem importância comercial. Os censos visuais identificaram um total de 41 espécies, sendo 21 exclusivas e de caráter críptico. No interior da lagoa de Itaipu foram registradas 46 espécies, 18 exclusivas de caráter ocasional. A análise de agrupamento, incluindo 106 espécies de ocorrência não exclusiva, resultou na formação de oito grupos. Os grupos A e B foram constituídos por espécies associadas exclusivamente às atividades de pesca na enseada, incluindo algumas espécies de interesse comercial. O grupo C reuniu as espécies comuns às pescarias cujos juvenis ocorrem na zona de arrebentação. O grupo D classificou espécies de ocorrência comum à pesca e às ilhas. O grupo E foi representado

  1. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoa ultrastructure in five species of the Curimatidae with some considerations on spermatozoal ultrastructure in the Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Quagio-Grassiotto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Spermiogenesis in the curimatid species, Steindachnerina insculpta, Cyphocharax gillii, C. modestus, C. spilotus, and Potamorhina altamazonica, is characterized by lateral development of the flagellum, nuclear rotation, eccentric nuclear fossa formation, and chromatin compacted into thick fibers. These spermatozoa exhibit a spherical head containing a nucleus with the chromatin highly condensed into thick fibers with small electron-lucent areas, and no acrosome. The nuclear fossa is of the moderate type and eccentric and penetrated by the centriolar complex. The midpiece is small, has many elongate vesicles, and a short cytoplasmic channel. Mitochondria may be elongate, branched or C-shaped, and are separated from the initial segment of the axoneme by the cytoplasmic channel. The flagellum contains the classical axoneme structure (9+2 and has a membranous compartment in the initial region; it does not have lateral fins. Only small differences were observed among the analyzed species and genera of the Curimatidae. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoa in the Curimatidae have many of the characteristics found in almost all other characiform species. On the other hand, the presence of a membranous compartment in the initial region of curimatid flagella, a structure common in many Cypriniformes spermatozoa, is unknown in other characiforms. Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoa of the Characiformes are discussed.A espermiogênese nas espécies Steindachnerina insculpta, Cyphocharax gillii, C. modestus, C. spilotus e Potamorhina altamazonica de Curimatidae é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento lateral do flagelo, rotação do núcleo, formação excêntrica da fossa nuclear e cromatina compactada em fibras espessas. Estes espermatozóides exibem uma cabeça esférica contendo um núcleo com cromatina altamente condensada em fibras espessas com pequenas áreas eletronlúcidas, e sem acrossoma. A fossa nuclear é do tipo moderado e excêntrico, penetrada pelo

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factor 1 in Elopichthys bambusa%鳡胰岛素样生长因子1基因的克隆及其组织特异性表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁建锋; 李建林; 徐建荣; 卢祥云; 柏洁; 顾志良

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to clone full-length IGFl cDNA sequence and to determine its expression in various tissues from Elopichthys bambusa. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were used to amplify full-length of IGF1 cDNA. Semi-quantatative RT-PCR was used to compare IGF1 gene expression levels from various tissues. A full-length of IGF1 cDNA sequence in E. bambusa was obtained, which included a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 486 bp, a 5 -untranslated region of 218 bp, and a 3 -untranslated region of 140 bp. The putative peplide contained a signal sequence of 44 amino acid, a mature peptide of 70 amino acid in the functional domain- and an extended carboxyl-terminal peptide of 47 amino acid in domain E. IGFl from E. bambusa showed an amino acid identity of 94. 41%-99. 38% with that from Cy print formes. The phylogenetic analyses showed that IGF1 from E. bambusa had closest relationship with other fishes in Cypriniformes. Furthermore, IGF1 mRNA levels were highest in liver but relatively low or absent in heart. A part of IGF1 promoter sequence was cloned by using Genome Walking, which included a Myogenic Differentiation Antigen (Myo D). But there was not a consensus TATA box about 5' to the start site of transcription in IGF1. These results indicated the IGF1 promoter differed to the classic promoter. These findings provide clue for IGF1 involvement in the growth and development of E. bambusa and are potential basis for its effective breeding and propagation.%为克隆鳡(Elopichys bambusa)的胰岛素样生长因子1(IGF1)全长cDNA和启动子序列及明确其组织表达特征,采用反转录PCR (RT -PCR)、cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)和染色体步移等技术,从鳡肌肉中获得了IGF1基因的全长cDNA(844 bp)和上游启动子部分序列(627 bp).结果表明:IGF1基因包含218 bp的5 '端非翻译区、140 bp的3 '端非翻译区和486 bp的开放性阅读框(ORF),编码161

  3. 太湖鱼类群落结构及多样性%Community structure and diversity of fish in Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛志刚; 谷孝鸿; 曾庆飞; 周露洪; 王小林; 吴林坤; 曹萍; 孙明波

    2011-01-01

    In 2009-2010, bottom trawl surveys were conducted on the fish resources in Lake Taihu, aimed to understand the characteristics of fish community structure and diversity in the Lake. A total of 50 fish species were collected, belonging to 40 genera, 15 families, and 10 orders, among which, Cypriniformes had the largest species number, accounting for 68% of the total. The fish community was composed of three ecological guilds, and limnology species were most abundant (78% of the total abundance). The dominant species were of mini-type fish such as Coilia ectenes taihuensis, Hyporhamphus intermedius, and Salangichthys jordani. As compared with historical data, the fish species number in the Lake decreased, the composition of dominant species changed greater, and the mini-type fishes with body mass <30 g were absolutely dominant , with an obvious tendency of fish resources becoming smaller-scale. Due to overfishing and water pollution, the Margalef richness index D, Shannon diversity indices H'N and H'N, and Pielou evenness indices J'N and J'w in the Lake all decreased, being 1.54, 0.21, 0.46, 0.07, and 0. 14, respectively. To some extent, the differences in the fish species composition and biodiversity reflected the adaption characteristics of the fishes to the environmental variables such as nutrients and transparency in the Lake.%为了解太湖鱼类群落结构和多样性的分布特征,于2009-2010年利用拖网等网具对该水域的鱼类资源进行了调查.结果表明:本次调查共采获鱼类50种,隶属10目15科40属,其中鲤形目种类最多,占总数的68%;鱼类生态类型以湖泊定居性种类为主,群落优势种为湖鲚(Coilia ectenes taihuensis)、间下鱵(Hyporhamphus intermedius)和陈氏短吻银鱼(Salangichthys jordani)等小型鱼类;与历史资料相比,太湖鱼类的物种数量下降,优势种组成发生较大变化,鱼类群落中体质量<30 g的小型鱼类占绝对优势,渔业资源小型化趋势明显.由

  4. 长江口九段沙湿地潮沟鱼类组成及其多样性%Fish species composition and diversity in intertidal creek of Jiuduansha wetland in the Yangtze River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚小玲; 张晓懿; 朱敏; 任胜杰; 孙瑛

    2011-01-01

    长江口九段沙湿地潮沟鱼类组成有着典型的长江口鱼类区系特征,为了解该湿地尤其是湿地潮沟鱼类的组成和多样性,在2009至2010年间对九段沙湿地的上沙、中沙和下沙潮沟进行了5次调查,共捕获鱼类3 637尾,105 158.9 g,42种,分别隶属于11目、22科。其中种类和个体数均以鲈形目居多,有20种,3 433尾,其次是鲤形目7种,49尾和鲱形目5种,33尾;海水、河口、淡水、洄游4种生态类型的种类所占百分比分别为26.19%、40.48%、23.81%、9.52%,而河口性鱼类的个体数和总湿重占绝对优势%The fish composition of intertidal creek of Jiuduansha wetland in the Yangtze River estuary has the typical ichthyofauna trait of Yangtze River estuary.To comprehend the fish species composition and diversity of this wetland especially the intertidal creek,we surveyed the creek of Shangsha,Zhongsha and Xiasha five times from 2009 to 2010.A total of 3 637 tails with 105 158.9 g and 42 species were captured,these species belonging to 11 orders and 22 families.The fishes number and species number of Perciformes are the highest,with 20 species,3 433 tails,next,Cypriniformes and Clupeiformes with 7 species,49 tails and 5 species,33 tails respectively.The percentage of marine species is 26.19%,estuarine species is 40.48%,freshwater species is 23.81% and diadromous species is 9.52%.The number of fishes(94.4%) and wet weight(96.3%) of estuarine species both were absolutely dominant.The catch in Shangsha,Zhongsha and Xiasha were 21 species with 742 tails 51 025.2 g,30 species with 1 007 tails 29 427.5 g and 20 species with 1 888 species 24 696.2 g respectively.Most of them were estuarine species.According to the relative density(RD) and relative significance index(IRI),it shows that Acanthogobius ommaturus,Liza haermatochiel and Eleutheronema tetradactylu were dominant species,especially the Acanthogobius ommaturus has the absolute advantage.As for diversity

  5. STUDY ON AGE, GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND THE STATUS OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OFCULTER OXYCEPHALOIDES (KREYENBERG ET PAPPENHEIM) IN THE XIAO RIVER%小江拟尖头鲌的年龄、生长、繁殖及其资源开发状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段鹏翔; 杨志; 唐会元; 肖琼; 龚云; 肖调义; 刘小燕

    2015-01-01

    拟尖头鲌(Culter oxycephaloides)属鲤形目(Cypriniformes),鲤科(Cyprinidae),鲌亚科(Cultrinae),鲌属(Culter),为中国特有鱼类,分布于长江流域的四川、湖北、湖南等省的江河湖泊中。2013年4—7月以及10—12月在三峡库区支流小江江段收集拟尖头鲌样本1741尾,对其年龄、生长、繁殖及其资源开发状况进行了研究。结果表明:鲌所采集的拟尖头包括5个年龄组,其中2—3龄年龄组为优势年龄组,占78.59%(N=425尾);体长与体重呈幂函数关系,表达式为W =0.000007L3.10(R2=0.99,N=789尾),其生长属于匀速生长类型;采用von Bertalanffy生长方程分别拟合体长、体重与年龄的关系,其表达式分别为:Lt=519.63[1–e–0.22(t+0.12)],Wt=1806.08[1–e–0.22(t+0.12)]3.10;生长拐点年龄t=5.02龄,此时对应的体长348 mm,体重558.8 g;绝对繁殖力变动范围为20382—88430粒/尾,相对繁殖力变动范围为54—161粒/g,体重与绝对繁殖力的关系以二次方程曲线拟合度最优,其表达式为 Fabs=33462.08+0.11W–44.01W2(R2=0.49, sig.=0.02<0.05,N=31);Ⅳ卵巢卵径变动范围为0.0675—0.1325 cm,平均值为0.1060 cm;鲌拟尖头产卵类型为分批产卵类型;小江拟尖头鲌的现有开发率为E=0.51/年; Beverton-Holt动态综合模型显示,目前小江拟尖头鲌的Emax为0.40/年, E10为0.32/年, E50为0.25/年。根据研究,目前小江拟尖头鲌的种群处于过度开发状况,应采取措施,加强其资源保护。%Culter oxycephaloides (Kreyenberg et Pappenheim), which belongs to genusCulter, subfamilyCultrinae, familyCyprinidae, order Cypriniformes. They are a unique species in China and mainly live in the rivers and lakes of the Yangtze River Basin. Due to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the ecosystem of the upper Yangtze River basin especially the tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir has been profoundly changed. The Xiao River is an important tributary of the Three

  6. Caracterización de la artropofauna terrestre del humedal Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia

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    Amat García Germán

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En el humedal Jaboque, se estudió la diversidad y la estructura trófica de la artropofauna asociada a las comunidades de vegetación Juncus effusus, Juncus effusus-Polygonum punctatum, Schoenoplectus californicus y Typha latifolia. La composición y riqueza asociada a la comunidad Bidens laevis y la composición de los insectos antófilos relacionados a algunas plantas. Se identificaron en total 212 morfoespecies, distribuidas en 48 familias y siete órdenes. A lo largo del estudio se colectaron 8.944 individuos que presentan una biomasa seca de 9757,8 mg. El órden Diptera y sus familias
    Ephydridae, Chironomidae y Muscidae son taxas, con predominio a nivel de riqueza, abundancia y biomasa. Entre las comunidades de vegetación consideradas se aprecia una artropofauna variable en composición, diversidad de morfoespecies y diversidad trófica. Se encontraron seis tipos
    de patrones de distribución, con familias especialistas en cuanto a la selección de hábitats y con valores de abundancia relativa global bajos (0–1% hasta familias generalistas en cuanto a selección de hábitats (4–5 comunidades de vegetación y con valores de abundancia relativa altos
    (>5%. Se encontró un total de 16 morfoespecies de insectos presentando contenido polínico. Estas morfoespecies pertenecen a las familias Muscidae, Syrphidae, Dolichopodidae, Tephritidae, Tipulidae, Sciaridae, Heleomyzidae, Sciomyzidae y Chrysomelidae. Los dípteros y sus familias Muscidae y Syrphidae registraron las mayores riquezas de morfoespecies, abundancias, número de familias vegetales visitadas, además de demostrar una alta capacidad de movilidad. Las compuestas con estrategia de polinización entomófila y las gramíneas con estrategia anemófila presentaron las mayores riquezas de insectos visitantes florales.

  7. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  8. 土施超富集植物秸秆对荠菜生长及镉积累的影响%Effects of Applying Hyperaccumulator Straw in Soil on Growth and Cadmium Accumulation of Capsella Bursa-pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡容平; 石军; 黄廷友; 林立金

    2015-01-01

    [目的]研究超富集植物秸秆对富集植物重金属积累的化感作用,为镉污染土壤的植物修复研究提供参考.[方法]通过在镉污染土壤中施用镉超富集植物[(红果黄鹌菜Youngia erythrocarpa)、三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)、少花龙葵(Solanum americanum)和豨莶(Siegesbeckia orientalis)]秸秆,研究了4种镉超富集植物秸秆施入土壤对镉富集植物荠菜生长及镉积累的影响.[结果]4种镉超富集植物秸秆施入土壤均提高了荠菜地上部分生物量、总生物量和抗性系数,同时提高了荠菜叶片SPAD值(绿色度).土施红果黄鹌菜秸秆提高了荠菜根系、茎、叶片及地上部分的镉含量,分别比各自对照高11.81%,102.07%,12.00%和54.95%,同时也提高了土样有效态镉含量,其余3种处理均低于各自对照.土施红果黄鹌菜秸秆的荠菜地上部分和整株的镉积累量均高于对照,分别为42.11和54.74 μg/株,比各自对照高83.09%和54.11%,而其余3种处理的镉积累量均低于对照.[结论]土施红果黄鹌菜能够提高荠菜对土壤镉的积累,有利于提高荠菜对镉污染土壤的修复效果.

  9. New alkali-metal bidentate borate–malate NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 and CsB(DL-C4H4O5)2⋅H2O: Effect of cations on the framework structures and macroscopic centricities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Two novel semiorganic borates NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 and CsB(DL-C4H4O5)2·H2O display different framework geometries attributable to the size of the alkali-metal cations. NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 exhibits SHG intensity as high as two times that of KDP. Highlights: • New borate–malate crystals NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 and CsB(DL-C4H4O5)2⋅H2O have been grown. • They display diverse framework geometries attributable to the size of the cations. • NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric monoclinic space group P2. • Both crystals have absorption edges about 220 nm in the UV region. • NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 exhibits a NLO efficiency of 2 times that of KDP (KH2PO4) standard. -- Abstract: Two new alkali-metal bidenate borate–malate NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 and CsB(DL-C4H4O5)2⋅H2O have been grown by the facile slow evaporation method through the introduction of acetone as solvent. The crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The stoichiometrically equivalent materials crystallize in three-dimensional framework structures and have the same structural unit [B(C4H4O5)2]−. However, both crystals exhibit very diverse framework geometries attributable to the size of the alkali-metal cations, which also leads to the different space groups and macroscopic centricities as proven by SHG test. The noncentrosymmetric NaB(DL-C4H4O5)2 was found to exhibit phase-matchable NLO intensity as high as two times that of KDP standard and a short-wavelength absorption onset at 220 nm. Moreover, both crystals have also been characterized by Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis

  10. Weed Species in Pennisetum alopecuroides Meadow in Huaxi District,Guiyang%贵阳市花溪地区狼尾草地的杂草种类调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 张菊; 王威力; 王平; 袁莉; 徐刚; 黄剑

    2015-01-01

    Weed species in P .alopecuroides meadow were investigated by using the inverted W-pattern with 9 sampling method to understand weed occurrence status in P .alopecuroides meadow in Huaxi District,Guiyang.The results showed that there are 33 species of weeds belonged to 13 families,and 14 Asteraceae weeds, 5 Gramineae weeds, 3 Amaranthaceae weeds and 2 Labiatae weeds account for 42.42%,15.15%、9.09% and 6.06% respectively.Dominant weeds with relative abundance > 5% are Sonchus brachyotus ,Galinsoga parviflora , Digitaria sanguinalis , Siegesbeckia orientalis , Bidens pilosa ,Artemisia argyi ,Lamium amplexicaule ,Cyperus rotundus ,Setaira viridis ,Ixeris debilis , Chenopodium album ,Pinellia ternate ,Ixeris chinensis ,Capsicum frutescens ,Reigeron annuus ,Oxalis corniculata ,Capsella bursa-pastoris ,Cirsium segetum ,Var .indica,Amaranthus viridis and Fallopia multiflora .S.brachyotus,G.parviflora,D.sanguinalis and S.orientalis,are dominant populations in local P .alopecuroides meadow.%为了解贵阳市花溪地区狼尾草地的杂草发生情况,为其杂草防除提供依据,采用倒“W”9点取样法对其进行调查。结果表明:狼尾草地的杂草共有13科33种。其中,菊科最多,有14种,占42.42%;禾本科、苋科、唇形花科分别有5种、3种 和 2 种,各占15.15%、9.09%和6.06%;其余科各1种,各占3.03%。相对多度>5%的优势杂草有苣荬菜、辣子草、马唐、豨莶、鬼针草、艾草、宝盖草、莎草、狗尾巴草、剪刀股、藜、半夏、山苦荬、辣椒、一年蓬、酢浆草、荠菜、小蓟、马兰、野苋和何首乌。其中,苣荬菜、辣子草、马唐和豨莶为当地狼尾草地的优势种群。

  11. PERÍODO CRÍTICO DE COMPETENCIA DE LAS ARVENSES CON EL CULTIVO DE MAIZ ( Z ea mays L. EN HUAMBO, ANGOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dácia J. C. J. Vaz Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo dirigida a la determinación del periodo crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el maíz ( Zea mays L.. Se sembraron dos experimentos sobre un suelo Ferralítico con una variedad de ciclo largo, en un agroecosistema severamente afectado por el uso desmedido de herbicidas. Se estableció un diseño de bloques al azar, con dieciocho tratamientos y cuatro replicas para dos circunstancias “con arvenses hasta” y “sin arvenses hasta” a los 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 días después de la germinación y un testigo, con y sin arvenses todo el ciclo, para cada circunstancia respectivamente y en un experimento posterior, con sólo tres tratamientos (con y sin arvenses durante todo el ciclo y sin arvenses solo en el período crítico encontrado. Entre las especies dominantes se encontraron: Cyperus rotundus L., Bidens pilosa L., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. y Chloris polydatyla (L. Swartz. Los resultados mostraron que el período crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el maíz se ubica entre 21 y 49 días posterior a la germinación, momento imperativo para realizar labores de manejo de arvenses. Antes y después de este período, no beneficia al cultivo y se incrementan los costos de producción. La relación entre la altura y el número de hoja de la planta con el rendimiento y el número de días con y sin arvenses, fue positiva para R 2 superior a 0,95 para ambas variables vs rendimiento y similar respuesta respecto a los días “con y sin arvenses”, con mejor ajuste para la primera.

  12. Captação e aproveitamento da radiação solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por plantas daninhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos José Barbosa dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver técnicas para a criação de um programa de manejo integrado de plantas daninhas (MIPD, avaliou-se neste trabalho, em condições de campo, o desempenho das culturas do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] e das plantas daninhas picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., dois biótipos de leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (sensível e resistente a herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS, e carrapicho-beiço-de-boi [Desmodium tortuosum (SW. DC.], quanto à eficiência na captação e ao aproveitamento da radiação solar, por meio do cálculo dos índices taxa de produção de biomassa seca total (Ct, taxa de produção de biomassa seca foliar (Cf, uso eficiente da radiação (î, taxa de assimilação líquida (E A, área foliar específica (S A, índice de área foliar (L, razão de massa foliar (F W e razão de área foliar (F A. O experimento foi desenvolvido em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em Viçosa, MG. Não se observou diferença para todas as características avaliadas entre os biótipos de E. heterophylla. A soja apresentou a maior taxa de produção de biomassa seca total ao longo do seu ciclo e também o maior índice de área foliar evidenciando sua maior capacidade em captar luz e em sombrear plantas competidoras. O feijão, sobretudo após o florescimento, foi a planta mais eficaz em drenar seus fotoassimilados para a formação de folhas. A soja apresentou maior eficiência em converter a radiação interceptada em biomassa.

  13. Seed dispersal into wetlands: Techniques and results for a restored tidal freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, K.P.; Baldwin, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Although seed dispersal is assumed to be a major factor determining plant community development in restored wetlands, little research exists on density and species richness of seed available through dispersal in these systems. We measured composition and seed dispersal rates at a restored tidal freshwater marsh in Washington, DC, USA by collecting seed dispersing through water and wind. Seed dispersal by water was measured using two methods of seed collection: (1) stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat along an elevation gradient bracketing the tidal range and (2) a floating surface trawl net attached to a boat. To estimate wind dispersal rates, we collected seed from stationary traps composed of coconut fiber mat positioned above marsh vegetation. We also collected a small number of samples of debris deposited along high tide lines (drift lines) and feces of Canada Goose to explore their seed content. We used the seedling emergence method to determine seed density in all samples, which involved placing the fiber mats or sample material on top of potting soil in a greenhouse misting room and enumerating emerging seedlings. Seedlings from a total of 125 plant species emerged during this study (including 82 in river trawls, 89 in stationary water traps, 21 in drift lines, 39 in wind traps, and 10 in goose feces). The most abundant taxa included Bidens frondosa, Boehmeria cylindrica, Cyperus spp., Eclipta prostrata, and Ludwigia palustris. Total seedling density was significantly greater for the stationary water traps (212 + 30.6 seeds/m2/month) than the equal-sized stationary wind traps (18 + 6.0 seeds/m(2)/month). Lower-bound estimates of total species richness based on the non-parametric Chao 2 asymptotic estimators were greater for seeds in water (106 + 1.4 for stationary water traps and 104 + 5.5 for trawl samples) than for wind (54 + 6.4). Our results indicate that water is the primary source of seeds dispersing to the site and that a species-rich pool

  14. BANCO DE SEMENTES DE PLANTAS DANINHAS EM SOLO CULTIVADO COM ADUBOS VERDES WEED SEED BANK IN GREEN-MANURE-CULTIVATED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO JOSÉ SEVERINO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a composição de banco de sementes de plantas daninhas em solo cultivado com adubos verdes, desenvolveu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba (SP, entre dezembro de 1999 e fevereiro de 2000. As parcelas experimentais, compostas de 1 kg de solo amostrado por um trado de 4,3 cm de diâmetro, a partir da experimentação em campo, foram instaladas em bandejas de 30 x 20 x 5 cm. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições constando dos fatores: a adubos verdes - amendoim-forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu-anão [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.] e testemunha sem capina; b plantas daninhas - capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq., picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., além da vegetação espontânea. Avaliou-se o número de plantas daninhas emergidas aos 30 e 60 dias após a instalação do experimento. Os resultados permitem concluir que o banco de sementes de plantas daninhas foi significativamente reduzido com a utilização dos adubos verdes, constituindo em prática agrícola relevante para o manejo integrado de plantas daninhas.In order to evaluate the composition of a weed seed bank in a soil cultivated with green manure, an experiment was carried out from December, 1999, to February, 2000, in a greenhouse of the Plant Production Department, ESALQ/University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental units were made of 30 x 20 x 5 cm trays, filled with 1.0 kg of soil. The soil was collected by a 4.3 cm core sampler from the experimental field where the green manure and weeds were grown. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with four replicates, green manure (Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, Crotalaria juncea L. and Cajanus cajan L

  15. 人工群落中苗期紫茎泽兰的化感作用和对光环境的适应%Allelopathy and light acclimation characteristic for Ageratina adenophora seedlings grown in man-made communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊峰; 冯玉龙

    2006-01-01

    在有、无活性炭的条件下分别构建紫茎泽兰(Ageratina adenophora)与4种受体植物--飞机草(Chromolaena odorata)、鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)、胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides)和兰花菊三七(Gynura sp.)混种的人工群落,研究了群落中紫茎泽兰的化感作用和对群落光环境的适应,探讨了化感作用和光适应特性与其入侵性的关系.结果表明,活性炭处理对4种受体植物的生长、生理特性影响不显著,说明苗期紫茎泽兰化感作用不明显,推测入侵初期化感作用不是紫茎泽兰排挤本地种的主要原因.4种受体植物可以通过化感作用对紫茎泽兰产生某些影响,但群落的光环境对其影响更大.紫茎泽兰能很好地适应群落中不同的光环境.苗期紫茎泽兰处于群落下层,叶片受光指数低,此时它能长期忍耐并缓慢生长;随着叶片受光指数的升高,其最大净光合速率、超氧化物歧化酶活性、叶绿素a/b比、总生物量、总叶面积、地茎、叶片数和分支数升高,比叶面积和比茎长降低,这有利于它维持叶片能量平衡并导致对邻近植物的严重遮荫.紫茎泽兰强的光适应能力、强光下对其它物种的遮荫效应与其入侵性密切相关.

  16. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    . near tunus, and Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Nesbitt). Eighty-two ground cover plants or vines were sampled within the five orchards and one or more phytoseiids were collected from 71 of these plants. Five ground cover plants with the highest numbers of phytoseiids included: Bidens alba (L.) DC (1,420 mites within 13 species), Solanum americanum L. (1,355 mites within 8 species), Amaranthus spinosus L. (1,137 mites within 11 species), Gnaphalium pensylvanicum Willd. (844 mites within 8 species) and Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez (354 mites within 8 species). PMID:21499778

  17. Erigeron bonariensis: hospedeira alternativa do Lettuce mosaic virus no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alexandre L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Erigeron (Asteraceae, de plantas da vegetação espontânea, encontra-se amplamente disseminado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, sendo freqüentemente encontrado em lavouras perenes e anuais. Plantas de E. bonariensis com sintoma de mosaico, típico do induzido por vírus, foram coletadas no município de São Paulo e submetidas a análises ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, testes biológicos, sorológicos e moleculares. Em cortes ultrafinos do tecido foliar original, observaram-se inclusões tubulares e cata-ventos dispersos no citoplasma. Através de inoculação mecânica, somente Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana e N. clevelandii foram infetadas. Os resultados obtidos em ELISA foram negativos quando se utilizaram antissoros contra o Turnip mosaic vírus (TuMV e diferentes estirpes do Potato virus Y (PVY, constatando-se relacionamento sorológico com o Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Com a utilização de oligonucleotídeos específicos para LMV amplificaram-se fragmentos esperados de aproximadamente 280 pb, que seqüênciados confirmaram a identidade do vírus. A ocorrência do LMV em E. bonariensis, gênero da mesma família botânica da alface (Lactuca sativa, é de grande importância, pois talvez possa atuar como reservatório para infecção de campos de produção de alface. Este é o primeiro relato, no Brasil, de vírus infetando Erigeron sp., o qual só havia sido reportado como hospedeira natural do Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV e do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV nos Estados Unidos.

  18. Controle de dez espécies daninhas em cana-de-açúcar com o herbicida mesotrione em mistura com ametryn e metribuzin Control of ten weed species in sugarcane using mesotrione mixed with ametryn and metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem muitas opções de herbicidas para aplicações em pré-emergência em cana-de-açúcar, mas o grande desafio atual para a cultura é o controle pós-emergente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do herbicida mesotrione em mistura com ametryn e metribuzin no controle em pós-emergência de 10 espécies daninhas semeadas em cana-de-açúcar, variedade RB 86-7515. As espécies daninhas selecionadas para o experimento foram: Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Panicum maximum, Amaranthus deflexus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea nil e Sida glaziovii, semeadas nas entrelinhas após a emergência da cultura. Os herbicidas foram aplicados aos 45 dias após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar, com as plantas daninhas monocotiledôneas na fase de terceiro perfilho e as dicotiledôneas com três a quatro pares de folhas, e constaram dos seguintes tratamentos: mesotrione (120 g ha-1; ametryn (2.000 g ha-1; metribuzin (1.920 g ha-1; mesotrione + ametryn (120 g + 2.000 g ha-1; mesotrione + metribuzin (120 g + 1920 g ha-1 e testemunhas no mato e no limpo. Concluiu-se que os herbicidas isolados ou em mistura foram seletivos à cana-de-açúcar. Com relação à eficácia, observou-se que o herbicida mesotrione foi eficiente no controle de A. deflexus; ametryn, no controle de A. deflexus, B. pilosa e I. nil; metribuzin, no controle de A. deflexus, B. pilosa e S. glaziovii; mesotrione + ametryn, no controle de B. decumbens, B. plantaginea, D. horizontalis, P. maximum, A. deflexus, B. pilosa, I. nil e S. glaziovii; e mesotrione + metribuzin, no controle de B. plantaginea, D. horizontalis, P. maximum, A. deflexus, B. pilosa e S. glaziovii. Foi constatado elevado efeito sinergístico do mesotrione com os herbicidas testados, sendo o efeito mais pronunciado na mistura com o ametryn.There are many herbicide application options for sugarcane pre-emergence but, currently, post

  19. 20种非寄主植物挥发物对褐飞虱拒避与引诱行为的影响%Effects of volatiles in twenty non-host plants on the repellented and attractive behaviors of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 霍治国; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    【目的】为开发和设计褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens拒避剂与引诱剂提供科学依据.【方法】利用Y型嗅觉仪测定褐飞虱对20种非寄主植物释放的挥发物及对α-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、崁烯、芳樟醇的拒避与引诱行为.【结果和结论】枸树Broussonetia papyrifera、塞楝Khaya senegalensis、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、蟛蜞菊Wedelia chinensis、鬼针草Bidens pilosa、马樱丹Lantana camara、桉树Eucalyptus exsetrta、毛麻楝Chukrasia tabularis的叶片和小茴香Foeniculum vulgare的种子挥发物对褐飞虱雌成虫具有显著的拒避作用,其中蟛蜞菊、塞楝和桉树叶片挥发物的拒避作用比较明显,拒避率分别为87.5%、83.3%和72.0%;洋葱Allium cepa(鳞茎)挥发物对褐飞虱具有极显著的引诱作用,引诱率为73.1%;其他植物叶片挥发物对褐飞虱的拒避与引诱行为没有显著的影响.9种植物共有的3种挥发成分在测试浓度下,α-蒎烯对褐飞虱雌成虫有显著的引诱作用,崁烯对其有显著的拒避作用,α-水芹烯则对其拒避与引诱行为没有显著影响.水稻挥发物芳樟醇因含量不同,褐飞虱雌成虫的选择行为有差异,芳樟醇用量为1μL时对褐飞虱具有显著引诱作用,10μL以上时表现为拒避作用,15μL以上均具有极显著的拒避作用.%[Objective]To provide scientific evidence for the development and design of repellents and at-tractants of brown planthopper ,Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( BPH).[Method] The repellented and attrac-tivebehaviors response of female adults BPH to volatiles of twenty non-host plants and α-phellandrene ,α-pinene ,camphene and linalool were tested by a Y-tube olfactometer .[Result and conclusion] The vola-tiles of Broussonetia papyrifera,Khaya senegalensis,Ageratum conyzoides,Wedelia chinensis,Bidens pilosa, Lantana camara, Eucalyptus exsetrta, Chukrasia tabularis, and the nuts of Foeniculum vulgare revealed

  20. Weed control in young coffee plantations through post emergence herbicide application onto total area Controle de plantas daninhas em cafezais recém-implantados, com herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência em área total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ronchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the efficiency of several herbicides under field conditions, by post-emergence application onto the entire area, their effect on the control of weeds in young coffee plantations and commercial coffee and bean intercropping system, as well as on both crops. Seedlings of Coffea arabica cv. Red Catuaí with four to six leaf pairs were transplanted to the field and treated according to conventional agronomic practices. A bean and coffee intercropping system was established by sowing three lines of beans in the coffee inter-rows. At the time the herbicides were sprayed, the coffee plants had six to ten leaf pairs; the bean plants, three leaflets; and the weeds were at an early development stage. Fluazifop-p-butyl and clethodim were selective for coffee plants and controlled only Brachiaria plantaginea and Digitaria horizontalis efficiently. Broad-leaved weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Coronopus didymus, Emilia sonchifolia, Galinsoga parviflora, Ipomoea grandifolia, Lepidium virginicum, and Raphanus raphanistrum were controlled with high efficiency by sole applications of fomesafen, flazasulfuron, and oxyfluorfen, except B. pilosa, C. didymus, and R. raphanistrum for oxyfluorfen. Sequential applications in seven-day intervals of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl, or clethodim, and two commercial mixtures of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl simultaneously controlled both types of weed. Cyperus rotundus was only controlled by flazasulfuron. Except for fluazifop-p-butyl and clethodim, all herbicide treatments caused only slight injuries on younger coffee leaves. However, further plant growth was not impaired and coffee plant height and stem diameter were therefore similar in the treatments, as evaluated four months later. Fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, and clethodim, at sole or sequential application, and the commercial mixtures of fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butyl were also highly selective for bean crop; thus

  1. Plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho safrinha, sob diferentes manejos, no Médio Paranapanema Weed in second corn crops submitted to different systems in the Médio Paranapanema Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento de plantas daninhas foi realizado em 20 lavouras de milho safrinha em 1997 e 40 em 1998 e 1999, depois da soja, na região do Médio Paranapanema-SP. O levantamento abrangeu os municípios de Assis, Campos Novos, Cândido Mota, Cruzália, Florínea, Maracaí, Palmital, Pedrinhas Paulista e Platina. No estádio de enchimento de grãos, as lavouras foram percorridas em ziguezague, a partir de quatro pontos de entrada, de maneira a representar a área total. As lavouras foram subdivididas de acordo com as condições de manejo das culturas: semeadura direta, semeadura convencional em solo preparado com grade e semeadura de milho safrinha na palha de soja cultivada no sistema convencional. Em cada lavoura foram cadastrados o nível de infestação e as espécies daninhas. Foram coletadas informações quanto ao manejo das plantas daninhas adotado nas lavouras, assim como sobre os herbicidas empregados. As espécies de plantas daninhas mais importantes foram Cenchrus echinatus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Raphanus sativus, Digitaria horizontalis, Commelina benghalensis, Amaranthus sp., Achyrocline satureioides, Sinapis arvensis, Sida sp., Glycine max, Avena strigosa, Eleusina indica e Sorghum halepense. Houve acentuado aumento na infestação da espécie C. echinatus nas lavouras, a qual passou a constituir-se na principal espécie infestante. R. sativus também se tornou importante e apresentou grande incremento de 1997 a 1999. Na semeadura convencional houve predomínio de alta infestação, evidenciando desempenho inferior desse sistema em relação aos demais no controle de plantas daninhas. O controle químico mais utilizado foi a mistura atrazine + óleo vegetal + 2,4-D, seguido por atrazine + óleo e atrazine isolado. De modo geral, não se efetuou o controle das plantas daninhas em 22% das lavouras, as quais apresentaram as maiores porcentagens de infestação. O nível de infestação em função do tipo de

  2. Transmissão de begomovírus de plantas daninhas para tomateiros pela mosca-branca Begomovirus transmission from weeds to tomato by the whitefly

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    A.K.F. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre numerosas enfermidades do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, destacam-se as viroses causadas por begomovírus, os quais são transmitidos pelo vetor Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Na Chapada da Ibiapaba-CE, os begomovírus têm sido encontrados em várias áreas onde o tomateiro é cultivado, causando sérios danos à produção. Este trabalho teve por objetivos investigar a transmissão de begomovírus a partir de tomateiros infectados para plantas daninhas e verificar seu retorno das plantas daninhas para o tomateiro. Mudas sadias de tomateiro 'Santa Clara' e das plantas daninhas bredo-de-espinho (Amaranthus spinosus, caruru-de-mancha (Amaranthus viridis, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides e picão-preto (Bidens pilosa foram submetidas à inoculação por dois métodos: com o inseto vetor e por enxertia. Após 15 dias, realizou-se a extração do DNA de amostras foliares dos tomateiros e das espécies daninhas inoculadas. A PCR realizada com oligonucleotídeos degenerados e específicos para begomovírus revelou que na transmissão com o vetor as quatro espécies de plantas daninhas foram infectadas com o begomovírus do tomateiro, enquanto que, por enxertia, apenas o picão-preto foi infectado. O retorno do vírus das plantas daninhas para o tomateiro foi também observado nos dois casos. Percentuais de 70, 50, 20 e 12,5% de transmissão para os tomateiros ocorreram quando o vetor adquiriu o vírus em mentrasto, bredo-de-espinho, picão-preto e caruru-de-mancha, respectivamente. Na enxertia, a transmissão viral para os tomateiros ocorreu apenas quando se empregaram seções de bredo-de-espinho e de picão-preto infectados. As espécies daninhas investigadas demonstraram ser hospedeiras alternativas do begomovírus de tomate da região e, em condiçõs de campo e na presença do vetor, podem constituir importantes fontes do begomovírus para a hortaliça.The viruses caused by begomovirus are considered the most important virus diseases

  3. Utilização de acetochlor e atrazine aplicados em mistura de tanque com dessecantes no sistema de plantio direto Reaction of the herbicides acetochlor and atrazine applied in tank mixtures with desiccants in no-till system

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    Benedito N. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A mistura em tanque de herbicidas dessecantes com residuais tem sido utilizada com frequencia pelos agricultores no sistema de plantio direto. Sabe-se, no entanto, que alguns herbicidas residuais têm problemas de retenção na palha quando utilizados isoladamente em préemergência nesse sistema. O objetivo do presente trabalho, foi estudar o comportamento dos herbicidas residuais atrazine e acetochlor em mistura com dessecantes no manejo em plantio direto. Para tal, foi instalado um experimento em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos, alocados na parcela, em número de nove, foram constituidos pelas seguintes misturas de herbicidas: 1 acetochlor + glyphosate; 2 acetochlor + glyphosate + 2,4D; 3 acetochlor + paraquat; 4 acetochlor + paraquat + 2,4D; 5 atrazine + glyphosate; 6 atrazine + glyphosate + 2,4D; 7 atrazine + paraquat; 8 atrazine + óleo vegetal; 9 testemunha não tratada. Os tratamentos da sub parcela, em número de dois, foram constituidos pelas modalidades de aplicação dos herbicidas na cobertura vegetal: 1 aplicação com a cobertura "em pé"; 2 aplicação com a cobertura "rolada". A cobertura vegetal de inverno era formada pela consorciação de aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum. Os resultados mostraram que o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea, Euphorbia heterophylla e Bidens pilosa foi melhor efetuado com os tratamentos onde entrou o atrazine. De maneira geral, o controle obtido na modalidade "em pé," foi melhor do que na modalidade "rolada," principalmente nos tratamentos com acetochlor. A análise cromatográfica de resíduos feita em amostras de solo retiradas do experimento antes e após uma chuva de 41mm ocorrida 24 horas após a aplicação dos tratamentos, mostrou que menos de 6 % do acetochlor aplicado foi detectado no solo, em ambas as modalidades de aplicação. Quanto ao atrazine, no entanto, mais de 78 % do total aplicado foi detectado no solo após a chuva na modalidade

  4. ESTADO DEL CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS CONCENTRACIONES DE MERCURIO Y OTROS METALES PESADOS EN PECES DULCEACUÍCOLAS DE COLOMBIA Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

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    NÉSTOR JAVIER MANCERA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-06-01

    fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis y Grundulus bogotensis.One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water, therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  5. Comunidades microbianas, atividade enzimática e fungos micorrízicos em solo rizosférico de "Landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos Microbial communities, enzymatic activity and mycorrhizal fungi in rhizospheric soil used for Landfarming of Petrochemical Waste

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    André Shigueyoshi Nakatani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As raízes das plantas podem estimular a microbiota do solo, a qual pode contribuir para o aumento da eficiência do processo de remediação. Assim, avaliar a magnitude dos efeitos das raízes sobre a microbiota do solo é de grande interesse e de relevância prática e ecológica. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se a densidade microbiana, a atividade enzimática, a estrutura da comunidade bacteriana e a presença de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na rizosfera de plantas de ocorrência espontânea em solo de sistema de "landfarming" de resíduos petroquímicos. Avaliaram-se também solos rizosféricos de cinco plantas e solo-controle sem planta por meio de contagens de microrganismos em placas, eletroforese em gel com gradiente desnaturante (DGGE de fragmentos do gene rRNA 16S, seqüenciamento genético, atividades enzimáticas, percentagem de colonização radicular e contagem e identificação de esporos de FMAs. As plantas estimularam a densidade microbiana total e da população de degradadores de antraceno, com contagens médias de 1,5 x 10(6 e 2,2 x 10(6 UFC g-1 no solo seco, respectivamente, enquanto, no solo sem planta, essas contagens foram de 5,7 x 10(5 e 2,9 x 10(5 UFC g-1 no solo seco para os respectivos grupos microbianos. As espécies de maior efeito foram Bidens pilosa e Eclipta alba. Entretanto, esses efeitos estimulantes não foram verificados para a atividade enzimática do solo. A colonização micorrízica das raízes (em torno de 40 % e a densidade de esporos nos solos rizosféricos foram elevadas (entre 900 e 4.800 esporos por 50 cm³ de solo, sendo maior na Brachiaria decumbens. Foram identificadas quatro espécies de FMAs: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus intraradices, Paraglomus occultum e Archaeospora trappei. Com exceção de G. intraradices, essas espécies não foram observadas em áreas contaminadas por hidrocarbonetos de petróleo. A análise por DGGE revelou que os solos rizosféricos apresentaram comunidades

  6. Desenvolvimento foliar das culturas da soja e do feijão e de plantas daninhas Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds

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    Sérgio de Oliveira Procópio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, comparar a taxa de emissão e expansão das folhas, duração da área foliar (DAF e o coeficiente de extinção (k para as culturas da soja e do feijão e para as espécies de plantas daninhas Euphorbia heterophylla sensível e Euphorbia heterophylla resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum. O experimento foi desenvolvido a campo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, no período de outubro de 2000 a março de 2001. Cada espécie vegetal constou de um tratamento. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. As medições da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA foram realizadas em dois pontos dos dosséis: acima e abaixo, por meio de um light ceptometer. A taxa de emissão e de expansão foliar foi calculada ao final do ciclo das culturas. A duração da área foliar e o coeficiente de extinção foram calculados antes e após o florescimento. Não se observaram diferenças no desenvolvimento dos biótipos de E. heterophylla quanto à taxa de aparição de folhas, taxa de expansão foliar, DAF ou k. Entre as culturas, o feijão apresentou menor taxa de emissão foliar (0,591 por dia comparado à soja (0,933 por dia. Dentre as plantas daninhas, D. tortuosum apresentou a maior taxa de emissão foliar (0,699 por dia. A taxa de expansão foliar observada pela soja foi superior a todas as demais espécies avaliadas (6,77 cm².dia-1. Todas as espécies apresentaram maior valor para DAF após o florescimento, em comparação com a fase vegetativa. A soja apresentou maior valor de k (antes e após o florescimento 0,52 e 0,93, respectivamente frente às demais espécies, demonstrando maior potencial de interceptação da radiação solar.The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA and the extinction coefficient (k for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for

  7. Comportamento do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum latifolium Hutch. e controle de plantas daninhas com o uso dos herbicidas diuron e sethoxydim The behavior of upland-type cotton (G. hirsutum latifolium Hutch. and the control of weeds after the use of diuron and sethoxydim herbicides

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    N.E. de M. Beltrão

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o comportamento do algodoeiro herbáceo, cultivar IAC-17, bem como o controle de plantas daninhas e aspectos competitivos do complexo floristico infestante sobre a cultura, na presença dos herbicidas diuron e sethoxydim, foi realizado um ensaio no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. O solo do local experimental, Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, apresenta textura argilosa, com 1,38% de carbono orgânico e de baixa fertilidade natural. O diuron foi aplicado em pré-emergência nas doses de 0,0; 0,8; 1,6 e 2,4 kg/ha e o sethoxydim, em pós-emergência, nas doses de 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 g/ha. O ensaio foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com 21 tratamentos em esquema fatorial (4 x 5 + 1, sendo 20 deles envolvendo o controle químico, resultantes de todas as combinações das doses desses herbicidas e uma testemunha relativa onde o controle foi realizado com o uso da enxada. Avaliaram-se várias características do crescimento e desen vol vimento da cul tura, tai s como área fol iar, índice de área folia r, ren dimento de algodão em rama, altura da plant a, diâmetro do caule etc.; e, por meio de mét odos sin ecológico s, a densidade populac ional e peso da fitomassa hidratada epí gea das esp éci es daninhas dominant es, e o total de todas as espécies. O diuron exerceu um elevado contro le de lat ifo liadas, como botão-de -ouro (Galin soga parvif lora Cav. e picão-preto (Biden spilosa L., nas doses de 1,6 e 2,4 kg/ ha. O sethoxydim mesmo na menor dose testada (150 g/h a controlou totalmente o capim-marmelada (Brachiaria planta ginea (Link. Hitch . Nenhum dos herbicidas controlou a falsa -serralha (Emilia sonc hi folia DC., porém referida planta daninha não reduziu o crescimento da cultura, mostrando- se de baixa força de competição. As plantas daninhas que apresentaram maiores forças de competição foram o botão-de-ouro, por apresentar maior densidade populacional, e o capim-marmelada, por ser de maior

  8. Influência do horário de aplicação no comportamento de atrazine e misturas aplicadas em pós-emergência na cultura do milho Influence of timing of application on the behavior of atrazine and mixtures applied in post-emergence in maize

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    Donizeti A. Fornarolli

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a influência do horário de aplicação de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas gramíneas e dicotiledôneas na cultura do milho. O experimento foi conduzido no ano de 1991/92, na área experimental da Milenia Agro Ciências S/A, em Londrina, PR. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos ao acaso com 4 repetições, utilizando atrazine a 2.400 g/ha + surfactante e as misturas formuladas de alachlor + atrazine (1.820 + 1.820, atrazine + óleo vegetal (2.400 + 1.800 g/ha aplicados as 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 e 22 horas. A gramínea presente era a Brachiaria plantagineano estádio de 1 a 5 folhas, e as dicotiledôneas Amaranthus hybridus, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia e Sida rhombifolia todas no estádio de 2 a 6 folhas. A aplicação foi realizada no dia 12 de outubro de 1991, estando o dia sem nuvens. Às 4:00 horas a UR era 68%; às 14:00 horas, 35% e as 22:00h, 65%. O solo estava seco e nas aplicações das 4:00 e 6:00 horas havia a presença de orvalho nas folhagens. Utilizou-se um pulverizador de precisão a CO2, bicos leque Teejet 110.03 e volume de calda 300 l/ha. Os resultados mostraram que houve influência do horário de aplicação nos resultados para os herbicidas alachlor + atrazine e atrazine + óleo vegetal no controle de B. plantaginea. Para os tratamentos alachlor + atrazine e atrazine + óleo vegetal, quando a umidade relativa do ar esteve acima de 65%, ou seja entre 4:00 e 8:00 horas e a partir das 20:00 horas, o controle foi superior a 90%. Quando a umidade relativa do ar baixou para 35%, no período das 10:00 às 18:00 horas, o controle para o alachlor + atrazine foi de 80% e o de atrazine + óleo vegetal próximo a 60%. O controle de gramíneas no tratamento atrazine + surfactante foi inferior a 40% em todos os horários de aplicação. Ainda para B. plantaginea, o alachlor + atrazine aos 95 DAA ( dias após aplica

  9. Banco de sementes e estabelecimento de plantas daninhas em agroecossistemas Seed bank in the soil and the establishment of weeds in agro-ecosystems

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    Ricardo Carmona

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro/92 o banco de sementes no solo foi estimado, a 0-10 cm de profundidade, em alguns agroecossistemas: área de rotação de culturas, várzea, pomar de cítrus e pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha, no Distrito Federal, Brasil. Esta estimativa foi realizada através da observação da emergência de plântulas em amostras de solo incubadas, com e sem lavagem através de peneira e presença ou ausência de nitrato de potássio. A lavagem do solo para redução de volume, seguida de utilização de nitrato de potássio, mostrou-se desvantajosa para a determinação dos bancos de sementes viáveis detectadas nas amostras. A quantidade média de sementes por metro quadrado foi de 22313 na várzea, 6768 na área de rotação, 3595 nas coroas do pomar e 529 na pastagem. Verificou-se que as plantas infestantes estabelecidas em maio/93 nos agroecossistemas, representavam, em relação á quantidade inicial de sementes: 0,34% na pastagem, 0,71% na várzea, 1,48% nas coroas do pomar e 1,56% na área de rotação de culturas. Estas plantas seriam aquelas que supostamente mais contribuíram para a manutenção dos bancos de sementes no solo. Houve uma correlação direta do banco de sementes com o número de espécies e indivíduos presentes nos agroecossistemas. As espécies predominantes nas áreas anualmente perturbadas foram Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Commelina benghalensis, Emilia sonchifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla e Richardia brasiliensis. Brachiaria spp predominou nas entrelinhas do pomar, enquanto na pastagem as poucas plantas daninhas presentes eram espécies de cerrado. A similaridade entre agroecossistemas, com relação às plantas daninhas foi maior entre as áreas mais perturbadas, como áreas de rotação de culturas, várzea e coroas do pomar.The seed bank in the soil was estimated in November/92 at 0-10 cm depth in some agro-ecosystems: arable land, meadow land, citrus orchard and a Brachiaria brizantha

  10. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

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    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  11. Absorção e utilização do fósforo pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por plantas daninhas Absorption and use of phosphorus by soybean and common bean crops and by weeds

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    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes pode, em determinadas situações, beneficiar mais as plantas daninhas do que as próprias culturas. O manejo de fertilizantes em sistemas agrícolas pode ser um importante componente em programas de manejo integrado das culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência na absorção e utilização do P pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por espécies de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, no período de agosto a novembro de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições; os tratamentos originaram-se de esquema fatorial 6 x 4, sendo seis espécies vegetais: soja (Glycine max, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, dois biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores de ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum; e quatro doses de P (0,00 12,00; 24,00 e 48,00 mg dm-3, aplicadas na semeadura sob a forma de superfosfato simples. A soja foi a espécie que revelou maior aumento na sua massa seca de raízes com o incremento do fornecimento de P. D. tortuosum, soja e B. pilosa apresentaram maior resposta à adição de doses crescentes de P em relação ao acúmulo de massa seca. O maior teor de P foi constatado para o feijão, independente da dose de P aplicada, contudo D. tortuosum foi a única espécie a ter seu teor de P aumentado em quase três vezes, quando cultivado com o dobro da dose aplicada (48,00 mg dm-3, com base nas necessidades da cultura do feijão. Até a avaliação realizada no início do florescimento, as plantas de soja e D. tortuosum foram as espécies que acumularam a maior quantidade de P em seus tecidos, porém, durante a fase reprodutiva foi D. tortuosum a qual, juntamente com feijão, apresentaram variações quanto à eficiência de suas raízes em absorver P, de acordo com a dose desse nutriente, enquanto as demais espécies mantiveram a mesma eficiência radicular

  12. Absorção e utilização do nitrogênio pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por plantas daninhas Nitrogen uptake and use by soybean and bean crops and by weeds

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    S.O. Procópio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência na absorção e utilização do nitrogênio (N pelas culturas da soja e do feijão e por plantas daninhas freqüentemente encontradas nas áreas agrícolas do Brasil. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições, em esquema fatorial 6 x 4, sendo seis espécies vegetais: soja (Glycine max, feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, dois biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla (suscetível e resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, Bidens pilosa e Desmodium tortuosum; e quatro doses de N (0, 20, 40 e 80 mg dm-3 avaliado em casa de vegetação. A aplicação do N foi realizada adicionando-se 60% do fertilizante sulfato de amônio (20% de N na semeadura e o restante em cobertura, dividida em duas aplicações: 20 e 30 dias após plantio (DAP. A espécie vegetal que mais respondeu em aumento de área foliar, com a adição de doses crescentes de N, foi B. pilosa; todavia, nos tratamentos sem aplicação ou com a aplicação das menores doses desse nutriente, a soja apresentou a maior área foliar. Também a soja acumulou a maior biomassa em seu sistema radicular, tendendo, porém, a diminuir com a adição de N. B. pilosa e os biótipos de E. heterophylla aumentaram seu acúmulo de biomassa com o incremento do fornecimento de N. Nenhuma espécie respondeu à adubação com N em relação ao aumento no teor desse nutriente em seus tecidos; entretanto, observou-se que as leguminosas apresentaram maior teor do que as espécies pertencentes às demais famílias. O conteúdo total de N nos tecidos da cultura da soja diminuiu com o aumento da dose aplicada; já para todas as espécies de plantas daninhas, o conteúdo acumulado de N aumentou com o incremento das doses. A maior eficiência das raízes na absorção de N foi constatada para as plantas de feijão. B. pilosa e os biótipos de E. heterophylla foram as espécies que demonstraram maior eficiência na utilização do

  13. WEED CONTROL IN GENETICALLY MODIFIED GLYPHOSATE-TOLERANT SOYBEAN MANEJO DE PLANTAS DANINHAS EM SOJA GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADA TOLERANTE AO GLYPHOSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Durigan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic production systems, as well as conventional systems, require, in addition to chemical control, the adoption of other weed management strategies. This study was developed to evaluate the weed chemical control in glyphosate tolerant soybean, associated to cover crops cultivated in the autumn/winter. The experiment was carried out under field conditions at the FCAV/Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized split-plot block design was used, with four replications. St. Lucia Grass (Brachiaria brizantha ‘Marandu’, forage millet (Pennisetum americanum ‘BN2’, and a treatment with spontaneous growth vegetation were evaluated for plots, and, for subplots, the herbicides glyphosate, chlorimuron - ethyl plus lactofen, and fluazifop-p-butyl, in a sequential spraying, and two controls without any application. Grass cover contributed to the chemical control, suppressing weeds, and the single application of 720 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate, independently of the cover crop cultivated in the autumn/winter, was sufficient for adequately controlling Acanthospermum hispidum, Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Bidens pilosa, Xanthium strumarium, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria sp., and Eleusine indica, with results similar to the treatment (chlorimuron-ethyl + lactofen + fluazifop-p-buthyl. When compared to the weeded control, the herbicides did not affect plants height, dry matter of the aerial parts, mass of 100 grains, and grain yield. Soybean plants grown over St. Lucia Grass and forage millet presented a higher height, however, no other feature was influenced by the cover crop.

    KEY-WORDS: Brachiaria brizantha; Pennisetum americanum; no-tillage; Roundup Ready; spontaneous vegetation.

    Os sistemas de produção transgênicos, assim como os

  14. Ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China%东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系与群落多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富亿; 吕宪国; 娄彦景; 娄晓楠; 薛滨; 姚书春; 肖海丰

    2012-01-01

    根据2008-2011年镜泊湖和五大连池鱼类学调查结果和历史资料,分析了东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系特征和群落物种多样性状况.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系由9目16科47属64种土著种构成,其中国家Ⅱ级野生保护物种1种,中国特有种4种,中国易危种5种;64种鱼类中,鲤形目44种,鲤科37种,分别占优势.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系由7个区系复合体构成,以东部平原区系复合体为主体;南北方重叠种、北方特有种分别占53.1%和46.9%.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类群落Shannon、Fisher-α、Pielou、Margalef和Simpson指数值分别为2.078、4.536、0.575、3.723和0.269,土著种多度分布格局可以用对数正态分布描述;与镜泊湖亚群落间Bray-Curtis、Morisita-Horn、Ochiai、S(o)rensen和Whittaker指数值分别为0.820、0.992、0.870、0.862和0.138,与五大连池亚群落间各指数值分别为0.210、0.516、0.838、0.825和0.175.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系具有南北方物种相互渗透、古北界与东洋界交汇过渡的特点;群落物种多样性程度较高,物种结构较稳定,但物种丰富度呈下降趋势.%Based on the investigations of fish resources in Jingpo Lake and Wudalianchi Lakes in 2008-2011 and the historical data, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was consisted of 64 native species, belonging to 47 genera, 16 families , and 9 orders, among which, one species was the second class National protected wild animal, four species were Chinese endemic species, and five species were Chinese vulnerable species. In the 64 recorded species, there were 44 species of Cypriniformes order and 37 species of Cyprinidae family dominated, respectively. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was formed by 7 fauna

  15. 鄱阳湖子湖“堑秋湖”渔业资源结构特征分析%STURCTURE AND FEATURES OF FISHERY RESOURCES OF SUB-LAKES IN POYANG LAKE, JIANGXI, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾泽国; 张笑辰; 刘观华; 金杰峰; 陈家宽; 金斌松

    2015-01-01

    genera,7 of them were commercial fishes,and there was no fisheries production in Shahu because of the low water level.The results of the investigation study showed that the largest group was from Cypriniformes,and had the similar fish species in different years,but the dominant species were changed and the yield of catch had a downward trend.The analysis of non-metrimultidimensional scaling (MDS) showed that community diversity varied among years and sub-lakes.The correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive correlation between CPUE a day and the water level in the year of 2011,while such correlation declined in the year of 2012 and 2013.%“堑秋湖”是广泛存在于鄱阳湖湖区且与鄱阳湖水文节律特征相顺应的一种渔业方式.为了解“堑秋湖”渔获物组成特征及其产量与水位之间的关系,于2011~2013年“堑秋湖”期间对江西鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区的子湖大湖池和沙湖进行了连续3年的渔业调查.2011年,大湖池和沙湖与修河分别相通23 d和10 d,鄱阳湖属旱涝急转气候;2012年鄱阳湖水势较大,大湖池和沙湖与修河分别相通124 d和108 d.2013年鄱阳湖再现旱情,大湖池和沙湖均未能与修河连通.2011年渔业调查开展7次,2012年调查9次,2013年调查5次.3 a调查累计获得鱼类59种隶属于6目12科43属.3年研究结果表明渔获物以鲤科鱼类为主,在种类上变化不大但优势物种有所改变且渔获物产量呈下降趋势,无度量多维排序结果(MSD)显示鱼类群落在不同年度和子湖间分离明显.经济鱼类的单位捕捞努力量(CPUE)与水位变化的线性回归分析结果表明,2011年经济鱼类产量与当日水位呈正相关性,但2012年和2013年两者的相关性却不明显.

  16. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全

    2014-01-01

    Gymnocypris przewalskii belongs to subfamily of Schizothoracinae, family of Cyprinidae and order of Cypriniformes, and it is an endemic species only distributed in the Qinghai Lake and its adjacent rivers and lakes. It possesses migration characteristics, and goes upstream from the lake to surrounding rivers in the reproduction season. However, several dams built on the rivers flowing into the lake with the agricultural development in the Qinghai Lake region since 1970s, severely blocked its migration passages, leading to obviously decreasing of resources of Gymnocypris przewalskii in recent years. To protect Gymnocypris przewalskii, three kinds of fish passages on the dams of rivers flowing into the Qinghai Lake were introduced, which were types of guide wall, simple steel modular and ladder slope, respectively. 1) The guide wall type fish passage was separately constructed on the dams in the Shaliu River, Quanji River and Haergai River in 2006, which were built along river side, but it had several defects because of the lack of experience. 2) The simple steel modular type fish passage was designed and constructed on the dam of the Shaliu River in 2008, Based on biological characteristics of Gymnocypris przewalskii and the basic situation of the dam and environmental conditions of the Shaliu River. After considering inlet location of fish passage, suction flow and hydraulic conditions within passage, the inlet was located at the area with aggregated fish and slow current velocity. The water flow was 0.5 m/s, the current velocity was 0.1-0.25 m3/s, as well as the slope of 1:10 within fish passage. 3) The ladder slope type fish passage was built on the dam of Shaliu River in 2010, which used two types open fishponds of multi-ladder and slight slope. Fish passage without hindrance had been almost come to be real through this type. This type was designed according to basic theories and related parameters of simple fish passage. The length was 80 m and the width was 1

  17. inner-sphere complexation of cations at the rutile-water interface: A concise surface structural interpretation with the CD and MUSIC model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridley, Mora K. [Texas Tech University, Lubbock; Hiemstra, T [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Van Riemsdijk, Willem H. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL

    2009-01-01

    properties. Langmuir 20, 4954 4969]. Our CD modeling results are consistent with these adsorbed configurations provided adsorbed cation charge is allowed to be distributed between the surface (0-plane) and Stern plane (1-plane). Additionally, a complete description of our titration data required inclusion of outer-sphere binding, principally for Cl which was common to all solutions, but also for Rb+ and K+. These outer-sphere species were treated as point charges positioned at the Stern layer, and hence determined the Stern layer capacitance value. The modeling results demonstrate that a multi-component suite of experimental data can be successfully rationalized within a CD and MUSIC model using a Stern-based description of the EDL. Furthermore, the fitted CD values of the various inner-sphere complexes of the mono- and divalent ions can be linked to the microscopic structure of the surface complexes and other data found by spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics (MD). For the Na+ ion, the fitted CD value points to the presence of bidenate inner-sphere complexation as suggested by a recent MD study. Moreover, its MD dominance quantitatively agrees with the CD model prediction. For Rb+, the presence of a tetradentate complex, as found by spectroscopy, agreed well with the fitted CD and its predicted presence was quantitatively in very good agreement with the amount found by spectroscopy.

  18. 非嗜食植物汁液对旋心异跗莹叶甲取食及产卵的影响%Antifeedant and Oviposition Effects of Juice of Non-host Plants on Apophylia flavovirens (Fairmaire)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈川; 文耀东; 杨美霞; 李兴权; 石勇强; 郭小侠

    2011-01-01

    To search for safe and effective ways of control pest Apophylia flavovirens (Fairmaire) , the antifeedant and oviposition effects of five non-host plant juices were studied. The results showed that when the juices of Allium sativum L. (100% and 50%), Allium fistulosum L. (100% and 50%), Cirsium japokicum DC. (100%) and Bidens pilosa Linn. (100%) were utilized respectively, the unselective antifeedant rates were all over 70% after 48 hours. While after 7 days treatment with the juices of Allium sativum L. (100%), Allium fistulosum L. (100%), and Cirsium japokicumDC. (100%), respectively, the selective antifeedant rates -were all over 50%. When the juices of Plantago asiatica L. (100% and 50%), Allium sativum L. (100% and 50%), and Cirsium japokicum DC. (100%) were utilized respectively, the oviposition effect rates were all more than 50%. And the juice of Allium sativum L. (100%) showed the best antifeedant and oviposition deterrent, with 91. 4 % of unselective antifeedant rate after 48 hours, 97. 56% of selective antifeedant rate after 7 days and 95. 31% of oviposition effect rate. The results suggested that utilizing the secondary metabolites from non-host plants as insect pest behavior regulator was possible in integrated pest management.%为了探索安全、有效防治丹参新害虫旋心异跗莹叶甲的方法,研究5种非嗜食植物汁液对旋心异跗莹叶甲成虫取食和产卵的影响.结果表明,5种常见的非嗜食性植物次生物质(汁液)对旋心异跗莹叶甲成虫具有不同程度的拒食和产卵干扰作用,100%、50%大蒜汁液,100%、50%葱汁液,100%刺芥汁液及100%鬼针草汁液48 h的非选择性拒食率均在70%以上;100%大蒜、葱及刺芥汁液7 d的选择性拒食率均在50%以上;100%、50%车前汁液,100%、50%大蒜汁液,100%刺芥汁液的产卵抑制率均在50%以上;其中大蒜汁液的拒食作用和产卵干扰作用最明显,其48h非选择性拒食率、7d选择性拒食率、产卵

  19. Obituary: Franklin Kamney (1925-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Franklin E. Kameny died October 11, 2011, at the age of 86 of cardiac arrest. Kameny observed RV Tau stars and yellow semiregular variables from 1952 to1954, and his photoelectric measurements served as the basis of his Harvard Ph.D. thesis. After receiving his Ph.D. in 1956, Kameny taught astronomy for a year at Georgetown University. A US Army veteran during World War II, he was hired as an astronomer by the US Army Mapping Service in 1957. His astronomical career was terminated when he was fired from this position due to the discovery of his sexual orientation. Denied his first occupation as an astronomer, Kameny became a pioneer in the struggle for equal rights and was involved in many issues leading to just and equitable treatment of all people. One of his most most notable achievements was working for the removal of homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association's manual of mental disorders. One of his most recent achievements was helping to push through the Washington, DC, marriage equality act. After a lonely 40-year struggle, Kameny recently began to receive recognition for all his work. In June of 2009, the Office of Personnel Management formally apologized for Kameny's firing and issued him their highest award. The apology letter, in Kameny's estimation, left open the possibility he'd never actually been fired. In his acceptance of the apology he sent the Office a letter, tongue-in-cheek, requesting that the Office let him know what his back pay was! Kameny was present in the Oval Office for the signing of the repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" in 2010 and was thanked for his work by both President Obama and Vice President Biden. 17th Street in Washington, DC, between P and R Streets was named "Frank Kameny Way," and Kameny's house is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Kameny's astronomical career, as short as it may have been, has not been forgotten. In the summer of 2009, his dissertation was "rediscovered" by AAVSO

  20. 土施镉超富集植物秸秆对镉胁迫牛膝菊光合特性的影响%Effects of Applying Hyperaccumulator Straw in Soil on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Galinsoga parviflora under Cadmium Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡容平; 石军; 黄廷友; 林立金; 廖明安

    2016-01-01

    通过在镉污染土壤中施用夏季生长的镉超富集植物红果黄鹌菜[Youngia erythrocarpa (Vaniot) Babcock et Stebbins]、三叶鬼针草(Bidens pilosa L.)、少花龙葵(Solanum photeinocarpum Nakamura et Odashima)和稀莶(Siegesbeckia orientalis L.)的秸秆,再种植秋冬季节生长的镉胁迫超富集植物牛膝菊(Galinsoga parviflora Cav.),研究了不同镉超富集植物秸秆对镉胁迫后牛膝菊光合特性的影响.结果表明,在土壤中施用红果黄鹌菜秸秆后,镉胁迫牛膝菊叶片的净光合速率较未施用秸秆的提高了4.29%.地上部生物量增加了7.33%,而施用三叶鬼针草、少花龙葵和豨莶秸秆的则降低了镉胁迫牛膝萄叶片净光合速率和地上部生物量.同时,土壤中施用红果黄鹤菜秸秆的镉胁迫牛膝菊叶片水分利用效率、光能利用率、胞间CO2浓度、气孔导度和叶片表面蒸汽压亏缺等光合参数均较未施用秸秆的有所提高.蒸腾速率则较未施用秸秆的降低,而施用三叶鬼针草、少花龙葵和稀莶秸秆的光合参数则高低不同.可能是红果黄鹌菜秸秆的化感物质能提高镉胁迫牛膝菊的光合能力、促进牛膝菊的生长所致,而三叶鬼针草、少花龙葵和豨莶秸秆的化感物质则抑制了镉胁迫牛膝菊的光合能力与生长.就光合色素含量而言,只有施用红果黄鹌菜秸秆的镉胁迫牛膝菊叶片叶绿素a、叶绿素b、叶绿素总量和类胡萝卜素含量较未施用秸秆的增加,分别较未施用秸秆的增加了5.97%、30.42%、10.94%和12.88%,施用三叶鬼针草、少花龙葵和稀莶秸秆的均低于未施用秸秆的.此外,土壤施用红果黄鹌菜秸秆的镉胁迫牛膝菊植株可溶性糖含量较未施用秸秆的增加.因此,在镉胁迫条件下,土壤施用红果黄鹌菜秸秆能够提高牛膝菊的光合能力.促进其生长,有利于牛膝菊修复镉污染的土壤.

  1. Inner-sphere complexation of cations at the rutile-water interface: A concise surface structural interpretation with the CD and MUSIC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Moira K.; Hiemstra, Tjisse; van Riemsdijk, Willem H.; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-04-01

    properties. Langmuir20, 4954-4969]. Our CD modeling results are consistent with these adsorbed configurations provided adsorbed cation charge is allowed to be distributed between the surface (0-plane) and Stern plane (1-plane). Additionally, a complete description of our titration data required inclusion of outer-sphere binding, principally for Cl - which was common to all solutions, but also for Rb + and K +. These outer-sphere species were treated as point charges positioned at the Stern layer, and hence determined the Stern layer capacitance value. The modeling results demonstrate that a multi-component suite of experimental data can be successfully rationalized within a CD and MUSIC model using a Stern-based description of the EDL. Furthermore, the fitted CD values of the various inner-sphere complexes of the mono- and divalent ions can be linked to the microscopic structure of the surface complexes and other data found by spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics (MD). For the Na + ion, the fitted CD value points to the presence of bidenate inner-sphere complexation as suggested by a recent MD study. Moreover, its MD dominance quantitatively agrees with the CD model prediction. For Rb +, the presence of a tetradentate complex, as found by spectroscopy, agreed well with the fitted CD and its predicted presence was quantitatively in very good agreement with the amount found by spectroscopy.

  2. Flora asociada a la actividad melífera en apiarios al sur del departamento del Huila, macizo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudas Lleras Agustín

    2006-12-01

    micrantha, Bidens pilosa, Baccharis nitida, Coffea arabica y Cedrela sp.. Adicionalmente se consideran como especies importantes de la flora melífera a Toxicodendron striatum, Viburnum cornifolium, Vismia baccifera, Hyptis pseudosinuata, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium e Inga cocleensis, que a diferencia de las anteriores presentan índices de importancia más bajos pero están presentes en las tres localidades muestreadas y poseen un amplio espectro de hábitats. Se presenta un catálogo digital con fotos de alta resolución de 109 especies, correspondientes a 44 familias, de los cuales 61 especies hacen parte de la flora melífera reconocida. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán escoger especies melíferas de mayor importancia para iniciar trabajos de calendarios florales y ofertas de néctar, además de proponer el manejo de especies poco comunes que además de poseer importancia melífera pueden generar otros beneficios ecológicos y financieros. Este trabajo junto con la caracterización de la vegetación de las mismas zonas, permitirán establecer la capacidad de carga apícola de acuerdo a la oferta ambiental de la zona.

  3. 尤溪县杀虫植物资源调查研究%Investigation on Resources of Insecticidal Plants in Youxi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏开炬; 詹斐; 张龙华; 陈养

    2013-01-01

    Investigation on resources of insecticidal plants in Youxi County ,Fujian Province was carried on in this paper .The result showed that there were insecticidal plants 170 species 140 ge‐nus 81 families in this area ,in which pteriodophyte had 6 species 6 genus 6 family ,gymnosperm had 12 species 9 genus 7 families ,angiosperm had 152 species 125 genus 68 families .These plants maily belonged to these families such as Asteraceae (11 kinds) ,Papilionaceae(9 kinds) ,Rosaceae (6 kinds) ,Euphorbiaceae(6 kinds) ,Lauraceae(6 kinds) ,Liliaceae (6 kinds) ,Moraceae(5 kinds) and Lamiaceae(5 kinds)and so on .The main species with great commercial value of development and utilization are W ikstroemia indica ,Nicotiana tabacum ,Ginkgo biloba ,Melia azedarach ,A rte‐misia scoparia ,Polygonaceae polygonum ,Sapium sebi f erum ,Bidens pilosa ,H umulus scandens , Stemona tuberosa ,A geratum conyzoides ,Derris f ordii ,Pinus massoniana ,Pteridium aquilinum var . latiusculum ,L ygodium j aponicum ,L itsea cubeba ,Rosa laevigata ,Pueraria lobata ,Rhus chinensis ,Schima superba ,Vernicia montana ,Lonicera j aponica ,X anthium sibiricum ,Plantago asiatica ,Glochidion puberum and so on .At the same time ,family name ,Chinese name ,scientific name ,nature ,active position ,Function classification ,habitat of each kind of these plants and dis‐tribution of elevation were listed .And this paper also put forward some suggestions on how to de‐velop and utilize these insecticidal plants in this area .%  对福建省尤溪县杀虫植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区杀虫植物共有81科140属170种,其中蕨类植物6科6属6种,裸子植物7科9属12种,被子植物68科125属152种。主要集中在菊科(11种)、蝶形花科(9种)、蔷薇科(6种)、大戟科(6种)、樟科(6种)、百合科(6种)、桑科(5种)和唇形科(5种)等。具有较大商业开发利用价值的种类主要有了哥王、烟草、银

  4. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley H. Weitzman

    2005-09-01

    Bryconadenos and Attonitus are discussed in relation to certain other inseminating characids, such as the species of Brittanichthys and Hollandichthys, that are not currently hypothesized to belong to Clade A and presumably acquired insemination independently. It is concluded that much additional data regarding the reproductive modes as well as other anatomical/physiological systems of characids currently included in and excluded from Clade A are necessary before a reasonably supported phylogeny of Clade A characids and their possible outgroup relatives can be advanced. The anal-fin gland cells of sexually active male Bryconadenos specimens are histologically indistinguishable from club cells (also called alarm substance cells found within the skin of cypriniforms, characiforms, catfishes, and other otophysan fishes. These cells occur at the skin's surface of the anal-fin gland in male Bryconadenos where they are organized into an organ. Many other adult male characids have club cells at the anal-fin's skin surface, often associated with anal-fin hooks, but were not found organized into an organ as in Bryconadenos. We hypothesize these cells to secrete a pheromone during courtship via holocrine secretion. Males of the genera Lophiobrycon , Glandulocauda, and Mimagoniates, tribe Glandulocaudini, were found to have club cells associated with their caudal-fin organ, but no specialized mucus cells were present as found in the caudal organ of males of the glandulocaudine Corynopoma riisei, tribe Stevardiini (= Corynopomini of past authors. In this species, males have hypertrophied mucus cells hypothesized to be modified for pheromone secretion. Evidence that the derived scales and fin rays of the caudal organ of males of the tribe Glandulocaudini are not homologous with that of other tribes of the Glandulocaudinae, as this subfamily was previously recognized, is discussed and it is concluded that the members of the tribe Glandulocaudini should be recognized as a separate subfamily

  5. Species Diversity of Pant Communities of Xingkai Lake Wetlands under Different Levels of Disturbance%不同干扰下兴凯湖湿地植物群落的物种多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李融; 张庆忠; 姜炎彬; 张林; 邵小明

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of plant communities had been executed by setting 90 quadrats of 100 cm × 100 cm in 18 plots around the croplands of Xingkai Lake State Farm and the wetlands of Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve in August,2009.Numbers of species,the height,cover and abundance of every species,and several environmental factors of each quadrat were recorded.The evident specimens of every species found in the investigation were conserved in the herbarium of China Agricultural University.Importance values were calculated from relative cover,relative density and relative frequency for each species.Depending on the level of protection and development of local natural vegetation,the plant communities were divided into three types: the plant communities in natural wetlands,the plant communities in the unwatered wetlands,the plant commu-nities around croplands.The top 5 dominant species were Calamagrostis angustifolia,Carex rigescens,Menyan-tehes trifolia,Iris sanguinea,Phragmites australis in natural wetlands; Calamagrostis angustifolia,Cyperus glom-eratus,Iris sanguine,Zizania latifolia,Bidens pilosa in the unwatered wetlands; Echinochloa crusgalli,Equise-tum arvense,Setaria viridis,Phragmites australis,Arthraxon hispidus around croplands.Species diversity analysis was processed by Bio-dap software.The results indicated that the performance of alpha diversity of the community around croplands was the maximum,the next in the unwatered wetlands,the minimum in natural wetlands.In detail,there were 69 species,53 species and 33 species in the surrounding place of croplands of many years,the unwatered and natural wetlands respectively and they shared the same trend with Shannon-Wiener Index and Pielou Evenness Index,but the trend of Simpson Index was contrary.The P diversity in study area was estimated by several similarity indexes,analysis results revealed that there were more commonspecies between natural wetlands and the unwatered wetlands,which mean that plant community