WorldWideScience

Sample records for bid guarantees performance

  1. 48 CFR 52.228-1 - Bid Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as accepted. (c) The amount of the bid guarantee shall be ____ percent of the bid price or $____, whichever is less. (d) If the successful bidder, upon acceptance of its bid by the Government within the period specified for acceptance, fails to execute all contractual documents or furnish executed bond(s...

  2. Strategic design of cost savings guarantee in energy performance contracting under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Qianli; Jiang, Xianglin; Cui, Qingbin; Zhang, Limao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is proposed to assist Energy Service Companies to maintain competitiveness in winning bids. • Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using the Monte-Carlo simulation. • A strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, where all points return as appropriate guarantees. • A campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding appropriate guaranteed savings value. - Abstract: Among the key barriers to profit in Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) are uncertainties about attaining the realized energy cost savings and potential disputes over the guaranteed cost savings. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed to assist the Energy Service Company (ESCO): (1) to evaluate the risk threshold if the guarantee has already been made, and (2) to determine the guarantee design, if the guarantee has not been made yet, that not only promises the ESCO’s profitability from EPC but also maintains its competitiveness to win the bid. Uncertainties within the energy cost savings are modeled stochastically using Monte-Carlo simulation, taking both the energy price fluctuation and the facility performance variability into account. Based on that, a strategic energy savings guarantee design curve is derived, that all the points on it would return as appropriate guarantees. Finally, a campus case is presented to demonstrate the applicability for finding the appropriate guaranteed savings value. This method is also worth popularizing in similar performance-based projects

  3. Guarantee-bond: main concepts and overview of its application within the bidding process involving inactive areas with marginal accumulations of petroleum and natural gas; Seguro-garantia: conceituacao e panorama de sua aplicacao no processo licitatorio envolvendo areas inativas com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduardo, Antonio Sergio; Herrmann, Hildebrando [Universidade ERstadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Doneivan Fernandes [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Petroleum Agency has been working on the adoption of an efficient financial guarantee system in order to ensure the fulfillment of contractual obligations in upstream-related activities. This process is aimed at: creating incentives for responsible behavior in the industry; attending current demands from society for efficiency and transparency; attending to industries demands for the maintenance of investment flows within the sector; safeguarding the government against financial liabilities caused by irresponsible or insolvent concessionaires; and keeping the sector attractive and competitive for small and medium companies. Within the bidding process for the concession of inactive areas with marginal accumulations, ANP requires two kinds of guarantees: a bidding guarantee, and a PTI guarantee (for obligations under the Initial Work Program-PTI). In both cases, the ANP allows two kinds of financial instruments: 'Seguros-Garantia' and 'Letters of Credit'. According to bidding rules, guarantees must be presented before the bidding process. This instrument ensures that the winner will sign the concession contract. The PTI guarantee ensures performance in a timely fashion. This paper describes and analyzes the instrument 'Seguro-Garantia', its evolution, existing categories, and applicability. (author)

  4. Modeling bidding competitiveness and position performance in multi-attribute construction auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ballesteros-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    This paper details a practical methodology based on simple statistical calculations for modeling the performance of a single bidder or a group of bidders, constituting a useful resource for analyzing one’s own success while benchmarking potential bidding competitors.

  5. A general framework for performance guaranteed green data center networking

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting; Xia, Yu; Muppala, Jogesh; Hamdi, Mounir; Foufou, Sebti

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of resource allocation and routing, this paper aims to save as much energy as possible in data center networks. We present a general framework, based on the blocking island paradigm, to try to maximize the network power conservation and minimize sacrifices of network performance and reliability. The bandwidth allocation mechanism together with power-aware routing algorithm achieve a bandwidth guaranteed tighter network. Besides, our fast efficient heuristics for allocatin...

  6. Market performance and bidders' bidding behavior in the New York Transmission Congestion Contract market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Using publicly available bidder level bids data for Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs) and the realized awards of TCCs in the NYISO monthly reconfiguration auctions from June 2000 to December 2004, we examine both market performance and bidders' bidding behavior in the auctions. The data show significant under-pricing in the realized awards of TCCs. Theories suggest that under-pricing may arise from risk-aversion, monopsonistic market power or winner's curse. Our empirical analysis illustrates that all of the three effects play a role in the NYISO TCCs market. Both market performance and bidders' bidding strategies can be best explained by the theoretical model with asymmetric information and risk-averse bidders. (author)

  7. Pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Shu; Jan, Lih-Tsyr

    2009-10-01

    Over the past decade, electronic markets based on the Internet, particularly online auctions, have become popular venues for conducting business. Previous studies often focused on the construction of the best bidding model, while few studies have tried to integrate multiple pricing strategies to predict the probability of closing an auction and the price premium. This study constructs a mediated model to examine the relationship among pricing strategies, the strength of bidding intentions, and online auction performance. The sample consists of 1,055 auctions of iPod MP3 players from eBay Web sites in Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, and France. Empirical results show that the pricing strategies directly influence both the probability of closing an auction and the level of price premium. The pricing strategies also indirectly influence the price premium through the mediating effect of the strength of bidding intentions.

  8. 78 FR 25444 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Bid Guarantees, Performance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... that an additional check box be added allowing for the choice of ``Limited Liability Company (LLC)'' to... construction companies are increasingly forming as limited liability companies, a hybrid type of organization... limited liability companies as a type of organization; and (2) the instructions governing the blank space...

  9. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...)(1)(i), a designated bidder is offered the right to meet the highest bid. Refusal or failure to meet... and the bid guarantee. Sealed bid envelopes must be clearly marked on the front lower left corner with ``Sealed Bid, BLM Land Sale, N-90450.'' The sealed bid envelope must contain the $20,000 bid guarantee, the...

  10. Applying Service Performance Guarantees to Reduce Risk Perception in the Purchase and Consumption of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The intangible nature of education is one contributor to consumers’ perception of risk prior to their purchase and consumption. This risk includes: functional risk, financial risk, temporal risk, physical risk, psychological risk and social risk. The presence of these risks often makes consumer evaluation prior to purchase and consumption difficult. Invoking a service guarantee is a platform available to enable higher educational institutions to minimize such risk perception so as to induce purchase. Specifically, service guarantee for higher education entails the application of teaching performance guarantee. This form of guarantee focuses on two important customer groups of higher educational institutions namely, students and faculty members, and focuses only on a specific performance aspect such as instructor’s performance. Thus, if students are dissatisfied with an instructor’s performance they are entitled to receive their money back. The imposition of such a teaching performance guarantee would implicate instructor’s accountability for certain aspects of their performance. It also establishes a mechanism to solicit feedback to better understand why and how instructors fail. Consequently, service performance guarantee creates a high level of customer focus and signals instructors’ care towards students

  11. High Bids and Low Recovery: A Possible Case for Non-Performing Loan Auctions in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility that the prices bid by asset reconstruction companies in India under a security receipt mechanism may not reflect the ultimate recoverable value of nonperforming loans. The paper establishes, using a model and simulations, that the price bid by asset reconstruction companies will reveal their own rational interest and can significantly exceed the recoverable value. The conclusions arrived in this paper raise concerns regarding the use of bids as an indicat...

  12. Bid specifications and bid evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Bid specifications are in view of the size of these projects important and comprehensive documents. The basic content and set up of the specifications are discussed such as: 1) Bid invitation letter, 2) instruction to bidders, 3) draft contract (terms and conditions), 4) technical specifications, 5) side data and information. - The evaluations of bids for nuclear power stations is due to the complexity of such bids a difficult undertaking. Evaluation methods and approaches which can be applied for such bid evaluations are discussed as well as the preparations which are required for carrying out such evaluations. (orig.) [de

  13. Probabilistic Performance Guarantees for Distributed Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Fox, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    In distributed self-assembly, a multitude of agents seek to form copies of a particular structure, modeled here as a labeled graph. In the model, agents encounter each other in spontaneous pairwise interactions and decide whether or not to form or sever edges based on their two labels and a fixed set of local interaction rules described by a graph grammar. The objective is to converge on a graph with a maximum number of copies of a given target graph. Our main result is the introduction of a simple algorithm that achieves an asymptotically maximum yield in a probabilistic sense. Notably, agents do not need to update their labels except when forming or severing edges. This contrasts with certain existing approaches that exploit information propagating rules, effectively addressing the decision problem at the level of subgraphs as opposed to individual vertices. We are able to obey more stringent locality requirements while also providing smaller rule sets. The results can be improved upon if certain requirements on the labels are relaxed. We discuss limits of performance in self-assembly in terms of rule set characteristics and achievable maximum yield.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Bidding-Based Multi-Agent Scheduling Algorithms for Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gordillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have being applied to many problems in manufacturing systems in recent years. In the specific field of manufacturing scheduling many studies have been published trying to cope with the complexity of the manufacturing environment. One of the most utilized approaches is (multi agent-based scheduling. Nevertheless, despite the large list of studies reported in this field, there is no resource or scientific study on the performance measure of this type of approach under very common and critical execution situations. This paper focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS based algorithms for task allocation, particularly in manufacturing applications. The goal is to provide a mechanism to measure the performance of agent-based scheduling approaches for manufacturing systems under key critical situations such as: dynamic environment, rescheduling, and priority change. With this mechanism it will be possible to simulate critical situations and to stress the system in order to measure the performance of a given agent-based scheduling method. The proposed mechanism is a pioneering approach for performance evaluation of bidding-based MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling. The proposed method and evaluation methodology can be used to run tests in different manufacturing floors since it is independent of the workshop configuration. Moreover, the evaluation results presented in this paper show the key factors and scenarios that most affect the market-like MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling.

  15. Bid Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    for larger rms does not guarantee market prices below that cap. A suffciently high bid floor only for smaller firms destroys some or all pure strategy equilibria despite their prices being above the bid floor. With a general bid floor this happens only with considerably higher bid floors.......This paper examines the effect of bid regulations on the range of potential equilibrium prices in a multi-unit uniform price auction with heterogenous bidders. General bid caps destroy equilibria with prices above the bid cap and create new equilibria with prices way below the cap. A cap only...

  16. 40 CFR 73.71 - Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding. 73.71 Section 73.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.71 Bidding...

  17. Performance Guaranteed Inertia Emulation forDiesel-Wind System Feed Microgrid via ModelReference Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [ORNL; Zhang, Yichen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Djouadi, Seddik [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Olama, Mohammed M. [ORNL

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a model reference control based inertia emulation strategy is proposed. Desired inertia can be precisely emulated through this control strategy so that guaranteed performance is ensured. A typical frequency response model with parametrical inertia is set to be the reference model. A measurement at a specific location delivers the information of disturbance acting on the diesel-wind system to the referencemodel. The objective is for the speed of the diesel-wind system to track the reference model. Since active power variation is dominantly governed by mechanical dynamics and modes, only mechanical dynamics and states, i.e., a swing-engine-governor system plus a reduced-order wind turbine generator, are involved in the feedback control design. The controller is implemented in a three-phase diesel-wind system feed microgrid. The results show exact synthetic inertia is emulated, leading to guaranteed performance and safety bounds.

  18. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  19. Status of assessment tools on the performance guarantee contents of backfill, bulkhead, tunnel and pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Susumu; Fujita, Tomoo; Yui, Mikazu

    2006-03-01

    In order to contribute to the safety standards and guidelines which a regulator will decide, a state-of-the-art assessment method is investigated and summarized in tables about performance guarantee contents of backfill, bulkhead, tunnel (access, main, connecting, disposal) and disposal pit. In addition, examples of assessment tools are described. In this report, summary of (1) basic properties of bentonite, including swelling, mechanical and hydraulic properties, (2) long-term behavior of bentonite, including extrusion/erosion into host rock, and alteration, (3) effect of high pH plume from cementitious material and (4) mechanical stability of the near-field is described. Check points, assessment methods for (based on the data obtained from the experimental results, the estimation value obtained from empirical equations and database, and the modeling calculations) and latest results of these R and D programs were also summarized. (author)

  20. Studies on the performance guarantee for the engineering barrier system on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Susumu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kurihara, Yuji; Jintoku, Takashi; Taniguti, Naoki; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji; Shibata, Masahiro; Honma, Nobuyuki

    2003-03-01

    In order to contribute to the safety standards and guidelines upon which a administration decides, examination for clarifying how to reflect the result obtained by future R and D was performed. From a viewpoint of the long-term safety on geological disposal, the items which should guarantee the performance of each element which constitutes disposal institutions (by this report, they are the overpack and the buffer material) were extracted, and it was shown what a performance guarantee is concretely offered about these items. Furthermore, based on the H12 report as a situation of present R and D for a method of a performance guarantee, the subjects considered that a future R and D is required were extracted. Moreover, the items of a safety standard and guideline were assumed, and the relation between these items and a performance guarantee items was arranged. One arrangement for clarifying whether to be reflected in the safety regulations and guidelines whose R and D subjects extracted from the performance guarantee items was shown. (author)

  1. Optimal bidding strategy of battery storage in power markets considering performance based regulation and battery cycle life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Guannan; Chen, Qixin; Kang, Chongqing

    2016-01-01

    to reduce the complexity of the model. This novel bidding model would help investor-owned battery storages better decide their bidding and operational schedules and investors to estimate the battery storage’s economic viability. The validity of the proposed model is proven by case study results....

  2. Optimal GENCO bidding strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    Electricity industries worldwide are undergoing a period of profound upheaval. The conventional vertically integrated mechanism is being replaced by a competitive market environment. Generation companies have incentives to apply novel technologies to lower production costs, for example: Combined Cycle units. Economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units becomes a non-convex optimization problem, which is difficult if not impossible to solve by conventional methods. Several techniques are proposed here: Mixed Integer Linear Programming, a hybrid method, as well as Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Algorithms share a common mechanism, stochastic searching per generation. The stochastic property makes evolutionary algorithms robust and adaptive enough to solve a non-convex optimization problem. This research implements GA, EP, and PS algorithms for economic dispatch with Combined Cycle units, and makes a comparison with classical Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The electricity market equilibrium model not only helps Independent System Operator/Regulator analyze market performance and market power, but also provides Market Participants the ability to build optimal bidding strategies based on Microeconomics analysis. Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) is attractive compared to traditional models. This research identifies a proper SFE model, which can be applied to a multiple period situation. The equilibrium condition using discrete time optimal control is then developed for fuel resource constraints. Finally, the research discusses the issues of multiple equilibria and mixed strategies, which are caused by the transmission network. Additionally, an advantage of the proposed model for merchant transmission planning is discussed. A market simulator is a valuable training and evaluation tool to assist sellers, buyers, and regulators to understand market performance and make better decisions. A traditional optimization model may not be enough to consider the distributed

  3. 23 CFR 635.113 - Bid opening and bid tabulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.113 Bid opening and bid tabulations. (a) All bids... contractors, during the period following the opening of bids and before the award of the contract shall not be...

  4. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  5. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany

    2004-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the verity of the common perception that single-bid orders are more costly, lower in performance quality, and shorter in pre-award process time than competitively-bid orders...

  6. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany

    2004-01-01

    .... To this end, we look at why single-bid orders exist in the current procurement system, how these orders measure up to competitively-bid orders in cost and performance, and how customer satisfaction...

  7. A set-theoretic model reference adaptive control architecture for disturbance rejection and uncertainty suppression with strict performance guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Ehsan; Gruenwald, Benjamin C.; Yucelen, Tansel; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2018-05-01

    Research in adaptive control algorithms for safety-critical applications is primarily motivated by the fact that these algorithms have the capability to suppress the effects of adverse conditions resulting from exogenous disturbances, imperfect dynamical system modelling, degraded modes of operation, and changes in system dynamics. Although government and industry agree on the potential of these algorithms in providing safety and reducing vehicle development costs, a major issue is the inability to achieve a-priori, user-defined performance guarantees with adaptive control algorithms. In this paper, a new model reference adaptive control architecture for uncertain dynamical systems is presented to address disturbance rejection and uncertainty suppression. The proposed framework is predicated on a set-theoretic adaptive controller construction using generalised restricted potential functions.The key feature of this framework allows the system error bound between the state of an uncertain dynamical system and the state of a reference model, which captures a desired closed-loop system performance, to be less than a-priori, user-defined worst-case performance bound, and hence, it has the capability to enforce strict performance guarantees. Examples are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed set-theoretic model reference adaptive control architecture.

  8. Economic bid evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, T.

    1975-01-01

    When it is intended to install a new nuclear power station, the usual procedure is to invite for tenders. In due course, bids will be received from various manufacturers, out of which the most favourable one is then to be selected. Appraisal is concluded in the Economic Bid Evaluation, the purpose of which is to define the economically most favourable bid by comparing overall costs and benefits of the various alternatives. Thus, Economic Bid Evaluation is a most important instrument for deciding on award of contract. (orig.) [de

  9. Analysis of Third Party Loan Guarantee and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loans in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Household loans remain the engine to productivity and economic growth globally. Non-prime household loan is essential, because it enables the borrowers with no collateral to access credit from Microfinance Banks. The survival and sustainability of non-prime household loans globally is therefore significant. Credit risk however remains the main deterrent of the soundness of Microfinance Banks. This leads to the poor performance of microfinance institutions in many economies in the world. Several countries globally are making inroad in reducing the credit risks, which lead to the poor performance of Microfinance Banks. It is still unknown why the credit risk affects the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks domiciled in Kenya. The reason for conducting this study is to determine the level at which the third party loan guarantee and the performance of non-prime household loans relate to the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. Particularly, this study is to determine how the amount secured by guarantee, recoveries from guarantors, percentage of loan secured, and percentage recoveries from guarantors relate to the performance of nonprime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The population was 516 senior management employees of the banks. The researcher conducted a multiple regression analysis for determining the relationship between the amount secured by guarantee—recoveries from guarantors, percentage granted, and percentage recoveries—and the performance of non-prime household loans. The R and R2 were used for determining the strength of the relationship and the coefficient of determination at 0.05 level of significance of variables. The result of this study reveals that there exists a strong relationship between the dependent and independent variables, thereby contradicting the null hypothesis, which states that the relationship does not exist. The percentage of the recoveries from the guarantors over the

  10. The BID`s of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    , the aim is to present a theoretical and analytical framework for understanding such ? urban mini territories? both in relation to urban power an politics, and in relation to the spatial layout of such forms of urban intervention. In section two the paper shortly describe the phenomenon of New York BIDs....... In the third part of the paper empirical field data from selected New York BIDs are presented. Finally the paper ends with a section in which concluding remarks will be accompanied by reflections on the comparative similarities and differences to European cities....

  11. Does a “Ceo Chairman” Guarantee Better Performance from a Firm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srbek Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of the state of knowledge in the field of agency theory. The managerial power approach assumes that a chief executive officer is able to affect the scale of his or her pay. However, Kaplan (2012 and others see a different picture of the corporate-governance landscape, hence they provide certain market-based explanations for high compensation. Our paper examines the relationship between a firm’s performance and the amount of managerial compensation, and the ability of a CEO to affect a board’s decision regarding his or her total compensation. The dataset consists of 75 companies traded in the capital market in the US. Our panel dataset covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. We developed a single equation panel data model. The resulting parameter values provide a different picture of CEO power and the interconnection between a firm’s performance and CEO pay in both sectors.

  12. How does the revelation of previous bid affect new bid?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yingzi; Gallardo, R. Karina; McCracken, Vicki A.; Yue, Chengyan; Luby, James; McFerson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the revelation of posted bids in second-price experimental auctions for apple quality attributes under the experimental design where information is added progressively across rounds. We find that the revelation of posted bids does not bias the following bids and that increased information about the apple increases the accuracy of participants’ following bids. Therefore, the final round bids are used to evaluate consumers’ willingness to pay for the apple ...

  13. Using Multiple Paths in NoCs for Guaranteed Resource Allocation and Improved Best Effort Performance in NoCs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovadia, I.; Ha, Y.; Corporaal, H.

    2005-01-01

    Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) provide communication platforms to Systems-on-Chips (SoCs). In NoCs, channels are generally shared between traffic flows, resulting in contention. However, certain flows require delivery guarantees. Differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) is achieved by providing guaranteed

  14. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  15. Who wins olympic bids?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of hosting the Olympic Games is attractive to many cities around the world. This article examines 147 variables’ potential to discriminate successful from unsuccessful Olympic bids. Our stepwise, rank-ordered logistic regression model includes 10 determinants supporting the contention that economic, political and sports/Olympic factors are important for winning the host city election. IOC members favor cities if more than 2/3 of the population support the bid, but disfavor biddin...

  16. Bid Responsiveness and the Acceptable Nonconforming Bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    the. fuidaIenta prin ciples of responsiveness. The Conhl trot ler, hnwever, has ta ken this sairn "reasonable- tit’, ’ t. ,t ’’ , T (I I e l iLd i I...cvo rcome otherwise material deviation i f; the bid, thereby renderin gj it a(,ceptable. Tne Comptroller General’s o) p loach to the , i..sue ft

  17. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid markets based on supplier-market interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigdeli, N.; Afshar, K.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for pay-as-bid market suppliers is introduced. This method is based on a systematic analysis of interactions of market with the suppliers via several market indices as well as forecasting important indices by artificial neural networks. Besides, the proposed method considers the practical limitations in the system and deals with incomplete information handling, closely. Next, a strategic bidding approach is proposed for optimal bidding by the suppliers. In these investigations, the paper focus is on the experimental situation of Iran electricity market as a pay-as-bid market and a sample generating company with several generating units from this market is considered as the benchmark. The results of applying this approach to this generating company are representative of good performance of the proposed method.

  18. Studies on the performance guarantee for the engineered barrier system on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Kurihara, Yuji; Kawakami, Susumu; Jintoku, Takashi; Yui, Mikazu

    2003-05-01

    In order to contribute to the safety standards and guidelines upon which a governmental administration decide, examination for clarifying how to reflect the result obtained by future R and D was performed. From a view point of long-term safety on geological disposal, the items which should guarantee the performance of each element which constitutes disposal institutions (by this report, they are the backfill, the plug, the tunnel, and the pit) were extracted, and it was shown what a performance guarantee is concretely offered about these items. Furthermore, based on H12 report as a situation of present R and D for a method of a performance guarantee, the subjects considered that a future R and D is required were extracted. (author)

  19. Telemonitoring guaranteed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinette, J Y [TECSOL, Perpignan (France)

    1990-01-01

    The design of any product follows 3 stages: research development and demonstration, before diffusion. The level of experimental detail required (and therefore, the number of measuring points) decreases with each stage. The demonstration phase must be the demonstration that all is running well and of the economical interest of the solar solution. That is why the real time supervision of strategic points of the installation, allowing both the rapid localization of any incident, and the establishment of detailed daily energy balance sheets, seems to be particularly well adapted to following up demonstration projects. At the end of the monitoring period, the productivity of the system must be proven; for that, collected datas must be analyzed every day, in order to make necessary corrections or adjustings and to verify as soon as possible their influence. At that stage, data analysis is more important than the accuracy of measurements. In order to simplify collected datas analysis, results are presented by 3 means: classical data sheet, with daily or hourly values, which are automatically printed; synoptic schemes, that group simplified scheme of the installation and energy and consumption flows (for weekly sheets); and the monthly results are presented on a bill (but with nothing to pay). In the following pages, you can find examples of the main presentation sheets of different installations for solar thermal heating.

  20. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, P.W.; Bramley, A.D.; Castellani, J.M. [Little (Arthur D.), London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. We believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries - for governments and companies alike. The means of combating `tactical overbidding` rests largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasising that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations. (author)

  1. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, P.W.; Bramley, A.D.; Castellani, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. We believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries - for governments and companies alike. The means of combating 'tactical overbidding' rests largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasising that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations. (author)

  2. Effects of Soft Loans and Credit Guarantees on Performance of Supported Firms: Evidence from the Czech Public Programme START

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Dvouletý

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to conduct an empirical evaluation of the Czech public programme START, which was funded from the European Regional Development Fund. The programme lasted from 2007–2011, and supported new entrepreneurs through the zero interest soft loans and credit guarantees. The counterfactual analysis (using three matching techniques: propensity score, nearest neighbour, and kernel was conducted on the firm level and investigated the changes in financial performance (net profits, return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE, sales, assets turnover, and debt ratio of the supported firms four years after the end of intervention. The obtained findings could not support the hypothesis assuming a positive impact of the programme on the firm’s performance. On the contrary, supported companies reported on average lower sales and lower return on assets, when compared to the control group. The remaining variables could not prove any statistically significant impact of the programme. Indicators measuring firm’s profitability (net profit, return on assets, and return on equity suggested a negative influence of the programme and the variable representing debt ratio further indicated that firms that were supported by the programme reported on average higher debt ratio in comparison with the control group. Several policy implications are discussed in the study.

  3. Quality guaranteed theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ui Cheol

    1988-08-01

    This book tells of introduction of quality guaranteed theory like definition of quality and quality management, quality guaranteed, requirement of quality guaranteed, contrast of QA and QC, quality of guaranteed object, activity of quality guaranteed, set-up of quality that is naturally supposed such as quality guaranteed in plan and design, check of quality guaranteed, order of claim processing and cases of claim management.

  4. Technical bid evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchhausen, E. v.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown which kind of problems arise for the owners of the project and what is the recommendable method of approach. A detailed description of the necessary working team, information in delegation of work and tasks of procedure, criteria of valuation and classification method. Examples of schemes are shown which are the basis of the technical bid evaluation: tables 'data of system/component' and 'scope of supply'. The procedure of normalization of the bids and of specifying the owners supplies are explained. The content of the final report is described. (HP) [de

  5. Essays on bid rigging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seres, Gyula

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating prices in auctions raises antitrust concerns. Collusion lowers the revenue of the auctioneer and creates information rents. Bid rigging is a prevalent phenomenon and the affected market is enormous. Public procurement amounts to between 10 and 25 percent of national GDP in

  6. Competitive bidding tactics for new exploration concessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, P.D.; Bramley, A.D.; Castellani, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In some (mostly developing) countries, oil companies compete for new exploration agreements by bidding the key economic parameters. Companies are faced with a trade off between profitability of potential discoveries and probability of winning the bid. The authors believe that an increasing number of companies are making generous offers in order to win bids, in the expectation of being able to renegotiate economic terms if they make a discovery. This tactic is hard to recognize and may have a good chance of success, due to the strength of the oil company's bargaining position upon discovery. However, the tactic damages the performance of the E and P industry in developing countries --- for governments and companies alike. This paper reports that the means of combating tactical underbidding rest largely with governments and national oil companies in making better contracts and taking a cautious approach to the evaluation of bids. Reputable companies can contribute to the process by emphasizing that their bids are formulated in good faith and based on sound commercial considerations

  7. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants. 1999 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in a country is a major undertaking for all entities involved. The necessary planning work and co-ordination of the different fields of interest, from the point of view of governments, authorities, industries, universities and of the general public, must be done on a long term basis. This IAEA report may help support the work of the utility in the bidding process, especially in the economic bid evaluation. The different methods, aspects and parameters described should be regarded as a guide. The report's target criterion of lowest levelised discounted electricity generation costs (LDEGC) is a very useful and practical way of ranking bids. In view of the huge investment needed, the owner's country must be fully committed to a nuclear programme. A nuclear programme also requires a guarantee of long term financing, which implies the provision of local and foreign contributions. The necessary staff for all of the various areas of a nuclear programme must be recruited and trained. Within the planning phase, the bid invitation specification (BIS) has to be prepared and sent out in order to receive bids for the scope of supply and services desired by the owner. The evaluation of the bids received from the suppliers in response to the BIS is a huge and long-term task. The evaluation process should lead to the selection of the best bidder and at least to the final decision on the partners constructing the NPP. The responsibility for the entire bidding process lies with the plant owner. For technology transfer, two requirements need to be satisfied: the owner needs a well established and experienced engineering capability, and the supplier must be ready to transfer the agreed technology in such a way as to support the project goals. During the bid evaluation process, all aspects of the technical, financial and contractual approaches must be considered. Nowadays, political, socioeconomic and public acceptance aspects play a

  8. Review of US utility demand-side bidding programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we review utility experiences with demand-side management (DSM) bidding programs. Since 1987, about 35 US utilities have signed long-term contracts with developers of DSM resources (ie energy service companies and customers) to provide a quantity of demand and energy savings at specified prices. Total resource costs range between 5.4 and 8 cents/kWh for DSM bidding programs where complete information on program costs is available. Almost all DSM bidding programs have been cost-effective compared with the utility's own supply-side alternatives, although there is substantial disagreement regarding the value of these programs compared with the utility's own DSM programs. In most bidding programs, payments to bidders account for between 70 and 90% of total program costs. Variation in winning bid prices is influenced primarily by DSM bid ceiling prices, differences in the mix of measures and markets targeted by developers, and the degree of performance risk borne by the DSM developer. Bids targeting residential customers averaged 6.2 cents/kWh compared with about 5.0 cents/kWh for commercial/industrial bids. We also compared the costs of acquiring lighting savings in DSM bidding contracts with a sample of 20 utility sponsored commercial/industrial lighting programs. We found that, on average total resource costs were slightly higher in bidding programs (6.1 vs 5.6 cents/kWh), although ratepayers bear significantly less performance risk in bidding programs compared with traditional utility-sponsored DSM programs. (author)

  9. Bidding strategy in pay-as-bid power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Nazarian, H.

    2007-01-01

    Electricity markets around the world can be classified as pool-based electricity markets; pure bilateral contract markets; and hybrid markets. The bidding strategy has emerged as an important issue for producers in pool-based electricity markets. Power producers can use several approaches to develop bidding strategies that determine the optimal bid to maximize profit. The various approaches fall into 2 categories, notably forecasting market clearing prices, and estimating the behaviour of other competitors. This paper presented a simple and efficient approach for developing a bidding strategy in pay-as-bid electricity markets. It used the multiple step bid to estimate the optimal bid. One step was allocated to revenue earning while the other steps were allocated to information acquiring. Information acquiring steps obtain information from the market for estimating the optimal bid of the next day. The proposed method was used at a specified power generating unit operating in the Iranian electricity market. The study showed that the proposed bidding strategy can increase the total revenue of the unit by thirty nine per cent. 22 refs., 8 figs

  10. Procurement of construction services: a case study on bidding competition in Singapore public sector contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, B. L.; Yan, Y.

    2018-04-01

    There are many variables that public clients need to consider in their bidding procedure to enhance efficiency in their procurement for construction services. This paper focusses on the competitive bidding process for public sector procurement of construction services in Singapore. A distinctive feature of the Singapore government competitive bidding process is that full bidding feedback information is released to all competing bidders (and public). The specific objectives are: (i) to examine the degree of competition in the construction markets; and (ii) to examine the bidding performance of competing bidders. Based on a collection of bidding data for a 15-month period, the results show the market environment of the Singapore public sector construction contracting is highly competitive with long bidder lists. In selection of contractors, only 50% of the contracts were awarded to lowest bidders. The results also show that the competing contractors can be broadly classified into three groups based on their bidding performance in terms of number of bidding attempts, bidding success rate and bidding competitiveness. These results provide a useful insight into the bidding competition in the Singapore public sector construction contracting, especially to new market entrants and foreign contractors who want to bid for jobs in Singapore.

  11. Contract Bidding for Rehabilitation Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Alan D.

    This book for sheltered workshop administrators outlines and explains the essential elements of an accurate work bid. Part 1 discusses issues that need to be resolved prior to calculating costs for a potential job. Part 2 describes the factors necessary for determining accurate bids, including direct costs (job setup, direct labor, direct…

  12. Bid invitations for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van.

    1975-01-01

    Types of bid invitations, basic requirements on bid invitation documents, basic content of a turnkey bid invitation (bid invitation letter, instructions to the bidders, terms and conditions of the draft contract, technical specifications, site data and information), nuclear fuel procurement, differences turnkey - non-turnkey, legal, commerical, and technical matters concerning the contract document. (HP) [de

  13. 24 CFR 291.304 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bidding process. 291.304 Section 291.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Family Mortgage Loans § 291.304 Bidding process. (a) Submission of bids. All bids must be submitted to...

  14. Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz M. Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.

  15. The Netherlands Bid Bood (GBIF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, W.

    2001-01-01

    GBIF=Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The Bid Book was prepared for the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sciences, the Netherlands by a working group, co-ordinated by the University of Amsterdam.

  16. Effects of Suboptimal Bidding in Combinatorial Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Shabalin, Pasha; Bichler, Martin

    Though the VCG auction assumes a central place in the mechanism design literature, there are a number of reasons for favoring iterative combinatorial auction designs. Several promising ascending auction formats have been developed throughout the past few years based on primal-dual and subgradient algorithms and linear programming theory. Prices are interpreted as a feasible dual solution and the provisional allocation is interpreted as a feasible primal solution. iBundle( 3) (Parkes and Ungar 2000), dVSV (de Vries et al. 2007) and the Ascending Proxy auction (Ausubel and Milgrom 2002) result in VCG payoffs when the coalitional value function satisfies the buyer submodularity condition and bidders bid straightforward, which is an expost Nash equilibrium in that case. iBEA and CreditDebit auctions (Mishra and Parkes 2007) do not even require the buyer submodularity condition and achieve the same properties for general valuations. In many situations, however, one cannot assume bidders to bid straightforward and it is not clear from the theory how these non-linear personalized price auctions (NLPPAs) perform in this case. Robustness of auctions with respect to different bidding behavior is therefore a critical issue for any application. We have conducted a large number of computational experiments to analyze the performance of NLPPA designs with respect to different bidding strategies and different valuation models. We compare the results of NLPPAs to those of the VCG auction and those of iterative combinatorial auctions with approximate linear prices, such as ALPS (Bichler et al. 2009) and the Combinatorial Clock auction (Porter et al. 2003).

  17. Government guarantees and public debt in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Bajo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Government fi nancial and performance guarantees have been issued in Croatia since 1996, to support funding and ensure favourable borrowing conditions in the fi nancial market for companies in majority state ownership. However, government guarantees have rarely been part of defi ned strategies and goals of public debt and risk management. Despite their steady growth, the structure of active guarantees and their infl uence on Croatian public debt are still unknown. This paper analyses the amount and structure of state guarantees, their maturities and the authority and accountability for their management, and it compares the structure of guarantees in terms of economic sectors. The main objective of the paper is to determine the infl uence of government guarantees on the public debt growth.

  18. Identifying the Gene Signatures from Gene-Pathway Bipartite Network Guarantees the Robust Model Performance on Predicting the Cancer Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the prediction of cancer prognosis in the clinical researches, various algorithms have been developed to construct the predictive models with the gene signatures detected by DNA microarrays. Due to the heterogeneity of the clinical samples, the list of differentially expressed genes (DEGs generated by the statistical methods or the machine learning algorithms often involves a number of false positive genes, which are not associated with the phenotypic differences between the compared clinical conditions, and subsequently impacts the reliability of the predictive models. In this study, we proposed a strategy, which combined the statistical algorithm with the gene-pathway bipartite networks, to generate the reliable lists of cancer-related DEGs and constructed the models by using support vector machine for predicting the prognosis of three types of cancers, namely, breast cancer, acute myeloma leukemia, and glioblastoma. Our results demonstrated that, combined with the gene-pathway bipartite networks, our proposed strategy can efficiently generate the reliable cancer-related DEG lists for constructing the predictive models. In addition, the model performance in the swap analysis was similar to that in the original analysis, indicating the robustness of the models in predicting the cancer outcomes.

  19. tBid and cardiolipin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Perry, Mark; Rostovtseva, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    The abundant presence of cardiolipin (CL) in mitochondria membranes has given rise to the suspicion that this lipid play be an essential role in triggering cell apoptosis, possibly by mechanically destabilizing the host membrane and thus enhancing the effect of the tBid apoptosis protein. Therefore...... and absence of CL. We interpret this as a formation of patches of protein-lipid clusters that in effect reduce the amount of expandable fluid membrane area. The rupture tension falls significantly as soon as tBid is present on the outer vesicle membrane....

  20. Emerging behavior in electronic bidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I.; Jeong, H.; Kahng, B.; Barabási, A.-L.

    2003-07-01

    We characterize the statistical properties of a large number of agents on two major online auction sites. The measurements indicate that the total number of bids placed in a single category and the number of distinct auctions frequented by a given agent follow power-law distributions, implying that a few agents are responsible for a significant fraction of the total bidding activity on the online market. We find that these agents exert an unproportional influence on the final price of the auctioned items. This domination of online auctions by an unusually active minority may be a generic feature of all online mercantile processes.

  1. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  2. 36 CFR 223.51 - Bid monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bid monitoring. 223.51 Section 223.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Bid monitoring. Each Regional Forester shall monitor bidding patterns on timber sales to determine if...

  3. 42 CFR 414.910 - Bidding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding process. 414.910 Section 414.910 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Under Part B § 414.910 Bidding process. (a) Entities may bid to furnish CAP drugs in all competitive...

  4. 36 CFR 223.231 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.231... methods. The Contracting Officer or designated forest officer shall offer advertised sales of special forest products through sealed bid or sealed bid followed by oral auction. The method selected shall: (a...

  5. 30 CFR 256.44 - Bids disqualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by law, regulation, lease or stipulation to lease shall not disqualify an otherwise qualified bid; or... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bids disqualified. 256.44 Section 256.44... OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Issuance of Leases § 256.44 Bids disqualified. The...

  6. 10 CFR 452.5 - Bidding procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for the reverse auction. (e) Bid evaluation and incentive awards selection procedures include the... bids, preference will be given to the lowest tied bidder based on DOE's evaluation of the extent to... feedstock suppliers. (4) In the event more than one lowest tied bid equally meets the standards in paragraph...

  7. NCA & Credit Guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stooppn

    purposes of the National Credit Act; what the definition of a credit guarantee set out ...... Scholtz et al National Credit Act in para 8.2.4; Scott et al Law of Commerce ..... Eitelberg E "Autonomy of Documentary Credit Undertakings in South African.

  8. Technical evaluation of bids for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1976-01-01

    A bid evaluation method is described which, it is claimed, facilitates a distinct and objective judgement of bids, taking into account the importance of the components, systems, and technical aspects evaluated with regard to the operation and safety of a nuclear power station. The evaluation basically consists of a cost assessment of the scope of supply deviations and a numerical evaluation of the technical design, the latter being a particularly novel feature of the method. The logic applied in both processes is shown. Main evaluation criteria which are applied for most components and systems are given as reliability, function and performance, safety, operation and maintenance, and materials. The judgements given to these evaluation criteria form the basis of the numerical bid evaluation described, which is carried out with the aid of computer programs. (U.K.)

  9. The impacts of different bidding segment numbers on bidding strategies of generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Yu, C.W.; Wen, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, generation companies design bidding strategies to maximize their individual profits subject to the constraints imposed by bidding rules. For a generation company, obviously, the optimal bidding strategy and hence the potential of exercising market power may be different if different bidding rules are employed. Hence, a well-designed bidding protocol is vital to the effective and efficient operation of an electricity market. Based on the widely used stepwise bidding rules, the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the bidding strategies of generation companies are investigated. This study is focused on a price-taker generation company in an electricity market. A probabilisic model is used to simulate electricity price in the competitive market environment. With a given number of bidding segments, the optimal bidding strategy for a price-taker generation company is then developed. The effects of risk preferences as well as information asymmetry on the optimal bidding strategy are also examined. With particular references to the impacts of different numbers of bidding segments on the optimal bidding strategy, a numerical example is employed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model and methodology. (author)

  10. Sealed-Bid Auction of Dutch Mussels : Statistical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analy- sis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an

  11. Sealed-bid auction of Netherlands mussels: statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analysis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an

  12. COMPETITIVE BIDDING IN MEDICARE ADVANTAGE: EFFECT OF BENCHMARK CHANGES ON PLAN BIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices in Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006–2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power. PMID:24308881

  13. Competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage: effect of benchmark changes on plan bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Bidding has been proposed to replace or complement the administered prices that Medicare pays to hospitals and health plans. In 2006, the Medicare Advantage program implemented a competitive bidding system to determine plan payments. In perfectly competitive models, plans bid their costs and thus bids are insensitive to the benchmark. Under many other models of competition, bids respond to changes in the benchmark. We conceptualize the bidding system and use an instrumental variable approach to study the effect of benchmark changes on bids. We use 2006-2010 plan payment data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, published county benchmarks, actual realized fee-for-service costs, and Medicare Advantage enrollment. We find that a $1 increase in the benchmark leads to about a $0.53 increase in bids, suggesting that plans in the Medicare Advantage market have meaningful market power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 48 CFR 14.202-8 - Electronic bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic bids. 14.202-8... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-8 Electronic bids. In accordance with subpart 4.5, contracting officers may authorize use of electronic commerce for submission of bids. If...

  15. Particle swarm optimization based optimal bidding strategy in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an electricity market generating companies and large consumers need suitable bidding models to maximize their profits. Therefore, each supplier and large consumer will bid strategically for choosing the bidding coefficients to counter the competitors bidding strategy. In this paper, bidding strategy problem modeled as an ...

  16. 48 CFR 14.202-1 - Bidding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding time. 14.202-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.202-1 Bidding time. (a) Policy. A reasonable time for prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids shall be allowed in all invitations, consistent...

  17. Terror in the Board Room: The Bid-Opening Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, James

    2009-01-01

    Competitive bids and the bid-opening process are the cornerstones of public school purchasing. The bid-opening process does not begin on the day of the bid opening. It begins with good planning by the purchasing agent to ensure that the advertised bid complies with the public school contracts law. In New Jersey, that raises the following…

  18. Impact of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies on Bid Success in the Nigeria Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolulope Samuel Fawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several types of researches have been carried out prior to the new millennium on the subject of bidding strategies in the construction industry. Today, organizations are faced with a very complex decision of bid/no-bid because it requires the assessment of large number of highly inter-related variables. The study aims at examining different types of Contractors’ Bidding Strategies (CBS with a view to determining their impact on bid success. In line with the aim, the study objectives include; evaluation of different types of CBS and; assessment of the success rate of contractors’ bid. The method of approach elicits information on the number of projects bided and successes recorded over a period of time. A total of one hundred and seventy-one useable responses were retrieved from questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics, tables and percentages as well as mean item score (MIS were used for data analysis. The study showed that lowest bid, public relations and joint venture bidding strategies have great impact on contractors’ bid success especially on residential, educational and administrative projects in the Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI. Therefore, the study concluded that relationship exists between contractors’ bidding strategies and equivalent successes recorded over a period of time. It is important to also know that lowest bid strategy still remains the most effective bidding strategy for public works contracting in the NCI.

  19. 36 CFR 223.88 - Bidding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidding methods. 223.88... methods. (a) Competitive sales of National Forest timber shall be offered through either sealed or oral auction bidding. The method chosen for each sale will: (1) Insure open and fair competition, (2) Insure...

  20. Probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection in SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Ma, Shugen

    2016-01-01

    For determining whether kidnapping has happened and which type of kidnapping it is while a robot performs autonomous tasks in an unknown environment, a double guarantee kidnapping detection (DGKD) method has been proposed. The good performance of DGKD in a relative small environment is shown. However, a limitation of DGKD is found in a large-scale environment by our recent work. In order to increase the adaptability of DGKD in a large-scale environment, an improved method called probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection is proposed in this paper to combine probability of features' positions and the robot's posture. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. Stand alone photovoltaic systems: guarantee of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to provide a guarantee of results for system performance for users of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have no back-up generator. The appropriate main performance criterion for PV systems is that a specified load is supplied with power either continuously or intermittently whenever the load requires power. A methodology to evaluate the power availability of stand-alone PV systems has been developed as part of the project, which encompasses power losses due to weather variations. The guarantee of results produced allows users to compare system designs from different manufacturers. (UK)

  2. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  3. Solve the organ shortage: let the bidding begin!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    2001-01-01

    Commercialization of transplantable human organs is the only sure way to end the crisis of their supply. This is best accomplished by implementing a free, non-profit, nationwide, ultimately global online auction market. It should be independent of the current United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) system dealing solely with altruistic donation, and of governmental, sectarian, academic, and other bureaucratic control. The operation of such an auction is described with a hypothetical example. An included provision guarantees equity for poor, uninsured, and indigent recipients. Money accrued can be substantial, and would be disbursed by established formula, with major portions going to donors' families and to special funds to be used to bid for the poor and to defray costs incurred by them. As the organ shortage eases, bid prices should drop, resulting perhaps in eventual altruistic donation. Objections to commericalization based on ethics, bodily sanctity, inequity, pecuniary greed, and the slippery slope tocsin are nullified by cogent arguments and examples. The current situation has worsened despite so-called required request laws, proposed token payments to cover funeral expenses for donor families, and extensive media advertising to spur altruistic donation. Prohibitive national and state laws must be rescinded for the sake of more than 60,000 patients now on lengthening waiting lists. A profession committed to saving lives is duty-bound to endorse, help implement, and participate in an auction system dedicated to that end.

  4. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    generator operating point in the P-Q plane. Four computer programs were developed to automatically perform the market auction simulations using the equal incremental cost rule. The software calculates the payoffs for the two competing competitors, dispatches six generators, and allocates ancillary services for 64 combinations of bidding strategies, three levels of system demand, and three different types of competitors. Matrix Game theory was utilized to calculate Nash Equilibrium solutions and mixed-strategy Nash solutions as the optimal generator bidding strategies. A method to incorporate ancillary services into the generation bidding strategy, to assure an adequate supply of ancillary services, and to allocate these necessary resources to the on-line units was devised. The optimal generator bid strategy in a power auction was shown to be the Nash Equilibrium solution found in two-player variable-sum matrix games.

  5. Competitive bidding might create antitrust problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased use and complexity of competitive bidding systems for new generating capacity there is the possibility that federal antitrust laws may be violated. Anyone violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act could face stiff penalties. Falling into this category of violations are agreements among competitors, price fixing, and elimination of competitors through the allocations of customers and/or territories. It does not have to be in writing for someone to be charged with bid rigging. In fact, it is stated that bid rigging is typically proved from the testimony of one of the persons involved. According to this paper, a charge of rigging the bids can come from: One or more bidders offering to provide power at a higher price than another bidder. Two or more bidders offering to supply power at the same price. One or more potential bidders not submitting a bid or intentionally bidding high. One bidder and not the others offering a more favorable construction schedule or an alternative proposal. One firm offering to renegotiate if its bid is rejected while the other bidders refuse. These are just some of the agreements that are illegal. The penalties for such violations of the Sherman Act are severe: fines of up to $100,000 and up to three years in jail for individuals; up to $1 million in fines for corporations

  6. The Effect of Information Feedback in Construction Bidding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Soo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.

  7. Study of impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on bidding strategies of GENCOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoling Chen; He, Y.; Song, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the impacts of physical contracts and financial contracts on the bidding strategies of GENCOs, including Physical Bilateral Contracts, Contracts for Difference (CfDs), Call Options and Put Options under discriminatory pricing mechanism. The integrated bidding decision model is applied, which has three main modules - probabilistic local marginal price simulator, market-oriented unit commitment model and multi-criteria decision system. The numerical results show that the GENCO will choose different bidding strategies if it holds different types of contract. The results also suggest that CfDs have the best performance for risk alleviation. (author)

  8. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  9. 48 CFR 14.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... of individual bids. (a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation... total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well. (g) Any bid may be rejected if...

  10. 48 CFR 814.404-2 - Rejection of individual bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rejection of individual... Rejection of individual bids. (a) When a contracting officer finds a bid that is being considered for an... nonresponsive an individual bid that is not in compliance with the Government's bid acceptance time, since...

  11. The Committee System For Competitive Bids In Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt ...

  12. 7 CFR 1955.147 - Sealed bid sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Law 103-354 will accept the bid or bids which are in the best financial interest of the Government... agency under Public Law 103-354 office. All bids will be date and time stamped. Advertisements and... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sealed bid sales. 1955.147 Section 1955.147...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.95 - Public bidding on bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public bidding. The Agency will not submit a bid at the advertised sale unless required by State law, nor... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public bidding on bonds. 1780.95 Section 1780.95... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.95 Public bidding on bonds. Bonds...

  14. A comparison of pay-as-bid and marginal pricing in electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongjun

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal

  15. 23 CFR 635.111 - Tied bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.111 Tied bids. (a) The STD may tie or permit the tying of Federal-aid...-financed highway projects may be combined in one contract if the conditions of the projects are so similar...

  16. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  17. Europe wrestles with ITER site bid

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, T

    2003-01-01

    "The European Union is in a quandary over whether to put forward the French or Spanish site to host ITER, a $5 billion magnetic fusion experiment intended to prove the feasability of fusion energy. The decision is set for 27 November, with the final site selection, between the victorious European bid and bids from Canada and Japan, to follow within a couple of months" (1 page)

  18. Switching Fuzzy Guaranteed Cost Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqin Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of guaranteed cost control for a class of nonlinear networked control systems (NCSs with time-varying delay. A guaranteed cost controller design method is proposed to achieve the desired control performance based on the switched T-S fuzzy model. The switching mechanism is introduced to handle the uncertainties of NCSs. Based on Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for the existence of state feedback robust guaranteed cost controller are presented. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to guarantee system’s global asymptotic stability and quality of service (QoS.

  19. A dynamic replicator model of the players' bids in an oligopolistic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei-Ardakani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the replicator dynamics of the power suppliers' bids in an oligopolistic electricity market are derived for both the fixed and variable demand cases. The replicator dynamics stability analysis is also performed. The dynamics of the electricity markets are the results of players' decisions. The physical parameters of the power systems (such as the lines capacities, voltage limitations, etc.) also affect the market dynamics indirectly, through the changes in players' behaviors. Assuming rational players, an optimal bidding strategy for constructing the supply function (SF) of a generating firm is presented and based on that, the dynamics of the bid replicators are studied. Both fixed demands and price sensitive demands are taken into account. The replicator model is presented in the well-known state space structure. A case study is presented to show the applicability of the developed dynamic replicator bid model, and also to show how the Nash-SFE equilibrium evolves over time. (author)

  20. 10 CFR 609.10 - Loan Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accepted accounting principles and practices. The non-guaranteed portion (if any) of any Guaranteed... examination, to any pertinent books, documents, papers, and records of the Borrower, Eligible Lender or other... transferring Eligible Lender was performing these functions and transfer such functions to the new Eligible...

  1. 7 CFR 1720.9 - Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bonds. (b) The guaranteed bonds shall refer to the guarantee agreement as controlling the terms of the... the holder of the guaranteed bonds; (11) Claim procedures; (12) What constitutes a failure by the...

  2. 27 CFR 6.61 - Guaranteeing loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Guaranteeing Loans § 6.61 Guaranteeing loans. The act by an industry member of guaranteeing any loan or the repayment of any financial...

  3. Subsalt bids, strategies analyzed from Gulf of Mexico Sale 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the bid distributions for the 10 most expensively acquired blocks at the March 1994 Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 147 indicates that the global distribution of bids splits into two groups at a bid of around $2 million. Both the low bid group--25 bids--and the high bid group--17 bids--follow approximately log normal distributions with different slopes. On an individual block basis, four blocks had sufficient numbers of bids (≥5) to indicate a statistical ''mix'' of low and high group bids, but no preference with respect to physical location of the blocks is apparent. On a corporate basis, two bidding groups--Amoco on its own or with partners, Anadarko on its own or with partners--each made a sufficient number of bids to indicate that both groups followed a very similar bidding pattern, both of which are approximately log normally distributed, but that the Amoco groups was systematically conservative relative to the Anadarko group. The paper discusses the overall distribution of bids, distribution by blocks, and bids by corporation

  4. Modelling contractor’s bidding decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to provide a set of tools to facilitate the main stages of the competitive bidding process for construction contractors. These involve 1 deciding whether to bid, 2 calculating the total price, and 3 breaking down the total price into the items of the bill of quantities or the schedule of payments to optimise contractor cash flows. To define factors that affect the decision to bid, the authors rely upon literature on the subject and put forward that multi-criteria methods are applied to calculate a single measure of contract attractiveness (utility value. An attractive contract implies that the contractor is likely to offer a lower price to increase chances of winning the competition. The total bid price is thus to be interpolated between the lowest acceptable and the highest justifiable price based on the contract attractiveness. With the total bid price established, the next step is to split it between the items of the schedule of payments. A linear programming model is proposed for this purpose. The application of the models is illustrated with a numerical example.

  5. BIDS apps: Improving ease of use, accessibility, and reproducibility of neuroimaging data analysis methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof J Gorgolewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rate of progress in human neurosciences is limited by the inability to easily apply a wide range of analysis methods to the plethora of different datasets acquired in labs around the world. In this work, we introduce a framework for creating, testing, versioning and archiving portable applications for analyzing neuroimaging data organized and described in compliance with the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS. The portability of these applications (BIDS Apps is achieved by using container technologies that encapsulate all binary and other dependencies in one convenient package. BIDS Apps run on all three major operating systems with no need for complex setup and configuration and thanks to the comprehensiveness of the BIDS standard they require little manual user input. Previous containerized data processing solutions were limited to single user environments and not compatible with most multi-tenant High Performance Computing systems. BIDS Apps overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the Singularity container technology. As a proof of concept, this work is accompanied by 22 ready to use BIDS Apps, packaging a diverse set of commonly used neuroimaging algorithms.

  6. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Suyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market participators will choose different bidding strategies based on their own cases. We analyze the applicability of bidding strategies under the different conditions, and give suggestions on how to select bidding strategy for the different market participators under different conditions.

  7. Strategic Bidding Behaviors in Nondecreasing Sponsored Search Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kun Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the specific results in the sponsored search auctions, most advertisers submit particular bid prices. The bidding behaviors with specific purposes are called as the strategic bidding. However, some strategic bidding behaviors will result in negative effects, such as the elimination of the equilibrium and the payment increase for some advertisers. The bidding behaviors with negative results are termed as the vindictive bidding. We survey four strategic bidding behaviors which include a rational bidding and three vindictive bidding strategies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the effects resulted by the vindictive bidding and the valuations of the vindictive advertisers. In our experiments, the search engine provider (SEP is benefited by all vindictive bidding behaviors, and the increment of the SEP's revenue is proportional to the degree of the vindictiveness. Bidding vindictively without sacrificing the own utility improves the advertiser's utility with high probability. Moreover, we observe that the SEP's revenue is improved by the following situations. First, the vindictive advertiser with low valuation in the keywords with high market value results in more SEP's revenue than that in the keywords with low market value. The second case is to raise the bidding competition between advertisers.

  8. Bidding in common value fair division games

    OpenAIRE

    Brünner, Tobias; Becker, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In a fair division game an indivisible object with an unknown common value is owned by a group of individuals and should be allocated to one of them while the others are compensated monetarily. Implementing fair division games in the lab, we fi nd many occurrences of the winner's curse under the first-price rule but only few occurrences under the second-price rule. Moreover, bidding behavior is very heterogeneous across subjects. A considerable share of our subjects anticipates that other bid...

  9. Waiting time guarantee - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Socha, Karolina; Bech, Mickael

    2008-01-01

    The rule of extended free choice of hospital, in force since 2002, provides patients with an option to choose a private hospital if the public system is unable to provide a treatment within the guaranteed waiting time of one month. In June 2008 the Government declared in their yearly budget agree...

  10. 48 CFR 14.202-4 - Bid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be described adequately in the specification or purchase description. (2) Bid samples will be used... the bidder's intention was to qualify the bid. (See 14.404-2(d) if the qualification does not conform...

  11. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  12. 47 CFR 1.2103 - Competitive bidding design options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive bidding design options. 1.2103 Section 1.2103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Competitive Bidding Proceedings General Procedures § 1.2103 Competitive bidding design options. (a) The...

  13. 23 CFR 635.112 - Advertising for bids and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.112 Advertising for bids and proposals. (a) No work shall be undertaken on any Federal-aid project, nor shall any project be advertised for bids... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising for bids and proposals. 635.112 Section 635...

  14. 47 CFR 25.403 - Bidding application and certification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding application and certification procedures. 25.403 Section 25.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.403 Bidding...

  15. 48 CFR 731.771 - Bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Nonprofit Organizations 731.771 Bid and proposal costs. Pending the establishment of Government-wide principles in...) below, bid and proposal costs of the current accounting period of both successful and unsuccessful bids...

  16. Metalearning to support competitive electricity market players' strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    a dynamic artificial neural network to create its own output, taking advantage on several learning algorithms already implemented in ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System). The proposed metalearner considers different weights for each strategy, based on their individual performance......Electricity markets are becoming more competitive, to some extent due to the increasing number of players that have moved from other sectors to the power industry. This is essentially resulting from incentives provided to distributed generation. Relevant changes in this domain are still occurring...

  17. 7 CFR 1720.14 - Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. 1720.14 Section 1720.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.14 Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. (a) Any guarantee...

  18. The Banking Counter-Guarantee. Juridical Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolache Rada

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Not so much studied by the specialised literature, the banking counter-guarantee may beconfounded with the other types of guarantee which frequently go with the guaranteed obligation –simple guarantee, collateral guarantee, the confirmation of the guarantee. The counter-guarantee may bean independent or accessory obligation, as the case may be, exclusively governed by its text, accordingto the parties’ will. At the same time, it is a complex juridical act, a contract whose contents cannot beset apart from the contracts connected form an “economic” point of view. The counter-guarantee is theresult of the banking practice and is generated by the need to make amends for the flaws generated bythe direct guarantee. The present research is focused on the analysis of the banking practice, normativeacts, jurisprudence and banking juridical literature.

  19. Sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding work faced with certain risk in recent years, the domestic nuclear power enterprises in the bidding work never stop research and explore the effective ways to guard against legal risks, and has made considerable progress, the eighteenth big country advocates the safety and efficiency of nuclear power development policy, in the face of the subsequent nuclear power construction projects have started, nuclear power enterprise bidding risk management work shoulder heavy responsibilities article through nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management present situation, proposed the sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management countermeasures. (author)

  20. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets. PMID:10180003

  1. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15

  2. Competitive bidding in Medicare: who benefits from competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Landrum, Mary Beth; Chernew, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    To conduct the first empirical study of competitive bidding in Medicare. We analyzed 2006-2010 Medicare Advantage data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services using longitudinal models adjusted for market and plan characteristics. A $1 increase in Medicare's payment to health maintenance organization (HMO) plans led to a $0.49 (P service plans included, higher Medicare payments increased bids less ($0.33 per dollar), suggesting more competition among these latter plans. As a market-based alternative to cost control through administrative pricing, competitive bidding relies on private insurance plans proposing prices they are willing to accept for insuring a beneficiary. However, competition is imperfect in the Medicare bidding market. As much as half of every dollar in increased plan payment went to higher bids rather than to beneficiaries. While having more insurers in a market lowered bids, the design of any bidding system for Medicare should recognize this shortcoming of competition.

  3. Research on bidding quotation game of international project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Xu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Bidding competition of international projects is more and more fierce currently. However, China started late relatively in the field, it is still lack of experience in the aspect of participation in bidding of international projects, and more effective bidding quotation system is not formed till present. Therefore, China can not win through systemic bidding quotation methods compared with many powerful bidding enterprises in the international field. Research on the field is also focused by many aspects as a result. It is urgent to solve related problems. Game theory is combined for analyzing the effectiveness and operability of bidding quotation models mainly based on current situation of bidding market in China international projects during research process in the paper. The research starts with the perspective of bidders for analyzing their game with tenderers and other bidders. The results have operational value aiming at bidders.

  4. Preliminary Study on Bidding Price Ratio Pattern of Public Works in Taiwan - a Case Study of Bridges, Elevated Highways, Tunnels and Subways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Paoshan; Wang, Hanhsiang; Chen, Pingfu; Yeh, Lihsu

    2018-01-01

    Commonly seen tender bid price information of the public works in Taiwan are the budget amount, floor price, awarding price and so on. The ratio of the awarding price to the floor price or budget price is the so-called bidding price ratio. This ratio is influenced by multifaceted factor interactions and is significant to decision making management in engineering projects. Low bidding price ratio may imply that the budget allocation by the tendering agency is inconsiderate or due to the improper market competition of low price bid rigging. High bidding price ratio in turn may indicate that the allocated budget is relatively low, bidder risks in increased contract execution uncertainty or even exclusive bidding scenario. Therefore, the correlation between the bidding price ratio and the aforementioned tender award information is the key issue of this study. This study gathered the tender information of the civil engineering projects in Taiwan within the past seven years. By performing statistical analysis and clustering the gathered data by bidding price ratio, this study investigated the influencing factors and regulations of bidding price ratio using data mining approach.

  5. Risk analysis of bidding strategies in an electricity pay as bid auction: A new theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2007-01-01

    Considering the uncertainties in the power market, the bidding problem has an important role for the power supplier to reach his goals, and using risk management methods to protect against the market risk is unavoidable. Thus, in this paper, the bidding decision making problem is formulated from a supplier's viewpoint in a spot market. The spot market works based on a pay as bid auction or a discriminatory price auction. The market clearing price (MCP) is uncertain, and we consider a probabilistic model for it. Regarding the literature of the bidding problem and forecasting methods of MCP, a normal probability density function, pdf (N(μ m , σ m )), is a proper distribution for the MCP. The statistical parameters of MCP vary on different times (peak and off peak), and considering the concept of supplier risk, their effects on the supplier expected benefit and expected sell from selling energy will be discussed analytically. An important section of this research work concerns the optimal bidding strategy when μ m and σ m vary in different conditions of the power market. Thus, the coefficient of variation index (CV), as a proper measure, mathematically defined as σ m divided by μ m , is introduced to measure the market risk index. In this paper, the CV index is used to analyze and manage the supplier risk and introduce the optimal strategy. Then, for a constant amount of the CV as a theorem, it is proved that: (1) the maximum of the expected sell occurs at a constant level of the supplier risk and (2) the optimal bid price linearly depends on the standard deviation of the MCP. This theorem is generalized for the case that the expected value of the supplier benefit is considered as an objective function in the bidding process. Some numerical examples are presented, and application of the proposed theorem is discussed

  6. Group search optimiser-based optimal bidding strategies with no Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Naresh Kumar; Kumar, Mukesh; Gupta, S. K.

    2017-03-01

    General strategic bidding procedure has been formulated in the literature as a bi-level searching problem, in which the offer curve tends to minimise the market clearing function and to maximise the profit. Computationally, this is complex and hence, the researchers have adopted Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions to transform the model into a single-level maximisation problem. However, the profit maximisation problem with KKT optimality conditions poses great challenge to the classical optimisation algorithms. The problem has become more complex after the inclusion of transmission constraints. This paper simplifies the profit maximisation problem as a minimisation function, in which the transmission constraints, the operating limits and the ISO market clearing functions are considered with no KKT optimality conditions. The derived function is solved using group search optimiser (GSO), a robust population-based optimisation algorithm. Experimental investigation is carried out on IEEE 14 as well as IEEE 30 bus systems and the performance is compared against differential evolution-based strategic bidding, genetic algorithm-based strategic bidding and particle swarm optimisation-based strategic bidding methods. The simulation results demonstrate that the obtained profit maximisation through GSO-based bidding strategies is higher than the other three methods.

  7. Guaranteed cost control of time-delay chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.; Kwon, O.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article studies a guaranteed cost control problem for a class of time-delay chaotic systems. Attention is focused on the design of memory state feedback controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and an adequate level of performance is also guaranteed. Using the Lyapunov method and LMI (linear matrix inequality) framework, two criteria for the existence of the controller are derived in terms of LMIs. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed method

  8. Bidding strategies in Brazilian electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Erick M.; Correia, Paulo B.

    2006-01-01

    Double bilateral contract auctions for electric energy purchase and sale occur in Brazil. These auctions present incomplete information and possess some subjectivity in relation to the future scenario of the Brazilian electric system, inserted in the agent's bids. In this work, a model using Bayes' rule and the game theory is proposed to aid the agent in its bid definition. Through the existing relations between the Conditional probabilities of Bayes' Rule, the model transforms beliefs into information. In this way, the absence of information is supplied and the problem is transformed into a game with complete information. The present study has no worries in terms of transmission constraints, since they are not usually considered in the bilateral contract auctions in Brazil. At the end, Nash equilibrium (NE) can be found through the expected payoff matrix of each agent. (author)

  9. Bidding behavior in a symmetric Chinese auction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Benegas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper purposes a symmetric all-pay auction where the bidders compete neither for an object nor the object itself but for a lottery on receive. That lottery is determined endogenously through the bids. This auction is known as chance auction or more popularly as Chinese auction. The model considers the possibility that for some bidders the optimal strategy is to bid zero and to rely on luck. It showed that bidders become less aggressive when the lottery satisfies a variational condition. It was also shown that luck factor is decisive to determine if the expected payoff in Chinese auction is bigger or smaller than expected payoff in standard all-pay auction.

  10. A New Paradigm to Address Bid Protests

    OpenAIRE

    Melese, Francois; Angelis, Diana; Coughlan, Peter; Franck, Raymond; Kidalov, Max; LaCivita, C.J.; Gates, William

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release distribution unlimited. The goal of this study is to offer senior decision-makers a useful framework to evaluate, articulate, and recommend modifications of the government''s bid protest policy to improve procurement outcomes. Most countries allow disappointed bidders to protest public procurement decisions as an oversight mechanism to minimize fraud and errors by procurement officials. The expectation is...

  11. Range war: IPALCO's bid for PSI resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    IPALCO Enterprises Inc. announced a hostile, unsolicited bid to acquire PSI Resources on March 15. IPALCO's bid for PSI is aggressive and well thought out, which befits the strong incentive that it had to take action. Besides topping Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric's offering price made late last year, IPALCO took the initiative on three other fronts. First, it filed a lawsuit in federal court in Indianapolis to block the merger between PSI and Cincinnati. The suit claims that the proposed merger violates Indiana law and that PSI and Cincinnati have made false and misleading statements about the benefits of their proposed merger. Second, IPALCO announced it will oppose the merger between PSI and Cincinnati in proceedings before Indiana regulators. Third, IPALCO said it plans to nominate a slate of five candidates to stand election for PSI's Board of Directors at the company's annual shareholders meeting this spring. However, these initiatives and IPALCO's accompanying appeal to Hoosier loyality are little more than diversionary tactics. In the final analysis, whether PSI merges with IPALCO or with Cincinnati will depend rather simply on who is willing to make the highest bid

  12. MANDATORY TAKEOVER BIDS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Capital Market Law (Law no 297/2004 lays down rules regarding public offers (to buy or sell of securities admitted to trading on a regulated market. Such offers are not unknown in the general framework of companies’ regulations, i.e. Company Law no 31/1990. Actually a public limited liability company (joint stock company can use a public subscriptions (offering shares for sale to raise the registered capital for incorporation of the company or to increase the company’s share capital already established. But all such operations are voluntary decisions. The founders or the shareholders of the company are those who decide to launch a public subscriptions. Capital Market Law comes with something new and at least peculiar at first sight: mandatory takeover bid, meaning a mandatory public offer made by an offeror to the holders of the securities of a company (offeree to acquire all or some of those securities. Can someone be forced to buy securities on the regulated market? The Capital Market Law responds affirmatively, but only if such takeover bid follows or has as its objective the acquisition of control of the offeree company in accordance with national law. The takeover bid remains under supervision and authorization of the national authority of the Capital Market (FSA – Financial Supervisory Authority.

  13. Financial Management: Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In a February 1, 2001 letter, you expressed concerns about repayments of federally guaranteed loans by borrowers under the Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program and the effect of the program on the U.S. steel industry...

  14. Conjectural variation based learning model of strategic bidding in spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun Song; Yixin Ni; Fushuan Wen; Wu, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    In actual electricity market, which operates repeatedly on the basis of one hour or half hour, each firm might learn or estimate other competitors' strategic behaviors from available historical market operation data, and rationally aims at its maximum profit in the repeated biddings. A conjectural variation based learning method is proposed in this paper for generation firm to improve its strategic bidding performance. In the method, each firm learns and dynamically regulates its conjecture upon the reactions of its rivals to its bidding according to available information published in the electricity market, and then makes its optimal generation decision based on the updated conjectural variation of its rivals. Through such learning process, the equilibrium reached in the market is proven a Nash equilibrium. Motivation of generation firm to learn in the changing market environment and consequence of learning behavior in the market are also discussed through computer tests. (author)

  15. 20 CFR 404.230 - Guaranteed alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaranteed alternative. 404.230 Section 404... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.230 Guaranteed alternative. (a) General. If you reach age 62 after 1978...

  16. 29 CFR 4022.3 - Guaranteed benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranteed benefits. 4022.3 Section 4022.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.3 Guaranteed...

  17. Improving the design of competitive bidding in Medicare Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John H; Whitford, Andrew B

    2007-04-01

    In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act, which required that in 2006 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implement a system of competitive bids to set payments for the Medicare Advantage program. Managed care plans now bid for the right to enroll Medicare beneficiaries. Data from the first year of bidding suggest that imperfect competition is limiting the success of the bidding system. This article offers suggestions to improve this system based on findings from auction theory and previous government-run auctions. In particular, CMS can benefit by adjusting its system of competitive bids in four ways: credibly committing to regulations governing bidding; limiting the scope for collusion, entry deterrence, and predatory behavior among bidders; adjusting how benchmark reimbursement rates are set; and accounting for asymmetric information among bidders.

  18. Electric power bidding model for practical utility system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabavathi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive open market environment has been created due to the restructuring in the electricity market. In the new competitive market, mostly a centrally operated pool with a power exchange has been introduced to meet the offers from the competing suppliers with the bids of the customers. In such an open access environment, the formation of bidding strategy is one of the most challenging and important tasks for electricity participants to maximize their profit. To build bidding strategies for power suppliers and consumers in the restructured electricity market, a new mathematical framework is proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each participant submits several blocks of real power quantities along with their bidding prices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on Indian Utility-62 bus system and IEEE-118 bus system. Keywords: Bidding strategy, Day ahead electricity market, Market clearing price, Market clearing volume, Block bid, Intermediate value theorem

  19. Impact of Railroad Contracts on Grain Bids to Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Steven D. Hanson; C. Phillip Baumel; Daniel Schnell

    1989-01-01

    The deregulation of railroads by the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 reversed nearly a century of prohibition of contracts between railroads shippers/receivers. This paper presents an analysis of the impact that railroad contracts have on grain bids to corn, wheat, and soybean farmers. The empirical results indicate that destination contracts had significant impacts on prices bid to corn and soybean farmers, while origin contracts had significant and large impacts on prices bid to wheat farmers.

  20. Applicability Analysis of Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Suyan; Chen Fei; Qiao Yahui; Zhang Wenzhe; Zhang Kaifeng; Yuan Kun; Dai Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the electricity market, competition has been introduced in the generation side. It is the overall development trend of the electricity market reformulation to optimize the allocation of different resources through bidding. Therefore, it is significant to research the bidding strategies of the generation companies and the large consumers. This paper reviews the existing research methods of bidding strategy. According to the different market mechanisms, the market partic...

  1. Advertising and Sealed Bid Auctions in a Transshipment Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    distributors promote their sales by advertising . While the maximum quantity demanded by each customer is fixed and given, his bids on the various...brands are determined by the advertising and other promotional efforts. The bid response function for each consumer is supposed to be given and known. The...the optimal distribution of the product, and the bids of the consumers . A numerical example is provided and the solution routine is discussed.

  2. Strategic Bidding in Hybrid CPC/CPM Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhu; Kenneth C. Wilbur

    2008-01-01

    Websites increasingly allow advertisers to choose whether to bid for advertising on a per-impression or per-click basis. We present the first analysis of this new hybrid auction market. The conventional wisdom in this industry is that brand advertisers (e.g., Coca-Cola) will bid for impressions, while direct response advertisers (e.g., Amazon.com) will bid for clicks. We find that in an auction setting similar to that used by Facebook and Google, brand advertisers may have an incentive to bid...

  3. 48 CFR 14.406 - Receipt of an unreadable electronic bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an unreadable electronic bid. If a bid received at the Government facility by electronic data... electronic bid. 14.406 Section 14.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... bid as originally submitted; and (b) That the unreadable condition of the bid was caused by Government...

  4. 42 CFR 414.412 - Submission of bids under a competitive bidding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... D of this part. (c) Furnishing of items. A bid must include all costs related to furnishing an item... capital, stock or profits of another supplier; (ii) A controlling interest exists if one or more of owners... controlling interest and each supplier which has an ownership or controlling interest in it. (3) Commonly...

  5. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guarantees come to professional service firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C W; Schlesinger, L A; Maher, D

    1992-01-01

    Can lawyers, doctors, investment bankers, accountants, and consultants guarantee their work? Your money back if not absolutely delighted? Some professional service firms are doing exactly that, and they believe they are gaining not only satisfied customers but higher market share and improved service quality. The authors discuss the benefits and risks of unconditional and more limited guarantees. Firms that address this issue proactively now, they argue, will be less likely to rush into poorly considered guarantees later.

  7. 41 CFR 102-38.225 - What are the additional requirements in the bid process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Bids Acceptance of Bids § 102-38.225 What are the additional requirements in the bid process? All sales except fixed price sales must contain a certification of independent price...

  8. 48 CFR 536.213-371 - Bids that include options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bids that include options... Contracting for Construction 536.213-371 Bids that include options. (a) Subject to the limitations in paragraph (c) of this section, you may include options in contracts if it is in the Government's interest...

  9. Extending the bidding format to promote demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanchao; Holzer, Jesse T.; Ferris, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an extended bidding structure to allow more realistic demand characteristics and behaviors to be expressed via flexible bids. In today's ISO-run energy markets, demand bid formats are all separable over time. However, a significant and growing segment of demand can be shifted across time and therefore has no way to bid its true valuation of consumption. We propose additional bid types that allow deferrable, adjustable and storage-type loads to better express their value, and thus elicit demand response in the most natural way – via direct participation in the market. We show that the additional bid types are easily incorporated into the existing market with no technological barrier and that they preserve the market's efficiency and incentive-compatibility properties. Using real market data, we give a numerical demonstration that the extended bid format could substantially increase social welfare, and also present additional insight on storage expansion scenarios. - Highlights: • Three new bid types are proposed to enrich demand-side participation. • Time value of electricity demand can be clearly conveyed to central dispatcher. • The extended format preserves market efficiency and incentive compatibility. • Energy storage is most effective to neutralize price volatility, with a limitation.

  10. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... send invitations to bid only to persons or organizations on its QBL for the specific project (see... factors, other than lowest dollar amount of the bid, which are to be considered in evaluating the proposals of qualified bidders (e.g., power consumption, losses, etc.) must be stated in the “Notice and...

  11. 7 CFR 1726.202 - Informal competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons or organizations on its qualified bidder list for the specific project (see § 1726.23). (b... a responsive bid. (d) Evaluation basis. Any factors, other than lowest dollar amount of the bid, which are to be considered in evaluating the proposals of qualified bidders (e.g., power consumption...

  12. Bidding: Getting the Best Price for School Foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBella, Cecilia M.

    1998-01-01

    Sharon (Massachusetts) Public Schools developed an alternative procurement process for school food services that complies with state public bidding laws while evading "low-bid" constraints. The new process features evaluative criteria covering nutrition education, community outreach, management expertise, site visits, and price…

  13. 48 CFR 245.7303 - Formal bid procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... descriptions attached. (d) In addition to mailing or delivering notice of the proposed sale to prospective... type of sale, i.e., sealed bid, spot bid, auction; and (G) The location of the property. (f) The plant..., signed by the witnessing Government representative. ...

  14. Bidding in sequential electricity markets: The Nordic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Juul, Nina; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2014-01-01

    problem as a multi-stage stochastic program. We investigate whether higher risk exposure can explain the hesitation, often observed in practice, to bid into the balancing market, even in cases of higher expected price levels. Furthermore, we quantify the gain from coordinated bidding, and by deriving......For electricity market participants trading in sequential markets with differences in price levels and risk exposure, coordinated bidding is highly relevant. We consider a Nordic power producer who engages in the day-ahead spot market and the near real-time balancing market. In both markets......, clearing prices and dispatched volumes are unknown at the time of bidding. However, in the balancing market, the agent faces an additional risk of not being dispatched. Taking into account the sequential clearing of these markets and the gradual realization of market prices, we formulate the bidding...

  15. Bid Preparation and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plant Project Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib, Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan and Nur Farizan Amadzun

    2011-01-01

    Bid preparation and evaluation is one of the main activities in Nuclear Power Plant Project management. International Atomic Energy Agency guide and Korean experience was studied for Malaysian requirement in realization of first Nuclear Power Plant. Several aspects shall be taken into consideration such as political scenario, financial capabilities, sitting, human resource, technologies, fuel supplies and decommissioning for long term exceeded hundred years. Bidding process and activities is proposed for our country requirement. The main activities included but unlimited to Bid Invitation Specification, Bid Evaluation Process, Technical Evaluation, Economic Bid Evaluation and Contracting. On the end of day, Malaysia need safe and reliable Nuclear Power Plant. Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme also get benefit from spin-off localization products and services as well as Technology Transfer Programme. (author)

  16. Bidding price analysis for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Wei; Luonan Chen; Hsiao Dong Chiang

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to analyze the bidding price of each participant (power suppliers and large consumers) in a pay-as-bid market. The bidding price will be decomposed into a variety of components corresponding to five factors, such as the incremental values of the subject bidder's generation on the system operational costs, on the income or payment of other bidders, and on the binding tradable constraints, and the first-order approximation of the subjective participant's bidding price. From an economic viewpoint, each component provides useful information for participants to design the strategic planning. The advantages of the method include that the decomposition is well defined without assumptions and that each decomposition term has its own economical and/or engineering meaning. The proposed method is numerically verified through computer simulations on a three-bus example system and a modified IEEE 30-bus power system with both generator and large consumer bidding. (author)

  17. What Guarantees Should Society Offer Its Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Criticising the concept of a "youth guarantee" as it was understood by the OECD in the 1990s and recently again by the European Community, the author argues that just more schooling and training will not help, let alone guarantee a future for disadvantaged, unemployed young people. Rather any policy that wants to help youth to become…

  18. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  19. 22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 231.04 Section 231.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  20. 19 CFR 351.506 - Loan guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.506 Loan guarantees. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of a loan guarantee, a benefit exists to the extent that the total amount a firm pays for...

  1. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the optimal pricing of government-sponsored bank debt guarantees within the context of an asset substitution framework. We show that the desirability of fair pricing of guarantees depends on the degree of transparency of the banking sector: in relatively opaque banking systems, fair

  2. 77 FR 38015 - Community Programs Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... section. This is based upon the Agency's experience to date in financing this type of project and the... sections, in order to clarify the types of projects that are eligible for a Community Facilities Guaranteed... Program by limiting the risk to the guaranteed loan portfolio. RHS is seeking to prohibit the financing of...

  3. Understanding the unbundled utility conservation bidding proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    For several years regulatory advisers have been engaged in controversy about the propriety of integrating energy conservation measures into the total resource planning processes of electric utilities, and of proposed methods of doing so in the competitive supply procurement programs which have been initiated by some utilities. Two prominent economists conceived a method for doing this in competitive bidding programs and at the same time overcoming objections to previous proposals which were based on perceived violations of basic economic principles. They explained their concept and its operation in an article published here in June of last year. In this article another economist subjects the concept to further analysis, identifying its essential elements, and point to inevitable results of their application

  4. Investors flock to Venezuelan bidding rounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Venezuelan government has disproved the long-cherished oil industry mantra that low tax rates attract private sector investors. At a time when most company managements feel they need to collect balance sheet assets at any price. Venezuela is ensuring that it remains the upmarket not the bargain basement investor target. Despite offering some of the most punitive and complicated fiscal terms worldwide, a near certainty that taxes will rise in the future and state oil company control of the join ventures' operating committees, oil investors of all sizes cannot keep away. The third marginal field reactivation round, launched late last year attracted a staggering 259 companies, both foreign and local, which prequalified to bid. (Author)

  5. Determination of the Prosumer's Optimal Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Gabriella; Rossi, Federico; Russo, Angela

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a microgrid connected with a medium-voltage (MV) distribution network. It is assumed that the microgrid, which is managed by a prosumer, operates in a competitive environment and participates in the day-ahead market. Then, as the first step of the short-term management problem, the prosumer must determine the bids to be submitted to the market. The offer strategy is based on the application of an optimization model, which is solved for different hourly price profiles of energy exchanged with the main grid. The proposed procedure is applied to a microgrid and four different its configurations were analyzed. The configurations consider the presence of thermoelectric units that only produce electricity, a boiler or/and cogeneration power plants for the thermal loads, and an electric storage system. The numerical results confirmed the numerous theoretical considerations that have been made.

  6. Marketing service guarantees for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J S

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the concept of service guarantees for application in health care and differentiates between explicit, implicit, and conditional vs. unconditional types of guarantees. An example of an unconditional guarantee of satisfaction is provided by the hospitality industry. Firms conveying an implicit guarantee are those with outstanding reputations for products such as luxury automobiles, or ultimate customer service, like Nordstrom. Federal Express and Domino's Pizza offer explicit guarantees of on-time delivery. Taking this concept into efforts to improve health care delivery involves a number of caveats. Customers invited to use exceptional service cards may use these to record either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The cards need to provide enough specific information about issues so that "immediate action could be taken to improve processes." Front-line employees should be empowered to respond to complaints in a meaningful way to resolve the problem before the client leaves the premises.

  7. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.

  8. The Committee System for Competitive Bids in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Management Policy to provide for a committee system to oversee the different stages. Such committee system must, moreover, consist of at least a bid specification committee, a bid evaluation committee and a bid adjudication committee. Until recently, little attention has been given by the courts to the roles and composition of the different committees in the committee system. It is only after government, and in particular, municipalities have begun to implement the committee system in their procurement processes that it is evident that problems are arising. In recent months, the courts have increasingly had to deal with issues pertaining to the implementation of the committee system.In this article, the relevant legislative provisions on the committee system for competitive bids in local government are discussed. The functions of each committee are explained and all the cases that have thus far involved the implementation of the committee system are critically analysed. Much attention is given to the cases since they serve as a warning to municipalities to uphold and comply with the rules relating to the roles and composition of the different committees. The cases illustrate how important it is for municipalities to ensure that the different committees are properly constituted and that decisions at meetings are properly taken. They also highlight the importance of the supervisory role of the municipal manager over the different committees. In light of the

  9. Economic evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the guidebook is to assist an organisation responsible for a nuclear power project in evaluating and establishing an economic order of merit among competing bids. An approximate overall time schedule for a first nuclear power plant project is provided. A schematic outline of technical bid evaluation is given. The basic procedure of economic bid evaluation is outlined, e.g. evaluation of the present worth of all cost items of plant capital investment, of the nuclear cycle, of O and M costs (operation and maintenance costs), and of economic corrections. All these cost items are evaluated for the economic life of the plant and corrected for escalation where applicable

  10. Competitive bidding for independent power: developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliman, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the United States electric utilities are using competitive bidding programs to procure power supplies from non-utility generators and, in some cases, to establish contracts with energy service companies for the implementation of demand-side management projects. Such programs are viewed as a path to efficient contracts in the private power industry. But bidding programs are complex, subject to pitfalls, and are developing very quickly. This paper reports on that development as of the early 1990s and, as an illustration, briefly describes and analyzes the bidding program of an electric utility in the State of New York. (author). 2 tabs

  11. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  12. A Network-Attached Storage System Supporting Guaranteed QoS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Hua-feng; YU Sheng-sheng; LU Hong-wei

    2005-01-01

    We propose a network-attached storage system that can support guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS), called POPNet Storage. The special policy of date access and disk scheduling is enable users to access files quickly and directly with guaranteed QoS in the POPNet Storage. The POPNet Storage implements a measurement-based admission control algorithm (PSMBAC) to determine whether to admit a new data access request stream and admit as many requests as possible while meeting the QoS guarantees to its clients. The data reconstruction algorithms in the POPNet Storage also put more emphasis on data availability and guaranteed QoS, thus it is designed to complete the data recovery as soon as possible and at the same time provide the guaranteed QoS for high-priority data access. The experiment results show that the POPNet Storage can provide more significant performance, reliability, and guaranteed QoS than conventional storage systems.

  13. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy.

  14. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy

  15. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the desirability of fair pricing of government guarantees for bank liabilities. Fair pricing is desirable only if the banking sector is sufficiently transparent. In opaque banking systems, fair pricing may exacerbate banks' incentive to take excessive risks.

  16. CREDIT SYSTEM AND CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay GECER

    2012-01-01

    Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...

  17. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  18. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  19. 48 CFR 52.214-5 - Submission of Bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized by the solicitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation. (End of provision...

  20. 48 CFR 14.301 - Responsiveness of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions that do not vary from the terms and conditions of the invitation. (e) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or...

  1. Hiding information in open auctions with jump bids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettinger, D.; Michelucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 594 (2016), s. 1484-1502 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : hiding information * open auctions * jump bids Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  2. Invitation and Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication emphasizes the integrity and interdependence of various activities related to the bid invitation, technical and economic evaluation and contracting, it updates information included in the existing IAEA documents in order to better reflect the developments in the nuclear and energy industry, compiles a more compact and user friendly guidebook integrating the existing IAEA documents on the subject. It provides the necessary information to organize, guide and realize the activities related to the invitation, the technical and economic evaluation of bids, and contracting as an integrated process. Furthermore, this publication indicates how and to what degree the activities preceding the preparation of the bid invitation specification, the evaluation of bids and contracting could influence the process.

  3. Hiding information in open auctions with jump bids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettinger, D.; Michelucci, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 594 (2016), s. 1484-1502 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : hiding information * open auctions * jump bids Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  4. 25 CFR 163.17 - Deposit with bid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submit a written request to have their bids considered for acceptance will be retained pending acceptance... damages available under applicable law or terms of the contract. (f) In the event of an administrative...

  5. Strategic bidding in electricity markets using particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucekaya, Ahmet D.; Valenzuela, Jorge; Dozier, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Profit maximization for power companies is highly related to the bidding strategies used. In order to sell electricity at high prices and maximize profit, power companies need suitable bidding models that consider power operating constraints and price uncertainty within the market. In this paper, we present two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to determine bid prices and quantities under the rules of a competitive power market. The first method uses a conventional PSO technique to find solutions. The second method uses a decomposition technique in conjunction with the PSO approach. This new decomposition-based PSO dramatically outperforms the conventional form of PSO. We show that for nonlinear cost functions PSO solutions provide higher expected profits than marginal cost-based bidding. (author)

  6. Particle swarm optimization based optimal bidding strategy in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A considerable amount of work has also been reported on the game theory applications ... probability distribution function (Song et al, 1999) and as a continuous ..... compared with GA and Monte Carlo method, therefore the bidding strategies.

  7. Financing power facilities in the competitive bidding environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (open-quote FERC close-quote) issued proposed rules and guidelines for the use of competitive bidding by state utility commissions to chose new power supplies. Since then, more than 20 states have implemented bidding programs to determine the price and sources of incremental generating capacity. This presentation discusses the impact of the use of competitive bidding on how landers and equity investors perceive the risks of project-supported financing arrangements and describes the actions that project developers have taken to adapt the project financing process to win bidding contests and as importantly, successfully obtain project financing in spite of the open-quotes credit crunchclose quotes market environment

  8. Common Agency and Coordinated Bids in Sponsored Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta; Francesco Decarolis

    2012-01-01

    As auctions are becoming the main mechanism for selling advertisement space on the web, marketing agencies specialized in bidding in online auctions are proliferating. We analyze theoretically how bidding delegation to a common marketing agency can undermine both revenues and efficiency of the generalized second price auction, the format used by Google and Microsoft-Yahoo!. Our characterization allows us to quantify the revenue losses relative to both the case of full competition and the case...

  9. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  10. Optimal Bidding Strategy for Renewable Microgrid with Active Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Wan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Network Management (ANM enables a microgrid to optimally dispatch the active/reactive power of its Renewable Distributed Generation (RDG and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS units in real time. Thus, a microgrid with high penetration of RDGs can handle their uncertainties and variabilities to achieve the stable operation using ANM. However, the actual power flow in the line connecting the main grid and microgrid may deviate significantly from the day-ahead bids if the bids are determined without consideration of the real-time adjustment through ANM, which will lead to a substantial imbalance cost. Therefore, this study proposes a formulation for obtaining an optimal bidding which reflects the change of power flow in the connecting line by real-time adjustment using ANM. The proposed formulation maximizes the expected profit of the microgrid considering various network and physical constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed bidding strategy is verified through the simulations with a 33-bus test microgrid. The simulation results show that the proposed bidding strategy improves the expected operating profit by reducing the imbalance cost to a greater degree compared to the basic bidding strategy without consideration of ANM.

  11. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  12. Strategic bidding for wind power producers in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kailash Chand; Bhakar, Rohit; Tiwari, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Game theoretic bidding strategy approach developed to optimize wind power producers bids. • Rival behavior modeled through Stochastic Cournot model. • Location based dual imbalance price mechanism proposed to obtain imbalance charges. • Proposed approach evaluated using two realistic case studies. • Proposed approach increases profit of strategic wind power producers significantly. - Abstract: In evolving electricity markets, wind power producers (WPPs) would increase their profit through strategic bidding. However, generated power by WPPs is highly random, which may result into heavy imbalance charges. In markets dominated by wind generators, they would optimize their offered bids, considering rival behavior. In oligopolistic day-ahead electricity markets, this strategic behavior can be represented as a Stochastic Cournot model. Wind uncertainty is represented by scenarios generated using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. With a consideration of wind power uncertainty and imbalance charges, strategic WPPs can maximize their expected payoff or profit through the proposed Nash equilibrium based bidding strategy. Nash equilibrium is obtained using payoff matrix approach. Proposed approach is evaluated on two realistic case studies considering different technical constraints. Obtained results shows that proposed bidding strategy mechanism offers quantum increase in profit for WPPs, when their behavior is modeled in a game theoretic framework. Flexibility of approach offers opportunities for its extension to associated challenges

  13. The U.S. Agency-Level Bid Protest Mechanism: A Model for Bid Challenge Procedures in Developing Nations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troff, Erik A

    2005-01-01

    ... comply with established procurement rules. The decisive question for a developing nation is which of the available structural options best integrates the essential elements of an effective bid protest system in the context of existing legal...

  14. Improve The Capacity Of Competition About The Financial In The Bid Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available According to experts enhancing competitiveness is an important solution for enterprises to build competitive capacity in bidding deciding the majority of win or lose in bidding. A good contractor can be eliminated in the first round because the bid does not meet the requirements of the investor. In order to have a good quality of bids enterprises should pay attention to the following tasks organizing the preparation of bidding dossiers setting the bidding prices selecting the optimum construction methods and work implementation plans. after bidding. Improving the quality of the bid preparation process should start from improving the quality of the staff in charge of bidding. At present the experience of bidding of many enterprises is limited especially the experience of working with foreign investors. Therefore businesses need to build a team of qualified professionals in the field of bidding. The training and professional fostering in this field should be carried out annually. They focus on foreign languages informatics knowledge of law and knowledge on international bidding. This is considered important preparatory steps that enterprises want to improve their competitiveness when participating in bidding especially participation in bidding packages using international donors and bidding packages cannot ignore it.

  15. New bidding strategy formulation for day-ahead energy and reserve markets based on evolutionary programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaviriyanupap, Pathom; Kita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new bidding strategy for a day-ahead market is formulated. The proposed algorithm is developed from the viewpoint of a generation company wishing to maximize a profit as a participant in the deregulated power and reserve markets. Separate power and reserve markets are considered, both are operated by clearing price auction system. The optimal bidding parameters for both markets are determined by solving an optimization problem that takes unit commitment constraints such as generating limits and unit minimum up/down time constraints into account. This is a non-convex and non-differentiable which is difficult to solve by traditional optimization techniques. In this paper, evolutionary programming is used to solve the problem. The algorithm is applied to both single-sided and double-sided auctions, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme compared with those obtained from a sequential quadratic programming. (author)

  16. Empirical observations of bidding patterns in Australia's National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xinmin; Grozev, George; Batten, David

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade, electricity industries have been undergoing reform worldwide. However, there are various, sometimes contradictory, conclusions about the performance of these restructured electricity markets. Market performance depends largely on how each market participant responds to the market design -- including market rules, market operational procedures, and information revelation. In this paper, we identify and examine the strategies adopted by generators in Australia's National Electricity Market, based on publicly available data for the period from May 1, 2002 to May 31, 2003. We try to understand and answer some basic questions like how generators respond collectively or individually to changes in market conditions (e.g. load changes) and why they behave in this way. The statistics calculated from the data show that wide variations in the frequency of strategic bidding and rebidding exist; that generators more frequently use capacity offers as a strategic tool than price offers; that large generating units are more likely to use capacity strategies to control market prices; and that generators are capable of responding to changes in market conditions

  17. Empirical observations of bidding patterns in Australia's National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin Hu; Grozev, G.; Batten, D.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade, electricity industries have been undergoing reform worldwide. However, there are various, sometimes contradictory, conclusions about the performance of these restructured electricity markets. Market performance depends largely on how each market participant responds to the market design - including market rules, market operational procedures, and information revelation. In this paper, we identify and examine the strategies adopted by generators in Australia's National Electricity Market, based on publicly available data for the period from May 1, 2002 to May 31, 2003. We try to understand and answer some basic questions like how generators respond collectively or individually to changes in market conditions (e.g. load changes) and why they behave in this way. The statistics calculated from the data show that wide variations in the frequency of strategic bidding and rebidding exist; that generators more frequently use capacity offers as a strategic tool than price offers; that large generating units are more likely to use capacity strategies to control market prices; and that generators are capable of responding to changes in market conditions. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 1726.253 - Prior approved contract modification related to alternative bid provision for payment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternative bid provision for payment to contractor for bulk purchase of materials. 1726.253 Section 1726.253... contractor for bulk purchase of materials. When construction is to be performed over an extended period of... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Modifications to RUS Standard Contract Forms...

  19. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  20. 75 FR 4707 - Continuous Construction-Permanent Loan Guarantees Under the Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... permanent financing phase of a project. In addition to the proposed form of guarantee, the Agency will... financing phase of the project. This third form of guarantee is being proposed in response to input from... requests. * * * * * Lease-up period. The period of time that begins when the first unit in the project...

  1. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Mahayni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.

  2. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June

  3. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  4. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  5. Optimal bidding strategies for competitive generators and large consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushuan Wen; David, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    There exists the potential for gaming such as strategic bidding by participants (power suppliers and large consumers) in a deregulated power market, which is more an oligopoly than a laissez-faire market. Each participant can increase his or her own profit through strategic bidding but this has a negative effect on maximising social welfare. A method to build bidding strategies for both power suppliers and large consumers in a poolco-type electricity market is presented in this paper. It is assumed that each supplier/large consumer bids a linear supply/demand function, and the system is dispatched to maximise social welfare. Each supplier/large consumer chooses the coefficients in the linear supply/demand function to maximise benefits, subject to expectations about how rival participants will bid. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimisation problem, and solved by a Monte Carlo approach. A numerical example with six suppliers and two large consumers serves to illustrate the essential features of the method. (author)

  6. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Neitemeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc- system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4 to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation.In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc- inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Keywords: Ferroptosis, BID, Mitochondria, CRISPR, Oxytosis, Neuronal death

  7. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  8. Issues in bidding for contracts for occupational therapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, S; Law, M

    2001-06-01

    There is an increasing number of occupational therapists in Canada who are involved in bidding for contracts to deliver occupational therapy services. Occupational therapists working in an institutional or community-based setting may not have had the responsibility of developing a proposal or a marketing plan for bidding purposes. However, the responsibility of developing a bid to compete for a service delivery contract often rests on occupational therapists who are sole practitioners in a private practice setting. The purpose of this paper is to highlight issues in the literature such as service delivery plans, marketing strategies and costing of services that can assist the occupational therapist in the development of a contractual bid. A specific clinical example, school therapy services, has been used to illustrate how these strategies can be applied to practice. Success in contractual bids appears to be primarily influenced by cost of the service, the expertise of the service provider, ability to provide coordinated care, ease of access for clients, and inclusion of methods to measure client outcome.

  9. 78 FR 46528 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... 2013, Public Law 112-239, 126 Stat. 1632: (1) Increasing the contract amount for which SBA is... remedies under contract law, the Act, and the regulations in this part, SBA is relieved of liability in...), including the provisions that increase the contract amounts for which SBA is authorized to guarantee bonds...

  10. Do not pay for a Danish interest guarantee. The law of the triple blow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillén, Montserrat; Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Perch Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustrate...... that the price of an interest guarantee is high in pension products that are currently commercialised in the market. We have found that the customer loses up to about 0.75% yearly in the rate of return when an interest guarantee is purchased, compared to the return of an equivalent saving strategy with the same...... risk at the level 95%. This can explain why such arrangements are not widely popular. Our approach can be used to inform clients, who are not experts in modern financial models, the impact of paying for an interest guarantee....

  11. Competitive bidding for OCS leases and environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years, the role of environment has become increasingly contentious in the process of competitive bidding for exploration and development rights of offshore petroleum leases in the outer continental shelf (OCS). Although an extensive literature exists on OCS leasing per se, relatively little work focuses on the role of environmental factors. This paper examines the effect on environmental risk on the number of firms (or joint ventures) entering bids for a given tract, which relates to the effective competition for the tracts. The next section outlines a theoretical model of bidding behavior under environmental risk. The third section presents the data used to estimate the model. The fourth section gives empirical results of an analysis of Sale No. 42, conducted in 1979 for Georges Bank in the North Atlantic. The last section provides concluding remarks

  12. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  13. Applications of Classifying Bidding Strategies for the CAT Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruman, Mark L.; Narayana, Manjunath

    In the CAT Tournament, specialists facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers with the intention of maximizing profit from commission and other fees. Each specialist must find a well-balanced strategy that allows it to entice buyers and sellers to trade in its market while also retaining the buyers and sellers that are currently subscribed to it. Classification techniques can be used to determine the distribution of bidding strategies used by all traders subscribed to a particular specialist. Our experiments showed that Hidden Markov Model classification yielded the best results. The distribution of strategies, along with other competition-related factors, can be used to determine the optimal action in any given game state. Experimental data shows that the GD and ZIP bidding strategies are more volatile than the RE and ZIC strategies. An MDP framework for determining optimal actions given an accurate distribution of bidding strategies is proposed as a motivator for future work.

  14. The evolution of the competitive bidding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.J.; Dingle, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    From the 1920s to the early 1970s, the structure of the electric utility industry remained fairly constant. Up until this time, the generation, transportation and distribution of electricity was provided by local electric utility companies. The dominant pricing method was cost-of-service based rates, which relies on the premise that generation of electricity is not a competitive market, but a natural monopoly. This environment included close scrutiny by state and federal regulatory bodies to ensure that electric utility companies were making prudent management decisions. This stable environment changed with the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in 1978. The primary intent of PURPA was to encourage the use of renewable energy sources, energy efficiency measures, and cogeneration and small power production. The act guaranteed firms and developers Interconnection with the host utility company and administrated avoided costs for the basis of payment for sales of power by qualifying facilities to the host utility. By the early 1980s, the primary change that PURPA brought to the structure of the electric utility industry was the introduction of the small power producer (SPP). Since then, however, the emergence of new suppliers has challenged the basic infrastructure of the electric generation industry. Along the way, the concept that electric generation is a natural monopoly has been called into question

  15. 78 FR 63158 - Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program... collection associated with the Guaranteed Farm Loan Program. The amended estimate adds the merger of the information collection for the Land Contract Guarantee Program (0560-0279) into the Guaranteed Farm Loan...

  16. Study on Comparison of Bidding and Pricing Behavior Distinction between Estimate Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Emi; Namerikawa, Susumu

    The most characteristic trend on bidding and pricing behavior distinction in recent years is the increasing number of bidders just above the criteria for low-price bidding investigations. The contractor's markup is the difference between the bidding price and the execution price. Therefore, the contractor's markup is the difference between criteria for low-price bidding investigations price and the execution price in the public works bid in Japan. Virtually, bidder's strategies and behavior have been controlled by public engineer's budgets. Estimation and bid are inseparably linked in the Japanese public works procurement system. The trial of the unit price-type estimation method begins in 2004. On another front, accumulated estimation method is one of the general methods in public works. So, there are two types of standard estimation methods in Japan. In this study, we did a statistical analysis on the bid information of civil engineering works for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transportation in 2008. It presents several issues that bidding and pricing behavior is related to an estimation method (several estimation methods) for public works bid in Japan. The two types of standard estimation methods produce different results that number of bidders (decide on bid-no bid strategy) and distribution of bid price (decide on mark-up strategy).The comparison on the distribution of bid prices showed that the percentage of the bid concentrated on the criteria for low-price bidding investigations have had a tendency to get higher in the large-sized public works by the unit price-type estimation method, comparing with the accumulated estimation method. On one hand, the number of bidders who bids for public works estimated unit-price tends to increase significantly Public works estimated unit-price is likely to have been one of the factors for the construction companies to decide if they participate in the biddings.

  17. Bid process and contracting for remediation in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to provide cost effective and timely reclamation services to high priority leaking underground storage tank sites the New Mexico Environment Department has implemented a reclamation bidding process for qualified state contractors. The bid process was implemented in an attempt to make reclamation contractors more competitive and to encourage innovative technologies and contracting mechanisms. Overall the Bureau has received positive feedback from contractors participating in the process, especially regarding innovative technology and contracting. In addition, the process has provided excellent training for project managers and has allowed a critical review of the reclamation process for UST sites in general

  18. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hui

    This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids. This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants. Third, these models are applied to analyze the efficiency of the Electric Reliability Council Of Texas (ERCOT) real-time energy market by simulating its operations for the time period from January 2002 to April 2003. The characteristics and available information for the ERCOT market are considered. In electricity markets, electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium (SFE) model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy (an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour) into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework. As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Second, the bidding strategies related to Transmission Congestion Rights (TCRs) are discussed by interpreting TCRs as linear combination of forwards. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have

  19. 48 CFR 614.402-70 - Waiver of public opening of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of public opening of bids. Overseas posts may request waiver of the public opening of bids if that activity is inconsistent with local law or legal practice, or with post security. For that purpose, the...

  20. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  1. Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    David Sánchez; Montserrat Batet

    2017-01-01

    Toward sensitive document release with privacy guarantees DOI: 10.1016/j.engappai.2016.12.013 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952197616302408 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI Privacy has become a serious concern for modern Information Societies. The sensitive nature of much of the data that are daily exchanged or released to untrusted parties requires that responsible organizations undertake appropriate privacy protection measures. Nowadays, much...

  2. Monitoring Assumptions in Assume-Guarantee Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sokolsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-deployment verification of software components with respect to behavioral specifications in the assume-guarantee form does not, in general, guarantee absence of errors at run time. This is because assumptions about the environment cannot be discharged until the environment is fixed. An intuitive approach is to complement pre-deployment verification of guarantees, up to the assumptions, with post-deployment monitoring of environment behavior to check that the assumptions are satisfied at run time. Such a monitor is typically implemented by instrumenting the application code of the component. An additional challenge for the monitoring step is that environment behaviors are typically obtained through an I/O library, which may alter the component's view of the input format. This transformation requires us to introduce a second pre-deployment verification step to ensure that alarms raised by the monitor would indeed correspond to violations of the environment assumptions. In this paper, we describe an approach for constructing monitors and verifying them against the component assumption. We also discuss limitations of instrumentation-based monitoring and potential ways to overcome it.

  3. Bidding Strategies in Agent-based Continuous Double Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Ma (Huiye); H.-F. Leung

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractOnline auctions are a platform to trade goods on the Internet. In this context, negotiation capabilities for software agents in continuous double auctions (CDAs) are a central concern. Agents need to be able to prepare bids for and evaluate offers on behalf of the users they represent

  4. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  5. Application of fuzzy mathematics in assessment of mine design bidding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Sen

    1988-12-01

    Assessment of mine design bidding is mainly to evaluate the quality of a mine design. The paper established a 3-stage model to assess quality of mine design using fuzzy criterion. A concept of assessment figures was proposed in the analysis of the results. Finally, a mine design was assessed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: theory and experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1 (2007), s. 513-535 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.353, year: 2007

  7. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: an experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    -, č. 269 (2005), s. 1-75 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp269.pdf

  8. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y. [Hijjawi Faculty of Engineering; Yarmouk University; Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  9. 48 CFR 252.247-7008 - Evaluation of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other factors, the Contracting Officer will evaluate bids on the basis of advantages or disadvantages to... evaluation, the Contracting Officer will assume that the administrative cost to the Government for issuing... Government, including the administrative costs in paragraph (b)(1). (c) When drayage is necessary for the...

  10. 48 CFR 811.104-74 - Bid evaluation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents... offered products are clearly identified in the bid and are equal in all material respects to the products... brand name and make or model number, descriptive material, and any modifications of brand name products...

  11. Integrated Bidding and Operating Strategies for Wind-Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2016-01-01

    Due to their flexible charging and discharging capabilities, energy storage systems (ESS) are considered a promising complement to wind farms (WFs) participating in electricity markets. This paper presents integrated day-ahead bidding and real-time operation strategies for a wind-storage system...

  12. 47 CFR 54.603 - Competitive bid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider; (iv) The requested service or... be sold, resold or transferred in consideration of money or any other thing of value; and (vi) If the.... (a) Competitive bidding requirement. To select the telecommunications carriers that will provide...

  13. Elicited Bid Functions in a (a)Symmetric First-Price Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezanis-Christou, P.; Sadrieh, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a series of experiments that examine bidding behavior in first-price sealed bid auctions with symmetric and asymmetric bidders.To study the extent of strategic behavior, we use an experimental design that elicits bidders complete bid functions in each round (auction) of the

  14. 42 CFR 422.256 - Review, negotiation, and approval of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. 422.256... Information and Plan Approval § 422.256 Review, negotiation, and approval of bids. (a) Authority. Subject to... submitted under § 422.252 and conduct negotiations with MA organizations regarding these bids (including the...

  15. 47 CFR 1.2105 - Bidding application and certification procedures; prohibition of certain communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....2110, a statement to that effect and a declaration, under penalty of perjury, that the applicant is... the post-auction market structure. (ix) Certification under penalty of perjury that it has not entered... amount of their bids, bidding strategies or the particular licenses on which they will or will not bid...

  16. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? (a) For each of the bidding systems in...

  17. 42 CFR 423.265 - Submission of bids and related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guidelines based on generally accepted actuarial principles. A qualified actuary must certify the plan's... member of the American Academy of Actuaries to be deemed qualified. Applicants may use qualified outside actuaries to prepare their bids. (d) Specific requirements for bids. The bid and supplemental information...

  18. 76 FR 20571 - Bidding by Affiliates in Open Seasons for Pipeline Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... bidding is inappropriate and, therefore, prohibited. \\9\\ Tenaska Marketing Ventures, et al., 126 FERC ] 61... multiple affiliates at a competitive disadvantage. In theory, a company could employ this strategy to the... submitting their bids. For example, a marketing arm of an energy company may bid to secure capacity for its...

  19. Game Theory Analysis of Bidding for A Construction Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembłowski, Marian W.; Grzyl, Beata; Siemaszko, Agata

    2017-10-01

    The authors are concerned with a bidding problem. There are two companies (P1 and P2) bidding for a highway construction project. In order to be more competitive, P1 considers buying a new gravel pit near the construction site. The basic cost of the pit is known to both companies. However, there is also an additional, hidden, cost (C) known only to P1. P2 is uncertain whether the hidden cost is C = 0 or C = x. P1 plans to bid for the job, but has to decide whether to buy the gravel pit. P2, not having a complete knowledge about C, thus not knowing the strategy choice of P1, has to decide if to bid for the job. In effect we have two payoff matrices, one for the additional cost C = 0, and the other one for C = x. If the probability of P2 bidding for the project can be estimated by propagating intelligence information through a Bayesian Belief Network, the best strategy for P1 can be readily determined. Otherwise, the solution calls for changing this game of incomplete information (players may or may not know some information about the other players, e.g., their “type,” their strategies, payoffs) into a game of imperfect information (players are simply unaware of the actions chosen by other players). This is achieved by introducing an additional “Nature” node which for this problem determines with some probability “p” the additional cost C= 0 (thus, C = x with probability 1-p). The solution of this game turns out to depend on the probability “p”. For some values of p the game is solved with pure strategies, whereas for other values the game is in equilibrium when the players randomly mix their strategies.

  20. An Optimal Turkish Private Pension Plan with a Guarantee Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül İşcanog̃lu-Çekiç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Private Pension System is an investment system which aims to generate income for future consumption. This is a volunteer system, and the contributions are held in individual portfolios. Therefore, management of the funds is an important issue for both the participants and the insurance company. In this study, we propose an optimal private pension plan with a guarantee feature that is based on Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI. We derive a closed form formula for the optimal strategy with the help of dynamic programming. Moreover, our model is evaluated with numerical examples, and we compare its performance by implementing a sensitivity analysis.

  1. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  2. Legal Status of Credit Bank Guarantee in Indonesia’s Legal Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Defiana Putriyanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze  about the legal status of the letter hiring as collateral for bank loans in the Indonesian security law. The method of this research is a normative juridical. The results of this research indicate that the decree hiring is not included in the objects that can be bound by pledge, fiduciary, and mortgage then hiring decree hiring is not included in the personal guarantee and corporate guarantee. Although the hiring decree is issued by a legitimate institution, the institution is not bound by an agreement between the debtor debts with the bank but when the decree was used as security for the bank. Hiring letter is not also included in the general collateral. Decree hiring is not an object and does not qualify as material that can be used as general collateral. The conclusion of this research is that the position of the decree hiring as collateral for bank loans is a new form of guarantee which is not included in the general guarantees and the specific ones. This shows that the system of legal guarantees in Indonesia is not pure anymore embrace a closed system, but has started shifting into an open system.

  3. Guaranteed convergence of the Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Menashe; Kiryati, Nahum

    1995-01-01

    The straight-line Hough Transform using normal parameterization with a continuous voting kernel is considered. It transforms the colinearity detection problem to a problem of finding the global maximum of a two dimensional function above a domain in the parameter space. The principle is similar to robust regression using fixed scale M-estimation. Unlike standard M-estimation procedures the Hough Transform does not rely on a good initial estimate of the line parameters: The global optimization problem is approached by exhaustive search on a grid that is usually as fine as computationally feasible. The global maximum of a general function above a bounded domain cannot be found by a finite number of function evaluations. Only if sufficient a-priori knowledge about the smoothness of the objective function is available, convergence to the global maximum can be guaranteed. The extraction of a-priori information and its efficient use are the main challenges in real global optimization problems. The global optimization problem in the Hough Transform is essentially how fine should the parameter space quantization be in order not to miss the true maximum. More than thirty years after Hough patented the basic algorithm, the problem is still essentially open. In this paper an attempt is made to identify a-priori information on the smoothness of the objective (Hough) function and to introduce sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Hough Transform to the global maximum. An image model with several application dependent parameters is defined. Edge point location errors as well as background noise are accounted for. Minimal parameter space quantization intervals that guarantee convergence are obtained. Focusing policies for multi-resolution Hough algorithms are developed. Theoretical support for bottom- up processing is provided. Due to the randomness of errors and noise, convergence guarantees are probabilistic.

  4. 12 CFR 370.12 - Payment on the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.12 Payment on the guarantee. (a) Claims for Deposits in... depositors for funds in a noninterest-bearing transaction account in an insured depository institution that...

  5. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A construction company had been liquidated and the employer had called up the guarantee .... Due to the small size of the target populations in both the quantitative and qualitative ..... contingent liability that remains in terms of the guarantee.

  6. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  7. The traceability of renewable energies: the guarantees of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    The guarantee of origin has been initially designed by the European Union as a mechanism of support for renewable energies. It is an electronic document which allows an electric power provider to guarantee to its client the origin of the energy it sells him. This document presents the legal background of this guarantee, briefly describes the life cycle of this guarantee, proposes a brief discussion of recent legal evolutions, and briefly discusses its future

  8. 77 FR 58991 - State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2012-N-13] State-Level Guarantee Fee Pricing AGENCY: Federal... guarantee fee pricing by state. FHFA's proposal described here would adjust the upfront fees that the... final state-level guarantee fee pricing method, FHFA expects to direct the Enterprises to implement the...

  9. 42 CFR 417.937 - Loan and loan guarantee provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...

  10. 78 FR 48135 - Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Information Collection; Guaranteed Farm Loan Program AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice... revision of a currently approved information collection associated with the Guaranteed Farm Loan Program. This information collection is used to make and service loans guaranteed by FSA to eligible farmers and...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. If SBA agrees to guarantee a Licensee's Debentures or Participating Securities...

  12. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's financial guarantee requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferch, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety and Control Act gives the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) the legal authority to require licensees to provide financial guarantees in order to meet the purposes of the Act. CNSC policy and guidance with regard to financial guarantees is outlined, and the current status of financial guarantee requirements as applied to various CNSC licensees is described. (author)

  13. Minimum Price Guarantees In a Consumer Search Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is the first to examine the effect of minimum price guarantees in a sequential search model. Minimum price guarantees are not advertised and only known to consumers when they come to the shop. We show that in such an environment, minimum price guarantees increase the value of

  14. 78 FR 59055 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ..., offering designated bidders the right to meet the highest valid bid. Refusal or failure to meet the highest... checks will not be accepted. Sealed bid envelopes must be clearly marked on the lower left corner with ``SEALED BID BLM LAND SALE'' and the identification number ``BLM SERIAL NUMBER N-85116.'' The bid envelope...

  15. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  16. Process Document for the Conservation Competitive Bidding Pilot Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is proposing to test competitive bidding for Conservation Resources to expand its existing resource acquisition capabilities. Competitive bidding may target specific types of electric end-uses or end-use sectors. It is a new acquisition approach through which Bonneville seeks to acquire resources that are not acquired through other existing or planned conservation programs. This proposal describes the conservation component of the all-source competitive acquisition approach that will be developed. It is expected that the combined resource acquisition effort will target about 100 average megawatts (aMW) as proposed in the 1990 Resource Program, although the exact amount has not yet been determined. Increasing the acquisition target will, to some extent, depend on whether the proposed pilot program is large enough to establish confidence in the approach.

  17. Pay-as-bid based reactive power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjady, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, A., E-mail: Rabiee@iust.ac.i [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    In energy market clearing, the offers are stacked in increasing order and the offer that intersects demand curve, determines the market clearing price (MCP). In reactive power market, the location of reactive power compensator is so important. A low cost reactive producer may not essentially be favorable if it is far from the consumer. Likewise, a high cost local reactive compensator at a heavily loaded demand center of network could be inevitably an alternative required to produce reactive power to maintain the integrity of power system. Given the background, this paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market based on pay-as-bid (PAB) mechanism. Generators expected payment function (EPF) is used to construct a bidding framework. Then, total payment function (TPF) of generators is used as the objective function of optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the PAB based market. The CIGRE-32 bus test system is used to examine the effectiveness of the proposed reactive power market.

  18. Bid Protests on DoD Source Selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    values, Government Accountability Office 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF...Logistics (AT&L) closely monitors the Government Accountability Office (GAO) Bid Protest statistics for trends. These statistics combined with our trend...protests, cost claims, and requests for reconsideration. This report discusses protests only. The GAO reports case types by docket numbers (B-#) where

  19. Interconnected Power Systems Mexico-Guatemala financed by BID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the plans for the interconnection of the electric power systems of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Mexico within the project Plan Pueba Panama. The objective of the interconnection is to create an electric market in the region that contributes to reduce costs and prices. The project will receive a financing of $37.5 millions of US dollars from the Banco Intrameramericano de Desarrollo (BID)

  20. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the X c - system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by X c - inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In continuation of its efforts to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need to introduce nuclear power, the International Atomic Energy Agency is issuing this guidebook as part of a series of guidebooks and codes of practice and, in particular, as a necessary supplement to 'Economic Evaluation of Bids for Nuclear Power Plants: A Guidebook', published by the IAEA in 1976 as Technical Reports Series No.175. The present publication is intended for project managers and senior engineers of electric utilities who are concerned with the evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It assumes that the reader has a good knowledge of the technical characteristics of nuclear power plants and of nuclear power project implementation. Its purpose is to provide the information necessary to organize, guide and supervise the technical evaluation of bids for a nuclear power project. It goes without saying that the technical staff carrying out the evaluation must have prior technical experience which cannot be provided by a guidebook

  2. 78 FR 79253 - CCC Export Credit Guarantee (GSM-102) Program and Facility Guarantee Program (FGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... been worked out in advance of the exporter's application for the payment guarantee. Foreign Financial... country of domicile must provide financial statements in accordance with prevailing accounting standards... smaller U.S. exporters. Changes are also intended to improve CCC's financial management of the program...

  3. Guaranteeing CERN’s excellence: consolidate experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    For its missions CERN requires staff with solid experience in all its domains of activity The Organization has several missions: fundamental research, technical developments and innovation, training the several hundreds of associates, fellows and students, while at the same time taking care of more than 10000 users. In order to guarantee excellence in all of these areas, CERN has to put in place an efficient personnel policy. Such a policy must allow the Organization to recruit collaborators with the highest competence from all Member States, and to keep and motivate them during their entire professional career. But, more importantly, the Organization has to be able to count on a stable workforce. It needs staff with experience gained over a long period in the fields of accelerators, detectors, and operating procedures, if it is to fulfil successfully its important mission of training and knowledge transfer, which is very much appreciated by our Member states, since it highlights a visible return on invest...

  4. [Packaging: the guarantee of medicinal quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumeil, J-C

    2003-01-01

    Primary packaging guarantees the pharmaceutical quality of the medicinal preparation received by the patient. Glass bottles containing parenteral solutions for example ensure that sterility, quality and optimal stability are preserved until administration. Recent innovations in materials research has lead to improvements in parenteral infusions. Multicompartmental bags, allowing extemporaneous mixtures without opening the container, constitute an extremely beneficial advance for the patient, allowing administration of mixtures with solutions and emulsions which would be unstable if stored. Metered dose pressurized inhalers are an excellent example of drug administration devices designed specifically to ensure quality and bioavailability. These examples illustrate the important role of primary packaging and demonstrate the usefulness of research and development in this area.

  5. GMG: A Guaranteed, Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm for Remote Sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helon, CD

    2004-08-18

    The monocular passive ranging (MPR) problem in remote sensing consists of identifying the precise range of an airborne target (missile, plane, etc.) from its observed radiance. This inverse problem may be set as a global optimization problem (GOP) whereby the difference between the observed and model predicted radiances is minimized over the possible ranges and atmospheric conditions. Using additional information about the error function between the predicted and observed radiances of the target, we developed GMG, a new algorithm to find the Global Minimum with a Guarantee. The new algorithm transforms the original continuous GOP into a discrete search problem, thereby guaranteeing to find the position of the global minimum in a reasonably short time. The algorithm is first applied to the golf course problem, which serves as a litmus test for its performance in the presence of both complete and degraded additional information. GMG is further assessed on a set of standard benchmark functions and then applied to various realizations of the MPR problem.

  6. On QoS guarantee in MPLS network with software deadline awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Yaohui; Cheng, Hong; Yu, Yingdi; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng

    2007-11-01

    With the increasing number of internet users, more and more real-time services are added into the network, such as IPTV, online-video, Voice over IP, etc. As we know, throughput is a highly important performance criterion for scheduling algorithms of networks. Besides throughput, these growing real-time services are very sensitive to delay variance termed as jitter. Therefore, high performance scheduling algorithm should achieve good performance in terms of throughput, delay, jitter and fairness together. Scheduling algorithm with deadline-awareness employed in packet switching plays a key role in QoS guarantees. Although traditional hard-deadline can provide guarantee on in-node delay-deadline criteria, the end-to-end delay-deadline criteria cannot be guaranteed due to the characteristic of hard-deadline, while the delay-deadline guaranteed throughput is low. Thus, soft-deadline scheduling algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, we investigate and compare the classical hard-deadline and soft-deadline switching algorithm. A new scheme "Bonus System" is proposed in order to realize the idea of soft-deadline switching algorithm. Bonus System based on soft-deadline is compared with classical Early-Deadline First scheme based on hard-deadline, which shows that Bonus System has better performance in End-to-End deadline guarantee.

  7. Improving Agent Bidding in Power Stock Markets through a Data Mining Enhanced Agent Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysopoulos, Anthony C.; Symeonidis, Andreas L.; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    Like in any other auctioning environment, entities participating in Power Stock Markets have to compete against other in order to maximize own revenue. Towards the satisfaction of their goal, these entities (agents - human or software ones) may adopt different types of strategies - from na?ve to extremely complex ones - in order to identify the most profitable goods compilation, the appropriate price to buy or sell etc, always under time pressure and auction environment constraints. Decisions become even more difficult to make in case one takes the vast volumes of historical data available into account: goods’ prices, market fluctuations, bidding habits and buying opportunities. Within the context of this paper we present Cassandra, a multi-agent platform that exploits data mining, in order to extract efficient models for predicting Power Settlement prices and Power Load values in typical Day-ahead Power markets. The functionality of Cassandra is discussed, while focus is given on the bidding mechanism of Cassandra’s agents, and the way data mining analysis is performed in order to generate the optimal forecasting models. Cassandra has been tested in a real-world scenario, with data derived from the Greek Energy Stock market.

  8. Does Bid/Ask Spread React to the Increase of Internet Search Traffic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nurazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article solely examines the effect of investor attentions on bid-ask spread. We find that investors’ attention surrogated by Internet Search Traffic (IST contribute positively and significantly toward bid-ask spread (SPREAD. This result indicates that the incoming information directs the market within the stack circumstance and thin trading activity. Here, our samples were obtained from the manufacturing index, in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the period of observation ranging from 2009 to 2011. The hypothesis testing in this research is performed by using panel data regression analysis (Fixed Effect Model. Test result reveals that the search of online information through Google is beneficially one of the efforts to reduce asymmetry information between informed investors and uninformed investors. Besides, we also note that asymmetric information not only exists between the informed and uninformed investors, but also happens to market makers and informed investors. Finally, our findings lead to a conclusion, in which the high search of information tends to help investors in making appropriate investment decisions.

  9. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in public bidding processes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Andrade Longaray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of Higher Education in Brazil (IFES play an important role in the country’s social and scientific development. Focused mainly on teaching, research and extension activities, the IFES are backed by support foundations aimed to the management of financial, human and material resources. Characterized as public bodies, the support foundations are governed by Law no 8.666/93 in what concerns the procurement of goods and services. Therefore, the present study is aimed to develop a model to assist the managers of such foundations in the selection of suppliers to participate in bidding processes that use invitation for bids. Therefore, we conducted a case study in one of the 55 foundations that support Brazilian federal universities. The intervention tool used was the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Firstly, we established the hierarchy of criteria for problem-solving. Then, a paired comparison was made between criteria for the same level. Subsequently, the consistency analysis of comparison matrices was verified. Finally, the relative priorities of each criterion were obtained and the objective function of the model was constructed. The model was tested through the assessment of the performance of three potential suppliers of IT equipment, and the result was legitimized by decision makers who found the instrument a valid tool to aid in making decisions on supplier selection for the foundation.

  10. Analysis of equilibrium about bidding strategy of suppliers with future contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Jiang, Chuanwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the supply function model is employed to simulate the bidding strategy of suppliers in the power pool, and models of the supply function with future contracts are presented. It is proved that only one of the parameters between slope and intercept of the bidding curve is an independent variable in order to achieve definite equilibrium. In the meantime, the equilibria of the bidding strategy about suppliers are studied when different intercepts of the bidding curve are chosen. Some examples are employed to study the Nash equilibrium strategies of suppliers with different future contracts in various bidding strategy models. The results show that the equilibria are different in different bidding strategy models, but the future contracts can effectively make spot prices decrease in all the models

  11. Which countries bid for the Olympic Games? Economic, political, and social factors and chances of winning

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyzes 132 factors on their potential to discriminate countries bidding for hosting the Olympic Games from non-bidding countries. Our binary, clustered model using generalized estimating equations (GEE) shows that countries recording long-term economic growth and pursuing a liberalization and globalization policy will consider an Olympic bid. In addition, countries with an urban population above 10 million, with stable election results and an improvement in health standard...

  12. Overexpression of BID in thyroids of transgenic mice increases sensitivity to iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background BID functions as a bridge molecule between death-receptor and mitochondrial related apoptotic pathways to amplify apoptotic signaling. Our previous studies have demonstrated a substantial increase in BID expression in primary normal thyroid epithelia cells treated with inflammatory cytokines, including the combination of IFNγ and IL-1β or IFNγ and TNFα. The aim of this study was to determine whether an increase in BID expression in thyroid can induce autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods A transgenic mouse line that expresses human BID in thyroid cells was established by fusing a mouse thyroglobulin (Tg) promoter upstream of human BID (Tg-BID). We tested whether the increased expression of pro-apoptotic BID in thyroid would induce autoimmune thyroiditis, both in the presence and absence of 0.3% iodine water. Results Our data show that Tg-BID mice in a CBA/J (H-2 k) background do not spontaneously develop autoimmune thyroiditis for over a year. However, upon ingestion of iodine in the drinking water, autoimmune thyroiditis does develop in Tg-BID transgenic mice, as shown by a significant increase in anti-Tg antibody and mononuclear cell infiltration in the thyroid glands in 30% of mice tested. Serum T4 levels, however, were similar between iodine-treated Tg-BID transgenic mice and the wild type mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that increased thyroid expression of BID facilitates the development of autoimmune thyroiditis induced by iodine uptake. However, the overexpression of BID itself is not sufficient to initiate thyroiditis in CBA/J (H-2 k) mice. PMID:24957380

  13. A multi-space model for Chinese bids evaluation with analyzing

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Linfan

    2006-01-01

    A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. As a useful way of purchasing, there are many norms and rulers for it in the purchasing guides of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, $...$, also in contract conditions of various consultant associations. In China, there is a law and regulation system for tendering and bidding....

  14. A Robust Open Ascending-price Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Atsushi; Yokoo, Makoto; Terada, Kenji

    This paper develops a new ascending-price multi-unit auction protocol that has following characteristics: (i) it has an open format, (ii) sincere bidding is an equilibrium strategy even if the marginal utilities of each agent can increase and agents can submit false-name bids. False-name bids are bids submitted under fictitious names such as multiple e-mail addresses, which can be done easily in the Internet. This is the first protocol that has these two characteristics. We show that our new protocol outperforms an existing protocol, which satisfies (ii), with respect to the social surplus and the seller's revenue.

  15. Winning PEMEX consulting contracts through international bidding : sharing a Canadian success strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of brief notes and overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which described how Enbridge Technology obtained a contract with Mexico's PEMEX Refining through an international open bid. The scope of the contract was to advise PEMEX on how to modernize and automate their national liquids pipeline system. The value of the contract was US$11.6 million. The time span was from April 1998 to October 1999. A flow chart was included which illustrated the typical international bidding process. Enbridge prepared their bid by paying attention to bid basis details and emphasized their technical qualifications. 1 fig

  16. Does Bid/Ask Spread React to the Increase of Internet Search Traffic? (P.181-196

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nurazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article solely examines the effect of investor attentions on bid-ask spread. We find that investors’ attention surrogated by Internet Search Traffic (IST contribute positively and significantly toward bid-ask spread (SPREAD. This result indicates that the incoming information directs the market within the stack circumstance and thin trading activity. Here, our samples were obtained from the manufacturing index, in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the period of observation ranging from 2009 to 2011. The hypothesis testing in this research is performed by using panel data regression analysis (Fixed Effect Model. Test result reveals that the search of online information through Google is beneficially one of the efforts to reduce asymmetry information between informed investors and uninformed investors. Besides, we also note that asymmetric information not only exists between the informed and uninformed investors, but also happens to market makers and informed investors. Finally, our findings lead to a conclusion, in which the high search of information tends to help investors in making appropriate investment decisions. Keywords: investors’ attention, internet search traffic, google trend, bid-ask spread

  17. "Financial Innovation and Risk Management: The Cross-Guarantee Solution"

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Ely

    1995-01-01

    The cross-guarantee concept, which is summarized below, will eliminate the regulatory moral hazard that electronic technology has greatly exacerbated in recent years. The paper concludes by outlining the many benefits cross-guarantees will bring to the financial system as well as the structural and international implications of using cross-guarantees to bring market-driven regulation to the financial services sector of the American economy.

  18. The Race for Sponsored Links: Bidding Patterns for Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolt Katona; Miklos Sarvary

    2010-01-01

    Paid placements on search engines reached sales of nearly $11 billion in the United States last year and represent the most rapidly growing form of online advertising today. In its classic form, a search engine sets up an auction for each search word in which competing websites bid for their sponsored links to be displayed next to the search results. We model this advertising market, focusing on two of its key characteristics: (1) the interaction between the list of search results and the lis...

  19. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  20. An accurate analysis for guaranteed performance of multiprocessor streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poplavko, P.

    2008-01-01

    Already for more than a decade, consumer electronic devices have been available for entertainment, educational, or telecommunication tasks based on multimedia streaming applications, i.e., applications that process streams of audio and video samples in digital form. Multimedia capabilities are

  1. Probabilistic Performance Guarantees for Distributed Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Fox, Michael J.; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    propagating rules, effectively addressing the decision problem at the level of subgraphs as opposed to individual vertices. We are able to obey more stringent locality requirements while also providing smaller rule sets. The results can be improved upon

  2. 42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  3. Comprehensive bidding strategies with genetic programming/finite state automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B.; Ashlock, D.

    1999-01-01

    This research is an extension of the authors' previous work in double auctions aimed at developing bidding strategies for electric utilities which trade electricity competitively. The improvements detailed in this paper come from using data structures which combine genetic programming and finite state automata termed GP-Automata. The strategies developed by the method described here are adaptive--reacting to inputs--whereas the previously developed strategies were only suitable in the particular scenario for which they had been designed. The strategies encoded in the GP-Automata are tested in an auction simulator. The simulator pits them against other distribution companies (distcos) and generation companies (gencos), buying and selling power via double auctions implemented in regional commodity exchanges. The GP-Automata are evolved with a genetic algorithm so that they possess certain characteristics. In addition to designing successful bidding strategies (whose usage would result in higher profits) the resulting strategies can also be designed to imitate certain types of trading behaviors. The resulting strategies can be implemented directly in on-line trading, or can be used as realistic competitors in an off-line trading simulator

  4. 7 CFR 1493.430 - Application for a payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (includes upward loading tolerance, if any); (12) Guaranteed value; (13) Guarantee fee; (14) The term length... (including packaging, if any); (8) Mean quantity, contract loading tolerance and, if the exporter chooses, a request for CCC to reserve coverage up to the maximum quantity permitted by the contract loading tolerance...

  5. Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.

  6. 13 CFR 120.613 - Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. 120.613 Section 120.613 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.613 Secondary Participation Guarantee Agreement. When a Lender...

  7. Corporate Bond Guarantees and The Value of Financial Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altieri, M.; Massa, M; Manconi, A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effects of the decision of parent companies to guarantee bonds issued by their subsidiaries. The market value of the parent firm’s outstanding bonds drops five times more when it issues a guarantee for subsidiary debt than when it issues a new bond in its own name. This effect is

  8. 12 CFR 370.4 - Transaction Account Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.4 Transaction Account Guarantee Program. (a) In addition to the coverage afforded to depositors under 12 CFR Part 330, a depositor's funds in a noninterest... determining whether funds are in a noninterest-bearing transaction account for purposes of this section, the...

  9. 76 FR 31217 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC83 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... the Rural Housing Service (RHS) Section 502 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) by eliminating the lender's published Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) rate for first mortgage loans with no...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-60 - Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Characteristics. 52.247-60 Section 52.247-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-60 Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics. As prescribed in 47.305-16(b)(1), insert the following clause: Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics (DEC 1989) (a) The offeror is requested to complete...

  11. 13 CFR 120.400 - Loan Guarantee Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan Guarantee Agreements. 120.400 Section 120.400 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders § 120... specific proposed loan that a Lender may submit. The existence of a Loan Guarantee Agreement does not limit...

  12. 7 CFR 4279.149 - Personal and corporate guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantees are part of the collateral for the loan, but are not considered in determining whether a loan is... documents to the Agency's satisfaction that collateral, equity, cashflow, and profitability indicate an... guarantee form. When warranted by an Agency assessment of potential financial risk, Agency approved...

  13. 7 CFR 2201.28 - Participation in guaranteed Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participation in guaranteed Loans. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a Loan guaranteed under the Program by sale of participations therein if... in part as a result of the sale of such participations; (2) The Lender remains solely responsible for...

  14. 14 CFR 1300.23 - Participation in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a loan guaranteed under the program by sale of... transferred in whole or in part; (2) The lender remains solely responsible for the administration of the loan... loans guaranteed under the program: (1) Eligible lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance...

  15. Existence and computation of equilibria of first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escamocher, Guillaume; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Santillan, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    We consider existence and computation of symmetric Pure Strategy Nash Equilibrium (PSNE) in single-item, sealed-bid, first-price auctions with integral valuations and bids. For the most general case, we show that existence of PSNE is NP-hard. Then, we present algorithmic results for the case...

  16. 48 CFR 52.214-10 - Contract Award-Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the solicitation, will be most advantageous to the Government considering only price and the price... quantity less than the quantity offered, at the unit prices offered, unless the bidder specifies otherwise in the bid. (d) A written award or acceptance of a bid mailed or otherwise furnished to the...

  17. 47 CFR 27.209 - Designated entities; bidding credits; unjust enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities; bidding credits; unjust enrichment. 27.209 Section 27.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... 2305-2320 MHz and 2345-2360 MHz Bands § 27.209 Designated entities; bidding credits; unjust enrichment...

  18. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. 25.401 Section 25.401 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1251 - Maritime communications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime communications subject to competitive... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures § 80.1251 Maritime communications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for VPCSA...

  20. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands : Chapter 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; van Het Kaar, R.H.; Cremers, Jan; Vitols, Sigurt

    2016-01-01

    Chapter dedicated to the Dutch implementation of EU Takeover Bids Directive. The case is particularly interesting because of the strong position of works councils within Dutch companies, including in restructuring situations. Implementation of the Takeover Bids Directive in the Netherlands did not

  1. 48 CFR 14.203-2 - Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 14.203-2 Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids. Procedures concerning display... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of information concerning invitations for bids. 14.203-2 Section 14.203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  2. Strategic Bidding in Multi-Unit Auctions with Capacity Constrained Bidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenen, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a simple model to describe bidding behavior in multi-unit uniform price procurement auctions when firms are capacity constrained. Using data from the New York City procurement auctions for power generating capacity, I find that firms use simple bidding strategies to coordinate......'s capacities and its profits of undercutting increase....

  3. 30 CFR 260.110 - What bidding systems may MMS use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What bidding systems may MMS use? 260.110 Section 260.110 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER... MMS use? We will apply a single bidding system selected from those listed in this section to each...

  4. 30 CFR 285.222 - What does MMS do with my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do with my bid? 285.222 Section... Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.222 What does MMS do with my bid? (a) If sealed... any proposal submitted will be made by a panel composed of members selected by MMS. The details of the...

  5. The degree of rationality in actual bidding of hydropower at Nord Pool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Erik Nicholas; Grøndahl, Roger; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2013-01-01

    In deregulated electricity markets, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's generation in day-ahead auctions. We analyse bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profits...

  6. Caspase-8 Binding to Cardiolipin in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles Provides a Functional Docking Platform for Bid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalmar, Olivier; Franc¸ois-Moutal, Liberty; García-Sáez, Ana-Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-8 is involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis in type II cells, the proapoptotic programme of which is triggered by truncated Bid. Indeed, caspase-8 and Bid are the known intermediates of this signalling pathway. Cardiolipin has been shown to provide an anchor and an essential activa...

  7. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding. The...

  8. 48 CFR 22.1014 - Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay over 60 days in bid... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1014 Delay over 60 days in bid opening or commencement of work. If a...

  9. 75 FR 13212 - Proposed Information Collection (Caution to Bidders-Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... (Caution to Bidders--Bid Envelopes) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the information needed to identify bid...: Under the PRA of 1995 (Public Law 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3501-3521), Federal agencies must obtain approval...

  10. 47 CFR 24.717 - Bidding credits for licenses for frequency Block F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding credits for licenses for frequency Block F. 24.717 Section 24.717 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....717 Bidding credits for licenses for frequency Block F. (a) Except with respect to licenses won in...

  11. Coordination of bidding strategies in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushuan Wen; David, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of building optimally coordinated bidding strategies for competitive suppliers in day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets is addressed. It is assumed that each supplier bids 24 linear energy supply functions and 24 linear spinning reserve supply functions, one for each hour, into the energy and spinning reserve markets, respectively, and each market is cleared separately and simultaneously for all the 24 delivery hours. Each supplier makes decisions on unit commitment and chooses the coefficients in the linear energy and spinning reserve supply functions to maximise total benefits, subject to expectations about how rival suppliers will bid in both markets. Two different bidding schemes have been suggested for each hour, and based on them an overall coordinated bidding strategy in the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is then developed. Stochastic optimisation models are first developed to describe these two different bidding schemes and a genetic algorithm (GA) is then used to build the optimally coordinated bidding strategies for each scheme and to develop an overall bidding strategy for the day-ahead energy and spinning reserve markets. A numerical example is utilised to illustrate the essential features of the method. (Author)

  12. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  13. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission....... The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity...... Market (IEM). The results demonstrate that wind farm owners change their bid shading behavior in a PAB Auction. However, the expected revenue of the wind farm will also decrease in a PAB auction. As a result, it is not recommended to make an obligation for the wind farms to participate in a PAB auction...

  14. Sequential bidding in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swider, Derk J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel approach for sequential bidding on day-ahead auction markets for spot energy and power systems reserve is presented. For the spot market a relatively simple method is considered as a competitive market is assumed. For the reserve market one bidder is assumed to behave strategically and the behavior of the competitors is summarized in a probability distribution of the market price. This results in a method for sequential bidding, where the bidding prices and capacities on the spot and reserve markets are calculated by maximizing a stochastic non-linear objective function of expected profit. With an exemplary application is shown that the trading sequence leads to increasing bidding capacities and prices in the reverse rank number of the markets. Hence, the consideration of a defined trading sequence greatly influences the mathematical representation of the optimal bidding behavior under price uncertainty in day-ahead auctions for spot energy and power systems reserve. (Author)

  15. Land bidding game with conflicting interest and its quantum solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Haozhen; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Li, Lvzhou; Zhang, Cai

    Recently, the first conflicting interest quantum game based on the nonlocality property of quantum mechanics has been introduced in A. Pappa, N. Kumar, T. Lawson, M. Santha, S. Y. Zhang, E. Diamanti and I. Kerenidis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 020401. Several quantum games of the same genre have also been proposed subsequently. However, these games are constructed from some well-known Bell inequalities, thus are quite abstract and lack of realistic interpretations. In the present paper, we modify the common interest land bidding game introduced in N. Brunner and N. Linden, Nat. Commun. 4 (2013) 2057, which is also based on nonlocality and can be understood as two companies collaborating in developing a project. The modified game has conflicting interest and reflects the free rider problem in economics. Then we show that it has a fair quantum solution that leads to better outcome. Finally, we study how several types of paradigmatic noise affect the outcome of this game.

  16. 31 CFR 356.12 - What are the different types of bids and do they have specific requirements or restrictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Treasury bills. A competitive bid must show the discount rate bid, expressed with three decimals in .005... competitively, either at a single yield or discount rate, or at different yields or discount rates. However, a competitive bid at a single yield or discount rate that exceeds 35 percent of the offering amount will be...

  17. 48 CFR 3.104-4 - Disclosure, protection, and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... otherwise authorized by law or regulation. Any release containing contractor bid or proposal information or..., and marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. 3.104-4... marking of contractor bid or proposal information and source selection information. (a) Except as...

  18. Psychology of nuclear safeguards. [Cannot guarantee preventing diversion, only deter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L

    1978-08-17

    There is an essential confusion in the way we look at safeguards. They cannot guarantee to prevent diversions: at best, they can deter. While successful acts of deterrence pass unnoticed, failures will be widely publicized. Therefore, we will judge safeguards systems not on a fair balance between their successes and failures, but exclusively on what we believe to be their failures. Effectively, we will be demanding an impossibly high standard of performance, and safeguards authorities will be tempted to conceal diversions rather than disappoint our expectations. Perhaps it is appropriate that safeguards are primarily psychological instruments: Parker argues that their essence is credibility, and that this does not necessarily depend on the hard reality of their performance. Brian Johnson claimed (New Scientist, vol 74, p 189) that safeguards have engendered a sense of security by linking the commitment of many states not to develop nuclear weapons, and that the Non-Proliferation Treaty has helped condition domestic political attitudes against starting up nuclear weapons programs. Perhaps the common view that safeguards are legal instruments has served the psychological purpose of supplying a language in which states with widely differing interests can explore the fundamental incompatibility between non-proliferation and the search for convenient energy sources. If this is true then it cannot be said that the NPT is a failure, merely that its success does not correspond to its apparent purposes.

  19. Bidding strategies for virtual power plants considering CHPs and intermittent renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Riveros, J.; Bruninx, K.; Poncelet, K.; D’haeseleer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic optimization evaluates the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP. • Three different strategies were assessed: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. • The ‘flexible RT’ attains the largest profits. It adapts the VPP output in real-time. - Abstract: Energy efficiency and renewable-energy sources (RES) are fundamental parts of the European energy policy. For this reason, efficient distributed generation technologies such as combined heat and power coupled to district heating (CHP–DH) and RES based electricity are largely promoted. Additionally, the flexibility that CHP–DH offers to the power system is seen as an option to balance the intermittent output of RES-based generation. This could be done by aggregating RES based electricity generation and CHP DH in a virtual power plant (VPP). In this framework, the present work presents a methodology to evaluate the optimal bidding strategy of a VPP composed of a CHP–DH and RES based generators. The objective is to investigate the optimal bidding strategy for a VPP that uses CHP DH to compensate for the uncertainties regarding RES-based electricity generation and market prices. The VPP operator nominates its energy to the day ahead market the day before the actual delivery (D-1). In real time, any deviation from the day-ahead schedule is settled in the imbalance market. The uncertainties are modeled using a two stage stochastic programming approach. Three different bidding strategies are studied: ‘static’, ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’. The major difference between the studied strategies lies in the dispatch decisions. The ‘static’ strategy does not adjust the scheduled output of the CHP. Whereas, the ‘flexible DA’ and ‘flexible RT’ strategies differ from each other in terms of the information available at the moment of performing the reschedule (second stage decision). The ‘flexible DA’ reschedules the CHP output for the whole day assuming

  20. A Comparative Study on the Bidding Behavior of Pay as Bid and Uniform Price Electricity Market Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Khazraj, Hesam; Bak, Claus Leth

    2018-01-01

    High prices are expected for high demand times in the electricity markets and vice versa. The System Capacity Margin (SCM) demonstrates the abundance of electricity in the market. Naturally, higher SCM causes to lower price but, the players' behavior distortions have been frequently addressed...... in the literature. The overall producers’ bidding behaviors participating in Iran Electricity Market (IEM) as the low wind penetrated case and the Danish Electricity Market (DEM) as a high wind penetrated case are studied in this paper. An index is introduced to describe the overall market players’ behaviors....... Considering the players' behavior and using adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system, a model is derived. Although the total trend of prices is descending while the SCM increases, the results show some unexpected behaviors in IEM. Finally, players' biding behavior are compared in DEM and IEM. Markov transition...

  1. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers in the Day-ahead Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind Power Producers (WPPs seek to maximize profit and minimize the imbalance costs when bidding into the day-ahead market, but uncertainties in the hourly available wind and forecasting errors make the bidding risky. This paper assumes that hourly wind power output given by the forecast follows a normal distribution, and proposes three different bidding strategies, i.e., the expected profit-maximization strategy (EPS, the chance-constrained programming-based strategy (CPS and the multi-objective bidding strategy (ECPS. Analytical solutions under the three strategies are obtained. Comparisons among the three strategies are conducted on a hypothetical wind farm which follows the Spanish market rules. Results show that bid under the EPS is highly dependent on market clearing price, imbalance prices, and also the mean value and standard deviation of wind forecast, and that bid under the CPS is largely driven by risk parameters and the mean value and standard deviation of the wind forecast. The ECPS combining both EPS and CPS tends to choose a compromise bid. Furthermore, the ECPS can effectively control the tradeoff between expected profit and target profit for WPPs operating in volatile electricity markets.

  2. Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.

  3. 7 CFR 1720.8 - Issuance of the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting firm or federal banking regulator, annual consolidated financial statements audited by an... financial covenants, and events of default and remedies; (3) Prior to the issuance of the guarantee, the...

  4. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  5. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  6. Several Guaranteed Descent Conjugate Gradient Methods for Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a general form of guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods which satisfies the descent condition gkTdk≤-1-1/4θkgk2  θk>1/4 and which is strongly convergent whenever the weak Wolfe line search is fulfilled. Moreover, we present several specific guaranteed descent conjugate gradient methods and give their numerical results for large-scale unconstrained optimization.

  7. Implementation of a financial guarantee policy at the CNSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was established in 2000 under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) to replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Prior to the coming in force of the NSCA, financial guarantees associated with licensed activities were not prescribed in the Atomic Energy Control Act or its regulations. Under the NSCA, the Commission Tribunal 'the Commission' was given authority to impose conditions in licences requiring financial guarantees from licensees. Other provisions of the NSCA provided information on the application of financial guarantees and for refunds when decommissioning obligations had been met. Since 2000, the application of financial guarantees has been primarily focussed on licences issued pursuant to the Class I Nuclear Facilities Regulations and the Uranium Mines and Mills Regulations. This was to assure that the requirements for financial guarantees were initially directed at the high risk, complex facilities licensed by the CNSC. However, all licensees have not yet been required to provide a financial guarantee for all licensed facilities, activities or licence types. Additionally, CNSC expectations in relation to when financial guarantees, associated decommissioning plans and cost estimates need to be reviewed, updated and submitted, and what they should entail have been evolving, indicating a need for a clear CNSC policy on the subject. Consequently, the CNSC is proceeding with the development of a financial guarantee policy and implementation plan to assure that generators of nuclear waste will have the financial resources available to decommission nuclear facilities, operations and devices and that this activity will not fall to government as a future liability. This program will require approval by the Commission, planned for 2012. This paper will further describe this policy and its possible outcomes. (author)

  8. Demand bidding construction for a large consumer through a hybrid IGDT-probability methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Kazem; Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa; Sheikh El Eslami, Mohammad Kazem

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a technique to derive the bidding strategy in the day-ahead market for a large consumer that procures its electricity demand in both day-ahead market and a subsequent adjustment market. It is considered that hourly market prices are normally distributed and this correlation is modeled by variance-covariance matrix. The uncertainty of procurement cost is modeled using concepts derived from information gap decision theory which allows deriving robust bidding strategies with respect to price volatility. First Order Reliability Method is applied to construct the robust bidding curve. The proposed technique is illustrated through a realistic case study. (author)

  9. Use of Bidding Supply to Attend State Emergency Caused by Poor Planning and its Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Gomes de Medeiros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the law inherent in bidding in the country has been the subject of legal discussion, especially as the bidding exemption from the institute, particularly when justified in finding emergency situation, which requires the public administrator prompt and effective steps to eradicate or, least minimize the consequences harmful to the community. However, the biggest dilemma is to characterize the application possibilities of the legal provision, since with the passage of time has glimpsed the jurisprudential understanding change towards the dispensability of the bidding event when the emergency is the result of negligence of Public Administration.

  10. Multi-Objective Bidding Strategy for Genco Using Non-Dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksinchai, Apinat; Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in uniform price spot market using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO). Instead of using a tradeoff technique, NSPSO is introduced to solve the multi-objective strategic bidding problem considering expected profit maximization and risk (profit variation) minimization. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to simulate rivals' bidding behavior. Test results indicate that the proposed approach can provide the efficient non-dominated solution front effectively. In addition, it can be used as a decision making tool for a GenCo compromising between expected profit and price risk in spot market.

  11. Liquidity Shocks, Market Maker Turnover, and Bidding Behavior in Treasury Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rudiger, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    aggressively. They also bid more aggressively for existing securities that are reissued when the regulation tightens the requirements for secondary market participation. Consistent with regulations which imply that auctioned securities are not a prime source of liquidity, we find that banks which face...... liquidity needs bid less aggressively for them. A novel implication of our results is that in institutional settings that feature turnover of market makers, bidding behavior should be modeled in a dynamic setting. We introduce a dynamic model and show that static estimates over-predict true valuations when...

  12. Customer intentions to invoke service guarantees: Do excellence in service recovery, type of guarantee, and cultural orientation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; De Keyser, Arne; Larivière, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Many service providers feel confident about their service quality and thus offer service guarantees to their customers. Yet service failures are inevitable. As guarantees can only be invoked when customers report service failures, firms are given the opportunity to redress the original failure potentially influencing customer outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical investigation of whether excellence in service recovery affects customers’ intentions to ...

  13. QoE Guarantee Scheme Based on Cooperative Cognitive Cloud and Opportunistic Weight Particle Swarm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihang Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the Internet application of cloud services may be affected by the inefficiency of cloud computing and inaccurate evaluation of quality of experience (QoE seriously. In our paper, based on construction algorithms of cooperative cognitive cloud platform and optimization algorithm of opportunities weight particle swarm clustering, the QoE guarantee mechanism was proposed. The mechanism, through the sending users of requests and the cognitive neighbor users’ cooperation, combined the cooperation of subcloud platforms and constructed the optimal cloud platform with the different service. At the same time, the particle swarm optimization algorithm could be enhanced dynamically according to all kinds of opportunity request weight, which could optimize the cooperative cognitive cloud platform. Finally, the QoE guarantee scheme was proposed with the opportunity weight particle swarm optimization algorithm and collaborative cognitive cloud platform. The experimental results show that the proposed mechanism compared is superior to the QoE guarantee scheme based on cooperative cloud and QoE guarantee scheme based on particle swarm optimization, compared with optimization fitness and high cloud computing service execution efficiency and high throughput performance advantages.

  14. 25 CFR 276.4 - Bondings and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guarantee from each bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price. The bid guarantee shall consist of a... as assurance that the bidder will, upon acceptance of his bid, execute such contractual documents as... 100 percent of the contract price. A performance bond is one executed in connection with a contract to...

  15. Supplier's optimal bidding strategy in electricity pay-as-bid auction: Comparison of the Q-learning and a model-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the bidding decision making problem in electricity pay-as-bid auction is studied from a supplier's point of view. The bidding problem is a complicated task, because of suppliers' uncertain behaviors and demand fluctuation. In a specific case, in which, the market clearing price (MCP) is considered as a continuous random variable with a known probability distribution function (PDF), an analytic solution is proposed. The suggested solution is generalized to consider the effect of supplier market power due to transmission congestion. As a result, an algebraic equation is developed to compute optimal offering price. The basic assumption in this approach is to take the known probabilistic model for the MCP. The above-mentioned method, called model-based approach, is not more applicable in a realistic situation. In order to overcome the drawback of this method, which needs information about the MCP and its PDF, the supplier learns from past experiences using the Q-learning algorithm to find out the optimal bid price. The simulation results of the model-based and Q-learning methods are compared on a studied system. It is shown that a supplier using the Q-learning algorithm is able to find the optimal bidding strategy similar to one obtained by the model-based approach. Furthermore, to analyze a more realistic situation, the suppliers' behaviors are modeled using a multi-agent system. Simulation results illustrate that the studied supplier finds the optimal bidding strategy in power market using the Q-learning algorithm. (author)

  16. Analysis of General Accounting Office Bid Protest Decisions on A-76 Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russial, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... Historically, industry has successfully protested a high percentage of A-76 procurements. This thesis examines General Accounting Office A-76 bid protest decisions issued between 5 February 1996 and 23 December 2002...

  17. A Data-Driven Bidding Model for a Cluster of Price-Responsive Consumers of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Gallego, Javier; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the market-bidding problem of a cluster of price-responsive consumers of electricity. We develop an inverse optimization scheme that, recast as a bilevel programming problem, uses price-consumption data to estimate the complex market bid that best captures the price......-response of the cluster. The complex market bid is defined as a series of marginal utility functions plus some constraints on demand, such as maximum pick-up and drop-off rates. The proposed modeling approach also leverages information on exogenous factors that may influence the consumption behavior of the cluster, e...... can be largely captured in the form of a complex market bid, so that this could be ultimately used for the cluster to participate in the wholesale electricity market....

  18. 48 CFR 52.214-7 - Late submissions, modifications, and withdrawals of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitted through an electronic commerce method authorized by the IFB, it was received at the initial point... Government processes resume. (e) Bids may be withdrawn by written notice received at any time before the...

  19. Strategic bidding of generating units in competitive electricity market with considering their reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the restructured power systems, they are typically scheduled based on the offers and bids to buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) subject to operational and security constraints. Generally, no account is taken of unit reliability when scheduling it. Therefore generating units have no incentive to improve their reliability. This paper proposes a new method to obtain the equilibrium points for reliability and price bidding strategy of units when the unit reliability is considered in the scheduling problem. The proposed methodology employs the supply function equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a unit's bidding strategy. Units change their bidding strategies and improve their reliability until Nash equilibrium points are obtained. GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language has been used to solve the market scheduling problem using DICOPT optimization software with mixed integer non-linear programming. (author)

  20. RISIKO INVESTASI, BID-ASK SPREAD, DAN COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL DI PASAR MODAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies investigated how financial information affected investment decisions. The study extendedthis line of research by examining the effect of risk, proxied by price per share, number of shareholders, numberof dealers, trading volume, accounting risk and market risk measures on the bid ask spread. Further, theresearch tried to test the relationship between bid ask spread and cost of equity capital. The samples of thisresearch were the manufacturing companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange which shared the dividendfor 3 years; there were 40 companies. Data analysis technique used multiple regression analysis. The results ofregression provided evidence of statistically significant effect of price per share, market value, asset size andprice variability on bid ask spread. At last, there was a positive relationship between bid ask spread and cost ofequity capital

  1. 36 CFR 223.86 - Bid restriction on resale of noncompleted contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids... business entity or the successor in interest of any of the foregoing business entities. A person is an...

  2. 78 FR 18527 - Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service... for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, MM Docket No. 97- 234 et...

  3. The Benefits and Risks of Virtual Bidding in Multi-Settlement Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isemonger, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    While it is possible that multi-settlement markets can exist without virtual trading, it is equally clear that virtual trading can provide many market benefits. The main one: In the absence of explicit virtual bidding (EVB), the price arbitrage trades that are benign in other commodity markets affect the reliability of the underlying electricity markets, resulting in a situation where EVB is most useful when it neutralizes the deleterious reliability effects of implicit virtual bidding and physical arbitrage. (author)

  4. 30 CFR 285.224 - What happens if MMS accepts my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if MMS accepts my bid? 285.224... Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.224 What happens if MMS accepts my bid? If we... withdraw an OCS area in which we have held a lease sale before you and MMS execute the lease in that area...

  5. Refinancing, debt for equity agreements and takeover bids under Spanish law

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Varona, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the connection between agreed solutions to the insolvency of listed companies implying changes in corporate control and the rules governing takeover bids. The solution to insolvency problems sometimes leads to a change in corporate control, namely when the solution involves modifying the capital structure of the company. In such cases, when the insolvent entity is a listed company, takeover bid regulation must be taken into account, as it can render the operation impossi...

  6. The 2003 proposal for a directive on Takeover Bids - Impact on the regulation in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'.......The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'....

  7. Current Practices to Decrease Subcontractor Bid Shopping in the Public Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    rarely done because most contractors refuse to accept such a condition (6s15). Those public agencies adhering to the doctrine of promissory estoppel ...also encourage bid shopping. The doctrine of promissory estoppel dictates that a subcontractor must stand by his bid quote if it is used by the prime...Holman was not awarded the subcontract. (3) It is unfair to bind the subcontractor under promissory estoppel without binding the general contractor. (4

  8. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Badri; Jadid, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (Iran); Rashidinejad, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran); Moghaddam, M.P. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-06-15

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  9. Research on Power Producer’s Bidding Behavior Based on the Best-Response Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As China’s electricity market is facing many problems, the research on power producer’s bidding behavior can promote the healthy and sustainable development of China’s electricity market. As a special commodity, the “electricity” possesses complicated production process. The instable market constraint condition, nonsymmetric information, and a lot of random factors make the producer’s bidding process more complex. Best-response dynamic is one of the classic dynamic mechanisms of the evolutionary game theory, which applies well in the repeated game and strategy evolution that happen among a few bounded rational players with a quick learning capability. The best-response dynamic mechanism is employed to study the power producer’s bidding behavior in this paper, the producer’s best-response dynamic model is constructed, and how the producers would engage in bidding is analyzed in detail. Taking two generating units in South China regional electricity market as the example, the producer’s bidding behavior by following the producer’s best-response dynamic model is verified. The relationships between the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS of power producer’s bidding and the market demand, and ceiling and floor price as well as biding frequency are discussed in detail.

  10. A matrix game model for analyzing FTR bidding strategies in deregulated electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K.; Rocha, Patricio; Babayigit, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Suppliers in deregulated electric power markets compete for financial transmission rights (FTRs) to hedge against congestion charges. The system operator receives the bids for FTRs submitted by the suppliers and develops an allocation strategy by solving an optimization model. Each FTR bid is defined by a path, a quantity indicating the amount of FTRs the supplier is bidding for in that path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR. The FTR revenue is calculated only after the electricity market has been cleared by computing the differences in the LMPs at the pair of nodes that connect each path. Thus, suppliers rely on forecasts of locational marginal prices (LMPs) to develop their FTR bids. In this paper, we present a game theoretic modeling approach to develop FTR bidding strategies for power suppliers assuming that they have forecasts of LMPs. The game theoretic model considers multiple participants as well as network contingencies. We apply the game theoretic model on a sample network to assess impacts of variations of bid and network parameters on the FTR market outcome. (author)

  11. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri, A.; Jadid, S.; Rashidinejad, M.; Moghaddam, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  12. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  13. Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.

  14. The observable defects and the proper functioning guarantee in trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two legal mechanisms for buyer´s protection contained in the Colombian Commercial Code, parallel to building regulations, because of hidden defects in the sale, which are: guarantee by observable defects at delivery and guarantee for proper functioning. The author analyzes the poor way such actions are enshrined in the Code as a consequence of a fragmented and dispersed regime for defective compliance actions in the laws of Private Law. This paper proposes a reinterpretation of such actions from the perspective of the lack of conformity that is based on a unified system of remedies for breach, concepts embodied in modern instruments of contract law.

  15. Robust levitation control for maglev systems with guaranteed bounded airgap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinquan; Chen, Ye-Hwa; Guo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The robust control design problem for the levitation control of a nonlinear uncertain maglev system is considered. The uncertainty is (possibly) fast time-varying. The system has magnitude limitation on the airgap between the suspended chassis and the guideway in order to prevent undesirable contact. Furthermore, the (global) matching condition is not satisfied. After a three-step state transformation, a robust control scheme for the maglev vehicle is proposed, which is able to guarantee the uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of the system, regardless of the uncertainty. The magnitude limitation of the airgap is guaranteed, regardless of the uncertainty. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of Bim and Bid gene expression during accelerated apoptosis in severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefan U; Schewe, Jens-Christian; Lehmann, Lutz E; Müller, Stefan; Book, Malte; Klaschik, Sven; Hoeft, Andreas; Stüber, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In transgenic animal models of sepsis, members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate lymphocyte apoptosis and survival of sepsis. This study investigates the gene regulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in patients with early stage severe sepsis. In this prospective case-control study, patients were recruited from three intensive care units (ICUs) in a university hospital. Sixteen patients were enrolled when they fulfilled the criteria of severe sepsis. Ten critically ill but non-septic patients and 11 healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples were immediately obtained at inclusion. To confirm the presence of accelerated apoptosis in the patient groups, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine externalisation in CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocyte subsets were assessed using flow cytometry. Specific mRNAs of Bcl-2 family members were quantified from whole blood by real-time PCR. To test for statistical significance, Kruskal-Wallis testing with Dunn's multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis was performed. In all lymphocyte populations caspase-3 (p < 0.05) was activated, which was reflected in an increased phosphatidylserine externalisation (p < 0.05). Accordingly, lymphocyte counts were decreased in early severe sepsis. In CD4+ T-cells (p < 0.05) and B-cells (p < 0.001) the Bcl-2 protein was decreased in severe sepsis. Gene expression of the BH3-only Bim was massively upregulated as compared with critically ill patients (p < 0.001) and 51.6-fold as compared with healthy controls (p < 0.05). Bid was increased 12.9-fold compared with critically ill patients (p < 0.001). In the group of mitochondrial apoptosis inducers, Bak was upregulated 5.6-fold, while the expression of Bax showed no significant variations. By contrast, the pro-survival members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl were both downregulated in severe sepsis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). In early severe sepsis a gene expression pattern with

  17. IMPROVING THE BIDS EVALUATION CRITERIA AND REDUCING TIME AND EFFORT OF THE ASSESSMENT BY DEVELOPING A SOFTWARE PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muaid A. Shhatha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have been conducted to specify the most effecting factors on the success of projects. Those studies titled the most influencing factor, which is the bid selection criterion. By this criterion, the most qualified bidder/contractor could be chosen where the contractor has a considerable impact upon projects successes. Moreover, the published studies helped a lot in correcting the improper adopted criterion in selecting the best bid, which is the lowest price bid. Awarding the bid depending on the lowest price bid ended many projects in failure. Therefore, this study aimed to revise the popular mistaken selection criterion, recommend an evaluation criterion, and develop a computer program that works on finding the best bid according to the recommended criterion. The suggested criterion was followed in selecting one of the contractors to construct some projects in Iraq. That projects were felicitously finished; the projects were completed on time and budget.

  18. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Further improvements in competitive guarantees for QoS buffering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Fleischer, L.K.; Kimbrel, T.; Mahdian, M.; Schieber, B.; Sviridenko, M.; Diaz, J.; Karhumäki, J.; Lepistö, A.; Sannella, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the behavior of algorithms for buffering packets weighted by different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in a single queue. Buffer space is limited, and packet loss occurs when the buffer overflows. We describe a modification of the previously proposed ``preemptive greedy{''}

  20. 32 CFR 151.7 - Fair trial guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.7 Fair trial guarantees. The following is... competent interpreter when the accused does not understand the language in which the trial is conducted and does not have counsel proficient in the language both of the court and of the accused. (p) Accused is...

  1. 7 CFR 1493.40 - Application for payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and allowances, if any. (11) Port value (includes upward loading tolerance, if any). (12) Guaranteed..., contract loading tolerance and, if necessary, a request for CCC to reserve coverage up to the maximum quantity permitted by the contract loading tolerance. (9) Unit sales price of the commodity, or a mechanism...

  2. Interface Input/Output Automata: Splitting Assumptions from Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    's \\IOAs [11], relying on a context dependent notion of refinement based on relativized language inclusion. There are two main contributions of the work. First, we explicitly separate assumptions from guarantees, increasing the modeling power of the specification language and demonstrating an interesting...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.488 - Guaranteed industrial development bond issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... industrial plants for lease to private businesses engaged in industrial manufacturing and does not provide... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. 1980..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan...

  4. 12 CFR 370.3 - Debt Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... convertible debt to be issued, (C) The mandatory conversion date, (D) The conversion rate (i.e., the total... exchange rate in effect on the date that the debt is funded. (c) Calculation and reporting responsibility... guarantee expires on the earliest of the mandatory conversion date for mandatory convertible debt, the...

  5. Pricing and Hedging Guaranteed Returns on Mix Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellekoop, M.H.; van de Kamp, A.A.; Post, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we propose a valuation and hedging strategy for a guaranteed minimal rate of return on a mix fund, which participates in both bonds and stocks. For the case where a fixed amount of money is invested, we show that a European put option on the mix fund replicates the cash flows

  6. 29 CFR 541.604 - Minimum guarantee plus extras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Salary Requirements § 541.604 Minimum guarantee plus extras. (a) An employer may provide... commission on sales. An exempt employee also may receive a percentage of the sales or profits of the employer...

  7. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  8. Coverage and Rate of Downlink Sequence Transmissions with Reliability Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Real-time distributed control is a promising application of 5G in which communication links should satisfy certain reliability guarantees. In this letter, we derive closed-form maximum average rate when a device (e.g. industrial machine) downloads a sequence of n operational commands through cell...

  9. 78 FR 13999 - Maximum Interest Rates on Guaranteed Farm Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ..., cost-plus, flat-rate, or market based) to price guaranteed loans, provided the rates do not exceed the... (LIBOR) or the 5-year Treasury note rate, unless the lender uses a formal written risk-based pricing... cost in the form of a lower interest rate than the borrower would otherwise receive. Therefore, the FSA...

  10. Stabilization with guaranteed safety using Control Lyapunov–Barrier Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romdlony, Muhammad Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel nonlinear control method for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety for nonlinear systems. The design is based on the merging of the well-known Control Lyapunov Function (CLF) and the recent concept of Control Barrier Function (CBF). The proposed control

  11. 13 CFR 400.214 - Participations in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a... the Guarantee is assigned, conveyed, sold, or transferred in whole or in part; (2) The Lender remains... Lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance companies that do not usually invest in commercial...

  12. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) entitled “Guarantees for representatives of the personnel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to all members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 2) entitled “Guarantees for members of the personnel holding representative office” of November 1992. The circular was revised in order to adapt the time given to the representatives of the personnel to perform their elective mandate and to ensure more transparency in their activities, by indicating, inter alia, the percentage of time worked in the framework of their mandate, as well as the training, activities and ensuing results. Department Head Office HR Department

  13. GRS - Guarantee of results for grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems; GRS - Garantierte Resultate von Solarstromanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Ch.; Frei, R.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the development of a performance guarantee for the power delivered by grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power plant. This is important for investors, who need to be able to calculate the price of the energy produced by the PV plant. The report examines the results of various case studies and experience gained with GRS contracts developed in different countries including Switzerland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. The problems encountered, which provided feedback for the further development of the contract presented in the report, are discussed. The model contract, which proposes a framework which provides many possible variations and adaptations, is presented in detail. Various problem areas such as guaranteed energy yield, meteorological references, correction methods, failure detection, dispute settlement and many other points are covered.

  14. Decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures. A smart panel with collocated piezoelectric actuators and velocity sensors is modeled using a finite element method, and then the size of the model is reduced in the state space using the modal Hankel singular value. The necessary and sufficient conditions of decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback control for the reduced system have been presented. The decentralized and centralized static output feedback matrices can be obtained from solving two linear matrix inequalities. A comparison between centralized control and decentralized control is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness in suppressing vibration of a smart panel. Numerical results show that when the system is subjected to initial displacement or white noise disturbance, the decentralized and centralized controls are both very effective and the control results are very close

  15. Aggregators’ Optimal Bidding Strategy in Sequential Day-Ahead and Intraday Electricity Spot Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Ayón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic optimization method that produces optimal bidding curves to be submitted by an aggregator to the day-ahead electricity market and the intraday market, considering the flexible demand of his customers (based in time dependent resources such as batteries and shiftable demand and taking into account the possible imbalance costs as well as the uncertainty of forecasts (market prices, demand, and renewable energy sources (RES generation. The optimization strategy aims to minimize the total cost of the traded energy over a whole day, taking into account the intertemporal constraints. The proposed formulation leads to the solution of different linear optimization problems, following the natural temporal sequence of electricity spot markets. Intertemporal constraints regarding time dependent resources are fulfilled through a scheduling process performed after the day-ahead market clearing. Each of the different problems is of moderate dimension and requires short computation times. The benefits of the proposed strategy are assessed comparing the payments done by an aggregator over a sample period of one year following different deterministic and probabilistic strategies. Results show that probabilistic strategy reports better benefits for aggregators participating in power markets.

  16. Study of Allocation Guaranteed Time Slot Wireless Body Area Networks Based on IEEE 802.15.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yundra, E.; Harsono, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to determine the size of the Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) on the super frame structure required for each sensor as well as to know the performance of the GTS resized system compared to the GTS standard on IEEE 802.15.4. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called allocation Guaranteed Time Slot (ALGATIS). ALGATIS is expected to effectively allocate guaranteed time slot to the requested sensors, it adjusts the length of the slot in super frame duration based on the length of the packet data. This article presents a simulation experiment of IEEE 802.15.4, especially for star network, to predict the throughput of networks and average energy consumption. The simulation experiments show that the performance of ALGATIS is better than that of IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the throughput of networks and average energy consumption

  17. 78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... procedures and standard terms and conditions applicable to loan guarantees to be issued for the benefit of... Definitions. 233.03 The Guarantee. 233.04 Guarantee eligibility. 233.05 Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 233... Default; Application for Compensation; payment. 233.09 No acceleration of Eligible Notes. [[Page 64176...

  18. 13 CFR 115.18 - Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status. 115.18 Section 115.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SURETY BOND GUARANTEE Provisions for All Surety Bond Guarantees § 115.18 Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension...

  19. Learning from label proportions in brain-computer interfaces: Online unsupervised learning with guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Thibault; Schmid, Konstantin; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tangermann, Michael; Kindermans, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Using traditional approaches, a brain-computer interface (BCI) requires the collection of calibration data for new subjects prior to online use. Calibration time can be reduced or eliminated e.g., by subject-to-subject transfer of a pre-trained classifier or unsupervised adaptive classification methods which learn from scratch and adapt over time. While such heuristics work well in practice, none of them can provide theoretical guarantees. Our objective is to modify an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm to work in unison with the machine learning decoder, and thus to achieve a reliable unsupervised calibrationless decoding with a guarantee to recover the true class means. Method We introduce learning from label proportions (LLP) to the BCI community as a new unsupervised, and easy-to-implement classification approach for ERP-based BCIs. The LLP estimates the mean target and non-target responses based on known proportions of these two classes in different groups of the data. We present a visual ERP speller to meet the requirements of LLP. For evaluation, we ran simulations on artificially created data sets and conducted an online BCI study with 13 subjects performing a copy-spelling task. Results Theoretical considerations show that LLP is guaranteed to minimize the loss function similar to a corresponding supervised classifier. LLP performed well in simulations and in the online application, where 84.5% of characters were spelled correctly on average without prior calibration. Significance The continuously adapting LLP classifier is the first unsupervised decoder for ERP BCIs guaranteed to find the optimal decoder. This makes it an ideal solution to avoid tedious calibration sessions. Additionally, LLP works on complementary principles compared to existing unsupervised methods, opening the door for their further enhancement when combined with LLP. PMID:28407016

  20. Robust Multi-unit Auction Protocol against False-name Bids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Makoto; Sakurai, Yuko; Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper presents a new multi-unit auction protocol (IR protocol) that is robust against false-name bids. Internet auctions have become an integral part of Electronic Commerce and a promising field for applying agent and Artificial Intelligence technologies. Although the Internet provides an excellent infrastructure for executing auctions, the possibility of a new type of cheating called false-name bids has been pointed out. A false-name bid is a bid submitted under a fictitious name. A protocol called LDS has been developed for combinatorial auctions of multiple different items and has proven to be robust against false-name bids. Although we can modify the LDS protocol to handle multi-unit auctions, in which multiple units of an identical item are auctioned, the protocol is complicated and requires the auctioneer to carefully pre-determine the combination of bundles to obtain a high social surplus or revenue. For the auctioneer, our newly developed IR protocol is easier to use than the LDS, since the combination of bundles is automatically determined in a flexible manner according to the declared evaluation values of agents. The evaluation results show that the IR protocol can obtain a better social surplus than that obtained by the LDS protocol.

  1. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  2. Quantifying fluctuations in market liquidity: analysis of the bid-ask spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    Quantifying the statistical features of the bid-ask spread offers the possibility of understanding some aspects of market liquidity. Using quote data for the 116 most frequently traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange over the two-year period 1994-1995, we analyze the fluctuations of the average bid-ask spread S over a time interval deltat. We find that S is characterized by a distribution that decays as a power law P[S>x] approximately x(-zeta(S) ), with an exponent zeta(S) approximately = 3 for all 116 stocks analyzed. Our analysis of the autocorrelation function of S shows long-range power-law correlations, (S(t)S(t + tau)) approximately tau(-mu(s)), similar to those previously found for the volatility. We next examine the relationship between the bid-ask spread and the volume Q, and find that S approximately ln Q; we find that a similar logarithmic relationship holds between the transaction-level bid-ask spread and the trade size. We then study the relationship between S and other indicators of market liquidity such as the frequency of trades N and the frequency of quote updates U, and find S approximately ln N and S approximately ln U. Lastly, we show that the bid-ask spread and the volatility are also related logarithmically.

  3. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Bidding and Hosting Mega Sporting Events in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legacies of hosting mega sporting events have been attempting idea for both the developed and the developing nations to participate in "bidding" competitions. Through mega sporting events bid process, despite all defined essentials infrastructures, the viewpoint of local organizing committee play a significant role to propose a winning bid and delivery of successful games. This research aims to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of bidding and hosting mega sporting events in Iran from the viewpoints of the Iranian distinguished professors in the sport management and the sport executive managers. Researcher questionnaire and Semi-structure interviews were conducted to gain in depth data. The results indicated that Iran currently has limitations to have winning bid and successful host mega sporting events; even though, it possesses the potential to do so. Public interest and support for hosting the sport events, good security condition against terrorism and tourist attractions are known as the strong points and he challenges and inhibitors which Iran is faced with includes: the qualitative and quantitative weakness in the transportation infrastructures and sport venues, west countries economic boycott, unstable government support and the lack of long-run planning for the events.

  4. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Bid Ask Spread Pada Masa Sebelum Dan Sesudah Stock Split Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Quitsyah Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Bid Ask Spread is the difference of ask-price and bid-price of shares on the capital market. Bid ask spread is a factor that can influence the investor decision whether hold or sell their shares and make profit from spread of ask price and bid price. This is indicates that the stock liquidity as reflected in the stock price, trading volume, stock return will affect bid ask spread. Bid ask spread will increase if the risk of stock is increase, such as the less liquidity of stock, the higher ri...

  5. Mahanaxar: quality of service guarantees in high-bandwidth, real-time streaming data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott [UCSC

    2010-04-05

    Large radio telescopes, cyber-security systems monitoring real-time network traffic, and others have specialized data storage needs: guaranteed capture of an ultra-high-bandwidth data stream, retention of the data long enough to determine what is 'interesting,' retention of interesting data indefinitely, and concurrent read/write access to determine what data is interesting, without interrupting the ongoing capture of incoming data. Mahanaxar addresses this problem. Mahanaxar guarantees streaming real-time data capture at (nearly) the full rate of the raw device, allows concurrent read and write access to the device on a best-effort basis without interrupting the data capture, and retains data as long as possible given the available storage. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale to meet arbitrary bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. Results from our prototype implementation shows that Mahanaxar provides both better guarantees and better performance than traditional file systems.

  6. Guaranteed cost control of polynomial fuzzy systems via a sum of squares approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Wang, Hua O

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the guaranteed cost control of polynomial fuzzy systems via a sum of squares (SOS) approach. First, we present a polynomial fuzzy model and controller that are more general representations of the well-known Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model and controller, respectively. Second, we derive a guaranteed cost control design condition based on polynomial Lyapunov functions. Hence, the design approach discussed in this paper is more general than the existing LMI approaches (to T-S fuzzy control system designs) based on quadratic Lyapunov functions. The design condition realizes a guaranteed cost control by minimizing the upper bound of a given performance function. In addition, the design condition in the proposed approach can be represented in terms of SOS and is numerically (partially symbolically) solved via the recent developed SOSTOOLS. To illustrate the validity of the design approach, two design examples are provided. The first example deals with a complicated nonlinear system. The second example presents micro helicopter control. Both the examples show that our approach provides more extensive design results for the existing LMI approach.

  7. A supply function model for representing the strategic bidding of the producers in constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, Ettore; Napoli, Roberto; Lu, Wene; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of the bidding behaviour of the producer is a key-point in the modeling and simulation of the competitive electricity markets. In our paper, the linear supply function model is applied so as to find the Supply Function Equilibrium analytically. It also proposed a new and efficient approach to find SFEs for the network constrained electricity markets by finding the best slope of the supply function with the help of changing the intercept, and the method can be applied on the large systems. The approach proposed is applied to study IEEE-118 bus test systems and the comparison between bidding slope and bidding intercept is presented, as well, with reference to the test system. (author)

  8. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  9. Simulating GenCo bidding strategies in electricity markets with an agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Thimmapuram, Prakash R.; Yamakado, Malo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use an agent-based simulation model, EMCAS, to analyze market power in electricity markets. We focus on the effect of congestion management on the ability of generating companies (GenCos) to raise prices beyond competitive levels. An 11-node test power system is used to compare a market design based on locational marginal pricing with a market design that uses system marginal pricing and congestion management by counter trading. Bidding strategies based on both physical and economic withholding are compared to a base case with production cost bidding. The results show that unilateral market power is exercised under both pricing mechanisms. However, the largest changes in consumer costs and GenCo profits due to strategic bidding occur under the locational marginal pricing scheme. The analysis also illustrates that agent-based modeling can contribute important insights into the complex interactions between the participants in transmission-constrained electricity markets. (Author)

  10. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiiskinen, Urpo; Matthaei, Stephan; Reaney, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    .9 in the exenatide bid cohort and €3265.5 in the insulin cohort (€1791.9 versus €2465.5 due to costs other than those of injectable therapy). When baseline direct cost and patients' and disease characteristics were controlled for, mean direct costs differed by country (P ...-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin) and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices....... RESULTS: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed...

  11. Transportation Service Procurement Bid Construction Problem from Less Than Truckload Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mixed integer programming for a transportation service procurement bid construction problem from a less than full truckload perspective, in which the bidders (carriers generate their best bid (package using a bundled price to maximize their utility and increase the chance of winning the business. The models are developed from both the carriers and shippers perspectives to establish a relationship between the quoted price and the likelihood of winning to assist the carriers in balancing the potential benefits and the possibility of winning the bid. An intelligent algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization is then designed to solve the proposed model and hypothetical data sets are used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  12. The strategy curve. A method for representing and interpreting generator bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.; Taylor, P.

    1995-01-01

    The pool is the novel trading arrangement at the heart of the privatized electricity market in England and Wales. This central role in the new system makes it crucial that it is seen to function efficiently. Unfortunately, it is governed by a set of complex rules, which leads to a lack of transparency, and this makes monitoring of its operation difficult. This paper seeks to provide a method for illuminating one aspect of the pool, that of generator bidding behaviour. We introduce the concept of a strategy curve, which is a concise device for representing generator bidding strategies. This curve has the appealing characteristic of directly revealing any deviation in the bid price of a genset from the costs of generating electricity. After a brief discussion about what constitutes price and cost in this context we present a number of strategy curves for different days and provide some interpretation of their form, based in part on our earlier work with game theory. (author)

  13. BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Maria; Seeger, Jens M; Schüll, Stephan; Coutelle, Oliver; Wagner-Stippich, Diana; Wiegmann, Katja; Wunderlich, Claudia M; Brinkmann, Kerstin; Broxtermann, Pia; Witt, Axel; Fritsch, Melanie; Martinelli, Paola; Bielig, Harald; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rugarli, Elena I; Kaufmann, Thomas; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Villunger, Andreas; Martins, L Miguel; Krönke, Martin; Kufer, Thomas A; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Kashkar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent caspase inhibitor, best known for its anti-apoptotic function in cancer. During apoptosis, XIAP is antagonized by SMAC, which is released from the mitochondria upon caspase-mediated activation of BID. Recent studies suggest that XIAP is involved in immune signaling. Here, we explore XIAP as an important mediator of an immune response against the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Shigella evades the XIAP-mediated immune response by inducing the BID-dependent release of SMAC from the mitochondria. Unlike apoptotic stimuli, Shigella activates the calpain-dependent cleavage of BID to trigger the release of SMAC, which antagonizes the inflammatory action of XIAP without inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate how the cellular death machinery can be subverted by an invasive pathogen to ensure bacterial colonization. PMID:25056906

  14. Supplier bidding strategy based on non-cooperative game theory concepts in single auction power pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong-Joo; Kim, Balho H.; Hur, Don

    2007-01-01

    In single auction power pools, only generators bid several energy price segments depending on the amount of energy supply, at individual generating companies' (GENCO) own discretion, for every trading interval. Then all selected bidders are paid a uniform Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, it is realized that each GENCO has the complete information on its own payoff as well as the other parties' payoffs, corresponding to each potential combination of choices of strategies by all the players. Specifically, all the suppliers attempt to estimate the others' bids using the concept of Nash equilibrium in the general sense of profit maximization. Under some simplified assumptions, this problem can be modeled as a simultaneous-move game confronted by the bidders. Here, the system demand forecast by competitive sellers is captured for the purpose of constructing the optimal bidding strategy. Finally, a numerical example is presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed solution scheme. (author)

  15. A Sequence Mining Method to Predict the Bidding Strategy of Trading Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Vivia; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    In this work, we describe the process used in order to predict the bidding strategy of trading agents. This was done in the context of the Reverse TAC, or CAT, game of the Trading Agent Competition. In this game, a set of trading agents, buyers or sellers, are provided by the server and they trade their goods in one of the markets operated by the competing agents. Better knowledge of the strategy of the trading agents will allow a market maker to adapt its incentives and attract more agents to its own market. Our prediction was based on the time series of the traders’ past bids, taking into account the variation of each bid compared to its history. The results proved to be of satisfactory accuracy, both in the game’s context and when compared to other existing approaches.

  16. Reservation wage of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a bidding game approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Huq, Molla

    2014-12-01

    BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, recently has been using female volunteer community health workers (CHWs) in Dhaka urban slums to provide maternal and child health services. Due to erratic performance-based income and higher opportunity cost the urban CHWs lose motivation which contributes to high dropout and poor performance. This results challenges for the cost effectiveness and sustainability of the urban health program. CHWs also consider their performance-based income very low compare to their work load. So, CHWs raise their voice for a fixed income. In order to understand this problem we explored fixed income for CHWs and the correlates that influence it. We surveyed a sample of 542 current CHWs. We used bidding game approach to derive the equilibrium reservation wage for CHWs for providing full-time services. Then, we performed ordered logit models with bootstrap simulation to identify the determinants of reservation wage. The average reservation wage of CHWs to continue their work as full-time CHWs rather than volunteer CHWs was US$24.11 which was three times higher than their current performance-based average income of US$ 8.03. Those CHWs received additional health training outside BRAC were 72% and those who joined with an expectation of income were 62% more likely to ask for higher reservation wage. On the contrary, CHWs who were burdened with household loan were 65% and CHWs who had alternative income generating scope were 47% less likely to ask for higher reservation wage. Other important factors we identified were BRAC village organization membership, competition with other health services providers, performance as a CHW, and current and past monthly CHW income. The findings of this study are relevant to certain developing countries such as Bangladesh and Tanzania which commonly use volunteer CHWs, and where poor retention and performance is a common issue due to erratic and performance-based income. So, the study has implications in improving

  17. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE GUARANTEEING OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PARASCHIV

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In our country existed and exists still a constant concern to respect and guarantee human rights and fundamental freedoms, especially after 1989, when Romania became a member or acceding to international or regional treaties and conventions enshrining such rights. Taking into consideration the importance of respecting human rights, we consider that is necessary to research how they are secured in Romania, because only when these guarantees are known by their beneficiaries and those involved in their protection, actions which affect these values of humanity can be avoided. In human rights, rules of international law have priority over those entered in the domestic law if they contain provisions which may be interpreted differently on the same matter, unless the Constitution or national laws contain more favourable provisions.

  18. The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the fiduciary guarantee has not reached its full potential in the Romanian market, nor in the European area. The ongoing “dispute” between the fiduciary operations (familiar to the continental law and the trust (with its common -law heritage seems to be won by the latter. However, considering the express provisions on the fiduciary operations in the Romanian Civil Code entered into force in 2011, similar to the introduction of the same legal instrument in the French Civil Code in 2007, could give a boost to this ancient tool, present from the Roman era. Even if the European legal framework do not provide many rules on this institution, however, the Financial Collateral Directive raised many questions on how the fiduciary guarantees can be used in practice, and contributed to the change that followed in this area.

  19. Modeling Message Queueing Services with Reliability Guarantee in Cloud Computing Environment Using Colored Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the need for loosely coupled and asynchronous dissemination of information, message queues are widely used in large-scale application areas. With the advent of virtualization technology, cloud-based message queueing services (CMQSs with distributed computing and storage are widely adopted to improve availability, scalability, and reliability; however, a critical issue is its performance and the quality of service (QoS. While numerous approaches evaluating system performance are available, there is no modeling approach for estimating and analyzing the performance of CMQSs. In this paper, we employ both the analytical and simulation modeling to address the performance of CMQSs with reliability guarantee. We present a visibility-based modeling approach (VMA for simulation model using colored Petri nets (CPN. Our model incorporates the important features of message queueing services in the cloud such as replication, message consistency, resource virtualization, and especially the mechanism named visibility timeout which is adopted in the services to guarantee system reliability. Finally, we evaluate our model through different experiments under varied scenarios to obtain important performance metrics such as total message delivery time, waiting number, and components utilization. Our results reveal considerable insights into resource scheduling and system configuration for service providers to estimate and gain performance optimization.

  20. Robust Guaranteed Cost Observer Design for Singular Markovian Jump Time-Delay Systems with Generally Incomplete Transition Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of the design of robust guaranteed cost observer for a class of linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability. In this singular model, each transition rate can be completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on stability theory of stochastic differential equations and linear matrix inequality (LMI technique, we design an observer to ensure that, for all uncertainties, the resulting augmented system is regular, impulse free, and robust stochastically stable with the proposed guaranteed cost performance. Finally, a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints is formulated to design the suboptimal guaranteed cost filters for linear singular Markovian jump time-delay systems with generally incomplete transition probability.

  1. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  2. The Belgian deposit guarantee scheme in a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Van Nieuwenhuyze; M. D. Zachary

    2010-01-01

    During the recent financial crisis, the deposit guarantee scheme in Belgium – as in other European countries – played a role in preventing bank runs and restoring confidence : to that end, the intervention ceilings were raised substantially and the scope of the scheme was extended to include certain life insurance policies. Finally, the expansion of the system’s coverage had to be financed by a sharp increase in the contributions from financial institutions. First of all, that measure had a p...

  3. A new quantum sealed-bid auction protocol with secret order in post-confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Meng, Xiang-Hua; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    A new security protocol for quantum sealed-bid auction is proposed to resist the collusion attack from some malicious bidders. The most significant feature of this protocol is that bidders prepare their particles with secret order in post-confirmation for encoding bids. In addition, a new theorem and its proof are given based on the theory of combinatorial mathematics, which can be used as evaluation criteria for the collusion attack. It is shown that the new protocol is immune to the collusion attack and meets the demand for a secure auction. Compared with those previous protocols, the security, efficiency and availability of the proposed protocol are largely improved.

  4. GUARANTEES OF THE RIGHT TO A FAIR CIVIL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Loredana Jalbă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective protection of human rights and provide for more than theoretical and illusory substantive rights, the need to define the right to a fair trial is emerging, along with the necessity that litigants become aware of the guarantees established by article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thus, the article aims to approach the ample issue regarding the litigants’ right to a fair civil trial in light of current legal regulations, and in particular, in light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Given the fact that the right to a fair civil trial involves establishing, throughout the trial, a set of rules of procedure aimed at creating a balance between the parties in the process - the so-called guarantees of a fair trial - in her scientific pursuits, the author analyzes both explicit and implicit guarantees of fair trial, highlighting relevant European standards as well as their degree of implementation in the national (procedural law.

  5. Self-guaranteed measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Hajdušek, Michal

    2018-05-01

    In order to guarantee the output of a quantum computation, we usually assume that the component devices are trusted. However, when the total computation process is large, it is not easy to guarantee the whole system when we have scaling effects, unexpected noise, or unaccounted for correlations between several subsystems. If we do not trust the measurement basis or the prepared entangled state, we do need to be worried about such uncertainties. To this end, we propose a self-guaranteed protocol for verification of quantum computation under the scheme of measurement-based quantum computation where no prior-trusted devices (measurement basis or entangled state) are needed. The approach we present enables the implementation of verifiable quantum computation using the measurement-based model in the context of a particular instance of delegated quantum computation where the server prepares the initial computational resource and sends it to the client, who drives the computation by single-qubit measurements. Applying self-testing procedures, we are able to verify the initial resource as well as the operation of the quantum devices and hence the computation itself. The overhead of our protocol scales with the size of the initial resource state to the power of 4 times the natural logarithm of the initial state's size.

  6. An analytical Study on Dynamics of Public Procurement System and Bidding-Strategy in Local Contractor's Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Nanerikawa, Susumu

    Public procurement system such as Overall-Evaluation dynamically has been changed on local public works in Japan. However some characteristics of Bidding-Strategy and procurement system have not enough clarified. This paper attempt to analysis for a syatem dynamics and mechanisum of Overall-Evaluation by developing new simulation model focused on Bidding-Strategy, to propose some improvement scenario.

  7. 48 CFR 32.405 - Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advance payments under sealed bid contracts. 32.405 Section 32.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Non-Commercial Items 32.405 Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts. (a... provisions of law relating to contracts, as explained in 50.101-1(a), also include making advance payments...

  8. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... fair market value of $53,000. The sale will be conducted as a modified competitive bid auction, whereby... than the Federally approved fair market value of $53,000. Each sealed bid must include a certified... values in the land proposed for sale. The proposed sale would include the conveyance of both the surface...

  9. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  10. 36 CFR 223.84 - Small business bid form provisions on sales with specified road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions on sales with specified road construction. 223.84 Section 223.84 Parks, Forests, and Public... specified road construction. For each sale described in § 223.82(b), the bid form must include provision for a small business concern: (a) To elect road construction by the Forest Service and where such...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium of...

  12. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Driak, D.; Dvorská, M.; Bolehovská, P.; Švandová, Iva; Novotný, J.; Halaška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 411-415 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Bad * Bid * cancerogenesis * human endometrium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  13. 47 CFR 22.969 - Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.969 Section 22.969 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.969 Cellular RSA licenses...

  14. Shareholder Wealth Effects of European Domestic and Cross-Border Takeover Bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the short-term wealth effects of large (intra)European takeover bids.We find large announcement effects of 9% for target firms and a cumulative abnormal return that includes the price run-up over the two-month period prior to the announcement date of 23%.However, the share

  15. Bidding behaviour in multi-unit auctions – an experimental investigation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Grimm, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 537 (2009), s. 855-882 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multi-unit auctions * bidding behavior * laboratory experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2009

  16. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...

  17. Bid rounds: progress and future prospects; Rodadas de licitacoes: evolucao e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorelli Junior, D.C.; Silva, Paulo Alexandre S.; Campos, Thiago N. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP is an institution integrating the indirect Federal Administration, under the special autarchic regime, as an entity regulating the petroleum industry, linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. The Minister of MME is the president of the National Council of Energy Policy - CNPE, which has the attribution of proposing national policies and specific measures to the President of the Republic. The ANP aims at promoting the regulation, contraction and inspection of the economic activities related to the petroleum industry, and shall elaborate the bidding protocols and promote the bidding for the concession of exploration, development and production activities, signing the relevant contracts and inspecting its execution. The Brazilian Bidding Rounds of blocks with exploratory risk, promoted by ANP, included areas from 22 of the 38 main Brazilian sedimentary basins divided into three exploratory models: High Potential Areas, New Frontier Areas and Mature Basins Areas. This work presents the framework evolution obtained in Bid Rounds, analyzing the main results of the auctions, and the future perspectives for management of the exploration and production activities according the national energy policy statements. (author)

  18. Optimal bidding strategy for microgrids in joint energy and ancillary service markets considering flexible ramping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianxiao; Zhong, Haiwang; Tang, Wenyuan; Rajagopal, Ram; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Flexible ramping products are modelled in the framework of a microgrid. •Microgrids’ optimal bidding model is proposed in energy and ancillary service markets. •A hybrid stochastic and robust optimization approach is adopted. •The effectiveness of the proposed bidding model is verified based on real-world data. -- Abstract: Due to the volatile nature of wind and photovoltaic power, wind farms and solar stations are generally thought of as the consumers of ramping services. However, a microgrid (MG) is able to strategically integrate various distributed energy resources (DERs) to provide both energy and ancillary services (ASs) for the bulk power system. To evaluate the ramping capabilities of an MG in the joint energy and AS markets, an optimal bidding strategy is developed in this paper considering flexible ramping products (FRPs). By aggregating and coordinating various DERs, including wind turbines (WTs), photovoltaic systems (PVs), micro-turbines (MTs) and energy storage systems (ESSs), the MG is able to optimally allocate the capacities for energy, spinning reserve and ramping. Taking advantage of the synergy among DERs, the MG can maximize its revenues from different markets. Moreover, the flexibility of the MG for the bulk power system can be fully explored. To address the uncertainties introduced by renewable generation and market prices, a hybrid stochastic/robust optimization (RO) approach is adopted. Case studies based on a real-world MG with various DERs demonstrate the market behavior of the MG using the proposed bidding model.

  19. Normal boundary intersection method for suppliers' strategic bidding in electricity markets: An environmental/economic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.

  20. Informed trading and the bid-ask spread: evidence from an emerging market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Podpiera, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 275-296 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : market microstructure * bid-ask spread * informed trading Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  1. Multi-objective optimal strategy for generating and bidding in the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chunhua; Sun Huijuan; Guo Jianfeng; Liu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model is established. ► A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm is designed. ► Fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract the general best solution. ► The proposed approach of generating and bidding is efficient for maximizing profit and minimizing both risk and emissions. - Abstract: Based on the coordinated interaction between units output and electricity market prices, the benefit/risk/emission comprehensive generation optimization model with objectives of maximal profit and minimal bidding risk and emissions is established. A hybrid multi-objective differential evolution optimization algorithm, which successfully integrates Pareto non-dominated sorting with differential evolution algorithm and improves individual crowding distance mechanism and mutation strategy to avoid premature and unevenly search, is designed to achieve Pareto optimal set of this model. Moreover, fuzzy set theory and entropy weighting method are employed to extract one of the Pareto optimal solutions as the general best solution. Several optimization runs have been carried out on different cases of generation bidding and scheduling. The results confirm the potential and effectiveness of the proposed approach in solving the multi-objective optimization problem of generation bidding and scheduling. In addition, the comparison with the classical optimization algorithms demonstrates the superiorities of the proposed algorithm such as integrality of Pareto front, well-distributed Pareto-optimal solutions, high search speed.

  2. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenti, Stephen J; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2003-03-04

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power.

  3. 47 CFR 24.712 - Bidding credits for licenses won for frequency Block C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Block C. 24.712 Section 24.712 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON....712 Bidding credits for licenses won for frequency Block C. (a) Except with respect to licenses won in... acquired in either the auction for frequency block C that began on December 18, 1995, or the reauction of...

  4. New approach for strategic bidding of Gencos in energy and spinning reserve markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    In restructured and de-regulated power systems, generating companies (Gencos) are responsible for supplying electricity for both energy and reserve markets, which usually operate simultaneously. In this condition, the question is how much and for what price must each Genco generate for each market to maximize its profit, so this paper intends to answer to this question. In this paper, first, the combined energy and reserve markets are considered, and the Nash equilibrium points are determined. Then, the bidding strategies for each Genco at these points will be presented. The bids for the energy and 10 min spinning reserve (TMSR) markets are separated in the second stage, and again, the bidding strategies for each Genco for the two separated markets will be demonstrated. Comparison of the results shows that the separated bidding strategies, while being simplified with the algebraic optimization model and reducing the time consumed, give the same results as the combined ones. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) nine bus test system is employed to illustrate and verify the results of the proposed method

  5. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, poverty and prices in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is mainly to construct an intuitive measure of the performance of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in India. The focus is on divergence between demand and supply at the district level. Some related issues addressed are: (i) whether the gap between demand and supply responds to poverty; and (ii) whether recent hikes in NREGS wages are inflationary. Our analysis confirms responsiveness of the positive gap between demand and supply to poverty. Also, apprehensions expressed about the inflationary potential of recent hikes in NREGS wages have been confirmed. More importantly, higher NREGS wages are likely to undermine self-selection of the poor in it.

  6. Stochastic optimal generation bid to electricity markets with emissions risk constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, F-Javier; Cifuentes-Rubiano, Julián; Corchero, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    There are many factors that influence the day-ahead market bidding strategies of a generation company (GenCo) within the framework of the current energy market. Environmental policy issues are giving rise to emission limitation that are becoming more and more important for fossil-fueled power plants, and these must be considered in their management. This work investigates the influence of the emissions reduction plan and the incorporation of the medium-term derivative commitments in the optimal generation bidding strategy for the day-ahead electricity market. Two different technologies have been considered: the high-emission technology of thermal coal units and the low-emission technology of combined cycle gas turbine units. The Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL) and the Spanish National Emissions Reduction Plan (NERP) defines the environmental framework for dealing with the day-ahead market bidding strategies. To address emission limitations, we have extended some of the standard risk management methodologies developed for financial markets, such as Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), thus leading to the new concept of Conditional Emission at Risk (CEaR). This study offers electricity generation utilities a mathematical model for determining the unit's optimal generation bid to the wholesale electricity market such that it maximizes the long-term profits of the utility while allowing it to abide by the Iberian Electricity Market rules as well as the environmental restrictions set by the Spanish National Emissions Reduction Plan. We analyze the economic implications for a GenCo that includes the environmental restrictions of this National Plan as well as the NERP's effects on the expected profits and the optimal generation bid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  8. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  9. [Living wills in a nursing home, guaranteeing freedom of expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigard Guyader, Céline; Richard, Christian

    The drawing up of a living will in a nursing home for elderly people is a complex process. Not only must the resident think about the end of life, which is not easy, but the institution must be fully aware of the law. Guaranteeing the resident's expression is essential. A study enabled this subject to be reviewed in a nursing home where different players are present around the resident. It enabled professionals to reflect on their practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation of failure scenario based resilience schemes toward availability guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Various resilience schemes have been proposed to allow for fault-tolerant transport networks. Their common aim is to survive certain failure patterns such as node or span failures by providing alternative transmission paths. However, network operators guarantee the resulting network reliability in terms of service availability to their business customers. A maximum duration of service disruption per year must not be exceeded. We investigate an optimal design of resilient network configurations that adapts to end-to-end availability requirements. We formulate an integer linear program that minimizes the resource utilization and investigate a case study.

  11. Human and Citizen Rights Guarantees While Providing Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Yesimov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information and communication technologies, issues of providing information security are becoming more and more aggravated. These are crimes related to the use of electronic computers, systems and computer networks and telecommunication networks, the propaganda of separatism and extremism, etc. While providing information security in the digital environment, the role of technical and legal human rights guarantees, due to technical means of protection, is increasing. Relying on the developers of technical means of protection determines the difference between the aforesaid concepts and the traditional approach to ensuring the protection of human and citizen rights, in which responsibilities are put on information intermediaries, owners of confidential information. Technical guarantees of human rights are a necessary component of ensuring information security, but the effectiveness of the application is provided in conjunction with the legal guarantees of human rights, as evidenced by the tendency to recognize the principles of inviolability of privacy on the basis of design decisions in the law of the European Union as legal acts. Providing information security is a legitimate goal of establishing constraints of human rights, since it can be correlated with the norms of international law. The establishment of constraints of human rights is permissible in order to attain other objectives–ensuring state security, public order, health, rights and freedoms of the person in the information sphere. The legitimacy of this goal is determined by its compliance with the objectives envisaged by international agreements ratified in an established order. The article examines the impact of the use of technical means in the field of providing information security in the aspect of following the fundamental human and civil rights in Ukraine, taking into account the legislation of the European Union and the decision of the European Court

  12. Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sung Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed. This study aimed to compare the performance of three methods: Cox regression, time-dependent Cox model and landmark method with different landmark times in order to address the problem of guarantee-time bias. Methods Through statistical modeling and simulation studies, the performance of the above three methods were assessed in terms of type I error, bias, power, and mean squared error (MSE. In addition, the three statistical approaches were applied to a real data example from the Korean National Health Insurance Database. Effect of cumulative rosiglitazone dose on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was used as an example for illustration. Results In the simulated data, time-dependent Cox regression outperformed the landmark method in terms of bias and mean squared error but the type I error rates were similar. The results from real-data example showed the same patterns as the simulation findings. Conclusions While both time-dependent Cox regression model and landmark analysis are useful in resolving the problem of guarantee-time bias, time-dependent Cox regression is the most appropriate method for analyzing cumulative dose effects in pharmaco-epidemiological studies.

  13. Value of Flexible Resources, Virtual Bidding, and Self-Scheduling in Two-Settlement Electricity Markets With Wind Generation – Part I: Principles and Competitive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2017-01-01

    Part one of this two-part paper presents new models for evaluating flexible resources in two-settlement electricity markets (day-ahead and real-time) with uncertain net loads (demand minus wind). Physical resources include wind together with fast- and slow-start demand response and thermal...... of certain equivalencies of the four models. We show how virtual bidding enhances market performance, since, together with self-scheduling by slow-start generators, it can help deterministic day-ahead market to choose the most efficient unit commitment....

  14. 7 CFR 1738.30 - Rural broadband access loans and loan guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest at a rate set by the lender consistent with the current applicable market rate for a loan of... Derivative or any Guaranteed-Amount Debt Derivative; or (B) Any holder of the Guaranteed Loan Note or any Guaranteed Loan Portion Note or any Derivative, as the case may be, having a claim to payments on the...

  15. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  16. 13 CFR 120.620 - SBA guarantee of a Pool Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA guarantee of a Pool Certificate. 120.620 Section 120.620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market The Sba Guarantee of A Certificate § 120.620 SBA guarantee of a Pool Certificate...

  17. 13 CFR 120.621 - SBA guarantee of an Individual Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA guarantee of an Individual Certificate. 120.621 Section 120.621 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market The Sba Guarantee of A Certificate § 120.621 SBA guarantee of an Individual...

  18. DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES JOIN FINANCIAL SAFETY-NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dijmarescu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposit Guarantee Schemes (DGS become more visible under the current conditions of the world financial markets. If those have played in the past a rather discreet role for social stability through the function of pay box following a bank failure, the recent crisis put them in a new light, once the guarantee ceiling for eligible deposits grew in order to make for the accumulation of wealth worldwide and the increased risk incurred by the leverage of banking operations. Consequently, the resources accumulated by the DGS from the member banks and their proper management make possible their involvement in pre-emptive actions aimed to avoid bankruptcies via special administration and purchase of assets and assumption of liabilities. These new attributes give DGS a role in the mechanism of financial safety-net, along the supervisors of the market. Hence, an increased preoccupation for applied corporate governance has developed and Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems have been adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision together with International Association of Deposit Insurers. Concurrently, the EU Commission has put forward a process for reviewing the Directives 94/39 and 09/14 EC, in order to make the European DGS more prepared to deal with above mentioned issues and bestow increased confidence upon depositors.

  19. Resilient guaranteed cost control of a power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hisham M; Soliman, Mostafa H; Hassan, Mohammad F

    2014-05-01

    With the development of power system interconnection, the low-frequency oscillation is becoming more and more prominent which may cause system separation and loss of energy to consumers. This paper presents an innovative robust control for power systems in which the operating conditions are changing continuously due to load changes. However, practical implementation of robust control can be fragile due to controller inaccuracies (tolerance of resistors used with operational amplifiers). A new design of resilient (non-fragile) robust control is given that takes into consideration both model and controller uncertainties by an iterative solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Both uncertainties are cast into a norm-bounded structure. A sufficient condition is derived to achieve the desired settling time for damping power system oscillations in face of plant and controller uncertainties. Furthermore, an improved controller design, resilient guaranteed cost controller, is derived to achieve oscillations damping in a guaranteed cost manner. The effectiveness of the algorithm is shown for a single machine infinite bus system, and then, it is extended to multi-area power system.

  20. Incentive-compatible guaranteed renewable health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Pauly, Mark V

    2006-05-01

    Theoretical models of guaranteed renewable insurance display front-loaded premium schedules. Such schedules both cover lifetime total claims of low-risk and high-risk individuals and provide an incentive for those who remain low-risk to continue to purchase the policy. Questions have been raised of whether actual individual insurance markets in the US approximate the behavior predicted by these models, both because young consumers may not be able to "afford" front-loading and because insurers may behave strategically in ways that erode the value of protection against risk reclassification. In this paper, the optimal competitive age-based premium schedule for a benchmark guaranteed renewable health insurance policy is estimated using medical expenditure data. Several factors are shown to reduce the amount of front-loading necessary. Indeed, the resulting optimal premium path increases with age. Actual premium paths exhibited by purchasers of individual insurance are close to the optimal renewable schedule we estimate. Finally, consumer utility associated with the feature is examined.

  1. On the Guarantee of the Realization of the Right to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kashtanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the issues of the essence and content of the guarantee of the realization of the right to education, the system of guarantees for the implementation of constitutional and legal principles and norms, including those that consolidate the system of rights and freedoms of human and citizen. The Author examines the functions of guarantee (stimulating, law enforcement and law enforcement, analyzes types of guaranteesguarantees related to the very right to education and quality of education.​

  2. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  3. Honeywell starts energy-management service: savings guaranteed; BOSS replaced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.

    1983-01-24

    Honeywell Inc. guarantees that its new Honeywell Service Link Operation (HSLO), a time-sharing service, will produce greater energy savings than its monthly fees. There are no front-end costs because the central computer is located at the supplier's Atlanta site, making energy management cost-affordable for facilities as small as 25,000 square feet. HSLO replaces Honeywell's Building Operations Service System (BOSS) that has a minimum-size requirement of 100,000 square feet. BOSS customers will be automatically changed to HSLO at no charge. All 21 regional computer centers will be available to users. Johnson Controls, Inc. also operates a time-sharing operation called Total Automated Building Services (TABS). (DCK)

  4. Basic income guarantee: a review of implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2018-12-01

    To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  5. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  6. Modeling bidding decision in engineering field with incomplete information: A static game–based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate investment decision about engineering projects is a key issue for project management. This article aims to study the process of bidding decision-making in engineering field under the condition of incomplete information and investigating the influence of bidders’ game behaviors on investment decision. With reasonable assumed scenes, this article uses an approach to describe the decision process for bidding. The approach is based on the static game theory. With the proposed model, the effectiveness of game participants and the objective function are put forward, and the characteristics of price quotation and the best strategies of bidders under the equilibrium condition are discussed. The results can give a better understanding of investment decision in engineering management and are helpful for tenderees to avoid excessive competition among bidders.

  7. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Weng, M.-T.

    2001-01-01

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  8. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...... market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here...

  9. Bidding strategy based on artificial intelligence for a competitive electric market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Weng, M.-T. [Chung Yuan Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chung Li (China)

    2001-03-01

    A bidding strategy using a fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) algorithm and the artificial neural network (ANN) was developed for competitive electric markets. The nodal price information was assumed to be released into the market. The FCM was used, first, to classify the daily load pattern into peak, medium-peak and off-peak levels and, secondly, to classify the competitive generation companies (gencos) into less-menacing, possible-menacing and menacing gencos. The back-propagation ANN was used for determining the bidding price for a genco. The FCM results aided in lessening the training data and reducing the ANN input nodes. The IEEE 30-busbar system was used for illustrating the applicability of the proposed method. (Author)

  10. Paying Medicare Advantage plans by competitive bidding: how much competition is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-08-01

    Private health plans that enroll Medicare beneficiaries--known as Medicare Advantage (MA) plans--are being paid $11 billion more in 2009 than it would cost to cover these beneficiaries in regular fee-for-service Medicare. To generate Medicare savings for offsetting the costs of health reform, the Obama Administration has proposed eliminating these extra payments to private insurers and instituting a competitive bidding system that pays MA plans based on the bids they submit. This study examines the concentration of enrollment among MA plans and the degree to which firms offering MA plans actually face competition. The results show that in the large majority of U.S. counties, MA plan enrollment is highly concentrated in a small number of firms. Given the relative lack of competition in many markets as well as the potential impact on traditional Medicare, the authors call for careful consideration of a new system for setting MA plan payments.

  11. Bidding strategy for pumped-storage plant in pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakasabapathy, P.; Shanti Swarup, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops optimal bidding strategies for a pumped-storage plant in a pool-based electricity market. In the competitive regime, when compared to simple hydroelectric generator, profit of the pumped-storage plant is maximized by operating it as a generator when market clearing price is high and as a pump when the price is low. Based on forecasted hourly market clearing price, a multistage looping algorithm to maximize the profit of a pumped-storage plant is developed, considering both the spinning and non-spinning reserve bids and meeting the technical operating constraints of the plant. The proposed model is adaptive for the nonlinear three-dimensional relationship between the power produced, the energy stored, and the head of the associated reservoir. Different operating cycles for a realistic pumped-storage plant are considered and simulation results are reported and compared. (author)

  12. Price-Taker Offering Strategy in Electricity Pay-as-Bid Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzi, Nicolò; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The recent increase in the deployment of renewable energy sources may affect the offering strategy of conventional producers, mainly in the balancing market. The topics of optimal offering strategy and self-scheduling of thermal units have been extensively addressed in the literature. The feasible...... operating region of such units can be modeled using a mixed-integer linear programming approach, and the trading problem as a linear programming problem. However, the existing models mostly assume a uniform pricing scheme in all market stages, while several European balancing markets (e.g., in Germany...... and Italy) are settled under a pay-as-bid pricing scheme. The existing tools for solving the trading problem in pay-as-bid electricity markets rely on non-linear optimization models, which, combined with the unit commitment constraints, result in a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem. In contrast...

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Background Information Document (BID): Public Comments and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    On December 20, 2002, the EPA proposed national emission standards for HAP emissions from lime manufacturing plants located at major source facilities (67 FR 78046). Summaries of the comments, and the EPA's responses, are presented in this BID.

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).

  15. 48 CFR 9904.420 - Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420 Accounting for independent research and development costs and bid and proposal costs. ...

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Bid schedule, special conditions, specifications, and subcontract drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site)

  17. The Price Is Right, but Are the Bids? An Investigation of Rational Decision Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Jonathan B; Hughson, Eric; Vandezande, Kirk

    1996-01-01

    The television game show The Price Is Right is used as a laboratory to conduct a preference-free test of rational decision theory in an environment with substantial economic incentives. It is found that contestants' strategies are transparently suboptimal. In response to this evidence, simple rules of thumb are developed that are shown to explain observed bidding patterns better than rational decision theory. Further, learning during the show reduces the frequency of strategic errors. This is...

  18. Eesti tüübid : meie siin maal / Maris Rosenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenthal, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi ja fotograaf Alar Madissoni projekti "Eesti tüübid" raames valminud fotonäitus "Meie siin maal" Tartus Raadi mõisapargis. Kaasaega dokumenteeriva projekti eesmärgiks oli jäädvustada kõigis Eesti maakondades elavaid eri generatsioonide ja sotsiaalsete rühmade esindajaid ERMi fotokogu täiendamiseks. Meenutusi pildistamistelt 2008. aasta suvel

  19. Manufacturers’ Bids for WIC Infant Formula Rebate Contracts, 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Victor; Davis, David

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is the major purchaser of infant formula in the United States, and its mandatory rebate program saved WIC $1.9 billion in FY 2013. WIC State agencies are required by law to have competitively bid infant formula rebate contracts with infant formula manufacturers. Contracts are awarded to the manufacturer offering the WIC State agency the lowest net price (as determined by the manu...

  20. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  1. Understanding Irrigator Bidding Behavior in Australian Water Markets in Response to Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Zuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water markets have been used by Australian irrigators as a way to reduce risk and uncertainty in times of low water allocations and rainfall. However, little is known about how irrigators’ bidding trading behavior in water markets compares to other markets, nor is it known what role uncertainty and a lack of water in a variable and changing climate plays in influencing behavior. This paper studies irrigator behavior in Victorian water markets over a decade (a time period that included a severe drought. In particular, it studies the evidence for price clustering (when water bids/offers end mostly around particular numbers, a common phenomenon present in other established markets. We found that clustering in bid/offer prices in Victorian water allocation markets was influenced by uncertainty and strategic behavior. Water traders evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering and act according to their risk aversion levels. Water market buyer clustering behavior was mostly explained by increased market uncertainty (in particular, hotter and drier conditions, while seller-clustering behavior is mostly explained by strategic behavioral factors which evaluate the costs and benefits of clustering.

  2. Aspects if stochastic models for short-term hydropower scheduling and bidding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belsnes, Michael Martin [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Follestad, Turid [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Wolfgang, Ove [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Fosso, Olav B. [Dep. of electric power engineering NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses challenges met when turning from deterministic to stochastic decision support models for short-term hydropower scheduling and bidding. The report describes characteristics of the short-term scheduling and bidding problem, different market and bidding strategies, and how a stochastic optimization model can be formulated. A review of approaches for stochastic short-term modelling and stochastic modelling for the input variables inflow and market prices is given. The report discusses methods for approximating the predictive distribution of uncertain variables by scenario trees. Benefits of using a stochastic over a deterministic model are illustrated by a case study, where increased profit is obtained to a varying degree depending on the reservoir filling and price structure. Finally, an approach for assessing the effect of using a size restricted scenario tree to approximate the predictive distribution for stochastic input variables is described. The report is a summary of the findings of Work package 1 of the research project #Left Double Quotation Mark#Optimal short-term scheduling of wind and hydro resources#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The project aims at developing a prototype for an operational stochastic short-term scheduling model. Based on the investigations summarized in the report, it is concluded that using a deterministic equivalent formulation of the stochastic optimization problem is convenient and sufficient for obtaining a working prototype. (author)

  3. Business valuation: an analysis of projected cash flows versus takeover bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main financial statements is the Cash Flow. It became mandatory from the law # 11,638/2007 on, which changed the law # 6,404/1976 – the Corporations’ law, and the Cash Flow statement allows analysis about the companies’ operations activities effects, investing and financing, highlighting their main sources of financial allocation. In 2005 and 2006, 37 companies registered takeover bids in the Brazilian Securities Exchange Commission (CVM – Comissão de Valores Mobiliários. Based on these companies’ analysis of Projected Cash Flows (FCP – Fluxos de Caixa Projetados when the takeover bids were put in place and their Actual Cash Flows (FCR – Fluxo de Caixa Realizados the objective of this work was to compare those cash flows, to analyze the differences between the Statements of Cash Flows attached to the Appraisal Reports and the actual ones, as well as to check if these companies’ cash were in line with the balances projected in the takeover bids. The obtained results via statistical analysis of differences between the Projected Cash Flows attached to the Appraisal Reports and the effective Actual Cash Flows, all of them compared in the period between 2007 and 2013, did not show significant differences among them. IE: it was observed that, nevertheless the companies did not accomplish the promised Cash Flows delivery when the OPAs were put in place, the differences between the balances projected and the actual ones were not statistically significant.

  4. Guaranteeing the implementation of guarantees of origin: Creating a fair mechanism for renewable electricity generation and trade in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houwing; Michiel; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2005-01-01

    With the Renewables Directive (2001/77/EC) the EU has obliged its Member States to implement the Guarantees of Origin (GO) policy instrument into their national renewable electricity support schemes. Compared to formerly existing policy instruments as tradable green certificates, GOs can in a Union broad quota obligation scheme, for example, prove to be of major value in arriving at a more transparent and efficient way of trading renewable electricity. This paper gives an overview of the most important hurdles still to be addressed, mainly being double counting issues and policy interactions. When more clarity is given from the Commission in the future and when more EU Member States implement GOs beyond the minimum requirements, international trading of renewable electricity can become truly feasible. (Author)

  5. A combination of SILAC and nucleotide acyl phosphate labelling reveals unexpected targets of the Rsk inhibitor BI-D1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Alexander J; Trost, Matthias; Watts, Colin; Zaru, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors frequently have interesting effects that cannot be fully ascribed to the intended target kinase(s) but identifying additional targets that might explain the effects is not straightforward. By comparing two different inhibitors of the Rsk (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase) kinases, we found that the increasingly used compound BI-D1870 had biological effects in murine DCs (dendritic cells) that could not be solely ascribed to Rsk or other documented targets. We assessed the ability of BI-D1870 and a second Rsk inhibitor, BIX 02565 to protect enzyme active sites from reaction with biotinylated nucleotide acyl phosphates. Using SILAC (stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture)-labelled DC lysates as a source of enzyme targets, we identify several kinases that interact with BI-D1870 but not with BIX 02565. We confirmed that these kinases, including Slk, Lok and Mst1, are inhibited by BI-D1870 but to a much lesser extent by BIX 02565 and that phosphorylation of some of their substrates is blocked by BI-D1870 in living cells. Our results suggest that the BI-D1870 inhibitor should be used with caution. The SILAC-based methodology we used should be useful for further comparative unbiased profiling of the target spectrum of kinase inhibitors with interesting biological effects under conditions that closely mimic those found in cells. © 2014 The author(s).

  6. The effect of virtual bidding on forward premiums in the New York wholesale energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Andrew D.

    In many parts of the United States, the power industry has been deregulated and replaced with regional wholesale energy markets, where utilities purchase electricity from generators at competitive market rates for subsequent distribution to customers. Numerous studies have shown that in each of these markets, the price of energy purchased in the Day Ahead (futures) market exceeds the price in the Real Time (spot) market on average. The existence of this "forward premium" is evidence of market inefficiency and may indicate participants' aversion to risk in the Real Time market or the exercise of market power by generators. To address this inefficiency, the New York Independent System Operator introduced a virtual bidding system within its wholesale market, which permitted participants to engage in purely financial transactions and hedge their exposure to risk. The new policy was expected to promote price convergence by allowing bidders to arbitrage expected differences between Day Ahead and Real Time prices. This study examines whether the presence of virtual bidding was associated with a change in the mean value and magnitude of forward premiums in the NYISO energy market. The study applies a GARCH model to hourly pricing data from 2001 to 2009, controlling for temperature and economic activity. The results indicate that prior to 2005, virtual bidding was associated with significantly lower and less volatile forward premiums in New York's five most congested zones but with increased premiums in the remaining less congested zones. However, when the entire period from 2001 to 2009 is examined, the results suggest that prices have become significantly more divergent in the presence of virtual bidding. Closer examination of the data reveals a dramatic increase in forward premium volatility across all zones beginning in 2005 that is not accounted for by temperature or economic activity and may have biased the results. This study attempts to account for this unexplained

  7. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiiskinen U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urpo Kiiskinen,1 Stephan Matthaei,2 Matthew Reaney,3 Chantal Mathieu,4 Claes-Göran Östenson,5 Thure Krarup,6 Michael Theodorakis,7,* Jacek Kiljanski,8 Carole Salaun-Martin,9 Hélène Sapin,9 Bruno Guerci10 1Eli Lilly, Helsinki, Finland; 2Quakenbrück Diabetes Center, Quakenbrück, Germany; 3Eli Lilly, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 5Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Endocrinology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece; 8Eli Lilly, Warsaw, Poland; 9Eli Lilly, Neuilly Cedex, France; 10Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, and Nutrition, Hôpital Brabois, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France *Michael Theodorakis was affiliated with the institution shown above at the time of the study, but has since left this institution Purpose: CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. Methods: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. Results: A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P < 0.001 for both, but mean weight was reduced in the exenatide bid cohort (P < 0

  8. MOTIVATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS – GUARANTEE OF GOOD ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Mihai ZĂGĂRIN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the aspects of motivating administrative acts, both doctrinaire and practical, of jurisprudence. The duty of the administration to motivate its decisions is submitted in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, art. 41. In the current European legal order, the rationale for administrative acts is considered and refers to one of the most important conditions of validity of the administrative act. The Romanian Constitution ensures and emphasizes the motivation, as it is imposed by the Charter. The realization of this fundamental right to motivate administrative acts is possible by calling upon a set of values from the administration, such as transparency, professionalism and the imposition of high quality standards. Motivation is achieved where we have a good administration, and whether citizens are, among other things, respected fundamental rights and freedoms, access to information is guaranteed and motivated their decisions. Although administrative normative acts are motivated by the administration, examples that show that individual ones are unmotivated or incompletely motivated are enough, which made the various employers legally answer for the non-motivation of their decisions to terminate work relationships with several of the employees. The motivation of administrative acts is necessary, mandatory and must be done with rigor. It is highlighted that inadequate, incomplete or vicious reasoning may result in suspension or even annulment of the administrative act by the court.

  9. Nuclear power: status, outlook, guarantees of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The principal advantages of nuclear power - almost unlimited fuel resources, its high energy capacity, ecological compatibility with a possibility of high wastes concentration - determine the large-scale nuclear power development. The signs of large-scale power - a large rate (dozens of percent) in electricity production, diverse areas (electricity, heat supply, technologies, transport) and media of application (land, ocean, space), extension of number of user countries, diversified power systems (centralized, autonomous), obligatory reproduction and reuse of produced fuel - create various requirements to nuclear power installations of the future. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, safety (of reactors and fuel cycle with waste), proper characteristics of nuclear fuel reproduction, guarantees of nuclear arm's non-proliferation and, particularly, public acceptance are the conditions of such nuclear power development. The up-to-date situation is the following: the 441 nuclear power-generation units with total installed power of 377.36 GW el. (in 31 countries) supply by 1/6 part of the world electric-power consumptions. The 32 units are in stage of the construction. To the present mid-century the level of the nuclear power production, as supposed, must be increased 4-5 times at the following scenario of a regional distribution of nuclear electric powers, GW: USA, Europe and developed countries of Eastern Asia - 1000, FSU-countries - 100 and developing countries - 400

  10. THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE BANK DEPOSITS GUARANTEE PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Pechonik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In world banking practice it is considered that it is better to solve the problem of one bank, rather than arouse the mass impressment of deposits, generating the effect of spreading the disease onto the other credit institutions. In our conditions the process of spreading was specifically reflected in flowing the financial resources of people out of the commercial banks into Sberbank, that shortened drawn resources of other banks, lowed their financial steadiness. The decision of this problem demands conducting aim-oriented policy on the safe-keeping of funds of individuals and organizations in all commercial banks. In other words, the system of deposits insurance is needed, which is based on the necessary participation of all banks and credit organizations, drawing money resources into deposits. But the legislation we have nowadays does not allow to provide in full measure the demanded guarantees to depositors, to form real mechanism of bank liquidity crisis and mass impressments of financial resources by the depositors prevention in case of negative economic market or bankruptcy.

  11. Oil and gas bidding rounds: judgement criteria in Brazil and abroad; Licitacoes no setor de petroleo e gas natural: criterios de julgamento no Brasil e no exterior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrete, Bernardo do Amaral; Valois, Danielle Gomes de Almeida; Tavares, Henrique Campos Laborne; Gomes, Julia Medina da Costa [Trench, Rossi e Watanabe Advogados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the main rules governing the bidding process for the granting of exploration and production rights of hydrocarbons in Brazil, with emphasis to the criteria for judging competing applications. From a comparative law analysis it is possible to note that, despite the fact that the system adopted in Brazil may be seen as objective and transparent, there is still room for improvement, especially with regard to assessing the performance of bidders in acreage already previously granted. In major European oil-producing countries, such as the UK and Norway, the efficiency and responsibility with which the applicant conducts its ongoing operations in those jurisdictions are also taken into account as a criterion for judging competing applications. Brazil could benefit from this experience and adopt criteria similar to Europe, ensuring another legal tool able to require that companies operating in the country to adopt safer standards and stricter controls, under penalty of entering in disadvantage in the next bidding rounds. (author)

  12. ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR SMEs BY CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarigul, Hasmet

    2013-01-01

    Credit guarantee schemes assist banks in lending to SMEs by overcoming collateral problems. The guarantees are used to share the risk between the bank and the guarantee institution in an agreed ratio. Thus, the bank’s risk and operation costs are lowered and its returns increased. This encourages banks to lend to SMEs who are unable to provide adequate collateral. In our study, we investigate the relationship between SMEs, banks and CGSs. We also aimed to explain the functioning of CGSs...

  13. Optimal design of uptime-guarantee contracts under IGFR valuations and convex costs

    OpenAIRE

    Hezarkhni, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    An uptime-guarantee contract commits a service provider to maintain the functionality of a customer’s equipment at least for certain fraction of working time during a contracted period. This paper addresses the optimal design of uptime-guarantee contracts for the service provider when the customer’s valuation of a contract with a given guaranteed uptime level has an Increasing Generalized Failure Rate (IGFR) distribution. We first consider the case where the service provider proposes only one...

  14. Financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at OPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hengel, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the establishment and maintenance of a financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in accordance with CNSC requirements. The process and timelines are documented leading to the establishment of the guarantee effective July 31, 2003. Reference plans, cost estimates, funding mechanisms and reporting mechanisms are summarized. The renewal process projected at the end of the 5-year initial financial guarantee period is also included. (author)

  15. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Discrete-Time Positive Impulsive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness of discrete-time positive impulsive switched systems. Firstly, the definition of guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness is introduced. By using the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function (MLCLF and average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller is designed and sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop system is guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness (GCFTB. Such conditions can be solved by linear programming. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Communication Framework for Tele-rehabilitation Systems with QoS Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandanov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is great interest in developing telemedicine technologies. These technologies will provide health care from distance swiftly and lightly, as well as reduce the expenses for activities, such as rehabilitation. Telemedicine applications are possible due to the advances in information technologies and the ever-expanding communication network infrastructure. The network characteristics bandwidth, packet loss, latency, jitter and policies are crucial for the performance of tele-rehabilitation systems. Because in tele-rehabilitation human lives are at stake, guaranteeing the Quality of Service (QoS is important. In this paper, an approach for assuring the QoS for information transmission in tele-rehabilitation systems is proposed.

  17. Guaranteed cost control of mobile sensor networks with Markov switching topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Guo, Ge; Ding, Lei

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates the consensus seeking problem of mobile sensor networks (MSNs) with random switching topologies. The network communication topologies are composed of a set of directed graphs (or digraph) with a spanning tree. The switching of topologies is governed by a Markov chain. The consensus seeking problem is addressed by introducing a global topology-aware linear quadratic (LQ) cost as the performance measure. By state transformation, the consensus problem is transformed to the stabilization of a Markovian jump system with guaranteed cost. A sufficient condition for global mean-square consensus is derived in the context of stochastic stability analysis of Markovian jump systems. A computational algorithm is given to synchronously calculate both the sub-optimal consensus controller gains and the sub-minimum upper bound of the cost. The effectiveness of the proposed design method is illustrated by three numerical examples. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 7 CFR 1779.73 - Replacement of loss, theft, destruction, mutilation, or defacement of Loan Note Guarantee or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement of loss, theft, destruction, mutilation..., theft, destruction, mutilation, or defacement of Loan Note Guarantee or Assignment Guarantee Agreement... circumstances of the loss, theft, or destruction of the Loan Note Guarantee or Assignment Guarantee Agreement...

  19. Realization of Human Rights Guarantees in Civil Proceedings in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badma V. Sangadzhiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil legal proceedings are conducted according to the federal laws existing during consideration and permission of a civil case (making of separate legal proceedings or execution of court decrees. In case of lack of the regulation of a procedural law governing the relations which arose during civil legal proceedings, federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate's courts apply the regulation governing the similar relations (analogy of the law. In the absence of such regulation of the judge work proceeding from the general principles of implementation of justice in the Russian Federation (analogy is right. Dispositions of general constitutional guarantees (which don't belong directly to judicial system, however their sense can quite be applied to judicial process of consideration of civil cases contain in the following articles of the Constitution of Russia: 17, 19, 29 and 45. Judicial activities are characterized by the major indicators: quality and efficiency (observance of procedural terms. According to the conventional principles and rules of international law to be an offender without unjustifiable delay constitutes one of the fundamental human rights inseparably linked with the right to fair legal proceeding. In a sense of the constitutional regulation, first, everyone has the right, but isn't obliged to protect the rights, secondly, to protect by all methods which aren't forbidden by the law. It is thought, the last purchases the force and the importance not as ascertaining (or transfer these methods in the law and as availability of real mechanisms of their use by the individual and availability of use.

  20. The System of Public Acquisitions by Means of Electronic Bids in the Light of European Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce can lead in many different ways to cost reduction in case of a supplier and can subsequently increase the competition potential of a company. As for the competition mechanism, such changes produce significant modifications within a market economy. The Internet renders the possibility of creating business contacts in a rapid and geographically independent manner, as well as possibilities of obtaining data and realizing transactions within the world’s economy. Public acquisitions by means of dynamic systems and electronic bids are currently one of the significant areas of electronic commerce.

  1. Calibration of short rate term structure models from bid-ask coupon bond prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Gonçalves, Erika; Gzyl, Henryk; Mayoral, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In this work we use the method of maximum entropy in the mean to provide a model free, non-parametric methodology that uses only market data to provide the prices of the zero coupon bonds, and then, a term structure of the short rates. The data used consists of the prices of the bid-ask ranges of a few coupon bonds quoted in the market. The prices of the zero coupon bonds obtained in the first stage, are then used as input to solve a recursive set of equations to determine a binomial recombinant model of the short term structure of the interest rates.

  2. A bid solicitation and selection method for developing a competitive spot priced electric market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is in the beginning throes of a transformation from a cost-based regulated structure to a more market based less regulated system. Traditional unit commitment and economic dispatch methodologies can continue to provide reliable least-cost solutions, providing they are modified to accommodate a larger sphere of market participants. This paper offers a method for an entity such as an Independent System Operator (ISO) to solicit and evaluate bids for developing a spot priced electric market by replicating existing utility practices that are effective and efficient, while creating an open and equitable competitive marketplace for electricity

  3. Low-cost guaranteed-throughput communication ring for real-time streaming MPSoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, B.H.J.; Kurtin, Philip Sebastian; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    Connection-oriented guaranteed-throughput mesh-based networks on chip have been proposed as a replacement for buses in real-time embedded multiprocessor systems such as software defined radios. Even with attractive features like throughput and latency guarantees they are not always used because

  4. 16 CFR 239.2 - Disclosures in warranty or guarantee advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... warranty coverage. These examples are for both print and broadcast advertising. These examples are... advertising. 239.2 Section 239.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE ADVERTISING OF WARRANTIES AND GUARANTEES § 239.2 Disclosures in warranty or guarantee...

  5. When Justice Is Up to You. Celebrating America's Guarantee of Trial by Jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Featuring a mock trial tested in the District of Columbia, the objective of this manual is to help students learn more about the constitutional guarantee of trial by jury. Prepared as five separate lessons, the manual examines one alternative to the jury system--trial by ordeal; traces the development of the guarantee of trial by jury; explores…

  6. The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, government guarantees for savings banks in Germany were removed following a law suit. We use this natural experiment to examine the effect of government guarantees on bank risk taking, using a large data set of matched bank/borrower information. The results suggest that banks whose

  7. 22 CFR 231.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 231.05 Section 231.05 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD...

  8. Linking Financial Service Providers to Commercial Capital : How Do Guarantees Add Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexia Latortue; Jasmina Glisovic-Mezieres

    2008-01-01

    In microfinance, experimentation with loan guarantees began largely as an attempt to demonstrate to local banks that Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) are creditworthy. Though loan guarantees are far less common than other funding instruments, such as debt, equity, and grants, they are beginning to be used more often. This brief is based on a joint Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (...

  9. 12 CFR 370.7 - Assessment for the Transaction Account Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment for the Transaction Account Guarantee Program. 370.7 Section 370.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.7 Assessment for the...

  10. 14 CFR 272.3 - Places eligible for guaranteed essential air service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.3 Places eligible for guaranteed essential air service. (a) Subject to the provisions of this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Places eligible for guaranteed essential...

  11. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 230 Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the... the Government of Israel on behalf of the State of Israel. Pursuant to the Emergency Wartime... International Development, may issue loan guarantees applicable to sums borrowed by the Government of Israel on...

  12. 12 CFR 370.6 - Assessments under the Debt Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.6 Assessments under the Debt Guarantee... participating entity shall ensure that funds in an amount at least equal to the amount of the assessment are... institution shall provide the necessary funds for payment of its assessments. (3) Failure to take all...

  13. 78 FR 691 - Maximum Loan Amount for Business and Industry Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Maximum Loan Amount for Business and Industry Guaranteed Loans in Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION... and Industry (B&I) guaranteed loans of $25 million or less under certain circumstances. Due to the...

  14. Public initiatives to support entrepreneurs: Credit guarantees versus co-funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.; Lóránth, G.; Morrison, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze state-sponsored credit guarantees in a setting where entrepreneurs are capital-constrained and subject to moral hazard. In our model, guarantees can raise welfare because they reduce the cost of capital faced by entrepreneurs, and so potentially enhance entrepreneurial effort incentives.

  15. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...

  16. IMPROVING THE PROVISION OF STATE GUARANTEES UNDER CREDITS OR BONDED LOANS RAISED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola D. Sanginova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the

  17. Certain aspects of the accounting of the bank guarantee at the principal and the beneficiary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zimakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any kind of business such category as risks is peculiar. The research of this category was conducted by scientists from the different sides, certain approaches of protection against risks were developed and instruments of decrease in financial risks are offered. The bank guarantee is one of the most demanded instruments of additional financial protection today. Its active using of the commercial organizations courses questions of the organization of the detailed accounting of guarantees at the principal and the beneficiary. A little concerning the historical aspect of the bank guarantee, authors provided the overview of the determinations of "bank guarantee" characterizing it as the banking service providing distribution of responsibility between the guarantor and the principal under certain conditions. Having considered the essence of the legal nature and features of the bank guarantee recommendations about the organization of the disaggregated financial accounting on off-balance accounts were developed. In particular, need of allocation of a currency type as the directions of conducting the analytics providing correctness of reflection of cost criterion is proved. For the purpose of control of timeliness of carrying out calculations it is recommended to allocate guarantees: coincident and in coincident with primary obligation; short-term and long-term. From the point of view of nature of guarantees payment guarantees and guarantees of obligation fulfilment were allocated. These recommendations concern the beneficiary, and lack of accounting entries at a principal generates need of creation of additional registers and analytical reports which forms were offered by authors. The provided recommendations will allow obtaining transparent information on bank guarantees for the purpose of its full disclosure in the financial reporting.

  18. G-Doob-Meyer Decomposition and Its Applications in Bid-Ask Pricing for Derivatives under Knightian Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to establish the bid-ask pricing framework for the American contingent claims against risky assets with G-asset price systems on the financial market under Knightian uncertainty. First, we prove G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition for G-supermartingale. Furthermore, we consider bid-ask pricing American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty, by using G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition; we construct dynamic superhedge strategies for the optimal stopping problem and prove that the value functions of the optimal stopping problems are the bid and ask prices of the American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty. Finally, we consider a free boundary problem, prove the strong solution existence of the free boundary problem, and derive that the value function of the optimal stopping problem is equivalent to the strong solution to the free boundary problem.

  19. The effect of electric transmission constraints on how power generation companies bid in the Colombian electrical power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gallego Vega

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the effect of transmission constraints on both expected electrical energy to be dispatched and power generation companies’ bidding strategies in the Colombian electrical power market. The proposed model simulates the national transmission grid and economic dispatch by means of optimal power flows. The proposed methodology allows structural problems in the power market to be analyzed due to the exclusive effect of trans- mission constraints and the mixed effect of bidding strategies and transmission networks. A new set of variables is proposed for quantifying the impact of each generation company on system operating costs and the change in expected dispatched energy. A correlation analysis of these new variables is presented, revealing some interesting linearities in some generation companies’ bidding patterns.

  20. Self-scheduling and bidding strategies of thermal units with stochastic emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melíco, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The management of thermal power plants is considered for different emission allowance levels. • The uncertainty on electricity price is considered by a set of scenarios. • A stochastic MILP approach allows devising the bidding strategies and hedging against price uncertainty and emission allowances. - Abstract: This paper is on the self-scheduling problem for a thermal power producer taking part in a pool-based electricity market as a price-taker, having bilateral contracts and emission-constrained. An approach based on stochastic mixed-integer linear programming approach is proposed for solving the self-scheduling problem. Uncertainty regarding electricity price is considered through a set of scenarios computed by simulation and scenario-reduction. Thermal units are modelled by variable costs, start-up costs and technical operating constraints, such as: forbidden operating zones, ramp up/down limits and minimum up/down time limits. A requirement on emission allowances to mitigate carbon footprint is modelled by a stochastic constraint. Supply functions for different emission allowance levels are accessed in order to establish the optimal bidding strategy. A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness and the proficiency of the proposed approach in supporting biding strategies