WorldWideScience

Sample records for bicycle travel

  1. Investigation of Bicycle Travel Time Estimation Using Bluetooth Sensors for Low Sampling Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Filtering the data for bicycle travel time using Bluetooth sensors is crucial to the estimation of link travel times on a corridor. The current paper describes an adaptive filtering algorithm for estimating bicycle travel times using Bluetooth data, with consideration of low sampling rates. The data for bicycle travel time using Bluetooth sensors has two characteristics. First, the bicycle flow contains stable and unstable conditions. Second, the collected data have low sampling rates (less than 1%. To avoid erroneous inference, filters are introduced to “purify” multiple time series. The valid data are identified within a dynamically varying validity window with the use of a robust data-filtering procedure. The size of the validity window varies based on the number of preceding sampling intervals without a Bluetooth record. Applications of the proposed algorithm to the dataset from Genshan East Road and Moganshan Road in Hangzhou demonstrate its ability to track typical variations in bicycle travel time efficiently, while suppressing high frequency noise signals.

  2. Will a bicycle friendly policy make passenger travel more sustainably?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the possibility to transfer a larger part of the short car trips to walking or bicycling in order to obtain environmental and health benefits. The project contains a logistic choice model used to explain which circumstances are particularly important...... and bicycling. The study shows that instruments that improve the cyclists’ speed and increase the car drivers’ time consumption and costs will influence the competition conditions significantly. The total transfer potential will be between 12 and 16 % of the car trips in case of short tours, equivalent to 1...

  3. Bicycle safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... states have bike lanes and laws that protect bicycle riders. But riders are still at risk of ... stop or take evasive action. While riding your bicycle: Watch for opening car doors, potholes, children, and ...

  4. Bicycle and Car Share Schemes as Inclusive Modes of Travel? A Socio-Spatial Analysis in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Clark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle and car sharing schemes have proliferated in recent years and are increasingly part of the urban transport landscape. Shared transport options have the potential to support social inclusion by improving accessibility: these initiatives could remove some of the barriers to car ownership or bicycle usage such as upfront costs, maintenance and storage. However, the existing evidence base indicates that, in reality, users are most likely to be white, male and middle class. This paper argues that there is a need to consider the social inclusivity of sharing schemes and to develop appropriate evaluation frameworks accordingly. We therefore open by considering ways in which shared transport schemes might be inclusive or not, using a framework developed from accessibility planning. In the second part of the paper, we use the case study of Glasgow in Scotland to undertake a spatial equity analysis of such schemes. We examine how well they serve different population groups across the city, using the locations of bicycle stations and car club parking spaces in Glasgow, comparing and contrasting bike and car. An apparent failure to deliver benefits across the demographic spectrum raises important questions about the socially inclusive nature of public investment in similar schemes.

  5. 40 CFR 52.1162 - Regulation for bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) For present bicycle riders, the origin, destination, frequency, travel time, distance and purpose... Section 52.1162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., regional and local planning staffs, state, regional and local agencies, bicycle organizations and...

  6. An Analysis of Florida Physical Educators' Knowledge of Bicycle Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel P.; Egberts, John B.; Spengler, J. O.; Zhang, James J.; Jin, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    Bicycling among youth is a popular activity, but like all modes of travel it is not without risk. Florida has a particularly high rate of bicycle-related fatalities and injuries. To reduce such risks, the Florida Department of Transportation and Florida Department of Education have developed a youth bicycle safety educational program (Florida…

  7. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  8. Bicycle Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    An aerodynamic bicycle wheel developed by two DuPont engineers and a California company incorporates research into NASA airfoils. Computer modeling was accomplished with MSC/NASTRAN. Each of the three spokes in the wheel is, in effect, an airfoil, maximizing aerodynamic efficiency for racing.

  9. Estimating Bicycle and Pedestrian Demand in San Diego

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael; Buckland, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts behind estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand and provides an example of the development of a sketch-plan method for estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand from land use in San Diego County. The paper describes the methodology involved in collecting counts for the currently ongoing Seamless Travel project. The Seamless Travel project intends to develop a model for estimating bicycle and pedestrian demand within San Diego County. The project methodology i...

  10. Bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, M G; Wollin, S

    1986-01-01

    Information concerning 520 bicycle accidents and their victims was obtained from medical records and the victims' replies to questionnaires. The analyzed aspects included risk of injury, completeness of accident registrations by police and in hospitals, types of injuries and influence of the cyclists' age and sex, alcohol, fatigue, hunger, haste, physical disability, purpose of cycling, wearing of protective helmet and other clothing, type and quality of road surface, site of accident (road junctions, separate cycle paths, etc.) and turning manoeuvres.

  11. Bicycling for transportation and health: the role of infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight on whether bicycling for everyday travel can help US adults meet the recommended levels of physical activity and what role public infrastructure may play in encouraging this activity. The study collected data on bicycling behavior from 166 regular cyclists in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area using global positioning system (GPS) devices. Sixty percent of the cyclists rode for more than 150 minutes per week during the study and nearly all of the bicycling was for utilitarian purposes, not exercise. A disproportionate share of the bicycling occurred on streets with bicycle lanes, separate paths, or bicycle boulevards. The data support the need for well-connected neighborhood streets and a network of bicycle-specific infrastructure to encourage more bicycling among adults. This can be accomplished through comprehensive planning, regulation, and funding.

  12. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl;

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...

  13. Electric-bicycle propulsion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oman, H.; Morchin, W.C. [Electro-Bicycle, Inc., Auburn, WA (United States); Jamerson, F.E. [Electric Battery Bicycle Co., Naples, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In a human-powered hybrid electric vehicle (HPHEV) the travel distance available from a single battery charge can be lengthened with power from another source, the cyclist`s leg muscles. In a battery-powered electric bicycle the propulsion power goes mostly into overcoming aerodynamic drag. For example, at 18 km per hour (11 miles per hour) this drag represents 200 watts at the tire-to-road interface for a typical cyclist`s shape and clothing. Today`s typical electrical bicycle is propelled by a high-speed dc motor which is powered from a lead-acid battery. The combined efficiency of the motor and its speed-reducing gears is 50 to 65 percent. In this paper we calculate available travel distances, as a function of speed, grade, and the battery energy-content as measured in watt-hours per kg. We show the effect of battery cost and charge/discharge cycle-life on travel cost in terms of cents per kilometer travelled. Designs used in today`s electric bicycles are illustrated.

  14. Evaluation and Improvement of Bicycle Travel Environment Based on the Cycling Route Choice Behavior%基于路径选择行为的自行车出行环境评价和改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晖婧; 朱玮; 王德

    2014-01-01

    提供良好的自行车出行环境是促进自行车出行的一个重要方面。本文通过研究骑行者的路径选择行为,得到人们对环境要素的偏好规律,以此为基础探讨评价和改善自行车出行环境的方法。运用叙述性偏好法(简称SP)对骑行者进行虚拟路径选择调查,应用离散选择模型量化各要素对路径评价的影响程度。结果表明,骑行者最关注的环境要素为自行车道类型、机动车车流量、机非隔离设施、机动车路边停车和街道景观。不同出行目的的人群对出行环境偏好差异显著。基于模型结果,在上海市杨浦区某地区进行规划应用,评价路段出行环境,并以出行环境效用提升最大化目标,提出出行环境改善建议。%Good travel environment for cycling is an important aspect for promoting bicycle use. By studying cyclers’ route choice behavior, this research derives people’s preferences on the environmental factors, which serves as a base for evaluating and improving bicycle travel environment. Stated preference (SP) method is used for the survey of virtual route choice behavior and a discrete choice is formulated to quantify the influence of the relevant factors on the route evaluation. The results indicate that among the relevant factors, lane type, traffic volume, separation facility, on-street parking and streetscape are the most important factors for the cyclists. Estimating the models on different cycler groups by travel purposes reveals significant preference differences. Based on the results, a study area in Yangpu District, Shanghai is chosen for application, where the status quo of the routes’ travel environments evaluated and suggestions of promoting the environment are given in the target of maximizing the travel environment utility.

  15. 上海市闵行区公共自行车出行特征研究%Research on the Travel Characteristics of Public Bicycle in Minhang District, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玮; 庞宇琦; 王德; 余雄伟

    2012-01-01

      以上海闵行区公共自行车系统为例,考察该系统自实施以来对闵行区居民出行产生的影响,以期为闵行以及我国的公共自行车事业发展提供借鉴。研究以使用者的刷卡数据样本以及实地问卷调查获得的样本为数据基础,首先总结不同区域、不同用地类型的公共自行车网点的运行特征。接着以居民为对象,总结使用公共自行车的出行目的、频率变化、网点使用时空分布、出行方式转换、使用公共自行车的原因以及使用模式。最后分析在虚拟收费和费用返还的情景下,人们使用公共自行车的意愿变化。%  The paper takes the public bicycle system (PBS) in Minhang District, Shanghai, as the case and studies the impact brought by the system on the travel behavior of residents in Minhang, in hope that it may contribute to the development of PBS in China. The study uses a sample of PB users’ IC card records and data col ected from a questionnaire survey as the base, and firstly summarizes the PB stations’ operational characteristics in different areas and land use types. Secondly, the paper studies residents’ travel behavior related to PB, including travel purpose, travel frequency, spatio-temporal distributions of using the stations, travel mode shift, reasons of using and not using PB and mode of PB travel. Final y, people’s wil ingness to use PB is analyzed under the virtual scenarios of charging and reimbursing for using PB.

  16. Lost Kingdom of Bicycles?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For most people born in the 1950s and '60s, the bicycle was a faithful companion of their youth, when China was known as a kingdom of bicycles. A bicycle ride was a favorite pastime during a colorful spring day or in the crisp

  17. Bicycle Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Noel

    2001-01-01

    A bicycle braking system for permitting controlled rotation and continuous power to the wheels of a bicycle during braking of the bicycle to enhance control of the bicycle during braking includes a cylindrical brake pad that is spring loaded within angled slots in a casing. The brake pad is positioned proximate the rim of a wheel and a cable assembly is coupled to the brake pad for urging the brake pad towards an end of the angled slots and against the rim of the wheel to slow rotation of the...

  18. Bicycles made to measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2007-01-01

    For almost a century and a half, mathematicians have been racking their brains about the bike. How can a rolling bicycle be so stable of its own accord? Delft researchers now say they have completed the model to end all models. Bicycle manufacturer Batavus intends to use it to make better bikes for

  19. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  20. Quantifying bicycle network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Loh, Tracy Hadden

    2017-02-01

    The intent of this study was to compare bicycle network connectivity for different types of bicyclists and different neighborhoods. Connectivity was defined as the ability to reach important destinations, such as grocery stores, banks, and elementary schools, via pathways or roads with low vehicle volumes and low speed limits. The analysis was conducted for 28 neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington under existing conditions and for a proposed bicycle master plan, which when complete will provide over 700 new bicycle facilities, including protected bike lanes, neighborhood greenways, and multi-use trails. The results showed different levels of connectivity across neighborhoods and for different types of bicyclists. Certain projects were shown to improve connectivity differently for confident and non-confident bicyclists. The analysis showed a positive correlation between connectivity and observed utilitarian bicycle trips. To improve connectivity for the majority of bicyclists, planners and policy-makers should provide bicycle facilities that allow immediate, low-stress access to the street network, such as neighborhood greenways. The analysis also suggests that policies and programs that build confidence for bicycling could greatly increase connectivity.

  1. On a Bicycle in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RON ROSSI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Other expats here in Beijing have all bought bicycles.One friend who was excited about his new bicycle told me he spent about 2,100 yuan($300).Another mentioned he had spent what would be equivalent to $500.

  2. Bicycles and Valentines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shanghai municipality's announcement late last year that bicycles were to be banned from the city's main thoroughfares was ill received by many residents. The measure was taken to relieve traffic congestion and reflects how traditional modes of transport fail to meet the changing needs of Chinese contemporary life.

  3. Bicycle Trailers Increase Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of an exceptional parent who always takes his daughter for rides in a CycleTote special needs bicycle trailer. Dennis Foster, an exceptional parent from Commerce, Oklahoma, found that taking his twenty-eight-year-old daughter Hasha for rides has made her happy. Hasha has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy.

  4. The safety of electrically assisted bicycles compared to classic bicycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Fishman, E; den Hertog, P; Wolt, K Klein; Schwab, A L

    2014-12-01

    Use of electrically assisted bicycles with a maximum speed of 25 km/h is rapidly increasing. This growth has been particularly rapid in the Netherlands, yet very little research has been conducted to assess the road safety implications. This case-control study compares the likelihood of crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is needed and injury consequences for electric bicycles to classic bicycles in the Netherlands among users of 16 years and older. Data were gathered through a survey of victims treated at emergency departments. Additionally, a survey of cyclists without any known crash experience, drawn from a panel of the Dutch population acted as a control sample. Logistic regression analysis is used to compare the risk of crashes with electric and classical bicycles requiring treatment at an emergency department. Among the victims treated at an emergency department we compared those being hospitalized to those being send home after the treatment at the emergency department to compare the injury consequences between electric and classical bicycle victims. The results suggest that, after controlling for age, gender and amount of bicycle use, electric bicycle users are more likely to be involved in a crash that requires treatment at an emergency department due to a crash. Crashes with electric bicycles are about equally severe as crashes with classic bicycles. We advise further research to develop policies to minimize the risk and maximize the health benefits for users of electric bicycles.

  5. Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Meghan; Brauer, Michael; Setton, Eleanor M; Teschke, Kay

    2010-12-01

    A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, trip destinations, and along the route between. We analyzed 3,280 utilitarian bicycle and car trips in Metro Vancouver, Canada made by 1,902 adults, including both current and potential cyclists. Objective measures were developed for built environment characteristics related to the physical environment, land use patterns, the road network, and bicycle-specific facilities. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the likelihood that a trip was made by bicycle, adjusting for trip distance and personal demographics. Separate models were constructed for each spatial zone, and a global model examined the relative influence of the three zones. In total, 31% (1,023 out of 3,280) of trips were made by bicycle. Increased odds of bicycling were associated with less hilliness; higher intersection density; less highways and arterials; presence of bicycle signage, traffic calming, and cyclist-activated traffic lights; more neighborhood commercial, educational, and industrial land uses; greater land use mix; and higher population density. Different factors were important within each spatial zone. Overall, the characteristics of routes were more influential than origin or destination characteristics. These findings indicate that the built environment has a significant influence on healthy travel decisions, and spatial context is important. Future research should explicitly consider relevant spatial zones when investigating the relationship between physical activity and urban form.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  7. Butchers and Bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahle, Lynn; Eriksen, Steen Mandsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Morten Wagener is a Danish design, and innovator who founded the cargo and personal transportation bicycle company, ”Butchers and Bicycles,”. He identified a business opportunity to improve the future of urban transport. His idea was that most of the trikes) on the market lacked good design......, maneuverability and styling. With his engineering and design background, Wagener set out to design a new trike; which would meet the needs of the target market, which his research identified as well- educated individuals who were very interested in aesthetics. Furthermore, Wagener was convinced that trikes were...... between order and delivery. From a marketing perspective, one of the differentiating factors of Morten’s product is the quality of the ride (compared to competing products) and so his marketing team coined the slogan “Built-to-Tilt” because even though it’s a trike it feels like riding a two...

  8. Land of Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHua; LuRucai

    2004-01-01

    There are currently more than 500 million cyclists in China,10million of them in Bejing.Despite efficient bus networks,legions of taxis and surging private car ownership,the bicycle remains a firm fixture in Chinese daily life.But it is much more than just a means of transport to cyclists today,who demand a afr greater chioce of design and function than ever before.

  9. Interventions in Bicycle Infrastructure, Lessons from Dutch and Danish Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Goeverden, K.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Harder, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of interventions in bicycle infrastructure on travel choices, safety, design appreciation, and other factors. These clarify under which conditions certain measures are effective or not and inform about the effectiveness of improving a single route versus upgrading a whole network. The information from the studies...... to be still generally valid. In addition to studies that traditionally focus on dedicated bicycle infrastructure, two cases of shared space are discussed, a rather new type of intervention that assumes mixed use of infrastructure. One case is from Denmark, the other from the Netherlands. The paper will so...... uncover the valuable results of the possibly largest evaluations of interventions in bicycle infrastructure ever made, verify these by examining more recent studies, and contribute to the discussion of shared space....

  10. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  11. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  12. 36 CFR 13.914 - Bicycle use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bicycle use. 13.914 Section... § 13.914 Bicycle use. The use of a bicycle is prohibited— (a) On the Savage River Loop Trail; the... in public parking areas, or on trails and areas designated for bicycle use by the Superintendent....

  13. 15 CFR 265.22 - Bicycle traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle traffic. 265.22 Section 265.22... Bicycle traffic. No person shall ride a bicycle other than in a manner exercising due caution for pedestrian and other traffic. No person shall ride a bicycle on sidewalks or inside any building, nor...

  14. Bicycle Rider Control: Observations, Modeling & Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2012-01-01

    Bicycle designers traditionally develop bicycles based on experience and trial and error. Adopting modern engineering tools to model bicycle and rider dynamics and control is another method for developing bicycles. This method has the potential to evaluate the complete design space, and thereby dev

  15. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  16. Bicycle Use and Cyclist Safety Following Boston’s Bicycle Infrastructure Expansion, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Bellows, Alexandra L.; Taylor, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate changes in bicycle use and cyclist safety in Boston, Massachusetts, following the rapid expansion of its bicycle infrastructure between 2007 and 2014. Methods. We measured bicycle lane mileage, a surrogate for bicycle infrastructure expansion, and quantified total estimated number of commuters. In addition, we calculated the number of reported bicycle accidents from 2009 to 2012. Bicycle accident and injury trends over time were assessed via generalized linear models. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with bicycle injuries. Results. Boston increased its total bicycle lane mileage from 0.034 miles in 2007 to 92.2 miles in 2014 (P cyclist safety. PMID:27736203

  17. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...... relevant in a new context – that of the Chinese mainland society in the 21st century. Doreen Massey (2005: 9) defines space as “a simultaneity of stories-so-far”, a space that is constantly exploding and imploding with the influx of new and old stories. Within this theoretical framework Wang Xiaoshuai...

  18. Prioritization of Integrated Bicycle Network Clusters in Istanbul Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Çol Yılmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of the integration of nonmotorized transport and public transport on hypermobility was evaluated. The role of bicycle in non-motorized transportation, and its contribution to sustainable travel goals were examined. A decision support model was established in order to plan the phases of a bicycle network integrated with the public transport sytem in Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Data such as public transport routes planned for the target year 2023, locations of transfer centers, number of passengers at transfer centers, and a revised bicycle network were used as layers for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS map produced. Based on the survey data collected from the experts, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP which is a multi-criteria decision-making procedure that contains both qualitative and quantitative factors was used to prioritize the bicycle network clusters integrated with public transport system in Istanbul.

  19. The Bicycle Rental Market In Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 1, 2008, Hangzhou, capital of east China’s Zhejiang Province, included bicycle rentals in the public transportation system. Now, bicycles have become the most convenient form of transport for Hangzhou residents. Data from the Hangzhou Bureau of Transportation show that on average each bicycle gets rented five times a day.

  20. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  1. Bicycle Safety: Sport Education Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.; Cole, Amy; Schneulle, Deanna

    2005-01-01

    Although the benefits of regular physical activity are well-documented and very well known, Americans are still becoming more sedentary and obese. As some experts envision the potential of nonmotorized transport in the future, especially in urban settings, it is not surprising that diverse groups view walking and bicycling as a solution to an…

  2. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  3. Teaching children about bicycle safety: an evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Noland, Robert B; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple health and environmental benefits associated with increasing bicycling among children. However, the use of bicycles is also associated with severe injuries and fatalities. In order to reduce bicycle crashes, a bicycling education program was implemented in selected New Jersey schools and summer camps as part of the New Jersey Safe Routes to School Program. Using a convenience sample of participants to the program, an opportunistic study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two bicycle education programs, the first a more-structured program delivered in a school setting, with no on-road component, and the other a less structured program delivered in a summer camp setting that included an on-road component. Tests administered before and after training were designed to assess knowledge acquired during the training. Questions assessed children's existing knowledge of helmet use and other equipment, bicycle safety, as well as their ability to discriminate hazards and understand rules of the road. Participating children (n=699) also completed a travel survey that assessed their bicycling behavior and their perception of safety issues. Response to individual questions, overall pre- and post-training test scores, and changes in test scores were compared using comparison of proportion, t-tests, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Improvements between the pre-training and post-training test are apparent from the frequency distribution of test results and from t-tests. Both summer camps and school-based programs recorded similar improvements in test results. Children who bicycled with their parents scored higher on the pre-training test but did not improve as much on the post-training test. Without evaluating long-term changes in behavior, it is difficult to ascertain how successful the program is on eventual behavioral and safety outcomes.

  4. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  5. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  6. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  7. BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A comparison has been made between BMX bicycle accidents and those occurring when children ride other types of bicycle. The injuries sustained are compared to see if the clinical impressions that BMX are more dangerous, and produce more facial injuries, are correct. This was found not to be true as half the children involved rode BMX bicycles, and the injuries sustained were similar to those occurring to non BMX riders. BMX riders had a lower proportion of serious injuries than riders of raci...

  8. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, R; Baten, C; Buurke, J H; Rietman, J S

    2016-10-13

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied yet. This study aims to analyse the effect of 3 support systems: an automatic adjustable saddle height, optimised frame and wheel geometry and drive-off assistance. The support systems are integrated on the SOFIE bicycle, a prototype bicycle designed to support older cyclists during (dis-)mounting and at lower cycling speeds. Nine older cyclists (65-80 years) were asked to cycle on a 'normal' and on the 'SOFIE' bicycle. They cycled on a parking lot to avoid interaction with traffic. The following tasks were analysed: cycling at comfortable and low speed avoiding an obstacle and (dis-)mounting the bicycle. Bicycle and cyclist motions were recorded with 10 Inertial Measurement Units and by 2 video cameras. FUSION software (LABVIEW) was used to assess kinematic parameters. First, a subjective analysis of the different cycling tasks was made, supported by video analysis. Second, differences in cyclist and bicycle kinematic parameters between the normal and SOFIE bicycle were studied for the various cycling tasks. The SOFIE bicycle was experienced as a 'supportive' and comfortable bicycle and objectively performed 'safer' on various cycling tasks. For example: The optimised frame geometry with low step-in enabled a faster (dis-)mounting time and less sternum roll angle and angular acceleration. The adjustable saddle height enabled the participants to keep both feet on the ground till they started cycling with the 'drive-off' support. The latter reduces steering activity: maximum steer angle and angular acceleration. During sudden obstacle avoidance, less upper body and thigh accelerations are recorded. In conclusion, the SOFIE bicycle was able to support older cyclists during

  9. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate relations of walking, bicycling and vehicle time to neighborhood walkability and total physical activity in youth. Methods: Participants (N=690) were from 380 census block groups of high/low walkability and income in two US regions. Home neighborhood residential density......, intersection density, retail density, entertainment density and walkability were derived using GIS. Minutes/day of walking, bicycling and vehicle time were derived from processing algorithms applied to GPS. Accelerometers estimated total daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Models were adjusted...... for nesting of days (N=2987) within participants within block groups. Results: Walking occurred on 33%, active travel on 43%, and vehicle time on 91% of the days observed. Intersection density and neighborhood walkability were positively related to walking and bicycling and negatively related to vehicle time...

  10. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  11. Evaluation electric bicycles; Evaluation velos electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Leovelo service is the first measure in favor of the bicycle to control the air pollution and to conserve energy. It provides in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France) a service of bicycle hiring. This document evaluates the project after two years of operating. It provides a technical evaluation (maintenance, equipment, financing) and also the socio-economic impacts. (A.L.B.)

  12. Stabilizing a Bicycle: A Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Timothy J.; Williams, Blair R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a project that takes students through the process of forming a mathematical model of bicycle dynamics. Beginning with basic ideas from Newtonian mechanics (forces and torques), students use techniques from calculus and differential equations to develop the equations of rotational motion for a bicycle-rider system as it tips from…

  13. Bicycle parking preferences: costs versus walking time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Maat, K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful bicycle stimulating policies may increase the need for bicycle parking capacity, especially at main railway stations located in city centers. A potential solution for this problem involves combining paid surveyed indoor parking near the platforms and free open-air parking without surveill

  14. Good Practices Guide for Bicycle Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to serve as an informational resource for educators and other interested professionals in planning and developing bicycle safety education programs. The guide examines 15 existing bicycle safety education programs in the United States and one from Canada. (Author)

  15. Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Annemieke C; Polinder, Suzanne; Panneman, Martien J M; van Beeck, Ed F; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2015-08-01

    The main cause of death and serious disability in bicycle accidents is traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence and costs of bicycle-related TBI across various age groups, and in comparison to all bicycle-related injuries, to identify main risk groups for the development of preventive strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance System and National Medical Registration were used for all patients with bicycle-related injuries and TBI who visited a Dutch emergency department (ED) between 1998 and 2012. Demographics and national, weighted estimates of injury mechanism, injury severity and costs were analysed per age group. Direct healthcare costs and indirect costs were determined using the incidence-based Dutch Burden of Injury Model. Between 1998 and 2012, the incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related TBI strongly increased with 54%, to 43 per 100,000 persons in 2012. However, the incidence of all bicycle-related injuries remained stable, from 444 in 1998 to 456/100,000 in 2012. Incidence of hospital admission increased in both TBI (92%) and all injuries from cycling (71%). Highest increase in incidence of both ED treatments and hospital admissions was seen in adults aged 55+. The injury rate of TBI per kilometre travelled increased (44%) except in children, but decreased (-4%) for all injuries, showing a strong decrease in children (-36%) but an increase in men aged 25+, and women aged 15+. Total costs of bicycle-related TBI were €74.5 million annually. Although bicycle-related TBI accounted for 9% of the incidence of all ED treatments due to cycling, it accounted for 18% of the total costs due to all bicycle-related injuries (€410.7 million). Children and adolescents (aged 0-24) had highest incidence of ED treatments due to bicycle-related injuries. Men in the working population (aged 15-64) had highest indirect costs following injuries from cycling, including TBI. Older cyclists (aged

  16. STRESS ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.M.V.Pazare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stress analysis of bicycle frame by using Finite Element Method. The analysis is carried out in Ansys, The F.E.A. results are compared with theoretical results. In theoretical analysis the frame is treated as truss like structure and the stresses in various members of frame like top tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stay and seat stay are determined, considering various condition like, static start up, steady state paddling, vertical impact, horizontal impact, rear wheel braking. Also Finite Element Analysis is done considering the above conditions. From the analysis it is found that there is a good agreement between analytical and F.E.A. results. Result of all the cases reveals that maximum stress is found in top tube of the bicycle frame as compared to other frame members and is equal to 24.84 MPa which is less than yield strength in tension (i.e.Syt = 290 MPa for the material (aluminum T 6061 selected.

  17. 78 FR 26804 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Travel Management on Public Lands in Gunnison...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ..., motor home, or trailer for the purpose or apparent purpose of overnight occupancy. Designated travel... mechanical device, such as a bicycle; not powered by a motor. Motorized vehicle means a vehicle that...

  18. Electric bicycles in The Netherlands: Current developments and future possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van

    2010-01-01

    Developments with electric bicycles in the Netherlands are progressing rapidly. The number of electric bicycles sold is rises every year. Cycling is a very popular mode of transport in The Netherlands. In 2008 more than one million bicycles were sold. At the moment one out of ten bicycles sold is al

  19. Muscle fatigue based evaluation of bicycle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Jagannath, M; Adalarasu, K

    2014-03-01

    Bicycling posture leads to considerable discomfort and a variety of chronic injuries. This necessitates a proper bicycle design to avoid injuries and thereby enhance rider comfort. The objective of this study was to investigate the muscle activity during cycling on three different bicycle designs, i.e., rigid frame (RF), suspension (SU) and sports (SP) using surface electromyography (sEMG). Twelve male volunteers participated in this study. sEMG signals were acquired bilaterally from extensor carpi radialis (ECR), trapezius medial (TM), latissimus dorsi medial (LDM) and erector spinae (ES), during 30 min of cycling on each bicycle and after cycling. Time domain (RMS) and frequency domain (MPF) parameters were extracted from acquired sEMG signals. From the sEMG study, it was found that the fatigue in right LDM and ES were significantly (p bicycle. This was corroborated by a psychophysical assessment based on RBG pain scale. The study also showed that there was a significantly lesser fatigue with the SU bicycle than the RF and SP bicycles.

  20. Survey of options on legalizing bicycling (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwahlen, Jurg; Sulewski, Sharon; Sacovitch, Stephen;

    1999-01-01

    the opposition against the proposal was.The goal of this project was to identify categories of users that were opposed to bicycling on the Dosseringen of the Østerbro and Nørrebro District lakes in Copenhagen. The identification of the opposition and its strength, rationale and organization was in terms of age......, gender, residency, frequency of use and their utilization of the area (i.e. walking, jogging, bicycling) as compared to the support for bicycling in the area. This was an Interactive Qualifying Project (IQP), that was designed to merge technical and scientific knowledge with society, and stresses...

  1. The self-stabilising dynamics of bicycles

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the classical problem of the stability of bicycles when moving quickly and upright. Developing a lean causes the front wheel to turn thereby setting the bicycle instantaneously into circular motion. The centripetal force associated with the lean-dependent turning circle gives a restoring torque which corrects the lean. The force also helps self-steer the front wheel, ensuring the bicycle continues in an essentially straight path. We give the frequency of lean oscillations about the vertical executed during riding. As in the literature, we discuss the neglect of gyroscopic effects, which experiment suggests are negligible.

  2. Policy to promote bicycle use or bicycle to promote politicians? Bicycles in the imagery of urban mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Milani Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years an increasing number of presidents, prime ministers, governors and mayors in developed and developing countries have been riding bicycles to promote a more sustainable and friendly form of urban mobility. We believe that these images also reveal and influence the image of contemporary urban mobility – the way in which people see what urban mobility is and how it should be. In this paper we discuss how the image of the bicycle has changed in Brazil and how this may influence an increase in its actual 1% bicycle modal share in big cities. We conclude that the importance of the bicycle in the image of urban mobility has been changing cyclically, and what seems to be a positive trend today might end up as being just an ephemeral positive image, with the risk of having no further practical consequences.

  3. A Sociological Analysis of the Relationship between Attitude towards Bicycle and Using Bicycle in Short Trips in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siroos Ahmadi

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to investigate relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle among the men in Isfahan. Based on the descriptive research findings, mean using bicycle score is low in Iran. This situation is not satisfactory for a metropolis such as Isfahan that has an increasing population and motor vehicles, and also has many difficulties in urban base facilities and must be changed. In addition to mean attitude toward bicycle is high that is an opportunity for urban planners. Inferential findings show that attitude toward bicycle has a significant impact on using bicycle. In other words, increase attitude toward bicycle means an increase in using bicycle for short trips. This research finding theoretically confirm relation between attitude and behavior. Moreover it is compatible with results of the research that show there is significant relationship between attitude toward bicycle and using bicycle. There is an inverse significant relationship between age and using bicycle and with rising age using bicycle is decreased. This research finding shows that urban infrastructure in Isfahan for using bicycle is not available and consequently with rising age, bicycle risk is increased. There is a direct significant relationship between income rate and using bicycle and with increasing income rate, using bicycle is also increased. This research finding is rooted in social prestige bicycle and higher classes prefer to use motor vehicle for transportation instead of bicycle. There is a significant relationship between marital status and using bicycle and single men use bicycle more than married men but there is no significant relationship between education level and using bicycle. This research findings show that with rising education level in spite of rising income, using bicycle is not decreased. And finally there is no significant relationship between employed and unemployed persons in using bicycle. On the basis of the evidences such

  4. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex

    2015-11-01

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing efficient traveler behavior. This poster outlines various aspects of the Connected Traveler project, including market opportunity, understanding traveler behavior and decision-making, automation and connectivity, and a projected timeline for Connected Traveler's key milestones.

  5. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  6. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  7. A Geographical Analysis of Bicycle Sharing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Médard De Chardon, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the performance of bicycle sharing systems (BSS), autonomous systems of accessible bicycles that can be easily used for one way trips, and determines whether they are successful at achieving promoted social and environmental outcomes through quantitative and qualitative methods. Such systems are typically surrounded by positive narratives of success, health, environmental and social benefits. This work challenges these notions. This thesis begins with the formalisation o...

  8. 深圳市自行车交通系统发展策略%Development Strategies for Bicycle Transportation System in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑景轩

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of bicycle travel in Shenzhen has decreased 38%from early 1980s to 2010, indi-cating the urgent need for bicycle transportation system reconstruction. By analyzing the bicycle travel de-mand, characteristics and public opinions in Shenzhen, this paper reveals that the low percentage of bicy-cle travel is mainly caused by inadequate bicycle lanes and parking facilities. Based on analyses of influen-tial factors and future development of bicycle transportation, along with the comprehensive transportation system planning in Shenzhen, the paper proposes the functionalities and objectives of bicycle transporta-tion development. Development strategies for establishing a harmonious and friendly bicycle transporta-tion system are further elaborated from six aspects, including differentiating development for different re-gions, bicycle lane network, bicycle lanes, bicycle parking facilities, bike share system, and electric bicy-cles.%20世纪80年代初至2010年,深圳市自行车出行比例下降38%,未来如何构建自行车交通系统亟须探讨。首先通过对深圳市自行车交通出行需求与特征、公众意见调查等分析,指出自行车道、停放设施不完善是导致自行车出行比例低的主要原因。基于深圳市自行车交通发展影响因素及前景分析,结合深圳市综合交通体系规划,提出自行车交通发展的定位和目标。重点从区域差异化发展、自行车道网络、自行车道、自行车停放设施、公共自行车以及电动自行车六个方面阐述构建与公共交通和谐发展、骑行环境友好的深圳市自行车交通系统发展策略。

  9. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist.

  10. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  11. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  12. A Bicycle Safety Education Program for Parents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…

  13. Associations between a walkability index and bicycle use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Christiansen, L.; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2012-01-01

    associations between measures of walkability and bicycle use for transport and the present study focuses on exploring whether these findings can be applied to a Danish setting where cycling culture differs and bicycle share is much higher (17% of all trips are by bicycle)...

  14. On the Stability of a Bicycle on Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Patricia A.; Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2011-01-01

    Riding a bicycle on the newest form of indoor training, rollers, presents a unique experiment on bicycle stability. The stability factors eliminated by riding on rollers are discussed in terms of refined handling and control of the centre of mass on a bicycle. This paper is intended for undergraduate physics majors as well as any other general…

  15. The usefulness of GPS bicycle tracking data for evaluating the impact of infrastructure change on cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Langdon, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Issue addressed: A key strategy to increase active travel is the construction of bicycle infrastructure. Tools to evaluate this strategy are limited. This study assessed the usefulness of a smartphone GPS tracking system for evaluating the impact of this strategy on cycling behaviour.Methods: Cycling usage data were collected from Queenslanders who used a GPS tracking app on their smartphone from 2013-2014. 'Heat' and volume maps of the data were reviewed, and GPS bicycle counts were compared with surveillance data and bicycle counts from automatic traffic-monitoring devices.Results: Heat maps broadly indicated that changes in cycling occurred near infrastructure improvements. Volume maps provided changes in counts of cyclists due to these improvements although errors were noted in geographic information system (GIS) geo-coding of some GPS data. Large variations were evident in the number of cyclists using the app in different locations. These variations limited the usefulness of GPS data for assessing differences in cycling across locations.Conclusion: Smartphone GPS data are useful in evaluating the impact of improved bicycle infrastructure in one location. Using GPS data to evaluate differential changes in cycling across multiple locations is problematic when there is insufficient traffic-monitoring devices available to triangulate GPS data with bicycle traffic count data.So what?: The use of smartphone GPS data with other data sources is recommended for assessing how infrastructure improvements influence cycling behaviour.

  16. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  17. Bicyclic semigroups of left I-quotients

    CERN Document Server

    Ghroda, Nassraddin

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study left I-orders in the bicyclic monoid $\\mathcal{B}$. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a subsemigroup of $\\mathcal{B}$ to be a left I-oreder in $\\mathcal{B}$. We then prove that any left I-order in $\\mathcal{B}$ is straight.

  18. Safety effects of permanent running lights for bicycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Andersen, T.; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    3845 cyclists was carried out in Odense, Denmark in order to examine, if permanent running lights mounted to bicycles would improve traffic safety for cyclists. The permanent running lights were mounted to 1845 bicycles and the accident rate was recorded through 12 months for this treatment group...... and 2000 other bicyclists, the latter serving as a control group without bicycle running lights. The safety effect of the running lights is analysed by comparing incidence rates – number of bicycle accidents recorded per man-month – for the treatment group and the control group. The incidence rate......, including all recorded bicycle accidents with personal injury to the participating cyclist, is 19% lower for cyclists with permanent running lights mounted; indicating that the permanent bicycle running light significantly improves traffic safety for cyclists. The study shows that use of permanent bicycle...

  19. The Effect of an All-Ages Bicycle Helmet Law on Bicycle-Related Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett, Paula; Rivara, Frederick; Gomez, Anthony; Kirk, Annie Phare; Yantsides, Christina

    2016-12-01

    In 2003, Seattle implemented an all-ages bicycle helmet law; King County outside of Seattle had implemented a similar law since 1994. For the period 2000-2010, the effect of the helmet legislation on helmet use, helmet-preventable injuries, and bicycle-related fatalities was examined, comparing Seattle to the rest of King County. Data was retrieved from the Washington State Trauma Registry and the King County Medical Examiner. Results comparing the proportions of bicycle related head injuries before (2000-2002) and after (2004-2010) the law show no significant change in the proportion of bicyclists admitted to the hospital and treated for head injuries in either Seattle (37.9 vs 40.2 % p = 0.75) nor in the rest of King County (30.7 vs 31.4 %, p = 0.84) with the extension of the helmet law to Seattle in 2003. However, bicycle-related major head trauma as a proportion of all bicycle-related head trauma did decrease significantly in Seattle (83.9 vs 64.9 %, p = 0.04), while there was no significant change in King County (64.4 vs 57.6 %, p = 0.41). While the results do not show an overall decrease in head injuries, they do reveal a decrease in the severity of head injuries, as well as bicycle-related fatalities, suggesting that the helmet legislation was effective in reducing severe disability and death, contributing to injury prevention in Seattle and King County. The promotion of helmet use through an all ages helmet law is a vital preventative strategy for reducing major bicycle-related head trauma.

  20. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Goede, M. de; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Methorst, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised tra

  1. System identification of the brompton bicycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Monique Victoria Teresa

    The Brompton (a European folding design) bicycle was instrumented with a variety of sensors including acceleration, angular rate, speed, and steering sensors. A bicycle state estimator was designed to obtain additional information from this data including heading, turn rate, lean angle, steer rate, and positions of the wheels during a trajectory. The first part of the thesis describes the model setup for system identification including the Steer-to-Lean dynamics and Lean-to-Steer dynamics reduced models. CIFER software was used in the system identification process of these models. The second part describes the validation of the Empirical model by using the Rider Control model ([1]) and the Complete Rider/Vehicle model ([1]) to determine the feedback gains. The Theoretical model feedback gains were also determined by using the Rider Control model ([1]) and the Complete Rider/Vehicle model ([1]).

  2. Maximum Estrada Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Wang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be a simple graph of order $n$, let $\\lambda_1(G),\\lambda_2(G),...,\\lambda_n(G)$ be the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$. The Esrada index of $G$ is defined as $EE(G)=\\sum_{i=1}^{n}e^{\\lambda_i(G)}$. In this paper we determine the unique graph with maximum Estrada index among bicyclic graphs with fixed order.

  3. Free Use of Bicycles at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Imagine you have just arrived at CERN. You are from Russia or Japan and have no car but you do need to get around and do not like depending on public transport. What do you do? You go to the EP Service Point (Building 124) and meet Boris Cabaud to get a CERN bicycle. Use of the bicycle is free but you have to fill in an application form which needs to be signed by your Group or Division Secretary. Then the application is filled in, you are put on the waiting list and it might take you from one to four weeks to get your bike depending on the season. “Normally the bikes are only for Users in the EP division as they are paid for by the EP budget,” says Boris, “but some other divisions have made arrangements to cover the costs.” Boris takes care of 350 bicycles at present. Each bike can be lent for maximum one year. During the winter the bikes can be stored in building 301 as it is difficult to ride them in the snow. If a bike is broken or lost all costs will be billed to the group or team account of the bo...

  4. Bicycling and walking are associated with different cortical oscillatory dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eStorzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although bicycling and walking involve similar complex coordinated movements, surprisingly Parkinson’s patients with freezing of gait typically remain able to bicycle despite severe difficulties walking. This observation suggests functional differences in the motor networks subserving bicycling and walking. However, a direct comparison of brain activity related to bicycling and walking has never been performed, neither in healthy participants nor in patients. Such a comparison could potentially help elucidating the cortical involvement in motor control and the mechanisms through which bicycling ability may be preserved in patients with freezing of gait. The aim of this study was to contrast the cortical oscillatory dynamics involved in bicycling and walking in healthy participants.To this end, EEG and EMG data of 14 healthy participants were analyzed, who cycled on a stationary bicycle at a slow cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm and walked at 40 strides per minute (spm, respectively.Relative to walking, bicycling was associated with a stronger power decrease in the high beta band (23-35 Hz during movement initiation and execution, followed by a stronger beta power increase after movement termination. Walking, on the other hand, was characterized by a stronger and persisting alpha power (8-12 Hz decrease. Both bicycling and walking exhibited movement cycle-dependent power modulation in the 24-40 Hz range that was correlated with EMG activity. This modulation was significantly stronger in walking.The present findings reveal differential cortical oscillatory dynamics in motor control for two types of complex coordinated motor behavior, i.e., bicycling and walking. Bicycling was associated with a stronger sustained cortical activation as indicated by the stronger high beta power decrease during movement execution and less cortical motor control within the movement cycle. We speculate this to be due to the more continuous nature of

  5. Travelling diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełmińska, Katarzyna; Jaremin, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    During the past several decades, the number of both business and tourist travels has greatly increased. Among them are persons suffering from chronic diseases, including diabetics for whom travels pose the additional health-hazard. Irrespective of better education, self-control and constantly improving quality of specialistic equipment available, diabetics still are the group of patients requiring particular attention. In the case of travelling diabetics, problems may occur concerning the transport and storage of insulin, as well as control of glycaemia, all caused by irregularity of meals, variable diet, physical activity, stress, kinetosis (sea voyages), and the change of time zones. The travel may as well evoke ailments caused by the change of climate and concomitant diseases such as traveller's diarrhoea, malaria, etc. Apart from avoiding glycaemia fluctuations, important for retaining health of diabetics is the prevention of other diseases and carrying the necessary drugs.

  6. Potential risk and its influencing factors for separated bicycle paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Ying; Jin, Sheng; Qu, Zhaowei; Hou, Lei

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose two potential risk indicators to define and evaluate the safety of bicycle path at the microscopic level. Field bicycle data were collected from three survey sites under different traffic conditions. These two risk indicators based on speed dispersion were proposed and calculated during each 5-min interval. The risk influences of various widths of bicycle path and traffic conditions were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. We further proposed a generalized linear model (GLM) for modeling and analyzing the relationships between bicycle risks and v/c ratio and percentages of electric bicycles, male cyclists, young cyclists, and loaded cyclists. The stepwise regression models were applied for determination of coefficients. The results show that the influences of gender and age of cyclists on potential risks are not significant. The risks increase with the width of bicycle path and percentage of electric bicycles, while only for wider bicycle path (4-lane case in this study), the risks are associated with whether or not cyclists are loaded. The findings could contribute for analysis and evaluation of the safety for bicycle path.

  7. Travelers' Health: Travel and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # ... search/groups ). Mothers who plan to use a breast pump while traveling may need an electrical current ... during travel because exclusive breastfeeding means feeding only breast milk, no other foods or drinks, which protects ...

  8. [Travel medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Grimm, M

    2009-07-01

    Travel medicine deals with travellers' diseases. The target group is therefore distinct from tropical medicine. It has gained in significance due to the increase in tourism and professional work abroad in the last 50 years. Dangerous and widespread diseases in tropical countries, in particular tropical malaria, have come into focus in industrialized countries because of their appearance in travellers. Travel medicine deals not only with infectious or transmittable diseases, but also with the ability of patients with chronic diseases to travel, the medical aspects of flying, as well as the health hazards of professional work or high-risk sports abroad. The risk of disease as a result of travelling can be minimized by advice and prophylactic measures, such as vaccinations and drug prophylaxis against malaria, if indicated. On return, medical symptoms should be investigated promptly to ensure early detection of life-threatening disease courses, particularly tropical malaria, as well as to prevent the occurrence of small-scale epidemics. A small number of diseases can also emerge after several years, such as benign types of malaria, amoebic liver abscess and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Aids also belongs to these diseases. Therefore, in this era of HIV pandemic travellers concerned should be made aware of the risks.

  9. TRAVEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mauritius Travel From August 31 to September 6, a high- level government delegation from Mauritius visited China. The delegation was headed by the President of Mauritius, Sir Anerood Jugnauth, and included the Minister of Tourism,

  10. Solar Electric Bicycle Body Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new solar electric bicycle design and study were carried out on in this paper. Application of CAD technology to establish three-dimension geometric model, using the kinetic analysis on the frame and other parts for numerical simulation and static strength analysis for the vehicle model design, virtual assembly, complete frame dynamics analysis and vibration analysis, with considering other factors, first on the frame structure improvement, second on security of design calculation analysis and comparison, finally get the ideal body design.

  11. On Wiener polarity index of bicyclic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Shi, Yongtang; Wang, Zhen; Yue, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in biological, physical and social sciences. Network robustness research aims at finding a measure to quantify network robustness. A number of Wiener type indices have recently been incorporated as distance-based descriptors of complex networks. Wiener type indices are known to depend both on the network’s number of nodes and topology. The Wiener polarity index is also related to the cluster coefficient of networks. In this paper, based on some graph transformations, we determine the sharp upper bound of the Wiener polarity index among all bicyclic networks. These bounds help to understand the underlying quantitative graph measures in depth.

  12. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  13. Methods to assess the stability of a bicycle rider system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, A.G.; Bulsink, V.E.; Beusenberg, C.M.; Dubbeldam, R.; Bonnema, G.M.; Poelman, W.A.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The SOFIE (Intelligent Assisted Bicycles) project wishes to create performance and design guidelines for mechatronic appliances which improve the stability of electric bicycles, so-called intelligent stability assist devices (IAD). To achieve this goal, a stability hypothesis, an advanced rider/bicy

  14. Bicycle-related maxillofacial injuries: a double-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bicycle-related injuries account for an important proportion of road injuries all over the world. As only few reports have focused on the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycle accidents, the purpose of this study was to present and compare epidemiological data abo

  15. 77 FR 39927 - Vehicles and Traffic Safety-Bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... that, at a minimum, the plan: Evaluates the suitability of existing trail surface and soil condition for accommodating bicycle use, or prescribes a sustainable trail design for the construction of new... to look at whether to designate an existing trail or build a trail for bicycle use, but also as...

  16. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  17. On Sum--Connectivity Index of Bicyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    We determine the minimum sum--connectivity index of bicyclic graphs with $n$ vertices and matching number $m$, where $2\\le m\\le \\lfloor\\frac{n}{2}\\rfloor$, the minimum and the second minimum, as well as the maximum and the second maximum sum--connectivity indices of bicyclic graphs with $n\\ge 5$ vertices. The extremal graphs are characterized.

  18. Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paul; Janssens, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize first-year students with the important ingredients of a physics experiment, we offer them a project close to their daily life: measuring the effect of air resistance on a bicycle. Experiments are done with a bicycle freewheeling on a downhill slope. The data are compared with equations of motions corresponding to different models…

  19. Bicycle-related maxillofacial injuries : a double-center study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K. Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Bicycle-related injuries account for an important proportion of road injuries all over the world. As only few reports have focused on the characteristics of maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycle accidents, the purpose of this study was to present and compare epidemiological data ab

  20. Factors of the physical environment associated with walking and bicycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.; Schuit, A.J.; Niet, de R.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Saris, W.H.M.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors of the physical environment that may influence time spent on walking and bicycling. METHODS: Demographic factors and time spent on walking and bicycling (during leisure time and for commuting purposes) were assessed with a self-administered

  1. Modeling of speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance for highway systems. There were lots of results for the speed characteristics of motorized vehicles. In this article, we studied the speed distribution for mixed bicycle traffic which was ignored in the past. Field speed data were collected from Hangzhou, China, under different survey sites, traffic conditions, and percentages of electric bicycle. The statistics results of field data show that the total mean speed of electric bicycles is 17.09 km/h, 3.63 km/h faster and 27.0% higher than that of regular bicycles. Normal, log-normal, gamma, and Weibull distribution models were used for testing speed data. The results of goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests imply that the log-normal and Weibull model can fit the field data very well. Then, the relationships between mean speed and electric bicycle proportions were proposed using linear regression models, and the mean speed for purely electric bicycles or regular bicycles can be obtained. The findings of this article will provide effective help for the safety and traffic management of mixed bicycle traffic.

  2. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  3. A mixed methods investigation of bicycle exposure in crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Nicholas; Christofa, Eleni; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Crash rates are an essential tool enabling researchers and practitioners to assess whether a location is truly more dangerous, or simply serves a higher volume of vehicles. Unfortunately, this simple crash rate is far more difficult to calculate for bicycles due to data challenges and the fact that they are uniquely exposed to both bicycle and automobile volumes on shared roadways. Bicycle count data, though increasingly more available, still represents a fraction of the available count data for automobiles. Further compounding on this, bicycle demand estimation methods often require more data than automobiles to account for the high variability that bicycle demand is subject to. This paper uses a combination of mixed methods to overcome these challenges and to perform an investigation of crash rates and exposure to different traffic volumes.

  4. Bicyclic Peptide Inhibitor of Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roodbeen, Renée; Paaske, Berit; Jiang, Longguang;

    2013-01-01

    The development of protease inhibitors for pharmacological intervention has taken a new turn with the use of peptidebased inhibitors. Here, we report the rational design of bicyclic peptide inhibitors of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), based on the established...... monocyclic peptide, upain-2. It was successfully converted to a bicyclic peptide, without loss of inhibitory properties. The aim was to produce a peptide cyclised by an amide bond with an additional stabilising across-the-ring covalent bond. We expected this bicyclic peptide to exhibit a lower entropic...... burden upon binding. Two bicyclic peptides were synthesised with affinities similar to that of upain-2, and their binding energetics were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Indeed, compared to upain-2, the bicyclic peptides showed reduced loss of entropy upon binding to uPA. We also...

  5. Predicting bicycle setup for children based on anthropometrics and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Karl; Dodson, Zoe; Korff, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Bicycling is a popular activity for children. In order for children to enjoy cycling and to minimize injury, it is important that they are positioned appropriately on the bicycle. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify a suitable bicycle setup for children aged between 7 and 16 years which accommodates developmental differences in anthropometrics, flexibility and perceptions of comfort. Using an adjustable bicycle fitting rig, we found the most comfortable position of 142 children aged 7 to 16. In addition, a number of anthropometric measures were recorded. Seat height and the horizontal distance between seat and handlebars were strongly predictable (R(2) > 0.999, p bicycle manufacturers.

  6. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... cruise ships can vary widely depending on ship size, itinerary, length of cruise, and passenger demographics. Generally, ...

  7. Dynamic Study of Bicycle Frame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Zahari, S. N.; Abdullah, N. A. Z.; Priyandoko, G.

    2016-11-01

    Bicycle frames have to bear variety of loads and it is needed to ensure the frame can withstand dynamic loads to move. This paper focusing on dynamic study for bicycle frame structure with a purpose to avoid the problem regarding loads on the structure and to ensure the structure is safe when multiple loads are applied on it. The main objectives of dynamic study are to find the modal properties using two method; finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA). The correlation between two studies will be obtained using percentage error. Firstly, 3D model of mountain bike frame structure has been draw using computer-aided design (CAD) software and normal mode analysis using MSC Nastran Patran was executed for numerical method meanwhile modal testing using impact hammer was performed for experimental counterpart. From the correlation result, it show that percentage error between FEA and EMA were below 10% due to noise, imperfect experiment setup during perform EMA and imperfect modeling of mountain bike frame structure in CAD software. Small percentage error differences makes both of the method can be applied to obtain the dynamic characteristic of structure. It is essential to determine whether the structure is safe or not. In conclusion, model updating method is required to reduce more percentage error between two results.

  8. Safe bicycling – Problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecka M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herewith a popularity of bicycling, various safety problems of cyclists are researched. Studies are connected with infrastructure, riding culture, choice of cyclist's suit and riding equipment. Overall, 382 respondents (159 cyclists, 119 drivers, 104 pedestrians were involved in the survey. The road participants' mutual communication problems in the traffic and opportunities of solving them were clarified. Most of cyclists wear comfortable daily or sporty clothing with reflective elements, and in their opinion, clothing with light emissive elements must be like daily clothing. The drivers could better notice cyclists, if they wear brightly colored suit with light emissive and reflective elements, but pedestrians – if cyclists use warning sound signals. The opinions of road participants about the placement of light emissive and reflective elements in cyclist's clothing were clarified. The prototype of cycling belt (Fig. 1e has been drawn up with LED stop signals, which are activated by the accelerometer placed in the central back pocket. The results of approbation have shown that the sensor does not provide the proper functioning of signals, due to a high level of riding movements. Using Motion Capture technology and bicycle exercise equipment, the research of oscillation of anthropometric points on the back has been carried out. The accelerometer should be placed between scapulae to design the cycling jacket.

  9. The Design of Sport Bicycle Speed Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbing Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As bicycle sport equipment, a sport bike needs a speed and distance measuring device, due to the characteristic of road cycling, thereby mastering the state of motion. According to external conditions such as temperature, wind speed, the bike can make the appropriate adjustment to achieve the best movement effect. The bicycle speed odometer is a major accessibility tool that satisfies with needs of the people with fast development. This study elaborated a bike speed odometer design based on Hall element, taking AT89C52 single chip as the core, measuring speed with A44E Hall sensor, to finish the bike mileage/speed measurement and statistics by displaying bike mileage and speed in real time. By using the Hall elements, the hardware of speed odometer input the number of pulse of per circle into the single-chip computer system. Then the signal processed by the single-chip computer displays. The software is programmed with assembly language and modular design idea. The design of the hardware circuit is simple and the subroutine has universal property, which fully meet the design requirements and possess a wide range of application and dissemination value.

  10. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cripton Peter A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists. Methods We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. The results were tabulated within two categories of infrastructure, namely that at intersections (e.g. roundabouts, traffic lights or between intersections on "straightaways" (e.g. bike lanes or paths. To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes (collisions and/or falls. Results The literature to date on transportation infrastructure and cyclist safety is limited by the incomplete range of facilities studied and difficulties in controlling for exposure to risk. However, evidence from the 23 papers reviewed (eight that examined intersections and 15 that examined straightaways suggests that infrastructure influences injury and crash risk. Intersection studies focused mainly on roundabouts. They found that multi-lane roundabouts can significantly increase risk to bicyclists unless a separated cycle track is included in the design. Studies of straightaways grouped facilities into few categories, such that facilities with potentially different risks may have been classified within a single category. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths was associated with the lowest

  11. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  12. Travel Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China to become the world’s No.1 tourist destination by 2015 May 19 is a special day in China’s history. On that day 400 years ago,Xu Xiake (1587-1641),wellknown geographer,traveler and explorer of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644),started a lifelong journey,leading to the publication of the monumental Xu Xiake’s Travel Notes,known for its detailed and accurate geographical information. The book also provided valuable insight into local customs and habits.

  13. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the effect of previously recognized socioeconomic negative predictors that are not readily changed by intervention. Subjects were classified by age, sex, location, riding surface, type of bicycle, child bicycle seat use, child bicycle trailer use, and helmet use by companions. Overall helmet use was 24 percent; infants and toddlers had the highest rate of helmet use at 61 percent, followed by adults at 26 percent and school-aged children at 17 percent. The strongest predictor of helmet use in all age categories was the presence of a helmeted companion. Adult helmet use was also positively predicted by riding in the street and by riding a racing-type bicycle. The use of a city-type bicycle negatively predicted helmet use. For non-adults, female sex and the use of a child seat or trailer were positive predictors. Fostering peer pressure to increase helmet use may be an effective yet relatively inexpensive way to achieve the goal of widespread use of bicycle helmets.

  14. The frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in countries with varying bicycle mode shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    In  order  to  encourage  cycling,  we  need  to  reduce  the  hazards  that  cyclists  face. Single-bicycle crashes or ‘bicycle-only crashes’ are falls and obstacle collisions in which only one cyclist is involved. Between 60 and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospital or treated at an emergency...... department are victims of single-bicycle crashes. As proportion of the total number of traffic casualties  the  share  exceeds  20%  in  most  countries  with  medium  to  high  levels  of cycling.  This paper  discusses  the  prevalence  of  the  problem  and  describes  measures  that  may  both reduce...

  15. Time travel?

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Stanley D; Deser, Stanley; Jackiw, Roman

    1992-01-01

    To travel into the past, to observe it, perhaps to influence it and correct mistakes of one's youth, has been an abiding fantasy of mankind for as long as we have been aware of a past. Here are described some recent scientific investigations on this topic.

  16. Traveler's Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... probably safe to eat or drink the following:Soft drinks that are carbonated (such as cola).Hot drinks, ... for Staying HealthyInternational travel has its share of health and safety challenges. Talk to your doctor about the area ...

  17. Climate, Weather and Daily Mobility : Transport Mode Choices and Travel Experiences in the Randstad Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böcker, L.

    2014-01-01

    Intuitively, weather plays an important role in everyday mobility. How often do we not expose ourselves to cold, heat, sun, rain, snow or wind when we are travelling on foot or by bicycle; waiting at a bus stop; walking towards a parked car; or driving under slippery road conditions. Recently, weath

  18. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  19. Bicyclic graphs with maximal revised Szeged index

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2011-01-01

    The revised Szeged index $Sz^*(G)$ is defined as $Sz^*(G)=\\sum_{e=uv \\in E}(n_u(e)+ n_0(e)/2)(n_v(e)+ n_0(e)/2),$ where $n_u(e)$ and $n_v(e)$ are, respectively, the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $u$ than to vertex $v$ and the number of vertices of $G$ lying closer to vertex $v$ than to vertex $u$, and $n_0(e)$ is the number of vertices equidistant to $u$ and $v$. Hansen used the AutoGraphiX and made the following conjecture about the revised Szeged index for a connected bicyclic graph $G$ of order $n \\geq 6$:

  20. Bamboo Bicycle – Past or Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Jakovljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the experiment was carried out to establish tensile strength values of two different bamboo species, which are obtained by the static tensile test. The tensile strength results of two tested species Tonkin Cane and Ku Zhu bamboo are presented and compared with traditional materials used for bicycle frame to determine their suitability for designing a frame. Physiology and other properties of bamboo were elaborated as well. The purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge on bamboo and prove his suitability in use as an alternative for ecologically unacceptable materials. Therefore, application of the natural materials is essential for the sustainable development. The fact that they have unlimited resources the use of bamboo has great potential and this article explains why.

  1. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys...... modulus [standard beta -0.48 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.06)]. Similar trends were observed when investigating the association between commuter bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness. These associations were not observed in girls. Our observations suggest that increasing bicycling in adolescence may...

  2. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Cain

    Full Text Available Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  3. On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen M; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perkins, Noel C

    2016-01-01

    Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.

  4. Test Verification and Design of the Bicycle Frame Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long; XIANG Zhongxia; LUO Huan; TIAN Guan

    2015-01-01

    Research on design of bicycles is concentrated on mechanism and auto appearance design, however few on matches between the bike and the rider. Since unreasonable human-bike relationship leads to both riders’ worn-out joints and muscle injuries, the design of bicycles should focus on the matching. In order to find the best position of human-bike system, simulation experiments on riding comfort under different riding postures are done with the lifemode software employed to facilitate the cycling process as well as to obtain the best position and the size function of it. With BP neural network and GA, analyzing simulation data, conducting regression analysis of parameters on different heights and bike frames, the equation of best position of human-bike system is gained at last. In addition, after selecting testers, customized bikes based on testers’ height dimensions are produced according to the size function. By analyzing and comparing the experimental data that are collected from testers when riding common bicycles and customized bicycles, it is concluded that customized bicycles are four times even six times as comfortable as common ones. The equation of best position of human-bike system is applied to improve bikes’ function, and the new direction on future design of bicycle frame parameters is presented.

  5. [Bicycle spoke-related injuries in children: emphasise prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, William L M; Haaring, Gert-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Three children, a 6-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 4 years, were seen at an emergency department due to distal lower-leg injuries sustained from the spokes of bicycle wheels. All three patients had been passengers on rear carrying seats of moving bicycles. Only the third bicyclist had used a special child safety seat. The second girl had drawn her foot up from underneath a strap and suffered a tibial fracture later treated with an osteosynthetic plate. The other two patients recovered after conservative casting treatment. Bicycle spoke-related injuries are sustained when the foot or lower limb makes contact with the spokes of a bicycle wheel and usually by children who are bicycle passengers. In the Netherlands, approximately 4600 children are seen at emergency departments with such injuries each year. Bicycle spoke-related accidents can cause severe damage that can result in lengthy recovery periods. Not only physical complications but also psychological ones can occur. The latter are often overlooked but do deserve proper treatment. The physician treating a spoke-related injury is in a good position to advice parents as to preventive measures, particularly on the use of special child safety seats.

  6. Bicycle helmet use and non-use - recently published research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2012-05-25

    Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.

  7. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  8. Comparative life cycle assessment of ghana-made bamboo-frame bicycle and conventional bicycles assembled and used in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, E.O.; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst, van der E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the sustainability of bamboo-framed bicycles produced in Ghana, an environmental and social life cycle assessments (LCA) were performed. For the environmental LCA, a bamboo-frame bicycle was compared with aluminium- and steel-frame bicycles, focussing on processes related to the f

  9. 机动化浪潮下的杭州市自行车交通空间保障%Protecting Bicycle Right-of-Way under Rapid Motorization Development in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树斌; 杨莹莹

    2016-01-01

    杭州市是中国公认的自行车发展较为成功的城市,通过交通要素分析和具体案例研究其自行车交通空间保障。首先,界定研究对象包括脚踏自行车和符合国家标准的电动自行车,自行车交通空间包括通行空间和停放空间。指出杭州市自行车交通发展面临小汽车竞争空间使用权以及电动自行车超速、超重等挑战。自行车通行空间层面,详细阐述杭州市在自行车道路体系构建,休闲自行车道建设,公共汽车站附近、占道施工情况下对自行车通行空间的保障,以及通过智能化手段保证效率和安全等方面的实践。自行车停放空间层面,探讨了自行车停车配建、路侧空间停车、大型会展活动、公共自行车停放等方面的具体做法。%Hangzhou is widely recognized as a city with successful development of bicycle transportation in China. This paper investigates how Hangzhou protects bicycle right-of-way through travel analysis and case study. The study focuses on bicycle travel (pedal bikes and the electric bikes that meet the national standards) and bicycle spatial dimension requirement (travel and parking). The study points out that the challenges facing bicycle transportation in Hangzhou are the space competition from automobile, electrical bike speeding/overloading and etc. The paper elaborates in detail the development of bicycle lane system, construction of leisure bicycle lanes, bicycle right-of-way protection where they are adjacent to bus stops and road construction, as well as efficiency and safety enhancement through intelligent transportation sys-tem in Hangzhou. The paper also discusses bicycle parking facilities for buildings, on-street parking, park-ing during large events, and parking for bike sharing.

  10. An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepers, Paul; Agerholm, Niels; Amoros, Emmanuelle;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. Methods A literature search identified figures...... (largely from western countries) on SBC casualties who are fatally injured, hospitalised or treated at an emergency department. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate how bicycle modal share is related to SBCs. Results On average, 17% of fatal injuries to cyclists are caused by SBCs...... of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. Conclusions While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result...

  11. On-bicycle exposure to particulate air pollution: Particle number, black carbon, PM2.5, and particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D.

    2015-12-01

    Inhalation of air pollution during transport is an important exposure pathway, especially for certain modes of travel and types of particles. We measured concentrations of particulate air pollution (particle number [PN], black carbon [BC], fine particles [PM2.5], particle size) using a mobile, bicycle-based monitoring platform during morning and afternoon rush-hour to explore patterns of exposure while cycling (34 days between August 14 and October 16, 2012 in Minneapolis, MN). Measurements were geo-located at 1 ​s intervals along 3 prescribed monitoring routes totaling 85 h (1426 km) of monitoring. Mean morning [afternoon] on-road concentrations were 32,500 [16,600] pt cm-3, 2.5 [0.7] μg m-3 BC, 8.7 [8.3] μg m-3 PM2.5, and 42 [39] nm particle diameter. Concentrations were correlated with street functional class and declined within small distances from a major road (e.g., for PN and BC, mean concentration decreased ∼20% by moving 1 block away from major roads to adjacent local roads). We estimate the share of on-bicycle exposure attributable to near-traffic emissions (vs. regional pollution) is ∼50% for PN and BC; ∼25% for PM2.5. Regression models of instantaneous traffic volumes, derived from on-bicycle video recordings of nearby traffic, quantify the increase in particle-concentrations associated with each passing vehicle; for example, trucks were associated with acute, high concentration exposure events (average concentration-increase per truck: 31,000 pt cm-3, 1.0 μg m-3 PM2.5, 1.6 μg m-3 BC). Our findings could be used to inform design of low-exposure bicycle networks in urban areas.

  12. Analysis of EMG measurements during bicycle pedalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, M; Hull, M L

    1986-01-01

    Activity of eight leg muscles has been monitored for six test subjects while pedalling a bicycle on rollers in the laboratory. Each electromyogram (EMG) data channel was digitized at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by a minicomputer. Data analysis entailed generating plots of both EMG activity regions and integrated EMG (IEMG). For each test subject, data were recorded for five cases of pedalling conditions. The different pedalling conditions were defined to explore a variety of research hypotheses. This exploration has led to the following conclusions: Muscular activity levels of the quadriceps are influenced by the type of shoes worn and activity levels increase with soft sole shoes as opposed to cycling shoes with cleats and toeclips. EMG activity patterns are not strongly related to pedalling conditions (i.e. load, seat height and shoe type). The level of muscle activity, however, is significantly affected by pedalling conditions. Muscular activity bears a complex relationship with seat height and quadriceps activity level decreases with greater seat height. Agonist (i.e. hamstrings) and antagonist (i.e. quadriceps) muscles of the hip/knee are active simultaneously during leg extension. Regions of peak activity levels, however, do not overlap. The lack of significant cocontraction of agonist/antagonist muscles enables muscle forces during pedalling action to be computed by solving a series of equilibrium problems over different regions of the crank cycle. Regions are defined and a solution procedure is outlined.

  13. Bicycle, city and education: search moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Hempkemeyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study comes from a Master’s degree in Education research, which investigates narratives of “pedaling beings” starting from the relationship bicycle-city. The theoretical assumptions lean on the Cultural Studies and concepts about education, culture, everyday life, experience and narratives. Researching with narratives closes everyday life and promotes co-authorship to the subjects in the paper. The article puts in discussion some forms of contemporary subjectivity, resistance techniques and expression. A study that builds narratives and reflections about the experiences of theses hybrid subjects and their everyday life, questioning their way of life in the city. Thinking in this urban medley is connect the environment and the dynamic of these pedaling bodies, emerging other ways of education and interaction with the medium, weaving multiple affectations in aesthetics, poetry, politics, opening breaches to reflect in the everyday happenings. The article also discusses the movements in research and the effects in those who research and are researched.

  14. Reviving a ghost in the history of technology: the social construction of the recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hassaan; Qureshi, Omer Masood; Khan, Abid Ali

    2015-02-01

    Recumbent bicycles have never truly been associated with international cycling. Conventional safety (upright) bicycles have long been at the center of the cycling world, for both sport and transportation. This is despite the fact that recumbent bicycles are faster, more comfortable, and more efficient than the upright bicycles. The aim of this article is to explain the historical and social perspectives that led to the rejection of the recumbent bicycle by utilizing the theory of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Bijker's two power theory, providing a contrast with the adoption of the safety bicycle.

  15. Ring aggregation pattern of Human Travel Trips

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Peng; Qin, Yong; Jia, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Although a lot of attentions have been paid to human mobility, the relationship between travel pattern with city structure is still unclear. Here we probe into this relationship by analyzing the metro passenger trip data.There are two unprecedented findings. One, from the average view a linear law exists between the individual's travel distance with his original distance to city center. The mechanism underlying is a travel pattern we called "ring aggregation", i.e., the daily movement of city passengers is just aggregating to a ring with roughly equal distance to city center.Interestingly, for the round trips the daily travel pattern can be regarded as a switching between the home ring at outer area with the office ring at the inner area. Second, this linear law and ring aggregation pattern seems to be an exclusive characteristic of the metro system. It can not be found in short distance transportation modes, such as bicycle and taxi, neither as multiple transportation modes. This means the ring aggregation p...

  16. How similar are two-unit bicycle and motorcycle crashes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Narelle; Debnath, Ashim Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores the similarities and differences between bicycle and motorcycle crashes with other motor vehicles. If similar treatments can be effective for both bicycle and motorcycle crashes, then greater benefits in terms of crash costs saved may be possible for the same investment in treatments. To reduce the biases associated with under-reporting of these crashes to police, property damage and minor injury crashes were excluded. The most common crash type for both bicycles (31.1%) and motorcycles (24.5%) was intersection from adjacent approaches. Drivers of other vehicles were coded most at fault in the majority of two-unit bicycle (57.0%) and motorcycle crashes (62.7%). The crash types, patterns of fault and factors affecting fault were generally similar for bicycle and motorcycle crashes. This confirms the need to combat the factors contributing to failure of other drivers to yield right of way to two-wheelers, and suggest that some of these actions should prove beneficial to the safety of both motorized and non-motorized two-wheelers. In contrast, child bicyclists were more often at fault, particularly in crashes involving a vehicle leaving the driveway or footpath. The greater reporting of violations by riders and drivers in motorcycle crashes also deserves further investigation.

  17. Predicting Public Bicycle Adoption Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin T. Hazen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle sharing programs provide a sustainable mode of urban transportation. Although cities across the globe have developed these systems for their citizens and visitors, usage rates are not as high as anticipated. This research uses the technology acceptance model as the basis to understand one’s intention to adopt bicycle sharing programs. Using survey data derived from 421 participants in Beijing, China, the proposed covariance-based structural equation model consisting of perceived quality, perceived convenience, and perceived value is found to predict 50.5% of the variance in adoption intention. The findings of this research contribute to theory and practice in the burgeoning literature on public bicycle systems and sustainable urban transportation by offering a theoretical lens through which to consider system adoption, and providing information to practitioners as to what factors might contribute most to adoption.

  18. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bicycling to work may be a viable approach for achieving physical activity that provides cardiovascular health benefits. In this study we investigated the relationship of bicycling to work with incidence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance...... across a decade of follow-up in middle-aged men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 23 732 Swedish men and women with a mean age of 43.5 years at baseline who attended a health examination twice during a 10-year period (1990-2011). In multivariable adjusted models we calculated the odds......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...

  19. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  20. Bicycle cycles and mobility patterns - Exploring and characterizing data from a community bicycle program

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Grivolla, Jens; Codina, Joan; Banchs, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of human mobility data in an urban area using the amount of available bikes in the stations of the community bicycle program Bicing in Barcelona. The data was obtained by periodic mining of a KML-file accessible through the Bicing website. Although in principle very noisy, after some preprocessing and filtering steps the data allows to detect temporal patterns in mobility as well as identify residential, university, business and leisure areas of the city. The results lead to a proposal for an improvement of the bicing website, including a prediction of the number of available bikes in a certain station within the next minutes/hours. Furthermore a model for identifying the most probable routes between stations is briefly sketched.

  1. Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schussler, Nadine; Axhausen, Kay W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate...... relevant and heterogeneous routes: doubly stochastic generation function, breadth first search on link elimination, and branch & bound algorithm. Efficiency of the methods was evaluated for a high-resolution network by comparing the performances with four multi-attribute cost functions accounting...... generated realistic routes, while the former outperformed in computation cost and the latter produced more heterogeneous routes....

  2. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1512 - Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1512—Reflectorized Bicycle Wheel Rim Abrasion Test Device EC03OC91.074...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512—Bicycle...

  4. Bicycle Training for Youth with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Esposito, Phil; Hauck, Janet; Jeong, Irully; Hornyak, Joseph; Argento, Angela; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently have difficulty riding a two-wheel bicycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate an intervention using an adapted bicycle and individualized instruction to teach 71 youth to ride a standard two-wheel bicycle. Youth with DS (n = 30) and ASD (n = 41) between the…

  5. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers. Health departments, the travel industry, multinational corporations, missionary and volunteer organizations, and travelers can also ... PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  6. Head injuries and bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L

    1996-07-01

    The first year of the mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Australia saw increased helmet wearing from 31% to 75% of cyclists in Victoria and from 31% of children and 26% of adults in New South Wales (NSW) to 76% and 85%. However, the two major surveys using matched before and after samples in Melbourne (Finch et al. 1993; Report No. 45, Monash Univ. Accident Research Centre) and throughout NSW (Smith and Milthorpe 1993; Roads and Traffic Authority) observed reductions in numbers of child cyclists 15 and 2.2 times greater than the increase in numbers of children wearing helmets. This suggests the greatest effect of the helmet law was not to encourage cyclists to wear helmets, but to discourage cycling. In contrast, despite increases to at least 75% helmet wearing, the proportion of head injuries in cyclists admitted or treated at hospital declined by an average of only 13%. The percentage of cyclists with head injuries after collisions with motor vehicles in Victoria declined by more, but the proportion of head injured pedestrians also declined; the two followed a very similar trend. These trends may have been caused by major road safety initiatives introduced at the same time as the helmet law and directed at both speeding and drink-driving. The initiatives seem to have been remarkably effective in reducing road trauma for all road users, perhaps affecting the proportions of victims suffering head injuries as well as total injuries. The benefits of cycling, even without a helmet, have been estimated to outweigh the hazards by a factor of 20 to 1 (Hillman 1993. Cycle helmets-the case for and against. Policy Studies Institute, London). Consequently, a helmet law, whose most notable effect was to reduce cycling, may have generated a net loss of health benefits to the nation. Despite the risk of dying from head injury per hour being similar for unhelmeted cyclists and motor vehicle occupants, cyclists alone have been required to wear head protection. Helmets for motor

  7. Travel personae of American pleasure travelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, S.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Mazanec, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Travel style has been shown to be a useful concept for understanding travelers. In this study it is argued that the portfolio of trips (specifically, the portfolio of various trip styles) one takes can be used to describe his/her overall travel persona. Network analysis was used to examine...

  8. Travel time and travel cost in European air travel

    OpenAIRE

    Dusek, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine two issues of consumer air travel accessibility in Europe, namely flight time and ticket costs. The first part of the paper discusses the various methodological problems of creating time matrix and cost matrix of air travel. Because of problems of conceptualizing of the air travel network and the modifiable areal unit problem the analysis is conducted on several spatial levels. The smallest network consists of 15 busiest airports and the largest network has ...

  9. A Formal Synthesis of ( + )-Cassiol Exploiting Meyers' Bicyclic Lactam Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Xin(沈鑫); WU,Yi-Kang(伍贻康); ZHANG,Fan(张帆)

    2002-01-01

    A formal synthesis of ( + )-cassiol using (1S,2S)-2-amino-1-(4- nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol as chiral auxiliary is reported.The quaternary chiral center in the molecule was constructed by sequential alkylation of a bicyclic lactam (prepared from the aforementioned auxiliary and 5-oxo-heptanlic acid) with methyl iodide and benzyloxymethyl chloride.

  10. Experimental and mathematical car-bicycle collision simulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huybers, J.J.W. & Janssen, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results of 35 mathematical simulations will be used to get a better insight in car-bicycle collisions. This information will be used later on to formulate hypotheses to be tested in an accident investigation project. In this paper special attention is given to the influence of the shape of the

  11. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    CERN Document Server

    Guemez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics and also some energetic issues related to the Marta mouse motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-to-go round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the Figuring Physics section of this magazine.

  12. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  13. The safety impact of a yellow bicycle jacket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis of this project is that the safety of cyclists can be improved by increasing their visibility in traffic. This is explored by testing whether or not a high-visibility bicycle jacket (colour and reflectors) will increase the safety of cyclists. The project has been carried out...... as a randomized controlled trial with 6,800 volunteer cyclists. After random selection, half of the group – the test group – got the bicycle jacket at once and promised to wear it each time they biked during a year. The other half of the group composed a control group that got the bicycle jacket after the closing...... of the project, i.e. after a year. The safety effect of the bicycle jacket was analysed by comparing the number of self-reported accident for the test and control group. The self-reported accidents showed that the test group had 38 % fewer personal injury accidents with other road users – so-called multi...

  14. "Walking" Along a Free Rotating Bicycle Wheel (Round and Round)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the kinematics, dynamics, and also some energy issues related to Marta mouse's motion when she walks on top of a horizontal bicycle wheel, which is free to rotate like a merry-go-round, as presented recently by Paul Hewitt in the "Figuring Physics" section of this journal. The situation is represented in Fig. 1, which was…

  15. Bicyclic graphs with exactly two main signless Laplacian eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    A signless Laplacian eigenvalue of a graph $G$ is called a main signless Laplacian eigenvalue if it has an eigenvector the sum of whose entries is not equal to zero. In this paper, all connected bicyclic graphs with exactly two main eigenvalues are determined.

  16. Embedding the bicyclic semigroup into countably compact topological semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Banakh, Taras; Gutik, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    We study algebraic and topological properties of topological semigroups containing a copy of the bicyclic semigroup $C(p,q)$. We prove that each topological semigroup $S$ with pseudocompact square contains no dense copy of $C(p,q)$. On the other hand, we construct a consistent example of a Tychonov countably compact semigroup containing a copy of $C(p,q)$.

  17. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  18. Consequences of Underestimating Impalement Bicycle Handlebar Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Irizarry, Carmen T; Swain, Shakeva; Troncoso-Munoz, Samantha; Duncan, Malvina

    Impalement bicycle handlebar trauma injuries are rare; however, on initial assessment, they have the potential of being underestimated. We reviewed our prospective trauma database of 3,894 patients for all bicycle injuries from January 2010 to May 2015. Isolated pedal bike injuries were reported in 2.6% (N = 101) of the patients who were admitted to the trauma service. Fifteen patients suffered direct handlebar trauma. Patients were grouped into blunt trauma (n = 12) and impalement trauma (n = 3). We examined gender, age, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale score, use of protective devices, need for surgical intervention, need for intensive care (ICU), and hospital length of stay. Mean age was 9.6 years. All children with penetrating injuries were males. Mean ISS was less than 9 in both groups. None of the children were wearing bicycle helmets. Three patients who sustained blunt injuries required ICU care due to associated injuries. All of the children with impalement injuries required several surgical interventions. These injuries included a traumatic direct inguinal hernia, a medial groin and thigh laceration with resultant femoral hernia, and a lateral deep thigh laceration. Impalement bicycle handlebar injuries must be thoroughly evaluated, with a similar importance given to blunt injuries. A high index of suspicion must be maintained when examining children with handlebar impalement injuries, as they are at risk for missed or underestimation of their injuries.

  19. How Fast Can You Go on a Bicycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    The bicycle provides a context-rich problem accessible to students in a first-year physics course, encircling several core physics principles such as conservation of total energy and angular momentum, dissipative forces, and vectors. In this article, I develop a simple numerical model that can be used by any first-year physics student to…

  20. Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From March 15 to17, at the invitation of the Euro-Chinese Friendship Association (ECFA) of France, a CPAFFC representative attended the launching ceremony of the Expedition Paris-Beijing by Bicycle 2008 in Paris, during which he met with officials of the National Commission on Decentralized Cooperation (Commission Nationale de la Cooperation Decentralisee-CNCD) of France.

  1. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  2. Power assist control of electric bicycle taking environment and rider's condition into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hiroshi; Miyata, Junichi; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-01

    Recently, bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool. But from a viewpoint of wide use for the future aging society, it is problem to pedal on rider's own. As well known, power assistance bicycle has already been used. The power assistance bicycle helps the elderly people or the people who has weak legs to expand their field. However, existing power assistance bicycle doesn't take running environment and rider's condition into account. The new control algorithm for power assistance bicycle is proposed in this paper. Human input and running friction are estimated as a disturbance torque with a disturbance observer. By using high pass filter (HPF), human input is separated from running friction. This method realizes power assistance bicycle without torque sensor. Disturbance observer compensates running friction. Compliance control is applied to make the bicycle have desired compliance. The effectiveness of this control algorithm is verified by numerical and experimental results.

  3. Bicycle Conversion Factor Calibration at Two-Phase Intersections in Mixed Traffic Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dianhai; LIANG Chunyan; JING Chunguang; WANG Guohua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese traffic is typically composed of bicycles and motor vehicles on the same road. The efficiency of bicycle traffic in time and space at intersections was investigated for eight typical intersections in the cities of Tianjin, Shenyang, and Changchun, all in China, by means of video recording. Models were developed to calculate the through bicycle traffic and the left-turn bicycle traffic conversion factors in intersections where bicycles and motor vehicles share the same road. The results indicate that the through bicycle conversion factor is 0.28 and the left-turn bicycle conversion factor is 0.33. This conclusion differs from the current value used in China. More research on the conversion factor is necessary to evaluate the impact of intersections.

  4. Childhood and Travel Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, David

    If children are not present in most travel literature--precisely because the genre has most typically been the domain of solitary male travelers who are escaping domestic obligation, routine, the familiar, and the family--they nevertheless are an integral part of the genre. The traveler is in many ways a child, an innocent abroad. Traveler writers…

  5. Travel-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carol C

    2013-06-01

    Travel abroad for business and pleasure should be safe and meaningful for the traveler. To assure that safe experience, certain processes should be considered before travel. A thorough pretravel health assessment will offer patients and health care providers valuable information for anticipatory guidance before travel. The destination-based risk assessment will help determine the risks involved in travel to specific locations and guide in the development of contingency plans for all travelers, especially those with chronic conditions. Diseases are more prevalent overseas, and immunizations and vaccinations are all important considerations for persons traveling abroad.

  6. Chest Traumas due to Bicycle accident in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Trauma is the second most common cause of mortality in children aged 1-4 years and leading cause of death in children older than 4 years. Thoracic injury is the second most leading cause of death in traumatized children. Multisystemic injury is found in more than 50% of children with thoracic injuries most of which are secondary to blunt traumas. We planned this study to evaluate thorax trauma cases secondary to bicycle driving in childhood and to draw attention to the importance of the regulation of traffic rules, the education of bicycle drivers.Material and Methods:  A retrospective evaluation was performed in 17 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2010 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to bicycle driving. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS. Results; Eleven (64.70% cases were injured due to the tricycle accidents and six cases 6 (35.29% were injured due to the two-wheeled bicycle accidents. The most frequent thoracic pathologies included pulmonary contusion (41.2% and chest wall contusion (29.41%. Extrathoracic injuries were seen in 35.29%, the extremities (17.64% and abdomino pelvic (11.76% being the most commonly involved. Treatment consisted of symptomatic treatment in 12 patients (70.58%, tube thoracostomy in 2 patients (11.76%, and thoracotomy in 1 patient (5.9%. The morbidity was seen in 3 patients (17.64%. The mortality rate was 5.9% (n:1. The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas Conclusions: The pediatric thorax has a greater cartilage content and incomplete ossification of the ribs. Due to the pliability of the pediatric rib cage and mediastinal mobility, significant intrathoracic injury may exist in the

  7. Rabies in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured. The intradermal vaccination route has been proven economical, safe and immunogenic in travelers. The immunity provided by the three-dose series is long-lasting and should be considered an investment for future travel. Abbreviated schedules may be used for last-minute travelers.

  8. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  9. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilson Kienteka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001, young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001 and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001, individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006, bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001 and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling.

  10. The fastest bicycle in the world; how a team of Delft students is building a bicycle to break the world speed record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annega, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is a country known for its extensive use of bicycles as a means of everyday transport. However, while it has existed for about two centuries, todays bicycles only differ from those of the 19th century in relatively small details. Human Power Team Delft is building a whole new type of

  11. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Simultaneous optimization of transit network and public bicycle station network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 朱宁; 马寿峰

    2015-01-01

    The traditional manner to design public transportation system is to sequentially design the transit network and public bicycle network. A new public transportation system design problem that simultaneously considers both bus network design and public bicycle network design is proposed. The chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is designed to solve the problem. A shortcoming of CRO is that, when the two-molecule collisions take place, the molecules are randomly picked from the container. Hence, we improve CRO by employing different mating strategies. The computational results confirm the benefits of the mating strategies. Numerical experiments are conducted on the Sioux-Falls network. A comparison with the traditional sequential modeling framework indicates that the proposed approach has a better performance and is more robust. The practical applicability of the approach is proved by employing a real size network.

  13. Rates of bicycle helmet use in an affluent Michigan County.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, L B

    1994-01-01

    Bicycle helmet use in the United States has remained low despite clear demonstration of its beneficial effect on reducing the incidence of serious head injury. Several interventions have been reported, with variable results and costs. Much of the recent literature has focused on child cyclists and on demographic factors associated with helmet use. This paper reports on helmet use by children and adults in a sample of 652 riders in an affluent southeast Michigan region, chosen to minimize the ...

  14. Optimal Design of Mountain Bicycle Based on Biomechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜研; 黄田; 项忠霞; 吴小凡; 陈春

    2010-01-01

    To achieve better cycling performance and vibration comfort of mountain bicycle, the optimization of frame structural parameters and rear suspension scale parameters is investigated based on biomechanics.Firstly, the quadratic sum of rider lower limb muscles stresses is presented as the evaluation criterion of muscle fatigue.By taking the criterion as the objective function, the relative positions of three pivot points of frame are optimized to ensure that the frame structural parameters match the stature o...

  15. Traffic conflicts on bicycle paths: a systematic observation of behaviour from video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, A Richard A; de Goede, Maartje; de Hair-Buijssen, Stefanie; Methorst, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, on bicycle paths, single-bicycle accidents, bicycle-bicycle and bicycle-moped accidents constitute a considerable share of all bicyclist injuries. Over three quarters of all hospitalised bicyclist victims in the Netherlands cannot be directly related to a crash with motorised traffic. As the usage of bicycle paths steadily increases, it is to be expected that safety on bicycle paths will become a major issue in the coming years in The Netherlands. A study was conducted into the behaviour of bicyclists and moped riders to improve traffic safety on bicycle paths. By behavioural observations with video, mutual conflicts and bicyclist behaviour on bicycle paths were recorded and analysed, among other things by means of the conflict observation method DOCTOR (Dutch Objective Conflict Technique for Operation and Research). The explorative phase of the study (phase 1), included two research locations, one in the city of Amsterdam and one in Eindhoven. The results gave guidance for a better understanding of the behaviour between different users of separate two-directional bicycle paths. An example includes the relationship between bicyclist-moped rider behaviour and the width of the bicycle path. For a condition with busy bicycle traffic in both directions the width of the bicycle path in Amsterdam (effectively 3.55m) is relatively narrow, whereas the bicycle path width in Eindhoven (>4.94m) appears to be sufficient to accommodate large flows of bicyclists. Because of a large flow of crossing pedestrians resulting in (severe) conflicts with bicyclists in Amsterdam, additional countermeasures to better control these interactions are needed. The DOCTOR conflict observation method from video appears to be applicable for conflicts between intersecting road users and for head-on conflicts on the bicycle path. Conflict situations between bicyclists in the same direction (constituting an important share of injury accidents on bicycle paths) require an

  16. [Mortality due to bicycle accidents in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Pauliana Valéria Machado; Pestana, Luciana Pinto; Pestana, Valter Mário; Spíndola, Michelline Oliveira Pedrosa; Campello, Reginaldo Inojosa Carneiro; de Souza, Eliane Helena Alvim

    2013-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to conduct a quantitative analysis of deaths resulting from bicycle accidents in the state of Pernambuco by studying secondary data between 2001 and 2010. The sample consisted of all the Deaths recorded in the Mortality Information System of the Unified Health System Database that reported bicycle accidents between 2001 and 2010. Descriptive measures were determined for all variables. Socio-demographic variables were paired with the basic cause of death in order to find a statistical correlation. In Pernambuco, the aforementioned information system recorded 517 deaths resulting from bicycle accidents, with greater frequency in men between 25 and 59 years of age, Afro-Brazilians, single and of unknown schooling. The mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 17.026), and the minimum and maximum age of 4 and 86 years old, respectively. The findings highlight the need for the creation of adequate infrastructure and effective legal measures to prevent traffic accidents involving this type of vehicle, relying on the evidence of distribution of cases in most Pernambuco municipalities.

  17. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  18. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  19. Design Analysis And Applications Of A Regenerative Bicycle Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuneke J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Man needs to do some form of physical work in other to remain healthy this work is similar to the work done by any machine or equipment and thus should be channeled to give useful output but rather it is usually dissipated into the environment in form of heat. The regenerative bicycle ergometer takes advantage of the greater power generated by the limbs and arms thus conserves converts and stores the energy dissipated by the rider with an ideal mechanical advantage of 7.6 it strategically uses simple mechanisms to magnify its work and then converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy by the use of a dynamo with a speed ratio of 108.5 and a transmission efficiency of 89 the rider pedals 27rpm to obtain the dynamos rated input of 2600rpm giving an output of 12.6volts. The regenerative bicycle ergometer is designed and constructed to perform all the core functions of a bicycle ergometer having an allowable load of 116.5kg and a maximum resistance of 65.33N which is equivalent to a mass of 6.66kg. The energy converted is stored in a 12volts battery making its use flexible clean and meeting the energy demands of man.

  20. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  1. It's not just about speed: Reviewing the recumbent bicycle once more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Bernhard

    2016-12-01

    Why did the recumbent bicycle never become a dominant design, despite the fact that it was faster than the safety bicycle on the racetrack? Hassaan Ahmed et al. argue in their recently published paper that the main reason for the marginalization of the recumbent bicycle was semiotic power deployed by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). Here, I demonstrate that the authors drew their conclusions from an incomplete application of the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) framework. Understanding the diffusion of alternative bicycle designs requires considering more than speed, and more than the UCI as a powerful actor. The recumbent bicycle was fast, but rather tricky to ride, and was not really feasible for the transport needs of the working classes, which constituted the most relevant social group of bicycle users during the 1930s.

  2. Zika Travel Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partners GeoSentinel Global TravEpiNet Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Zika Travel Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... website . World Map of Areas with Risk of Zika Zika Travel Notices Zika Virus in Cape Verde ...

  3. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  4. Travel Inside the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach ... are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which is filled with ...

  5. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  6. End to End Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E2 Solutions is a web based end-to-end travel management tool that includes paperless travel authorization and voucher document submissions, document approval...

  7. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Techn...

  8. Modeling cyclist acceleration process for bicycle traffic simulation using naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Cycling is a healthy and sustainable form of transportation. The recent increase of daily cyclists in Sweden has triggered broad interest in finding how policies and measures may facilitate the planning of bicycle traffic in the urban area. However, in comparison to car traffic, bicycle traffic is still far from well understood. This study is part of the research effort to investigate microscopic cyclist behavior, model bicycle traffic and finally build a simulation tool for applications in t...

  9. Bicycle-related injuries: a survey in a pediatric emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, R; Down, J; MacMillan, N; Waclawik, H

    1990-01-01

    The number of bicycle-related injuries has risen significantly with the increased popularity of bicycle riding in Canada. The risk of injury is highest among children. To assess the magnitude of the problem and to identify the contributing factors we used a questionnaire, injury reports and patient charts to survey bicycle-related injuries among children brought to the emergency department of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, between May 1 and Sept. 30, 1988. The questionnai...

  10. Bicyclic graphs with maximum sum of the two largest Laplacian eigenvalues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirong Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let G be a simple connected graph and S 2 ( G $S_{2}(G$ be the sum of the two largest Laplacian eigenvalues of G. In this paper, we determine the bicyclic graph with maximum S 2 ( G $S_{2}(G$ among all bicyclic graphs of order n, which confirms the conjecture of Guan et al. (J. Inequal. Appl. 2014:242, 2014 for the case of bicyclic graphs.

  11. Improvement of Freezing of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease by Imagining Bicycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kikuchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is one of the factors that reduce the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Imagining bicycling before gait start provided improvement in FOG in 2 PD patients. Imagining and mimicking bicycling after the initiation of gait allowed the rhythmic gait to continue without interruption. We suggest that imagining and mimicking bicycling, which are nonexternal cues, could serve as a helpful therapeutic approach for the intractable freezing and interruption of gait of PD patients.

  12. Travel epidemiology. WHO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezairy, Hussein A

    2002-12-01

    International travel is undertaken by large, and ever increasing numbers of people for professional, social, recreational and humanitarian purposes, and this upward trend looks set to continue. Travelers are exposed to a variety of health risks of the unfamiliar environment of the visited area. The risk of exposure is determined by destination, duration of the visit, purpose of the visit, behavior of the traveler and underlying physical and biological status of the traveler. However, most risks can be minimized by suitable precautions taken before, during and after travel. Travelers can themselves, also, easily introduce any infectious agents they may harbor to the visited area. Many infectious diseases have been introduced in many parts of the world through travel and trade. Travel has been identified as a prime factor in the global spread of infectious diseases. In a world of rapid air travel, no country is safe from infectious diseases. An outbreak in one country can easily and rapidly be transmitted across long distances to affect other countries through travel and trade. The World Health Organization devotes great attention to prevention and control of global spread of infectious diseases and minimizing the negative effect of international travel on health. The main strategies of the World Health Organization for minimizing the negative effects of expanding travel on global health security include developing the necessary strategies, rules and regulations; strengthening global communicable diseases surveillance and response; dissemination of related information throughout the world and strengthening national capacity for communicable diseases surveillance and response.

  13. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain tr

  14. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  15. 7500 km journey with their solar-powered bicycles: show your solidarity with their efforts

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Our colleagues, Céline and Jean, are currently on a 7500 km journey from Geneva to Astana (Kazakhstan) via Sotchi (in Russia, mandatory stopover) to promote ecology with their solar-powered bicycles. In the context of their trip, they asked the Staff Association to launch an action of solidarity in the framework of the Long-Term Collections. It is with pleasure that we have accepted their proposal and that we offer you the possibility to take part in this humanitarian initiative. You can participate by pledging to donate CHF 10 for each country that will be crossed by Céline and Jean, which corresponds to a maximum commitment of 100 CHF. Indeed, their scheduled trip will include 10 countries across Europe and Asia. Today they are in Hungary, after travelling through parts of Switzerland, France, Italy, Slovenia and Croatia.  The details on how to participate will be published in our next issue of Echo.   For further information about this wonderful adventure, pl...

  16. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  17. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  19. Comprehensive care of travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, R E; Peate, W F; Cordes, D H

    1986-12-01

    Travel, especially if it is international, often means major changes for the family. Family physicians should assess the epidemiologic risk and psychosocial significance of travel or relocation in light of the family's life-cycle stage and antecedent health. Using core references, which are kept current in partnership with public health agencies, family physicians are able to provide comprehensive immunization, medications, and patient education for all travel risks. Families are given medical record summaries and recommended sources of care at their destination. Eight weeks after their return patients are reassessed for newly acquired illness and helped to integrate the perspectives gained during the travel into the family's future dynamics. Taking advantage of growing travel medicine opportunities, family medicine educators should base the care of travelers and teaching of residents on defined competence priorities. Travelers' health provides a mutually rewarding model of shared care with public health consultants in the community medicine curriculum.

  20. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... prevent recontamination during storage Table 2-10. Microorganism size and susceptibility to filtration ORGANISM AVERAGE SIZE (µm) ...

  1. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    2015-01-01

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  3. Consumers’ preferences for “bicycle poultry” in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Delphin O.;

    Village poultry, also termed "bicycle poultry," is produced in scavenging farming systems and is a chewy meat with a low fat content, and constitutes an important source of meat in many African countries. This study investigates consumers’ preferences regarding the physical traits of these birds...... (notably chickens, ducks and guinea fowl) in the Republic of Benin. For this purpose, we applied the hedonic price method on field data collected from retailers in four urban and five rural markets. We found that meatier drake and meatier guinea fowl with white plumage are preferred by consumers who...

  4. Exploring the Chemistry of Bicyclic Isoxazolidines for the Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycomimetic Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Lutz, Martin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a chiral furanone, the nitrone-olefin [3 + 2] cycloaddition can be used to obtain bicyclic isoxazolidines for which we report a set of reactions to selectively modify each functional position. These synthetically versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines allowed us to obtain complex glycomi

  5. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  6. Bicycle Design: A different approach to improving on the world human powered speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, H.K.; Van den Brand, S.; Gregoor, W.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Pereboom, H.P.; Wielemaker, D.C.; Van der Zweep, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    The current International Human Powered Vehicle Association world records for faired bicycles stand at 133.284km/h for the 200m flying start speed record and 91.562 km for the hour record. Traditionally the recumbent bicycles that have been developed for breaking one of either of these records have

  7. The Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale: Using the Health Belief Model to Predict Helmet Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…

  8. Getting Bicycles on Trains - Inter-modal Transport Developments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Bjørn Brix

    2001-01-01

    The combined use of bicycles and trains has been favored in contemporary public transport policies in Denmark. Although bicycling has played a major role in Danish personal transportation in more than hundred years, the attitude from public transport authorities towards supporting bicyclists has...

  9. The Dutch Reference Study: Cases of interventions in bicycle infrastructure reviewed in the framework of Bikeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Godefrooij, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands have a tradition of high bicycle usage and a long history of research on effective policies for promoting cycling. Findings in Dutch studies can be useful in the Danish Bikeability-project that has the objective to increase the level of knowledge in relation to bicycle based transpor

  10. Envisioning Competence: Learning, Problem Solving, and Children at Work in the Exploratory Bicycle Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles Florian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the conceptual learning and cognitive development processes of schoolchildren engaged in problem solving activities in a non-school, workplace setting known as the exploratory bicycle shop. The exploratory bike shop is a commercial bicycle shop: a) that has been adapted for combined retail and educational purposes and b) where…

  11. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing n

  12. Advocating Green Transport and Promoting Healthy Urban Development: Strategies for Bicycle Transport Development in Jinan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>As a green transport means,the bicycle has a history of over two hundred years.Since the 1970s,due to the inf luence of energy crisis and the consciousness of environment protection,the bicycle has regained its popularity in the public for its

  13. Histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, Michael J; Rozenman, Judith; Lindsley, Mark D; Lachish, Tamar; Berkman, Neville; Neuberger, Ami; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic human mycoses acquired mostly in the Americas. We reviewed 23 cases of histoplasmosis in Israeli travelers; 22 had traveled to Central or South America and one to North America. Fourteen cases had been exposed to bat habitats and were symptomatic, presenting ≤ 3 months after their return. Asymptomatic patients (N = 9) were diagnosed during the evaluation of incidental radiological findings or because a travel partner had been suspected of Histoplasma infection, 16-120 months after their return. Serological testing was positive in 75% of symptomatic cases but only 22% of asymptomatic cases. Histoplasmosis should be considered in travelers returning from the Americas with respiratory or febrile illness within weeks of return, particularly if exposed to bat habitats. Travel history is essential in patients presenting with pulmonary nodules, even years after travel to endemic countries.

  14. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  15. The Image of travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Danish painter Martinus Rørbye was among of the Danish artists to reinvent the traditions of the genre of travel painting in the 1830s. His changes and developments of a new complex pictorial strategy were in many ways an answer to the changes in society, especially the advent of tourism....... The new travel image had its focus on concurrency, everyday life and the secular world, resulting in images that anticipated the photographic travel image, the snapshot and the travel postcard. The advent of this new strategy proved to have a very long after-life, as tourists and travellers of today still...... and experienced and how he interpreted this knowledge, visually and in words. Rørbye is my primary research focus, but his artistic struggles are very similar to other artists travelling in Italy at the time. I therefore use Martinus Rørbye’s Italian sojourn as a prism of interpretation....

  16. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  17. Can You Ride a Bicycle? The Ability to Ride a Bicycle Prevents Reduced Social Function in Older Adults With Mobility Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sakura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health benefits of bicycling in older adults with mobility limitation (ML are unclear. We investigated ML and functional capacity of older cyclists by evaluating their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, intellectual activity, and social function. Methods: On the basis of interviews, 614 community-dwelling older adults (after excluding 63 participants who never cycled were classified as cyclists with ML, cyclists without ML, non-cyclists with ML (who ceased bicycling due to physical difficulties, or non-cyclists without ML (who ceased bicycling for other reasons. A cyclist was defined as a person who cycled at least a few times per month, and ML was defined as difficulty walking 1 km or climbing stairs without using a handrail. Functional capacity and physical ability were evaluated by standardized tests. Results: Regular cycling was documented in 399 participants, and 74 of them (18.5% had ML; among non-cyclists, 49 had ML, and 166 did not. Logistic regression analysis for evaluating the relationship between bicycling and functional capacity revealed that non-cyclists with ML were more likely to have reduced IADL and social function compared to cyclists with ML. However, logistic regression analysis also revealed that the risk of bicycle-related falls was significantly associated with ML among older cyclists. Conclusions: The ability and opportunity to bicycle may prevent reduced IADL and social function in older adults with ML, although older adults with ML have a higher risk of falls during bicycling. It is important to develop a safe environment for bicycling for older adults.

  18. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen......’s bicycle infrastructure and explores how the development corresponds to other processes of urban transformation. The study builds on historical maps of bicycle infrastructure that are digitised into geographical information, which allows for a comprehensive analysis of the formation of the network....... In search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  19. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ..., Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes, Fishing and Vessels AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... (Park) as routes for bicycle use. National Park Service (NPS) regulations require issuance of a special regulation to designate bicycle routes that are located off park roads and outside developed areas. The...

  20. Update on travelers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carol J

    2005-10-01

    As an international traveler, contact your health care provider at least 4 to 6 weeks before departure to obtain needed vaccinations and prophylactic medications. Be aware of the occurrence of any disease outbreaks in the countries you are visiting. While traveling, don't forget that one of the most important practices in preventing illness from infections is handwashing. Wash your hands carefully and frequently with soap and water, and if soap and water are not available use an alcohol-based hand rub. Be a responsible traveler by becoming informed about health risks and what to do to avoid them before you travel.

  1. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  2. Traveling with children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... let them inspect it. Small jars of baby food travel well. They make little waste and you can dispose of them easily. Air ... not eat raw fruits or vegetables. Eat only food that is hot and has been cooked ... and hotels for guidance and assistance. For foreign travel, check ...

  3. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL informs you that our agency will be closed from 22 December 2006 at 16:30 until 8 January 2007 at 8:30. For all URGENT MATTERS you can contact our CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL branch at W.H.O. (Mr Pierre Plumettaz), phone: 022 791 55 95. We wish you already a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  4. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  5. Information for travellers' physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, D J; Blinco, K

    1990-07-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  6. Information for Travellers' Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, David J; Blinco, Kimberley

    1990-01-01

    Physicians can obtain advice about international travel for their patients from many different sources of information. The authors review some of the most common sources based on their experience at the International Travellers' Clinic operated by the New Brunswick Department of Health and Community Services in Fredericton. They identify readily available handbooks and periodicals and compare two computer software programs.

  7. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this article? Pack ... Or how about sleepover camp? If you have asthma , you'll be packing more than your clothes ...

  8. 刍议公共自行车对城市居民健康的有限影响%Discussion on the Limited Influence of Public Bicycles on the Health Condi-tion of Urban Inhabitants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    To handle the problems of road congestion and air pollution ,public bicycles emerged in many cities in the 21st century .In many cities ,the official documents had affirmed the health function of the public bicycles .However ,there was no favorable traveling environment for the public bicycles and the administration department had not built the policy supporting system for this environmental trip mode .So ,the“health”concept of the public bicycles cannot be promoted and developed .Now the influence of public bicycles on the health condition of urban inhabitants was limited .Furthermore ,there were more dislocations between its text orientation and actual effect .Within the vicious circle of road congestion and air pollution ,the influence of public bicy-cles on the health condition of urban inhabitants will be limited and the sustainable development of public bicycles project will be affected .%  公共自行车成为21世纪许多城市应对道路拥堵、大气污染的产物。在其诸多功能中,关于公共自行车的健康功能,这些城市出台的文件中都有明确的定位。然而事实上,由于公共自行车出行环境较差,主管部门对公共自行车没有制度和政策的倾斜以及对公共自行车承载的“健康”理念的认同得不到提升,目前公共自行车对居民产生的健康影响十分有限,出现了文本定位与实际效应的错位。在道路拥堵、空气污染恶性循环之下,不仅城市公共自行车对居民的健康影响持续受限,公共自行车项目持续发展也终将受到很大影响。

  9. Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, F; Carosi, G

    1995-01-01

    Annually, over 75 million international passengers travel to tropical areas, more than 20 million of whom come from industrialized countries. They experience a high rate of traveler's diarrhea (TD), varying from 20 to 56%, which may result in serious limitations to their activities. The cause of TD is considered to be infectious in the overwhelming majority of cases and, apart from differences in relative importance, the list of responsible microbial agents is fairly constant regardless of geographic origin. The ingestion of contaminated food or water is considered to be the principal mode of transmission of the enteric pathogens of TD. Several factors have been proposed as playing a role in the etiogenesis of diarrhea in travelers, including personal (age, socioeconomic status, body weight, preexisting gastrointestinal illnesses), behavioral (mode of travel, standard of accommodation, eating in public places, dietary errors) and travel-related (destination, duration of stay, country of origin, season) factors, which are reviewed in detail.

  10. Predicting Free Flow Speed and Crash Risk of Bicycle Traffic Flow Using Artificial Neural Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free flow speed is a fundamental measure of traffic performance and has been found to affect the severity of crash risk. However, the previous studies lack analysis and modelling of impact factors on bicycles’ free flow speed. The main focus of this study is to develop multilayer back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN models for the prediction of free flow speed and crash risk on the separated bicycle path. Four different models with considering different combinations of input variables (e.g., path width, traffic condition, bicycle type, and cyclists’ characteristics were developed. 459 field data samples were collected from eleven bicycle paths in Hangzhou, China, and 70% of total samples were used for training, 15% for validation, and 15% for testing. The results show that considering the input variables of bicycle types and characteristics of cyclists will effectively improve the accuracy of the prediction models. Meanwhile, the parameters of bicycle types have more significant effect on predicting free flow speed of bicycle compared to those of cyclists’ characteristics. The findings could contribute for evaluation, planning, and management of bicycle safety.

  11. An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Qu, Xiaobo [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222 Australia (Australia); Xu, Cheng [Department of Transportation Management Engineering, Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou, 310053 China (China); College of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China (China); Ma, Dongfang, E-mail: mdf2004@zju.edu.cn [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China); Wang, Dianhai [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 China (China)

    2015-10-16

    This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model. - Highlights: • We proposed an improved multi-value CA model with higher maximum speed. • Update rules are introduced for heterogeneous bicycle traffic with maximum speed 2 and 3 cells/s. • Simulation results of the proposed model are consistent with field bicycle data. • Slowdown probabilities of both regular and electric bicycles are calibrated.

  12. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials.

  13. Enhanced recycling network for spent e-bicycle batteries: A case study in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Baodan; Zhang, Wangyuan; Ma, Jing; Lv, Jie; Yang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries. The findings show that the existing distempered recycling system is the main limitation of spent battery recovery, and the actual recovery rate of spent batteries is lower than the estimated output (QW) for the years 2011-2014. Electric bicycle sellers play a fundamental role in the collection of spent batteries in Xuzhou, accounting for 42.3±8.3% of all batteries recovered. The widespread use of lithium batteries in recent years has resulted in a reduction in spent battery recycling because of lower battery prices. Furthermore, consumer preferences are another important factor affecting the actual recovery rate according to survey results evaluated using canonical correspondence analysis. In this paper, we suggest that a reverse logistics network system for spent battery recycling should be established in the future; in addition, enhancing producer responsibility, increasing publicity, raising of public awareness, developing green public transport, and reducing dependence on e-bicycles also should be pursued. This study seeks to provide guidance for planning construction and management policies for an effective spent battery recycling system in China and other developing countries.

  14. [Thromboembolism in travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, I; Sándor, T

    2001-11-11

    The association between long haul travel and the risk of venous thromboembolism are suspected for long time. Mostly air travel related thrombosis series have been reported in the literature. Risk factors can be classified as: 1. travel related factors (coach position, immobilization, prolonged air travel, narrow seat and room, diuretic effect of alcohol, insufficient fluid intake, dehydration, direct pressure on leg veins, rare inspiration). 2. air plane related risk factors (low humidity, relative hypoxia, stress). 3. patient related factors (hereditary and acquired thrombophylia, previous deep venous thrombosis, age over 40, recent surgery or trauma, gravidity, puerperium, oestrogen containing pills, varicosity, chronic heart disease, obesity, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting, smoking). No patient related factors were found in some cases. To reduce the hazards air travellers are rightly concerned to know the level of the risk and the airlines should be responsible for this information. People should discuss with their physician what prophlylactic measures should be taken, such as compression stockings or low molecular weight heparin. Not only flight but car, bus and train travellers are also at risk of developing venous thromboembolism. Long haul travel alone is a separate risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

  15. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  16. Is there a need for a travel vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Ursula

    2008-11-01

    Tick - borne encephalitis is a vector-borne disease primarily transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks. Clinical presentations range from mild meningitis to severe encephalitis with or without myelitis and may result in long-term neurological equelae or death. The disease can successfully be prevented through active immunization. BE is endemic in regions of at least 26 European countries. The risk of contracting TBE in the most affected countries has increased in the past 20 to 30 years, between 1974 and 2003, the number of reported clinical TBE cases increased by an appalling 400%, the only exception having been Austria. Because of increasing international travel streams of tourists from non-endemic countries to TBE risk areas, the infection is now becoming a more important issue of travel medicine.The risk depends on both the travelling season and the degree of unprotected outdoor exposure to forest areas (e.g. bicycling, camping, hiking, etc.). Tourists are by no means aware of the actual risk potential, especially when travelling to a knowingly 'safe' Europe. Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis may be required for some tourists, depending on travel destination and behaviour. Implementing general guidelines for the use of TBE travel vaccination should be put on the agenda for travel medicine.

  17. Synthesis of bicyclic alkaloids from the iridoid antirrhinoside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Maria

    The present thesis describes the isolation of the iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside from Antirrhinum majus, and the approaches made towards its transformation into analogues of biologically active compounds, with special interest in syntheses of bicyclic alkaloids.A synthetic piperidine monoterpene...... alkaloid was prepared from antirrhinoside by means of an enzymatic cleavage to afford the aglucone, followed by a double reductive amination with benzylamine hydrochloride and sodium cyanoborohydride. The resulting piperidine was modified by opening of the epoxide on the cyclopropane ring by azide...... strategy was therefore abandoned.A one-pot reaction involving ozonolysis and subsequent reduction of the 5,6-O-isopropylidene-2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl antirrhinoside yielded a diol, which was considered a potential intermediate in the preparation of enantiopure 3-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octane alkaloids...

  18. Bicycle messengers: energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernmark, Eva; Wiktorin, Christina; Svartengren, Magnus; Lewné, Marie; Aberg, Samuel

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of energy expenditure and exposure to air pollution for bicycle messengers. Relationships between heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake, and between HR and pulmonary ventilation (VE) for each participant were established in laboratory tests. Air pollution and HR were measured during one working day. The total oxygen uptake was then described as the total energy expenditure in Joule (J) and in multiples of the energy expenditure at rest (MET). The mean energy expenditure during a working day (8 h) was 12 MJ, (4.8 MET). The level of air pollution exposure when cycling seemed to be comparable with the levels of exposure when sitting inside a vehicle. The VE during cycling was four times higher than resting value. Increased VE led to increased exposure to air pollution.

  19. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  20. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-09

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues.

  1. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  2. [Prognostic significance of bicycle ergometry test in patients with myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalova, R F; Borodina, V I

    1992-04-01

    A total of 42 patients with rheumatic carditis were examined in the acute-subacute period and following 3-5 years. Seventeen patients were diagnosed as having primary rheumatic carditis, 9 presented with tonsillogenic rheumatic carditis, and 16 had viral rheumatic carditis. The diagnosis of myocarditis was established on the basis of clinical, immunological, and virological findings. The study involved ECG, PhCG, PCG, and bicycle ergometer testing recordings. Groups of patients with good and poor prognosis were identified. Low threshold exercise, exercise-inadequate tachycardia, complex cardiac arrhythmias, phasic myocardial hypodynamic syndrome and volume exercise syndrome that are formed during performance are prognostically poor indicators. More profound electric and mechanic dysfunctions were observed in patients with tonsillogenic or viral myocarditis.

  3. Optimal protruding node length of bicycle seats determined using cycling postures and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; Liu, Yi-Nan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined body posture, subjective discomfort, and stability, requiring the participants to ride a stationary bicycle for 20 min (cadence: 60 rpm; workrate: 120 W), using various combinations of two handle heights and five seat-protruding node lengths (PNLs). The results indicated that bicycle handle height significantly influenced body posture, and that seat PNL caused differences in the riders' subjective discomfort and stability scores. The various PNLs affected only the trunk angle (approximately 6°), but had significantly positive (r = 0.994, p optimal reference for bicycle seat designs.

  4. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  5. [Traveling with immunosuppression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    The rapidly increasing number of patients with immunosuppression is followed by their expectation to lead-as much as possible-a "normal" life, including long-distance travel. The advice and preventive measures for diseases associated with travelling depend overall on the mode of the patient's immunosuppression. This report explains the individual preventive possibilities, limits and risks for travellers with asplenia, common variable immunodeficiency, chronic inflammatory bowel and rheumatic diseases, HIV, as well as for patients having undergone solid organ or bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

  6. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2005-01-01

    Dear customers, On 3 January we informed you that the airlines had decided to cease paying commission to travel agencies in Switzerland. This measure has since been progressively introduced, with rare exceptions. Consequently, in agreement with CERN, we are obliged to apply new transaction fees for private travel, with immediate effect. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) offers: A personalized, professional and competent consultancy service To seek the most economical and best solution adapted to your needs Neutrality in comparing prices and benefits Additional information concerning e.g. visa regulations, insurance, vaccinations, etc. Support in the event of problems We draw your attention to the fact that, in spite of the increase, these prices remain very competitive on today's market. Thank you for your trust and understanding. Yours truly, Carlson Wagonlit Travel CERN agency

  7. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stirrup. These are the smallest bones in your body. Together they are smaller than an orange seed. It then travels into the inner ear, which ... organizations Related Topics ...

  8. Travelers' Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... noise, they are small (approximately one-third the size of mosquitoes), and their bites might not be ...

  9. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Disinfection Infographics for Travelers MERS Health Advisory poster Food and Water: What's Safer Health Advisory: MERS ... weight may be small in relation to the size and number of wounds. RIG is difficult to ...

  10. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size.

  11. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  12. Travel Inside the Ear

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, ... heard a soft sound or a loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is ...

  13. Why They Travel Alone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    "WHY Chinese Women Travel Alone" was the theme of a special edition of "Truth Talk" a popular talk show on China Central Television (CCTV), which focused on a few middle-aged women from different cultural backgrounds, social classes, and various educational backgrounds who had all branched out on their own for one reason or another. Each woman spoke of her experiences and feelings while travelling alone. They were all

  14. Travel patterns in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tini Garske

    Full Text Available The spread of infectious disease epidemics is mediated by human travel. Yet human mobility patterns vary substantially between countries and regions. Quantifying the frequency of travel and length of journeys in well-defined population is therefore critical for predicting the likely speed and pattern of spread of emerging infectious diseases, such as a new influenza pandemic. Here we present the results of a large population survey undertaken in 2007 in two areas of China: Shenzhen city in Guangdong province, and Huangshan city in Anhui province. In each area, 10,000 randomly selected individuals were interviewed, and data on regular and occasional journeys collected. Travel behaviour was examined as a function of age, sex, economic status and home location. Women and children were generally found to travel shorter distances than men. Travel patterns in the economically developed Shenzhen region are shown to resemble those in developed and economically advanced middle income countries with a significant fraction of the population commuting over distances in excess of 50 km. Conversely, in the less developed rural region of Anhui, travel was much more local, with very few journeys over 30 km. Travel patterns in both populations were well-fitted by a gravity model with a lognormal kernel function. The results provide the first quantitative information on human travel patterns in modern China, and suggest that a pandemic emerging in a less developed area of rural China might spread geographically sufficiently slowly for containment to be feasible, while spatial spread in the more economically developed areas might be expected to be much more rapid, making containment more difficult.

  15. Freedom of Movement (Common Travel Area) (Travel Documentation) Bill 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Flanagan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to reinforce the Common Travel Area by providing for passport-free travel for persons who are entitled to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport...

  16. The relation between mechanical impact parameters and most frequent bicycle related head injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monea, A.G.; Perre, G. van der; Baeck, K.; Delye, H.H.; Verschueren, P.; Forausebergher, E.; Lierde, C. van; Verpoest, I.; Sloten, J. van der; Goffin, J.; Depreitere, B.

    2014-01-01

    The most frequent head injuries resulting from bicycle accidents include skull fracture acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), cerebral contusions, and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This review includes epidemiological studies, cadaver experiments, in vivo imaging, image processing techniques, and computer

  17. Health in All Policies? The case of policies to promote bicycle use in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Broeder, Lea; Scheepers, Eline; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Schuit, Jantine

    2015-05-01

    To gather insight on how Health in All Policies (HiAP) is applied in practice, we carried out a case study on transport policies intended to stimulate a shift from car use to bicycling. We reviewed 3 years (2010, 2011, and 2012) of national budgets and policy documents in the Netherlands, followed by two focus group sessions and a second round of document analysis. We found to our surprise, given the country's history of bicycle promotion, that no HiAP approaches for bicycle promotion remain in place in national transport policies. The Netherlands may face serious challenges in the near future for facilitating bicycle use. Inclusion of health goals requires that the health sector work towards acquiring a better understanding of core values in other sector's policies.

  18. An Analyses of Bicycle Accidents in Ankara: Analyses of 5 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bicycles are used for transportation, exercise and recreation. In this study we aimed to investigate the epidemiological, clinical and economic aspects of bicycle injuries. Material and Method: We included in the study who admitted to the Emergency Department with a bicycle accident between January 2008 and July 2012. Patient age and sex, accident pattern, presence of personal protective measures, injured body part, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score, Revised Trauma Score (RTS, radiological findings, requested consultations, duration of hospital stay, season of injury, and average cost rates were recorded. The study population was divided into 2 age groups as 0-14 years and over 14 years. Results: A patients were 238 (81.2% male and their mean age was 31.5±14.1 years. Fifty-five (18.8% patients were female and their mean age was 34.5±15.9 years. Males had significantly higher rate of bicycle injury (p

  19. EU to Continue 48.5% Anti-dumping Duties on Chinese Bicycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 10, European Commission informed the Business Office of the Mission of Ministry of Commerce in EU and disclosed the adjudication on the review of the EU imposing anti-dumping on Chinese bicycles.

  20. Formation of isoprostane bicyclic endoperoxides from the autoxidation of cholesteryl arachidonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Havrilla, Christine M; Morrow, Jason D; Porter, Ned A

    2002-07-03

    Autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and esters leads to a complex mixture containing hydroperoxides and cyclic peroxides. Prostaglandin bicyclic endoperoxides have been detected from the autoxidation of cholesteryl arachidonate by LC-MS and GC-MS techniques. All four possible types (I-IV) of bicyclic endoperoxides have been found starting from different regioisomeric hydroperoxides of cholesteryl arachidonate. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of Type IV bicyclic endoperoxides has been determined by conversion to pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester, trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives, and comparison with synthetic standards by the use of GC-MS. All eight possible diastereomers of the derivatized isoprostanes were observed and were separated by gas chromatography. The bicyclic endoperoxides with the two alkyl chains syn on the cyclopentane ring were formed preferentially to those with anti configuration, a result anticipated from earlier work. Substantial amounts of the anti-substituted isoprostanes, including PGF(2)(alpha), were, however, observed in the product mixture.

  1. Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?%Isn't it time to take bicycles seriously again in Beijing ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Bufton; Florian Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The humble bicycle was once the predominant mode of transport in Beijing and it can be argued that the city has previously been one of the best bicycle cities in the world. Now the streets are littered with rusting old bikes and it seems as if Beijing has turned its back on the bicycle in its quest for modernity and evolution. The resultant re-configuration of the city and the rapid speed of development of modern transportation systems (particularly the lightening growth of personal automobiles) have created a complex set of issues and challenges which now put the city under pressure such as sustainability, air quality, health and traffic congestion problems.

  2. Association of Sociodemographic and Perceived Environmental Factors with Public Bicycle Use among Taiwanese Urban Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Liao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.

  3. Risk assessment in travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessment is an integral part of pre-travel and post- assessment. Risk assessment largely determines what health and safety advice and interventions are given within the relevant prevailing travel health guidelines. Risk assessment needs time and depends on information, including that given by the traveller. Risk assessment also needs to be documented. Risk assessment of the traveller preferably starts before they enter the consulting room, where travellers may complete a pre-travel health questionnaire. Armed with this information, risk assessment may be assisted by access to computerised travel health databases and the published literature. Experience of travel to the destination may also assist in risk assessment and the tour operator, overseas employer or agency, the traveller or even the travel health advisers themselves may provide this information.

  4. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time.

  5. [Counsel for traveling children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, F; Gendrel, D

    2013-01-01

    Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure.

  6. The effects of surface-induced loads on forearm muscle activity during steering a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar; Birlik, Gülin; Sezgin, Onder C; Soylu, Abdullah R

    2013-01-01

    On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road) and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB) and Mountain Bike (MTB) are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s(-2) when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s(-2). The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction). During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC) values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider can be

  7. [Pregnancy and traveling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentiny, C

    2009-03-01

    The second trimester is the safest time for travelling, because the pregnant woman feels generally most at ease and the risk of spontaneous abortion and pre-term labour is very low. Possible risks must be discussed with the obstetrician before travelling. If the pregnancy is uncomplicated most airlines allow flying up to the 36th (domestic flights) and 35th (international flights) week of gestation. Unless the fetal oxygen supply is already impaired at ground level due to an underlying disease, flying does not pose a risk of fetal hypoxia. Radiation exposure during a long distant flight is low compared to the average annual exposure dosage, but the risk of thrombosis is increased. Altitudes up to 2,500 m pose no problem. Sufficient time to acclimatize must be taken when travelling to high altitudes and exercise kept to a minimum. Scuba diving is contraindicated. Since only a few drugs are completely safe during pregnancy a thorough risk/benefit evaluation is mandatory. Treatment of infections can be considerably complicated, but any necessary treatment should not be withheld because of the fear of potential fetal injury. Good knowledge of local medical resources is essential before travelling. Several personal protective measures minimize the risk of infection: food and water precautions, protection from insect bites and avoidance of crowds, unsafe sex and, if need be, freshwater. Many vaccinations are recommended for travellers. However, live vaccines are contraindicated in pregnant women because of theoretical considerations. Exceptionally a yellow fever vaccination may be given after the first trimester. Killed, inactivated or polysaccharide vaccines can be given after the first trimester after a thorough risk/benefit evaluation. Because of the potentially devastating effect of malaria to the mother and the child, travelling to endemic malaria regions should be avoided. If the risk of infection is high chemoprophylaxis with mefloquine is indicated. In low

  8. Big Bicycle Data Processing: from Personal Data to Urban Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. J.; Lieske, S. N.; Leao, S. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the flows of people moving through the built environment is a vital source of information for the planners and policy makers who shape our cities. Smart phone applications enable people to trace themselves through the city and these data can potentially be then aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. In this paper our aim is to develop procedures for cleaning, aggregating and visualising human movement data and translating this into policy relevant information. In conducting this research we explore using bicycle data collected from a smart phone application known as RiderLog. We focus on the RiderLog application initially in the context of Sydney, Australia and discuss the procedures and challenges in processing and cleaning this data before any analysis can be made. We then present some preliminary map results using the CartoDB online mapping platform where data are aggregated and visualised to show hot spots and trajectories of macro urban movement. We conclude the paper by highlighting some of the key challenges in working with such data and outline some next steps in processing the data and conducting higher volume and more extensive analysis.

  9. How does the edge height of curb ramps obstruct bicycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to recommend revisions, based on empirical data, to the current curb ramp standards for keeping bicyclists safe. Four types of curb ramps were tested: (1) concrete with a 50 mm edge height, (2) concrete reinforced by a metal plate with a 50 mm edge height, (3) plastic with a 20 mm edge height, and (4) recycled rubber with a 10 mm edge height. Twenty subjects aged 20-60 years ascended the curbs on a bicycle under various conditions. The angles of approach were 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 75 degrees and 90 degrees. Experiments were executed under both wet and dry conditions. We found that when approaching from an angle of 45 degrees or more, all subjects could ascend all ramps under both conditions. From a 15 degrees approach under wet conditions, no subjects ascended the concrete ramps. Some could not ascend at a 15 degrees approach on the concrete ramps in dry conditions, and some could not ascend from a 30 degrees approach on the reinforced concrete ramp in wet conditions. Bicyclists riding on roadways cannot easily ascend a curb ramp with a 50 mm edge, even in dry conditions. We thus recommend that curb ramp edge heights be lower than 50 mm. Keywords: friction coefficient; approach angle

  10. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. R. Romanow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV or with severe injuries (hospitalized. Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27], intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14], retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98], and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]. Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96] and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82] were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety.

  11. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  12. On the closure of the extended bicyclic semigroup

    CERN Document Server

    Fihel, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we study the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ which is a generalization of the bicyclic semigroup. We describe main algebraic properties of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ and prove that every non-trivial congruence $\\mathfrak{C}$ on the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ is a group congruence, and moreover the quotient semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}/\\mathfrak{C}$ is isomorphic to a cyclic group. Also we show that the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ as a Hausdorff semitopological semigroup admits only the discrete topology. Next we study the closure $\\operatorname{cl}_T(\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}})$ of the semigroup $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological semigroup $T$. We show that the non-empty remainder of $\\mathscr{C}_{\\mathbb{Z}}$ in a topological inverse semigroup $T$ consists of a group of units $H(1_T)$ of $T$ and a two-sided ideal $I$ of $T$ in the case when $H(1_T)\

  13. Optimization of electric bicycle for youths with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Tobias; Zeitlmann, Hilar; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. People with cerebral palsy have also perception and space orientation deficits so that special assistance devices should be developed to compensate these handicaps. The objective was to optimize an adapted electric bicycle (E-bike) for youths with neurodevelopmental disorders. An adapted E-bike was provided with ultrasonic sensors that measure distances to objects. If the distance to other objects reduces, an acoustic signal is sent. Additionally, a self-created force plate was fixed on the pedal to evaluate the muscle performances during biking. An experiment with the ultrasound warning system confirmed that acoustic feedback was helpful in avoiding obstacles. The measurement of the blood pressure, the heart frequency and the pedaling force during biking approved that the training condition of the test person can be registered and enables tuning the power of the electric motor to individual requirements. The results demonstrate that an adapted E-bike can be improved to provide better space orientation for people with perceptual disorders and to measure training conditions of patients. Moreover, these enable individual adjustment of the electric motor power to optimize comfort and therapy effect.

  14. The traveling transect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa; Lee, Gini

    2013-01-01

    The practice of landscape architecture is most often a cultivation of open space alongside an open-ended dialogue with the presence and complexities of the cultural and natural features of places, usually resulting in projects generating site resolution rather than pure invention ex nihilo. However...... conditions, correspond to the fields of natural sciences and to spatial aesthetics. The Travelling Transect method, inspired by Alexander von Humboldt’s method of transareal travelling and transversal collecting of ephemeral information from site, informs our exploratory fieldwork in the water landscapes...

  15. Culture shock and travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

    1998-06-01

    As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate

  16. Malaria prevention in travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  17. Time a traveler's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1998-01-01

    ""Bucky Fuller thought big,"" Wired magazine recently noted, ""Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both."" In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time? In Time: A Traveler's Guide, Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? P

  18. Buses, cars, bicycles and walkers: the influence of the type of human transport on the flight responses of waterbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M McLeod

    Full Text Available One way to manage disturbance to waterbirds in natural areas where humans require access is to promote the occurrence of stimuli for which birds tolerate closer approaches, and so cause fewer responses. We conducted 730 experimental approaches to 39 species of waterbird, using five stimulus types (single walker, three walkers, bicycle, car and bus selected to mimic different human management options available for a controlled access, Ramsar-listed wetland. Across species, where differences existed (56% of 25 cases, motor vehicles always evoked shorter flight-initiation distances (FID than humans on foot. The influence of stimulus type on FID varied across four species for which enough data were available for complete cross-stimulus analysis. All four varied FID in relation to stimuli, differing in 4 to 7 of 10 possible comparisons. Where differences occurred, the effect size was generally modest, suggesting that managing stimulus type (e.g. by requiring people to use vehicles may have species-specific, modest benefits, at least for the waterbirds we studied. However, different stimulus types have different capacities to reduce the frequency of disturbance (i.e. by carrying more people and vary in their capacity to travel around important habitat.

  19. Travel health. Part 1: preparing the tropical traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bernadette; Daniel, Amanda; Behrens, Ron H

    The health threats of modern day travel change as population, wealth and tourism increase across the world. A series of three articles have been written to describe the spectrum of health issues associated with travel. Pre-travel health advice has become more focused on risk assessment and educating the traveller about infectious disease and the more frequent non-infectious hazards associated with travel, while ensuring they are not unnecessarily exposed to injury from vaccines and drugs. In part one, the role of the health advisor and the needs of the traveller are examined. The importance of risk assessment during a consultation is described and factors that influence recommendations and prescribing are explored. As most travel-associated morbidity and mortality is non-vaccine preventable, the focus of the pre-travel consultation should be on educating the traveller and influencing behaviour change. The second article in this series deals with the highest risk group of travellers--residents who visit friends and relatives. It highlights their specific problems and special needs and how to influence their risk of disease by addressing their health beliefs and their cultural dimension of risk. The third article explores the common, and not so common, clinical problems found in returned travellers. Nurses have to deal with a large range of clinical problems and diagnostic dilemmas when attending to the returned traveller. The review provides a perspective on the frequency and severity of problems and how nurses should manage travel associated disease.

  20. Beijing Time Travel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT T.TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dally travel within Beijing need not be anymore troublesome than going about any major metropolis.Simply,certain basic facts need to be kept in mind,and ordinary precautions taken.Essentially,it's the same situation as midtown Manhattan or downtown Tokyo,except everyone's speaking Chinese.

  1. Beijing Time Travel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT; T.TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    Daily travel within Beijing need not be anymore troublesome than going about any major metropolis.Simply,certain basic facts need to be kept in mind,and ordinary precautions taken.Essentially,it’s the same situation as midtown Manhattan or downtown Tokyo,except everyone’s speaking Chinese.

  2. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  3. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  4. Zero Energry Travel

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Othman; Chekima, Ali

    2011-01-01

    It is fundamentally possible to travel with zero energy based on Newton Laws of Motion. According to the first law of motion, a body will continue to travel for infinite distance unless it is acted upon by another force. For a body in motion, the force which stops perpetual motion is friction. However, there are many circumstances that friction is zero, for example in space, where there is vacuum. On earth, gravity makes objects to be in constant contact with each other generating friction but technology exists to separate them in the air using powerful magnetic forces. At low speeds, the friction caused by air is minimal but we can create vacuum even on land for high speed travel. Another condition for travelling is for it to stop at its destination. On land, we can recover the kinetic energy back into electrical energy using brushless permanent magnet generators. These generators can also convert electric energy into kinetic energy in order to provide motion. This article reviews technologies that will allo...

  5. Innovation and the Interrelatedness of Core Competencies: How Taiwan's Giant Bicycles broke into the US Bicycle Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Phineas Upham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that capabilities and barriers to entry are, in certain circumstances, interconnected in such a way that sacrificing one of them can lead to the subsequent vulnerability or erosion of another capability or barrier to entry. I illustrate this through a study of the US bicycle market in the 1980's in general, and Schwinn Corporation and Giant Manufacturing in particular, arguing that both the barriers to entry and the firm capabilities were interrelated. A specific set of decisions by Schwinn had broad and unanticipated effects that went beyond the capacity they explicitly relinquished. In this case manufacturing and distribution were tightly linked in such a way that without some form of tight link between them successful incremental innovation became difficult. Seemingly unrelated capabilities and strengths become mutually reinforcing or interconnected. Instead of being able to choose to add a single capability, or choose to discard one, companies may instead be choosing between sets, groups of interlinked, or patterned capabilities. A seemingly small change may require a major reorganization of other core capabilities that its ostensible status belies.

  6. Valuation of Travel Time and TravelIer Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2003-01-01

    The value of travel time plays an important role in cost benefit analysis of infrastructureprojects. However, the issue of uncertainty on travel times and the implications this has forestimations of travel time values has received much less attention in the literature. In thispaper we compare variou

  7. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    travelling information with GPS loggers, compared to self-reported RP data, is more accurate geographic locations and routes. Also, the GPS traces give more reliable information on times and prevent trip underreporting, and it is possible to collect information on many trips by the same person without......With a growing interest in sustainable transport systems, the interest has increased on encouraging more cycling. To encourage cycling, it is important to identify which network attributes influence cyclists route choice and evaluate the trade-offs among these attributes. To analyse travel...... reporting fatigue. GPS data require nevertheless extensive post-processing and in some cases mode imputation. They also require a very detailed digital network to map the routes accurately, which can lead to high computation times during choice set generation, as well as issues with behavioural realism...

  8. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation.

  9. Assessing the Bicycle Network in St. Louis: A PlaceBased User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Boettge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To transition towards sustainability and increase low-impact transportation, city planners are integrating bicycle infrastructure in urban landscapes. Yet, this infrastructure only promotes cycling according to how well it is sited within a specific city. How to best site bicycle facilities is essential for sustainability planning. We review approaches to assessing and siting new bicycle facilities. Following sustainability science, we argue that active cyclists should be consulted to incorporate users’ site-specific knowledge into bicycle infrastructure assessments. We then pilot an approach that surveys cyclists concerning level of stress along routes ridden in St. Louis, MO, USA. Among the active cyclists surveyed (n = 89, we found stress correlates with speed limit, roadway classification, and number of lanes. Although cyclists surveyed in St. Louis prefer roads with bike lanes over roads with sharrows or no infrastructure, the presence of bicycle infrastructure had no correlation with reported levels of stress. The piloted survey and spatial analytic tool are transferable to other localities. For planners, the maps generated by this participant data approach identify high-stress routes as targets of new infrastructure or information to direct cyclists to safer routes. For bicyclists, the maps generated identify low-stress routes for recreation and commuting.

  10. Johnson Space Center's Free Range Bicycle Program.- Fall 2015 Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Stockton, Willem

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center is a big place, encompassing 1,620 acres and more than a hundred buildings. Furthermore, there are reportedly 15 thousand employees, all of which have somewhere to be. To facilitate the movement of all these people JSC has historically relied on human power. Pedaling their way towards deep space, bicycles have been the go to method. Currently there are about 200 Free Range Bicycles at JSC. Free Range Bicycles belong to nobody, except NASA, and are available for anybody to use. They are not to be locked or hidden (although frequently are) and the intention is that there will always be a bike to hop on to get where you're going (although it may not be the bike you rode in on). Although not without its own shortcomings, the Free Range Bicycle Program has continued to provide low cost, simple transportation for NASA's JSC. In addition to the approximately 200 Free Range Bicycles, various larger divisions (like engineering) will often buy a few dozen bikes for their team members to use or individuals will bring their own personal bike to either commute or use on site. When these bicycles fall into disrepair or are abandoned (from retirees etc) they become a problem at JSC. They are an eye sore, create a safety hazard and make it harder to find a working bike in a time of need. The Free Range Program hopes to address this first problem by "tagging out" abandoned or out of service bicycles. A bright orange "DO NOT OPERATE" tag is placed on the bike and given a serial number for tracking purposes. See picture to the right. If the bike has an active owner with intentions to repair the bike the bottom of the tag has instructions for how to claim the abandoned bicycle. After being tagged the owner of the bicycle has 30 days to claim the bicycle and either haul it off site or get it repaired (and labeled) in accordance with Johnson's Bicycle Policy. If the abandoned bicycle is not claimed within 30 days it becomes the property of the Government. The

  11. The impact response of traditional and BMX-style bicycle helmets at different impact severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Alyssa L; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-07-01

    Bicycle helmets reduce the frequency and severity of severe to fatal head and brain injuries in bicycle crashes. Our goal here was to measure the impact attenuation performance of common bicycle helmets over a range of impact speeds. We performed 127 drop tests using 13 different bicycle helmet models (6 traditional style helmets and 7 BMX-style helmets) at impact speeds ranging from 1 to 10m/s onto a flat anvil. Helmets were struck on their left front and/or right front areas, a common impact location that was at or just below the test line of most bicycle helmet standards. All but one of the 10 certified helmet models remained below the 300g level at an impact speed of 6m/s, whereas none of the 3 uncertified helmets met this criterion. We found that the helmets with expanded polystyrene liners performed similarly and universally well. The single certified helmet with a polyurethane liner performed below the level expected by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standard at our impact location and the helmet structure failed during one of two supplemental tests of this helmet above the test line. Overall, we found that increased liner thickness generally reduced peak headform acceleration, particularly at higher impact speeds.

  12. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  13. Epidemic spreading by objective traveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Liu, Zonghua; Li, Baowen

    2009-07-01

    A fundamental feature of agent traveling in social networks is that traveling is usually not a random walk but with a specific destination and goes through the shortest path from starting to destination. A serious consequence of the objective traveling is that it may result in a fast epidemic spreading, such as SARS etc. In this letter we present a reaction-traveling model to study how the objective traveling influences the epidemic spreading. We consider a random scale-free meta-population network with sub-population at each node. Through a SIS model we theoretically prove that near the threshold of epidemic outbreak, the objective traveling can significantly enhance the final infected population and the infected fraction at a node is proportional to its betweenness for the traveling agents and approximately proportional to its degree for the non-traveling agents. Numerical simulations have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  14. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Campaign Travel AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: On... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial aircraft.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 7, 2009, the Commission published final rules governing campaign...

  15. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater......While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...

  16. Travel and Adventure Medicine Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S

    2016-03-01

    Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by different modes in a low density, less congested city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingham, Simon; Longley, Ian; Salmond, Jenny; Pattinson, Woodrow; Shrestha, Kreepa

    2013-10-01

    This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM1, UFPs and CO were monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short periods of time. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be poor indicators of exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic congestion compared most other cities previously studied.

  18. How Do Sociodemographics and Activity Participations Affect Activity-Travel? Comparative Study between Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-travel behaviors of women and men are different because they have different social and household responsibilities. However, studies concerning gender differences are mainly limited in developed countries. This paper concentrates on gender role-based differences in activity-travel behavior in a typical developing country, namely, China. Using data from 3656 cases collected through surveys conducted in Shangyu, data processing, method choice, and descriptive analysis were conducted. Binary and ordered logistic regression models segmented by gender were developed to evaluate the mechanism through which individual sociodemographics, household characteristics, and activity participations affect the number of trip chain types and activities for women and men. The results show that women aged 30 to 50 perform less subsistence activities. However, the difference between the different age groups of men is not as significant. In addition, men with bicycles and electric bicycles have more subsistence and maintenance activities, whereas women do not have these attributes. Moreover, women with children under schooling age make more maintenance trip chains but less leisure trip chains and activities, whereas men are free from this influence. Furthermore, both women and men perform more subsistence activities if the duration increases, and men have less influences than women do.

  19. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    a household. Due to a high share of corner solutions among the expenditures on plane tickets and package travelling, the expenditures on these specific commodities are examined with a Tobit approach. The model results find both plane tickets and travel packages to be luxury goods. It also states that travel...

  20. CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    CERN Multimedia

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2004-01-01

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL would like to remind you of the entry formalities applicable to those travelling to the United States. Nationals of Switzerland and of the following countries : Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, entering the United States under the Visa Waiver Program (no visa requirement), must be in possession of an machine-readable passport that is valid for at least six months after the date of the return trip. Children, including infants, must have their own passport. An entry in the parents' passport is not sufficient. For entry into the United States, an e-ticket (fax or e-mail confirmation or passenger receipt) or a return ticket to the departure point or a ticket to a subsequent onward destination (valid for 90 days) must be presented together with the green ...

  1. Get Wheelin' in Westlawn: Mounting a Bicycling Program in a Low-Income Minority Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dressel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, the Westlawn neighborhood is home to the State of Wisconsin’s largest public housing development. Westlawn is a low-income, African-American urban community that suffers from a wide range of health and environmental disparities. A community-based participatory action (CBPA team was formed to address environmental health issues in Westlawn, and found asthma rates there are among the highest in the State. Decreasing air pollution, and corresponding asthma triggers, became a priority for the community. The CBPA team developed a bicycling program to reduce trips made by car and improve air quality in the Westlawn neighborhood. Input from focus group meetings shaped the development, implementation and expansion of the bicycling program. While the program was originally conceived to address environmental health issues, it provided key findings about how to encourage bicycling in low-income minority urban communities.

  2. Conversion Of An Ordinary N Bicycle Into An Electric Bike And Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Janavičius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An electric bicycle as a transport and leisure vehicle is expected to have a promising future. Currently, he market offers a great choice of factory electric bicycles and conversion kits to remake an ordinary bicycle into an electric bike. Also, the increasing number of electric vehicles is determined by the reduction in costs for manufacturing of batteries and an evolution in battery technology. This article presents the implementation of an electric bike by selecting the “Golden Motor Technology” company’s electric front wheel conversion kit MagicPie3 and 16 cell 10Ah LiFePO4 battery. After installation of the engine and other components, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the electric bike and check the manufacturer’s specifications.

  3. Synthetic strategy for bicyclic tetrapeptides HDAC inhibitors using ring closing metathesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Nurul Islam; Md Shahidul Islam; Md Ashraful Hoque; Tamaki Kato; Norikazu Nishino

    2015-09-01

    Cyclic peptides show diverse biological activities and are considered as good therapeutic agents due to structural rigidity, receptor selectivity and biochemical stability. We have developed bicyclic tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitors based on different cyclic tetrapeptide scaffolds. For the synthesis of these bicyclic tetrapeptides, two cyclization steps, namely, peptide cyclization and fusion of aliphatic side chains by ring closing metathesis (RCM) were involved. In the course of these syntheses, we have established two facts: a lower limit of aliphatic loop length and better synthetic route for bicyclic tetrapeptide synthesis. It was found that nine methylene loop length is the lower limit for aliphatic loop and the synthetic route selection depended on the configuration of amino acids in the cyclic tetrapeptide scaffold. RCM followed by peptide cyclization was the proper route for LDLD configuration and the reverse route was suitable for LLLD configuration.

  4. Study of the health effects of bicycling in an urban atmosphere. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, M.; Weiss, S.; Articola, W.

    1977-10-14

    This report analyzes data on the health effects of bicycling in an urban environment through intensive study of ten healthy male subjects bicycling or driving in systematically varied conditions in the streets of Washington, D.C. Evaluation criteria for available technology and instrumentation are included and a methodology is developed for route selection. Specific air pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfates, nitrates, and particulates) are measured concurrently with exposure and subsequent changes in health status identified through pulmonary function testing, cardiovascular testing, and blood and symptoms analysis. The report concludes that no major adverse short-term health effects were noted for ten healthy male subjects while bicycling or driving in levels of pollution and thermal stress encountered during the study period. Recommendations for further research are also presented.

  5. Aging and space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  6. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  7. Diversity does not travel!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Meriläinen, Susan; Tienari, Janne

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we offer insights into the social construction of diversity in Finnish organizations and society. In Finnish organizations, gender is highlighted while other markers of diversity are blotted out. 'Non-Finns' become subject to cultural assimilation. The US-based concept of Diversit...... Management becomes adopted and adapted in particular ways. Standardized concepts of diversity and its management do not travel, rather they become translated locally. In organizational practice, globalization is slow and laborious....

  8. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  9. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-03-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is 'risky' or 'only for sporty people'. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling 'role models' visible.

  10. The effects of operating a touch screen smartphone and other common activities performed while bicycling on cycling behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben; Jelijs, Bart; Tucha, Oliver; Brookhuis, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been shown that making phone calls or sending text messages while riding a bicycle can have a negative impact on bicyclist’s behaviour, in countries such as the Netherlands the operation of a mobile phone while cycling on a bicycle is not illegal and is actually quite common. In rece

  11. Time - A Traveler's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    "Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.

  12. [Traveling with small children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C

    1997-01-01

    Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children.

  13. When CERN travels abroad

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the new CERN travelling exhibition has gone abroad. The venue is Torino, in Italy, where it is being shown at the Museum of Natural Science in the framework of the activities of the EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF 2010). Soon after the event, the exhibition will fly to Copenhagen. The CERN traveling exhibition was inaugurated in 2009. The new ‘Accelerating Science’ exhibition was inaugurated in 2009 as part of the celebrations to mark the 450th anniversary of the University of Geneva. “CERN’s travelling exhibition is an important tool for outreach in our Member states as it carries the main messages that constitute the backbone of the Laboratory’s education and communication policy”, explains Rolf Landua, head of the Education Group, which manages the exhibition. “The 2010 European Science Open Forum in Torino will gather a lot of experts and visitors from the general public who will be able to experience in an ...

  14. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel wishes to remind you of the following conditions concerning travel to the USA. Passport conditions Since 26 October 2004, nationals of the countries covered by the US Visa Waiver Programme have been required to present a valid machine-readable passport when entering the United States. Failing this, they require a valid US non-immigrant visa in addition to their passport. Passports issued after 25 October 2005 must also bear a digital photograph. Passports issued after 25 October 2006 must contain biometric data to allow visa-free entry to the US. Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS) form Since 4 October 2005, all non-US citizens travelling to the USA have been required to complete the APIS form before departure and present it when they check in. This new procedure will certainly increase the time it takes to check in. We therefore advise passengers to present themselves at the respective check-in desk in good time. The APIS form can be downloaded from our homepage: w...

  15. Evaluation of a pilot program in rural schools to increase bicycle and motor vehicle safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger-Franks, G; Machala, M; Goodale, K; Gerberding, S

    2000-04-01

    Concerned with high bicycle-and motor vehicle-related mortality rates among children, Idaho's South Central District Health Department provided a competition to increase use of 1) seat belts, 2) motor vehicle rear seating, and 3) bicycle helmets among children attending elementary schools in the eight rural counties it serves. Nine of the 44 elementary schools in the health district chose to participate in the contest. Eight schools addressed increasing helmet use, four schools also addressed increasing seat belt use and rear seating, and one school addressed safety in general. A $1,000 prize was awarded to each of four schools judged to have the highest levels of student and community involvement, outreach, creativity, and changes in safety behavior (based on perceptions of outside judges). In 1997, baseline observations were collected for 1) seat belt use and rear seating for children in 28 schools, and for 2) bicycle helmet use among children in 25 schools. In 1998, follow up data were collected for 1) seat belt and rear seating in 42 schools, and 2) bicycle helmet use in 35 schools. Data were analyzed using SAS. Adjusting for differences in baseline rates, regression analysis was used to compare 1997 and 1998 rates for seat belt use, rear seating, and bicycle helmet use for those schools having baseline data. Results showed that although there was no significant difference between participating and non-participating schools in rear-seating behaviors, there was an increase in seat belt and bicycle helmet use for participating schools. Since schools self-selected participation, it is unknown whether those schools were fundamentally different from nonparticipating schools.

  16. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  17. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; Pchin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  18. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  19. Aminocyclopentanols as sugar mimics. Synthesis from unsaturated bicyclic lactones by Overman rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminid......Bicyclic cyclopentane lactones, prepared from bromodeoxyaldonolactones, were transformed into aminocyclopentanols with an Overman rearrangement as the key step. Two of the compounds prepared, 7 and 19, were found to be good inhibitors of jack bean alpha-mannosidase and beta...

  20. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S;

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GABA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  1. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  2. Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Brian Casey; Chen, Jiaoli; Cherry, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    As electric bicycles (e-bikes) have emerged as a new transportation mode, their role in transportation systems and their impact on users have become important issues for policy makers and engineers. Little safety-related research has been conducted in North America or Europe because of their relatively small numbers. This work describes the results of a naturalistic GPS-based safety study between regular bicycle (i.e., standard bicycle) and e-bike riders in the context of a unique bikesharing system that allows comparisons between instrumented bike technologies. We focus on rider safety behavior under four situations: (1) riding in the correct direction on directional roadway segments, (2) speed on on-road and shared use paths, (3) stopping behavior at stop-controlled intersections, and (4) stopping behavior at signalized intersections. We find that, with few exceptions, riders of e-bike behave very similarly to riders of bicycles. Violation rates were very high for both vehicles. Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. We find that average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6kph); both significantly different at >95% confidence. At stop control intersections, both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6kph, 40% violations at 11kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). These findings suggest that, among the same population of users, e-bike riders exhibit nearly identical safety behavior as regular bike riders and should be regulated in similar ways. Users of both technologies have very high violation rates of traffic control devices and interventions should occur to

  3. Orthogonal ring-closing alkyne and olefin metathesis for the synthesis of small GTPase-targeting bicyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromm, Philipp M; Schaubach, Sebastian; Spiegel, Jochen; Fürstner, Alois; Grossmann, Tom N; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-04-14

    Bicyclic peptides are promising scaffolds for the development of inhibitors of biological targets that proved intractable by typical small molecules. So far, access to bioactive bicyclic peptide architectures is limited due to a lack of appropriate orthogonal ring-closing reactions. Here, we report chemically orthogonal ring-closing olefin (RCM) and alkyne metathesis (RCAM), which enable an efficient chemo- and regioselective synthesis of complex bicyclic peptide scaffolds with variable macrocycle geometries. We also demonstrate that the formed alkyne macrocycle can be functionalized subsequently. The orthogonal RCM/RCAM system was successfully used to evolve a monocyclic peptide inhibitor of the small GTPase Rab8 into a bicyclic ligand. This modified peptide shows the highest affinity for an activated Rab GTPase that has been reported so far. The RCM/RCAM-based formation of bicyclic peptides provides novel opportunities for the design of bioactive scaffolds suitable for the modulation of challenging protein targets.

  4. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  5. Rabies vaccination for international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-05

    Rabies prevention in travelers is a controversial issue. According to experts, the decision to vaccinate results from an individual risk assessment based on the duration of stay, the likelihood of engagement in at-risk activities, the age of the traveler, the rabies endemicity and access to appropriate medical care in the country of destination. However, no detailed information is available regarding the last two determinants in many regions. Twenty-two cases of rabies were reported in tourists, expatriates and migrant travelers over the last decade, including three cases following short-term travel of no more than two weeks. Studies on rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in travelers show that overall, 0.4% (range 0.01-2.3%) of travelers have experienced an at-risk bite per month of stay in a rabies-endemic country, while 31% of expatriates and 12% of tourists were vaccinated against rabies before traveling. The main reason cited by travelers for not being vaccinated is the cost of the vaccine. The majority of patients who sustained a high risk injury was not vaccinated against rabies before traveling and were not properly treated abroad. From available studies, the following risk factors for injuries sustained from potentially rabid animals may be identified: traveling to South-East Asia, India or North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism. The duration of travel does not appear to be a risk factor. It should be noted that "at-risk activities" have not been addressed in these studies. Detailed rabies distribution maps and information on the availability of rabies biologics are urgently needed in order to identify those travelers who need pre-travel vaccination. Meanwhile, cost-minimization of rabies pre-exposure vaccination may be achieved in several ways, notably by using the intra-dermal method of vaccination.

  6. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  7. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  8. Time, travel and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Andrew; Haggett, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The collapse of geographical space over the last 200 years has had profound effects on the circulation of human populations and on the transfer of infectious diseases. Three examples are used to illustrate the process: (a) the impact of the switch from sail to steamships in importing measles into Fiji over a 40-year period; (b) changes in measles epidemic behaviour in Iceland over a 150-year period; and (c) changes in the spread of cholera within the United States over a 35-year period. In each case, the link between time, travel and disease has been an intimate one.

  9. Travel Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  10. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  11. Building the fastest bicycle in the world; a year with the Human Power Team Delft & Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, M.; Roks, G.

    2014-01-01

    “Third time lucky” is the saying, but for the third Human Power Team it almost turned out as a year for nothing. The team has been attempting to set the world record for the fastest bicycle powered only by human muscles for two years already. This endeavor to let a Dutchman be the fastest human on e

  12. Bicyclic and tricyclic heterocycle derivatives as histamine H3 receptor antagonists for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lera Ruiz, Manuel; Zheng, Junying; Berlin, Michael Y; McCormick, Kevin D; Aslanian, Robert G; West, Robert; Hwa, Joyce; Lachowicz, Jean; van Heek, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    A novel series of non-imidazole bicyclic and tricyclic histamine H3 receptor antagonists has been discovered. Compound 17 was identified as a centrally penetrant molecule with high receptor occupancy which demonstrates robust oral activity in rodent models of obesity. In addition compound 17 possesses clean CYP and hERG profiles and shows no behavioral changes in the Irwin test.

  13. Use of automated video analysis for the evaluation of bicycle movement and interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaddle, Heather; Schendzielorz, Tobias; Fakler, Oliver; Amini, Sasan

    2014-03-01

    With the purpose of developing valid models of microscopic bicycle behavior, a large quantity of video data is collected at three busy urban intersections in Munich, Germany. Due to the volume of data, the manual processing of this data is infeasible and an automated or semi-automated analysis method must be implemented. An open source software, "Traffic Intelligence", is used and extended to analyze the collected video data with regard to research questions concerning the tactical behavior of bicyclists. In a first step, the feature detection parameters, the tracking parameters and the object grouping parameters are calibrated, making it possible to accurately track and group the objects at intersections used by large volumes of motor vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians. The resulting parameters for the three intersections are presented. A methodology for the classification of road users as cars, bicycles or pedestrians is presented and evaluated. This is achieved by making hypotheses about which features belong to cars, or bicycles and pedestrians, and using grouping parameters specified for that road user group to cluster the features into objects. These objects are then classified based on their dynamic characteristics. A classification structure for the maneuvers of different road users is presented and future applications are discussed.

  14. Bicycle fatalities : trends in crashes with and without motor vehicles in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Stipdonk, H.L. Methorst, R. & Olivier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Boufous and Olivier (2015) recently found an increasing trend of police-reported cyclist deaths in single-vehicle crashes while a decreasing trend was found for fatal bicycle-motor vehicle crashes. This study sets out to conduct the same trend analyses for the Netherlands using causes of death stati

  15. Balance and control of a rear-wheel steered speed-record recumbent bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, A.L.; Kooijman, J.D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Human Power Team from the TU Delft and the Free University of Amsterdam is to break the world speed record in unpaced cycling (Sam Whittingham, 133.28 km/h). The design of such a faired recumbent bicycle is a challenge. The Delft design, called VeloX (Human Power Team (2013)), is a f

  16. Evaluation of a promotional strategy to increase bicycle helmet use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E

    1993-04-01

    Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.

  17. Design of an aluminium bicycle path integrated in a steel bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Burggraaf, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the aluminium structure of a bicycle path which is mounted on an existing steel brige. The benefits of aluminium, being low self weight, freedom in design obtained by extrusion and good corrosion resistance were maximal utilized. One of the main drawbacks of alumin

  18. Effect of Toe Clips During Bicycle Ergometry on VO2 max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Roger S.; Sparling, Phillip B.

    1985-01-01

    Eight men participated in three randomized maximal oxygen uptake tests to investigate the hypothesis that the use of toe clips on bicycle ergometers produced a higher VO2 max. No significant difference in mean VO2 max or performance time was observed. (Author/MT)

  19. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental im

  20. Environmental and social life cycle assessment of bamboo bicycle frames made in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyekum, Eric Ofori; Fortuin, K.P.J.; Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This case study assessed the environmental and social impact of bicycle frames made from wild Ghanaian bamboo. The environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of the bamboo frame was compared to the LCA results of an aluminium frame and a steel frame. The results show that the overall environmental im

  1. Responses to kayak ergometer performance after kayak and bicycle ergometer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, B R; Pyke, F S; Roberts, A D

    1976-01-01

    Ten moderately active male volunteers, age 19-30 years, completed one month of training on either a kayak or a bicycle ergometer (five men in each group). The men completed sixteen 30 minute sessions of continuous work at an intensity which maintained their HR within 85-90% of its maximum, as previously determined on the kayak ergometer. After this training period the kayak group demonstrated significant decreases in VO2, VE, HR and blood lactate in submaximal kayak ergometer work and a significant increase in VO2 during maximal kayak ergometer work. These changes contributed to a significantly higher maximal kayaking work output. The bicycle-trained group did not make any of these improvements on the kayak ergometer. However in their last training session on the bicycle ergometer they were able to work at a higher submaximal load while maintaining the same heart rate as in the first training session. It was concluded that the circulatory and metabolic adjustments to kayak work are greater with kayak training than with bicycle training.

  2. Synthesis of bicyclic guanidines via cascade hydroamination/Michael additions of mono-N-acryloylpropargylguanidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki-Hyeok; Serrano, Catherine M; Koch, Michael; Barrows, Louis R; Looper, Ryan E

    2014-12-05

    A cascade silver(I)-catalyzed hydroamination/Michael addition sequence has been developed to deliver highly substituted bicyclic guanidines. This transformation gives rise to geometrically and constitutionally stable ene-guanidines and generates a remote stereocenter with moderate to high diastereoselectivity.

  3. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  4. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  5. The Bicycle Illusion: Sidewalk Science Informs the Integration of Motion and Shape Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Dodd, Michael D.; Enns, James T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a new visual illusion first discovered in a natural setting. A cyclist riding beside a pair of sagging chains that connect fence posts appears to move up and down with the chains. In this illusion, a static shape (the chains) affects the perception of a moving shape (the bicycle), and this influence involves assimilation…

  6. On a finite group having a normal series whose factors have bicyclic Sylow subgroups

    CERN Document Server

    Monakhov, V S

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of a finite groups having a normal series whose factors have bicyclic Sylow subgroups. In particular, we investigated groups of odd order and $A_4$-free groups with this property. Exact estimations of the derived length and nilpotent length of such groups are obtained.

  7. A New Method for Computing the Centre of Mass of a Bicycle and Rider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhaq, Hezi; Baran, Gil

    2010-01-01

    For developing riding skills on mountain bikes, it is important to know how the centre of mass of a bicycle and its rider changes with ground inclination or with rider position. We show here a new method for finding the location of this point by measuring the normal forces acting on the wheels in two positions with a digital weight indicator. This…

  8. Tertiary Student Attitudes to Bicycle Commuting in a Regional Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whannell, Patricia; Whannell, Robert; White, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide executive management at a regional university with empirical data to justify, or otherwise, a substantial outlay of funds to support bicycle commuting as a viable strategy for the reduction of traffic congestion. Design/methodology/approach: A custom designed questionnaire was completed by 270…

  9. The Effects of Prompting and Reinforcement on Safe Behavior of Bicycle and Motorcycle Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Takeru; Shimazaki, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    A reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of vocal and written prompts as well as reinforcement on safe behavior (dismounting and walking bicycles or motorcycles on a sidewalk) on a university campus. Results indicated that an intervention that consisted of vocal and written prompts and reinforcement delivered by security guards was…

  10. The Synthesis of cis- and trans-Fused Bicyclic Sugar Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risseeuw, Martijn D.P.; Grotenbreg, Gijsbert M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tuin, Adriaan W.; Leeuwenburgh, Michiel A.; Marel, Gijsbert A. van der; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Overhand, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Four isomeric bicyclic sugar amino acids (SAAs) were prepared from an α-acetylenic-C-glucoside by employing a Petasis olefination and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as key steps. The applicability of the resulting SAAs in solid-phase peptide synthesis was demonstrated by the synthesis of a tetrapep

  11. A description of bicycle and moped rider accidents aimed to indicate priorities for injury prevention research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, J.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study is to indicate priorities in the field of bicycle and moped injury prevention research, based on criteria given. The study is a part of a preparation for a SWOV accident investigation project that has to identify and to gratify factors influencing injuries of pedestrians, cyclis

  12. [Changes in ECG indicators during bicycle ergometry in patients having suffered myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Z N

    1984-01-01

    Altogether 218 patients with a history of myocardial infarction were subjected to bicycle ergometry. The ECG recorded at the height of the exercise showed a significant increase in the heart rate and in the amplitudes of P and R waves. The diastole and electric systole shortened. As the load was raised, the rate of A-B conduction was relatively decelerated.

  13. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  14. Sandia bicycle commuters group -- pollution prevention at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Sandia Bicycle Commuters Group (SBCG) formed three years ago for the purpose of addressing issues that impact the bicycle commuting option. The meeting that launched the SBCG was scheduled in conjunction with National Bike-to-Work day in May 1995. Results from a survey handed out at the meeting solidly confirmed the issues and that an advocacy group was needed. The purpose statement for the Group headlines its web site and brochure: ``Existing to assist and educate the SNL workforce bicyclist on issues regarding Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) access, safety and bicycle-supporting facilities, in order to promote bicycling as an effective and enjoyable means of commuting.`` The SNL Pollution Prevention (P2) Team`s challenge to the SNL workforce is to ``prevent pollution, conserve natural resources, and save money``. In the first winter of its existence, the SBCG sponsored a winter commute contest in conjunction with the City`s Clean Air Campaign (CAC). The intent of the CAC is to promote alternative (to the single-occupant vehicle) commuting during the Winter Pollution Advisory Period (October 1--February 28), when the City runs the greatest risk of exceeding federal pollution limits.

  15. Time travel a history

    CERN Document Server

    Gleick, James

    2016-01-01

    From the acclaimed author of The Information and Chaos, here is a mind-bending exploration of time travel: its subversive origins, its evolution in literature and science, and its influence on our understanding of time itself. The story begins at the turn of the previous century, with the young H. G. Wells writing and rewriting the fantastic tale that became his first book and an international sensation: The Time Machine. It was an era when a host of forces was converging to transmute the human understanding of time, some philosophical and some technological: the electric telegraph, the steam railroad, the discovery of buried civilizations, and the perfection of clocks. James Gleick tracks the evolution of time travel as an idea that becomes part of contemporary culture—from Marcel Proust to Doctor Who, from Jorge Luis Borges to Woody Allen. He investigates the inevitable looping paradoxes and examines the porous boundary between pulp fiction and modern physics. Finally, he delves into a temporal shift that...

  16. Ion Acoustic Travelling Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, G M; Ao, X; Zank, G P

    2013-01-01

    Models for travelling waves in multi-fluid plasmas give essential insight into fully nonlinear wave structures in plasmas, not readily available from either numerical simulations or from weakly nonlinear wave theories. We illustrate these ideas using one of the simplest models of an electron-proton multi-fluid plasma for the case where there is no magnetic field or a constant normal magnetic field present. We show that the travelling waves can be reduced to a single first order differential equation governing the dynamics. We also show that the equations admit a multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formulation in which both the space and time variables can act as the evolution variable. An integral equation useful for calculating adiabatic, electrostatic solitary wave signatures for multi-fluid plasmas with arbitrary mass ratios is presented. The integral equation arises naturally from a fluid dynamics approach for a two fluid plasma, with a given mass ratio of the two species (e.g. the plasma could be an electron pr...

  17. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  18. The Travelling Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE-INDUCED LOADS ON FOREARM MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING STEERING A BICYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Arpinar-Avsar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the bicycle, the human upper extremity has two essential functions in steering the bicycle and in supporting the body. Through the handlebar, surface- induced loads are transmitted to the hand and arm of the bicycle rider under vibration exposure conditions. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vibration exposure on forearm muscle activity for different road surfaces (i.e. smooth road, concrete stone pavement, rough road and for different bicycles. Ten subjects participated in experiments and two types of bicycles, i.e. Road Bike (RB and Mountain Bike (MTB are compared. The acceleration magnitudes were dominant along x and z-axes. The r.m.s acceleration values in the z direction at the stem of MTB were at most 2.56, 7.04 and 10.76 m·s-2 when pedaling respectively on asphalt road, concrete pavement and rough road. In the case of RB the corresponding values were respectively 4.43, 11.75 and 27.31 m·s-2. The cumulative normalized muscular activity levels during MTB trials on different surfaces had the same tendency as with acceleration amplitudes and have ranked in the same order from lowest to highest value. Although road bike measurements have resulted in a similar trend of increment, the values computed for rough road trials were higher than those in MTB trials. During rough road measurements on MTB, rmsEMG of extensor muscles reached a value corresponding to approximately 50% of MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction. During RB trials performed on rough road conditions, rmsEMG (%MVC values for the forearm flexor muscles reached 45.8% of their maximal. The level of muscular activity of forearm muscles in controlling handlebar movements has been observed to be enhanced by the increase in the level of vibration exposed on the bicycle. Since repeated forceful gripping and pushing forces to a handle of a vibratory tool can create a risk of developing circulatory, neurological, or musculoskeletal disorder, a bicycle rider

  20. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  1. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS REGARDING YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Lect. Ph.D Student Moisa Claudia Olimpia

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no clear definition for the youth travel concept. This concept emerged much latter than the first forms of manifestation of tourism for young people, namely the beginning of the ’90s when the first studies regarding youth travel were also conducted. No doubt, the concept of youth travel ensues from three notions, namely: youth, tourism and vacation – in the sense of free time. All the definitions used by tourism organizations, by various national tourism administrations an...

  2. Using data mining techniques to predict the severity of bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Fraboni, Federico

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the factors predicting severity of bicycle crashes in Italy, we used an observational study of official statistics. We applied two of the most widely used data mining techniques, CHAID decision tree technique and Bayesian network analysis. We used data provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics on road crashes that occurred on the Italian road network during the period ranging from 2011 to 2013. In the present study, the dataset contains information about road crashes occurred on the Italian road network during the period ranging from 2011 to 2013. We extracted 49,621 road accidents where at least one cyclist was injured or killed from the original database that comprised a total of 575,093 road accidents. CHAID decision tree technique was employed to establish the relationship between severity of bicycle crashes and factors related to crash characteristics (type of collision and opponent vehicle), infrastructure characteristics (type of carriageway, road type, road signage, pavement type, and type of road segment), cyclists (gender and age), and environmental factors (time of the day, day of the week, month, pavement condition, and weather). CHAID analysis revealed that the most important predictors were, in decreasing order of importance, road type (0.30), crash type (0.24), age of cyclist (0.19), road signage (0.08), gender of cyclist (0.07), type of opponent vehicle (0.05), month (0.04), and type of road segment (0.02). These eight most important predictors of the severity of bicycle crashes were included as predictors of the target (i.e., severity of bicycle crashes) in Bayesian network analysis. Bayesian network analysis identified crash type (0.31), road type (0.19), and type of opponent vehicle (0.18) as the most important predictors of severity of bicycle crashes.

  3. Bicyclic proline analogues as organocatalysts for stereoselective aldol reactions: an in silico DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2007-04-21

    Density functional theory has been employed in investigating the efficiency of a series of bicyclic analogues of proline as stereoselective organocatalysts for the aldol reaction. Three classes of conformationally restricted proline analogues, as part of either a [2.2.1] or [2.1.1] bicyclic framework, have been studied. Transition states for the stereoselective C-C bond formation between enamines derived from [2.2.1] and [2.1.1] bicyclic amino acids and p-nitrobenzaldehyde, leading to enantiomeric products, have been identified. Analysis of the transition state geometries revealed that the structural rigidity of catalysts, improved transition state organization as well as other weak interactions influence the relative stabilities of diastereomeric transition states and help contribute to the overall stereoselectivity in the aldol reaction. These bicyclic catalysts are predicted to be substantially more effective in improving the enantiomeric excess than the widely used organocatalyst proline. Enantiomeric excesses in the range 82-95% are predicted for these bicyclic catalysts when a sterically unbiased substrate such as p-nitrobenzaldehyde is employed for the asymmetric aldol reaction. More interestingly, introduction of substituents, as simple as a methyl group, at the ortho position of the aryl aldehyde bring about an increase in the enantiomeric excess to values greater than 98%. The reasons behind the vital energy separation between diastereomeric transition states has been rationalized with the help of a number of weak interactions such as intramolecular hydrogen bonding and Coulombic interactions operating on the transition states. These predictions could have wider implications for the rational design of improved organocatalysts for stereoselective carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions.

  4. Communication from Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Entry requirements for the USA: "ESTA" (Electronic System for Travel Authorization) online registration The requirement to register before entering the USA announced by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to be introduced on 12 January 2009. Visitors to the USA will then be required to register their personal data and travel data online not less than 72 hours prior to travel. https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov/ General information on entry requirements for the USA are also available on the Carlson Wagonlit Travel website under the heading „CWT informs": http://www.carlsonwagonlit.ch

  5. Communication from Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Entry requirements for the USA: "ESTA" (Electronic System for Travel Authorization) online registration The requirement to register before entering the USA announced by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to be introduced on 12 January 2009. Visitors to the USA will then be required to register their personal data and travel data online not less than 72 hours prior to travel. https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov/ General information on entry requirements for the USA is also available on the Carlson Wagonlit Travel website under the heading „CWT informs": http://www.carlsonwagonlit.ch

  6. The Walking Renaissance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Walking Travel in the Greater Los Angeles Area, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Joh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting walking travel is considered important for reducing automobile use and improving public health. Recent U.S. transportation policy has incentivized investments in alternative, more sustainable transportation modes such as walking, bicycling and transit in auto-oriented cities such as Los Angeles. Although many past studies have analyzed changes in walking travel across the U.S., there is little clarity on the drivers of change. We address this gap by conducting a longitudinal analysis of walking travel in the greater Los Angeles area from 2001 to 2009. We use travel diary and household data from regional and national surveys to analyze changes in walking trip shares and rates across our study area. Results show that walking has significantly increased across most of Los Angeles, and that increases in walking trips generally correspond with increases in population, employment, and transit service densities. Estimates from fixed-effects regression analysis generally suggest a positive association between population density and walking, and that higher increases in transit stop density are correlated with increased walking trips to and from transit stops. These findings illustrate how regional planning efforts to pursue a coordinated land use-transit planning strategy can help promote walking in auto-oriented or vehicle adopting cities.

  7. Highly Constrained Bicyclic Scaffolds for the Discovery of Protease-Stable Peptides via mRNA Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David E; Hoinka, Jan; Iqbal, Emil S; Przytycka, Teresa M; Hartman, Matthew C T

    2017-02-01

    Highly constrained peptides such as the knotted peptide natural products are promising medicinal agents because of their impressive biostability and potent activity. Yet, libraries of highly constrained peptides are challenging to prepare. Here, we present a method which utilizes two robust, orthogonal chemical steps to create highly constrained bicyclic peptide libraries. This technology was optimized to be compatible with in vitro selections by mRNA display. We performed side-by-side monocyclic and bicyclic selections against a model protein (streptavidin). Both selections resulted in peptides with mid-nanomolar affinity, and the bicyclic selection yielded a peptide with remarkable protease resistance.

  8. Solar wind travel time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    A useful rule of thumb in solar terrestrial studies is that the solar wind travels 4 Earth radii (RE) per minute. Long-term studies of solar wind velocity [e.g., Luhmann et al., 1993; 1994] show that the median velocity is about 420 km/s, corresponding to 3.96 RE min-1. The quartiles are about 370 km/s and 495 km/s, corresponding to 3.48 Re min-1 and 4.66 Re min-1 respectively. This number helps estimate the delays expected when observing a discontinuity at a solar wind monitor; one example is ISEE-3 when it was at the forward libration point (about 60 min). It is also helpful for estimating how much time passes before the dayside magnetosphere is compressed as denser solar wind flows by (about 2.5 min).

  9. Bicycle transport as an object of ecological marketing and innovations in urban transportations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Teletov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In the modern world society is faced with problems of growing population, increasing environmental problems, lack of minerals and social-economic globalization when necessity of both individual and humanity survival is becoming extremely important. By next few years 80% of the world’s population will live in the cities. This is the main reason which force us to think about the more effective usage of urban space and transport people in cities. Nowadays ecological pollution and increased costs on transport service highlight the importance of seeking alternative types of transport. The youth of many European countries prefer bikes as main transport. Usage of bicycles in Europe is constantly growing due to European and local urban and mobility policies. Therefore, we may consider an opportunity to promote bicycle transport in Ukraine, that requires complex investigation of this question. The purpose of the article is to define features and the ways of bicycle transport implementation in Ukrainian cities as a priority for youth; it includes the best world practices of bicycle transport implementation into urban space and searching for possible ways to apply the European experience in Ukraine. The results of the analysis. As a part of our research we considered investigating international experience of cycling in Europe as an alternative to the public transport and as an example of ecological marketing. The best methods of usage cycling in the urban space were described and analysed. Moreover, we identified the main problems (and the potential solutions with implementation of cycling infrastructure in urban space based on international and national experience (special signs, traffic lights etc.. In the article different opportunities for realization in city Sumy were proposed. Our focus was on atomized network of bike rental services and we confirmed the effectiveness of such program in this city. The bicycle infrastructure

  10. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  11. Monitoring Travel Time Reliability on Freeways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Huizhao

    2008-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important attributes of a trip. The current measures of reliability have in common that in general they all relate to the variability of travel times. However, travel time reliability does not only rely on variability but also on the stability of travel ti

  12. Angular Impact Mitigation system for bicycle helmets to reduce head acceleration and risk of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (pbicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required.

  13. Travel Writing on the Edge: An Intermedial Approach to Travel Books and Travel Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzati Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After discussing the limits and potentialities of the definitions of travel writing proposed by Paul Fussell (1980. Patrick Holland and Graham Huggan (1998 and Jan Borm (2004, the article presents a characterization of travel writing both as a genre with a precise rhetorical status, as well as a praxis of knoivledge, which derives from the interplay between travelling and writing. Building on this, a comparison between two Italian travel books and two Italian travel blogs about China is proposed. Specifically, by considering these texts as “intermedial transpositions” (Wolf 2008 that realize the same generic and epistemological matrix (i.e. travel writing, a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis (MCDA is conducted in order to assess: 1 how the book and the blog, as different medial formats, interpret the rhetorical features of the travel writing genre: and 2 to what extent the gnoseological and cross-cultural potentials of travel writing, as a praxis of knowledge, is affected by the process of transposition.

  14. Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2005-01-01

    Chères clientes, chers clients, Le 3 janvier dernier, nous vous avons informé de la décision des compagnies aériennes de supprimer les commissions versées aux agences de voyages suisses. Cette mesure a été introduite progressivement pour être appliquées maintenant par toutes les compagnies, à quelques rares exceptions près. En conséquence, en accord avec le CERN, nous serons dans l'obligation d'appliquer une nouvelle liste de prix de nos transactions pour les voyages privés. Elle sera applicable dès le lundi 25 juillet 2005. Carlson Wagonlit Travel (CWT) vous propose : Son service de conseil personnalisé, professionnel et compétent Sa recherche de la solution la plus économique et la mieux adaptée à vos besoins Sa neutralité dans les comparaisons de prix et prestations Des informations com...

  15. Development of an experimental methodology to evaluate the influence of a bamboo frame on the bicycle ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thite, A. N.; Gerguri, S.; Coleman, F.; Doody, M.; Fisher, N.

    2013-09-01

    In the current environment of increased emphasis on sustainable transport, there is manifold increase in the use of bicycles for urban transport. One concern which might restrict the use is the ride comfort and fatigue. There has been limited research in addressing the difficulty in bicycle ride comfort quantification. The current study aims to develop a methodology to quantify bicycle discomfort so that performance of bicycles constructed from bamboo and aluminium alloy can be compared. Experimentally obtained frequency response functions are used to establish a relation between the road input and the seat and rider response. A bicycle track input profile based on standard road profiles is created so as to estimate the acceleration responses. The whole-body-vibration frequency weighting is applied to quantify the perception of vibration intensity so that eventual discomfort ranking can be obtained. The measured frequency response functions provide an insight into the effect of frame dynamics on the overall resonant behaviour of the bicycles. The beneficial effect of frame compliance and damping on lower modes of vibration is very clear in the case of bamboo frame, in turn affecting seat and rider response. In the bamboo frame, because of multiple resonances, the frequency response of the handlebar is smaller at higher frequencies suggesting effective isolation. Further improvements may have come from the joints made from natural composites. Overall, based on the comparative analysis and the methodology developed, bamboo frame shows significant improvement in ride comfort performance compared with the aluminium frame.

  16. Exploring Multiple Motivations on Urban Residents’ Travel Mode Choices: An Empirical Study from Jiangsu Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People’s actions are always accompanied with multiple motives. How to estimate the role of the pro-environment motivation under the interference of other motivations will help us to better interpret human environmental behaviors. On the basis of classical motivation theories and travel mode choice research backgrounds, the concepts of pro-environmental and self-interested motivation were defined. Then based on survey data on 1244 urban residents in the Jiangsu Province in China, the multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to examine the effects of multiple motivations, government measures, and demographic characteristics on residents’ travel mode choice behaviors. The result indicates that compared to car use, pro-environmental motivation certainly has a significant and positive role in promoting green travel mode choices (walking, bicycling, and using public transport, but this unstable green behavior is always dominated by self-interested motivations rather than the pro-environmental motivation. In addition, the effects of gender, age, income, vehicle ownership, travel distance, and government instruments show significant differences among travel mode choices. The findings suggest that pro-environmental motivation needs to be stressed and highlighted to ensure sustainable urban transportation. However, policies aimed to only increase the public awareness of environment protection are not enough; tailored policy interventions should be targeted to specific groups having different main motivations.

  17. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  18. Optimal design parameters of the bicycle-rider system for maximal muscle power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihuku, Y; Herzog, W

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal values of design parameters for a bicycle-rider system (crank length, pelvic inclination, seat height, and rate of crank rotation) which maximize the power output from muscles of the human lower limb during bicycling. The human lower limb was modelled as a planar system of five rigid bodies connected by four smooth pin joints and driven by seven functional muscle groups. The muscles were assumed to behave according to an adapted form of Hill's equation. The dependence of the average power on the design parameters was examined. The instantaneous power of each muscle group was studied and simultaneous activity of two seemingly antagonistic muscle groups was analyzed. Average peak power for one full pedal revolution was found to be around 1100 W. The upper body position corresponding to this peak power output was slightly reclined, and the pedalling rate was 155 rpm for a nominal crank length of 170 mm.

  19. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

  20. Last-Minute Travel Application

    OpenAIRE

    Hubner, Andre; Lenz, Mario; Borch, Roman; Posthoff, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In this article, we present a last-minute travel application as part of a complete virtual travel agency. Each year, a significant amount of tour packages are sold as last minute tours in Germany. It is impossible for a travel agent to keep track of all the offered tour packages. Electronic-commerce applications might present the best possible tour package for a specific customer request. Traditional database-driven applications, as used by most of the tour operators, are not sufficient enoug...

  1. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N.; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  2. Using Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Algorithms to Evolve Lacing Patterns for Bicycle Wheels

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Mats Krüger

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to evolve and optimize lacing patterns of spokes for a bicycle wheel. There are multiple objectives and tradeoffs to be considered when evaluating a lacing pattern, for instance, strength versus balance. To handle this, an evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) method has been used. Various EMO algorithms and approaches are tested. Among these, the new NSGA-III algorithm is used. Different representations of the lac...

  3. Synthesis and Structure of A Novel Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Flame Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel caged bicyclic phosphate flame retardant tri(1-oxo-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane-methyl) phosphate (Trimer) was synthesized from 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-l-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) and phosphorus oxychloride in this paper.Its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  4. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič; Ilka Čerpes

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. Th...

  5. 'Cycle thieves, we are watching you': impact of a simple signage intervention against bicycle theft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bicycle theft is a serious problem in many countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning effective prevention strategies. Displaying images of 'watching eyes' has been shown to make people behave in more socially desirable ways in a number of settings, but it is not yet clear if this effect can be exploited for purposes of crime prevention. We report the results of a simple intervention on a university campus where signs featuring watching eyes and a related verbal message were displayed above bicycle racks. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We installed durable signs at three locations which had experienced high levels of bicycle theft, and used the rest of the university campus as a control location. Reported thefts were monitored for 12 months before and after the intervention. Bicycle thefts decreased by 62% at the experimental locations, but increased by 65% in the control locations, suggesting that the signs were effective, but displaced offending to locations with no signs. The Odds Ratio for the effect of the intervention was 4.28 (95% confidence interval 2.04-8.98, a large effect compared to other place-based crime prevention interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The effectiveness of this extremely cheap and simple intervention suggests that there can be considerable crime-reduction benefits to engaging the psychology of surveillance, even in the absence of surveillance itself. Simple interventions for high-crime locations based on this principle should be considered as an adjunct to other measures, although a possible negative consequence is displacement of offending.

  6. Product Variety, Supply Chain Structure, and Firm Performance: Analysis of the U.S. Bicycle Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Randall; Karl Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. bicycle industry, we examine the relation among product variety, supply chain structure, and firm performance. Variety imposes two types of costs on a supply chain: production costs and market mediation costs. Production costs include, among other costs, the incremental fixed investments associated with providing additional product variants. Market mediation costs arise because of uncertainty in product demand created by variety. In the presence of demand uncertainty,...

  7. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Bicyclic Phosphorothionates and Related Monocyclic Phosphorothionates

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shao-yong; Hirashima, Akinori; Takeya, Ryuko; Eto, Morifusa

    1989-01-01

    Some thiono-type bicyclic phosphorus esters (BPS) were synthesized and bioassayed for insecticidal activity against susceptible (SRS) houseflies. n-Propyl was most favorable as a substituent at position 4 for insecticidal activity. The introduction of substituents at position 3 did not improve the activity. Some functionized monocyclic phosphorothionates (MPs) were also synthesized as proBP candidates. Although some MPs were cyclized to the corresponding BPS by oxidation or by action of a bas...

  8. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  9. A Geo-Aware and VRP-Based Public Bicycle Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Bicycle System (PBS has been developed for short-distance transportation as a part of the mass transportation system. The supply and demand of bikes in PBS is usually unbalanced at different stations and needs to be continuously and widely monitored and redistributed. The bicycle redistribution is a part of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. We can apply solutions to the VRP to redistribute bicycle efficiently. However, most solutions to the VRP use the Euclidean distance as the condition factor, which does not take road conditions, traffic regulations, and geographical factors into account, resulting in unnecessary waste of delivery time and human resources. In this work, we propose an actual path distance optimization method for the VRP to adapt the several additional constraints of road problems. We also implement a system that integrates real-time station information, Web GIS, the urban road network, and heuristics algorithms for PBS. The system includes a simulator inside that can assist PBS managers to do the route planning efficiently and find the best scheduling strategy to achieve hotspot analysis and the adjustment of station deployment strategies to reduce PBS operation cost.

  10. Changes in human cervical and lumbar spine curves while bicycling with different handlebar heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; He, Kuo-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is a daily activity that needs a high demand of human-bicycle fitness. However, studies into the fitness or ergonomic aspects are very little. In this study, the simulated 20 min bicycling test were performed by 26 male participants under 5 handle height conditions. Body joint angles and external cervical/lumbar spine lordosis were measured at the initial and cycling after 20 min. Results show that different handle heights did cause various trunk inclinations. Trunk inclination was negatively and positively correlated with lumbosacral angle (r = -0.620, p < 0.001) and cervical angle (r = 0.510, p < 0.001), respectively. In this study, regression models were also developed to predict the internal cervical and lumbar spine movements by external trunk inclination and head extension, respectively. The explanatory abilities for the variance of the models were 67.2% for LSA and 82.8% for CE prediction. This can be used to understand the cyclist's spine movements while field study of bicycling.

  11. A solid solution to a conjecture on the maximal energy of bipartite bicyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Bofeng; Li, Xueliang; Shi, Yongtang

    2011-01-01

    The energy of a simple graph $G$, denoted by $E(G)$, is defined as the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. Let $C_n$ denote the cycle of order $n$ and $P^{6,6}_n$ the graph obtained from joining two cycles $C_6$ by a path $P_{n-12}$ with its two leaves. Let $\\mathscr{B}_n$ denote the class of all bipartite bicyclic graphs but not the graph $R_{a,b}$, which is obtained from joining two cycles $C_a$ and $C_b$ ($a, b\\geq 10$ and $a \\equiv b\\equiv 2\\, (\\,\\textmd{mod}\\, 4)$) by an edge. In [I. Gutman, D. Vidovi\\'{c}, Quest for molecular graphs with maximal energy: a computer experiment, {\\it J. Chem. Inf. Sci.} {\\bf41}(2001), 1002--1005], Gutman and Vidovi\\'{c} conjectured that the bicyclic graph with maximal energy is $P^{6,6}_n$, for $n=14$ and $n\\geq 16$. In [X. Li, J. Zhang, On bicyclic graphs with maximal energy, {\\it Linear Algebra Appl.} {\\bf427}(2007), 87--98], Li and Zhang showed that the conjecture is true for graphs in the class $\\mathscr{B}_n$. However, they could not...

  12. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial.

  13. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing.

  14. Pedaling into high gear for bicycle policy in Canada : lessons from bike summit 2008 in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 2008 bike summit provided a forum for the discussion of international and Canadian best practices related to bicycles and bicycling policy. The aim of the summit was to assist communities across Canada to improve conditions for cycling in the urban environment and help to generate a cultural shift towards greater acceptance of cycling on roads. This paper discussed lessons learned during the summit and outlined new methods of improving cycling in communities. The City of London has recently increased the amount of cyclists using its roads by 200 per cent. Cycling infrastructure is more affordable than constructing major public transit or road infrastructure. Savings in healthcare costs will be accrued over time as a result of the healthier lifestyles promoted by regular cycling activity. Bicycle trips can help to alleviate over-demand on heavy transit routes. Encouraging commuters to cycle will also reduce the amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in urban areas. Lane width reductions will help to reduce speeds as drivers are forced to pay more attention when driving. Public bike sharing programs and bike stations are now being used in many North American cities. It was concluded that strong advocacy is needed to ensure the growth and acceptance of cycling in urban centres. 23 figs.

  15. PPL Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PTRAMS is a travel data collection system for PPL that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  16. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and parasites that can cause diseases like chikungunya, dengue, Zika, and malaria. If you are traveling to an area where malaria is found, talk to your healthcare provider about malaria prevention medication that may be available. Protect yourself and ...

  17. DCHA Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — DTRAMS is a travel data collection system for DCHA that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.)...

  18. Travelers' Health: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador Insurance International Adoption Jet Lag Last-Minute Travel ... Landry ML, Warnock DW, editors. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 10th ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2011. p. ...

  19. GH Travel & Mission Support System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HTRAMS is a travel data collection system for GH that collects information on both the basic details of an employee's trips (destination, length, purpose, etc.) and...

  20. Transmedia storytelling on travel stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Baltar Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel stories form part of a great tradition inside Western Culture which has served historically to describe, to understand and to imagine other cul - tures and communities, far or near, being constituted into a real narra - tive genre. This type of story has been and is a reflection of the perception of the world based on the imaginary worlds created by the travelling narrators. How do modern authors of travel stories take advantage of the opportunities offered by transmedia storytelling? The present article explores the potential of these types of stories as a privileged object of study for transmedia storytelling studies, from the analysis of a sample of 80 narrative productions based on experiences of travel and presented in diverse editions of the Festival Le Grand Bivouac (France. It also shows the existence of a new contemporary trend inside this narrative form that transcends its literary nature.

  1. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  2. A model of multidestination travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morisugi, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis; Kono, T.

    2006-01-01

    , specifically address the choice of a single destination. This article is intended to explain multiple destination choice using Lancaster's characteristics model and a discussion of model implications of some marketing strategies for destinations as well as for tour operators. The model developed herein...... explains that packages of multiple destinations can create preferable combinations of characteristics for certain travelers. Furthermore, the model provides useful strategies for tour operators in combining destinations into a travel menu or package. © 2006 Sage Publications....

  3. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  4. Practical advice for perioperative travel nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Cindy L

    2002-10-01

    Travel nursing presents unique opportunities that permanent employees may never experience. Today's nursing shortage allows travel nurses to fill temporary staff positions while experiencing the sights, culture, and cuisine of a location of their choosing. This creates a beneficial situation for travel nurses, hospitals, travel companies, and, ultimately, patients. Knowledgeable, flexible nurses and traveler-friendly hospitals can extend contracts if mutually agreeable, thus prolonging the benefits. Before beginning the adventure, however, travelers must have realistic expectations. Many disappointed travelers may have been more successful had they done better research.

  5. The value of travel time variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Engelson, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are defined in terms of linearly time varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability...... that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers who can freely choose departure time and to travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway. Depending...... on parameters, travellers may be risk averse or risk seeking and the value of travel time may increase or decrease in the mean travel time....

  6. Choosing between travel agencies and the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.A. (Tourism and Hospitality Management) Travel agents have been traditionally seen as the key intermediary between suppliers of travel services and the traveller. Developments in the field of information technology offer consumers an alternative to booking via a travel agent - the option to plan and arrange holidays online. Due to the ever developing nature of technology, travellers have the luxury of a multitude of choices in their everyday life - particularly so in making decisions reg...

  7. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  8. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A

    2010-03-01

    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  9. Factors associated with bicycle-helmet use among 8-16 years aged Turkish children: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secginli, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Nahcivan, Nursen O

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the rates of helmet and to examine variables related to bicycle helmet use in a sample of 8-16 year old Turkish children. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 1180 students who self-identified as cyclists and 1128 parents or guardians in two state primary schools in two urban municipalities in the northern part of Istanbul, Turkey. Results showed that self-reported helmet use was found prevalent in 4.4% of the children. The most cited reasons for not wearing a helmet were: 'don't own one', 'helmets are uncool', and 'uncomfortable'. Significant differences between helmet users and non-users correlated to gender, age, owning a bicycle helmet, wearing a friend's bicycle helmet and parents or guardian's bicycle helmet use while riding. Only three variables--helmet ownership (OR = 10.028, 95% CI 5.08, 19.79), parents' helmet use (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.22, 5.66) and friends' helmet use (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) emerged as significant predictors of the likelihood of helmet use. The relatively low helmet use prevalence points to an urgent need for a multipronged campaign, including strategies such as raising awareness, educating primarly parents and friends, and distributing bicycle helmets for free or at a reduced cost.

  10. A Comparison of Static and Dynamic Measures of Lower Limb Joint Angles in Cycling: Application to Bicycle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bini Rodrigo Rico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Configuration of bicycle components to the cyclist (bicycle fitting commonly uses static poses of the cyclist on the bicycle at the 6 o’clock crank position to represent dynamic cycling positions. However, the validity of this approach and the potential use of the different crank position (e.g. 3 o’clock have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study compared lower limb joint angles of cyclists in static poses (3 and 6 o’clock compared to dynamic cycling. Methods. Using a digital camera, right sagittal plane images were taken of thirty cyclists seated on their own bicycles mounted on a stationary trainer with the crank at 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions. Video was then recorded during pedalling at a self-selected gear ratio and pedalling cadence. Sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles were digitised. Results. Differences between static and dynamic angles were large at the 6 o’clock crank position with greater mean hip angle (4.9 ± 3°, smaller knee angle (8.2 ± 5° and smaller ankle angle (8.2 ± 5.3° for static angles. Differences between static and dynamic angles (< 1.4° were trivial to small for the 3 o’clock crank position. Conclusions. To perform bicycle fitting, joint angles should be measured dynamically or with the cyclist in a static pose at the 3 o’clock crank position.

  11. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  12. Modelling mode choice in short trips - shifting from car to bicycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2011-01-01

    characteristics of the travellers, purpose of the trips and environmental conditions. Results suggest heterogeneity among cyclists in the sensitivity to travel time, temperature and hilliness. The cost parameter is not significant, probably because of difficulties in the calculation, but possibly because of lower...... available for each period of the day in which the trip was conducted. The present study estimates a mixed logit model able to capture taste variations and differentiates travel time parameters across modes. The mixed logit model allows investigating the effect of level of service variables, individual......This paper investigates the mode choice behaviour of Danish population from the Greater Copenhagen Area when travelling short trips. Data from the Danish National Transport Survey identify the travel behaviour of the Danish population through interviews collecting travel diaries and socio...

  13. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  14. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  15. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  16. Traveling-Wave Membrane Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, R. A.; Martin, S. C.; Nakamura, B. J.; Neto, A.; Pasqualini, D.; Siegel, P. H.; Kadow, C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Traveling-wave photomixers have superior performance when compared with lumped area photomixers in the 1 to 3 THz frequency range. Their large active area and distributed gain mechanism assure high thermal damage threshold and elimination of the capacitive frequency roll-off. However, the losses experienced by the radio frequency wave traveling along the coplanar strips waveguide (due to underlying semi-infinite GaAs substrate) were a serious drawback. In this paper we present device designs and an experimental setup that make possible the realization of photomixers on membranes which eliminate the losses.

  17. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  18. Rabies and Risk to Travelers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-01

    Each year over 55,000 people die because of rabies, mostly from being bitten by rabid dogs. Over half of all rabies infections occur in children under the age of 15 who live in developing countries, but travelers are not immune. This podcast discusses some of the activities that put travelers at risk for rabies and describes ways to prevent infection.  Created: 10/1/2007 by National Center for the Prevention, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 10/5/2007.

  19. Danish travel activities: do we travel more and longer – and to what extent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    Two separate Danish National travel surveys are analysed to outline the amount and extent of national and international travelling during the latest 15-20 years; the national travel survey (TU) describes mainly national daily travel activities, whereas the holiday and business travel survey...... describes national and international travel activities including overnight stay(s). When sampling only respondents with trips above 100 kilometres, they only accounts for around 2% of all daily travel activities, however, this share appears to increase and suggest in general that we do travel longer...... holidays. The majority of international travel is within Europe, but increasing travelling outside Europe is furthermore emerging. In total these trends implies that Danes do travel more and longer, which is related to a general increase in travelling within the whole population, but also more holidays per...

  20. The Physics of Motorcycles and Fast Bicycles : Lean, Stability and Counter-steering

    CERN Document Server

    Shayak, B

    2016-01-01

    In this work I will obtain the system of nonlinear equations that correctly describes the motion of motorcycles and fast bicycles (above 30 km/hr) for the first time in literature. I will use it to calculate the lean angle during a turn and prove that the motion of the vehicle is unconditionally stable at all operating speeds under consideration. I will then employ it to give a quantitative model of counter-steering - the phenomenon by which a turning mobike first goes the wrong way and then starts going the right way.

  1. Enantiospecific Synthesis of All Four Stereoisomers of Novel Bicyclic Arylacetamides as κ-Opioid Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG,Ya-Qiu(龙亚秋); MOU,Qi-Yong(牟奇勇); QIU,Da-Ping(仇达萍); WU,Rui-Qin(吴瑞琴)

    2002-01-01

    Conformationally constrained bicyclic derivatives of the potent and selective κ-opioid receptor agonist 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl- N- [ (1S ) - 1-phenyl-2- (1-pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl] acetamide (3, ICI-199,441) were designed to explore the effect of the conformational restriction and stereochemistry of the pharmacophoric ethylenediamine incorporated into the pyrrolidine on the affinity and κ-selectivity. A facile enantiospecific synthetic route was established to afford all four stereoisomers starting from readily available amino acids through mild cyclization and amide formation.

  2. Enantiospecific Synthesis of All Four Stereoisomers of Novel Bicyclic Arylacetamides as κ—Opioid Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙亚秋; 牟奇勇; 仇达萍; 吴瑞琴

    2002-01-01

    Conformationally constrained bicyclic derivatives of the potent and selective κ-opioid receptor agonist 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(1S)-1-Phenyl-2-(1-Pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl]acetamide(3,ICI-199,441)were designed to explore the effect of the conformational restriction and stereochemistry of the pharmacophoric ethylenediamine incorporated into the pyrrolidine on the affinity and κ-selectivity.A facile enantiosipecitfic synthetic route was extablished to afford all four stereoisomers starting from readily available amino acids through mild cyclization and amide formation.

  3. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Oxazolidinone Analogs Containing Substituted Thiazole/Fused-Bicyclic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen novel oxazolidinone analogs containing substituted thiazole/fused-bicyclic(imidazo[1,2-b] pyridazine/imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole) groups were designed and synthesized. A new method for the preparation of the key intermediate compound 11 was proposed. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and MS, and their in vitro antibacterial activities against staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Among them, compound 16a displays a promising antibacterial activity comparable to that of linezolid.

  4. Synthesis of fused bicyclic piperidines: potential bioactive templates for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinglan; Campbell-Conroy, Erica L; Silina, Alina; Uy, Johnny; Pierre, Fabrice; Hurley, Dennis J; Hilgraf, Nicole; Frieman, Bryan A; DeNinno, Michael P

    2015-01-02

    An array of six pyridyl-substituted fused bicyclic piperidines was prepared as novel cores for medicinal chemistry. For maximum diversity, the size of the fused ring varied from three to six atoms and contained up to two oxygen atoms. The pyridine ring was incorporated to improve physicochemical properties and to challenge the robustness of the chemistry. The presence of the pyridine did interfere with our initial approaches to these molecules, and in several instances, a blocking strategy had to be employed. These new scaffolds possess high sp3 character and may prove useful in multiple medicinal chemistry applications.

  5. Feasibility study on a perceived fatigue prediction dependent power control for an electrically assisted bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Minagawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Several types of electric motor assists have been developed, as a result, it is important to control muscular fatigue on-site in terms of health promotion and motor rehabilitation. Predicting the perceived fatigue by several biosignal-related variables with the multiple regression model and polynomial approximation, we try to propose a self control design for the electrically assisted bicycle (EAB). We also determine the meaningful muscles during pedaling by muscle synergies in relation to the motion maturity. In field experiments, prediction of ongoing perceived physical fatigue could have the potential of suitable control of EAB.

  6. [The electrical stimulation bicycle: a neuroprosthesis for the everyday use of paraplegic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Fiegel, M; Krafczyk, S; Straube, A; Quintern, J; Brandt, Th

    2004-06-24

    Until recently, few patients with complete paraplegia could walk or stand with the help of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the leg muscles regularly at home. In comparison, FES cycling with an adapted tricycle is easy to put into practice because the legs remain connected to the pedals and through the use of a tricycle or stationary bicycle, the balancing problems of the patient recedes into the background. In the first German feasibility studies for paraplegic cycling, eleven completely paraplegic patients have been tested so far. The goal is to make FES cycling a daily activity in the lives of as many patients as possible.

  7. Environmental Impact of Long Distance Travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel and the cl......This paper presents an analysis of the CO2 emission resulting from long distance travel by Danes. The emissions are analysed as the Danes’ footprint the whole way from Denmark to the final destination. International travel represents 31% of the Danes’ CO2 emission from passenger travel...... and the climate burden from long overseas distances is especially high even though only few travel overseas. The travel activity is furthermore increasing much more for long distances than for European destinations. Domestic travel activity with overnight stay is nearly stagnating. The study furthermore shows...

  8. Long-Term Effects of Education and Legislation Enforcement on All-Age Bicycle Helmet Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Sherry; Fenerty, Lynne; Kureshi, Nelofar; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; LeBlanc, John C; Clarke, David B; Walling, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Bicycle-related injuries are a leading cause of child and youth hospitalizations in Canada. The use of helmets while bicycling reduces the risk of brain injuries. This study investigated the long-term effect of legislation coupled with enforcement to improve helmet use rates. We conducted a longitudinal observational study of helmet use at 9, 11, and 14 years after bicycle helmet legislation was enacted. Data were compared to baseline observations collected after legislation was passed in 1997. A comprehensive enforcement and educational diversion program, Operation Headway-Noggin Knowledge (OP-NK), was developed and implemented in partnership with regional police during the study period. Helmet use was sustained throughout the post-legislation period, from 75.3 % in the year legislation was enacted to 94.2 % 14 years post-legislation. The increase in helmet use was seen among all age groups and genders. Helmet legislation was not associated with changes in bicycle ridership over the study years. OP-NK was associated with improved enforcement efforts as evidenced by the number of tickets issued to noncompliant bicycle riders. This observational study spans a 16-year study period extending from pre-legislation to 14 years post all-age bicycle helmet legislation. Our study results demonstrate that a comprehensive approach that couples education and awareness with ongoing enforcement of helmet legislation is associated with long-term sustained helmet use rates. The diversion program described herein is listed among best practices by the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  9. The value of travel time variance

    OpenAIRE

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Engelson, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are de�fined in terms of linearly time-varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers who can free...

  10. Your Travel Dollar. Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This illustrated guide was designed to familiarize consumers with planning a vacation trip, whether domestic or abroad. The guide covers setting up a budget; package tours; cruises and charter flights; travel agencies and clubs; and arranging stays in hotels/motels, rental condominiums, bed-and-breakfasts, hostels, campsites, and private…

  11. Time Travel in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donna W.

    2005-01-01

    A Time Travel project in the library gives enthusiasm to students to connect with the past and reinforces their research skills while instilling respect for the past years. The librarian should choose one specific decade to highlight in the library and create an extravaganza that would allow memorabilia from that time period to be located without…

  12. CITM: Asian's Largest Travel Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jointly hosted by China National Tourism Administration, Yunnan Provincial People's Government and General Administration of Civil Aviation of China, China International Travel Mart (CITM) is a major step to develop inbound tourism, to increase tourism receipts in foreign exchanges, and to enhance the international status of China's tourism industry.

  13. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome;

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...

  14. Communication from Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    We are pleased to inform our customers that the range of tourist guides and roadmaps on sale in our offices has now been extended. We aim to help you prepare your upcoming holiday or business trip in any way we can. Please do not hesitate to contact us should you need any further information. The team at CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

  15. A Travel To Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This summer holiday,I had travelled to Hong Kong with many other students.We went to Hong Kong by plane.Hong Kong is very small,but there are many people living there. In Hong Kong,all of the buildings are very tall.There are lots of shops there and

  16. Travel to the Rio Olympics

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-21

    Learn how to stay healthy and safe when travelling to the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.  Created: 7/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/21/2016.

  17. Analysis of vehicle-bicycle interactions at unsignalized crossings: A probabilistic approach and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvano, Ary P; Koutsopoulos, Haris N; Ma, Xiaoliang

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, bicycle usage has been increasing in many countries due to the potential environmental and health benefits. Therefore, there is a need to better understand cyclists' interactions with vehicles, and to build models and tools for evaluating multimodal transportation infrastructure with respect to cycling safety, accessibility, and other planning aspects. This paper presents a modeling framework to describe driver-cyclist interactions when they are approaching a conflicting zone. In particular, the car driver yielding behavior is modeled as a function of a number of explanatory variables. A two-level hierarchical, probabilistic framework (based on discrete choice theory) is proposed to capture the driver's yielding decision process when interacting with a cyclist. The first level models the probability of the car driver perceiving a situation with a bicycle as a potential conflict whereas the second models the probability of yielding given that a conflict has been perceived by the driver. The framework also incorporates the randomness of the location of the drivers' decision point. The methodology is applied in a case study using observations at a typical Swedish roundabout. The results show that the conflict probability is affected differently depending on the user (cyclist or driver) who arrives at the interaction zone first. The yielding probability depends on the speed of the vehicle and the proximity of the cyclist.

  18. Antiproliferative activity of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides: synthesis, DNA-binding and cell cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Vyankat A; Lawande, Pravin P; Kate, Anup N; Khan, Ayesha; Joshi, Rakesh; Kumbhar, Anupa A; Shinde, Vaishali S

    2016-04-26

    An efficient route was developed for synthesis of bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides from readily available d-glucose. The key reactions were Vörbruggen glycosylation and ring closing metathesis (RCM). Primarily, to understand the mode of DNA binding, we performed a molecular docking study and the binding was found to be in the minor groove region. Based on the proposed binding model, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques using calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) demonstrated a non-intercalative mode of binding. Antiproliferative activity of nucleosides was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines and found to be active at low micromolar concentrations. Compounds and displayed significant antiproliferative activity as compared to and with the reference anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Cell cycle analysis showed that nucleoside induced cell cycle arrest at the S-phase. Confocal microscopy has been performed to validate the induction of cellular apoptosis. Based on these findings, such modified bicyclic benzimidazole nucleosides will make a significant contribution to the development of anticancer drugs.

  19. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun OO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga O Abiodun, Michael O Balogun, Anthony O Akintomide, Rasaaq A Adebayo, Olufemi E Ajayi, Suraj A Ogunyemi, Valentine N Amadi, Victor O Adeyeye Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria Background: Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods: One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results: The maximal heart rate (P<0.001, peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02, rate pressure product (P<0.001, peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001, and exercise capacity (P<0.001 in metabolic equivalents were significantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion: Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. Keywords: maximal exercise, treadmill, bicycle ergometer, hypertension, Nigerians

  20. Solution and Structural Investigations of Ligand Preorganization in Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes of Bicyclic Malonamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Bevin W.; Gilbertson, Robert D.; Hutchison, J. E.; Rather Healey, Elisabeth; Weakley, Timothy J R; Rapko, Brian M.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Broker, Grant A.; Rogers, Robin D.

    2006-02-20

    This report describes an investigation into the coordination chemistry of trivalentlanthanides in solution and the solid state with acyclic and preorganized bicyclic malonamide ligands. Two experimental investigations were performed: solution bindingaffinities were determined through single-phase spectrophotometric titrations and the extent of conformational change upon binding was investigated with single-crystal X-raycrystallography. Both experimental methods compare the bicyclic malonamide (BMA), which is designed to be preorganized for binding trivalent lanthanides, to an analogousacyclic malonamide. Results from the spectrophotometric titrations indicate that BMA exhibits a 10-100 times increase in binding affinity to Ln(III) over acyclic malonamide.In addition, BMA forms compounds with high ligand-metal ratios, even when competing with water and nitrate ligands for binding sites. The crystal structures exhibit nosignificant differences in the nature of the binding between Ln(III) and the BMA or acyclic malonamide. These results support the conclusion that rational ligand design canlead to compounds that enhance the binding affinities within a ligand class.

  1. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses to bicycle exercise during lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde-Petersen, F.; Suzuki, M.; Christensen, N. J.

    The purpose was to combine bicycle exercise and LBNP as a model to investigate the mechanisms regulating circulation during gravitatiobal stresses. METHODS: Cardiac Output (CO) by acetylene-, argon-, oxygen rebreathing; Heart Rate (HR) from ECG; Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) by arm cuff; Plasma Nor-Epinephrine (NE), Epinephrine (E), and Lactate (HLa) by isotope and enzymatic techniques respectively. Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)=MAP/CO and stroke volume (SV)=CO/HR. Six subjects exercised at 180-200 Watts in the upright position on a mechanically braked computer controlled small bicycle ergometer placed in a LBNP box. The above parameters were measured at rest and at 5 and 9 min of exercise without and with LBNP at -30 or -40 mmHg (depending on LBNP tolerance). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the face of an increased sympathetic nervous activity (Ne+E, TPR, and HR increased) during exercise in LBNP, there was a decrease in CO and SV indicating that the venous return was insufficient. However, HLa was unchanged demonstrating that the blood flow to the working muscles did not suffer.

  2. A holistic approach to the integration of bicycle traffic into the urban landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Andrejčič Mušič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative indicators can be used to assess the quality of public space. The coherence of cycling infrastructure connectivity is an indicator of a public space's attractiveness as a basis for the quality of the bicycle traffic operation. We would like to find an optimal balance between the space's form and its image to provide good conditions for cycling as one of the most important forms of sustainable mobility, and consequently a factor facilitating a healthy lifestyle. The new approach brings a completely different view on planning cycling infrastructure, while rather than physical infrastructure characteristics, humans are placed at the forefront of the cycling infrastructure design as the most important measure of its quality. Since the complexity of human beings cannot be controlled with only one science or profession, solving the problem of bicycle traffic is not just a technical problem, but its design and management also lend a multidisciplinary character. From the perspective of different cycling infrastructure users, the study will define integrated multidisciplinary methodology for evaluating the quality of cycling infrastructure, which will equally include the criteria of sensing and perceiving of space. The new approach seeks a system of criteria, which enables the integrated planning of cycling infrastructure in all spatial, organizational, sectoral, and professional levels. All theoretical findings will be tested and demonstrated on the pilot case of the long-distance cycling connection in the area of four Slovenian coastal municipalities, namely Koper, Izola, Piran, and Ankaran.

  3. 150 bicycle injuries in children: a comparison with accidents due to other causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, C M; Noble, D; Bell, D; Kemn, I; Roche, C; Pascoe, J

    1981-07-01

    One hundred and fifty bicycle accidents seen at the Children's Hospital Sheffield over a 6-month period from mid-August 1979 were analysed and 9.3 per cent of the cases were admitted. Twenty-two per cent had fractures, 20 per cent had soft tissue injuries of face or scalp, 8 children having damaged their teeth. Of the accidents 17.3 per cent were due to hitting an obstruction, 30.7 per cent were due to loss of control on a hill or corner and 8 per cent were of mechanical origin. Eighty-eight per cent had cycling experience of a year or more, and 32.7 per cent had had previous cycling accidents. Comparison with other types of accidents previously studied at the hospital, involving skateboards, playground equipment or road traffic accidents affecting child pedestrians, showed that by far the most serious were those involving child pedestrians. The injuries from bicycle accidents were similar in severity to those involving skateboards.

  4. Energy cost and mechanical efficiency of riding a human-powered recumbent bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Carlo; Ardigo, Luca Paolo; Schena, Federico; Zamparo, Paola

    2008-10-01

    When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify the capability of converting metabolic energy in useful mechanical work by measuring mechanical efficiency. In this study, net mechanical efficiency (eta) of riding a recumbent bicycle on flat terrain and at constant speeds (v, 5.1-10.0 m/s) was calculated dividing mechanical work (w, J/m) by the corresponding energy cost (C(c), J/m). w and C(c) increased linearly with the speed squared: w = 9.41 + 0.156 . v(2); C(c) = 39.40 + 0.563 . v(2). eta was equal to 0.257 +/- 0.0245, i.e. identical to that of concentric muscular contraction. Hence, i) eta seems unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the human-vehicle system; ii) the efficiency of transmission seems to be close to 100%, suggesting that the particular biomechanical arrangement does not impair the transformation of metabolic energy in mechanical work. When dealing with human-powered vehicles, it is important to quantify mechanical efficiency (eta) of locomotion. eta of riding a recumbent bicycle was calculated dividing the mechanical work to the corresponding energy cost of locomotion; it was practically identical to that of concentric muscular contraction (0.257 +/- 0.0245), suggesting that the power transmission from muscles to pedals is unaffected by the biomechanical arrangement of the vehicle.

  5. Long-term use of computerized bicycle ergometry for spinal cord injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipski, M L; Alexander, C J; Harris, M

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-eight spinal cord injured subjects who participated in an electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry home program were surveyed to determine perceived benefits, home exercise adherence, and predictors of continued home exercise with electrical stimulation. Subjects were classified as users or nonusers depending upon if they used the electrical stimulation ergometry on a regular basis in the home during the past four months. Nineteen subjects qualified as users and nine were nonusers. Ninety-five percent of the users cycled at least twice per week whereas the majority of the nonusers stopped regular home exercise within one month postclinic discharge. All subjects generally perceived increases in muscle bulk and endurance. Users and nonusers perceived inconsistent results related to spasticity. Minimal effects were noted with neurogenic pain and swelling. Adherence to the home exercise program was significantly related to sex of subject and pre-injury exercise habits. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry in the home.

  6. Network structure and travel time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Pavithra; Levinson, David; Hochmair, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test the systematic variation in the perception of travel time among travelers and relate the variation to the underlying street network structure. Travel survey data from the Twin Cities metropolitan area (which includes the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul) is used for the analysis. Travelers are classified into two groups based on the ratio of perceived and estimated commute travel time. The measures of network structure are estimated using the street network along the identified commute route. T-test comparisons are conducted to identify statistically significant differences in estimated network measures between the two traveler groups. The combined effect of these estimated network measures on travel time is then analyzed using regression models. The results from the t-test and regression analyses confirm the influence of the underlying network structure on the perception of travel time.

  7. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... State and Local Programs Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Travel ...

  8. 49 CFR 229.55 - Piston travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.55 Piston travel. (a) Brake cylinder piston travel shall be sufficient to provide brake shoe clearance...

  9. A travelers' clinic in an academic setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, D H; Baca, C T; Grant, K. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Arizona has operated a travelers' clinic since 1983, staffed primarily by faculty and residents from the sections of preventive medicine, occupational medicine, and family medicine. We describe the clinic experience in providing preventive medical services to international travelers. Summer months are the busiest. Destinations of the travelers show a clear predominance of travel to less-developed countries, and this is refle...

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  11. Psychological Aspects of Travel Information Presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke-Ogenia, M.

    2012-01-01

    Congestion on road networks causes severe problems in and around large cities. Consequences of congestion include an increase in travel time and travel costs, environmental costs, economic costs, increased energy use and decreased economic growth, reduced travel time reliability, and reduced quality

  12. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.

  13. 5 CFR 630.207 - Travel time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel time. 630.207 Section 630.207... and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.207 Travel time. The travel time granted an employee under section 6303(d) of title 5, United States Code, is inclusive of the time...

  14. [Cyclospora cayetanensis outbreak in travelers to Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Olivencia, Germán; Herrero, Maria Dolores; Subirats, Mercedes; Rivas González, Pablo; Puente, Sabino

    2008-11-01

    Initially described in travelers, outbreaks of cyclosporiasis were soon linked to imported food products. An outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Spanish travelers is described. After identification of Cyclospora cayetanensis in stool analyses, a specific questionnaire was completed. Pyrosis was described in 57% of cases (4/7). Peptic symptoms can be a useful clue to indicate the diagnosis of cyclosporiasis in patients with travelers' diarrhea.

  15. Travelling 'green': is tourists' happiness at stake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, J.; Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Several western governments have implemented environmental policies which increase the cost of air travel. Such policies aim to reduce the impact of air travel on climate change, but at the same time they restrict tourists in their travels. This study examines the extent to which the average tourist

  16. Travelling 'green': Is tourists' happiness at stake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nawijn (Jeroen); P.M. Peeters (Paul)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSeveral western governments have implemented environmental policies which increase the cost of air travel. Such policies aim to reduce the impact of air travel on climate change, but at the same time they restrict tourists in their travels. This study examines the extent to which the ave

  17. Recommended vaccines for international travelers to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    India's tourism industry generated 6.6% of the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during 2012. International travel to India is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of ∼ 8% over the next decade. The number of foreign tourists has increased by 9% to 5.8 million. Approximately 8% of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel; the main diagnoses are vaccine-preventable diseases. Travelers to India can be exposed to various infectious diseases; water-borne, water-related, and zoonotic diseases may be imported to India where the disease is not endemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that all international travelers should be up to date with routine vaccinations. The recommended vaccinations for travelers to India vary according to the traveler's age, immunization history, existing medical conditions, duration, legal requirements for entry into countries being visited, travelers preferences, and values. Travelers should consult with a doctor so that there is sufficient time for completion of optimal vaccination schedules. No matter where traveling, one should be aware of potential exposure to certain organisms that can cause severely illnesses, even death. There is no doubt that vaccines have reduced or virtually eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled children and adults just a few generations ago. Thus, travelers must take recommended vaccines per schedule before traveling to India.

  18. 38 CFR 60.5 - Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel. 60.5 Section 60.5... TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.5 Travel. As a condition for receiving temporary lodging under this part, a veteran must be required to travel either 50 or more miles, or at least two hours from his or her home to...

  19. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.……

  20. Travel related diseases and optimizing preventive strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    With the figure of 1 billion annual travellers continuously increasing, travel is becoming more and more common. The binding element of this thesis is the aim to contribute to the improvement of pre-travel healthcare. The diseases studied either carry a high mortality (rabies, malaria, yellow fever)

  1. Discounts at the Carlson Wagonlit travel agency

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Carlson Wagonlit travel agency is offering exceptional discounts of up to 40% for bookings with M-Travel before 29 February 2008 and Helvetic Tours before 30 March 2008. For terms and conditions and further information please contact the CERN Carlson Wagonlit Travel office, Main Building (500), Tel. 72763.

  2. Bicycle helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    One third of the cyclists who are admitted to hospital with serious injury after a road crash are diagnosed with head or brain injury. Approximately three-quarters of the head and brain injuries among cyclists are caused by crashes that do not involve motorized traffic; as many as nine out of ten yo

  3. On the relationship between travel time and travel distance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Zwart, B.; van Wee, B.; van der Hoorn, A.I.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed empirical analysis of the relationships between different indicators of costs of commuting trips by car: difference as the crow flies, shortest travel time according to route planner, corresponding travel distance, and reported travel time. Reported travel times are usual

  4. Travel intermediaries and responsibility for compliance with EU travel law : A scattered legal picture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Travel intermediaries, commonly known as travel agencies, are important and well-known actors in the travel sector and online travel agencies such as Expedia, Booking.com and AirBnB are booming. Although intermediaries obviously bring clear benefits for contracting parties, they also complicate the

  5. TRAVEL IN THE SCHENGEN AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    You are reminded that holders of French residence permits (for example, the carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a resident's card, a temporary residence card or a receipt issued during the renewal of such residence documents) do not need visas for tourist travel (including conferences) to countries applying the provisions of the Schengen Convention, provided that the duration of the travel is less than three months. The countries applying the provisions of the Schengen Convention are Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain; and since 25 March 2001 Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. For longer stays and for other than tourist visits, you are strongly advised to make enquiries at the relevant consulates.http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  6. Multiply Phased Traveling BPS Vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Kyoungtae; Cho, Y M

    2016-01-01

    We present the multiply phased current carrying vortex solutions in the U(1) gauge theory coupled to an $(N+1)$-component SU(N+1) scalar multiplet in the Bogomolny limit. Our vortex solutions correspond to the static vortex dressed with traveling waves along the axis of symmetry. What is notable in our vortex solutions is that the frequencies of traveling waves in each component of the scalar field can have different values. The energy of the static vortex is proportional to the topological charge of $CP^N$ model in the BPS limit, and the multiple phase of the vortex supplies additional energy contribution which is proportional to the Noether charge associated to the remaining symmetry.

  7. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  8. A Balanced Scorecard of Sustainable Management in the Taiwanese Bicycle Industry: Development of Performance Indicators and Importance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Chung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the development of the performance indicators of sustainable management in the Taiwanese bicycle industry and to perform an importance analysis. Based on the Balanced Scorecard concept, the framework of sustainable management is added. Ten experts evaluated the performance indicators of a sustainable Balanced Scorecard in the Taiwanese bicycle industry using five major categories: (1 Financial, (2 Customer, (3 Internal Business Processes, (4 Learning and Growth, and (5 Sustainable Development, and a total of 21 performance indicators were used. The analytic network process (ANP was used to perform an importance analysis of the various performance indicators. Most of the experts suggested that for the introduction of a sustainable management strategy into the bicycle industry in Taiwan, it is necessary to include the definition of sustainable management and to improve five performance indicators: innovation process, customer satisfaction, operations process, after-sales service, and market share. According to the analysis results, this study proposed relevant management definitions and suggestions to be used as important references for decision-makers to understand the introduction of sustainable management strategies to the current bicycle industry in Taiwan.

  9. Changes in VO2 Max. Resulting from Bicycle Training at Different Intensities Holding Total Mechanical Work Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund A., Jr.; Franks, B. Don

    Effects of different training intensities on oxygen intake were determined in this study. Sixteen male subjects aged 16-18 were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control group. The training groups trained 3 days per week on bicycle ergometers at different intensities (85 percent, 75 percent, or 65 percent of heart rate…

  10. The effect of depressive symptomatology on plasma cortisol responses to acute bicycle exercise among post-menopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G.; Bernards, N; Meijman, T.F.; Heijnen, C.J

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of depressive symptomatology on the cortisol response to strenuous exercise. Thirteen healthy, post-menopausal women participated in this study. The results show that acute bicycle exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  11. Examining the potential for modal change : motivators and barriers for bicycle commuting in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; Maarseveen, van M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of various motivators, barriers and policy related interventions (i.e., personal, social and physical–environmental factors) on bicycle commuting in Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. The research shows that these factors have different effects on people depending on the stage of

  12. Age Does Not Affect the Material Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Liners in Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Bonin, Stephanie J; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-04-01

    Bicycle helmet foam liners absorb energy during impacts. Our goal was to determine if the impact attenuation properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used in bicycle helmets change with age. Foam cores were extracted from 63 used and unused bicycle helmets from ten different models spanning an age range of 2-20 yrs. All cores were impact tested at a bulk strain rate of 195 s(-1). Six dependent variables were determined from the stress-strain curve derived from each impact (yield strain, yield stress, elastic modulus, plateau slope, energy at 65% compression, and stress at 65% compression), and a general linear model was used to assess the effect of age on each dependent variable with density as a covariate. Age did not affect any of the dependent variables; however, greater foam density, which varied from 58 to 100 kg/m(3), generated significant increases in all of the dependent variables except for yield strain. Higher density foam cores also exhibited lower strains at which densification began to occur, tended to stay within the plateau region of the stress-strain curve, and were not compressed as much compared with the lower density cores. Based on these data, the impact attenuation properties of EPS foam in field-used bicycle helmets do not degrade with the age.

  13. Synthesis of novel N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids and evaluation of their interaction with glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; Grazioso, Giovanni; di Ventimiglia, Samuele Joppolo

    2005-01-01

    N1-substituted bicyclic pyrazole amino acids (S)-9a-9c and (R)-9a-9c, which are conformationally constrained analogues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested for activity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors...

  14. Minimum Covering with Travel Cost

    CERN Document Server

    Fekete, Sandor P; Schmidt, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Given a polygon and a visibility range, the Myopic Watchman Problem with Discrete Vision (MWPDV) asks for a closed path P and a set of scan points S, such that (i) every point of the polygon is within visibility range of a scan point; and (ii) path length plus weighted sum of scan number along the tour is minimized. Alternatively, the bicriteria problem (ii') aims at minimizing both scan number and tour length. We consider both lawn mowing (in which tour and scan points may leave P) and milling (in which tour, scan points and visibility must stay within P) variants for the MWPDV; even for simple special cases, these problems are NP-hard. We show that this problem is NP-hard, even for the special cases of rectilinear polygons and L_\\infty scan range 1, and negligible small travel cost or negligible travel cost. For rectilinear MWPDV milling in grid polygons we present a 2.5-approximation with unit scan range; this holds for the bicriteria version, thus for any linear combination of travel cost and scan cost. F...

  15. Travel Software using GPU Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Szalwinski, Chris M; Dimov, Veliko Atanasov; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    Travel is the main multi-particle tracking code being used at CERN for the beam dynamics calculations through hadron and ion linear accelerators. It uses two routines for the calculation of space charge forces, namely, rings of charges and point-to-point. This report presents the studies to improve the performance of Travel using GPU hardware. The studies showed that the performance of Travel with the point-to-point simulations of space-charge effects can be speeded up at least 72 times using current GPU hardware. Simple recompilation of the source code using an Intel compiler can improve performance at least 4 times without GPU support. The limited memory of the GPU is the bottleneck. Two algorithms were investigated on this point: repeated computation and tiling. The repeating computation algorithm is simpler and is the currently recommended solution. The tiling algorithm was more complicated and degraded performance. Both build and test instructions for the parallelized version of the software are inclu...

  16. Twitter for travel medicine providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information.

  17. Solar battery powered bicycle lamp SKL050. Final report; Solar/Akkufahrradleuchte SKL050. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, O.

    2001-06-01

    Up to now there are no functional or high quality mobile solar powered chargers and lamps available for the outdoor and bicycle consumer. Hence the project SKL050 was concerned with the development of a novel combination of battery powered multi-functional lamp and solar charger. All components such as solar module, bulb, electronics and housing were supposed to be involved in the development. The goal was a ready-for-production development well placed in the field of high quality bicycle, camping and household appliances by efficient, well matched components and an exclusive and functional design. Another issue in the development was a cost effective production by automated assembling in order to maintain the maximum customer price of 129,- DM (incl. VAT). Most of the stated goals were reached at the end of the project. Only the detailed construction of the housing parts and final approvals have to be carried out by a bicycle accessories company which is interested to produce and market the SKL050 in licence. Apart from the product SKL050 several important results regarding automation processes of small solar modules have been collected and are supposed to be integrated in future products of the SOLARC GmbH. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich mobiler solarbetriebener Ladegeraete und Leuchten fuer den Outdoor- und Fahrradkonsumenten sind bislang keine funktionell oder aesthetisch brauchbaren Produkte verfuegbar. Das Vorhaben SKL050 umfasste daher gezielt die Entwicklung einer neuartigen Kombination aus akkubetriebener Mehrzweckleuchte und Solar-Akkulader. Saemtliche Basiskomponenten wie Solarmodul, Leuchtmittel, Elektronik und Gehaeuse sollten mit in die Entwicklung einbezogen werden. Ziel des Vorhabens war ein zur Serienreife entwickeltes Produkt, welches durch leistungsfaehige, optimal aufeinander abgestimmte Komponenten sowie durch ein exklusives und funktionelles Design einen Platz im Bereich der hochwertigen Fahrrad-, Camping-, und Haushaltsaccessoires findet. Bei

  18. Conformational Preference and Donor Atom Interaction Leading to Hexacoordination vs Pentacoordination in Bicyclic Tetraoxyphosphoranes(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, David J.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Prakasha, T. K.; Day, Roberta O.; Holmes, Robert R.

    1998-01-12

    New bicyclic tetraoxyphosphoranes all containing a six-membered oxaphosphorinane ring, C(6)H(8)(CH(2)O)(2)P(OC(12)H(8))(OXyl) (1), (C(6)H(4)O)(2)P(OC(12)H(8))(OXyl) (2), CH(2)[(t-Bu)(2)C(6)H(2)O](2)P(OC(12)H(8))(OXyl) (3), O(2)S[(t-Bu)MeC(6)H(2)O](2)P(OC(12)H(8))(OXyl) (4), and S[(t-Bu)MeC(6)H(2)O](2)P(OC(12)H(8))(OXyl) (5), were synthesized by the oxidative addition reaction of the cyclic phosphine P(OC(12)H(8))(OXyl) (6) with an appropriate diol in the presence of N-chlorodiisopropylamine. X-ray analysis revealed trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) geometries for 1-4 where the dioxa ring varied in size from six- to eight-membered. With a sulfur donor atom as part of an eight-membered ring in place of a potential oxygen donor atom of a sulfone group as in 4, the X-ray study of 5 showed the formation of a hexacoordinated structure via a P-S interaction. Ring constraints are evaluated to give an order of conformational flexibility associated with the (TBP) tetraoxyphosphoranes 4 > 3 approximately 1 > 2 which parallels the degree of shielding from (31)P NMR chemical shifts: 4 > 3 > 1 > 2. The six- and seven-membered dioxa rings in 1 and 2, respectively, are positioned at axial-equatorial sites, whereas the eight-membered dioxa ring in 3 and 4 occupies diequatorial sites of a TBP. V-T (1)H NMR data give barriers to xylyl group rotation about the C-OXyl bond. The geometry of 5 is located along a coordinate from square pyramidal toward octahedral to the extent of 60.7%. Achieving hexacoordination in bicyclic tetraoxyphosphoranes of reduced electrophilicity relative to bicyclic pentaoxyphosphoranes appears to be dependent on the presence of a sufficiently strong donor atom.

  19. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. In...... are collected within the building complex. Results indicate that InTraTime is superior with respect to metrics such as deployment cost, maintenance cost and estimation accuracy, yielding an average deviation from actual travel times of 11.7 %. This accuracy was achieved despite using a minimal-effort setup...

  20. [True and virtual risks of travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, C; Walz, A; Genton, B; Behrens, R

    2014-05-01

    Evidence-based information on travel associated mortality is scarce. Perception, intuition and the availability of interventions such as vaccinations and chemoprophylaxis often guide pre-travel advice. Important risks including accidents and cardiovascular events are not routinely included in pre-travel consultations although they cause more fatalities and costs than infectious diseases. The increased risk of sustaining a road accident in poor economy countries should always be mentioned. The general practitioner is further best placed to discuss possible problems of travellers with chronic diseases before travel.

  1. Tourists get US visas for group travel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Goodman

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chinese will soon be able to travel to the United States on tourist visas,according to an agreement signed in Beijing Tuesday. The memorandum of understanding(MOU) signed between the two countries to facilitate outbound tourist group travel grants the US Approved Destination Status(ADS) after years of negotiations,making it the 134th country on China’s list. Chinese travelers will be able to travel in groups as early as in spring.Currently,the US issues only business travel visas.

  2. TRAVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carrie Tsang; Phoenix

    2010-01-01

    <正>01意大利首间国家级当代艺术博物馆>由Zaha Hadid建筑事务所设计的MAXXINational Museum of XXI Century Arts位于罗马,是意大利第一个致力于当代艺术的国家公共博物馆。Zaha Hadid在1999年胜出了这个项目的国际设计比赛,2003年开始动工,工程目前已进入完竣阶段,为馆址

  3. TRAVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venice Lau

    2012-01-01

    <正>01拥抱三百六十度天堂级珊瑚水景〉马尔代夫向来都是热门的旅游胜地,最近由Dusit集团开设的Dusit Thani Maldives豪华酒店于今年二月落成,成为当地的新地标。酒店位于Baa Atoll的Mudhdhoo lsland岛上,从首都马累乘坐海上飞机三十五分钟便可到达。一百幢独立别墅充满泰式的建筑艺术气息,而且配备高科技设计。不同特色的度假别墅包括海滩别墅(Beac:h Villas)、舄湖别墅(LagoorVillas)及海洋别墅(Ocean Villas),此外更有两种极尽豪华的海洋亭阁(Ocean Pavilions)及海滩府邸(Ocean Resldences),每幢

  4. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays.

  5. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  6. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Mehner, W.; Holl, S.; Boltes, M.; Andresen, E.; Schadschneider, A.; Seyfried, A.

    2014-09-01

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space-time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  7. Commuter Transport Mode Choice and Typologies in the Bicycle City Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Kjems, Erik; Reinau, Kristian Hegner;

    2016-01-01

    Bicycle Cities” such as Copenhagen can serve as role models: how far can we push the commuter modal shares in the direction of more sustainable transport? This paper presents a study that aims to give a state-of-the-art picture of a Copenhagen that provides wide cycling highways and the politica...... restricted our analysis to commuters both living and working within the city center. The characterization of these commuter types was strikingly short of personal attitudes about environmental concerns....... transport and car use. Furthermore, we derived a typology of four commuter types: “cyclists because of short distances” (40 percent), ”commuters by car or public transport out of necessity” (35 percent), ”more eco-oriented cyclists and others” (16 percent) and ”passionate motorists” (8 percent) when we...

  8. Synthesis of bicyclic molecular scaffolds (BTAa): an investigation towards new selective MMP-12 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Claudia; Nievo, Marco; Machetti, Fabrizio; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Calderone, Vito; Fragai, Marco; Guarna, Antonio

    2006-11-15

    Starting from 3-aza-6,8-dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane scaffold (BTAa) a virtual library of molecules was generated and screened in silico against the crystal structure of the Human Macrophage Metalloelastase (MMP-12). The molecules obtaining high score were synthesized and the affinity for the catalytic domain of MMP-12 was experimentally proved by NMR experiments. A BTAa scaffold 20 having a N-hydroxyurea group in position 3 and a p-phenylbenzylcarboxy amide in position 7 showed a fair inhibition potency (IC50 = 149 microM) for MMP-12 and some selectivity towards five different MMPs. These results, taken together with the X-ray structure of the adduct between MMP-12, the inhibitor 20 and the acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), suggest that bicyclic scaffold derivatives may be exploited for the design of new selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs).

  9. Laser dye stability. Pt. 4. Photodegradation relationships for bicyclic dyes in alcohol solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, A.N. (Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (USA). Research Dept.)

    1978-05-01

    Changes in the absorption of a dye laser solution are examined after excitation with a xenon flashlamp. It is found that the rate of bleaching as a function of the total input energy of coumarin or quinolone dyes in ethanol increases in direct proportion to the dye concentration. This relationship suggests that the dye reacts with a photoproduct of the solvent rather than being directly decomposed by the xenon flash. We have measured the conversion of the dye to form products, P, absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Results correspond to the dye reacting with a precursor of P to form either insoluble products or ones not absorbing at the lasing wavelength. Thus larger total amounts of bleached dye do not proportionately increase P, and hence do not proportionately inhibit lasing. Furthermore, we find that P increases with the total input energy fairly independent of the rate of bleaching for a given bicyclic dye in an alcohol solution.

  10. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Holl, Stefan; Boltes, Maik; Andresen, Erik; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The relation between flow and density, also known as the fundamental diagram, is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compare the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space-time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite of their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  11. Universal flow-density relation of single-file bicycle, pedestrian and car motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J., E-mail: ju.zhang@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Mehner, W., E-mail: w.mehner@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Holl, S., E-mail: st.holl@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Boltes, M., E-mail: m.boltes@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Andresen, E., E-mail: e.andresen@uni-wuppertal.de [Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany); Schadschneider, A., E-mail: as@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany); Seyfried, A., E-mail: a.seyfried@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Computer Simulation for Fire Safety and Pedestrian Traffic, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42285 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2014-09-12

    The relation between flow and density is an essential quantitative characteristic to describe the efficiency of traffic systems. We have performed experiments with single-file motion of bicycles and compared the results with previous studies for car and pedestrian motion in similar setups. In the space–time diagrams we observe three different states of motion (free flow state, jammed state and stop-and-go waves) in all these systems. Despite their obvious differences they are described by a universal fundamental diagram after proper rescaling of space and time which takes into account the size and free velocity of the three kinds of agents. This indicates that the similarities between the systems go deeper than expected.

  12. Laplacian spectral characterization of products of complete graphs with trees, unicyclic graphs, and bicyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Suijie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a Laplacian characterization of the product of the complete graphs $K_m$ with trees, unicyclic graphs, and bicyclic graphs. More precisely, let $G$ be a connected graph with at most two independent cycles. If $G$ is neither $C_{6}$ nor $\\Theta_{3,2,5}$ and determined by its Laplacain spectrum, then the product $G\\times K_{m}$ is also a graph determined by its Laplacian spectrum. In addition, we find the cosepctral graphs of $C_{6}\\times K_{m}$ and $\\Theta_{3,2,5}\\times K_{m}$, where the case $m=1$ is shown in Figure \\ref{F1} and \\ref{F2}.

  13. Deciphering characteristics of bicyclic aromatics--mediators for reductive decolorization and bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Chen, Bor-Yann; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Qin, Lian-Jie; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-07-01

    This first-attempt study quantitatively assessed electron-mediating characteristics of bicyclic aromatics - 1-amino-2-naphthol, 4-amino-1-naphthol (i.e., decolorized intermediates of azo dyes - orange I and II) for color removal and power generation in MFCs. According to cyclic-voltammetric profiles, the presence of reduction and oxidation peak potentials clearly suggested a crucial role of these intermediates as electron-shuttling mediators. Shake-flask cultures also showed that appropriate accumulation of 1A2N, 4A1N apparently enhanced color-removal efficiencies of bacterial decolorization. This study clearly suggested that suitable supplementation of electrochemically active electron shuttle(s) to dye-bearing MFCs is a promising strategy to stimulate reductive decolorization and bioelectricity generation.

  14. Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, Larry L [NON LANL; Magleby, Spencer P [NON LANL

    2011-01-19

    The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

  15. The Archaeology of Time travel – An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Bodil; Holtorf, Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of Time Travel as a new way to approach the past in our age. The article deals with the question: What role does the past play for people in our time? The time travel discussion focusses on the following themes: Time travel between materality and virtuality; Time travel on the market of experiences; Designing time travel; Evaluating time travel.

  16. Driver behavior during bicycle passing maneuvers in response to a Share the Road sign treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jonathan J; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J; Datta, Tapan K

    2014-09-01

    The interaction of motorists and bicyclists, particularly during passing maneuvers, is an area of concern to the bicycle safety community as there is a general perception that motor vehicle drivers may not share the road effectively with bicyclists. This is a particular concern on road sections with centerline rumble strips where motorists are prone to crowd bicyclists during passing events. One potential countermeasure to address this concern is the use of a bicycle warning sign with a "Share the Road" plaque. This paper presents the results of a controlled field evaluation of this sign treatment, which involved an examination of driver behavior while overtaking bicyclists. A series of field studies were conducted concurrently on two segments of a high-speed, rural two-lane highway. These segments were similar in terms of roadway geometry, traffic volumes, and other relevant factors, except that one of the segments included centerline rumble strips while the other did not. A before-and-after study design was utilized to examine changes in motor vehicle lateral placement and speed at the time of the passing event as they relate to the presence of centerline rumble strips and the sign treatment. Centerline rumble strips generally shifted vehicles closer to the bicyclists during passing maneuvers, though the magnitude of this effect was marginal. The sign treatment was found to shift motor vehicles away from the rightmost lane positions, though the signs did not significantly affect the mean buffer distance between the bicyclists and passing motorists or the propensity of crowding events during passing. The sign treatment also resulted in a 2.5miles/h (4.0km/h) reduction in vehicle speeds. Vehicle type, bicyclist position, and the presence of opposing traffic were also found to affect lateral placement and speed selection during passing maneuvers.

  17. Prediction of oxygen uptake on a bicycle wind-loaded simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, D R; Graham, R E; Jones, M T; Norton, K I; Cureton, K J

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of estimating oxygen uptake (VO2) from the flywheel revolution rate of a bicycle wind-loaded simulator. VO2 at four different flywheel revolution rates was measured on a Findlay Road Machine (FRM). Ten male trained cyclists, 10 male untrained cyclists, 10 female trained cyclists and 10 female untrained cyclists served as subjects. Significant curvilinear relationships (P less than 0.01) were found between road speed estimated from flywheel revolution rate and VO2 expressed as 1.min-1, ml.kg-1.min-1, 1.min-1.m-2 (r = 0.97, 0.96, 0.98, respectively). The absolute standard error of the mean VO2 was 0.21 l.min-1 (9.6%), 3.71 ml.kg-1.min-1 (11.5%) and 0.10 l.min-1.m-2 (7.9%), respectively. The relationship between VO2 and speed was similar to that reported during road cycling. To determine the magnitude of between-machine differences in VO2, six subjects randomly performed cycling using two different FMR. Significant (P less than 0.05) differences between machines were found at only the highest speed. The present study indicates that it is possible to accurately predict VO2 from flywheel revolution rate using a FRM. Since the FRM appears to approximate the resistance a cyclist experiences on the road and allows cyclists to use their own bicycle, it provides a good alternative to traditional laboratory ergometers.

  18. Travel Writing Revisited1 Travel Writing Revisited1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édina Pereira Crunfli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In compiling the essays for this volume, Steve Clark’s main concern is a revisionist one. This collection represents a shift away from what is sometimes called the “homoglossic” obsession with Empire present in postcolonial theory, from Edward Said’s influential Orientalism (1978, through Mary Louise Pratt’s Imperial Eyes (1992, to David Spurr’s The Rhetoric of Empire (1993. This book resists the temptation to think in terms of “the reduction of cross-cultural encounter to simple relations of domination and subordination.” Challenging Pratt, Clark describes her thesis (of travel writing producing the rest of the world for European readerships at particular points in Europe’s expansionist trajectory as “hyperbolic”. In compiling the essays for this volume, Steve Clark’s main concern is a revisionist one. This collection represents a shift away from what is sometimes called the “homoglossic” obsession with Empire present in postcolonial theory, from Edward Said’s influential Orientalism (1978, through Mary Louise Pratt’s Imperial Eyes (1992, to David Spurr’s The Rhetoric of Empire (1993. This book resists the temptation to think in terms of “the reduction of cross-cultural encounter to simple relations of domination and subordination.” Challenging Pratt, Clark describes her thesis (of travel writing producing the rest of the world for European readerships at particular points in Europe’s expansionist trajectory as “hyperbolic”.

  19. Traveling waves in rapid solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Glasner

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze rigorously the one-dimensional traveling wave problem for a thermodynamically consistent phase field model. Existence is proved for two new cases: one where the undercooling is large but not in the hypercooled regime, and the other for waves which leave behind an unstable state. The qualitative structure of the wave is studied, and under certain restrictions monotonicity of front profiles can be obtained. Further results, such as a bound on propagation velocity and non-existence are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples of monotone and non-monotone waves are provided.

  20. Improved Traveling-Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Art; Tammaru, Ivo; Vaszari, John

    1988-01-01

    New space traveling-wave tube (TWT) provides coherent source of 75 watts of continuous-wave power output over bandwidth of 5 GHz at frequency of 65 GHz. Coupled-cavity TWT provides 50 dB of saturated gain. Includes thermionic emitter, M-type dispenser cathode providing high-power electron beam. Beam focused by permanent magnets through center of radio-frequency cavity structure. Designed for reliable operation for 10 years, and overall efficiency of 35 percent minimizes prime power input and dissipation of heat.